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Nietzsche in 1872. Born Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche 15 October 1844 Röcken-bei-Lützen, Kingdom of Prussia 25 August 1900 (aged 55) Weimar, Saxony, German Empire Germany German 19th-century philosophy Western philosophy Weimar classicism
Residence Nationality Era Region School
Main interests Aesthetics · Ethics Metaphysics · Nihilism Psychology · Ontology Poetry · Value theory Voluntarism · Tragedy Fact–value distinction Anti-foundationalism Philosophy of history Notable ideas Apollonian and Dionysian Übermensch · Ressentiment "Will to power" · "God is dead" Eternal recurrence · Amor fati Herd instinct · Tschandala "Last Man" · Perspectivism Master–slave morality Transvaluation of values Nietzschean affirmation
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (/ˈniːtʃə/ or /ˈnitʃi/; German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːt͡sʃə]; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet, and composer. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony, and aphorism.
Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche's key ideas include the Apollonian/Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism, the Will to Power, the "death of God", the Übermensch, and eternal recurrence. Central to his philosophy is the idea of "life-affirmation", which involves questioning of any doctrine that drains one's expansive energies, however socially prevalent those ideas might be. His radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth has been the focus of extensive commentary and his influence remains substantial, particularly in the continental philosophical tradition comprising existentialism, postmodernism, and post-structuralism. Nietzsche began his career as a classical philologist — a scholar of Greek and Roman textual criticism — before turning to philosophy. In 1869, at age twenty-four, he was appointed to the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel, the youngest individual to have held this position. He resigned in the summer of 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life. In 1889, at age forty-four, he suffered a collapse and a complete loss of his mental faculties. The breakdown was later ascribed to atypical general paresis due to tertiary syphilis, but this diagnosis has come into question. Nietzsche lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897, after which he fell under the care of his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche until his death in 1900. As his caretaker, his sister assumed the roles of curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts. Förster-Nietzsche was married to a prominent German nationalist and antisemite, Bernhard Förster, and reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her husband's ideology, often in ways contrary to Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were strongly and explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism (see Nietzsche's criticism of antisemitism and nationalism). Through Förster-Nietzsche's editions, Nietzsche's name became associated with German militarism and Nazism, although later twentieth-century scholars have attempted to counteract this misconception of his ideas.
Born on October 15, 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. He was named after King Frederick William IV of Prussia, who turned forty-nine on the day of Nietzsche's birth. (Nietzsche later dropped his middle name "Wilhelm".) Nietzsche's parents, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche (1813–49), a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, and Franziska Oehler (1826–97), married in 1843, the year before their son's birth. They had two other children: a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846, and a second son, Ludwig Joseph, born in 1848. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; Ludwig Joseph died the next year, at age two. The family then moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now a museum and Nietzsche study center.
Greek. History. although Nietzsche had already argued that historical research had discredited the central teachings of Christianity in his 1862 essay "Fate and History". 1861. where he became friends with Gustav Krug. At Schulpforta. As early as his 1862 essay "Fate and History".. resulting in Nietzsche's demotion from first in his class and the end of his status as a prefect. the internationally-recognized Schulpforta admitted him as a pupil. In 1854.. The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier. Hebrew. In 1865. After graduation in 1864. but David Strauss's Life of Jesus also seems to have had a profound effect on the young man. Rudolf Wagner." Nietzsche. then believe. Nietzsche. Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects that were considered unbecoming. a letter regarding his loss of faith. Perhaps under Ortlepp's influence. and often drunk poet who was found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Richard Wagner. and Wilhelm Pinder. he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg but since he showed particular talents in music and language. more lucid. For a short time he and Deussen became members of the Burschenschaft Frankonia. blasphemous. Nietzsche had argued that historical research had discredited the central teachings of Christianity. a 2b in French. While at Pforta. he and a student named Richter returned to school drunk and encountered a teacher. His end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in Religion and German. he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp. a 2a in Greek and Latin. 1864 . calling him "my favorite poet" and composing an essay in which he said that the mad poet raised consciousness to "the most sublime ideality". and French so as to be able to read important primary sources. he also experienced for the first time being away from his family life in a small-town conservative environment. and more "German" writers. becoming friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff. This letter ended with a following sentence: "Hence the ways of men part: if you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure. He also found time to work on poems and musical compositions. later. a private school. at the age of 20. if you wish to be a devotee of truth. who was deeply religious. all of whom came from highly respected families. and a "lackluster" 3 in Hebrew and Mathematics. Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages . and Physics. Latin. Nietzsche commenced studies in theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn. Nietzsche wrote to his sister Elisabeth. an eccentric. then inquire.Friedrich Nietzsche 3 Nietzsche attended a boys' school and then. After one semester (and to the anger of his mother) he stopped his theological studies and lost his faith. Additionally. He became acquainted with the work of the then-almost-unknown poet Friedrich Hölderlin. He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864.
leaving him exhausted and unable to walk for months. Charles Darwin's influenced Nietzsche from 1865 until the theory of evolution. Nietzsche struck his chest against the pommel and tore two muscles in his left side. dedicating to him the essay "Schopenhauer as Educator" in the Untimely Meditations. He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation and later admitted that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers whom he respected.Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items There. intrigued Nietzsche greatly. Nietzsche's first philological publications appeared soon after. In 1867. Nietzsche thoroughly studied the works of Arthur Schopenhauer. he read Friedrich Albert Lange's History of Materialism. Europe's increased concern with science.Friedrich Nietzsche 4 Nietzsche subsequently concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl. He was regarded as one of the finest riders among his fellow recruits. Professor at Basel (1869–1879) . This cultural environment encouraged him to expand his horizons beyond philology and continue his study of philosophy. in March 1868. However. Lange's descriptions of Kant's anti-materialistic philosophy. In 1866. Nietzsche signed up for one year of voluntary service with the Prussian artillery division in Naumburg. and the general rebellion against tradition and authority end of Nietzsche's productive life. while jumping into the saddle of his horse. whom he followed to the University of Leipzig the next year. the rise of European Schopenhauer's philosophy strongly Materialism. In 1865. Consequently Nietzsche turned his attention to his studies again. completing them and meeting with Richard Wagner for the first time later that year. he became close friends with fellow student Erwin Rohde. and his officers predicted that he would soon reach the rank of captain.
a professor of theology who remained his friend von Gersdorff. Nietzsche renounced his Prussian citizenship: for the rest of his life he remained officially stateless. Despite the fact that the offer came at a time when he was considering giving up philology for science. Nietzsche had already met Richard Wagner in Leipzig in 1868 and later Wagner's wife Cosima. during his time at Basel. Nietzsche also Mid-October 1871. Nietzsche is still among the youngest of the tenured Classics professors on record. whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended. a little-known Russian philosopher responsible for the 1873 Thought and Reality. Nietzsche observed the establishment of the German Empire and Otto von Bismarck's subsequent policies as an outsider and with a degree of skepticism regarding their genuineness. Rohde (now a professor in Kiel) and Wagner came to Nietzsche's defense. Nietzsche received a remarkable offer to become professor of classical philology at the University of Basel in Switzerland. Walter Kaufmann speculates that he might also have contracted syphilis along with his other infections at this time. he accepted. Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted unsuccessfully to transfer to a position in philosophy at Basel instead. On returning to Basel in 1870. Nietzsche. throughout his life. In 1872. he frequently visited Wagner's house in Tribschen in Lucerne. Nietzsche served in the Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) as a medical orderly. In his short time in the military. He also contracted diphtheria and dysentery. He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received a teaching certificate. in which Nietzsche eschewed the classical philologic method in favor of a more speculative approach. The Birth of Tragedy. Nietzsche admired both greatly and. To this day. From left: Erwin Rohde. including Ritschl. His inaugural lecture at the university was "Homer and Classical Philology". Nietzsche published his first book. In 1870. The Wagners brought Nietzsche into their most intimate circle and enjoyed the attention he gave to the beginning of the Bayreuth Festival. and Nietzsche's colleague the famed historian Jacob Burckhardt. his colleagues within his field. expressed little enthusiasm for the work. Nevertheless. he experienced much and witnessed the traumatic effects of battle. Before moving to Basel. In response. Karl met Franz Overbeck. In his polemic Philology of the Future. However. he gave Cosima Wagner the manuscript of "The Genesis of the Tragic Idea" as a birthday gift. began to exercise significant influence on him during this time.Friedrich Nietzsche 5 In part because of Ritschl's support. . Afrikan Spir. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff dampened the book's reception and increased its notoriety.
