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ENCE 361 Soil Mechanics

Settlement and Volume Expansion: Overview Settlement of Cohesionless Soils Settlement of Cohesive Soils (Part I)

TN 37416 (423) 499-0957 .Field Trip Date: 17 October 2001 Place: Qore Property Sciences 3903 Volunteer Drive Suite 400 Chattanooga.

Overview  Soil is a nonhomogeneous porous material consisting of three phases  Solids  Fluid  Soil deformation may occur by change in:  Stress  Water (normally water)  Air content  Soil mass  Temperature .

Type of Settlement  Elastic deformation (volume distortion)  Consolidation  Secondary compression and creep S t  S vd  S pc  S sc  Dynamic forces  Expansive soil  Collapsible soil .

and it occurs essentially at the same time these loads are applied to the soil. and it is usually not distinguishable from elastic deformation. This is due to their high permeability .Settlements in Cohesionless Soils  Elastic or immediate deformation caused by static loads is usually small.  Consolidation occurs quickly in coarsegrained soils such as sands and gravels.

and it occurs essentially at the same time these loads are applied to the soil. and peat.  Consolidation in fine-grained soils such as clays and organic materials can be significant and take considerable time to complete.  Secondary compression and creep are associated with the compression and distortion at constant water content of compressible soils such as clays.Settlement in Cohesive Soils  Elastic or immediate deformation caused by static loads is usually small. organic materials. . silts.

Settlement of Cohesionless Soils .

Schmertmann's Method  Method for estimating the settlement of foundations in sand  Especially useful when CPT data is available  This procedure provides settlement compatible with field measurements in many different areas  The analysis assumes that the distribution of vertical strain is compatible with a linear elastic half space subjected to a uniform pressure .

sands silts. or to boundary of an incompressible layer. sands & slightly silty 7 sands Coarse sands & sands 10 with little gravel Sandy gravels and 12 gravel .Schmertmann's Method  Required Data  A profile of standard penetration resistance N (blows/ft) versus depth. slightly cohesive silt-sand 4 mixtures Clean. fine to med. from the proposed foundation level to a depth of 2B. Es/N Soil Type Silts. whichever occurs first.

Schmertmann's Data  Required Data  Least width of foundation = B  Depth of embedment = D  Proposed average contact pressure = P  Approximate unit weights of surcharge soils. = 2 qc. and position of water table if within D  If the static cone bearing value qc. based on Es. . measured compute Es.

3 and 4 with the layering assigned above. Fill in columns 1.  Prepare a table using the indicated column headings. . 2. each with constant N over the depth interval 0 to 2B below the foundation. place values in column 5.  Multiply N values in column 3 by the appropriate factor Es/N (col.Schmertmann's Method  Analysis Procedure  Divide the subsurface soil profile into a convenient number of layers of any thickness. 4) to obtain values of Es.

Schmertmann's Method .

From this construction.6 triangular distribution for the strain influence factor Iz. and place in column 6. along a scaled depth of 0 to 2B below the foundation. Locate the depth of the mid-height of each of the layers assumed in Step 2. . and place in column 7.Schmertmann's Method  Draw an assumed 2B-0. determine the Iz value at the mid-height of each layer.

Schmertmann's Method .

Schmertmann's Method Example (in 10 years) .

Schmertmann's Method Example .

Schmertmann's Method Example .

Notes on Schmertmann Method  Generally applies to normally loaded sand deposits  Will overestimate foundation settlement if sand has been previously compressed or densified (such as with compaction)  When precompressed sands are present. the settlement should be estimated as roughly half of the computed settlement .

Methods of Computing Settlement in Cohesive Soils  Volume distortion (immediate settlement)  Perloff's Method  Primary Consolidation  Terzaghi Consolidation Theory  Secondary Consolidation  C Method S t  S vd  S pc  S sc .

Perloff's Method  Computes volume distortion according to the formula 2 1  S vd C s q B  Eu  Cs = shape and foundation rigidity factor  q = equivalent distributed load on foundation  B = plan width or diameter of the foundation  Eu = undrained elastic modulus of clay   = Poisson's Ratio .

Notes on Variables  Values of Cs will vary with shape of foundation. rigidity of foundation. and proximity of rigid substratum  Values of Es can be estimated from soil consistency/undrained shear strength  Assume ½ for Poisson's ratio for saturated clays. slightly less for unsaturated .

Perloff Method Example .

Perloff Method Example Solution .

10-34. 10-9.Homework Set 5  Textbook Reading  Chapter 10 (pp. 10-47. 10-49 . 10-27. 10-19. 1044. 347-391)  Laboratory Soils Testing  Appendix VIII (Consolidation Test)  Homework  10-7. 10-39. 10-40.

Questions .

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