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12. / REMARK PREPARED BY CHECKED BY .2011 APPROVED BY 0 REVISION DESC. INDIA 0 REV VSD 30.12.12.UNFIRED HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR WITH REHEAT SUPPLIED TO LANCO KONDAPALLI — STAGE III THERMAX PROJECT NO.: PH 0401/02 THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX A DIVISION OF THERMAX LIMITED PUNE.2011 AA 30.OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR 2 X 282.2011 NS 30. SINGLE DRUM.5 TPH TRIPPLE PRESSURE NATURAL CIRCULATION.

.............1 HP Boiler Components Description .......... IP & LP) Control .....................................................3 Stack Temperature (CPH Bypass 3............................................................................ 60 7...............................................................4 3 Levels With Respect To Center Line ................................................6 HP Attemperator Control ...................................................................................................2 Detailed Description..... 16 2 Description of HRSG Operation .......... 13 16 Safety Valves ............................. 59 7........................................................................................6 6.. 60 7....... 59 7.................................................................. 10 14 Gauge Glass ........ 53 7................................................................ 63 3 Startup of a Cold HRSG .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 63 1 Section Overview ....................................................................................................................................9 11 Site Condition..................................... 43 4..........1 AIM......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Walk Down Check ..........................2 CBD Drain Temperature Control .......9 12 Recirculation Pump ................. 15 Section B......Operation & Maintenance Manual Contents Volume 1 — Boiler Description ..................... 63 3...........................8 10 Chemicals for Dosing ........................... 42 4 Flue Gas System ...........................................4 4 Material Specifications — Pressure Parts ...................................................................................... 13 17 Relief Valves ............1 Drum Level Control ........... 26 3.....4 LP Drum Pressure Control ...3 System Lineup ...................................................................................7 9 Utilities .........................................................................................................2 Valve Lineup.................................................................................................................................... 60 7............................................................................................................................................................ 60 7................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 5 Drain & Dosing System..... 51 7 Automatic Controls ...................................................................................................................1 Continuous Blowdown............................................................................................. 10 13 HP/IP/LP Dosing System ...................................................................................3 2 Design Code............1 Section A... 64 3...............6 Maintaining Quality Of Steam .... 17 3....................................................................................................... 63 2 HRSG Start Up and Shut Down .................................. 39 3............ 12 15 Stack Damper ................................................Way) Control ................ 65 i ......... 61 Section C .......................................3 LP Section Components Description .............................................................................................. 43 4........................................................................................5 LP Drum Pressure Control .......... 17 3.................................................................6 6 Exhaust Gas Analysis .............. 63 3..................................................... 53 7................10 Start up Vent (HP..........................................................................................................2 IP Section Components Description ..............................4 Operational Control............2 1 Design Specifications of Steam Generator ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 7 Recommended Boiler Water Quality ................................ 16 3 Steam & Water System .................................. 33 3....... 61 7.. 40 3........................... 61 7....7 RH1 Attemperator Control ...............................................................................................7 8 Recommended Feed Water Quality ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 1 Brief Description of the HRSG.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 6 HRSG System Protection ..........................5 Water And Steam Quality Control And Monitoring ...............................................................4 5 Evaporating Heating Surface Area ......................................................................................................................................................................................................8 CPH Recirculation Temperature Control .......9 IP Line Back Pressure Control ............................................................................................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................3 Wet Storage .. 135 Volume 3 — E & I Specifications.................................................5 Safety in Boiler House............................................................................... 89 10 Boiler Emergency Safety Procedures ........................................................................ 110 3.........................................................................................................................................................................................2 Forced Cooling ..... 80 3..................... 95 10............................................................................................................................................ 89 9............................................................................................................................. 129 7................................................................... 107 3............................................................................................................................................................... 128 7.................................................. 80 4 Hot and Warm Start up of HRSG ........................................ 134 Volume 2 — Drawings............................................................................. 87 6....................... 93 10.................................................................. 100 1 Section Overview ............................................1 Tube Failure Investigation / Analysis Method ................................................6 HRSG Start Up & Pressurisation...................6 Preservation of Rotating Equipments ....................................................................................7 Preservation of Instruments ............1 Undissolved and Suspended Solid Materials ...............................................................................4 Valve Positions Chart For HP...... 127 7 Water Chemistry ....................................................................... 111 4 Tube Failures......................... 79 3.. 135 List of Drawings ................1 Emergency Procedures ........................................................ 107 3 Boiler Preservation Procedure................................... 114 5 General Principal of Weld Repairs ...................2 Dry Storage Preservation ......................................................................................................................................................... 95 10.........1 Recommended Maintenance Practices .........1 Planned Shutdown........4 Nitrogen Blanket ......... 100 2 Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) ....................................................................................................... IP & LP Section (Before Light Up) ...............5 Filling Water in Boiler ............................................... 107 3........................................... 131 Section E........................1 Log Sheet for HRSG .......................8 Taking Reheater On Line ................... 112 4.....9 Charging & Operation of CPH.................................. 95 11 Trouble Shooting Chart .................................................................................... 75 3...................................................................................................................................10 Parallel HRSG to the Plant Steam Mains ................................1 Definitions of Water Quality .............3 Dissolved Gases........................ 109 3.. 86 6 Cooling of a Shutdown Boiler ............................ 87 8 Do’s and Don’ts For HRSG Operation........................................................................2 Dissolved Salts and Minerals...................4 Other Materials.................................................7 HRSG Cold Start Up Curve ...1 Natural Cooling.............................................................................. 100 1.. 129 7......................................................................... 108 3........................................... 66 3........... 81 5 HRSG Shutdown.........................................................................2 HRSG Emergency Trips ................................ 112 4...................................................................................... 87 6............................ 86 5.........5 Boiler Lay Up Procedures................................................................... 111 3......................................... 96 Section D ..............................4 Tube Failures .... 116 6 Failure Reporting Format .....................................................2 Window Patch Welding ................................................................. 87 9 Boiler Log Sheet .............................................................................................................. 136 ii ........... 78 3....................................................................... 129 8 Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning..................................3 Operational Precautions for Safety .. 95 10.......................................... 129 7......... 128 7.........Operation & Maintenance Manual 3........................................................................................................................................................6 Effects of Impurities .............................................................................................................................................................................. 86 5................................................................................................................................. 111 3...............................................................................................................5 pH Value of the Water and its Importance................................... 75 3........................................2 Alarms and Trips.................................................................................. 87 7 HRSG Operation Walk Down Checks ........................................... 93 10..................... 128 7.

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .................................................................................................................................... 141 Flow Nozzle — Micro Precision ........ 145 Electronic Level Switch – Levelstate ................................................... 144 2.. 142 Volume 5 — Vendor Manuals ............................................................................ 137 Section 9 ..................................... 144 Section 03 ..........................................................................................................................................2 HART Protocol (EJA) – Yokogawa ............................ 140 Section 03 .... 140 IP & LP Drum Transparent Level Gauge Glass .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Section 4 ................................................................................. 141 Blow Down Tank Reflex Level Gauge Glass ..........................................Chemtrols........ 141 Section 06 ........................................................................Chemtrols...................................................................................................................................................... 138 Section 13 .............................................. 137 Section 3 ...................................................................3 HART Protocol (EJA Series) ..................................................................... 140 Section 05 .................................................................................................................................................. 137 Section 6 ................... 145 Motor for Recirculation Pump ...........1 O2 Analyser (ZR 402G) — Yokogawa .................................. 146 iii ...................................................................... 145 Volume 6— Vendor Manuals ........................................... 140 Section 04 ........................................................................................................ 141 Section 09 ...Sulzer ......................... 137 Section 10 ............................. 138 Volume 4 — Vendor Manuals ........................................... 140 Section 02 ....................................................................................................................................... 145 Thermocouple ........................................................................... 141 Spring Hanger – Pipe Support...................................... 137 Section 8 ...........................................................................................................Yokogawa ...................................................................... 137 Section 5 ......................................................... 145 Section 05 ......................................................................................................................................................................................1 Differential Pressure Transmitter (EJA) – Yokogawa.......................................................................................... 144 1.................................. 137 Section 2 ....................................................................................... 141 Section 10 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Section 7 ................. 141 Stack Damper — Indira Damper............................................................................ 137 Section 12 ......................................Metapow ............................................................................................................. 144 1...............Pyroelectric ......................................... 145 Section 07 ..............................................................................Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 1 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 HART Protocol — Yokogawa ............................................................................................................................................ 141 Safety Valve — Tyco Sanmar ......................................................................................................................................... 140 Dosing System .........................................................................................................................................................2 Absolute & Gauge Pressure Transmitter (EJA) – Yokogawa .........................................................................Yokogawa..................................... 144 Section 04 .............................................. 144 3............... 144 3.... 145 Section 06 ............................................................................................................................................ 139 Section 01 ........................................................................................ 142 Relief Valve — Tyco Sanmar..............................................................................................1 Temperature Transmitter (YTA Series) ...... 144 1............. 144 Section 02 .. 141 Section 07 .................................................................. 145 DO2 Analyser ............................ 140 HP Drum Level Gauge Glass – Hi tech...................Emerson ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 141 Section 08 .................... 144 2................... 143 Section 01 ................................................................................................ 137 Section 11 ................. 140 Recirculation Pump .......................................Siemens ...................................................................

................................... 148 Section 08 ........................... 148 Index........................................................................................................................................................Auma .. 148 Temperature Gauge – General Instrument .......... 148 Control Valve – Fisher .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 147 Section 04 ....BHEL.............................. 148 Pressure Gauge .......................................................................................................................................................... 147 Motorised Actuator ............................................................................................................CODEL .................................................................................................................... 147 Section 03 ................... 147 Section 05 .................. 147 Process Valve – Xomox Sanmar .. 147 Blow Down Valve ................................................................................................................................................................................. 147 Section 02 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 01 . 148 Section 07 ...................................................................... 149 iv .......Bourdon ............................. 147 Section 06 ................................................................................................ 147 Motorised Valve – Xomox Sanmar .............................................................. 147 In-Situ Stack Gas Analysers ......

Operation & Maintenance Manual Volume 1 — Boiler Description Chapters Covered in this Part ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Section Section Section Section Section A B C D E Volume 1 — Boiler Description 1 .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Section A Topics Covered in this Chapter ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Design Specifications of Steam Generator Design Code Levels With Respect To Center Line Material Specifications — Pressure Parts Evaporating Heating Surface Area Exhaust Gas Analysis Recommended Boiler Water Quality Recommended Feed Water Quality Utilities Chemicals for Dosing Site Condition Recirculation Pump HP/IP/LP Dosing System Gauge Glass Stack Damper Safety Valves Relief Valves Section A 2 .

3± 3 313.5 TPH (HP) 98.1 Bar (a) and 32.5 151 112 31 9 ASME PTC 4.1 Bar (a) 4.7 Bar (a).3 TPH (LP) 4. Single Drum.5 40.3 98.2 32.4 Section A 3 .2 TPH (IP) 26.37 Bar (a) Triple Pressure.7 286.37 ° C ° C ° C ° C Bar (a) Bar (a) Bar (a) 567. Unfired Heat Recovery Steam Generator With Reheat 1 Design Specifications of Steam Generator UNIT TPH TPH TPH Bar (a) VALUE 282. Natural Circulation. 40.Operation & Maintenance Manual Number and Type of Boiler 2X 282.7 PARAMETERS HP Boiler Rating [MCR] IP Boiler Rating [MCR] LP Boiler Rating [MCR] HP Steam Pressure at Main Steam Stop Valve Outlet from minimum Load upto MCR IP Steam Pressure at Main Steam Stop Valve Outlet from minimum Load upto MCR LP Steam Pressure at Main Steam Stop Valve Outlet from minimum Load upto MCR HP Steam Temperature at the Main Steam Stop valve at MCR IP Steam Temperature at the Main Steam Stop valve at MCR LP Steam Temperature at the Main Steam Stop valve at MCR Water temp at FW control valve inlet/Economiser inlet Design HP Pressure Design IP Pressure Design LP Pressure Boiler Performance Testing Procedure Bar (a) 26.

1050 mm . (Hemispherical) Shell Dished end for S. x 25 Thk x 12500 L 1375 x 25 Thk 3000 I. x 100 Thk 2000 I. (Hemispherical) 24 Nos.3 Boiler & Economiser / Pressure Parts: Piping: 3 Levels With Respect To Center Line For the High Pressure Steam Drum PARAMETER Normal Water Level Level Alarm High Level Alarm Low Level Trip Low Low Level Trip High High For the Intermediate Pressure Steam Drum PARAMETER Normal Water Level Level Alarm High Level Alarm Low Level Trip Low Low Level Trip High High For the Low Pressure Steam Drum PARAMETER Normal Water Level Level Alarm High Level Alarm Low Level Trip Low Low BFW Pump Trip Level Trip High High ALARM NWL LAH LAL LLLT FWPT HHLT VALUE + 300 (Center line of Drum) + 375 mm .D.D.70 SA 516 Gr.D. 70 SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. 70 SA 516 Gr. of Tube Size In Mm 2000 I.D. x 20 Thk 200 NB x SCH 120 150 NB x SCH 40 150 NB x SCH 40 Material SA 516 Gr.D. B HP Steam Drum IP Steam Drum LP Steam Drum HP Drum Risers IP Drum Risers LP Drum Risers Section A 4 .1350 mm + 450 mm ALARM NWL LAH LAL LLLT HHLT VALUE 0 (Center line of Drum) + 125 mm – 125 mm – 215 mm + 215 mm ALARM NWL LAH LAL LLLT HHLT VALUE + 25 mm + 225 mm – 225 mm – 330 mm + 300 mm 4 Material Specifications — Pressure Parts Description Details Shell Dished end for S. of Tube 14 Nos. B SA 106 Gr. of Tube 30 Nos. x 100 Thk 1375 I. (Hemispherical) Shell Dished end for S.300 mm .D.Operation & Maintenance Manual 2 Design Code As per IBR 1950 with latest amendments IBR. x 20 Thk 3000 I. ANSI B 31.D.D.

200 NB x SCH 160 38.6 THK.6 THK. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. 38.1 OD x 2.2 THK. 200 NB x SCH 100 38. of Tube 4 nos. of Tube 4 nos. B SA 106 Gr.6 THK. 250 NB x SCH 100 250 NB x SCH 80 Material SA 106 Gr. 200 NB x 45 THK. B SA 106 Gr. 38. 250 NB x 30 THK.1 OD x 4.6 THK. 250 NB x 30 THK.6 THK. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr.1 OD x 2. 200 NB x 25 THK.Operation & Maintenance Manual Description HP Drum Downcomers IP Drum Downcomers LP Drum Downcomers HP Superheater 3 Reater 2 HP Superheater 2 Reater 1 Details 4 nos.3 THK. B SA 201 A1 SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 213 T91 SA 335 P91 SA 213 T91 SA 335 P91 SA 213 T91 SA 335 P91 SA 213 T22 SA 335 P22 SA 213 T11 SA 335 P22 SA 335 P11 SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. 200 NB x 25 THK.1 OD x 3.1 OD x 2. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr.6 THK. 250 NB x 30 THK. of Tube Spiral Solid Tube Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top Header Bottom Header Top Header Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Size In Mm 350 NB x SCH 120 200 NB x SCH 40 300 NB x SCH 40 38.1 OD x 2.1 OD x 2.1 OD x 2. 200 NB x 25 THK. B HP Superheater 1 HP Evaporator IP Superheater LP Superheater HP Economiser 3 Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header -1 Top & Bottom Header -2 Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Top & Bottom Header Serrated Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header (CPH Top & A) Bottom Header (CPH B) IP Evaporator HP Economiser 2 HP Economiser 1A HP Economiser 1B IP Economiser LP Evaporator CPH Section A 5 . B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. 250 NB x SCH 80 200 NB x SCH 100 38. B SA 106 Gr.6 THK. 38. 38.1 OD x 2. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. 250 NB x 30 THK. 200 NB x 30 THK. 44.6 THK. 200 NB x 25 THK.5 OD x 3 ThK.1 OD x 3 THK. 250 NB x 30 THK. 38.6 THK.5 OD x 3 THK. B SA 106 Gr. 250 NB x 30 THK. 250 NB x SCH 80 38. 44. 200 NB x SCH 100 38.1 OD x 2.1 OD x 2. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. 200 NB x 120 SCH 38.1 OD x 2. 38. B SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr.6 THK.

641 13.4448 0.1 Continuous Blowdown Design Operating : 3 % / Hr : 0 %/ Hr Section A 6 .00 834.00 4472.50 11274.00 48670.00 24725.00 22270.0006 0.00 33524.Operation & Maintenance Manual 5 Evaporating Heating Surface Area Zone Unit M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 Value 2727.00 294812.2678 7.50 7453.00 58805.6367 4.00 7589.57 5150.00 48730.60 HP Superheater 3 Reheater 2 HP Superheater 2 Reheater 1 HP Superheater 1 HP Evaporator IP Superheater LP Superheater HP Economiser 3 IP Evaporator HP Economiser 2 IP Economiser HP Economiser 1 LP Evaporator CPH Total Heating Surface Area 6 Exhaust Gas Analysis Exhaust Gas PARAMETERS N2 + AR O2 CO2 H2O CO SO2 UNIT % VOL % VOL % VOL % VOL % VOL % VOL FIRED 100% GT 74.00 3742.0018 6.00 14846.

4 Nil < 300 < 21 Nil – Nil < 300 < 60 ppm ppm ppm Nil < 50 < 0.1 < 0.2 < 0.02 IP Section Clear & Colourless Commercial zero < 0.007 Nil 8.005 < 0.1 < 0.5 ppm µs/cm ppm < 0.01 < 0.7 — 10.2 < 0.2 < 60 10.5 < 0.005 < 0.02 Parameter General Appearance Total Hardness as CaCO3 Total Fe Total Cu Oxygen Oil & organics pH Total Dissolved solids Electrical Conductivity Silica SiO2 Section A 7 .2 <0.5 < 0.007 Nil 9.9 8 Recommended Feed Water Quality Units HP Section Clear & Colourless ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Commercial zero < 0.Operation & Maintenance Manual 7 Recommended Boiler Water Quality Units ppm HP Section 16 –13 IP Section 40 – 34 LP Section - Parameter Sodium Phosphate as PO4 Alkalinity as CaCO3 pH Oil & Organic Total dissolved solids Silica as SiO2 ppm < 10 9.3-9.007 Nil 8.5-9.01 < 0.01 < 0.005 < 0.5-9.1 < 0.02 LP Section Clear & Colourless Commercial zero < 0.8 – 11.

1 Phase Section A 8 .Operation & Maintenance Manual 9 Utilities Electrical Power Parameters For HT Motors (above 160 KW) Voltage Frequency Combined Variation Type For LT Motors (upto 160 KW) Voltage Frequency Combined Variation Type V Hz % 415 50 10 AC.0 26 – 20 Dry & Oil free Instruments V 24 DC V Hz 220 50 AC. Level Gauge illumination. 3 Phase Units Value For Instrumentation (Field Switches. solenoid valves etc) Voltage Frequency Type For Field Transmitters Voltage Type Instrument Air Parameters Pressure Temperature Dew Point Quality Duty Nitrogen Unit Barg Deg C Deg C Value 7. 3 Phase V Hz % 6600 50 10 AC.

05 1. C 15/45/30 30 Units Details Kondapalli. C Deg.75 1.0 Quenching 10 Chemicals for Dosing HP Dosing: IP Dosing: LP Dosing: Tri sodium phosphate Tri sodium phosphate Hydrazine 11 Site Condition Parameter Site Location Temperatures Ambient Temperature (min/max/design) For Performance Testing Relative Humidity Relative Humidity (min/max/design) For Performance Testing Seismic Design Basic Horizontal Seismic co-efficient Importance Factor Soil Condition Factor Altitude Area Classification Environment HRSG Location Number of HRSGs m 0. Andhra Pradesh Section A 9 .9 % Pure HRSG Preservation Unit Barg Value 2.0 35 m above MSL Safe & Non Hazardous Non-Corrosive Outside 2 % % 45/81/60 60 Deg.Operation & Maintenance Manual Parameters Pressure (min/normal/design) Temperature (min/normal/max/design) Quality Duty Service Water for Quenching Parameters Pressure Duty Unit Barg Deg C % Value 6/7/10 0/30/35/40 99.

32 74.7 115 64. 118 kg/cm2 g (Design) 138 kg/cm2 g VK Pump PR 10 0–10 LPH by Stroke Adjustment 31.5 kg/cm2 g (Normal).7 kg/cm2 g (Normal).5 kg/cm2 g (Normal). Size: 80 SPL-162 RPM m3/hr m °C kg/cm2 m KW % Sulzer Pumps ZE 100–3315 2980 191 100 148 11. 14 kg/cm2 g (Design) 11 kg/cm2 g HP Dosing for HP Drum Metapow Industries A-1109 Rev 02 ID 950 X 1125 X 3 THK (Capacity 600 lit) Tri-Sodium Phosphate HP Dosing for IP Drum Metapow Industries A-1110 Rev 03 ID 700 X 1000 X 3 THK (Capacity 300 lit) Tri-Sodium Phosphate LP Dosing for LP Drum Metapow Industries A-1111 Rev 02 ID 950 X 1125 X 3 THK (Capacity 600 lit) Hydrazine Section A 10 . Tank Details Chemical Dosed Dosing Pump Make Model Flow Discharge pressure Relief valve set pressure Motor for Dosing Pump VK Pump PR 20 0–15 LPH by Stroke Adjustment 110.Operation & Maintenance Manual 12 Recirculation Pump Description Pump Make Pump Type Pump Speed Flow Differential Head Temperature Suction Pressure Shut off Head at 50 HZ Rated power Efficiency Motor Make Motor type Rating Speed Frame Size Coupling KW rpm Siemens Sqirrel Cage Induction Motor 90 2975 280M/2 Pole Unique Metaflex. 36 kg/cm2 g (Design) 46 kg/cm2 g VK Pump PR 10 0–15 LPH by Stroke Adjustment 8.4 Units Recirculation Pump 13 HP/IP/LP Dosing System Description Make Reference Drawing No.

5 HP. 1500 RPM.5HP. 1000 RPM.123A & M-123B. 1500 RPM. 1500 RPM.5 HP. TEFC IP 55 0. 415 ± 10% V Section A 11 . 1000 RPM. Frame Size — ND90S 1 HP. TEFC IP 55 1 HP. 1000 RPM. 415±10% V CGL M-126 1. 415±15% V CGL M-123.Operation & Maintenance Manual Description Make Motor Rating Motor for Agitator Make Motor Rating HP Dosing for HP Drum CGL M. 415± 10% V HP Dosing for IP Drum CGL M. 415 ± 10% V CGL M-120. Frame Size — ND90L 1.120A & M-120B.126A & M-126B.5 HP. 415± 10% V LP Dosing for LP Drum CGL M. TEFC IP 55 0.

Operation & Maintenance Manual 14 Gauge Glass HP Drum Level Gauge Glass Description Make Type Tag No.5 kg/cm2 3 kg/cm2 1900 mm 1468 mm 144 °C IP Drum Level Gauge Glass Details Chemtrols samil Transparent Level Gauge Glass LI 059A & LI 059B IP Steam drum 26.7 kg/cm2 8 kg/cm2 1900 mm 1650 mm Saturated 176 °C Details Hi Tech System and Services Bicolour Duco Gauge Glass LI 016A & LI 016B HP Steam drum 103. Location Operating pressure Design pressure C/c distance Visibility range Operating temperature Design Temperature IP & LP Drum Level Gauge Glass Description Make Type Tag No. Location Operating pressure Design pressure C/c distance Visibility range Operating temperature Design Temperature Blow Down Tank Level Gauge GLass Description Make Tag No.7 kg/cm2 30 kg/cm2 550 mm 320 mm Saturated 236 °C LP Drum Level Gauge Glass Details Chemtrols samil Transparent Level Gauge Glass LI 082A & LI 082B LP Steam drum 5. Location Operating pressure Design pressure C/c distance Visibility range Operating temperature Details Chemtrols samil LI 096 Blow Down Tank 1.5 Bar (g) 111 Bar (g) 1000 mm 606 mm Saturated 320 °C Section A 12 .

3Phase.C kg/hr UNIT DRUM LHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 006A 3.0 M2 6.7 573 73300 Section A 13 .0 117 Saturated 117200 DRUM RHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 006B 3.0 M2 6.83 100 200 500 99 Vertical — Upward Electrical On — Off 5 1 per boiler 60 Units Stack Damper Details 16 Safety Valves HP Boiler DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orifice Set pressure Relieving Temperature Required Valve Capacity Bar (g) Deg. AC Auma (I) Pvt Limited GSD 200+GZ16 424:1 mmWc no.1 415±10% V.0 L2 6.0 118 Saturated 117200 MAIN STEAM LINE Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 027 3. Seconds kg/sec Deg C Deg C mmWc % Indira Damper Industries Exhaust Gas 624. 50±5% Hz.0 109.Operation & Maintenance Manual 15 Stack Damper Description Design Data Make Medium Gas Flow Gas Temperature Design Temperature Structural Design Pressure Sealing Efficiency Flow Direction Operation Duty Pressure Drop Quantity Operating Time Gear Box Details Make Type Reduction Ratio Torque Actuator Details Make Type Rating Supply KW Auma (I) Pvt Limited SA12E180 1.