a contemporary typewriter device. probably for health reasons. Gast did feel it necessary to point out that what were described as "superfluous" people were in fact quite necessary. (Since his childhood. Gast was one of the very few friends Nietzsche allowed to criticize him. "Schopenhauer as Educator". All Too Human (a book of aphorisms ranging from metaphysics to morality to religion to gender studies). "On the Use and Abuse of History for Life". c. The 1868 riding accident and diseases in 1870 may have aggravated these persistent conditions. including moments of shortsightedness that left him nearly blind. which continued to affect him through his years at Basel. Nietzsche in Basel. In responding most enthusiastically to Zarathustra. In 1876. All this contributed to Nietzsche's subsequent decision to distance himself from Wagner. he and his sister had repeated periods of conflict and reconciliation. Rapallo. Moritz in Switzerland. He was also alienated by Wagner's championing of "German culture". In 1881. and "Richard Wagner in Bayreuth". and violent indigestion. had to rely on even to supply his simple diet of goat cheese. He subsequently transcribed and proofread the galleys for almost all of Nietzsche's work from then on. He spent many summers in Sils Maria near St. as well as by Wagner's celebration of his fame among the German public. 1880. various disruptive illnesses had plagued him. a new style of Nietzsche's work became clear. migraine headaches. for example. forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical. He went on to list the number of people Epicurus. Nietzsche met Malwida von Meysenbug and Hans von Bülow. Nietzsche published four separate long essays: "David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer". . Nietzsche's failing eyesight prompted him to explore the use of typewriters as a means of continuing to write. and Turin and the French city of Nice. became a sort of private secretary to Nietzsche. Nietzsche occasionally returned to Naumburg to visit his family. In the end. especially during this time. he was deeply disappointed by the Bayreuth Festival of 1876. The four essays shared the orientation of a cultural critique.Friedrich Nietzsche 6 Between 1873 and 1876. During this time. Nietzsche's friendship with Deussen and Rohde cooled as well. in the circle of the Wagners. when France occupied Tunisia. Paul Rée. While in Genoa. In 1879. challenging the developing German culture along lines suggested by Schopenhauer and Wagner. the usually-broke Gast received 200 marks from their mutual friend. These four later appeared in a collected edition under the title Untimely Meditations. after a significant decline in health. He is known to have tried using the Hansen Writing Ball. Nietzsche traveled frequently to find climates more conducive to his health and lived until 1889 as an independent author in different cities. Peter Gast. However.) Independent philosopher (1879–1888) Living off his pension from Basel and aid from friends. a past student of his. nearly illegible handwriting of Nietzsche for the first time with Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. and also began a friendship with Paul Rée. and. 1875. he planned to travel to Tunis to view Europe from the outside but later abandoned that idea. which Nietzsche felt a contradiction in terms. who in 1876 influenced him into dismissing the pessimism in his early writings. highly influenced by Afrikan Spir's Thought and Reality and reacting against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer. Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. On at least one occasion on February 23. Gast transcribed the crabbed. In 1873. Nietzsche also began to accumulate notes that would be posthumously published as Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. With the publication in 1878 of Human. where the banality of the shows and baseness of the public repelled him. He spent his winters in the Italian cities of Genoa.
He also acquired the publication rights for his earlier works and over the next year issued second editions of The Birth of Tragedy. regarded Salomé less as an equal partner than as a gifted student. he completed five. It was made clear to him that. often with Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth as a chaperone. in view of the attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God expressed in Zarathustra. Gast and Overbeck remained consistently faithful friends. In 1883. Nietzsche would publish one book or major section of a book each year until 1888. Nietzsche. 1882. Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. Malwida von Meysenbug remained like a motherly patron even outside the Wagner circle. Nietzsche". By 1882. Here he wrote the first part of Thus Spoke Zarathustra in only ten days. After severing his philosophical ties with Schopenhauer (who was long dead and never met Nietzsche) and his social ties with Wagner. partially because of intrigues conducted by Elisabeth. he tried and failed to obtain a lecturing post at the University of Leipzig. that year. his last year of writing. living in near-isolation after a falling out with his mother and sister regarding Salomé. signing them "Dr. 7 Lou Salomé. Beginning with Human. through Malwida von Meysenbug and Paul Rée. Now. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and unexhumeable in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner — associating the publisher with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind". In 1886. his sister Elisabeth also married the antisemite Bernhard Förster and traveled to Paraguay to found Nueva Germania. He then printed Beyond Good and Evil at his own expense. In 1885. Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude. Nietzsche and Salomé spent the summer together in Tautenburg in Thuringia. The subsequent "feelings of revenge and resentment" embittered him: "And hence my rage since I have grasped in the broadest possible sense what wretched means (the depreciation of my good name. a "Germanic" colony—a plan to which Nietzsche responded with mocking laughter. disgusted by his antisemitic opinions. Salomé reports that he asked her to marry him and that she refused. he had become effectively unemployable by any German university. he saw his work as completed for a time and hoped that soon a readership would develop. Through . In 1883. Dawn." In 1886. All Too Human. and The Gay Science with new prefaces placing the body of his work in a more coherent perspective. During these years Nietzsche met Meta von Salis. Human. In fact. That year he also met Lou Andreas Salomé. Nietzsche fled to Rapallo. Nietzsche broke with his publisher Ernst Schmeitzner. Nietzsche had few remaining friends. All Too Human in 1878. with the new style of Zarathustra. including Helene von Druskowitz. Thereafter. Paul Rée and Nietzsche. Nietzsche's relationship with Rée and Salomé broke up in the winter of 1882–83. though he often complained about it. my character. His books remained largely unsold. and therewith the possibility of obtaining. if rather slowly and hardly perceptibly to him. he was writing out his own prescriptions for the sedative chloral hydrate. Nietzsche published the first part of The Gay Science. interest in Nietzsche's thought did increase at this time. while staying in Nice. his work became even more alienating and the market received it only to the degree required by politeness. he printed only 40 copies of the fourth part of Zarathustra and distributed only a fraction of these among close friends. however. Amidst renewed bouts of illness. Soon Nietzsche made contact with the music-critic Carl Fuchs.Friedrich Nietzsche To the end of his life. In 1882. though the reliability of her reports of events has come into question. pupils. and my aims) suffice to take from me the trust of. Carl Spitteler. and Gottfried Keller. Nietzsche was taking huge doses of opium but was still having trouble sleeping.
Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. However. 8 Mental breakdown and death (1889–1900) On January 3. On January 6. What happened remains unknown. to which Nietzsche replied that he would come to Copenhagen and read Kierkegaard with him. and all anti-Semites abolished. and then collapsed to the ground. Most of them were signed "Dionysos". Cosima Wagner and Jacob Burckhardt. but they met again only after his collapse. Bismarck. He also exchanged letters with Hippolyte Taine and Georg Brandes. he slipped too far into illness. especially to the recent polemic. He overestimated the increasing response to his writings. In December. In the following few days. On his 44th birthday. Moreover. Wilhelm. he commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot and summoned the European powers to take military action against Germany. His health seemed to improve. mid-1899. To his former colleague Burckhardt. but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto. Nietzsche wrote the polemic "On the Genealogy of Morals". Nietzsche sent short writings—known as the Photo by Hans Olde from the photographic series. Although Nietzsche had previous announced at the end of "On The Genealogy of Morals" a new work with the title The Will to Power: Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values.Friedrich Nietzsche correspondence. "Hear me! For I am such and such a person. Above all. Nietzsche suffered a mental collapse. he planned the publication of the compilation Nietzsche Contra Wagner and of the poems that made up his collection Dionysian Dithyrambs. Nietzsche began a correspondence with August Strindberg and thought that. In the beginning of 1888. Nietzsche's relationship with Elisabeth continued through cycles of conflict and reconciliation. Also. In the fall of 1888. Wahnbriefe ("Madness Letters")—to a number of friends including The Ill Nietzsche. He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness. 1889. threw his arms up around its neck to protect it. The following day Overbeck received a similar . before fulfilling this promise. Two policemen approached him after he caused a public disturbance in the streets of Turin. In 1887. he eventually seems to have abandoned this particular approach and instead used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist in 1888. short of an international breakthrough. 1889. he decided to write the autobiography Ecce Homo. do not mistake me for someone else". who had started to teach the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard in the 1870s. which made prolonged work impossible. Nietzsche wrote: "I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. and he spent the summer in high spirits. "The Case of Wagner". Brandes delivered in Copenhagen one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy."Wikipedia:Citing sources Additionally. wrote to Nietzsche asking him to read Kierkegaard. During the same year Nietzsche encountered the work of Fyodor Dostoevsky. to whom he felt an immediate kinship. after completing Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist. ran to the horse. last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner. In the preface to this work — which suggests Nietzsche was well aware of the interpretive difficulties his work would generate — he declares. Brandes. he would attempt to buy back his older writings from the publisher and have them translated into other European languages. his writings and letters began to reveal a higher estimation of his own status and "fate".
