Affective Domain The Taxonomy of the Affective Domain The Affective Domain in the Mathematics Classroom The Role

of the Curriculum Affective refers to those actions that result from and are influenced by emotions. Consequently, the affective domain relates to emotions, attitudes, appreciations, and values. It is highly personal to learning, demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of interest, attention, concern, and responsibility. According to the National Guidelines for Educating EMS (Emergency Medical Service) Instructors, the following words describe the affective domain: defend, appreciate, value, model, tolerate, respect. In the mathematics classroom, the affective domain is concerned with students' perception of mathematics, their feelings toward solving problems, and their attitudes about school and education in general. Personal development, self-management, and the ability to focus are key areas. Apart from cognitive outcomes, teachers stress attitude as the most common affective outcome. The Taxonomy of the Affective Domain Most psychologists describe five "levels of understanding" within the affective domain. These five levels define the path from passively observing a stimulus, such as watching a movie or reading a textbook ("receiving"), to becoming self-reliant and making choices on the basis of well formed beliefs ("characterization").
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Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization.

The major work in describing the affective domain was written by David R. Krathwohl in the 1950s. In his book, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook II: Affective Domain (1956), he described the five levels mentioned above. These five levels are restated below with definitions, based on Krathwohl's book, as well as classroom examples. Krathwohl's Taxonomy of Affective Objectives Receiving

Commitment to Specific Levels The student has an

Examples in the Classroom  Listens

She pays attention to particular stimuli. textbooks.awareness of and attends to what surrounds her and she is willing to take notice of the stimulus. attentively  Demonstrates an understanding of the importance of learning  Completes assigned homework  Participates in class discussions  Volunteers for tasks  Shows interest in the subject  Helps others (when requested)  Asks relevant questions  Contributes material for the bulletin board and school newspaper  Shows concern for the welfare of others  Demonstrates a positive problem solving attitude  Appreciates cooperation with his classmates during discussions  Offers help to others (without Valuing The student accepts and believes a principle and demonstrates acceptance by debating the issue or making a personal stand on certain value systems. and homework assignments. Responding The student demonstrates active participation by asking and responding to questions. . The student sees worth or value in the subject. and directing the student's attention. the student not only attends to a stimulus. holding. the student responds not because he has been asked to but as a result of adhering to a particular value. At this level. activity. From a teaching standpoint. or assignment. such as classroom activities. but reacts to it in some way. this level is concerned with getting. At this level.

and beliefs  Formulates well-constructed rationale  Considers the needs of others in addition to personal needs  Considers the pros and cons of a situation before making a decision  Demonstrates self confidence when working Characterization Beliefs are integrated into the student's personality to become part and parcel of . offers gratitude and congratulations to others Organization The student actively participates and shows commitment by organizing activities such as meetings. and support groups related to a value system. working committees. interests."  Accepts responsibility for her own behavior  Acknowledges and accepts her own strengths and weaknesses  Formulates a life plan consistent with her abilities. The student begins to develop a "philosophy of life. The student develops an internally consistent value system that results from bringing together a set of values and resolving any conflicts between them.being requested)  Shares material with others  Encourages other students in the class  Asks permission before using another student's materials  As appropriate.

and predictable. punctual. Sometimes. not simply on finding the correct answer. and they share personal anecdotes about their own problemsolving that reveal their strengths and weaknesses. and provide opportunities for them to develop as independent thinkers and self-reliant problem solvers. through classroom rules. and they do not make statements such as "This is an easy problem." The student's behavior is pervasive. The student's behavior has reflected these values for a period of time sufficiently long enough that he can be said to have developed a characteristic "lifestyle. such as:          Honesty Punctuality Fairness Competence Sensitivity Preparedness Dependability Helpfulness Self-reliance. encourage students to be honest. and so forth. ." Successful teachers establish good relationships with students by acting more friendly than formal. independently  Cooperates in group activities  Shows punctuality and self discipline In the mathematics classroom. When focusing on content. Model the behaviors and values that you would like your students to emulate. Remember that students constantly observe and scrutinize your actions. we must model the attitudes and behaviors that we would like students to exhibit when interacting with others and making personal decisions. Establish classroom procedures that support affective objectives. yet we must remember that our actions model the behavior that students will emulate.his whole value system and character. instructors are role models. Consider affective objectives when assessing student work. that is. fair. and indeed in all classrooms. consistent. Effective teachers hold students accountable for performance and base assessment on strategies and communication of conjectures. we model the procedures and strategies that we would like students to employ when they solve problems on their own. Effective teachers promote inquisitiveness and perseverance. we lose sight of this inherent fact. and immediately correct behaviors that do not model appropriate values. In the same way.

Observable Verbs for Affective Domain Instructional Objectives acclaims agrees argues assumes attempts avoids challenges cooperates defends disagrees disputes engages in helps is attentive to joins offers participates in praises resists shares volunteers .