57 Saturated 20300 1 no.0 RR 10. / Boiler Saturated Steam MAIN STEAM LINE Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 062 3. / Boiler Saturated Steam MAIN STEAM LINE 1 no.0 5.C kg/hr - PSV 084A 4.0 Q 8. / Boiler Superheated Steam Kg/Cm2 Deg.0 29.53 410 125000 Section A 14 .30 350 10500 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam UNIT - DRUM LHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar DRUM RHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 060B 3.0 RR 10.16 Saturated 16500 1 no.0 K 4.Operation & Maintenance Manual DESCRIPTION Quantity Fluid IP Boiler DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orifice Set Pressure Relieving Temperature Required Valve Capacity Quantity Fluid LP Boiler DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orifice Set Pressure Relieving Temperature Required Valve Capacity Quantity Fluid Reheater DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orifice Set Pressure Relieving Temperature Required Valve Capacity UNIT - DRUM LHS 1 no. / Boiler Saturated Steam UNIT - DRUM LHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar DRUM RHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 084B 4.0 27.0 28.0 P 6.0 8. / Boiler Saturated Steam DRUM RHS 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam Kg/Cm2 Deg. / Boiler Saturated Steam MAIN STEAM LINE Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 085 6.C kg/hr PSV 302 6.C kg/hr - PSV 060A 3.0 7.0 L 4.0 L 4. / Boiler Saturated Steam UNIT - REHEATER INLET Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 302A 6.0 RR 10.13 Saturated 15000 1 no.0 24.35 410 125000 REHEATER OUTLET Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 072 6.59 Saturated 20300 1 no.58 572 90.0 P 6.96 350 12700 1 no.000 Kg/Cm2 Deg.0 30.0 28.

/ Boiler Superheated Steam 1 no.C UNIT CPH Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 109 4. / Boiler Water After Recirculation Pump Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 111 3. / Boiler Water IP ECONOMISER Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 078 2.0 N 6.00 500940 250 1 no.50 162681 250 1 no. / Boiler Water Section A 15 .0 27.0 J 4.Operation & Maintenance Manual DESCRIPTION Quantity Fluid UNIT - REHEATER INLET 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam REHEATER OUTLET 1 no.0 71.0 H 3.30 78000 290 1 no.0 24. / Boiler Superheated Steam 17 Relief Valves DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orifice Set pressure Required Valve Capacity Relieving Temperature Quantity Fluid Kg/Cm2 kg/hr Deg.

7°C • LP steam of 32. evaporators.Way) Control • LP Drum Pressure Control • HP Attemperator Control • RH1 Attemperator Control • CPH Recirculation Temperature Control • IP Line Back Pressure Control Control philosophy of these loops is described in section of Automatic control 2 Description of HRSG Operation Generation Capacity Generation capacity of the HRSG • HP steam of 282. Valves line up and procedure for boiler fill up will be described later in operation instruction manual. On satisfying the necessary safety interlocks. For this purpose the exhaust gas flow from the gas turbine is arranged in a direction counter to the water / steam circuit of HRSG.5°C HRSG Operation HRSG is filled with cold DM water through the back filling line provided at the drain headers. Differential pressure Transmitters for the measurement of process variables like pressure. drum level and flow are used. once the flow through MSSV is established. Process switches and transmitters monitor the process variables and generate alarms and safe shutdown of HRSG. Start up vent will be closed. Position transmitters allow the monitoring of the controlling element position. Closed control loops are configured in DCS. economisers & finally through CPH module before exhausted to the atmosphere by the stack. The steam drum placed above the evaporators serves as a balancing vessel for water and steam. Drum receives the mixture of steam and water from the evaporator modules by the heat transfer. generating alarms and trips.1 Bar (a) at a temperature of 313. General Description Instrumentation of HRSG The latest generation of the field instruments is used to facilitate monitoring and control of the process variables. main steam stop valve can be opened and steam shall be admitted to header.5 TPH / 98. boiler water and steam to maintain the required quality. 1 Brief Description of the HRSG The HRSG is designed to extract maximum recoverable heat from the exhaust gas of the gas turbine. Control valves with position Section B 16 . Thermocouples with transmitters are used for the measurement of temperature. It receives feed water from the economiser and maintains positive water supply to the evaporator modules.Operation & Maintenance Manual Section B Topics Covered in this Chapter ♦ Brief Description of the HRSG ♦ Description of HRSG Operation ♦ Steam & Water System ♦ Flue Gas System ♦ Drain & Dosing System ♦ HRSG System Protection ♦ Automatic Controls transmitter and proximity switches form a part of control system and act as final control element to control the process variables.3 TPH / 4. Control Loops: • HP Steam Drum level control • IP Steam Drum level control • LP Steam Drum level control • CBD Drain Temperature Control • Stack Temperature (CPH Bypass 3. Cold start up curve has to be followed to pressurize the boiler. IP & LP section of the Boiler. All the three section include the secondary and primary superheaters. Control loops will be selected into auto operation mode with their corresponding set points.2 TPH /26. HRSG is pressurized by modulating the GT load and by establishing the steam flow through the start up vent and also modulating it. gradually admit turbine exhaust gas into HRSG. On attaining the rated pressure and temperature of superheated steam.37Bar (a) at a temperature of 286. the saturated steam is supplied to the main steam line through superheaters.3 ±3°C • IP steam of 40. Analyzers are used for the measurement of Conductivity and pH of feed water.7 Bar (a) at a temperature of 567. The exhaust gas from the gas turbine enters HP. After separating water from the steam / water mixture at drum.

3 ± 3°C.37 Bar (a) at a temperature of 286.7 Bar (a) at a temperature of 567. pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator and positioned by the feed water flow indicating controller [HIC 003A.5 TPH / 98. their operational and maintenance features will be elaborated in the subsequent chapters of the manual. The components in the serial order of water flow of path for HP section are. The exhaust gas from the Gas Turbine flows in a direction counter to the water / steam flow path with the hottest gas entering the sequence below • HP Superheater 3 • Reheater 2 • HP superheater 2 • Reheater 1 • HP Superheater 1 • HP Evaporator • IP Superheater • LP Superheater • HP Economiser 3 • IP Evaporator • HP Economiser 2 • IP Economiser • HP Economiser 1 • LP Evaporator • CPH 3 Steam & Water System AIM The water and steam system covered in this chapter describes the components of the HRSG which transfer heat from the exhaust gas of the gas turbine to the feed water flowing from the feed water main to convert it to HP steam of 282. There are three feed control valves. Out of the above. IP steam of 40. • IP Economizer • Boiler IP Feed water Control Station • IP Drum • IP Evaporator • IP Superheater • Reheater 1 • Attemperator • Reheater 2 The components in the serial order of water flow of path for LP section are. The HRSG trips if water level in the drum is either too low or too high. 30% level control [FCV 003A] is used during start up and is capable of feeding the boiler only when the steam flow from HRSG is less Section B 17 . it must be kept continuously supplied with feed water to maintain near normal level in the drum. out of which at least one must be in service when the HRSG is operational. • CPH • Boiler LP Feed water Control Station • LP Drum/Dearator • LP Evaporator • LP Superheater 3.1 Bar (a) at a temperature of 313.M 003B & M 003C] and manual isolation valve at downstream of control valve [GT 028. HP Boiler Feedwater Regulating Station The feed water flow control station consists • 30% capacity control valve [FCV 003A] • 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 003B] • 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 003C] Both 30% & 100% control valves are provided with motorised isolation valves [M 003A . • HP Boiler Feed water Control Station • HP Economizer I • HP Economiser II • HP Economiser III • HP Drum • HP Evaporator • HP Superheater I • HP Superheater II • Attemperator • HP Superheater III The components in the serial order of water flow of path for IP section are.5°C.1 HP Boiler Components Description 3.1HP Boiler Feed water Control Station During normal operating HRSG. Details of equipments.Operation & Maintenance Manual This is a brief overview of the HRSG.2 TPH /26.3 TPH /4. GT 027 & GT 026].HIC 003B & HIC 003C] in order to maintain the normal water level at boiler steam drum.1. Feed water is obtained from the HP BFW from the client. The feed water flow control valve is a globe type valve.7°C and LP steam of 32.

FT-003B & FT-003C. After the above. The positioning of [FCV 003A] on auto is controlled only by the level signal from the Drum and the pressure transmitters. the level indicating controller HIC-003A positions the valve [FCV 003A].e. the valve opens full. The feed regulating stations are now described. When LIC-003A is switched on the auto mode. and a manually operated outlet Isolating valve GT 028. GT 027 is the outlet-isolating • Pressure indicator PI 004 for indicating pressure of inlet HP feed water. [FCV 003C] is an identical stand by to [FCV 003B]. Level transmitters LT-003A . with equal increase in flow for equal valve opening.Operation & Maintenance Manual than 30%. the common inlet line branches into three parallel paths. FCV 003A and its automatic control are adequate during HRSG startups & low steam flows. The valve [FCV 003A] is arranged between an electrically operated inlet Isolating valve M 003A Section B 18 . • The valve [M 003A] gets a permission for closing when any of the Isolating valves [M 003B] or [M 003C] of the 100% feed regulating stations are open. These level signals are compensated for drum steam pressure at the macro. • Pressure elements PT-002A & PT 002B for indicating pressure of inlet feed water. on which are installed the three feed regulating stations mentioned earlier to be connected to a common line for feeding water to the HP Economizer 1. The flow transmitters provide feed flow signal to the feed Indicating controller FIC-003 (which will be described later). outlet and drain arrangements of FCV 003B are similar to the low load control valve FCV 003A described earlier. 30% or Start up Feed Regulation Station The 30% feed regulating valve [FCV 003A] is used during HRSG start up and up to 30% steam flow of HRSG. Valve [FCV 003A] is a globe type control valve Pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator. Electrically operated valve M 003B is the inlet-isolating valve. A special feature of 30% level control valve [FCV 003A] is that it enables the regulation of feed water to the HRSG to be on auto mode from the very start of HRSG. A signal is fed to the FX 003. • The valve [M 003A] closes automatically when there is a HRSG trip and closure of main steam stop valve M 029A. The set point of the controller LIC-003A is 0 (i. • An isolation valve GT 038. The electrically operated 30% feed Isolating valve M 003A can be interlocked for opening or closing under the following conditions. The valve can be operated either on auto or manual mode. The operation of FCV 003A can be sluggish and cannot respond to rapid water level changes due to large load changes. A signal is fed to the FX 003. On loss of control air. The valve GT 028 is normally kept open. The drain valves normally remain closed and opened only to drain the line when valve [FCV 003A] has to be opened for inspection/maintenance. 100% Feed Controller FCV 003B The inlet. A signal from two out of two of these transmitters feed a level signal to LIC-003A through a special drum level control macro. The valve [FCV 003A] can be positioned on manual mode from the DCS to provide the required quantity of water to maintain normal water level. the controller compares the level signal with the set point and generates an error signal if there is a deviation and positions the valve FCV 003A through the positioner to correct the deviation. • Tap off for Attemperator spray water with electrically operator Isolating valve M 026A. B & C continuously monitors the steam drum water level. The characteristic of the valve is linear. In the auto mode. two drain valves (GT 025 & GT 024) are installed. normal level). when rapid changes of drum level (except during swelling) is not envisaged. The following are installed in the common inlet line from the HP BFW line to the feed regulation Stations. which is acceptable at low loads. • Flow nozzle FE 003A with impulse connections to flow transmitter FT-003A. The 100% flow control valve [FCV 003B] is capable of feeding the HRSG when the steam flow from HRSG is from 20% to MCR. After the control valve [FCV 003A] . • The valve [M 003A] can be opened for using the valve [FCV 003A] if the HRSG steam flow is less than 25% MCR and if the drum level is not high. There is no manual override for controlling the valve. • Temperature elements TE-001A & TE 001B for indicating temperature of inlet feed water. • The valve closes when the drum level is very high.

6 Thk. This variable set point is compared to the actual feed water flow signal from [FE 003A]. the drum level is controlled by the measurement of three process parameters (elements) .4 Thk and Serrated tubes of size 38. Three-element feed water control system is provided to regulate the quantity of feedwater flowing into the boiler to maintain the required water level in the steam drum. The measured signal is taken as the process variable (PV) to the drum level controller [LIC 003B]. In three-element control. • The isolating valve M 003B (or M 003C as per operator choice) opens automatically when the HRSG steam flow exceeds 25% • Valve M 003B (or M003C) closes when. The Economiser module consists of a top and bottom header of size 250 NB x 30 Thk and Serrated tubes of size 38.Operation & Maintenance Manual valve. which acts as the measured variable for the controller [FIC-003]. Pressure gauge [PI 008] installed in the line provide the economiser inlet feedwater pressure and a NRV 031 is provided in the inlet of the HP Economiser 1.D. Air vents of Economizers modules are individually grouped together. The valve position is transmitted to the DCS. before IP Economiser. The water leaving HP economiser 1 passes through the HP economiser 2.1 O. Inlet piping to HP Economiser 1 is provided with following: • A pressure transmitter (PI 008) for local indication.2HP Economiser HP Economiser 1 There are 2 modules of Economizer (HP Economizer. 3. The drum level is measured by using differential pressure type level-transmitter LT 003A/B/C installed on the steam drum. • A pressure and temperature indicator PI 010A & B and TI 047B for local indications HP Economiser 2 There is 1 module of Economizer (HP Economizer. which normally remains open. The feed water control station is connected to the HP economizer 1 through a feed water control station. current drum level. Air vent valves are located on the cross over pipes of the top headers (which are the high points of the modules). Action of the control valve is air/ signal FAIL to OPEN. 100% Feed Controller FCV 003C It is exactly similar to FCV 003B described above except for its valve tag numbers. The output of the feed forward block is used as a variable set point to the water flow-indicating controller [FIC-003].1. x 2.6 Thk. All the drains of Economizer-1 have been grouped together and connected to the HP drain header through three isolating valves. This is done to achieve a better level control by taking corrective action in anticipation. feedwater flow & steam flow. before LP Evaporator. The water leaving HP economiser 2 passes through the HP econmiser 3.D. On the DCS. The three element control adopted for the 100% flow control valves FCV 003B & C takes into account the drum level. • A NRV 031 is provided.2) located on the last stages of the exhaust gas path of the HRSG. This process variable (PV) is compared with the fixed set point (SP) in the drum level indicating controller block and a control signal (CV) is generated. Section B 19 . Outlet piping of the HP Economiser 1 is provided with following: • A temperature transmitter (TE 009A & B ) for high temperature remote indication.drum level. Drain valves GT022 & GT 023 normally remain closed and are opened for draining only when the line is isolated for inspection/maintenance of valve FCV 003B The inlet isolating valve M 003B is interlocked in the following manner. feed flow & the feed control valve position can be monitored. The control output signal (CV) from the controller [FIC-003] will position the feed water control valve through a current-pneumatic converter. x 2. steam flow. The level controller control output (CV) is added with steam flow signal from the main steam line in a feed forward block. steam flow and feed water flow for positioning the control valve whereas the 30% level controller FCV 003A takes only the drum level for its operation.1) located on the last stages of the exhaust gas path of the HRSG. – There is an HRSG trip or – MSV (M 029A) closes or – When the drum level is very high. The Economiser modules consist of a top and bottom header of size 200 NB x 25.1 O.

x 2. silica) etc. Air vents of Economizers modules are individually grouped together. small pre-determined amount of water is continuously drained from the steam drum Section B 20 . While flowing through the evaporator modules. Sample of Boiler water is collected from the continuous blow down line to the SWAS. Outlet piping of the HP Economiser 2 is provided with following: • A temperature transmitter (TE 011A & B) for high temperature remote indication. A gasket is fitted between the cover plate and the mating machined surfaces in the dished ends. strips any traces of moisture from steam. The drum is closed tight at either end by thick cover plates bolted against the manhole rim by two holding bars.1.. All the drains of Economizer-3 have been grouped together and connected to the HP drain header through three isolating valves. While Quality Control of water is described in the manual. the water – steam mixture flows tangentially through the 50 nos. • A pressure and temperature indicator PI 014A/B and TI 042A/B for local indications 3. Two manholes at either end of the drum provide access to the drum. The scrubber provides a tortuous path to the steam and during its passage. The drum is insulated by lightly resin bonded mineral wool mats. Air vent valves are located on the cross over pipes of the top headers (which are the high points of the modules). Steam rises upward to flow through the primary scrubber and secondary scrubber provided at the top portion of the steam drum. From the baffles.6 Thk. Steam Drum is fitted with several components to perform important functions. Air vent valves are located on the cross over pipes of the top headers (which are the high points of the modules). the hot water gets converted to water / steam mixture and flows back to the Drum behind the baffles through riser tubes. concentrate to high impermissible levels in the boiler water. The cover plates swing inside. minor impurities present in the feed water.3HP Drum The Steam Drum is 14500mm long welded cylindrical vessel made of SA-516 Grade 70 material. cyclone separators installed in the steam drum. silica etc.Operation & Maintenance Manual All the drains of Economizer-2 have been grouped together and connected to the HP drain header through three isolating valves. Rise in hardness of water (conductivity). In this tangential flow.3 ) located on the last stages of the exhaust gas path of the HRSG. which are listed below: • Steam Drum receives feed water from the HP Economizer 3 outlet through two feed pipes & 4 nos. content of chlorides. If the analysis indicate high conductivity (chlorides. • Steam drum receives the water – steam mixture from the evaporator modules through the riser tubes behind the baffles. An analyzer continuously analyses the sample for pH & conductivity.D. water. for convenience during opening. • A pressure and temperature indicator PI 012A & B and TI 046B for local indications HP Economiser 3 There are 3 modules of Economizer (HP Economizer. a brief outline of the control strategy is stated and the provisions made in the Drum to execute the control is indicated. The water leaving HP economiser 3 is fed to the HP Drum in two feed lines. • Conditioning of Boiler Water: Due to continuous evaporation of boiler water in the drum. Air vents of Economizers modules are individually grouped together. before IP Evaporator. Outlet piping of the HP Economiser 3 is provided with following: • A temperature transmitter (TE 013A/B) for high temperature remote indication.1 O. Saturated dry steam is collected at the top of the drum and distributed to the HP Superheater 1. by absorbing heat from the gas turbine exhaust gas. of (2 on each side) cyclone separators called hydroclones (to take care of economiser steaming) to maintain a near constant level (Normal water level) and for continuous supply to the evaporator through down comer pipes. The cylindrical portion and the two hemispherical dished ends are made of thick plates respectively. which is heavier. The Economiser modules consist of a top and bottom header of size 250 NB x 30 Thk and Serrated tubes of size 38. have to be kept to a minimum to prevent scale formation or deposits in the evaporator tubes and drum.. The sliding arrangement permits a limited shift due to thermal expansion through the oblong holes for mounting the saddle. The steam drum is supported by a saddle and sliding arrangement on top of the HRSG structure over beams. is separated from steam and trickle down to mix with the water in the steam drum.

a perforated is laid along the water space of the drum below the normal water level (axis of the drum) and connected through the CBD line to the Blow down tank. HP dosing system is described in subsequent pages of this manual. Tri-Sodium phosphate is dosed into steam in the boiler drum to maintain a phosphate concentration and a pH of 8 to 10. Twin drain valves are fitted to each gauge. Section B 21 . The Phosphate has the capacity to convert hardness producing insoluble calcium/ magnesium salts to soluble sodium salts. Care is taken to ensure that the center line of the center port coincides with the center line of the drum. • Level Transmitters LT 003A. which are listed below: Sampling Line The CBD line provided to the SWAS through two isolating valves GT726 & GT727. The level gauges being located at the drum level are not convenient for regular operation of the Boiler. A typical reaction can be as follows. Manual isolating valves are normally kept closed and are opened only when emergency blow down has to be done by opening M 039A & B. Level Continuous Blow Down (CBD) Line To enable the water drained from the drum to reflect the true composition of Boiler water. HP Steam drum is fitted with several components to perform important functions. drawn from the entire length of the drum consists of a manually operated inlet isolating valve GT 765. The EBD line. which are drained through the blow down. During the start up of HRSG. 3 CaSO4 + 2 Na3 PO4→ Ca3 (PO4)2 ↓ + 3Na2 SO4 The dozed phosphate also provides desired alkalinity to the boiler water. The valve for Boiler water continuous Blow down (CBD) is positioned to drain continuously a pre-calculated quantity. The level gauges are simple direct reading instruments and serve for quick and accurate reading of the drum level. Water & Steam quality control is described elsewhere in this manual. The drains normally remain shut when the gauge is in service with steam side and waterside isolating valves open. which can be relied upon. B & C and indicators LI 016 A & B and LI 017 (Hydrastep). level gauges may be the only instruments. Emergency Blow Down (EBD) As maintaining normal water level in the steam drum is one of the important parameters to be monitored and controlled. The level gauges however must be maintained in service. a perforated pipe has been laid along the length of the drum and connected to the HP dosing line through a non-return valve NRV 053 and an isolating valve GT 052. as IBR requires that at least one of the level gauges must be in service to operate the HRSG. an inching type motor operated blow down valve M 039A & B followed by a non return valve NRV 677. elaborate provisions for level instrumentation has been made on the Steam Drum. GAUGES & TRANSMITTERS Level Gauges. The top of the gauge glass is connected to the steam side of the drum through two isolating valves. An alkaline pH minimizes the possibilities of corrosion. HP (Phosphate) Dosing Line Dosing of phosphate to the Boiler water is to be done in a manner that it quickly mixes with the whole of Boiler water. provision has been made for quickly draining some water from the boiler drum under this condition.Operation & Maintenance Manual through the continuous Blow down valve M 040 with isolating valves for controlling the flow to reduce their concentration to permissible levels in the steam drum. The EBD line drains to the blow down tank. The bottom portion of the gauge glass is connected to the waterside of the drum through two isolating valves. As high drum water levels are not permissible and may lead to a boiler trip. To enable this. which is the required normal water level. Control of water Level in the steam drum relies on the following Instruments. as other instruments may not be accurate. Transmitters Level Indicators. The level gauges are also used to verify the readings of other instruments. There is a isolating valves on the upstream of a blow down valve M 040 and a non-return valve NRV676 on the line. Brief mention of this instrumentation will be made in this section LEVEL GAUGES (LI 016A & LI 016B) The Level Gauges is of multiport type. The following facilities have been provided in the steam Drum for the above operations: During HRSG startup situations arise resulting in high drum water levels.

B & C provide inputs for Drum level indication at DCS and Low Drum level. as per IBR. Installation.TE 037D are provided on the drum to measure the Drum metal temperature and generate the high alarm in remote. so that their signals represent true level neutralizing variations due to pressure changes. the safety valves opens automatically to relieve steam from the drum to the atmosphere. They also provide steam drum pressure signal to DCS.015A & B are two local instruments indicating Drum pressure at the drum level. The above level instruments are connected to the steam drum. adjustment and maintenance instructions for safety valves are enclosed which may be referred for a full understanding of the safety valves. of Skin metal temperature transmitter TE 037A. • The level transmitter LT 003A.027 (on the super heated steam line) have the capacity.006A and PSV. PSV.B & C (through twin isolating valves) mounted on the steam drum. • PI. provide a pressure compensation signal to the level transmitters. malfunction of firing system. steam dump & startup valves are exhausted through Silencers. closure of steam valves etc.003A . Section B 22 . two spring loaded safety valves have been fitted on the drum. IBR prescribes norms for installation. Safety valve. High drum level alarms.B & C provide drum level signal to the single element and three element controllers..006B along with the safety valve PSV. Silencers Figure 2 Figure 1 Exhaust of various safety valves. steam and water space through twin isolating valves. care and testing of the safety valves. to relieve steam from the HRSG in such a manner that pressure rise above 103% of the working pressure is prevented on any condition. The reading of the steam drum water level by the above instruments is sensitive to the drum pressure. Transmitters PT. On increase of steam pressure beyond a pre-determined set value (117 & 118 kg/cm2). Drum Safety Valves (PSV.Operation & Maintenance Manual Level transmitters LT 003A.006A AND PSV006B) To protect the boiler and personnel against consequences of abnormal pressure increases caused by sudden load decrease. the exhaust of the safety valves are connected through a silencer to substantially reduce the noise level. A 4 nos. for low and high steam drum pressure. The safety valve closes when the steam pressure falls by around 4% of the set value. As the spring-loaded safety valves result in high noise levels when they open. A median of the three level transmitters is taken. which are mandatory.

• From the down comer header. before start up and during start up. Separated water mixes with boiler water to flow through the Evaporator modules again. The Silencers are mounted on separate structures on top of the HRSG and the exhaust pipes form the valves are connected to the silencers. The modules are hung from the top headers in the flue gas path. This circulation is assisted by the higher density of water in the down comer compared to the lower density of water / steam mixture in evaporator and riser tubes • The water / steam mixture from the top headers of the Evaporation module. • In the steam drum.1. These drains essentially are for draining the Evaporation modules after shut down of HRSG. A down comer header of the Evaporator spans all the Evaporator modules. to the Evaporation module top headers. once in three months to drain the line. The Saturated steam from the steam header is connected to the HP Superheater 1 with the following • A temperature point TP 007 is provided for the indication of the temperature of the saturated steam entering to the HP superheater 1. Air Vent An air vent (with twin valves M 005A & M 005B ) has been fitted on the drum to vent out air during initial boiler filling.4HP Evaporator The Evaporators convert hot boiler water received from the HP Drum through four down comer pipes into a steam water mixture. on guide supports with provision for thermal expansion downward & in the sides. Evaporator consists of 3 modules. no operational care is needed except opening the drain plug provided in the drain line. The air vents are opened after shut down of the boiler when the boiler pressure falls to 2 kg/cm2. the steam/water mixture flows through the cyclones where water & steam are separated and saturated steam flows to the HP Superheater 1. 3. The silencers are made out of suitable casing in which the sound absorbing materials are packed in a certain pattern & wrapped by scrim cloth and wire mesh to avoid ‘fly off’ of sound absorbing materials during operation of silencer at high flow rates.Operation & Maintenance Manual The Silencers are acoustically & mechanically designed to attenuate the large noise made during operation of these valves. The top headers of the module are connected to the drum by riser tubes. These drains are connected to the HP drain header through three isolating valves. The steam water mixture is led back to the drum from the evaporators through riser pipes. flows behind the baffle chamber in the steam drum. Two modules consists of four rows of tubes arranged between a top and bottom header and one module consist of three rows of tubes. During start up. by absorption of heat from the Gas Turbine exhaust gas. the hot water flows to the lower headers. As the silencer contain no moving parts. A NRV 096 is provided after Isolation valve. The process fluid enters the annular space between the sound absorbing materials packing where the sound energy is absorbed throughout the length of the silencer. Section B 23 . During its passage through the Evaporation module tubes. the air vents are closed at a drum pressure of 2 Kg/cm² (g) and when copious steam is passing. Evaporator are of fully drainable type & drains (one for each downcomer) have been provided on the down comer header of the HRSG. It is not to be operated when the HRSG is in service as their opening may interfere with the natural circulation in the modules. The circulation through Evaporator modules takes place as follows: • Heated Boiler water from the drum flows through the four down comer pipes to down comer header. the hot water absorbs heat from the exhaust gases of the gas turbine and gets converted to a water/steam mixture. N2 Filling The N2 filling line to the HP steam drum is provided with the Isolation valve GT 095 which is normally closed. The four down carrier pipes from the Drum connect to the down comer header. Hot water flow to the evaporators from the drum and steam/water mixture flows to the drum from the Evaporators through risers. Finned Evaporator tubes are welded between the top & bottom headers of each module to form the heat absorption surface. From the down comer header. and then through Evaporation module tubes. interconnecting pipes connect to all the lower headers of the Evaporator modules.