In 1898 and 1899. proclaiming: "Holy be your name to all future generations!" Nietzsche had written in Ecce Homo (at that point still unpublished) of his fear that one day his name would be regarded as "holy". Nietzsche's reception and recognition enjoyed their first surge. Elisabeth at one point went so far as to employ Steiner as a tutor to help her to understand her brother's philosophy. G. and his mother Franziska decided to transfer him to a clinic in Jena under the direction of Otto Binswanger. in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time. they ordered a fifty-copy private edition of Nietzsche contra Wagner. he had another stroke during the night of August 24–25 and died about noon on August 25. The house Nietzsche stayed in while in Turin Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his (background. in May 1890. In January 1889. In March 1890. In 1893. Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche compiled The Will to Power from Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks and published it posthumously. they proceeded with the planned release of Twilight of the Idols. Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth returned from Nueva Germania in Paraguay following the suicide of her husband. suggested the slow growth of a right-sided retro-orbital meningioma as an explanation of Nietzsche’s dementia.Friedrich Nietzsche 9 letter and decided that Nietzsche's friends had to bring him back to Basel. piece by piece. while Orth and Trimble postulated frontotemporal dementia. by that time already printed and bound. Overbeck eventually suffered dismissal and Gast finally co-operated. including Rudolf Steiner (who in 1895 had written one of the first books praising Nietzsche). where he is said to have had his Nietzsche from the clinic and. Other researchers proposed a syndrome called CADASIL. The diagnosis of syphilis Peter Gast would "correct" Nietzsche's writings has since been challenged and a diagnosis of "manic-depressive illness after the philosopher's breakdown and did so with periodic psychosis followed by vascular dementia" was put without his approval. by modern scholars. took control of them and their publication. Naumann secretly printed one hundred. She read and studied Nietzsche's works and. Nietzsche's mental illness was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis. To the left is the rear façade of the Palazzo Carignano. in Naumburg. Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche's early . Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content.Wikipedia:Citing sources to meet her uncommunicative brother. During this process Overbeck and Gast contemplated what to do with Nietzsche's unpublished works. an action severely criticized forward by Cybulska prior to Schain's study  Leonard Sax. brought him to her home breakdown. Nietzsche lived in Weimar. His friend and secretary Gast gave his funeral oration. right). but the publisher C. From November 1889 to February 1890. In February. Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August 1900. Elisabeth had him buried beside his father at the church in Röcken bei Lützen. the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche. declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy. After the death of Franziska in 1897. By that time Nietzsche appeared fully in the grip of a serious mental illness. Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months. Nietzsche suffered at least two strokes which partially paralysed him and left him unable to speak or walk. Franziska removed Carlo Alberto. as seen from across Piazza secretiveness discredited him. claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition. where Elisabeth cared for him and allowed visitors. Although most commentators regard his breakdown as unrelated to his philosophy. Georges Bataille dropped dark hints ("Man incarnate' must also go mad") and René Girard's postmortem psychoanalysis posits a worshipful rivalry with Richard Wagner.
but an exceptionally common one throughout central Germany. certainly not German blood. Nietzsche never married. The official response confirming the revocation of his citizenship came in a document dated April 17. argued that all of Nietzsche's ancestors bore German names. Other scholars have argued that Köhler's sexuality-based interpretation is not fruitful in understanding Nietzsche's philosophy. the editors of Nietzsche's assembled letters. Others do not assign him a national category. abbreviated to Nick. He wrote in 1888. Relationships and sexuality Despite a proposal to Lou Salomé. Allan Megill argues that "Köhler does establish that the claim that Nietzsche was a man in confrontation with homosexual desire cannot simply be dismissed" but notes that "the evidence is very weak" and argues that Köhler may be projecting twentieth-century understandings of sexuality on nineteenth-century notions of friendship. which was then part of the German Confederation. is equally likely." At one point Nietzsche becomes even more adamant about his Polish identity. without a single drop of bad blood. Nietzsche believed that his ancestors were Polish." The name Nietzsche itself is not a Polish name.) Indeed. nationality.] I am proud of my Polish descent. whether emphasizing his cultural background or his language. assimilated with the Slavic Nitz. The Nietzsche scholar Joachim Köhler has attempted to explain Nietzsche's life history and philosophy by claiming that Nietzsche was a homosexual. it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche. Oehler claims that Nietzsche came from a long line of German Lutheran clergymen on both sides of his family. finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. Nietzsche applied for the annulment of his Prussian citizenship. and for the rest of his life he remained officially stateless. Köhler argues that Nietzsche's syphilis. Nietzsche himself subscribed to this story toward the end of his life.. it is now held. even the wives' families. in this and cognate forms (such as Nitsche and Nitzke). which is "usually considered to be the product of his encounter with a prostitute in a brothel in Cologne or Leipzig. His birthplace. The name derives from the forename Nikolaus. Köhler's views have not found wide acceptance among Nietzsche scholars and commentators. in one letter claiming. Colli and Montinari.. Mazzino Montinari. 1869. "I am a pure-blooded Polish nobleman. ethnicity General commentators and Nietzsche scholars. (For example. Nietzsche's propagation of the Polish ancestry myth may have been part of the latter's "campaign against Germany". In The Journal of Modern History. 10 Citizenship. . the curator of the Nietzsche Archive at Weimar. "My ancestors were Polish noblemen (Nietzky). Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist. According to biographer R. the scholarly consensus has been that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent. the type seems to have been well preserved despite three generations of German mothers. Germany had not yet been unified into a nation-state but Nietzsche was born a citizen of Prussia. called it a forgery.Friedrich Nietzsche outlines and took great liberties with the material. gloss Nietzsche's claims as a "mistaken belief" and "without foundation. overwhelmingly label Nietzsche as a "German philosopher". is in the modern German state of Saxony-Anhalt. "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago. Hans von Müller debunked the genealogy put forward by Nietzsche's sister in favor of a Polish noble heritage. and modern scholars regard the claim of Nietzsche's Polish ancestry as a "pure invention". Max Oehler." Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized. When he accepted his post at Basel. where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible. Hollingdale. the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass. Köhler also suggests Nietzsche may have had a romantic relationship as well as a friendship with Paul Rée. It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish nobility. Röcken." Most scholars dispute Nietzsche's account of his family's origins." On yet another occasion Nietzsche stated "Germany is a great nation only because its people have so much Polish blood in their veins [. J. to have been contracted in a male brothel in Genoa".
Nietzsche's concept "God is dead" applies to the doctrines of Christendom. In Western philosophy tradition. Kantianism. has made several aspects of his philosophy seemingly lacking coherent meaning or being paradoxical. and utilitarianism." Nietzsche claimed that the Christian faith as practiced was not a proper representation of Jesus' teachings. He indicates his desire to bring about a new. though not to all other faiths: he claimed that Buddhism is a successful religion that he compliments for fostering critical thought. We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. his philosophy generates passionate reactions running from love to disgust. While Nietzsche attacked the principles of Judaism. combined with the fact that he disdained any kind of system. Because of Nietzsche's evocative style and his often outrageous claims. anti-Nihilist par excellence. He calls himself an "immoralist" and harshly criticizes the prominent moral philosophies of his day: Christianity.Friedrich Nietzsche 11 Philosophy Nietzsche is known for his use of poetry and prose (sometimes together in poetic prose style) in his writings. art as the anti-Christian. Nietzsche saw his philosophy as a counter-movement to nihilism through appreciation of art: Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life. he was not antisemitic: in his work On the Genealogy of Morality. due to varying interpretations and misinterpretations of his work. In The Dawn Nietzsche begins his "Campaign against Morality". and pointed out that his attack on Judaism was not an attack on Jews as a people but specifically an attack upon the ancient Jewish priesthood whom he claims antisemitic Christians paradoxically based their views upon. and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Judeo-Christian world. as it forced people merely to believe in the way of Jesus but not to act as Jesus did. This. anti-Buddhist. That loss of strength which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity. which assumes an inherent illness in society: Christianity is called the religion of pity. An excellent example is his iconic phrase "God is dead". Pity makes suffering contagious. he explicitly condemns antisemitism. Still. Nietzsche is also known for being very critical of the Friedrich Nietzsche in 1869. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect. He condemned institutionalized Christianity for emphasizing a morality of pity (Mitleid). Western belief in egalitarianism and rationality. His works remain controversial. more naturalistic source of value in the vital impulses of life itself. Nietzsche's writings are the unique case of free revolutionary thought that is revolutionary in its structure and problems but isn't tied to any revolutionary project at all. in German: Gott ist tot. something that Christians had constantly done the opposite of. In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error". in particular his example of refusing to judge people. .