• A temperature indicator TI 044 before the Atttemperation. drawing heat from the steam and completely mixes with steam. and made of SA 213 T11 material. Water sprayed into steam evaporates.Operation & Maintenance Manual 3. Attemporator The function of the attemporator is to control the temperature of main steam at HP Superheater 3outlet to 567. These drains are operated to drain the HP Superheater 2 drain header. x 3 Thk. and made of SA213 T91 material. The outlet line of the HP superheater 2 is provided with • A temperature transmitter TE 020. Superheater modules are hung from their top headers with provision for thermal expansion down wards & in the sides. The spray water line consists of the following. Steam from the HP superheater 1 flows to the first module of HP superheater 2 lower header through steam supply pipes from the steam header. The outlet line of the HP superheater1 is provided with • A temperature transmitter TE018A/B .1 O. HP Superheater 2 HP Superheater 2 Consists of one modules. The tubes are of size 38. before the flow transmitter FT 034. Steam travels up from both the ends of lower header of the first module. The spray nozzle at the blind end rests on a guide to with stand the force of steam. A temperature element TE 038DH is provided in the drain line for the drain control. There are Serrated tubes per row. . • A temperature point TP001. • A Control station consists of the two Pneumatically operated flow control valve TV-026A & TV-026B (100 %). Saturated steam from the drum flows to the first module of superheater 1 lower header through saturated steam supply pipes from the steam header.1 O. The condensate drain pot is operated through the electrically operated drain valve (M 038D & M 038 H) on the principle of conductivity and drain the condensate to the BD Tank. . 2 rows per module.5HP Superheater Superheating of saturated steam from drum is done in three stages in HP Superheater 1 . Attemporator is a header connecting from the bottom header of the module of HP Super-heater 2 to the lower header of the module of HP Super-heater 3 with an inner sleeve.1. • A temperature point TP 008. • A temperature indicator TI 045 before the HP Superheater 2. 3 module in HP superheater 2.3 ± 3°C.2 Thk. through the module tubes to the top header of the same module. Motorised inlet isolation valve M 026A & M 026B are provided before the control valves and manual outlet isolation valve GT 049 & GT 050 are provided and remain Section B 24 . The HP Superheater 2 header (Lowest point). absorbing heat and travels to the top header of the HP Superheater 2. HP Superheater drain line with two isolation valves GT680 & GT761 which are normally kept open connected to condensate drain pot. Superheaters are made of modules.3 ± 5 °C. Between HP Superheater 2 & HP Superheater 3 an attemperator is located to control the temperature of final steam outlet at 567. Spray nozzle is held across the header on to the header nozzle .. • A Solenoid operated Shut off valve TV 034. The flow control valve is provided with inlet/outlet isolating valves. Holes are drilled on the spray nozzle in the direction of steam flow. • A pressure Indicator PI 019. Steam travels up from both the ends of lower header of the first module. The HP Superheater 1 lower headers (Lowest point). HP Superheater 1 HP Superheater 1 Consists of 1 modules. The spray water for the Attemperator is obtained from the HP Boiler Feed water main. x 3. absorbing heat. HP Superheater 2 & HP Superheater 3. 3 rows per module. It transmits the HP superheater 2 outlet temperature signal for the high alarm.D. The tubes are of size 38. There are Serrated tubes per row.D. • A flow Element FE-034 to measure spray water flow and indicate on flow transmitter FT034. They are closed at a drum pressure of 2 To 5 Kg/cm². are provided with drain line with two isolation valves each. The drains are opened before light up of the boiler to drain HP Superheater 2 . are provided with manual drain valve GL 739 which is normally closed. each consisting of a top header and a bottom header. with tubes between the headers.

This is a spring-loaded. This valve is provided with an electrically operated.6HP Main Steam line The HP steam line connects the top header of HP Super-heater 3 module to the plant steam main This line incorporates the following • Electrically Operated HP Steam Stop Valve M 029AThis valve Isolates the HRSG from the plant HP steam main. These drains valves GT 682. The spray water line connects to the spray nozzle of the attemperator through a non-return valve NRV 051. An attemperator is provided with manual twin drain valve GL 739 & GT 683. integral by pass valve M 029B. 2 nos.1. Attemperator drain line is connected to HP SH drain header through two isolation valves GT 764 & GT 694 which are normally kept open. valve set at 110. Steam after attemperation enters the lower header of the HP Super-heater 3 first module and rises to the top header of the same module with absorbing heat and then to HP Main steam line. The start up vent valve is to be kept open while start up. • Safety Valve PSV-027To take care of the pressure upset caused by sudden load cut. a safety valve is provided on the main steam line at the Superheater outlet. Pressure & temperature indication is provided for main steam piping. 3. The HP Superheater 3 module tubes are made of SA213 T91 material. A temperature element TE 038BF is provided in the drain line for the drain control. are normally closed are connected in the drain line with an isolation valve GT 698 which is normally open. Steam flow compensation for feed water flow HP Super-heater 3 consists of one modules. It provides initial steam flow for the cooling of superheaters.042 provide steam temperature indication before and after the attemperator to judge the effectiveness of attemperation. The outlet of the start up vent valve is exhausted to atmosphere through a silencer. Temperature transmitter TE 020 & TE. malfunctioning of firing system. A feed back signal from TIC 026 is provided to the controller HIC 026A & B which controls the pneumatically operated attempearation flow control valve TV-026A & B to maintain the temperature as required. when valve TCV 026A & B are to be taken for maintenance.. The HP Super-heater 3 lower headers (Lowest point). The temperature transmitter TE026A &B (1out of 2) indicate the high temperature alarm through TIC 026. • Flow Nozzle FE 003BFlow nozzle FE. M 028 is a motor operated Isolating valve for start up vent. The safety valve is similar to Drum safety valves PSV-006A & PSV-006B described earlier. 2. which are normally closed. • HP Steam Line Drain The steam line drain consists of the following valves. The are two drain valves GT 045 & GT 046 are provided after the control valve TCV 026A and two drain valves GT 047 & GT 048 are provided after the control valve TCV 026B. are kept closed are connected to the HP Superheater drain header. which remain normally closed. third stage of An air vent is provided on main steam piping just after HP Superheater 3 piping. HP Superheater 3 HP Super-heater 3 does superheating of steam.) are installed on the HP Superheater 3. are provided with three drains with two isolation valves .003B is installed on the HP steam line after the main stop valve to provide steam flow indication. Electrically operated motorised valve M 038A & M 038E. Steam flow reading. • Start Up Vent ValveValve PCV 028 is a pneumatically operated start up vent valve. Temperature element TE 035A to TE 035H (8nos. Section B 25 . The flow transmitter reading after steam pressure & temperature compensation is used for the following.Operation & Maintenance Manual normally open.6 bar (a) pressure to protect the boiler against over pressures. . The module are constructed out of Spiral Solid Tube These rows screen the radiation of flame coming from the combustion chamber and avoid fin overheating in subsequent HRSG surface area. • A pressure indicator PI 033 with two isolation valve. closure of steam valves etc. The silencer is mounted on a separate structure on top of the HRSG. These drain valves are opened after closing inlet/outlet Isolating valves. 1. The exhaust of the safety valve is piped to a silencer to reduce the noise levels when the safety valve is operating.

• A pressure transmitter ( PT 052) for remote indication. The water leaving IP economiser through the Feed regulating Station to the IP Steam Drum. may set up abnormal thermal stresses. • A temperature transmitter ( TE 075A & B) for remote indication and also for the temperature compensation to maintain the IP drum level. All the drains of Economizer have been grouped together and connected to the IP drain header through two isolating valves. When the differential temperature exceeds 50°C. These thermocouples connect to a monitor in the DCS.1IP Economiser There are 1 modules of Economizer (IP Economizer) located Before HP Economiser 1 in the HRSG flue gas path . • HP Steam Pressure InputPressure transmitter PT. • A pressure Indicator PI 053 for local indication. if it exceeds 50°C. an alarm is generated in the DCS. • Air VentGT 107 &GT 108 are air vent valves on the HP steam line. • A pressure relief valve PRV 050 is provided. • A temperature transmitter (TE 051 ) for high temperature remote indication. Outlet piping to IP Economiser is provided with following: • A pressure safety valve PSV 078 is provided. which may be used during hydro test. four drum skin metal thermocouples have been installed. Temperature Indicating controller TIC-026 which controls positioning of the attemperator spray control valve as described earlier. The HRSG trips if water level in the drum is either too low or too high.Operation & Maintenance Manual • HP Steam Temperature InputTemperature transmitter TT. x 2.D.6 Thk & material SA201 A1. Temperature compensation signal to steam flow. two on the water side & two on the steam side of the drum. Inlet piping to IP Economiser is provided with following: • A connection is provided for the attemperation after the reheater 1. • A pressure transmitter ( PT 077A & B) is provided to measure the pressure at IP Eco Outlet. 3.2. initially drum metal temperatures on the steam side and water side may show considerable difference due to slow conductive heat transfer across the drum metal and difference of heat inputs across the water washed & steam washed parts of the drum.026A & 026B (1out of 2) provide the HP steam temperature input for the following 1. The Economiser modules consist of a top and bottom header and Section B 26 . Air vent valves are located on the cross over pipes of the top headers (which are the high points of the modules).. A Feed back control loop with the pressure indicating controller FIC 050 is provided for automatic pressure control to the flow control valve FCV 050A & B in the feed regulating station of the IP section. • A pressure transmitter ( PT 077A & B) for remote indication and also for the pressure compensation to maintain the IP drum level. temperature differentials disappear. when the drum pressure reaches 5 to 10 Kg/cm².1 O. • A tapping from the HP Steam line is provided for the Steam turbine gland sealing system. • An Export Water Connection is provided through a valve (GT 211) & NRV (NRV 261) and pressure indicator PI 076 & temperature indicator TI 076 for local indication.2 IP Section Components Description 3. A pressure Indicator PI 022 for local indication. The temperature difference.025A & B (1out of 2) provide the HP steam temperature input for the following 1. 3.2IP Boiler Feed water Control Station During normal operating HRSG. A temperature gauge TI 024 is provided for the local indication. Serrated tubes of size 38. This alarm is an indication to the operator to slow down the startup rate. The outlet of PRV 050 is connected to the LP steam drum for safe relief of hot water. it must be kept continuously supplied with feed water to maintain near normal level in the drum.. To warn the operator of such a situation. • A non return valve NRV 209. A similar caution is desired during cooling down of HRSG. • Drum Metal Temperature MonitoringWhen a HRSG is started after filling water to normal level. Pressure compensation signal to steam flow. However. Air vents of Economizers modules are individually grouped together.2. 2.

After the control valve [FCV 050A] . • Temperature elements TE-075A &B for indicating temperature of inlet feed water. the drum level is controlled by the measurement of three process parameters (elements) .Operation & Maintenance Manual Feed water is obtained from the IP feed water from the client. The characteristic of the valve is linear. The valve can be operated either on auto or manual mode. when valve [FCV 050A] has to be opened for inspection/maintenance. A signal is fed to the FI 050A. The feed regulating stations are now described. feedwater flow & steam flow. On loss of control air. This process variable (PV) is compared with the fixed set point (SP) in the drum level indicating controller block and a control signal (CV) is generated. 100% Feed Controller FCV 050A The feed regulating valve [FCV 050A] is used for level controlling in the IP Drum. • Flow nozzle FE 050A with impulse connections to flow transmitter FT-050A. There are two feed control valve . Three-element feed water control system is provided to regulate the quantity of feedwater flowing into the boiler to maintain the required water level in the steam drum. • A temperature indicator TI 075 for indicating temperature. There is no manual override for controlling the valve. on which are installed the two feed regulating stations mentioned earlier to be connected to a common line for feeding water to the IP Drum. FT-050B & FT-050C. the common inlet line branches into two parallel paths. one drain valve (GT 214 ) is installed. The measured signal is taken as the process variable (PV) to the drum level controller [LIC 050]. The feed water flow control valve is a globe type valve. The valve [FCV 050A] is arranged between an electrically operated inlet Isolating valve M 050A and a manually operated outlet Isolating valve GT 216. The following are installed in the common inlet line from the IP feed water line from IP Economiser to the IP feed regulation Stations. • Pressure elements PE-077A & B for indicating pressure of inlet feed water. Valve [FCV 050A] is a globe type control valve Pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator.drum level. The level controller control output (CV) is added with steam flow signal from the main steam line in a feed forward block. • Pressure indicator PI 056 for indicating pressure of inlet IP feed water. The 100% flow control valve [FCV050A] capable of feeding the HRSG. After the above. out of which at least one must be in service when the HRSG is operational. with equal increase in flow for equal valve opening. The electrically operated 100% feed Isolating valve M 050A can be interlocked for opening or closing under the following conditions. The flow transmitters provide feed flow signal to the feed Indicating controller FIC-050 (which will be described later). • The valve [M 050A] closes automatically when there is a HRSG trip and closure of main steam stop valve. pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator and positioned by the feed water flow indicating controller [HIC 050A & 050B] order to maintain the normal water level at boiler steam drum. • The valve closes when the drum level is very high. [FCV 050B] is an identical stand by to [FCV050A]. • The valve [M 050A] can be opened for using the valve [FCV 050A] if the HRSG steam flow is less than 25% MCR and if the drum level is not high. The positioning of [FCV 050A] on auto is controlled as discussed below. the valve opens full. IP Boiler Feedwater Regulating Station The feed water flow control station consists • 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 050A] • 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 050B] Both 100% control valve are provided with motorised isolation valves [M050A & B] and manual isolation valve at downstream of control valve [GT216 & GT 217]. A signal is fed to the FI 050A. • The valve [M 050A] gets a permission for closing when any of the Isolating valves [M 050B] of the 100% feed regulating stations are open. In three-element control. The drum level is measured by using differential pressure type level-transmitter LT 050A/B/C installed on the steam drum. The drains normally remain closed and opened only to drain the line. This is done to achieve Section B 27 . The valve GT 216 is normally kept open.

3IP Drum The Steam Drum is 12500mm long welded cylindrical vessel made of SA-516 Grade 70 material. • Conditioning of Boiler Water Due to continuous evaporation of boiler water in the drum. water. On the DCS. Rise in hardness of water (conductivity). While flowing through the evaporator modules. If the analysis indicate high conductivity. The cover plates swing inside. have to be kept to a minimum to prevent scale formation or deposits. concentrate to high impermissible levels in the boiler water. While Quality Control of water is described in the manual. a brief outline of the control strategy is stated and the provisions made in the Drum to execute the control is indicated. From the baffles. strips any traces of moisture from steam. current drum level. 3. silica etc. A gasket is fitted between the cover plate and the mating machined surfaces in the dished ends. steam flow and feed water flow for positioning the control valve. Steam rises upward to flow through the secondary scrubber provided at the top portion of the steam drum. The feed water control station is connected to the IP Drum Pressure gauge [PI056] installed in the line provide the IP Drum inlet feedwater pressure and a temperature element TE 055 for remote indication of the inlet IP drum water temperature . The cylindrical portion and the two hemispherical dished ends are made of thick plates respectively. Steam Drum is fitted with several components to perform important functions. Action of the control valve is air/ signal FAIL to OPEN. steam flow. feed flow & the feed control valve position can be monitored. which are listed below: • Steam Drum receives feed water from the IP Economizer outlet through single feed pipes & 2nos.2. cyclone separators installed in the steam drum. The steam drum is supported by a saddle and sliding arrangement on top of the HRSG structure over beams. (chlorides.Operation & Maintenance Manual a better level control by taking corrective action in anticipation. The drum is insulated by lightly resin bonded mineral wool mats. by absorbing heat from the gas turbine exhaust gas. This variable set point is compared to the actual feed water flow signal from [FE 050A] with pressure and temperature compensation from the PT 077A & B and TE 075A & B. An analyzer continuously analyses the sample for pH & conductivity. Saturated dry steam is collected at the top of the drum and distributed to the IP Superheater . the water – steam mixture flows tangentially through the 20 nos. The drum is closed tight at either end by thick cover plates bolted against the manhole rim by two holding bars. the hot water gets converted to water / steam mixture and flows back to the Drum behind the baffles through riser tubes. In this tangential flow. which acts as the measured variable for the controller [FIC-050]. The scrubber provides a tortuous path to the steam and during its passage. The sliding arrangement permits a limited shift due to thermal expansion through the oblong holes for mounting the saddle. small pre-determined amount of water is continuously drained from the steam drum through the continuous Blow down valve M 079 with isolating valves for controlling the flow to reduce their concentration to permissible levels in the steam drum. is separated from steam and trickle down to mix with the water in the steam drum. for convenience during opening. The control output signal (CV) from the controller [FIC-050] will position the feed water control valve through a current-pneumatic converter. The output of the feed forward block is used as a variable set point to the water flow-indicating controller [FIC-050]. silica) etc. minor impurities present in the feed water. 100% Feed Controller FCV 050B It is exactly similar to FCV 050A described above except for its valve tag numbers. which is heavier.. Sample of Boiler water is collected from the continuous blow down line to the SWAS. Two manholes at either end of the drum provide access to the drum. The Phosphate has the capacity to convert hardness producing insoluble calcium/ magnesium salts to soluble Section B 28 . The three element control adopted for the 100% flow control valves FCV 050A & B takes into account the drum level. The valve position is transmitted to the DCS.. • Steam drum receives the water – steam mixture from the evaporator modules through the riser tubes behind the baffles. of (1 on each side) cyclone separators (to take care of economiser steaming) to maintain a near constant level (Normal water level) and for continuous supply to the evaporator through down comer pipes. Tri-Sodium phosphate is dosed into steam in the boiler drum to maintain a phosphate concentration and a pH of 11. content of chlorides. in the evaporator tubes and drum.

B & C provide drum level signal to the three element controllers. Twin drain valves are fitted to each gauge. The drains normally remain shut when the gauge is in service with steam side and waterside isolating valves open. GAUGES & TRANSMITTERS Level Gauges. • The level transmitter LT 050A.Operation & Maintenance Manual sodium salts. The level gauges being located at the drum level are not convenient for regular operation of the Boiler. Level Continuous Blow Down (CBD) Line To enable the water drained from the drum to reflect the true composition of Boiler water. The EBD line. Emergency Blow Down (EBD) During HRSG startup situations arise resulting in high drum water levels. Brief mention of this instrumentation will be made in this section LEVEL GAUGES (LI 059A & LI 059B) The Level Gauges is of multiport type. steam and water space through twin isolating valves. The bottom portion of the gauge glass is connected to the waterside of the drum through two isolating valves. which are listed below: Sampling Line The CBD line provided to the SWAS through two isolating valves GT723 & GT724. Water & Steam quality control is described elsewhere in this manual. level gauges may be the only instruments. The level gauges are simple direct reading instruments and serve for quick and accurate reading of the drum level. An alkaline pH minimizes the possibilities of corrosion. an inching type motor operated blow down valve M 078 followed by a non return valve NRV 634. provision has been made for quickly draining some water from the boiler drum under this condition. Control of water Level in the steam drum relies on the following Instruments. as IBR requires that at least one of the level gauges must be in service to operate the HRSG. Transmitters Level Indicators. elaborate provisions for level instrumentation has been made on the Steam Drum. IP (Phosphate) Dosing Line Dosing of phosphate to the Boiler water is to be done in a manner that it quickly mixes with the whole of Boiler water. Manual isolating valves are normally kept closed and are opened only when emergency blow down has to be done by opening M 078. • Level Transmitters LT 050A. Level transmitters LT 050 A. IP Steam drum is fitted with several components to perform important functions. The level gauges however must be maintained in service. As high drum water levels are not permissible and may lead to a boiler trip. which can be relied upon. a perforated is laid along the water space of the drum below the normal water level (axis of the drum) and connected through the CBD line to the Blow down tank. The valve for Boiler water continuous Blow down (CBD) is positioned to drain continuously a pre-calculated quantity. The level gauges are also used to verify the readings of other instruments. A typical reaction can be as follows. To enable this. IP dosing system is described in subsequent pages of this manual. a perforated pipe has been laid along the length of the drum and connected to the IP dosing line through a non-return valve NRV 256 and an isolating valve GT 257. The top of the gauge glass is connected to the steam side of the drum through two isolating valves. B & C provide inputs for Drum level indication at DCS and very Low Drum level. B & C and indicators LI 059 A & B . During the start up of HRSG. The Section B 29 . The As maintaining normal water level in the steam drum is one of the important parameters to be monitored and controlled. The following facilities have been provided in the steam Drum for the above operations: EBD line drains to the blow down tank. as other instruments may not be accurate. Care is taken to ensure that the center line of the center port coincides with the center line of the drum. very High drum level alarms. drawn from the entire length of the drum consists of a manually operated inlet isolating valve GT 628. 3 CaSO4 + 2 Na3 PO4→ Ca3 (PO4)2 ↓ + 3Na2 SO4 The dozed phosphate also provides desired alkalinity to the boiler water. which is the required normal water level. There is a isolating valves on the upstream of a blow down valve M 079 and a non-return valve NRV633 on the line. which are drained through the blow down. The above level instruments are connected to the steam drum.

The safety valve closes when the steam pressure falls by around 4% of the set value. Transmitters PT— 057A.060A AND PSV060B) As the spring-loaded safety valves result in high noise levels when they open. Safety valve. the safety valves opens automatically to relieve steam from the drum to the atmosphere. On increase of steam pressure beyond a pre-determined set value (30 & 31 Bar g). adjustment and maintenance instructions for safety valves are enclosed which may be referred for a full understanding of the safety valves. B & C (through twin isolating valves) mounted on the steam drum. Installation.060B along with the safety valve PSV. for low and high steam drum pressure. the exhaust of the safety valves are connected through a silencer to substantially reduce the noise level.Operation & Maintenance Manual reading of the steam drum water level by the above instruments is sensitive to the drum pressure. The process fluid enters the annular space between the sound absorbing materials packing where the sound energy is absorbed throughout the length of the silencer.062 (on the super heated steam line) have the capacity. no operational care is needed except opening the drain plug Section B 30 . The Silencers are acoustically & mechanically designed to attenuate the large noise made during operation of these valves.. as per IBR. PSV060A and PSV. which are mandatory. care and testing of the safety valves. two spring loaded safety valves have been fitted on the drum. As the silencer contain no moving parts.058A & B are two local instruments indicating Drum pressure at the drum level Drum Safety Valves (PSV. The Silencers are mounted on separate structures on top of the HRSG and the exhaust pipes form the valves are connected to the silencers. provide steam drum pressure signal to DCS. steam dump & startup valves are exhausted through Silencers. IBR prescribes norms for installation. Silencers Figure 4 Figure 3 To protect the boiler and personnel against consequences of abnormal pressure increases caused by sudden load decrease. Exhaust of various safety valves. The silencers are made out of suitable casing in which the sound absorbing materials are packed in a certain pattern & wrapped by scrim cloth and wire mesh to avoid ‘fly off’ of sound absorbing materials during operation of silencer at high flow rates. to relieve steam from the HRSG in such a manner that pressure rise above 103% of the working pressure is prevented on any condition. malfunction of firing system. closure of steam valves etc. • PI.

once in three months to drain the line. • In the steam drum.2. Serrated Evaporator tubes are welded between the top & bottom headers of each module to form the heat absorption surface. The down carrier pipes from the Drum connect to the down comer header. The circulation through Evaporator modules takes place as follows: • Heated Boiler water from the drum flows through the down comer pipes to down comer header. 3. • From the down comer header. N2 Filling The N2 filling line to the HP steam drum is provided with the Isolation valve GT 228 which is normally closed. Saturated steam from the drum flows to the module of superheater lower header through saturated steam supply pipes from the steam header. The steam water mixture is led back to the drum from the evaporators through riser pipes. are provided with manual drain valve GT 637 Section B 31 .1 O. and steam/water mixture flows to the drum from the Evaporators through risers. The top headers of the module are connected to the drum by riser tubes. by absorption of heat from the Gas Turbine exhaust gas. It is not to be operated when the HRSG is in service as their opening may interfere with the natural circulation in the modules. absorbing heat. Air Vent An air vent (with valves M 061 ) has been fitted on the drum to vent out air during initial boiler filling. on guide supports with provision for thermal expansion downward & in the sides.2. Two modules consists of three rows of tubes arranged between a top and bottom header. During its passage through the Evaporation module tubes. to the Evaporation module top headers. it consists of a top header and a bottom header.Operation & Maintenance Manual provided in the drain line.D. Superheater modules are hung from their top headers with provision for thermal expansion down wards & in the sides.7 °C. 3. The IP Superheater lower headers (Lowest point). Superheaters are made of single module. Evaporator consists of 2 modules. The modules are hung from the top headers in the flue gas path. the steam/water mixture flows through the cyclones where water & steam are separated and saturated steam flows to the IP Superheater. The air vents are opened after shut down of the boiler when the boiler pressure falls to 2 kg/cm2. to control the temperature of final steam outlet at 313. interconnecting pipes connect to all the lower headers of the Evaporator modules. the air vents are closed at a drum pressure of 2 Kg/cm² (g) and when copious steam is passing. There are Serrated tubes per row. with tubes between the headers. flows behind the baffle chamber in the steam drum. the hot water absorbs heat from the exhaust gases of the gas turbine and gets converted to a water/steam mixture. Evaporator are of fully drainable type & drains (one for each downcomer) have been provided on the down comer header of the HRSG. before start up and during start up. Steam travels up from both the ends of lower header of the module. This circulation is assisted by the higher density of water in the down comer compared to the lower density of water / steam mixture in evaporator and riser tubes • The water / steam mixture from the top headers of the Evaporation module. These drains are connected to the IP drain header through two isolating valves. A NRV 227 is provided after the Isolation valve. The tubes are of size 38. and then through Evaporation module tubes. Hot water flow to the evaporators from the drum.4IP Evaporator The Evaporators convert hot boiler water received from the IP Drum through down comer pipes into a steam water mixture. x 2. During start up. 1 rows per module.6 Thk. IP Superheater IP Superheater Consists of 1 modules.5IP Superheater Superheating of saturated steam from drum is done in IP Superheater . the hot water flows to the lower headers. From the down comer header. These drains essentially are for draining the Evaporation modules after shut down of HRSG. A down comer header of the Evaporator spans all the Evaporator modules. Separated water mixes with boiler water to flow through the Evaporator modules again. through the module tubes to the top header of the same module. and made of SA210 A1 material.

3. Temperature compensation signal to steam flow. The safety valve is similar to Drum safety valves PSV-060A & PSV-060B described earlier. valve set at 29. This valve is with an electrically operated valve which connects the IP main Steam to the Reheater 1. Pressure compensation signal to steam flow. • IP Steam Line DrainThe steam line drain consists of the following valves: Electrically operated motorised valve M 077 is normally closed connected in the drain line with an isolation valve GT 264 which is normally open. 3 rows per module.D. which may be used during hydro test. and made of SA213 T22 material. Attemporator Section B 32 . Pressure High and Low Alarms for the remote indications. The start up vent valve is to be kept open while start up.2. x 3 Thk. absorbing heat.7Reheaters Superheated steam from the IP Superheater and the Cold reheat steam from the HP turbine exhaust is again Superheated in the Reheaters to control the temperature of final steam outlet at 567 ± 3°C (Hot reheat line to IP Superheater). • IP Pressure Control valveA PCV 129 is provided for controlling the IP main steam pressure. Reheater modules are hung from their top headers with provision for thermal expansion down wards & in the sides. 2. malfunctioning of firing system. • Flow Nozzle FE 050BFlow nozzle FE. 1.129A & B (1out of 2) provide the HP steam temperature input for the following 1. The inlet line of the Reheater1 is provided with a temperature indicator TI 303. The pressure controller PIC 129 receives a feed back signal from the Pressure transmitter PT 129A & B . It provides initial steam flow for the cooling of superheater.4 bar (a) pressure to protect the boiler against over pressures.The steam pass through the Reheater 1 for further heating the steam.. Steam travels down from both the ends of upper header of the module through the module tubes to the top header of the same module.Operation & Maintenance Manual . 2.2. • Air VentGL255 is manual air vent valves on the IP steam line. • HP Steam Pressure InputPressure transmitter PT.130A & 130B (1out of 2) provide the IP steam temperature input for the following 1. • Start Up Vent ValveValve PCV 063 is a pneumatically operated start up vent valve M 063 is a motor operated Isolating valve for start up vent. The exhaust of the safety valve is piped to a silencer to reduce the noise levels when the safety valve is operating. The flow transmitter reading after steam pressure & temperature compensation is used for the following. 3.6IP Main Steam line The IP steam line connects the top header of IP Super-heater module to the plant steam main This line incorporates the following • Electrically Operated HP Steam Stop Valve M 064This valve Isolates the HRSG from the plant IP steam main.5 O. Superheated steam from the IP Superheater and the Cold reheat steam from the HP turbine passes through the module of reheater upper header through steam supply pipes. The outlet of the start up vent valve is exhausted to atmosphere through a silencer. it consists of a top header and a bottom header. The tubes are of size 44. Reheater 1 Reheater 1 Consists of 1 modules. • A Cold reheat line is connected to the IP Main Steam line . Reheater are made of single module. a safety valve is provided on the main steam line at the Superheater outlet. closure of steam valves etc. Steam flow compensation for feed water flow • HP Steam Temperature InputTemperature transmitter TT. The silencer is mounted on a separate structure on top of the HRSG. Steam flow reading. • Safety Valve PSV-062To take care of the pressure upset caused by sudden load cut.050B is installed on the IP steam line before the main stop valve to provide steam flow indication.The drains are operated through the electrically operated drain valve (M 076) and drain to the IP RSH drain header. with tubes between the headers. This is a spring-loaded. There are Serrated tubes per row.

and then to Hot reheat line. The flow control valve is provided with inlet/outlet isolating valves. Water sprayed into steam from the reheater 1. 3. The Inlet line to the Reheater 2 after the attemperation consists of • A temperature Element TE 066 for high alarm . 2 no. The attemperator drain line is connected to reheater drain header through GT646 isolation valve which is normally open. • A flow transmitter FE-073 to measure spray water flow and indicate on flow indicator FI-073.D.1Condensate Pre heater (CPH) A Condensate preheater (CPH) assembly is last module assembly in flue gas path to the stack from the boiler to recover economically feasible Section B 33 . • A Control station consists of the two Pneumatically operated flow control valve TCV-068A & TCV-068B (100 %). Reheater 2 consists of one modules. Reheater 2 Reheater 2 does second stage of reheating of steam. The module following the burner/combustion chamber are constructed out of Serrated tubes . These drain valves are opened after closing inlet/outlet Isolating valves. • The Temperature indicator TI 066. • The flow transmitter FE 071 for flow measurement of the Hot reheat Steam. The Reheater 2 lower headers (Lowest point). The drain valve GT246 are provided after the control valve TCV 068A and drain valves GT 247 are provided after the control valve TCV 068B. A feed back signal from TIC 068 is provided to the controller HIC 068A & B which controls the pneumatically operated attemperation flow control valve TCV-068A & B to maintain the temperature as required. The spray water line consists of the following: • A Solenoid operated Shut off valve TV 074. • The temperature point TP 004. The Outlet line of the Reheater 1 before the attemperation consists of • The Temperature indicator TI 065. when valve TCV 068A & B are to be taken for maintenance. • A temperature Element TE 065 for high alarm . drawing heat from the steam and completely mixes with steam. The spray nozzle at the blind end rests on a guide to with stand the force of steam. The Reheater 2 module tubes 44. The Attemperator header is provided with manual drain valve GL 738 which is normally closed. • The Pressure indicator PI 065. • The pressure Indicator PI 069.Each module consists of 3 rows of tubes. Spray nozzle is held across the header .5 O. are provided with three drains with two isolation valves . • The Pressure transmitter PT 070 for low pressure alarm. Motorised inlet isolation valve M 068A & M 068B are provided before the control valves and manual outlet isolation valve GT 248 & GT 249 are provided and remain normally open. before the flow transmitter FE 050A. x 3 Thk are made of SA213 T91 material. are kept closed connected to the Reheater 2 drain header through NRV 643 to Blowdown tank. The spray water for the Attemperator is obtained from the IP Boiler Feed water main. • The temperature transmitters TE 068A & B. which remain normally closed. The temperature transmitter TE. . These drains valves GT 642. Holes are drilled on the spray nozzle in the direction of steam flow.Operation & Maintenance Manual The function of the attemperator is to control the temperature of main steam at reheater 2 outlet to 567 ± 3°C.3.3 LP Section Components Description 3. The outlet line to Hot Reheat Line consists of • The temperature indicator TI 067. • The Pressure indicator PI 066. • The temperature point TP005. Temperature transmitter TE 068A & B provide steam temperature indication after the Reheater 2 to judge the effectiveness of attemperation. Attemperator is a header connecting from the bottom header of the module of Reheater 1 to the lower header of the module of reheater 2 . The spray water line connects to the spray nozzle of the attemporator through a non-return valve NRV 250.068A &B (1 out of 2) indicate the high & low temperature alarm through TIC 068. Steam after attemperation enters the lower header of the Reheater 2 module and rises to the top header of the same module with absorbing heat..

Operation & Maintenance Manual heat from the flue gas before discharging to the atmosphere. The signal is fed to the Recirculation pump discharge line control valve TCV 108 which regulates the control valve position accordingly to maintain the inlet temperature of DM water to CPH around 57°C. • Pressure gauge PI 101 for local pressure indication. A signal is fed to the feed regulating Controller HIC 080A.80 and segmented finned tubes of size 38.. • Recirculation pump FW3-PP. DM Water from Client enters to CPH through a three-way temperature control valve TCV 102.102) Bypass line is provided with the NRV (NRV 313) and isolation valve GT 314. x 2. DM water O/L piping from CPH is provided with following: • A Temperature indicator TI 049 after the tapping of the recirculation line. A recirculation line is provided parallel to the 3 way control valve (TCV.6 Thk. • Pressure transmitter PT 103 for remote indication of the pressure. Thus overall efficiency of the boiler is increased. • Temperature Indicator TI 048 is provided before an isolation valve GT 305 and a NRV 328.100 and also 250 NB x SCH. The recovered heat increases the temperature of DM water entering the LP Drum/deaerator. • A safety valve PSV 111 is provided in the discharge line of the recirculation pump.) • NRV valve NRV304 is provided in the inlet of the CPH inlet header.D. • An isolation valve GT327. • Flow element FE 104 is used to measure the flow of the CPH discharge line to the Dearetor /LP Drum. DM water I/L piping is provided with following: • Pressure control valve PCV 100 at CPH inlet is provided to delivered 15 bar pressure (at outlet of PCV 100) at inlet of three way control valve TCV 102. The recirculation line consists of the following • Isolation valve GT 306. Depending upon the set point three way control valve (TCV.302 with a motor M 106. To expel air from the CPH during charging and while draining air Individual vent valves are provided on the each module and the common vent GT 609 is provided on the top header. The 3 way control valve (TCV. • 3-way control valve TV 102 (Stack Temperature is fed to (TIC-102) where the process variable is compared with the local set point for generating the manipulated variable. • Pressure indicator PI 110 for local indication of the pressure. The CPH modules consist of a top and bottom header of size 200 NB x SCH. • A NRV valve NRV 311. • Pressure transmitter PT 131 A & B are provided for remote pressure low indication. • An Isolation valve GT 312. The CPH assembly is fully drainable by the drain valve provided on the bottom header.1 O. • Pressure transmitter PT 100 for indication /control of water pressure at the outlet of PCV 100.102) Bypass line. the recirculation line is provided to controls the inlet temperature of the DM water entering the CPH module. • Temperature transmitter TE 132 A & B are provided for remote temperature low indication. • Temperature transmitter TT 108A & TT 108B are provided in the inlet of CPH. • Temperature Element TE 100 for remote temperature indication . • A control valve TCV 108 is provided in the discharge of the recirculation pump. • A NRV 315 is provided in the discharge of the CPH. • Pressure indicator PI 105 for local indication of the pressure. This three-way control valve is to be throttled suitably to maintain LP drum/deaerator water outlet temperature. The drain line is connected to the LP drain header. • Flow element FT 107 is used to measure the flow of the recirculating water.102) regulates the flow of DM water through bypass & CPH to control the outlet temperature. A signal is fed to the feed regulating Controller HIC 080A. • Level control regulating station is provided with the two control valves FCV 080A & B in parallel with a motorized isolation valve M-080A & B and manual isolation valve GT 322 & GT325 Section B 34 .

3. The feed water control station is connected to the LP Steam Drum/ Deaerator through a feed water control station.drum level. In three-element control. the common inlet line branches into two parallel paths. 100% Feed Controller FCV-080A Motorized operated valve M080A is the inlet-isolating valve. Action of the control valve is air/ signal FAIL to OPEN. DM water is obtained from the client There are two feed control stations.2LP Feed Regulating Station When HRSG is in service. 3. Drain valves GT321 normally remain closed and are opened for draining only when the line is isolated for inspection/maintenance of valve FCV-080A. steam flow and feed water flow for positioning the control valve for its operation. LP Boiler Feedwater Regulating Station The feed water flow control station consists • 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 080A] • 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 080B] Both 100% control valve are provided with manual isolation valve at downstream of control valve [ GT322 & GT325]. out of which at least one must be in service when the HRSG is operational.Operation & Maintenance Manual for LP Drum /deaerator level control . The HRSG trips if water level in the drum is either too low or too high. • A NRV 329 is provided after the control valve . The drum level is measured by using differential pressure type level-transmitter LT 080A. feed flow & the feed control valve position can be monitored. current drum level. pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator and positioned by the DM water flow indicating controller [FIC-080] in order to maintain the normal water level at LP steam drum. The measured signal is taken as the process variable (PV) to the drum level controller [FIC 080]. This variable set point is compared to the actual feed water flow signal from [FE 104].3. must be kept continuously supplied with DM water to maintain near normal level in the LP drum / Deareter . The 100% flow control valve FCV 080A is capable of feeding the HRSG . GT322 is the outlet-isolating valve. Both the control valves controller HIC 080A & HIC 080B are fed with the signal from the FIC 080. The level controller control output (CV) is added with steam flow signal from the main steam line in a feed forward block. the drum level is controlled by the measurement of three process parameters (elements) . feedwater flow & steam flow. In remote. After the above. The valve position is transmitted. The three element control adopted for the 100% flow control valves FCV-080A takes into account the drum level. which acts as the measured variable for the controller [FIC-080]. B & C installed on the LP steam drum. The output of the feed forward block is used as a variable set point to the water flow-indicating controller [FIC 080]. The control output signal (CV) from the controller [FIC-080] will position the feed water control valve through a current-pneumatic converter. The flow transmitters (FE104) provide feed flow signal to the feed Indicating controller FIC-080. 100% Feed Controller FCV-080B It is exactly similar to FCV-080A described above except for its valve tag numbers.3. steam flow. The DM water flow control valve is a globe type valve. The feed regulating stations are now described.3LP Drum / Deaerator Figure 5 Section B 35 . which are normally open. This is done to achieve a better level control by taking corrective action in anticipation. on which are installed the two feed regulating stations mentioned earlier to be connected to a common line for feeding water to the LP Drum /Deaerator. This process variable (PV) is compared with the fixed set point (SP) in the drum level indicating controller block and a control signal (CV) is generated. FCV 080B is an identical stand by to FCV 080A is provided. Three-element feed water control system is provided to regulate the quantity of feedwater flowing into the LP drum to maintain the required water level in the LP steam drum.

Condensate from CPH flows into LP Drum /deaerator. Vent pipe has a valve GL362 to throttle or restrict the flow of venting steam as required in addition to this a pressure control valve PCV 083 is also provided at vapour tank vent. Feed water/condensate after spray at vapour tank enters to LP Drum /deaerator bank assembly.P. thus facilitates the steam flow from Deaertor tank to vapour tank. DM water from CPH enters into the vapour tank through the topside nozzle to the distribution header. the overall boiler thermal efficiency also increases. boiler tubes and other pressure parts of the boiler against corrosion and pitting. Vigorously scrubbing the water with this steam removes the last traces of dissolved O2 and brings down well below the recommended level in feed water. integral type. Deaeration removes the corrosive gases such as dissolved oxygen and free carbon dioxide from the boiler feed water. Further as the temperature of feed water/condensate is raised from 57 ° C temp. LP Drum /deaerator is of spray type. Chemical is dosed in the storage section of the LP Drum /deaerator through a header. Interconnection accommodates concentrically the steam balancing connection assembly. Partial scrubbing of the steam and water takes place in the storage tank water and the rest is taking place in the vapour tank with the incoming water spray. are liberated as solubility of gases decreases with increase in temperature. etc. Perforated Trays inside the Vapor tank increase the residence time of water and Heating Steam. Deaeration is done by heating the feed water/condensate with steam. The residual dissolved Oxygen can be further scavenged by the reaction with chemicals such as Hydrazine . drum. LP Drum /deaerator in which DM water/ condensate is heated to its boiling temperature at the operating pressure by steam. Drum is provided with perforated sheet as steam separator all risers ends inside this perforated plate box which separate moisture from steam this steam rises further & enters into vapour tank where it scrubs the incoming water & finally to atmosphere through vent condenser vent.02 to 0.P. Section B 36 .03 ppm. The LP Drum is connected to the LP Evaporator. LP Drum /deaerator storage tank is a LP steam drum having downcomers & riser bank tubes . Water is sprayed from the top of the vapour tank by spray nozzles . The dissolved Oxygen level in the feed water by mechanical deaeration can be brought to 0. Steam rises from the bottom of Storage Tank. This ensures protection of the feed water lines. Vapour tank is mounted upon the Deaeretor . L. steam lines. heating the water and rises through the interconnection pipe into the Vapor Tank. The dosing of the particular chemical is done in predetermined quantity and concentration. This interconnection nozzle is flushed with inner wall of the vapour tank’s dished end and embedded inside the water level of storage tank to facilitate the feed water flow from vapour tank to the storage tank. Carbon dioxide and other dissolved gases are vented out along with vent steam through the vent nozzle. By chemical scavenging the dissolved Oxygen level can be brought down to as low as 0. The mechanical scrubbing between water and heating steam ensures release of the dissolved gases. Oxygen.Operation & Maintenance Manual LP Drum/deaerator is Integral type of Dearator. At boiling point all the dissolved gases such as Oxygen.007 ppm. LP Drum /deaerator bank assembly consist of downcomer supply pipes. consists of a storage tank and a vapour tank. which is connected to the dosing system through a pipe with an isolation valve GT 361. Feed water flows to bottom headers through down comer pipes and steam & water mixture rises up through LP boiler bank tubes & finally through rises to the L. Feed water from vapour tank flows into the storage tank through the interconnection pipe.P. LP Drum /deaerator in this boiler is L. saves costly boiler re-tubing and expensive plant shutdowns. bottom & top headers interconnected with two modules of tube sheet & risers which supply steam to LP steam drum or storage tank. to LP Drum /deaerator operating temperature of 147° C and then fed to the LP Drum . The level control valve FCV 080A & B control the deaerater level. Perforated stainless steel trays at levels are placed inside the vapour tank to provide enough delay time to scrub the feed water with the upcoming steam. Spray nozzles are fixed on the header to spray the water into fine particles covering the entire cross section of the tank so that easy and complete scrubbing with steam is possible. This steam connection is projected inside the vapour tank and masked from the water flow direction by a hood fitted at the top. Both the tanks are connected with steam connection Nozzle at the middle. Carbon Dioxide. A sample cooler provided in the feed water outlet piping is used to collect the sample for analysis of water.

A Feed back control loop with the level indicating controller LIC 080 is provided for automatic level control Process variable signal for the level indicating controller is provided by the LT 080A. A Pressure control valve PCV 083 mounted on the top of the vapour tank is used to control the LP Drum /deaerator pressure through pressure transmitter PT 083A & B. Through the air vent. The Silencers are acoustically & mechanically designed to attenuate the large noise made during operation of these valves. once in three months to drain the line. B & C. Local pressure gauges PI-081A & B are also provided for LP Drum /deaerator pressure indication. Air vent Air vent GT 359 is provided on the vapor tank. The process fluid enters the annular space between the sound absorbing materials packing where the sound energy is absorbed throughout the length of the silencer. It provides the high high & Low Low alarm signal for remote indication. Other Connections • A connection from CBD tank is provided to storage tank through a valve M 095 & an NRV 613. Set point of the level controller is to be kept at ’0’ mmWC. Section B 37 . As the silencer contain no moving parts. Level in the storage take is measured by the level transmitter LT 080A. Apart from the remote level indication direct level gauge ( LI 082A & LI 082B) is provided for the local indication. LP Drum /deaerator Accessories And The Mountings LP Drum /deaerator Level Control The desired normal water level (NWL) of the storage tank is maintained through a level control valve describe in the LP feed regulating Station. The silencers are made out of suitable casing in which the sound absorbing materials are packed in a certain pattern & wrapped by scrim cloth and wire mesh to avoid ‘fly off’ of sound absorbing materials during operation of silencer at high flow rates. Water inlet & outlet piping going to the boiler feed water pumps recirculation. B & C. Steam and dissolved gases are vent out to the atmosphere. Air vent is provided with a globe Valves and the Pressure relief valve PCV 083 . Level in the storage take is measured by the level transmitter LT 080A. Relief valve would relieve the steam when there is excessive pressure build-up inside the vessels (system) or deaerater incase of sudden reduction of water out flow/ intake to LP Drum /deaerator or malfunctioning of pressure control loop. which corresponds to NWL.Operation & Maintenance Manual Platforms and ladders are provided for tanks and condenser for O & M feasibility. steam dump & startup valves are exhausted through Silencers. Process variable signal for the level indicating controller is provided by the LT 080A. • Feed water outlet connection . no operational care is needed except opening the drain plug provided in the drain line. The blowdown lines are connected to the BD Tank through NRV 613 & NRV 610 respectively. It also provide the high & Low Alarm for remote indication. Set pressures of the safety valves are 8 bar (a) & 9 bar (a). The Silencers are mounted on separate structures on top of the HRSG and the exhaust pipes form the valves are connected to the silencers. B & C. Pressure Relief Valve Two pressure relief valves (PSV 084A & PSV 084B) are mounted on the storage tank . The steam generated by the LP evaporator is used for deaerating the incoming plant condensate to rated temperature. • A Nozzle connected to a perforated pipe in the storage tank for chemical dosing connection. A Feed back control loop with the level indicating controller LIC 080 is provided for automatic level control to the level control valve FCV 080A & B. B & C. • A connection from EBD tank is provided to storage tank through a valve M 094 & an NRV 610. Pressure Control Flue gases leaving HP economiser I are led to the LP Evaporator where deaerated water is heated to 147°C depending upon the steam demand. Silencers Exhaust of various safety valves. The continuous blowdown line is connected to the storage tank through a valve GT630 and M 095 and Emergency Blowdown line is connected to the storage tank through a valve GT612 and M 094.

Saturated steam from the drum flows to the module of LP superheater upper header through saturated steam supply pipes from the steam header.1 module in LP Superheater.D. Serrated Evaporator tubes 38.D. These drains are connected to the LP drain header through isolating valve. x 2.3. LP Superheater LP Superheater Consists of single module. The air vents & drains Section B 38 . it consist of a top header and a bottom header.1 O.5LP Superheater Superheating of saturated steam from LP drum is done in LP Superheater. Evaporator consists of three modules. are provided with drain with isolation valves GT617 which is normally kept open. During its passage through the Evaporation module tubes.Operation & Maintenance Manual • A Manhole is provided each for storage and vapour tank. the hot water flows to the lower headers and then through Evaporation module tubes to the Evaporation module top headers. The temperature of final steam outlet at 286.3. 1rows per module. with tubes between the headers. The steam water mixture is led back to the drum from the evaporators through riser pipes. This drain is operated through the electrically operated drain valve (M 098) and drain to the IP Superheater drain header. The down carrier pipes from the Drum connect to the down comer header. • In the LP steam drum. Evaporator are of fullly drainable type & drains (one for each downcomer) have been provided on the down comer header of the HRSG. The top headers of the module are connected to the drum by riser tubes.6 Thk and material SA201 A1 are welded between the top & bottom headers 200 NB x SCH. Hot water flow to the evaporators from the drum and steam/water mixture flows to the drum from the Evaporators through risers. The LP Superheater lower headers (Lowest point). the steam/water mixture flows through the cyclones where water & steam are separated and saturated steam flows to the Superheaters.4LP Evaporator The Evaporators convert hot boiler water received from the Drum through down comer pipes into a steam water mixture by absorption of heat from the Gas Turbine exhaust gas. From the down comer header.5 °C. interconnecting pipes connect to all the lower headers of the Evaporator modules. The modules are hung from the top headers in the flue gas path. Superheater modules are hung from their top headers with provision for thermal expansion down wards & in the sides. A down comer header of the Evaporator spans all the Evaporator modules. Each module consists of three rows of tubes arranged between a top and bottom header. Superheaters are made of single module.1 O. It is not to be operated when the HRSG is in service as their opening may interfere with the natural circulation in the modules. The tubes are of size 38. These drains essentially are for draining the Evaporation modules after shut down of HRSG. Separated water mixes with boiler water to flow through the Evaporator modules again. The circulation through Evaporator modules takes place as follows: • Heated Boiler water from the drum flows through the down comer pipes to down comer header. 3. absorbing heat and travels down through the module tubes to lower header .B of each module to form the heat absorption surface. x 2. LP dosing system is described in subsequent pages of this manual. • A perforated pipe has been laid along the length of the drum and connected to the LP dosing line through a non-return valve NRV360 and an isolating valve GT 361. This circulation is assisted by the higher density of water in the down comer compared to the lower density of • water / steam mixture in evaporator and riser tubes The water / steam mixture from the top headers of the Evaporation module. Steam travels up from both the ends of lower header of the first module. • A N2 line is provided with a GT354 & NRV 355.6 Thk and made of SA201 A1 material. 3. flows behind the baffle chamber in the LP steam drum.120 and material SA 106 Gr . the hot water absorbs heat from the exhaust gases of the gas turbine and gets converted to a water/steam mixture. on two guide supports with provision for thermal expansion downward & in the sides. There are Serrated tubes per row. • From the down comer header.