" The initial form of morality was set by a warrior aristocracy and other ruling castes of ancient civilizations. "Slave morality" comes about as a reaction to master-morality. reads: "Become what you are. and should be left to them. Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own condition without hating themselves. Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann rejected this interpretation. the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. relabeling it as "meekness. the values of most Europeans (who are motley). Aristocratic values of "good" and "bad" coincided with and reflected their relationship to lower castes such as slaves. that morality. charity. they were not meant for any kind of acceptance or glorifications. And by denying the inherent inequality of people (such as success. namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting something that was seen as a perceived source of frustration. in constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible.g. values for them serving only to ease the existence for those who suffer from the very same thing. Here. which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people. For Nietzsche. value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness. while the "bad man" is recast as the "good man. strength." A long standing assumption about Nietzsche is that he preferred master over slave morality.. pathetic—an object of pity or disgust rather than hatred. per se. Recent developments in modern science and the increasing secularization of European society had effectively 'killed' the Abrahamic God. Here he states that the Christian moral doctrine provides people with intrinsic value. In this sense.Friedrich Nietzsche 12 The "slave revolt" in morals In Beyond Good And Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality. however. it is good for the masses. and aggressive. weak. To be "bad" was to be like the slaves over which the aristocracy ruled. The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism." Nietzsche sees the slave-morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. by. others (such as Kaufmann) suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity. power. selfish. strength. slaves acquired a method of escape. on the other hand. It does so by making out slave weakness to be a matter of choice. etc. should follow their own "inner law. beauty or intelligence)." The "good man" of master morality is precisely the "evil man" of slave morality. restraint. and evil seen as worldly. "If God as the suprasensory ground and goal of all reality is dead. Nietzsche presents this "master morality" as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of modern moral systems occupies central place. is not bad. meekness. sick." A favorite motto of Nietzsche. He cautions. and submission. a fundamental shift took place from thinking in terms of "good" and "bad" toward "good" and "evil. health. writing that Nietzsche's analyses of these two types of morality were only used in a descriptive and historic sense. poor. Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality. wealthy. Nietzsche sees slave morality as pessimistic and fearful. to varying degrees. e. belief in God (which justifies the evil in the world) and a basis for objective knowledge. piety. taken from Pindar. cruel. As Heidegger put the problem. in a way that slave-morality is born out of the ressentiment of slaves. who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years. Exceptional people. However. Christianity is an antidote to a primal form of nihilism — the despair of meaninglessness. To be "good" was to be happy and to have the things related to happiness: wealth. if the suprasensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding . It was used to overcome the slave's own sense of inferiority before the (better-off) masters. most commentators regard Nietzsche as an atheist. Death of God and nihilism The statement God is dead. Nietzsche calls for exceptional people to no longer be ashamed of their uniqueness in the face of a supposed morality-for-all. On the basis of it. occurring in several of Nietzsche's works (notably in The Gay Science). both values contradictorily determining. He associates slave-morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions. has become one of his best-known remarks.
Apollo represents harmony. Both of these principles are meant to represent cognitive states that appear through art as the power of nature in man. translated by Walter Kaufmann Nietzsche approaches the problem of nihilism as a deeply personal one. Heidegger interprets the death of God with what he explains as the death of metaphysics. he emphasises both the danger of nihilism and the possibilities it offers. which represent mere phenomenal appearances of objects. it is only when nihilism is overcome that a culture can have a true foundation upon which to thrive. progress. a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. KSA 12:9 . is a question of his strength!" According to Nietzsche. representing the liberations of instinct and dissolution of boundaries. clarity and logic whereas Dionysus represents disorder. and Winckelmann talked of Bacchus. the world of mind and order on one side. In it he asserted the Schopenhauerian judgment that music is a primary expression of the essence of everything. in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama. then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself. whereby life turns away from itself. One year before the publication of The Birth of Tragedy. Whether man recovers from it. In this mold. the main protagonist. stating that this problem of the modern world is a problem that has "become conscious" in him. Apollonian side being a dreaming state. which Nietzsche also refers to as Western Buddhism. He concludes that metaphysics has reached its potential and that the ultimate fate and downfall of metaphysics was proclaimed with the statement God is dead. although in this. His major premise in The Birth of Tragedy was that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian "Kunsttrieben" ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts. an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists. based on certain features of ancient Greek mythology. advocates a separating oneself of will and desires in order to reduce suffering. or dichotomy." One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche calls 'passive nihilism'. by looking into the abyss of human suffering and affirming it. or tragedies. man appears as the satyr. which he recognises in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer.Friedrich Nietzsche power. the nihilist appears to be inconsistent: A nihilist is a man who judges of the world as it is that it ought not to be. He goes on to argue that this fusion has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. Nietzsche argues . [nihilism's] arrival. as there is nothing of value to be found in the world. passionately and joyously affirmed the meaning of their own existence. I do not reproach. feeling) has no meaning: the pathos of 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos — at the same time. Nietzsche characterises this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness". our existence (action. section 585. The relationship between the Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions is apparent. for him. According to this view. Secondarily derivative are lyrical poetry and drama. emotion and ecstasy. and Dionysian being the state of intoxication. intoxication. full of illusions. in this case Apollo and Dionysus. Nietzsche used these two forces because. This moving away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist. suffering. Elaborating on the conception of Hamlet as an intellectual who cannot make up his mind. He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure. as pathos. though he dies unfulfilled in the end. While the concept is famously related to The Birth of Tragedy. Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism and nihilism of a fundamentally meaningless world. tragedy is born from music. 13 Apollonian and Dionysian The Apollonian and Dionysian is a philosophical concept. Schopenhauer's doctrine. taken from The Will to Power. —Friedrich Nietzsche. and of the world as it ought to be that it does not exist. He is the horror of the annihilation of the principle of individuality and at the same time someone who delights in its destruction. In this way. struggles to make order (in the Apollonian sense) of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) fate. willing. Furthermore. whether he becomes master of this crisis. as seen in his statement that "I praise. I believe it is one of the greatest crises. Nietzsche wrote a fragment titled On Music and Words. and therefore is a living antithesis to the man of action. and passion and chaos on other formed principles that were fundamental to the Greek culture. poet Hölderlin spoke of them before. The Greek spectators.
Here Foucault references Nietzsche's description of the birth and death of tragedy and his explanation that the subsequent tragedy of the Western world was the refusal of tragic and. Only the beautiful middle. the scientific method. "A thousand goals have there been so far. Painter Mark Rothko was influenced by Nietzsche's view of tragedy. those of philosophy. strong. relative to various fluid perspectives or interests. Michel Foucault has commented that his book Madness and Civilization should be read "under the sun of the great Nietzschean inquiry". he states. even if the values are different from one people to the next. For the audience of such drama. 14 Perspectivism Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things. what Nietzsche called the Primordial Unity. that tragedy begins its "Untergang" (literally "going under". Plato continued with this path in his dialogues and modern world eventually inherited reason at the expense of artistic impulses that could be found only in the Apollonian and Dionysus dichotomy. Stimulated by this state. according to Nietzsche. overloaded with strength. This leads to constant reassessment of rules (i. where anthropologist Ruth Benedict uses Nietzschean opposites of "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" as the stimulus for her thoughts about Native American cultures. A man in this state transforms things until they mirror his power .Friedrich Nietzsche that a Dionysian figure possesses knowledge to realize that his actions cannot change the eternal balance of things.. refusal of the sacred. which revives Dionysian nature. The willing is more essential than the intrinsic worth of the goal itself. namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian. etc. but the act of valuing. This view has acquired the name perspectivism. Thus the values a community strives to articulate are not as important as the collective will to see those values come to pass. and along with it any coherent sense of objective truth. Humanity still has no goal. he has gained true knowledge and knows that no action of his has the power to change this. the true realization of tragedy. meaning decline.art. This leads to his conclusion that European culture from the time of Socrates had always been only Apollonian and thus decadent and unhealthy. Hamlet falls under this category – he has glimpsed the supernatural reality through the Ghost.) according to the circumstances of individual perspectives. the Apollonian lacks the necessary passion. the interplay of these two forces brought together as an art represented real Greek tragedy. Nietzsche asserts that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs." Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation. and it disgusts him enough not to be able to make any act at all. He points out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming." . the Dionysian lacks the structure to make a coherent art.until they are reflections of his perfection. and when Dionysian dominates.e. experience of fullness and plenitude bestowed by frenzy. Frenzy acts as an intoxication. it is with Euripides. and is crucial for the physiological condition that enables making of any art. Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism and morality in his tragedies. He notes that whenever Apollonian culture dominates. whatever wills is seen swelled. Carl Jung has written extensively on the dichotomy in Psychological Types. downfall." says Zarathustra. He describes this primordial unity as the increase of strength.Wikipedia:Citing sources Nietzsche himself rejected the idea of objective reality arguing that knowledge is contingent and conditional. of creating values. person's artistic will is enhanced: "In this state one enriches everything out of one's own fullness: whatever one sees. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. etc. taut. An example of the impact of this idea can be seen in the book Patterns of Culture. Only the yoke for the thousand necks is still lacking: the one goal is lacking. In Thus Spoke Zarathustra. this tragedy allows them to sense an underlying essence. claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation.). which were presented in The Birth of Tragedy. "for there are a thousand peoples. Nietzsche proclaims that a table of values hangs above every great people. deterioration. This having to transform into perfection is . death. with that.