The manually operated valve are kept open till the condensate is removed and once the condensate is removed it is close during normal operation of boiler. phosphate concentration • Maintain water level in the drum within permissible low and high levels.. 3. They are closed at a drum pressure of 2 To 5 Kg/cm². M 091 is a motor operated Isolating valve for start up vent. • Safety Valve PSV-085To take care of the pressure upset caused by sudden load cut. • Start Up Vent ValveValve PCV 091 is a pneumatically operated start up vent valve with a controller HIC-091. Steam flow compensation for feed water flow • HP Steam Temperature InputTemperature transmitter TT. Steam flow reading. which should not be bypassed • Maintain drum level gauge glasses in good working condition. The exhaust of the safety valve is piped to a silencer to reduce the noise levels when the safety valve is operating. • HP Steam Line Drain The steam line drain consists of the following valves. • HP Steam Pressure InputPressure transmitter PT. Temperature compensation signal to steam flow A temperature gauge TI 088 is provided for the local indication. Pressure Indicating controller PI-089A & B which provides LP steam Pressure High & low alarms .090A & B provide the LP steam temperature input for the following 1. 2. after steam pressure & temperature compensation is used for the following. 1. 2.3. It provides initial steam flow for the cooling of superheaters. closure of steam valves etc. integral by pass valve M092B.089A & B (1out of 2) provide the LP steam temperature input for the following 1. Operators may verify the readings of Level Transmitter with the readings of the drum level gauge glasses once a day • For a cold HRSG start up. a safety valve is provided on the main steam line at the Superheater outlet. This valve is provided with an electrically operated. The silencer is mounted on a separate structure on top of the HRSG. The start up vent valve is to be kept open while start up. The protection system envisages boiler trip at very high and very low levels. This is a spring-loaded. Manually operated valve GT 371. • A connection to the SWAS is provided with a valve GT 376. malfunctioning of firing system. valve set at 6.2 bar (a) pressure to protect the boiler against over pressures. • Drain superheaters thoroughly during startup • Thermal StressesThermal Stresses In Drum During Start Up And Shut Down Section B 39 .6LP Main Steam Line The LP steam line connects the bottom header of LP Super-heater module to the plant steam main This line incorporates the following • Electrically Operated LP Steam Stop Valve M092AThis valve Isolates the HRSG from the plant LP steam main. DM makeup water from boiler initial filling line at room temperature may be used to feed the HRSG by opening valves and the drain valves in Economizers and Evaporator. this line shall not be used and feeding is from the feed station. Steam Drum • Maintain Feed water. When water is filled up to low level in the drum. which may be used during hydro test. After Boiler start. the drain valves and filling line valve are closed. The flow transmitter reading. Boiler water quality. The safety valve is similar to Drum safety valves PSV-084A & PSV-084B described earlier.4 Operational Control This section explains the major operational control points described in this chapter. Pressure compensation signal to steam flow A pressure Indicator PI 086 for local indication. • Air VentGT 374 are air vent valves on the LP steam line. 3.093 is installed on the LP steam line after the MSSV valve to provide steam flow indication. • Flow Nozzle FE 093Flow nozzle FE.Operation & Maintenance Manual are opened before light up of the boiler to drain LP Superheater. The outlet of the start up vent valve is exhausted to atmosphere through a silencer.

Operation & Maintenance Manual Steam Drum is a large cylindrical shell. Boiler water temperature rise rate must not be above 100°C per hour till operating pressure is reached. If the shut down is in-ordinately delayed. initial filling is normally restricted to low level (say – 100 to 150 mm) and the smart Operator anticipates a swell and uses the EBD to drain and control the level.3 kg/cm2 of pressure is built up. High steam temperatures may mean high metal temperatures. Use of levers on hand wheels is not desired. which are not desirable and an alarm sounds at DCS. there is a increase of water level caused by increase in the volume of hot water. Methods of control of boiler water are also explained. To avoid this. When boiler is lighted up. The heat transfer is by conduction and is a bit slow. cm and after cooling to 80 °C Draining of Boiler water must preferably be done through the blow down tank. Such swelling. IP & LP boiler feed water (and attemperator water) fed to the HRSG is given in following Table: Section B 40 . HP secondary Super Heater & main steam temperatures must be monitored to see there is no excessive heat pick up. • Do not operate the HRSG with safety valves gagged. required for repairs. the inner and outer surfaces of the drum are at the same temperature. which may prolong the shut down. To monitor the skin metal temperature of the drum. During hot light ups they are opened for a few minutes Super heated steam temperatures at exit of HP primary Super Heater . They must be verified for tight closure before pressurizing. Passing safety valves must be attended during the next planned shut down. there are possibilities of larger secondary damages. Compare these figures with predicted performance values. 3. there can be differences of temperature between steam and water surfaces of the drum. instruments have been provided which may be checked during light ups. can cause a High Level trip. if not controlled. They must also be kept open before a cold start up till 2 . If a tube failure is detected. Important Note This chapter must be read in conjunction with the following vendor manuals • HP/ IP /LP dosing system • Steam and Water analysis system Suggested quality of HP.5 Water And Steam Quality Control And Monitoring Aim This chapter describes the standards for the boiler feed water and boiler water for corrosion and scale free operation of the HRSG and for obtaining pure steam. It may be possible to quickly repair the failed tube and return to service. • Swelling During HRSG startup. it is advisable to plan for an early shut down. Before light up of a boiler. as the Boiler water temperature reaches 90°C. the inner surface gets heated up first by the water (and then by steam) and transmits heat to the outer surface of drum. • EvaporatorsEvaporator module drains must not normally be opened after starting the HRSG. To minimize the thermal stresses. • Super Heaters & Attemporator Super heaters must be drained after shut down and cooling of the boiler. Manually operated valves must be closed hand tight only. Such a difference can set up thermal stresses. For short time after light up. the operator must restrict the firing rate when starting the HRSG by modulating the divertor damper. • GeneralBoiler water can be drained after a shut down only after depressurizing to 2 kg/sq.

Silica.005 < 0.2 <0. Copper.2 < 0.005 < 0. maximum permissible values for contaminants in feed water have been suggested in Table Section B 41 .007 Nil 8..Operation & Maintenance Manual Parameter General Appearance Total Hardness as CaCO3 Total Fe Total Cu Oxygen Oil & organics pH Total Dissolved solids Electrical Conductivity Silica SiO2 Note Units HP Section Clear & Colourless IP Section Clear & Colourless Commercial zero < 0.007 Nil 9.5 < 0. Considering all these factors.1 < 0.01 < 0.5-9.1 < 0.02 • Alkaline levels of feed water minimizes corrosion of steel • Chlorides.01 < 0.005 < 0. deposits on the inner surfaces of evaporator tubes and is harmful • Chlorides in boiler water depress the pH level and renders boiler water acidic and may cause accelerated corrosion • Oxygen in boiler water promotes corrosion of boiler tubes • Oil present in feed water deposit on tubes and interferes with heat transfer. present in the feed water concentrate further in Boiler water.007 Nil 8.5 ppm µs/cm ppm < 0.1 < 0. Iron. Their higher concentration calls for increased blow down (CBD) of boiler water causing loss of useful heat • Silica in boiler water vaporizes to SiO2 and escapes through steam • Copper present in water. Organic matter etc.02 ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Commercial zero < 0.02 LP Section Clear & Colourless Commercial zero < 0.2 < 0.5-9.3-9.01 < 0.5 < 0.

carry with it moisture & salt contaminants. Operational Control • The water chemistry for determining low levels of impurities in water calls for special instruments.8 – 11. special analytical procedures and an experienced chemist.6 Maintaining Quality Of Steam Good Quality steam is obtained if the following requirements are met: • Proper assembly of baffles. (Monitor the feed water conductivity & PH analysers) • Control of Boiler water quality as suggested above. Section B 42 . These should be available from the time of commissioning the boiler. Phosphate dosing must continuous operation.4 Nil < 300 < 21 Nil – Nil < 300 < 60 Minor permissible contaminants present in the HRSG feed water concentrate to high levels in boiler water due to continuous evaporation in the steam drum .7 — 10. which may bypass steam from the separation devices. the steam quality is directly affected as the attemporator spray water is by boiler feed water. be adjusted for 3.Operation & Maintenance Manual Following Table gives the Boiler Water Quality to be maintained in the Drum. The controls are described below. A procedure to systematically check the return condensates (particularly for contamination by Fe. during a boiler over haul. cyclone separators in the steam drum as per erection instructions (checked before commissioning of the Boiler) • Boiler feed water as per norms as suggested above. • In a chemical process plant. the cyclones. Two controls are exercised on Boiler water to avoid corrosion of HRSG tubes and the drum water .2 Nil < 50 < 0. Chlorides and Oil) must be established and contaminated condensate must be discarded. • pH & Conductivity meters must be calibrated once a month. • Monitor the saturation steam & main steam conductivity • Increase of saturation steam conductivity may be a warning for check of drum internals or maintaining high water levels in steam drum.9 < 60 10. The controls are: • Continuous blow control to restrict the contaminants to prescribed levels suggested for Boiler water Tri-sodium phosphate dozing to convert the hardness producing insoluble calcium. After several years of service. inspite of the best available demineralization facilities the boiler feed water may occasionally get contaminated by return condensate from the system. Recommended Boiler Water Quality Parameter Sodium Phosphate as PO4 Alkalinity as CaCO3 pH Oil & Organic Total dissolved solids Silica as SiO2 ppm ppm ppm Units ppm HP Section 16 –13 IP Section 40 – 34 LP Section - ppm < 10 9. It should be understood that if the quality of Boiler feed water deteriorates.evaporator circuits. Higher than permissible levels of Silica in boiler water will result in Silica carry over in steam. baffles and demisters are checked for damage or erosion holes.washed surfaces. magnesium salts to soluble sodium salts which can be drained by CBD and to maintain the alkalinity levels of boiler water. Steam which bypasses the separation device.

G & H) provides furnace temperature low & high for remote indications. which receives highly turbulent gases from gas turbines. After HP Evaporator • For Local indication Pressure indicator PI-207 and temperature indicator TI-208A. • The drain to the casing is provided with an isolation valve GT 161. Following instrumentation is provided in flue gas path of the HRSG on gas tight casing for various indication & controls: Before HP Superheater • Eight temperature transmitters (TE-200 A. Operation of the HRSG on the turbine exhaust gas (TEG) only is termed as ‘unfired mode’ of operation. • A pressure transmitters PT 201 provides furnace pressure low alarm for remote indications. gets affected drastically by gas mal-distribution.210 & temperature indicator TI211A. insulation and casing of HRSG and the Stack. The entire HRSG is enclosed in a gas tight casing and ducting enclosing the modules to provide a gas tight passage for the exhaust gas from the gas turbine. • Two Temperature transmitters (TE-209A & B) provides temperature high & low indication for remote indications. All these penetrations are suitably protected by expansion bellows to maintain a gas tight passage. The overlapping design of the insulation liners covering the insulation minimises penetration of flue gases into the insulation material. After IP Economiser • Local pressure gauge PI. C. HRSG.2 Detailed Description The steam drum & HRSG pressure part modules are supported on column structures. • A temperature indicator TI 202 is provided for the temperature and pressure indicator PI 203 for pressure measurement before HP Superheater. Specially designed studs hold the Ceramic/Min wool insulation material tightly to the ducting.213 & temperature indicator TI214. D. • Temperature Indicator TE – 212A & B provides temperature high & low indication for remote indications • Four pressure points (PP004A-PP004D) & Four temperature points (TP004A-TP004D) are provided . The liners prevent erosion & loss of Ceramic/Min wool fibre material. F. interconnecting pipes. TBW carries out computer simulation of the gas flow distribution to decide the design of included angle of transition ducting . B. • Four Pressure points (PP001A -PP001D) & Temperature points (TP 001A. E. • Four pressure points (PP003A-PP003D) & Four temperature points (TP003A-TP003D) are provided . The modules are covered fully with SS & CS sheet casing on all four sides. with appropriate openings for penetration of feed water lines. A careful design of included angle of transition ducting has been done for producing predictable HRSG performance & avoiding overheating of tubes. • Temperature Indicator TE – 215A & B provides temperature high & low indication for remote indications 4. Section B 43 . • Temperature indication TE –206A & B is provided before HP Superheater 1 to measure heat pickup in HP Superheater 2 & 3 and Reheater . to check for fouling in HP superheater modules. This system permits the outer casing to be at a very low temperature thus minimising the thermal expansion of the casing & thermal loads on GTG flange.001D ) are provided.1 AIM This chapter describes the Gas Turbine exhaust flow through the HRSG.Operation & Maintenance Manual 4 Flue Gas System 4. steam lines etc. • Four pressure points (PP002A-PP002D) & Four temperature points (TP002A-TP002D) are provided . After HP Economiser 3 • Local pressure gauge PI. Temperature and Pressure Indication Before HP Superheater 1 • For Local indication Pressure indicator PI-205 and temperature indicator TI-204. The casing is properly stiffened to enhance the rigidity of the ducting and casing. Exhaust gas from the gas turbine enters the HRSG through an expansion bellow. The HRSG design incorporates cold casing concept.

E & F for the low and high remote indications. • Local pressure gauge PI. B.217 & temperature indicator TI218A. • A pressure transmitter PT 221 for remote indication of the flue gas Stack inlet pressure. Section B 44 . Platforms are accessible from the ground by ladders. helical wind-breakers are built around the outer shell. Aviation warning lights are fitted at top elevations on the stack. NOx. Stack is a hollow structure. After Condensate preheater • Six Temperature Element TE – 222 A. & SOx emissions must be monitored and any abnormalities must be reported to the shift in-charge. After LP Evaporator • Temperature Indicator TE – 216A & B provides temperature high & low indication for remote indications • Local pressure gauge PI. is provided at suitable elevation on the Stack. Operational Control • The anticipated figures both steam / water and gas side has been given in following section. • Levels of CO. Stack has a manhole access at the lower end for inspection. • A drain is provided with an isolation valve GT162.CO & NOx (AT 225. Steam/Water side heat pick up across pressure parts like ♦ HP Superheater 3.Operation & Maintenance Manual • Four pressure points (PP005A-PP005D) & Four temperature points (TP005A-TP005D) are provided . Provision for installation of sampling probes for measurement of SOx .AT 224 & AT 223).219 and Temperature indicator TI 220A. Elaborate instrumentation has been provided to measure each of these factors. The operator shall familiarise himself with these figures. Stack (Chimney) The Turbine exhaust gas after CPH is exhausted through the Stack. The inlet Flue gas connection from the HRSG to the Stack is through expansion bellows to contain the thermal expansion of the HRSG ducts form the Stack. A Motorized Damper M 228 is provided on the stack . • Four pressure points (PP007A-PP007D) & Four temperature points (TP007A-TP007D) are provided . On the top side of the Stack. IP & LP Evaporator Modules ♦ HP & IP Economisers ♦ Condensate Preheater Evaluating these figures the operator should decide to check during shut down. There are platforms providing access to the aviation lights. • A provision for installation of sampling probes for measurement of O2 (AT 226) is provided. • Healthiness of aviation warning lamps is to be check periodically. Alarms also have been provided to alert the operator in case of deviations for several of these readings • Operator attention is needed particularly for the following – Turbine Exhaust Gas (TEG) inlet pressure and temperature – Gas side pressure and temperature drop. 2 & 1 ♦ Reheater 1 & 2 ♦ HP . sample probes and ease of repainting the Stack. D. Stack is supported on concrete foundations on a circular frame fabricated. to provide stability to the Stack against wind forces. A drain is provided at the bottom of the Stack with an isolation valve GT160. C.. A temperature element TE 227A & B provides the low and high remote temperature indication.

Operation & Maintenance Manual 5 Drain & Dosing System Boiler Blowdown System Aim This chapter describes the HRSG blow down system for safe draining of high pressure / High temperature steam and water from the boiler using the blow down tanks System Description The P & I Diagram of drains & vents shows the various drains & vents from the HRSG. HP . IP & LP steam drum. IP & LP steam line. Section B 45 . IP & LP saturated & superheated drain header. Large quantities of steam or high pressure/temperature water are not to be drained through open canals for the following reasons: • Such draining will cause splashing of higher volumes of steam which can be a nuisance by the noise it creates and also it affects the visibility around the draining area • High temperature of these drains can cause scalding injures to workmen if they come into contact with it • The force and temperature of these drains will erode the linings of the drain canals Table below is a summary of such drains. HP . HP .

No Source Sections HP Drum 1 Continuous blow down IP Drum LP Drum HP Drum 2 Emergency blow down IP Drum LP Drum Valve Nos GT 674 . to aid separation of steam and water by their differences in densities. M 095 GT 675 . quantity depending on quality of boiler water Occasional during high levels in drum. Other Drains It can be seen that drains have been provided in the feed water line and the attemperator spray water lines connected to the drain canal. As these drains are either for operation to drain these lines after an isolation or for short time during charging. M 094 Temp of drain °C Up to 310°C Up to 217°C Up to 145°C Up to 310°C Up to 217°C Up to 145°C Draining HPsuper-heaters during initial startup & after a shut down. • Repeating the sampling.Operation & Maintenance Manual High Pressure / High Temperature Steam And Water Drains SL. NRV 608 LHS 5 6 IP Drain header Varying from 60°C to 217°C 7 LP Drain header Varying from 60°C to 145°C The drains indicated in above table are connected to the continuous & intermediate blow down tank. • Analyzing the sample for conductivity. Draining Reheater during initial startup & after a shut down. Fe. analysis and repositioning the CBD valve after certain interval is necessary to maintain the required Boiler water quality. Continuous Blow Down Control (CBD) CBD control involves the following operations • Obtaining a sample of boiler water from the steam drum. M 078 GT 612 . NRV 649 GT 695 . NaCl. laid along the water space in Section B 46 . Their connections to the open canal is not expected to pose a problem. and working out a rate of draining of boiler water to maintain the concentrations as suggested in Table Boiler water. NRV 689 Varying from 100°C to 567°C Varying from 100°C to 567°C Varying from 100°C to 310°C 4 GT 650 . NRV 606 GT 607 . during start up. etc. a chemist and a laboratory round the clock. Silica. hardness. NRV 623 GT 624 . NRV 625 LHS RHS GT 605 . This system of manual control requires the services of a sampler. NRV 697 GT 669 . The arrangement provided for CBD control is: A perforated pipe. NRV 670 LHS RHS GT 622 . M 079 GT 630 . Draining of HP Evaporator & HP Economiser modules after shutdown Draining of IP Evaporator & IP Economiser modules after shutdown Draining of CPH & LP Evaporator modules after a shut down Frequency of usage Continuous. The drains are connected tangentially in the upper half of the drum to direct the drain fluid circumferential around the inner wall of the tank. M 040 GT 631 . • Positioning the CBD valve is to be decided depending on the sample analysis. 3 HP SH Drain header Reheater Drain header RHS HP Drain Header GT 688 . The blow down tank is capable of separating steam from the drain water. M 039 A &B GT 628 .

the CBD sample and the feed water samples are analysed in addition for pH also. Adjusting the speed or the stroke of the pump provided as described below can control quantity of dosing. The tri-sodium phosphate at the suggested levels. This is required to ensure the sample at any time to the SWAS is truly representative of the sample being analysed. • A temperature Element TE 096A & B are in the Drain line after the Quenching arrangement. insoluble calcium and magnesium salts which forms the residual hardness of boiler water. sodium salts. Excess as well as reduced phosphate levels in Section B 47 . The specific requirements of the analyzers are that the pressure and temperature of the sample must be rigidly controlled within permissive values (see vendor manual). CE & pHE are the conductivity and pH analysers installed on the sample line. The feed back from the TE 096 A & B to the the controller TIC 096 controls the TCV 096 Operation . While all the samples above are analysed for conductivity by separate analysers. Emergency Blow Down Control (EBD) Blowdown tank (BD Tank) BD Tank is provided with the following • A Level gauge LI 096 • A vent is provided. maintains the alkalinity of the boiler water (pH 10 to 11) and also converts the harmful. This continuous flow also ensures that these lines do not get choked for want of adequate flow. CBD valve is normally kept open to maintain small continuous flow of boiler water to the blow down tank. IP & LP header of HRSG. • Samples of boiler water (CBD) from the HP . EBD connection is provided with an isolating valve and an motorised valve . • After the drain valve GT 708 the Quenching water arrangement is provided . IP & LP steam drum of HRSG. The Analysers are to be maintained as per vendor instruction. This package provides analysis of the following samples to provide a comprehensive information of quality of steam and water of HRSG. In such case when there is an emergency condition an EBD connection from the Drum is provided.Operation & Maintenance Manual the steam drum connects through a stub to the continuous blow down line. IP & LP feed water. in the form of a soft sludge. • An Over flow connection is provided which is connected at the Drain line through a valve GT708.) and a bypass line with a valve GT 706. Tri-sodium phosphate dosing to Boiler water to maintain its phosphate content at 8 to 10 PPM. The EBD connection is connected to the Blowdown tank. • Samples of main steam from HP . • A control valve TCV 096 with a inlet and outlet isolation valve GT 704 (2 nos. • Samples of HP . to be drained by the CBD. HP Dosing Figure 6 EBD control involves the following operations During Startup of the boiler the Drum level which is maintained at NWL suddenly rises due the swelling of the drum water. • CBD line from drum connects to the blow down tank. Phosphate dosing prevents corrosion of the water washed parts of the steam drum and the evaporator tubes. The Quenching water line consists of the following • A Flow transmitter FE 097 for the measurement of the quenching water in the Blow down tank. Sampling of CBD / Boiler water is done in SWAS at customer end. • A tap off from the CBD line is taken to the sample cooler for continuous analysis of boiler water conductivity and also for a grab sample. to being soluble. The isolating valve is kept open and the motorised valve controls the Drum level .

• The water inlet valve (BL 561) is opened to admit water (from the DM water line). after stopping the pump and closing its inlet and outlet isolating valves. BL 568. positive displacement type. opening the inlet and the two outlet valves of the pump. The stroke of the plunger can be altered. A safety relief valve PSV 120A & B has also been fitted on the discharge line to relieve any over pressures in case of closure of valves on the discharge line. Out of the two pumps. Availability of a minimum level is a precondition for starting and running of the stirrer. • Gauge glass inlet cocks are opened and its drain is closed. Mixing Tank The Mixing tank is a carbon steel with rubber lining covered cylindrical vessel of 600 litres capacity with a level indicating gauge glass LI-122. The pump is started by switching on the motor. a tank drain line with a manual isolating valve BL 565. • The lid of the tank is opened. Local module). The relief valve must be tested for its operation at the set pressure at least once a year. The Y strainer is to be cleaned once a month. The pressure gauge is observed. The outlet of the relief valve is returned to the mixing tank. • The pump is prepared by opening the outlet valve from the mixing tank. DM water inlet line (with a manual isolating valve) BL 561. the water inlet valve is closed. a pressure gauge PI-120A & B and an outlet-isolating valve BL 577 & BL 578 is fitted before the common discharge line. higher than the steam drum pressure. An accumulator on the pump discharge line dampens the pulsations which Section B 48 . The isolating valve is verified open before boiler light up and normally remains open all the time. and a calculated quantity of phosphate to prepare 600 liters of solution is placed in the basket and lid closed. a basket for placing required quantity of tri-sodium phosphate powder for preparation of the solution. Phosphate dosing is through a perforated pipe along the full length of the water space in the drum. • The stirrer is placed in service for 30 minutes by operating its switch in the local module. The pumps are interlocked such that when a working pump trips. The pumps are plunger operated reciprocating. The vendor manual of the pump and gearbox is to be referred for full information on construction and parts detail. Y strainer traps dirt or other solid particles in its basket. The level of the mixing tank is monitored by level gauge (LI-122). A motor operated stirrer M 120 is also fitted for preparation of chemical solutions. (The phosphate dosing is also some times called as "HP dosing" as the pump used develops high pressure to dose against the boiler drum pressure). Each pump is connected to a common discharge line with the following valve arrangement: • An inlet valve with a "Y" type strainer at the pump inlet. out of which one is for service at a time and the other is a standby. The common discharge line is connected to the HP dosing line of the steam drum through an NRV 053 and an isolating valve GT 052. Availability of a minimum level in the mixing tank is a pre condition for starting or running of the dosing pumps. • DM Water source for preparation of the phosphate solution as well as for flushing. Phosphate Dosing Pumps Two phosphate dosing pumps have been provided. The pump must not be operated with the relief valve continuously operating (cause of relief valve operation must be found and rectified). Preparation of 5% Phosphate Solution in The Tank • Tank drain valve BL 565 is closed. Two minutes are allowed after opening the inlet valve for the pump to get filled with phosphate solution. The level gauge is watched and when the level in the tank is nearly full. • Two dosing pumps. A solution inlet connection to the pumps with a manual isolating valves BL 567. • On the discharge side of the pump. It should show a reading. one pump is selected for service and the other is in reserve (DCS macro. the reserve pump starts automatically A phosphate pump is placed immediately in service after the HRSG start up in the following manner: • Boiler water sample is analyzed and phosphate content is determined. Availability of a minimum level is a pre-requisite for starting or continued service of a dosing pump. The equipment provided for phosphate dosing ("HP dosing") as shown in P & I diagram consists of: • A 600 liter mixing tank for preparation of 5% tri-sodium solution.Operation & Maintenance Manual Boiler water should be avoided.

out of which one is for service at a time. Preparation of 5% Phosphate Solution In The Tank • Tank drain valve BL 535 is closed. Any abnormal noise from the pump. insoluble calcium and magnesium salts which forms the residual hardness of boiler water. • The stirrer is placed in service for 30 minutes by operating its switch in the local module. a basket for placing required quantity of tri-sodium phosphate powder for preparation of the solution. Each pump is connected to a common discharge line with the following valve arrangement: • An inlet valve with a "Y" type strainer at the pump inlet. The level of the mixing tank is monitored by level gauge (LI-125). Availability of a minimum level is a precondition for starting and running of the stirrer. The level gauge is watched and when the level in the tank is nearly full. • Gauge glass inlet cocks are opened and its drain is closed. Mixing Tank The Mixing tank is a carbon steel with rubber lining covered cylindrical vessel of 300 liters capacity with a level indicating gauge glass LI-125. motor or gearbox is noted. to be drained by the CBD. The stroke of the plunger can be altered. If the level falls to 25% of the gauge glass level. maintains the alkalinity of the boiler water (pH 10 to 11) and also converts the harmful. Adjusting the speed or the stroke of the pump provided as described below can control quantity of dosing. a tank drain line with a manual isolating valve BL 535. • Two dosing pumps. and the other is a standby. • The water inlet valve (BL 531) is opened to admit water (from the DM water line). The pump speed stroke is increased or decreased to maintain the phosphate content within 8 to 10 PPM by continuous pump operation. after stopping the pump and closing its inlet and outlet isolating valves. in the form of a soft sludge. the phosphate pumps and the line are flushed with water to keep them clean. (The phosphate dosing is also some times called as "IP dosing" as the pump used develops high pressure to dose against the boiler drum pressure). Y strainer traps dirt or other solid particles in its basket. A solution inlet connection to the pumps with a manual isolating valves BL 537. additional solution is prepared as stated above. DM water inlet line (with a manual isolating valve) BL 531. The phosphate solution level is observed in the mixing tank by the gauge glass. The equipment provided for phosphate dosing ("IP dosing") as shown in P & I diagram consists of: • A 300 liter mixing tank for preparation of 5% tri-sodium solution. A motor operated stirrer M 123 is also fitted for preparation of chemical solutions. Flushing the phosphate pump and the lines with water during long stoppage of the HRSG: If the HRSG is to be stopped for more than a few days for servicing or maintenance. and a calculated quantity of phosphate to prepare 300 liters of solution is placed in the basket and lid closed. BL 538. • DM Water source for preparation of the phosphate solution as well as for flushing. Phosphate Dosing Pumps Two phosphate dosing pumps have been provided. positive displacement type. The vendor manual of the pump and gearbox is to be referred for full information on construction and parts detail. Every four hours. Excess as well as reduced phosphate levels in Boiler water should be avoided. sodium salts. If there are no abnormalities the pump is allowed to run. The pumps are plunger operated reciprocating. Availability of a minimum level is a pre-requisite for starting or continued service of a dosing pump. the phosphate content in the boiler water is checked by laboratory sample analysis and also by the pH meter. • On the discharge side of the pump. to being soluble. The Y strainer is to be cleaned once a month. Phosphate dosing prevents corrosion of the water washed parts of the steam drum and the evaporator tubes. • The lid of the tank is opened. IP Dosing Tri-sodium phosphate dosing to Boiler water to maintain its phosphate content at 30 to 35 PPM. the water inlet valve is closed.Operation & Maintenance Manual otherwise would be there as this is a positive displacement reciprocating pump. The tri-sodium phosphate at the suggested levels. a pressure gauge PI-123A & B and an outlet-isolating Section B 49 . The safety relief valve should not also be operating.

Phosphate dosing is through a perforated pipe along the full length of the water space in the drum. one pump is selected for service and the other is in reserve (DCS macro. • The pump is prepared by opening the outlet valve from the mixing tank. If the level falls to 25% of the gauge glass level. Two minutes are allowed after opening the inlet valve for the pump to get filled with phosphate solution.Operation & Maintenance Manual valve BL 547 & BL 548 is fitted before the common discharge line. The relief valve must be tested for its operation at the set pressure at least once a year.5% Hydrazine solution. Every four hours.007 ppm. Adjusting the speed or the stroke of the pump provided as described below can control quantity of dosing. The pump is started by switching on the motor. Excess as well as reduced Hydrazine in Boiler water should be avoided. a tank drain line with a manual isolating valve BL 505. • DM Water for preparation of the Hydrazine solution as well as for flushing. Preparation of 2. maintains the alkalinity of the boiler water in Dearator and thus chemical deaeration is done in the deaerator. the phosphate content in the boiler water is checked by laboratory sample analysis and also by the pH meter. LP dosing Hydrazine is dosed to Boiler water to maintain the Dissolved O2 to 0. Out of the two pumps. higher than the steam drum pressure. The common discharge line is connected to the HP dosing line of the steam drum through an NRV 256 and an isolating valve GT 257. motor or gearbox is noted. The level of the mixing tank is monitored by level gauge (LI 128). It should show a reading. Section B 50 . A DM water inlet line (with a manual isolating valve) BL 501. LP Mixing Tank The Mixing tank is a carbon steel with rubber lining covered cylindrical vessel of 600 liters capacity. additional solution is prepared as stated above. with a level indicating gauge glass LI 128. the reserve pump starts automatically A phosphate pump is placed immediately in service after the HRSG start up in the following manner: • Boiler water sample is analyzed and phosphate content is determined.5 % Hydrazine Solution in the LP Tank • Tank drain valve BL 505 is closed. the phosphate pumps and the line are flushed with water to keep them clean. An accumulator on the pump discharge line dampens the pulsations which otherwise would be there as this is a positive displacement reciprocating pump. Local module). A safety relief valve PSV 123A & B has also been fitted on the discharge line to relieve any over pressures in case of closure of valves on the discharge line. The pump speed stroke is increased or decreased to maintain the phosphate content within 30 to 35 PPM by continuous pump operation. If there are no abnormalities the pump is allowed to run. (The dosing is also some times called as "LP dosing" as the pump used develops high pressure to dose against the boiler drum pressure). The pressure gauge is observed. The safety relief valve should not also be operating. A solution inlet connection to the pumps with a manual isolating valves BL 507 & BL 508 . Flushing the phosphate pump and the lines with water during long stoppage of the HRSG: If the HRSG is to be stopped for more than a few days for servicing or maintenance. opening the inlet and the two outlet valves of the pump. a basket for placing required quantity of Hydrazine for preparation of the solution. • Two dosing pumps. The pumps are interlocked such that when a working pump trips. Availability of a minimum level in the mixing tank is a pre condition for starting or running of the dosing pumps. The Hydrazine at the suggested levels. Availability of a minimum level is a pre-requisite for starting or continued service of a dosing pump. Any abnormal noise from the pump. The isolating valve is verified open before boiler light up and normally remains open all the time. The phosphate solution level is observed in the mixing tank by the gauge glass.A motor operated stirrer M 126 is also fitted for preparation of chemical solutions. The equipment provided for Hydrazine dosing ("LP dosing") as shown in P & I diagram consists of: • A 600 liter mixing tank for preparation of 2. The pump must not be operated with the relief valve continuously operating (cause of relief valve operation must be found and rectified). The outlet of the relief valve is returned to the mixing tank.

one pump is selected for service and the other is in reserve (DCS macro. • The lid of the tank is opened.Operation & Maintenance Manual • Gauge glass inlet cocks are opened and its drain is closed. the water inlet valve is closed. and the other is a standby. The common discharge line is connected to the LP dosing line of the steam drum through an NRV 360 and an isolating valve GT 361. and a calculated quantity of Hydrazine to prepare 600 liters of solution is placed in the basket and lid closed. Two minutes are allowed after opening the inlet valve for the pump to get filled with Hydrazine solution. The outlet of the relief valve is returned to the mixing tank. Availability of a minimum level is a precondition for starting and running of the stirrer. Availability of a minimum level in the mixing tank is a pre condition for starting or running of the dosing pumps. the reserve pump starts automatically. higher than the steam drum pressure. Hydrazine LP Dosing Pumps Two Hydrazine dosing pumps. The stroke of the plunger can be altered. • The water inlet valve (BL 501) is opened to admit water (from the DM water line). The level gauge is watched and when the level in the tank is nearly full.126A & B have been provided. Any abnormal noise from the pump. The pumps are plunger operated reciprocating. a listing of these protections will only be made with brief notes on their significance. Section B 51 . If the level falls to 25% of the gauge glass level. The pump must not be operated with the relief valve continuously operating (cause of relief valve operation must be found and rectified). The pump is started by switching on the motor. opening the inlet and the two outlet valves of the pump. M. motor or gearbox is noted. The vendor manual of the pump and gearbox is to be referred for full information on construction and parts detail. 6 Aim HRSG System Protection This chapter lists out various protections and interlocks provided in the HRSG. Local panel). the Hydrazine pumps and the line are flushed with water to keep them clean. Each pump is connected to a common discharge line with the following valve arrangement • An inlet valve BL 507 & BL 508 with a "Y" strainer at the pump inlet. A safety relief valve PSV 126A & B has also been fitted on the discharge line to relieve any over pressures in case of closure of valves on the discharge line. additional solution is prepared as stated above. As the system protections and interlocks have been described in the preceding chapters along with the description of equipment. Testing of these interlocks & protections is to be done before the first start up of HRSG and at suitable intervals subsequently. A Hydrazine pump is placed immediately in service after the HRSG start up in the following manner: • The pump is prepared by opening the outlet valve from the mixing tank. The Y strainer is to be cleaned once a month. The pressure gauge is observed. Y strainer traps dirt or other solid particles in its basket. It should show a reading. • On the discharge side of the pump. The isolating valve is verified open before boiler light up and normally remains open all the time. If there are no abnormalities the pump is allowed to run. • The stirrer is placed in service for 30 minutes by operating its switch in the local panel. The Hydrazinesolution level is observed in the mixing tank by the gauge glass. The pumps are interlocked such that when a working pump trips. out of which one is for service at a time. Hydrazine dosing is through a perforated pipe along the full length of the water space in the drum. after stopping the pump and closing its inlet and outlet isolating valves. An accumulator on the pump discharge line dampens the pulsations which otherwise would be there as this is a positive displacement reciprocating pump. Out of the two pumps. The safety relief valve should not also be operating. positive displacement type. The relief valve must be tested for its operation at the set pressure at least once a year. Flushing the hydrazine pump and the lines with water during long stoppage of the HRSG: If the HRSG is to be stopped for more than a few days for servicing or maintenance. The motor is provided with a variable frequency drive through a gearbox for continuous speed control. a pressure gauge PI-126A & B and an outlet-isolating valve BL517 & BL 518 is fitted before the common discharge line.

ESD guides the operator in preparing the HRSG in an orderly manner to ensure availability of all essential inputs before starting the HRSG and monitoring their availability all the time when the HRSG is in service.Operation & Maintenance Manual Protections Among various protections provided. Any malfunction noted during operation has to be attended early. Full Load). Heat input to HRSG is from: • Gas turbine exhaust gas which can be controlled by GT operation at Different operating mode (viz FSNL . Spinning Reserve . Any of the following conditions cause tripping of the HRSG • HP Drum level very Low • HP Steam outlet pressure very High • IP Drum level very Low • LP Drum level very Low • GT Exhaust gas Pressure high Operational Control The interlocks are to be tested before commissioning. Section B 52 . The boiler protections are implemented through the emergency shut down (ESD) logics. Repeat tests are advised once a year.

To achieve. Drum level as primary element. Feed water flow as secondary element and steam flow as third element (feed forward).element control the drum level signal is compared with the fixed set point (+25mmWC) in the drum level indicating controller 31HPDLIC003B. Water flow and Steam flow are the references to control the water flow. 7. The drum pressure is measured by pressure transmitter 31HPDPT003A. output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. 31HPDPT003C & measured drum pressure are PV for function block 31HPDPY003 (Median block). better drum level control. Dw – Density of water (To be taken from the enclosed table) Ds – Density of Steam (To be taken from the enclosed table) H — Water head on LP side. 31HFW FS-003A is mode selector switch which changes single element control to three elements control and three elements control to single element control. The feed forward output use as a remote set point to feed water flow indicating controller 31HFWFIC003A.The median drum level is PV to drum level controllers 31HPDLIC003A and 31HPDLIC003B.1000 to 0 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0 to 100 %. The compensated drum level values are the PV for function block 31HPDLY003 (Median block). wet head leg which is to be feed as constant = 100 Section B 53 . 31HPDLT003C & measured drum level is compensated (density) in function block 31HPDLY003A. The drum level signal is compared with the fixed set point in the drum level-indicating controller & output of drum level controller 31HPD LIC003A is given to feed water flow control valve 31HFWFCV003AJYPA. 31HPDPT003B. If steam flow decreases below 70 TPH(25%) then control will change to single element control. The feed water flow signal is compared with the remote set point in the feed water flow indicating controller & output of feed water flow controller 31HFWFIC003A is given to feed water flow control valve 31HFWFCV003BJYPA & 31HFWFCV003CJYPA through manual loader 31HFWHIC003B & 31HFWHIC003C respectively. The Drum pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 140 Kg/Cm2 (g) and correspondence indication shall 0 – 140 Kg/Cm2 (g). Single-element drum level control for low loads and Three-elements drum level control for normal & high load. 31HPD LY003B & 31HPD LY003C shall be configured to Pressure compensated /corrected drum level indication can be obtained from equation below Where ‘Hm’ is the corrected level indication. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Single Element Drum Level ControlIn single element only Drum level is the reference level to control the feed water flow. a feed forward action is added to in the form of steam flow in function block 31HPSFX003A. Three Element Drum Level Control In Three elements Drum level. If steam flow increases beyond 85 TPH(30%) then control will change to three elements control. [The range of DP in above equation is also to be taken as (– 100 to 0 cmWC)] Hm – Compensated drum level signal.Ds)} / (Dw . 31HPDLY003B & 31HPDLY003C with median drum pressure. Control action of the feed water flow controller 31HFWFIC003A & Drum level controller 31HPD LIC003B is Reverse. Drum level density compensation Computing block 31HPD LY003A. Single element & Three element drum level control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water flowing into the drum to maintain required water level in the drum. The Drum level transmitter is calibrated for .Operation & Maintenance Manual 7 Aim Automatic Controls To describe the automatic controls provided for operation of the HRSG. In three .Ds ) Where: DP = differential pressure measured by level transmitter (DPT). Control action of the Drum level controller 31HPD LIC003A is Reverse. The drum level measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type level transmitters 31HPDLT003A. 31HPDLT003B.1 Drum Level Control HP Drum Level Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the drum Level at the normal operating level in drum. Two modes of operation are provided for drum level control. Hm = {Delta p + H (Da .

Ds) Here. which shall be in scale range 0 to 100 cm (Hm output should be blocked in this range). 31HFWFT003B & 31HFWFT003C these are connected across flow element 31HFWFE003A. Head on HP = Hm *Dw + (H-Hm)*Ds Head on LP = H *Da Delta p = HP. Steam flow (Pressure compensation & temperature) P1 = Measured Pressure Signal in Bar (g) T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in °C P2 = Flow nozzle Rated Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2g T2 = Flow nozzle Rated Temperature Signal in Deg. Square root for feed water flow shall be done in smart transmitter. C Normal Flow = 279. C Flow nozzle Rated Pressure = 104 Kg/Cm2 (g) Flow nozzle Rated Temp = 567.15) / √ (P2+1.15) Where: Hm = {delta p + H (Da-Ds)}/ (Dw. 31HFWSFY003B & 31HFWFY003C with average temperature. water Density at 30 Deg. Feed water flow (Temperature) compensation Computing block 31HFWFY003A. 31HPSPT025B & measured steam pressure are PV for function block 31HPSPY025 (Average block). c Hm calculated from above formula is density corrected drum level. 31HPSFY003B & 31HPSFY003C shall be configured to Pressure & temperature compensated steam flow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated Steam Flow in TPH = Indicated Steam Flow in TPH * √ (P1 + 1. Square root for steam flow shall be done in smart transmitter. (Constant =0. 31HPSFY003B & 31HPSFY003C with average pressure & average temperature. The Attemperator water flow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type Attemperator water flow transmitter 31HFWFT0034 this is connected across flow element 31HFWFE034.996). The steam flow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type steam flow transmitter 31HPSFT003D.LP =Hm (Dw-Ds) – H (Da-Ds) Computing block 31HPSFY003A. The median feed water flow is PV to feed water flow controller 31HFWFIC003A.029) * (T1+273.C. The measured Steam flow is compensated (Average pressure & average temperature) in function block 31HPSFY003A.3 Deg. 31HFWFY003B & 31HFWFY003C shall be Section B 54 . 31HFWTE001B & measured feed water temperature are PV for function block 31HFWTY001 (Average block) The compensated feed water flow values are the PV for function block 31HFWFY003 (Median block).50.996 gm/cm3 at 30 deg. The feed water flow is measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type feed water flow transmitter 31HFWFT003A. 31HPSFT003E & 31HPSFT003F these are connected across flow element 31HPS FE003B. H = 100 cm. The steam pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31HPSPT025A. The compensated steam flow values are the PV for function block 31HPSFY003 (Median block) The compensated steam flow is subtracted with Attemperator water flow in function block 31HFWFX003. this value shall be scaled for (-)475 to (+)525 mmwc display range on DCS . 31HFWPT002B & measured feed water pressure are PV for function block 31HFWPY002 (Average block). This is indicated in DCS as 31HFWPI002 The feed water temperature measured by thermocouple 31HFWTE001A. Da = 0.Operation & Maintenance Manual Da – Wet leg density.2 TPH Sizing flow = 400 TPH Feed Water Flow Controller Remote Set-point (31HPSFX003A) = Drum Level Controller (31HPD LIC003B) O/P in % + Steam flow (31HFWFX003) O/p in %. The measured feed water flow is compensated in function block 31HFWFY003A. The steam temperature measured by temperature transmitter 31HPSTT026A. The feed water pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31HFWPT002A.029) * (T2+273. Square root for Attemperator water flow shall be done in smart transmitter. 31HPSTT026B with thermocouple 31HPSTE026A. 31HPSTE026B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31HPSTY026 (Average block).

Operation & Maintenance Manual

configured to Temperature compensated feed water flow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated FW Flow in TPH = Indicated FW Flow in TPH * √ (T2+273.15) / √ (T1+273.15) Where: T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in deg. C T2 = Flow nozzle Operating Temperature Signal in deg. C Flow nozzle design Temp = 151 deg. C Normal Flow = 282.8 TPH Sizing flow = 400 TPH Indications and alarms to be configured as shown in the control schematic. Water Flow Totaliser 31HFWFIQ-003 & Steam Flow Totaliser 31HPSFIQ-003 blocks to be configured All process value should be record for reports & trends Drum Level high-high alarm configured in function block 31HPDLAHH003A, 31HPDLAHH003B & 31HPDLAHH003C. 31HPDLAHH003 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31HPDLX003A. Drum Level low-low alarm configured in function block 31HPDLALL003A, 31HPDLALL003B & 31HPDLALL003C. 31HPDLALL003 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31HPDLX003B. Whenever drum level high-high or low-low alarm occurs trip the boiler that is Trip the GT. IP Drum Level Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the drum Level at the normal operating level in drum. Two modes of operation are provided for drum level control. Single element & Three element drum level control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water flowing into the drum to maintain required water level in the drum, Single-element drum level control for low loads and Three-elements drum level control for normal & high load. 31IFW FS-050A is mode selector switch which changes single element control to three elements control and three elements control to single element control. If steam flow increases beyond 13TPH(30%) then control will change to three elements control. If steam flow decreases below 10TPH(25%) then control will change to single element control.

Single Element Control:In single element only Drum level is the reference level to control the feed water flow. The drum level signal is compared with the fixed set point (0 mmWC) in the drum level-indicating controller & output of drum level controller 31IPD LIC050A is given to feed water flow control valve 31IFWFCV050AJYPA & 31IFWFCV050BJYPA through manual loader 31IFWHIC050A & 31IFWHIC050B respectively. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the Drum level controller 31IPD LIC050A is Reverse. Three Element Control: In Three elements Drum level, Water flow and Steam flow are the references to control the water flow. Drum level as primary element, Feed water flow as secondary element and steam flow as third element (feed forward). In three - element control the drum level signal is compared with the fixed set point in the drum level indicating controller 31IPDLIC050B. To achieve, better drum level control, a feed forward action is added to in the form of steam flow in function block 31IPSFX050A. The feed forward output use as a remote set point to feed water flow indicating controller 31IFWFIC050A. The feed water flow signal is compared with the remote set point in the feed water flow indicating controller & output of feed water flow controller 31IFWFIC050A is given to feed water flow control valve 31IFWFCV050AJYPA & 31IFWFCV050BJYPA through manual loader 31IFWHIC050A & 31IFWHIC050B respectively, output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the feed water flow controller 31IFWFIC050A & Drum level controller 31IPD LIC050B is Reverse. The drum level measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type level transmitters 31IPDLT050A, 31IPDLT050B, 31IPDLT050C & measured drum level is compensated (density) in function block 31IPDLY050A, 31IPDLY050B & 31IPDLY050C with median drum pressure. The drum pressure is measured by pressure transmitter 31IPDPT057A, 31IPDPT057B, 31IPDPT057C & measured drum pressure are PV for function block 31IPDPY57 (Median block). The compensated drum level values are the PV for function block 31IPDLY050 (Median block) The median drum level is PV to drum level controllers 31IPDLIC050A and 31IPDLIC050B.

Section B

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

The Drum level transmitter is calibrated for - 550 to 0 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0 to 100 %. The Drum pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 35 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 – 35 Kg/Cm2(g). Drum level density compensation Computing block 31IPD LY050A, 31IPD LY050B & 31IPD LY050C shall be configured to Pressure compensated /corrected drum level indication can be obtained from equation below Where ‘Hm’ is the corrected level indication. Hm = {Delta p + H (Da - Ds)} / (Dw - Ds ) Where: DP = differential pressure measured by level transmitter (DPT). [The range of DP in above equation is also to be taken as (– 55 to 0 cmWC)] Hm – Compensated drum level signal Dw – Density of water (To be taken from the enclosed table) Ds – Density of Steam (To be taken from the enclosed table) H — Water head on LP side, wet head leg which is to be feed as constant = 55 Da – Wet leg density; water Density at 30 Deg.C. (Constant =0.996). Head on HP = Hm *Dw + (H-Hm)*Ds Head on LP = H *Da Delta p = HP- LP =Hm (Dw-Ds) – H (Da-Ds) Hm = {delta p + H (Da-Ds)}/ (Dw- Ds) Here, H = 55 cm. Da = 0.996 gm/cm3 at 30 deg. c Hm calculated from above formula is density corrected drum level, which shall be in scale range 0 to 55 cm (Hm output should be blocked in this range), this value shall be scaled for (-)275 to (+)275 mmwc display range on DCS. The steam flow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type steam flow transmitter 31IPSFT050D & 31IPSFT050E both are connected across flow element 31IPS FE050B. Square root for steam flow shall be done in smart transmitter. The measured Steam flow

is compensated (Average pressure & Average temperature) in function block 31IPSFY050A & 31IPSFY050B with average pressure & average temperature. TThe steam pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31IPSPT129A, 31IPSPT129B & measured steam pressure are PV for function block 31IPSPY129 (Average block). The steam temperature measured by thermocouple 31IPSTE130A, 31IPSTE130B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31IPSTY130 (Average block) The compensated steam flow values are the PV for function block 31IPSFY050 (Average block) The steam flow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 5000 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-60 TPH. The steam pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 35 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 – 35 Kg/Cm2(g). Steam flow (Pressure compensation. & temperature)

Computing block 31IPSFY050A & 31IPSFY050B shall be configured to Pressure & temperature compensated steam flow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated Steam Flow in TPH =Indicated Steam Flow in TPH * √ (P1 + 1.029) * (T2+273.15) / √ (P2+1.029) * (T1+273.15) Where: P1 = Measured Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2(g) T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in °C P2 = Flow nozzle Rated Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2(g) T2 = Flow nozzle Rated Temperature Signal in °C Flow nozzle Rated Pressure = 25.49 Kg/Cm2(g) Flow nozzle Rated Temp = 320 °C Normal Flow = 43.9 TPH Sizing flow = 60 TPH Feed Water Flow Controller Remote Set-point (31IPSFX050A) = Drum Level Controller (31IPD LIC050B) O/P in % + Steam flow (31IPSFY050) O/p in %- 50. The feed water flow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type feed water flow transmitter 31IFWFT050A, 31IFWFT050B & 31IFWFT050C these are connected across flow element 31IFWFE050A. Square root for feed water