Instead. concepts from philosophies popularly embraced in his days. the drive for conservation appears as the major motivator of human or animal behavior only in exceptions. the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society. as well as their political understanding. of 'struggle for existence'." Of such forces Nietzsche said they could perhaps be viewed as a primitive form of the will. although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche. Weber for example. Among his critique of traditional philosophy of Kant. Nietzsche also addressed. self-conservation is but a consequence of a creature's will to exert its strength on the outside world. As such. Utilitarians claim that what moves people is mainly the desire to be happy. More often than not. While criticizing nihilism and Nietzsche together as a sign of general decay. is his speculation. value. but also the nature of the problems that this posed for philosophy. At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism — the idea that matter is composed of stable. "On The Thousand And One Goals". therefore I am) as unfalsifiable beliefs based on naive acceptance of previous notions and fallacies. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next. regarding the reality of the physical world. In presenting his theory of human behavior. such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival. which he did not deem final. Max Weber and Martin Heidegger absorbed it and made it their own. such as Schopenhauer's notion of an aimless will or that of utilitarianism. positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces. and characteristic of.not only that what purported to be appeals of objectivity were in fact expressions of subjective will. like man's affections and impulses.. the title of the aphorism. of the fulfillment of the will. and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se — it is instead a consequence of a successful pursuit of one's aims. It shaped their philosophical and cultural endeavor. 15 Will to power A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the will to power (der Wille zur Macht).Friedrich Nietzsche Hence. the material world is also set by the dynamics of a form of the will to power. Related to his theory of the will to power. or end has been established. as the general condition of life is not one of emergency. and attacked.. who explained the qualities of matter as a result of an interplay of forces. One study of Nietzsche defines his fully developed concept of the will to power as "the element from which derive both the quantitative difference of related forces and the quality that devolves into each force in this relation" revealing the will to power as "the principle of the synthesis of forces. which provides a basis for understanding human behavior — more so than competing explanations. of the overcoming of hurdles to one's actions — in other words. he still commends him for recognizing psychological motives behind Kant and Hume's moral philosophy: For it was Nietzsche's historic achievement to understand more clearly than any other philosopher. including inorganic matter — that. . indivisible units (atoms). Philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre puts Nietzsche in a high place in the history of philosophy. he seems to have accepted the conclusions of Ruđer Bošković. has become a common premise in modern social science. Descartes and Plato in Beyond Good and Evil. Nietzsche attacked thing in itself and cogito ergo sum (I think. But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to. Likewise he rejected as a mere interpretation the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature. to accumulate pleasure in their lives. according to Nietzsche. relies on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective.
. The idea of eternal return occurs in a parable in Section 341 of The Gay Science... . [." Nehamas shows that this interpretation exists totally independently of physics and does not presuppose the truth of cosmology. According to Lampert. Nehamas draws the conclusion that if individuals constitute themselves through their actions. but fails to capture what Nietzsche refers to in The Gay Science. The wish for the eternal return of all events would mark the ultimate affirmation of life. and even now. but the return of beings in the same bodies." This second view conditionally asserts cosmology. "(B) My life may recur in exactly identical fashion. Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity (most obvious example being democracy). in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space. Nietzsche's thought is the negation of the idea of a history of salvation. The overman does not follow morality of common people since it favors mediocrity but instead rises above the notion of good and evil and above the herd. Nietzsche contemplates the idea as potentially "horrifying and paralyzing". then it could recur only in identical fashion. requires amor fati. Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence: "(A) My life will recur in exactly identical fashion.. and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes. who is unable to dream. And man shall be that to overman: a laughingstock or painful embarrassment. but as an anti-project.. Man is something that shall be overcome. It is a purely physical concept. What have you done to overcome him?. "(C) If my life were to recur. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth." This expresses a totally fatalistic approach to the idea. The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment. and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the overman impossible. III. too. He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity.] Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to a mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution. and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. the absence of any project. 341. Man is a rope. Finally. and says that its burden is the "heaviest weight" imaginable ("das schwerste Gewicht"). Nietzsche wrote Thus Spoke Zarathustra. here is one of his quotations from Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Prologue. who merely earns his living and keeps warm.. To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought. The overman is the meaning of the earth. and will continue to recur. an alternative goal which humanity might set for itself." Zarathustra presents the overman as the creator of new values. All beings so far have created something beyond themselves. and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it. This concept appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.. While interpretations of Nietzsche's overman vary wildly. "love of fate".. or "super-human"). man is more ape than any ape. You have made your way from worm to man. 19. involving no supernatural reincarnation. a reaction to Schopenhauer's praise of denying the will‐to‐live. and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is ape to man? A laughing stock or painful embarrassment.. "superman". In this way Zarathustra proclaims his ultimate goal as the journey towards the state of overman. §§3–4): I teach you the overman. what is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end. then they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions (Nehamas 153). 8). Developing the idea of nihilism. therein introducing the concept of a value-creating Übermensch. not as a project. among other places. tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss . and he appears as a solution to the problem of the death of God and nihilism. Übermensch Another concept important to an understanding of Nietzsche's thought is the Übermensch (translated variously as "overman". "the death of God must be followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism (II. and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood..Friedrich Nietzsche 16 Eternal return Eternal return (also known as "eternal recurrence") is a concept which posits that the universe has been recurring.
yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values. and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick. as did . including his failures and misdeeds. whom he saw as his "precursor" in some respects but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others. and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought. and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage. From his Heraclitean sympathy. Nietzsche offered lecture courses on the "Pre-Platonic Philosophers" for several years.Friedrich Nietzsche Some have suggested that the notion of eternal return is related to the overman since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values. which holds many of Nietzsche's papers. that is. Plato as "boring". The residence of Nietzsche's last three years. 17 Reading and influence As a philologist. and to truly will their eternal return. along with archive in Nietzsche's philosophy. gay science. who became his main opponents in his philosophy." Nietzsche expressed admiration for 17th century French moralists such as La Rochefoucauld. Germany. who emerges as a pre-Platonic Nietzsche. Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low. However. Mill as a "blockhead". as well as for Stendhal. only the overman will have the strength to fully accept all of his past life. Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. the overman. Values involve a rank-ordering of things. In his Egotism in German Philosophy. Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. The will to live would become the will to dominate. Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer. revolutionary. These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. the eternal return of the same. unnamed formulations and are linked to specific pre-Platonics. Nietzsche was also a vociferous detractor of Parmenides. One must have the strength of the overman in order to will the eternal recurrence of the same. and later Spinoza. not because of any choice they made. It could seem that the overman. This action nearly kills Zarathustra. and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism. finally in the place of pity and asceticism (Schopenhauer's two principles of morals) Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong. Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic". self-overcoming and so on receive rough. Arthur Schopenhauer and African Spir." The pre-Socratic Greek thinker Heraclitus was known for the rejection of the concept of being as a constant and eternal principle of universe. "In it concepts such as the will to power. would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism. untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. and his embrace of "flux" and incessant change. While at Basel. the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste. in being devoted to any values at all. who opposed Heraclitus and believed all world is a single Being with no change at all. while highly innovative and Weimar. especially Heraclitus. Plato. for example. The organicism of Paul Bourget influenced Nietzsche. Jean de La Bruyère and Vauvenargues. John Stuart Mill. and of Spinoza he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?". He read Immanuel Kant. was indebted to many predecessors.
mostly forgotten at that time. Mencken produced translations of Nietzsche's works that helped to increase knowledge of his philosophy in the United States. However. In the years after Nietzsche's death in 1900. 18 Reception Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career.] all your life you stormed. . Lawrence. D. which Mahler presented in Third Symphony using Zarathustra's roundelay. Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter (released in 1941 in The Double Man): "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies [. In 1861 Nietzsche wrote an enthusiastic essay on his "favorite poet". W. in 1894–1895 German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography". existentialism. B. It was probably Lichtenberg (along with Paul Rée) whose aphoristic style of writing contributed to Nietzsche's own use of aphorism instead of an essay. while Richard Strauss (who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book). Ernest Renan's Life of Jesus and Fyodor Dostoyevsky's The Possessed. and postmodernism. Lord Byron's Manfred and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. A similar notion was espoused by W. He had some following among left-wing Germans in the 1890s. Famous writers and poets influenced by Nietzsche include André Gide. Robinson Jeffers. Notably. H. H. Friedrich Hölderlin. H." Harold Bloom has often claimed that the essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson had a profound and favourable influence on Nietzsche. his works became better known." He also quotes Gustav himself. Symons went on to compare the ideas of the two thinkers in The Symbolist Movement in Literature while Yeats tried to raise awareness of Nietzsche in Ireland. he also read some of the posthumous works of Charles Baudelaire. Hippolyte Taine influenced Nietzsche's view on Rousseau and Napoleon. Pío Baroja. Portrait of Friedrich Nietzsche by Edvard Munch. Many Germans eventually discovered his appeals for greater individualism and personality development in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. the similarities in their ideas have prompted a minority of interpreters to suggest a relationship between the two. 1906. and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways. like your English forerunner Blake". Yeats and Arthur Symons described Nietzsche as the intellectual heir to William Blake.Friedrich Nietzsche that of Rudolf Virchow and Alfred Espinas. Lichtenberg and Schopenhauer. Frederick Delius has produced a piece of choral music A Mass of Life based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Writer on music Donald Mitchell notes that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra. He also expressed deep appreciation for Adalbert Stifter's Indian Summer. Nietzsche called Dostoevsky "the only psychologist from whom I have anything to learn. particularly in France and the United States. Nietzsche early learned of Darwinism through Friedrich Albert Lange. in 1888 the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them. but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings. Tolstoy's My Religion.. August Strindberg. and adds that he was influenced by Nietzsche's conception and affirmative approach to nature. Nietzsche wrote in a letter in 1867 that he was trying to improve his German style of writing with the help of Lessing. Edith Södergran and Yukio Mishima. L.. While Nietzsche never mentions Max Stirner. but responded to them divergently. Nietzsche is known today as a precursor to expressionism. Nietzsche made an impact on composers during the 1890s.
Gordon and Martin Buber who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". In Russia.Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. but warned that the attempt to put Nietzsche's philosophy of aristocracy into practice could only be done by an organization similar to the Fascist or the Nazi party. Wallace Stevens was another reader of Nietzsche and elements of Nietzsche's philosophy were found throughout Harmonium. Plays The Great God Brown and Lazarus Laughed are an example of Nietzsche's influence on O'Neill. He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. Nietzsche's influence on Muhammad Iqbal is most evidenced in Asrar-i-Khudi (The Secrets of the Self). for example. A. Newton read Nietzsche. similarly. there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R. Eugene O'Neill remarked that Zarathustra influenced him more that any other book he ever read. Adorno can be seen in the popular Dialectic of Enlightenment. The Nazis made selective use of Nietzsche's philosophy. Hermann Hesse. and later frequently discussed many of his concepts in his own works. the ideological chief of the Stern Group that fought the British in Palestine in the 1940s. Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for both right-wing German militarism and leftist politics. Thomas Mann's novel Death in Venice shows a use of Apollonian and Dionysian. Chaim Weizmann was a great admirer of Nietzsche. Israel Eldad.J. such as "lords of the earth" in Mein Kampf. Georg Simmel compares Nietzsche's importance to ethics to that of Copernicus for cosmology. the first president of Israel sent Nietzsche's books to his wife. probably never read Nietzsche and. Nietzsche had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers around the start of the 20th century most notable being Ahad Ha'am. Critics have suggested that the character of David Grief in A Son of the Sun was based on Nietzsche. Author Jack London wrote that he was more stimulated by Nietzsche that by any other writer in the world. wrote about Nietzsche in his underground newspaper and later translated most of Nietzsche's books into Hebrew. The Dreyfus Affair provides a contrasting example of his reception: the French antisemitic Right labelled the Jewish and Leftist intellectuals who defended Alfred Dreyfus as "Nietzscheans". Nietzsche has influenced Russian symbolism and figures such as Dmitry Merezhkovsky. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest. Hitler. Nietzsche's influence on the works of Frankfurt School philosophers Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. adding a comment in a letter that "This was the best and finest thing I can send to you". including Martin Heidegger. Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and the German Reich. Bertrand Russell wrote that Nietzsche had exerted great influence on philosophers and on people of literary and artistic culture. Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas. Hillel Zeitlin. Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy"." and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand. Others. Nietzsche has influenced philosophers such as Martin 19 . Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spake Zarathustra. wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy. Charles de Gaulle and Huey P. and in Doctor Faustus Nietzsche was a central source for the character of Adrian Leverkühn. Sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies read Nietzsche avidly from his early life. Mussolini. his reading was not extensive. Olaf Stapledon was influenced by the idea of Übermensch and it is central theme in his books Odd John and Sirius. although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work. A decade after World War II. who produced a four-volume study and Lev Shestov who wrote a book called Dostoyevski. in his Narcissus and Goldmund presents two main characters in the sense of Apollonian and Dionysian as the two opposite yet intertwined spirits. Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov and Alexander Scriabin have all incorporated or discussed parts of Nietzsche philosophy in their works. Micha Josef Berdyczewski. D. although he was a frequent visitor to the Nietzsche museum in Weimar and did use expressions of Nietzsche's. German soldiers received copies of Thus Spoke Zarathustra as gifts during World War I. and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book. well known philosophers in their own right. along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky as one of his primary influences. By World War I. Hollingdale. Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche. if he did. Andrei Bely. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham".
p. "Nietzsche's philosophical context: an intellectual biography". 23.  Kaufmann 1974. June 1868.  Brobjer. Oswald Spengler. Jean-Paul Sartre.  Hecker.J.  . Michel Foucault and Bernard Williams. ed. . 1980.  Wicks. Retrieved on: 2011-10-06. Ayn Rand.  Golomb 1997. 37. Hellmuth: "Nietzsches Staatsangehörigkeit als Rechtsfrage".  Nietzsche. Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd".  Hayman. vol. 2008. 323  Kaufmann 1974.Friedrich Nietzsche Heidegger. 1987. p.  Kaufmann 1974. Paul Ricœur called Nietzsche one of the masters of the "school of suspicion". p. Oxford University Press. 21. 1998.  . Thomas. p. edu/ archives/ sum2011/ entries/ nietzsche/ ). UK: Boydell & Brewer.  Hollingdale. Nietzche: The Man and his Philosophy. Emil Cioran. 25. p.  Hayman.  Cate 2005. p. David Farrell. Wie man mit dem Hammer philosophiert (1888) Dionysos-Dithyramben (1888) Der Antichrist (1888) Ecce Homo (1888) Nietzsche contra Wagner (1888) Der Wille zur Macht (1901) posthumus References  Meyer-Sickendiek. Paul Bishop. oder. Joachim. George Grant.  .  . Yale University Press. University of Chicago Press. 1999. 93. p. and Donald L. Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde. 159–86. 1388–91. Eduard: "Friedrich Nietzsches Heimatlosigkeit".  Kaufmann 1974. Letter to Karl Von Gersdorff. Woodbridge. 40. Burkhard. 2004. 40. 42. R. alongside Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Oxford University Press (New York). Zalta (ed. Ronald. Ronald. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. University of Illinois Press. nr. Leo Strauss. Note that some authors (among them Deussen and Montinari) mistakenly claim that Nietzsche became a Swiss citizen.  Krell. Albert Camus. stanford. Friedrich. Nietzsche: A Critical Life. Nietzsche: A Critical Life. 22. 214–15. Jacques Derrida. p.  His. Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile (1881) Idyllen aus Messina (1882) Die fröhliche Wissenschaft (1882–1887) Also sprach Zarathustra (1883–1885) Jenseits von Gut und Böse (1886) Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) Der Fall Wagner (1888) Götzen-Dämmerung.  Kohler. Nietzsche and Antiquity: His Reaction and Response to the Classical Tradition. Bates. R. pp. Allzumenschliches (1878–1879) Morgenröte. Max Scheler. "Nietzsche's Aesthetic Solution to the Problem of Epigonism in the Nineteenth Century". 1997. (Summer 2011) "Friedrich Nietzsche" (http:/ / plato. 42. p. 20 Works • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik (1872) Über Wahrheit und Lüge im außermoralischen Sinn (1873) inedita Die Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen (1873) inedita Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen (1873–1876) Menschliches. Edward N. 1941. Nietzsche & Wagner: A Lesson in Subjugation. Jg. Neue Juristische Wochenschrift. pp. 412.). 17. The Good European: Nietzsche's work sites in word and image. p. Cambridge University Press. p. 1980.