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

flow shall be done in smart transmitter. The measured feed water flow is compensated in function block 31IFWFY050A, 31IFWSFY050B & 31IFWFY050C with average temperature. The feed water pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31IFWPT077A, 31IFWPT077B, & measured feed water pressure are PV for function block 31IFWPY077 (Average block). This is indicated in DCS as 31IFWPI077 The feed water temperature measured by thermocouple 31IFWTE075A, 31IFWTE075B & measured feed water temperature are PV for function block 31IFWTY075 (Average block) The compensated feed water flow values are the PV for function block 31IFWFY050 (Median block) The median feed water flow is PV to feed water flow controller 31IFWFIC050A. The feed water flow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 5000 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-60 TPH. The feed water pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 80 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 – 80 Kg/Cm2(g). Feed water flow (Temperature) compensation. Computing block 31IFWFY050A, 31IFWFY050B & 31IFWFY050C shall be configured to temperature compensated feed water flow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated FW Flow in TPH =Indicated FW Flow in TPH * √ (T2+273.15) / √ (T1+273.15). Where: T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in °C T2 = Flow nozzle design Temperature Signal in °C Flow nozzle Rated Temp = 218 °C Normal Flow = 42.1 TPH Sizing flow = 60 TPH Indications and alarms to be configured as shown in the control schematic. Water Flow Totaliser 31IPSFIQ-050 & Steam Flow Totaliser 31IFWFIQ-050 blocks to be configured All process value should be record for reports & trends Drum Level high-high alarm configured in function block 31IPDLAHH050A, 31IPDLAHH050B & 31IPDLAHH050C. 31IPDLAHH050 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31IPDLX050A. Drum Level low-low alarm

configured in function block 31IPDLALL050A, 31IPDLALL050B & 31IPDLALL050C. 31IHPDLALL050 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31IPDLX050B. Whenever drum level high-high or low-low alarm occurs trip the boiler that is trip GT LP Drum Level Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the drum Level at the normal operating level in drum. Two modes of operation are provided for drum level control. Single element & Three element drum level control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water flowing into the drum to maintain required water level in the drum, Single-element drum level control for low loads and Three-elements drum level control for normal & high load. 31LFW FS-093A is mode selector switch which changes single element control to three elements control and three elements control to single element control. Single Element Control:In single element only Drum level is the reference level to control the feed water flow. The drum level signal is compared with the fixed set point (0 mmWC) in the drum level-indicating controller & output of drum level controller 31LPD LIC080A is given to feed water flow control valve 31LFWFCV080AJYPA & 31IFWFCV080BJYPA through manual loader 31LFWHIC080A & 31LFWHIC080B respectively. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the Drum level controller 31LPD LIC080A is Reverse. Three Element Control:In Three elements Drum level, Water flow and Steam flow are the references to control the water flow. Drum level as primary element, Feed water flow as secondary element and steam flow as third element (feed forward). In three - element control the drum level signal is compared with the fixed set point in the drum level indicating controller 31LPDLIC080B. To achieve, better drum level control, a feed forward action is added to in the form of steam flow in function block 31LPSFX093A. The feed forward output use as a remote set point to feed water flow indicating controller 31LFWFIC093A. The feed water flow signal is compared with the remote set point in the feed water flow indicating controller & output of feed water flow controller 31LFWFIC093A is given to feed

Section B

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& measured feed water pressure are PV for function block 31LFWPY131 (Average block) The feed water temperature measured by thermocouple 31LFWTE132A. Square root for Attemperator water flow shall be done in smart transmitter.26 TPH Sizing flow = 50 TPH Feed Water Flow Controller Remote Set-point (31LPSFX093) = Drum Level Controller (31LPD LIC080B) O/P in % + Steam flow (31LFWFX093) O/p in % .Operation & Maintenance Manual water flow control valve 31LFWFCV080AJYPA & 31LFWFCV080BJYPA through manual loader 31LFWHIC080A & 31LFWHIC080B respectively. The steam flow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 5000 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-50 TPH. The steam flow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type steam flow transmitter 31LPSFT093A & 31LPSFT093B both are connected across flow element 31LPS FE093. The feed water pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31LFWPT131A. The RH1 Attemperator water flow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 2500 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-25 TPH. Steam flow (Pressure compensation. The feed water flow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type feed water flow transmitter 31LFWFT104A & 31LFWFT104B both are connected across flow element 31LFWFE104.15) Where: P1 = Measured Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2(g) T1 =Measured Temperature Signal in °C P2 = Flow nozzle design Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2(g) T2 = Flow nozzle design Temperature Signal in °C Flow nozzle design Pressure = 3. & temperature) Computing block 31LPSFY093A & 31LPSFY093B shall be configured to Pressure & temperature compensated steam flow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated Steam Flow in TPH =Indicated Steam Flow in TPH * √ (P1 + 1.029) * (T2+273. The measured feed water flow is compensated in function block 31LFWFY104A & 2IFWFY104B with average temperature. The steam temperature measured by thermocouple 31LPSTE090A. The drum level measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type level transmitters 31LPDLT080A. 31LIFWPT131B.6 °C Normal Flow = 34. 31IPDLT080C & measured drum level values are the PV for function block 31LPDLY080 (Median block) The median drum level is PV to drum level controllers 31LPDLIC080A and 31LPDLIC080B. 31LPSPT089B & measured steam pressure are PV for function block 31LPSPY089 (Average block). The steam pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 10 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 – 10 Kg/Cm2(g). The Drum level transmitter is calibrated for -1900 to 0 cmWC and correspondence indication shall 0 to 100 %. 31LPSTE090B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31LPSTY090 (Average block) The compensated steam flow values are the PV for function block 31LPSFY093 (Average block) The compensated steam flow is added with HP compensated feed water flow.15) / √ (P2+1. 31LFWTE132B & measured feed water temperature are PV for function block 31LFWTY132 (Average block) The compensated feed water flow values are the PV for function block 31LFWFY104 (Average block) Section B 58 . IP compensated feed water flow & RH1 Attemperator water in function block 31LFWFX093 The RH1 Attemperator water flow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type Attemperator water flow transmitter 31IFWFT0073 this is connected across flow element 31IFWFE073. Control action of the feed water flow controller 31LFWFIC080A & Drum level controller 31LPDLIC080B is Reverse. The measured Steam flow is compensated (Average pressure & Average temperature) in function block 31LPSFY093A & 31LPSFY093B with average pressure & average temperature. output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. The steam pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31LPSPT089A.50. HP Attemperator water flow.029) * (T1+273. Square root for feed water flow shall be done in smart transmitter. Square root for steam flow shall be done in smart transmitter. 31IPDLT080B.16 Kg/Cm2(g) Flow nozzle design Temp = 286.

The stack temperature signal is compared with the set point in the stack temperature -indicating controller & output of stack temperature controller 31LFWTIC102 is given to CPH bypass flow control valve 31LFWTCV102JYPA.3 Stack Temperature (CPH Bypass 3.15) / √ (T1+273. The CBD drain temperature measured by temperature transmitters 31HVDTT096A. Control action of the Stack temperature controller 31LFWTIC102 is Reverse. 31LPDLAHH080 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31LPDLX080A.2 TPH Sizing flow =500 TPH Indications and alarms to be configured as shown in the control schematic.2 CBD Drain Temperature Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the CBD Drain Temperature at the normal operating temperature in drain line. Drum Level low-low alarm configured in function block 31LPDLALL080A. The CBD drain temperature transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 150 Deg.Way) Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the stack temperature at the normal operating temperature in stack. 31LHPDLALL080 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31LPDLX080B. Computing block 31LFWFY104A & 31IFWFY104B shall be configured to Temperature compensated feed water flow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated FW Flow in TPH = Indicated FW Flow in TPH * √ (T2+273. Water Flow Totaliser 31LFWFIQ104 & Steam Flow Totaliser 31LPSFIQ93 blocks to be configured All process value should be record for reports & trends Drum Level high-high alarm configured in function block 31LPDLAHH080A. Whenever drum level high-high or low-low alarm occurs trip the boiler that is trip GT CBD drain temperature is the reference temperature to control the drain line temperature. The feed water flow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 7500 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-500 TPH. & 31HVDTT096B with thermocouple 31HVDTE096A. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. CBD drain temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of quench water flowing into the drain line to maintain required temperature in drain line CBD drain temperature Control:- Section B 59 . Stack Temperature Control:Stack temperature is the reference temperature to control the stack temperature. The feed water pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 40 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 – 40 Kg/Cm2(g). 7. 31LPDLALL080B & 31LPDLALL080C. 31LPDLAHH080B & 31LPDLAHH080C.Operation & Maintenance Manual The average feed water flow is PV to feed water flow controller 31LFWFIC093A. Stack temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of DM water flowing into the CPH to maintain required temperature in stack. The stack temperature measured by thermocouple 31FLUETE226A & 31FLUETE226B & measured stack temperature are PV for function block 31FLUETY226 (Average block) The average stack temperature is PV to stack temperature controller 31LFWTIC102. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV. & 31HVDTE096B & measured CBD drain temperature are PV for function block 31HVDTY096 (Average block) The average CBD drain temperature is PV to CBD drain temperature controller 31SWSTIC096. 7. Control action of the CBD drain temperature controller 31SWSTIC096 is Direct.C.C and correspondence indication shall 0 to 150 Deg. The CBD drain temperature signal is compared with the fixed set point (60°C) in the CBD drain temperature -indicating controller & output of CBD drain temperature controller 31SWSTIC096 is given to quench water flow control valve 31SWSTCV096JYPA. Feed water flow (Temperature) compensation. Following to be taken care while configuring this loop in DCS.15) Where: T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in °C T2 = Flow nozzle Rated Temperature Signal in °C Flow nozzle design Temp =146 °C Normal Flow =389.

The HP Steam temperature transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 800 Deg. Section B 60 . In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open.5 LP Drum Pressure Control The aim of this control loop is to regulate the quantity of steam vent to maintain required pressure in drum. LP Drum Pressure Control is envisaged by LP Drum Pegging Steam Pressure Control Valve. 31HFWTCV026BJYPA through manual loader 31HFWHIC026A & 31HFWHIC026B respectively. Following to be taken care while configuring this loop in DCS.Operation & Maintenance Manual Following to be taken care while configuring this loop in DCS. Control action of the LP drum Pressure controller 2LPDPIC083 is Direct.C. The drum Pressure measured by pressure transmitter 2LPDPT083A & 2LPDPT083B & measured drum Pressure are PV for function block 2LPDPY083 (Average block) The average drum Pressure is PV to drum Pressure controller 2LPDPIC083. This valve shall be kept crack open all the time to have continuous Vent. The drum Pressure signal is compared with the fixed set point in the LP drum Pressure -indicating controller & output of LP drum Pressure controller 2LPDPIC083 is given to drum Pressure control valve 2LPDPCV083JYPA.7 RH1 Attemperator Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the IP Steam Temperature at the normal operating temperature in IP steam line. The Vent Valve shall be operated from DCS thro’ Manual Loader 31LPDHIC083. Following to be taken care while configuring this loop in DCS. Control action of the HP Attemperator controller 31HFWTIC026 is Direct. 7.4 LP Drum Pressure Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the drum pressure at the normal operating pressure in drum. & 31HPSTT026B with thermocouple 31HPSTE026A.134°C 7.86°C • Naptha . Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open.C and correspondence indication shall 0 to 800 Deg. The LP drum pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 10 Bar (g) and correspondence indication shall 0 – 10 Bar (g). • Natural Gas . HP1 Attemperator Control HP steam temperature is the reference temperature to control the steam line temperature. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV. HP steam temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water flowing into the steam line (Attemperator) to maintain required temperature in HP steam line. 7. Drum pressure control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of steam vent to maintain required pressure in drum. RH1 steam temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water flowing into the steam line (Attemperator) to maintain required temperature in IP steam line. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV.6 HP Attemperator Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the HP Steam Temperature at the normal operating temperature in HP steam line. Setpoint for Various fuels is mentioned below: 7. RH1 Attemperator Control IP steam temperature is the reference temperature to control the steam line temperature. & 31HPSTE026B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31HPSTY026 (Average block) The average HP steam temperature is PV to HP Attemperator controller 31HFWTIC026. The HP steam temperature measured by temperature transmitters 31HPSTT026A. . LP Drum Pressure Control:LP Drum Pressure is the reference Pressure to control the drum Pressure. The steam temperature signal is compared with the fixed set point (567°C) in the HP Attemperator -indicating controller & output of Attemperator controller 31HFWTIC026 is given to Attemperator control valve 31HFWTCV026AJYPA & .

The IP steam Pressure signal is compared with the fixed set point (24 Kg/Cm2g) in the IP Line Back pressure control -indicating controller & output of IP Line Back pressure controller 31IPSPIC129 is given to IP Line Back pressure control valve 31IPSPCV129JYPA. The IP steam Pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31IPSPT129A & 31IPSPT129B & measured IP steam Pressure are PV for function block 31IPSPY129 (Average block) The average IP steam Pressure is PV to IP line back Pressure controller 31IPSPIC129. The IP Steam temperature transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 800 Deg. Following to be taken care while configuring this loop in DCS. 31LFWTE108A. 7. Following to be taken care while configuring this loop in DCS. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV. IP Line Back pressure Control IP line Pressure is the reference Pressure to control the IP line Pressure.C. Control action of the LP drum Pressure controller 31IPSPIC1293 is direct. . The CPH Water temperature transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 80 Deg. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV. In manual mode PV to SP tracking is required. IP & LP) Control Initially during boiler start up it is necessary to keep the start up vent valve open and increase the boiler pressure & steam temperature gradually. Control action of the RH1 Attemperator controller 31IFWTIC068 is Direct. The IP steam temperature measured by temperature transmitters 31HRHTT068A. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. IP Line Back pressure control system is envisaged to regulate the CV to maintain required pressure in IP line.indicating controller & output of CPH recirculation temperature controller 31LFWTIC108 is given to CPH recirculation temperature control valve 31LFWTCV108JYPA. Section B 61 .Operation & Maintenance Manual The steam temperature signal is compared with the fixed set point (567°C) in the RH1 Attemperator -indicating controller & output of Attemperator controller 31IFWTIC068 is given to Attemperator control valve 31IFWTCV068AJYPA & . & 31HRHTT068B with thermocouple 31HRHTE068A. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Following to be taken care while configuring this loop in DCS. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open.C. & 31LFWTE108B & measured CPH Water temperature are PV for function block 31LFWTY108 (Average block) The average CPH Water temperature is PV to CPH recirculation temperature controller 31LFWTIC108.8 CPH Recirculation Temperature Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the CPH Water Temperature at the normal operating temperature in CPH tubes to avoid corrosion of the CPH tubes. The CPH Water temperature signal is compared with the fixed set point (57°C) in the CPH recirculation temperature . CPH Recirculation Temperature Control CPH Water temperature is the reference temperature to control the CPH tubes temperature. CPH recirculation temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of water recirculate into the CPH tubes to maintain required temperature in CPH tubes.C and correspondence indication shall 0 to 80 Deg. The IP Steam pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 – 35 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 – 35 Kg/Cm2(g).9 IP Line Back Pressure Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the IP steam pressure at the normal operating pressure in IP line. 31IFWTCV068BJYPA through manual loader 31IFWHIC068A & 31IFWHIC068B respectively. 7. & 31LFWTT108B with thermocouple 7.10 Start up Vent (HP. The CPH Water temperature measured by temperature transmitters 31LFWTT108A. Control action of the CPH recirculation temperature controller 31LFWTIC108 is Reverse.C and correspondence indication shall 0 to 800 Deg. & 31HRHTE068B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31HRHTY068 (Average block) The average IP steam temperature is PV to RH1 Attemperator controller 31IFWTIC068.

Operation & Maintenance Manual Start up vent control valve is provided to avoid burnout of tubes and to control the start up pressure. Section B 62 .

Carry out walk down checks before cold start up of HRSG & fill up water in HRSG as per Standard operating procedure.1 Walk Down Check Using powerful torches or low voltage inspection lamps inspect the HRSG and ensure that 1. 2. inspection doors are tightly closed. Furnace and the exhaust gas path are clear. shut down procedures of the HRSG. Inlet valves from steam and waterside is open and their drain valves are closed. 2. Program of Gas Turbine (GT) availability has also to be checked. If they are open. A walkdown checks are required and the HRSG and its auxiliaries are to be prepared meticulously for a startup from the control room. tags removed and maintenance permission for HRSG startup is available. possibilities of some inspection or maintenance works having been done are presumed. Verify that the safety valves are not gagged. Verify that the safety valves are not gagged. Operation HRSG Start Up And Shut Down Aim This and subsequent chapters describes the HRSG start up and shut down procedures as applicable for the following conditions: • Start up of a cold HRSG • HRSG shut down • Start up of a warm HRSG • Start up of a Hot HRSG Note • The procedures explained in this chapter apply for start up of the HRSG already commissioned. they are to be closed just before HRSG light up when air vents are opened. • It is assumed that operators are trained in operation of high pressure HRSGs and have been licensed to operate HRSGs or HRSG by the State Boiler Authority HP. Verify that all access doors. Verify that nitrogen purging valves are open.IP & LP Main Steam Line and Reheater 1. HRSG operation & safety are also described here. Verify that the exhaust gas duct to stack is clear and that all maintenance personnel have been withdrawn. Section C 63 . all maintenance personnel have been removed and no scaffolding or inspection devices have been left inside. Economiser & LP Boiler Bank panels are clean and there is no evidence of any water drips. HP . • It is assumed that operators are fully familiar with the design and construction features described in the earlier chapters. IP & LP Steam Drum 1. 3. 4. Boiler bank. 2 HRSG Start Up and Shut Down 3. Before a walkdown checks ensure that all work permits have been returned. Commissioning a new HRSG call for several additional requirements. 1 Section Overview This section describes the start up. Verify that the illuminators of local level gauges are on. 2.Operation & Maintenance Manual Section C Topics Covered in this Chapter ♦ Section Overview ♦ HRSG Start Up and Shut Down ♦ Startup of a Cold HRSG ♦ Hot and Warm Start up of HRSG ♦ HRSG Shutdown ♦ Cooling of a Shutdown Boiler ♦ HRSG Operation Walk Down Checks ♦ Do’s and Don’ts For HRSG Operation ♦ Boiler Log Sheet ♦ Boiler Emergency Safety Procedures ♦ Trouble Shooting Chart Operation 3 Startup of a Cold HRSG A HRSG startup can be termed as cold start up when any of the following conditions are met • The HRSG has been idle for more than three days • There is no pressure in the steam drum and its metal temperature is less than 70°C In a cold startup.

metal temperatures. • IP Drum EBD M078. Start/Stop command and alarm inputs etc are also from the DCS. • HP Main steam line start up vent valve M028.Operation & Maintenance Manual 3. 12. to be closed when drum pressure reaches to 2 bar (g). 2. • LPSH Drain valve (GT617) to be normally open. • All above mentioned drain valves are start up drain valves & need to be close down when steam pressure of respective section reaches near to 4 bar (g). Top up if necessary. 3. Check that the solution-mixing tank of HP. water/steam temperatures. 3. Check that the pump inlet and solution inlet valves are open. Ensure following valves are closed • HP Drum EBD M039. Line up all valves in HP. this need to be open in the event of Drum high level. Ensure that following manual drain valves are open: • HPSH-1 Drain valve (GT680) • RH-2 Drain valve (GT642). 1. Ensure that the HRSG is lined up for start up as per cold start up procedure as mentioned above.2 Valve Lineup The DCS is linked from field instruments to constantly update process information (Feed flow. prepare a full tank level of solution. IP & LP shall receive hot flue gases from GT & hence undergo cold start up simultaneously. this need to be open in proportion to keep HP drum water quality as per requirement. The HPSH drain header. 4. Ensure pre-purge of HRSG is done through GT (This is carried out standard GT operation procedure) 2. Ensure following vent valves are open • HP Drum vent valve M005A & M005B. If the level is low. pressure/temperatures for pre trip alarms etc). PVC 083 to be operated as per pressure controller PIC 083. the information is processed and based on pre-set logic and set points. this need to be open in the event of Drum high level. 6. In the DCS. Ensure that drain valves to Blow down Tank of IP RHS Drain Header (GT 622) & IP LHS side header (GT 624). IP & LP dosing system has atleast 50% tank level. Ensure that drain valves HPSH1 GL739. 7. reheater drain header & HPSH1 drain operate from condensate drain pot arrangement on conductivity principle. • LP Drum (Deaerator) vapour tank vent valve PVC 083 & isolation valve GT 359. control commands are sent to I/P converters for control action. IP & LP section as per the valve line up chart for cold start up. 10. gas temperatures. HP. Check oil levels of the gearboxes of the dosing pumps and the stirrer. During cold start up all the section of HRSG viz HP. steam flow. drum pressure. Ref. 11. cold start up procedure. 9. GT694) • IPSH Drain valve (GT637) to be normally open. (GT 607) & LP RHS side drain header (GT 605) are open. this need to be open in the event of Drum high level. steam temperature. (GT764. • LP Drum EBD M094. (GT 646). Reheater Drain Header (GT650) are closed. • LP superheater motorised drain valve M098 to be closed after removal of condensate. LP LHS side drain header Section C 64 . Reheater2 GL738. 8. Ensure that IP Section steam isolation valve M064 to reheater is closed & start up vent valve PCV063 is full open. IP & LP Dosing Systems 1. Verify that the nitrogen connection line (if used) has been isolated and the drum vent is open. 5. HPSH3 GL737 are closed. Ensure that drain valves to Blow down Tank of HP SH Drain header (GT688). • HPSH-3 Drain valve (GT682). Ensure that following drain valves are open: • IP super heater motorised drain valve M076 to be closed after removal of condensate. • HP Drum CBD M040. Ensure that HP Section main steam stop valve M029A & Bypass valve M029B are closed & start up vent valve PCV028 is full open. • IP Drum vent valve M061 to be closed when drum pressure reaches to 2 bar (g).

Sample System • All the sample lines isolation valves have to be closed. this need to be open in proportion to keep LP drum/Deaerator water quality as per requirement. • LP Drum CBD M095. charge the instrument air header. GT050 & GT 248. Pressure transmitters. • Operating station . etc. Feedwater Control Stations For starting a cold HRSG. DP transmitters. • As instrument air is necessary for the operation of most of the valves and actuators. 3. • Keep open the inlet and outlet isolating valves of control valves [TCV026A & B and TCV 068A & B] • Keep the Attemporator controller [TIC-026 & TIC 068] in manual mode. • Verify that the 30% and the two 100% flow control valves are in the closed (0%) position in the DCS (If they are in open position. when requirement arises. this need to be open in proportion to keep IP drum water quality as per requirement. • Verify that electrically operated isolating valve [TV 034] to spray water lines is closed (DCS) Section C 65 . They are not separately listed. oil lines before inspection or maintenance of any of the components.DCS is ensured for readiness and emergency push buttons are released. the branch lines and instruments supply lines elsewhere. • Verify that drain valves on the spray water line are closed • Verify that the root valves of Pressure gauges. Root valves of all Instruments (Pressure gauges.) must be kept open and their drains if any are to be kept closed. pressure transmitters. No prediction can be made when the nitrogen gas will actually be required. Verify that it is open & is to be closed as soon as air is purged & water comes out during waterside charging. • Verify that the drains on either side of the control valve are closed.3 System Lineup Preliminary Requirements • Power supply ensure that the power supply is switched ’ON’ and available for all the motors and panels. Level gauges. • Verify that the Attemperator spray water control valve [TCV026A & B and TCV 068A & B] is in closed position (DCS). if activated. • Verify that water side inlet isolating valves [GT 305] is open • Verify that bypass manual valve [GT 314] is open . • Ensure that all the transmitters are lined up mechanically / electronically CPH • Verify that drain valves [GT 603 & GT604] are kept locked open except for maintenance • Verify that air vent valves [GT 609] are locked open. However feed lines are lined up such that the Feed Regulating stations can be taken into service from DCS. pressure switches are open. Attemporator Spray Water Lines • Keep open the manual isolating valves [GT 049. To meet any eventuality. • Verify valve from plant nitrogen gas main to drums are closed.Operation & Maintenance Manual • IP Drum CBD M079. SWAS (Customer System) can be taken into service once the HRSG is pressurized Availability of Nitrogen Gas Nitrogen gas is used for purging the gas. • Root valve of all the instruments are kept open. it is a good practice to charge the nitrogen gas lines up to the consuming points and keep the gas available whenever required. close them by manual command from DCS) • Verify that the Manual operated inlet & outlet isolating valve of the feed regulating station is open • Verify that the drain valves before and after the 30% & 100% flow regulating valve are closed Feed Line from HP Economiser I • An export water line valve GT 211 is kept closed. DM water from the station DM line may preferably be used. GT249].

009.217 Control station outlet manual isolation valve Y GT – 214.215 Feed water control station drain valve Section C 66 .004.005.001/002/015/016/ 2 9/30/32/33/34/3536/37 /54/55 GT – 003.026/027/028 Y GT-020/21/22/23/2 4 & 25 GT.012.006.00 7 Feed water flow .0 13 & transmitter isolation valves 014 FCV – 003 A Feed water control station 30% control valve Feed water control station 100% control valve Feed water control station 100% control valve Y FCV – 003 B Y FCV – 003 C Y FEED WATER LINE TO IP STEAM DRUM GT . IP & LP Section (Before Light Up) Valve Tag Number Service Open Close Remarks FEED WATER LINE TO HP STEAM DRUM GT-038 Feed Water Main Isolation valve Control station inlet motorized isolation valves Control station outlet manual isolation valves Feed water control station drain valves Feed water line pressure tapping isolation valves Y Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down or problem in control valve operation Y To be Opened when control valve is under maintenance To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be opened initially when the water is required to maintain the drum level To be opened when boiler load reaches above the 30% to maintain the drum level To be opened when the 100% line main control valve is under maintenance M -003 A/B/C Y GT.008.011.010.4 Valve Positions Chart For HP.Operation & Maintenance Manual 3.241 Feed Water Main Isolation valve Control station inlet motorized isolation valve Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be kept open permanently & it will be closed only during the boiler shutdown or motorized valve is under maintenance Y To be Opened when motorized valve is under maintenance M – 050 A Y GT – 216.

03.Operation & Maintenance Manual Valve Tag Number GT – 201.05. 318 & 319 Y GT –328.08.327 Y M – 080 A/B Y GT – 322.314 Feed Water Main Isolation valve Feed Water Second Isolation valve Control station inlet motorized isolation valves Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be kept open permanently & it will be closed only during the boiler shutdown or motorized valve is under maintenance Y To be Opened when motorized valve is under maintenance To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be open while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down GT . GT – 59(02 NO’S) GT – 60 & 18 GT – 58 GT – 202.04. 317. 06 & 07 Service Feed water line pressure tapping isolation valves Feed water flow transmitter isolation valves Export water line valve Feed water control station 100% control valve Feed water control station 100% control valve Open Close Remarks To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be opened initially when the water is required to maintain the drum level To be opened when the 100% line main control valve is under maintenance Y Y GT – 211 Y FCV – 050A FCV – 050B Y FEED WATER LINE TO LP STEAM DRUM GT . 325 Control station outlet manual isolation valves Y GT – 321. Y GT – 326 ECONOMIZER HP Section C 67 . 329. 324 Feed water control station drain valves Feed water flow transmitter isolation valves Feed water line pressure tapping isolation valves Vent line valve GT – 316.