"Nietzsche's Madness". Friedrich. reprinted Nietzsche-Studien 31 (2002): 253–75.  Zweig. 221.  Green. March 1887. 59. December 1882. p. 1976). ed. 187.Friedrich Nietzsche  . 37. 42–45.  . MLN. 21 "This work had long been consigned to oblivion.  . 36. KGB III 7. 1161–85. M. p. Cate 2005. but it had a lasting impact on Nietzsche. p. Nietzsche and the Transcendental Tradition.  Safranski.  . University of Illinois Press.1 p. Thomas Harrison (Stanford University: ANMA Libri. . 51.  . 91. translated as . 10. KSA 9 p. December 1882. p. 2002.  . section 1. Cate 2005. p. but by presenting a 'proposition by an outstanding logician' (2. Cf. 29.  . KGB III 7. 415.  Concurring reports in Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche's biography (1904) and a letter by Mathilde Schenk-Nietzsche to Meta von Salis. 313. Cate 2005.  Heidegger. thenietzschechannel.  Leonard Sax. W. 251. The Nietzsche Channel.  . p. 4. 4. republished on HyperNietzsche. 1988) 105-12  Nietzsche 1977.  .  Sedgwick 2009. (Spring. §3. com/ correspondence/ corresp. Section 18 of Human. pp. Stefan (1939) Master Builders [trilogy]. 8. "Nietzsche's Breakdown in Turin.  Nietzsche 1888d. M I. Letter to Peter Gast. 342. KGB III 1. Nietzsche. October.  .S. 69.  Nietzsche 2004." in Nietzsche in Italy. pp.  Letter to Heinrich von Stein. p. Preface. 49. Volz (1990). “What was the cause of Nietzsche’s dementia?” Journal of Medical Biography. August 30. Mazzino. Nietzsche. KGW V 2. 57.  . 453. 27. . Rüdiger (trans. Vol. 389. Viking Press. Letter to Peter Gast. p. not by name. p. Kaufmann. The Struggle with the Daimon. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography. p. 524.  Anacleto Verrecchia. 26. 1986).  Montinari. quoted in Janz (1981) p. Shelley Frisch).  René Girard. and . 221. Georges & Annette Michelson. p. .  . 287.  Letter to Georg Brandes. p. 67. p.  Nietzsche 1888d. Nietzsche 2000. W. No. August 1883. 2003. Sacrifice."                . and Dostoevsky.  Letter to Heinrich von Stein. 18. Georges Bataille: Writings on Laughter. p. Why I Am a Destiny. 40. Cate 2005. All Too Human cited Spir. Un-Knowing. Wagner. 681  von Müller. Superman in the Underground: Strategies of Madness—Nietzsche. 1900. 61. 579.  Sedgwick 2009. Norton & Company. p.38. Comparative Literature.  Bataille.  . Nr.  Kaufmann 1974.  Sedgwick 2009. 297. The 'Will to Power' Does Not Exist. Cate 2005. Friedrich. HH I §18). 11: 47-54. "Nietzsches Vorfahren". Kaufmann 1974. Vol. Nietzsche. 6. 1888.  . p.  Nietzsche 2005. 161. (December.3/1 p. p. 293. " Correspondences (http:/ / www. 77. p. htm#schmei)". pp. 2003.
"German Philosophy in 1907". 2005-11-01 . p. p 300. 2007. xxxvii.  Nietzsche 2001. Revue philosophique de la France et de l'étranger.  Deleuze 2006.  S Taylor.  Roochnik 2004. HyperNietzsche. Berlin/New York.  Roochnik 2004. Thomas. hypernietzsche. archive. 176–80. Skirmishes of an untimely man. p 70. Published in Journal of History of Ideas.  Nietzsche comments in many notes about matter being a hypothesis drawn from the metaphysics of substance: G. Routledge guide to Nietzsche on morality.  RA Samek. 1947. Vol. p. Paris. Wahrig-Schmidt.2-6& size=LARGE) in The German Quarterly. Walter de Gruyter. Alexandre Herzen (fils) und Charles Féré 1888" in Nietzsche Studien. 114. Whitlock. pp. 693–97. org/ stream/ encyclopaediabri19chisrich#page/ 672/ mode/ 1up)  O. III:7  F. 46. From Hegel To Nietzsche. pp. pp. p 197. §36. 1981.  G Deleuze. Ewald.  RC Solomon & KM Higgins.  Nietzsche 1886. 34. org/ sici?sici=0016-8831(197905)52:3<303:NALR>2. New York. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Nietzsche.  . 349. 1999.  Heidegger. 4. pp. in PMLA. p. Accessed via JSTOR on May 18. p 187.  K Löwith.  . 52.  Nietzsche 1882. §13  Kaufmann 1974. Riley. 400–26. Nietzsche en France. 67. The Politics of German Expressionism 1910–1920. The Age of German Idealism. 48. Éditions de l'Éclat. "Why I am So Clever". 2007. 1885–1889.  T Goyens. pp.  See 1910 article from the Encyclopaedia Britannica (http:/ / www. 1993. because it is exactly as a pessimist that Schopenhauer clings to life. Friedrich Nietzsche. jstor. p.  Nietzsche 1886. No. Vol. hypernietzsche. De la fin du XIXe siècle au temps présent. Hugh Tomlinson). See F. Vol. Richard. 18. 1964.  . php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4). "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence" (http:/ / www. KSA 12:7   Friedrich Nietzsche.  Nietzsche 1886. 13. 62. 828–43. The Meta Phenomenon. p.Friedrich Nietzsche  This "will to nothingness" is still a willing of some sort. Beer and Revolution: The German Anarchist Movement In New York City. Albert Fouillée. pp. September. 2005-11-01 . I. 303–18  Nietzsche 1888d. 3 (May. 1996 p 207. §22. org/ wiki/ Note_sur_Nietzsche_et_Lange_:_Â«_le_retour_Ã©ternel_Â»). HyperNietzsche. Band 17. p 61. 22 . 13.  Johan Grzelczyk. On the Genealogy of Morals.  Nietzsche 1886.  Letter to Franz Overbeck. org/ navigate. 439  Note sur Nietzsche et Lange : « le retour éternel » (http:/ / fr. S. p 144. "Irgendwie. p. pp. PUF. CO. 1881  Russell 2004. Benedict de Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche: The Untold Story". p. wikisource.  Nietzsche 1888b. pp. "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence" (http:/ / www. §14. Routledge. July 30. §2. §45. "La Volonté de puissance" n'existe pas. "Anti-Statism in German Literature.  Nietzsche 1889. Nietzsche's Reading and Private Library. T. p. 1988. New York. 17–18. pp. Grzelczyk quotes Jacques Le Rider. 1996.  Lampert 1986. Grzelczyk quotes B. "Nietzsche and La Rochefoucauld" (http:/ / links. 17. in The Philosophical Review. p. Complete Works Vol. An. July. "Roger Boscovich. Nietzsche-Studien 25. No. 306–40. I. 121  Nietzsche 1888c. pp 153–54. as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay". 3. 8–9  Johan Grzelczyk. 519–25 (on French Wikisource)  Mazzino Montinari. jedenfalls physiologisch.  Lampert 1986. Nietzsche. p. 1990. Nietzsche and Philosophy (transl.  Nietzsche 1961. 1979).  T.  Santayana 1916. Left Wing Nietzscheans. Illinois.  Nietzsche 1887. 2006.  Brian Leiter. 0. I. 37–39. §3. No.  Brendan Donnellan. org/ navigate. II:12.  Schacht. php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4). A. §12. Paris 1909. Nietzsche.  Brobjer. 1908.  .
 Berel Lang. L. and the Jews. Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb."  Philip Morgan. (1995).  . Nietzsche-Studien. 2000. p 169: "It would be most useful if our youth climbed. Nietzsche's French Legacy: A Genealogy of Poststructuralism. 296. Forth. December 2001 (30). God. 2005.D.com/ books?id=HBCsgS7k7lAC&pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=Arnold+Zweig+Nietzsche&source=bl& ots=PTXKFXC_YD&sig=7glHFmjNCUMvZi4S2CxtG6oJ5d4&hl=en&sa=X& ei=G59AT-vMHMLLsgbwtN3oBA&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Arnold Zweig Nietzsche& f=false). ISBN 0-485-11233-7 • Eilon. Torino. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-13-158591-6 • Benson. (1997). trans. if he did read him. Nietzsche and Jewish culture (http://books. • Golomb. Gaddis. Indiana University Press. Oxford University Press. Martin. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Leonardo Vittorio (2012).  Golomb 1997. Antichrist. 2007. Athlone Press. Princeton University Press. 200–221 • Gemes. Simon. Jacob. January. Decadence. pp 100–01  Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi. Nietzsche: Philosopher. Hitler never read Nietzsche. 1993. Nietzsche olter l'abisso. Shirer. P.  : "To be sure. "Nietzsche's works and their themes". Rosenberg.). Sellner. Routledge. ed.  Zev Golan. 1994. Bruce Ellis (2007). R. Forrest E. Oxford University Press." 23 Further reading • Arena. Gilles (2006) . Magnus and Higgins (ed. ISBN 0-691-01983-5 • Lampert.. May. to Zarathustra's heights. God. Marco Valerio. ISBN 0-300-04430-5 • Magnus and Higgins. May. and the Claims of History.google. p 44: "In 1908 he presented his conception of the superman's role in modern society in a writing on Nietzsche titled "The Philosophy of Force. East Central Europe in the Modern World. it was not extensively". Psychologist. p 21: "We know that Mussolini had read Nietzsche"  J. Touchstone. University of Cambridge Press. • Kaufmann. p 162: "Arguably. 8. and. 1999. • Heidegger. 1996. • Cate. Hitler himself never read a word of Nietzsche. Pious Nietzsche: Decadence and Dionysian Faith. University of California Press. Timothy F. Laurence (1986). 54. p 184: "By all indications. ISBN 0-521-36767-0 • O'Flaherty. "Nietzsche. E. 2007 • Deleuze. 1011–38. 1. iUniverse. in Journal of the History of Ideas. 234–35. H. eds. more simply. Eli. Henri Bergson. NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 1959."  Weaver Santaniello. Indiana University Press. Gordon. Walter (1974). J. Post-Holocaust: Interpretation. NY. No. Walter Kaufmann (2008). Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. Nietzsche's Principle of Abundance as Guiding Aesthetic Value. James C. Nietzsche and Philosophy. Stanford University Press. through what was coffeehouse Quatsch in Vienna and Munich.  Kaufmann 1974. Routledge.. it is almost certain that Hitler either never read Nietzsche directly or read very little. even if only briefly. certainly.. (2002). USA: The Overlook Press • Emilio Carlo Corriero. Nietzsche in China in the XXth Century.. Friederich Nietzsche. Curtis (2005). 97–117. pp. ISBN 0-415-91147-8. SUNY Press. Misinterpretation. Vol. ebook • Baird. Nietzsche. 1891–1895". Nietzschean ideas reached him through the filter of Alfred Rosenberg's Myth of the Twentieth Century.Friedrich Nietzsche  C. Maurice Barres—and was steeped in conservative French historical and philosophical traditions. Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of "Thus Spoke Zarathustra". Ken. Neither Mein Kampf nor Hitler's Table Talk (Tischgesprache) mentions his name. Robert M. Helm. Janos. Hugh Tomlinson.. pp. This at least is the impression he gives in his published conversations with Dietrich Eckart. pp. p. a History of Nazi Germany. Man and Nietzsche. Declinazioni italiane della 'morte di Dio'. 2003. E. p 41: "Hitler probably never read a word of Nietzsche". Nietzsche on Freedom and Autonomy.  Schrift. p 217: "The son of a history teacher. From Plato to Derrida. pp. in The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. Routledge. A. and Regeneration in France. The Word of Nietzsche. 21–58. "Studies in Nietzsche and the Classical Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press) 1979 ISBN 0-8078-8085-X . p."  Andrew C. Fascism in Europe. Friedrich Nietzsche. de Gaulle read voraciously as a boy and young man—Jacques Bainville. 2002. Woodstock."  William L. pp. Upper Saddle River. 1919–1945.
Lanham. Nietzsche.org/identities/lccn-n79-21132) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • • • • • • • • Friedrich Nietzsche (http://librivox.. ISBN 0-8047-3700-2. Peter R (2009).philosophytalk.edu/nietzsch) entry by Dale Wilkerson in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. George (1916).archive. • Seung.php?title=&author=Friedrich+Nietzsche) public domain audiobooks from LibriVox Lexido: Searchable Database index of Public Domain editions of all Nietzsche's major works (http://www. 24 External links • Complete searchable online version of Critical Edition of Nietzsche's works and letters (http://www. Human. ISSN 1209-0689 (http://www.700.weple. • Russell. • Wicks. In Edward N. London & Toronto: JM Dent & Sons.stanford. "Studies in Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press) 1985 ISBN 0-8078-8104-X • Owen. Politics & Modernity (London: Sage Publications. ISBN 0-7391-1130-2 • Tanner. Oxon. MD: Lexington. Nietzsche. 2005. Nietzsche and the Crisis in Philosophy (http://www. Nietzsche and the Making of Aesthetic Political Theory.95184. Retrieving the Ancients. "XI" (http://www.).9518.edu/archives/fall2004/entries/nietzsche/).10671.iep. Sellner. • Sedgwick. • Santayana.. Maryland: Lexington Books. Timothy F.K.org/timeline.org/details/egotismingerman00santuoft). Helm. ISBN 0-8047-3698-7 • ———— (2000). Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography (Cambridge University Press. "Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future" (Stanford University Press.. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Robert M. Julian.dmoz.pdf). nietzschesource.37304.utm. UK: Routledge. Egotism in German Philosophy. James C.htm) from the radio program Philosophy Talk Friedrich Nietzsche (http://www. "Friedrich Nietzsche" (http://plato. Nietzsche: the key concepts. Timeline of German Philosophers (http://www.swgc. Routledge. lexido. David (2004).archive.ca/animus/ Articles/Volume 14/9_Kierans. Zalta. Michael (1994). 2010) 649 pp. • von Vacano. 2000). Kenneth (2010).com/) Friedrich Nietzsche (http://www.org/author/Friedrich_Nietzsche) at Project Gutenberg • Works by or about Friedrich Nietzsche (http://worldcat.com/pronunciation/d360/Friedrich_Nietzsche) Pronunciation (English and German) for Friedrich Nietzsche • Works by Friedrich Nietzsche (http://www.org/newcatalog/search. 1995).12598. Animus 14. • Roochnik. A History of Western Philosophy.org/pastShows/Nietzsche. James I.12007._Friedrich/) at the Open Directory Project Free scores by Friedrich Nietzsche at the International Music Score Library Project BBC (1999). Nietzsche's Epic of the Soul: Thus Spoke Zarathustra. 2009 Nietzsche (http://www.org/details/ NietzscheAndTheCrisisInPhilosophy) Audio • Kierans. Bertrand (2004).Friedrich Nietzsche • O'Flaherty. "On the Unity of Nietzsche's Philosophy" (http://www2. ENG.worldcat. • Young.org/issn/ . html#ids=14631. Lanham. ISBN 0-19-287680-5. David.gutenberg. Stanford University Press. Diego (2007). All Too Human. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 ed. T.org/Society/Philosophy/Philosophers/N/Nietzsche.&title=8 German Philosophers) • Walter Kaufmann 1960 Prof. Routledge. The Invention of Dionysus: An Essay on The Birth of Tragedy. Robert.org/) • Audio link (http://inogolo. The Art of Power: Machiavelli.mun. "Beyond Good and Evil". • Porter.
edu/entries/nietzsche) entry by Robert Wicks in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. polls. 2007-11-14 • Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy (http://plato.edu/entries/nietzsche-moral-political) entry by Brian Leiter in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.brianleiternietzsche. and discussion about Nietzsche and current events in Nietzsche scholarship from Brian Leiter (University of Chicago).stanford.stanford.blogspot. 2011.org/) 25 .com/): News. • Nietzsche Source: Digital version of the German critical edition of the complete works and Digital facsimile edition of the entire Nietzsche estate (http://www. • Friedrich Nietzsche (http://plato. Retrieved August 17.nietzschesource.Friedrich Nietzsche 1209-0689). 2007-07-27 • Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog (http://www.
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