Economizer Top & bottom header Drain Isolation Valves. To be open only to take water for boiler hydro test. 722 & 712 GT – 627 & 636 (02 NO’S EACH) GT – 615 & 616 (01 NO EACH) Service Economizer I/II/III top header Vent Isolation Valves.718. Y To be opened for draining & initial water filling the Economizer & hydro To be opened for draining & initial water filling the Economizer & hydro Y DM water line at battery limit valves IP Evaporator drain line valves LP Evaporator drain line valves Y Y Y To be open only to take water for boiler hydro test.720 . Y To be opened only when boiler is to be preserved with N2 GT – 095 Section C 68 .714. & 607 HP STEAM DRUM M –005 A/B All header drain valves Y Motorized Isolation Valves of Drum Vent N2 Preservation Connection Y To be closed when drum pressure reaches 2 bar (g) during boiler pressurization. Open Close Remarks To be open only during first filling of Economizer/ boiler. GT – 695.Operation & Maintenance Manual Valve Tag Number GT – 671 (04 NO’S) GT – 672 (02 NO’S) GT . To be open only to take water for boiler hydro test. 624. 669. 622. 605. Y Economizer I/II/III Top & bottom header Drain Isolation Valves.673 (14 NO’S ) GT – 651 (06 NO’S) GT – 693 (06 NO’S) GT – 653 (01 NO’S) GT – 654 (01 NO’S) GT – 655 (02 NO’S) GT – 656 (02 NO’S) GT – 657 (02 NO’S) GT – 658 (02 NO’S) GT – 659 (01 NO’S) GT – 660 (01 NO’S) GT – 696 (02 NO’S) GT – 663 (12 NO’S) GT – 692 (12 NO’S) GT – 665 (01 NO’S) GT – 666 (01 NO’S) ECONOMIZER IP GT – 626 (02 NO’S) GT – 620 (02 NO’S ) GT – 621 (02NO’S ) DM WATER FILLING IN HRSG GT-716. Y To be opened for draining & initial water filling the Economizer & hydro Economize top header Vent Isolation Valves. To be open during boiler cold start up to let water/condensate to blow down tank.

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT – 087,088,089, 090,091 & 092

Service Steam drum pressure transmitters isolation valves Steam drum local pressure indicator isolation valves Steam drum local pressure transmitter isolation valves Isolation Valves for manifold on Steam Drum for Level Indicating Instruments. Isolation Valves of Steam Drum Level Gauge Glass

Open Close Remarks Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

GT – 084,085 & 086

Y

GT – 087, 088, 089, 090, 091, 092 GT-060,061,062,063, 064,065,066, 067, 068, 069,070,071, 072, 073,074 & 075 GT – 076,077,078, 079,080,081,082 & 083 HP EVAPORATOR GT – 678 & 679 (02 NO’S EACH) GT – 690 (02 NO’S) HP MAIN STEAM LINE GT – 680 GT – 682 (02 NO’S) GT – 683 (02 NO’S M – 038 B M – 038 F M – 038 D M – 038 H GT – 691 (02 NO’S) GT – 688

Y

Y

Y

HP Evaporator drain line valves Evaporator vent valve

Y Y

To be open only during first filling of Economizer/ boiler. To be open only during first filling of Economizer/ boiler.

HP Superheater-1 Drain Isolation Valve before MOVs HP Superheater-2 & 3 Drain Isolation Valves HP Superheater-2 & 3 Motorized operated Drain valves HP Superheater-1 Motorized operated Drain valves Superheater 2 vent valve HP SH Drain header valve Main Steam line drain before MSSV Main steam line motorized operated drain valves

Y

To be kept lock open. To be closed at failure of MOV valve. Y To be open during boiler shut down for complete draining or superheater To be closed when condensate is drained completely at 4 bar (g) pressure. To be closed when condensate is drained completely at 4 bar (g) pressure. Y To be open during boiler shutdown To be kept lock open To be kept lock open. To be closed at failure of MOV valve. To be closed once the condensate removed for line completely

Y

Y

Y

GT – 698

Y

M- 038A & 038E

Y

Section C

69

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT – 107 & 108

Service Main steam line vent valve before safety valve Steam sampling system main isolation valve Motorized isolation Valve of Startup Vent Valve

Open Close Remarks Y To be open during boiler shutdown To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be kept open during boiler start up. To be closed when boiler is connected to plant mains along with PV028. To be Closed once rated pressure is attained and boiler is connected to Plant mains To be opened for equalization of pressure. To be opened after reaching the rated Pressure. To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

GT – 129

Y

M - 028

Y

PV -028

Startup Vent valve

Y

M – 029 B

Motorised Pressure Equalization Valve of Main Steam Stop Valve Motorized Main Steam Stop Valve Main steam line pressure transmitter isolation valves Main steam line flow transmitter tapping line valves Y

Y

M – 029 A GT – 112 & 113 (02 NO’S EACH) GT –110 & 111 GT – 114,115,116, 117,118,119,120, 121,122,123,124 & 125 REHEATER GT – 644 (02 NO’S) GT – 642 (02 NO’S)

Y

Y

Reheater drain line valves Re-heater -1 & 2 drain line motorized valve

Y

To be open during boiler shutdown This valve to be closed once the condensate removed completely from Re-heater 1 & 2. To be kept lock open. To be closed at failure of MOV valve. To be kept lock open. To be open during boiler shutdown To be closed when condensate is drained completely.

M – 38C

Y

GT - 646

Re-heater -1 & 2 drain line manual valve Reheater Drain header valve Reheater Attemperator drain valve Reheater -2 O/L to steam header Drain valve

Y

GT – 650

Y

GL – 738

Y

FMV – D201 (Customer scope) HP ATTEMPERATOR SYSTEM

Y

Section C

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number LCV – 034

Service Attemperator line main isolation valve Attemperator control station up stream motorized isolation valves Attemperator control station down stream manual isolation valves Attemperator drain line isolation valves Temperature control valve one is main line valve and another is bypass valves Attemperator vent line valves Attemperator drain line valve HP Attemperator motorized drain valves HP Attemperator manual drain valve

Open Close Remarks Y To be closed during initial fill up water in boiler / Economizer To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be Opened when control valve is under maintenance To be open as per the steam temperature control requirement. One TCV kept closed and one will be use. Y Y To be opened during boiler shutdown To be opened during boiler shutdown Both valves to be closed once the condensate removed completely To be kept lock open. To be closed at failure of MOV valve.

M – 026 A/B

Y

GT – 049 & 050

Y

GT – 045,046 & 047,048

TCV – 026 A/B

Y

GT – 103 & 104 GT – 105 & 106

M – 038B & 038F

Y

GT - 694 HP BLOWDOWN SYSTEM M - 040

Y

HP Drum EBD motorized valve HP Drum EBD manual isolation valves HP Drum CBD motorized valve HP Drum CBD manual valves Y

Y

This valve need to be open in the event of Drum high level Manual isolation valves keep open continuously This need to be open in the event of Drum high level or maintaining the TDS in boiler Manual isolation valves keep open continuously

GT – 674 (02 NO’S)

M - 039

Y

GT – 675 (02 NO’S) IP STEAM DRUM M –061

Y

Motorized Isolation Valves of Drum Vent N2 Preservation Connection

Y

To be closed when drum pressure reaches 2 bar (g) during boiler pressurization. Y To be opened only when boiler is to be preserved with N2

GT - 228

Section C

71

236.237.239 & 240 Y GT – 231. 238.063 Y PCV -063 Startup Vent valve Y M – 064 IP section to re-heater connecting line isolation valve Section C 72 .225 & 226 Service Steam drum pressure transmitters isolation valves Steam drum local pressure indicator isolation valves Isolation Valves for manifold on Steam Drum for Level Indicating Instruments. GT – 641 (02 NO’S) Evaporator vent valve Y IP MAIN STEAM LINE GT – 637 & GI – 256 Superheater Inlet & Outlet Header Drain Isolation Valves IP Superheater motorized drain valve Superheater inlet vent valve Main Steam line drain valve Main steam line vent valve Steam sampling system main isolation valve Motorized isolation Valve of Startup Vent Valve Y Y To be closed during boiler shutdown To be closed once the condensate removed completely Y Y Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed along with PCV 063 when boiler is connected to re-heater To be Closed once rated pressure is attained and boiler is connected to re-heater Y To be open once the boiler pressure reaches above 5 Bar To be open during boiler shutdown M – 076 Y GT – 294 GI – 256 GI – 255 GT – 255 M . Isolation Valves of Steam Drum Level Gauge Glass Open Close Remarks Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down GT – 219.Operation & Maintenance Manual Valve Tag Number GT – 224.220 & 221 Y GT-235.232 & 234 IP EVAPORATOR GT – 636 & 627 (02 NO’S EACH) Y IP Evaporator drain line valves Y To be open only during initial water filling & hydro To be open during initial water filling & hydro & to be closed after air is expelled completely.

To be closed once the condensate removed from line To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down M -077 Y GT – 257.078 GT – 631 GT – 628 IP Drum EBD motorized valve IP Drum EBD manual valve IP Drum CBD manual valve IP Drum CBD motorized valve Y Y Y This need to be open in the event of Drum high level Manual isolation valve keep lock open Manual isolation valve keep lock open M . One TCV kept closed and one will be use.259 & 260 IP ATTEMPERATOR SYSTEM LCV – 074 Y Attemperator line main isolation valve Attemperator control station up stream motorized isolation valves Attemperator control station down stream manual isolation valves Attemperator drain line isolation valves Temperature control valve one is main line valve and another is bypass valve Attemperator header vent line valve Attemperator drain line valve Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be Opened when control valve is under maintenance To be open as per the steam temperature control requirement.258. Y Y M – 068 A/B Y GT – 248 & 249 Y GT – 246 & 247 TCV – 068 A/B Y GT – 274 GT – 275 IP BLOWDOWN SYSTEM M .Operation & Maintenance Manual Valve Tag Number GT – 264 Service IP main steam line drain valve IP main steam line motorized operated drain valve Main steam line flow transmitter tapping line valves Open Close Remarks Y To be kept lock open.079 IP EVAPORATOR GT – 615 & 616 GT – 619 (02 NO’S) LP DRUM Y This need to be open to maintain boiler water chemistry LP Evaporator drain line valves Evaporator vent valve Y Y To be open for initial water filling & hydro test To be open for initial water filling & hydro test Section C 73 .

348 & 350. Steam and dissolved gases are vent out to the atmosphere Y To be opened only when boiler is to be preserved with N2 To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y Y This need to be open in the event of Drum high level Manual isolation valve keep lock open Y This need to be open to maintain boiler water chemistry Manual isolation valve keep lock open To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y GT .Operation & Maintenance Manual Valve Tag Number GT – 359 PCV .094 GT – 612 M . Y Y Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down M – 098 Y GT – 381 GI – 371 GI – 374 GT – 376 Y Section C 74 .083 GT . Steam and dissolved gases are vent out to the atmosphere Through the air vent. 344 345 & 346 Y M .351 LP MAIN STEAM LINE GT – 617 Y LP Superheater Inlet & Outlet Header Drain Isolation Valves LP Superheater drain valve Superheater inlet vent valve Main Steam line drain before MSSV Main steam line vent valve before MSSV Steam sampling system main isolation valve Y To be kept lock open To be closed once condensate is removed completely.354 GT – 353 Y GT – 356.357 & 358 Y GT-341.362 Service Air vent is provided on the vapor tank with twin Valve Air vent is provided on the vapor tank N2 Preservation Connection LP drum pressure transmitters isolation valve LP drum local pressure indicator isolation valves Isolation Valves for manifold on LP Drum for Level Indicating Instruments.095 GT – 630 Y GT – 347. LP Drum EBD motorized valve LP Drum EBD manual valve LP Drum CBD motorized valve LP Drum CBD manual valve Isolation Valves of LP Drum Level Gauge Glass Open Close Remarks Y Through the air vent.343.342.

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number M - 091

Service Motorized isolation Valve of Startup Vent Valve Startup Vent valve Motorised Pressure Equalization Valve of Main Steam Stop Valve Motorized Main Steam Stop Valve Main steam line flow transmitter tapping line valves

Open Close Remarks Y To be opened before opening Start up vent valve. Y To be Closed once rated pressure is attained and boiler is connected to load To be opened for equalization of pressure. To be opened after reaching the rated Pressure. To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

PV -091

M – 092 B

Y

M – 092 A

Y

GT – 379 & 380

Y

3.5 Filling Water in Boiler
For filling water in a cold HRSG, cold water from the plant DM line is preferred through Boiler fill up lines. However when the water is not deaerated, following procedure is used for filling from the HRSG filling line. • During this filling, for assurance of correct steam drum water level, post an attendant at the drum level to monitor the local level and the hydrastep gauges and to communicate to the control room when a level of –100 mm is reached. (Final level recommendations shall be set at the time of commissioning). • Filling is done by feeding D.M water to the HP, IP & LP drain headers from the plant DM main. For this, • Open valves GT720, 722, 716, 718, 714 & 712 from DM water line at battery limit. • Ensure that all the HP & IP economiser, HP, IP & LP evaporator panel drain valves are open. • When air is released and water comes out from economiser vents GT671, GT626, GT672, GT673, these can be closed one by one. These valves need to be operated only during initial water filling. • When water level of –150mm is reached in the drum, DM water filling line valves GT 718,716,720,722,712 & 714 and drains of Economisers & evaporators GT616,615,636,621,627,620,660,654,679, 666,653,659,665,678 are to closed and the drain valves of HP ,IP & LP Drain headers to blow down tank GT669,695,622,624 605,607 is opened.

• Deaerator storage tank can be filled up by using Condensate pump & opening battery limit isolation valve GT301. During cold start up three way control valve TCV102 shall remain close to CPH & direct entire water to Deaerator through FCV 080A. Keep Deaerator level -50 mmwc below NWL to avoid swelling effect during initial start up. Caution Filling water temperature should not be more than 38 deg C of the boiler metal temperature. During filling of a cold boiler, the ambient temperature should be used as an indicator of the boiler metal temperature. Assuming an ambient temperature of 40 deg C, the maximum temperature of filling water shall be 78 deg C.

3.6 HRSG Start Up & Pressurisation
The DCS is linked from field instruments to constantly update process information (Feed flow, steam flow, steam temperature, drum pressure, water/steam temperatures, metal temperatures, gas temperatures, pressure/temperatures for pre trip alarms etc). In the DCS, the information is processed and based on preset logic and set points, control commands are sent to I/P converters for control action. Alarm inputs etc are also from the DCS. 1. Start the HRSG preferably along with GT start up cycle. During cold start up maintained the GT on Reserve spinning mode with 7 % load & ensure that the GT exhaust temperature is maintained below 377 Deg C. 2. Yet time HRSG also can be started after stabilising GT operation by lowering the

Section C

75

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Load on GT and by lower the GT exhaust temperature below 377 Deg C. 3. During cold start up of HRSG, as the super heaters are running dry for few minutes in transition condition. To safe guard the supper heater & reheat SH tubes it is essential to control the GT exhaust temperature by allowing gas temperature below 377 Deg. 4. Purge the HRSG as per GT start up sequence (As recommended GT Supplier). 5. Start GT as per the GT start up sequence. 6. During cold / Warm start up, maintain GT in reverse spinning mode with 7% load on GT till the positive steam flow is established through super heater & re-heaters. Ensure that during cold start-up of HRSG flue gas temperature at the inlet of HRSG should not exceed 377 Deg C. Monitor the metal temperature of supper heaters (HPSH3 < 612°C) & re-heater (RH 2 < 611°C). The heat transfer commences and the water in the HRSG gets slowly converted to steam as a result pressure of steam in the drum starts gradually build up. The saturated steam temperature rise rate (and hence rate of rise in metal temperature) is controlled as per cold start-up pressurisation curve to safe guard against impermissible stress levels by modulating respective start up vent valves. 7. After having stabilised the positive steam flow through superheater & reheater, increase GT load gradually to pressurise the boiler as per Cold start up pressurisation curve. 8. During start up & continuous operation, monitor the skin metal temperature of HPSH3 < 612° C , & Reheat RH 2 < 611° C for ensuring cooling. If the Skin metal temperature reaches set point, please stop gas flow to HRSG. 9. Monitor Drum metal temperatures HP Drum TE 037 A – 037 D < 321° C. 11. Monitor the water level in the drum. As the temperature reaches about 90°C, a huge swelling of water level in the drum takes place. The operator anticipates this and controls the level by opening the EBD valve. When the swelling in the drum level is over, EBD valve is fully closed To summarise each start up procedure needs to be followed for following sequence: 1. Line up of water filling lines valves, HRSG system drains & vents. 2. Preparation/checks to be done before admission of hot flue gases in HRSH

3. Purging of HRSG 4. Steaming & closure of various drains & vents 5. Pressurisation HP Bypass & Gland Sealing line charging 6. Charging of reheater 7. Charging of CPH

Operator Action required during HRSG cold start-up
• Ensuring permissible rate of heat input to HRSG during start up. • Monitor Exhaust gas temperature in various zones. The temperatures of gas across various sections of HRSG will start increasing after the GT exhaust gas enters in HRSG. • Operator can also check the local exhaust gas and temperature indications • Monitor Drum metal temperatures. • Monitor the water level in the drum. As the temperature reaches about 90°C, a huge swelling of water level in the drum takes place. The operator anticipates this and controls the level by opening the EBD valve. When the swelling in the drum level is over, EBD valve is fully closed • Initially, checking the local level gauges and the level indicators takes a careful assessment of water level in the drum. Variations in levels between gauges are possible at low drum pressures are to be relied for true drum level indications which initiate trips at very high and very low levels. Request Instrument Engineer to reconcile the differences in levels between gauges if any. • Observe the air vent on drum. Air gets expelled and steady steam starts coming out of the air vents • Observe drum pressure at DCS as also local pressure gauge at drum • When drum pressure shows 2 kg/cm², drum air vents can be closed • When the steam pressure builds up to 3 –5 kg/cm² , the super heater drain valves are to be closed. (If required, manually operated drain valves are also closed) • When the swelling phase of drum water level is over and the level shows a decreasing trend, the 30% feed control can be taken into service by opening Control valve can be positioned as required manually to maintain drum level

Section C

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

• Ensure CBD, feed water and super heated steam samples are flowing to the coolers and the pH, conductivity meters are in operation. Verify pH and conductivity is within permissive values. • Verify the HP dosing mixing tank level is more than 50% and a 5% phosphate solution is available in the tank. Place one HP dosing pump in service. • Similarly Verify the IP & LP dosing mixing tank level is more than 50% and a solution is available in the tank. Place one IP & LP dosing pump in service.

• Start taking feed water through 30% control valve as per the requirement. Water shall flow to steam drums. CPH can be taken on line once the flow established and the flue gas exit temperature is above acid dew point. • Allow the HRSG steam pressure and temperature to build up to rated temperature and pressure by suitably modulating the individual Start up vent valve and if required the GT load.

• Monitor the steam drum water level. • Monitor the parameters, which can cause a HRSG trip.

Section C

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Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.7 HRSG Cold Start Up Curve
HRSG Cold Start Up Pressurising Curve for HP Section Please refer section E — Curves

The pressurisation curve for cold start up alongwith GT operation for HP section is illustrated above. The cold start up curve of IP & LP section will follow the pressurisation according to the heat input received based on HP section curve.

Section C

78

These valve is to be closed as soon as condensate/ water is drained out completely & steam start coming through it (max for 5 min). Keep Open start up vent valve PCV 079 & isolation valve GL 736 provided on hot reheat line for maintaining positive steam flow through re-heater. 3.5 bar above RH pressure). 3. the 30% feed control can be taken into service by opening isolating valves of FCV 003A.8. Vent the hot reheat steam to atmosphere through Start up vent valve (Valve tag will be added later ) provided on Hot Reheat line till condenser is made ready. 2.8. Once the steam pressure at HP super heater outlet reaches 5 bar. 7. Before charging the HP steam line. Keep HP start up vent valve throttled to follow HP pressurization curve at the same time ensure positive steam flow through Reheater. ensure steam line drain valves (GT 668. Now allow HP steam to pressurize as per pressuring curve by controlling start up vent valves opening. When the swelling phase of HP Steam drum water level is over and the level shows a decreasing trend.LP bypass PRDS PCH0101 to the condenser is established slowly close the start up vent valve by looking in to the steam pressure at reheater out let and allow entire hot reheat steam to go to Condenser.8 Taking Reheater On Line This section describes how to take Reheater on line through HP & IP section. 12. 5. GL731) are open to drain out the condensate and close the drain line valve.LP bypass PRDS PCH0101 in auto mode. 3.Caution: To safeguard the Reheater Tubes. 11. Reheater has to be charged simultaneously through HP & IP section as per the criteria mentioned charging procedure of reheater. Now the cold reheat line gets HP steam from HP section through PRDS valve PCH 0101 and IP section is getting pressurised as per the start up curve maintaining steam venting to atmosphere through IP start up vent valve PCV063. Once the steam flow through IP . Open HP to IP bypass valve for leading CRH (Cold Reheat) flow through Reheater. Control the steam temperature at outlet of reheat using attemperator control valve TCV 068A in auto / Manual mode. Keep watch on Reheat 2 metal temperature for proper cooling. only to bring upon clarity procedure is explained here separately (section wise). 10. once the IP steam pressure reaches to 5 bar or above CRH steam pressure (0. as per requirement of steam turbine. Once the Condenser is available to dump the hot reheat steam . Ensure reheat SH is drained properly for water / condensate before charging by operating motorised drain valve M038C for Reheater-2 to be operated. 9. throttle HP start up vent valve to follow HP steam pressurisation curve & ensure that sufficient steam is getting passed through Reheater.Operation & Maintenance Manual 3. Before charging HP steam line ensure that the turbine inlet valve is closed. Once HP steam line is charged. Pass entire HP steam through reheat and ensure that steam temperature at cold reheat is maintained below 380 Deg.1Charging HP Steam to Reheater 1.1. synchronize the IP main steam pressure with cold reheat pressure (open PCV Section C 79 . 2. Continue the operation till HP turbine is put in operation and ensure sufficient steam passed to cold heat line. Once the HP steam pressure reaches near about 23 bar put the HP by pass PRDS ( PCH 0101) to Reheat in auto mode with 25 bar set point. PSV 302 on cold reheat & PSV 072 on hot reheat line safeguard the reheat SH from high pressure. 6. as required. 8. line up the IP . open HP steam stop equalization /bypass valve M029B 100% and charge HP steam line as per steam line charging procedure after heating main steam line by HP steam stop bypass valve M029B and close the bypass valve after opening the HP steam stop valve M029A 100% . Ensure that drained water led to blow down tank. Place the IP . Steam comes out from Reheat Module 2 is termed as Hot reheat steam. it is essential to maintain positive steam flow either by venting steam through start up vent valve provided on hot reheat steam line or by dumping the steam directly to Condenser when it is operational. Control valve FCV 003A can be positioned as required manually to maintain drum level 4. C by operating PCH 0101 (HP to IP bypass valve) in auto / manual mode.1 Charging IP steam to reheat 1.LP bypass PRDS PCH0101 and start dumping hot reheat steam to condenser.

The CPH can be taken out of line. To compensate for temperature difference increase temperature of other boiler connected to header). once the cold RH steam starts HP turbine HP steam bypass valve closes accordingly in auto mode and closes fully once full-fledged cold reheat steam flow is established from turbine.IP & LP section at prevailing condition. The CPH bypass valve GT 314 should be open so that the condensate bypasses the CPH. Once the CPH is charged start the CPH water circulation pump and put the TCV 108 in auto mode with a set point to maintain the flue gas temperature to stack. Condensate preheater (CPH) will be kept bypassed completely. NRV 254 in the IP main steam line shall take care of reverse flow of HP steam to IP section. Further loading of HRSG can be done by increasing load on GT as per load requirement. During cold start up keep the circulation pump in stop condition. during transient period of start up due to high gas temperature at CPH inlet there is always chance of steam generation in CPH . During initial water fill up. Deaerator pressure control valve will kept in auto mode during start up with pressure set 3. point. the boiler is loaded comfortably the flow through CPH can be modulated on observing the deaerator pressure / temperature. This is controlled by modulating the Start up vent valve and if required modulating the GT load.9 Charging & Operation of CPH CPH charging can be considered as the last most activity in Start up procedure of entire HRSG.3 bar is reached put PCV 129 in auto mode with set pt of 24. Once the HP steam & HRH steam quality is achieved as per requirement .) directly into the deaerator through the CPH bypass. will reduce the venting steam quantity. Section C 80 . Admitting the DM water/Condensate at ambient temperature (condensate return temp. which is called unfired mode of HRSG operation. CPH can be charged when once the HRSG start up stabilised and loaded. Condensate is fed to CPH at around 57 Deg C & CPH heats it up to 137 Deg C. Boiler steam generation is limited depending upon the GT load or the exhaust gas flow rate and temperature (heat input to HRSG). Take out CPH from line by modulating the 3 way valve TCV.3 Bar. • Building the steam temperature (Alternately one can settle for a lower steam temperature initially if it would not cause any problems down stream.Operation & Maintenance Manual 129 gradually & introduce steam to CRH. Flow through CPH is adjusted in such a way that the difference between Deaerator temperature and CPH outlet water temperature is around 15 Deg C.10 Parallel HRSG to the Plant Steam Mains Parallel HRSG to the Plant Steam Mains Paralleling HRSG to the steam mains of the plant is an important operation to be carefully done without affecting the temperature of steam in the plant. Loading is done without firing the burners. After rolling the turbine. This pressure matching can be done by positioning start up vent valves as per the requirement on HP line PCV028 & on IP line PCV063. 3. Bypassing CPH will also help to keep the deaerator pressure / temperature rise under control. Deaerator temperature will be high during start up and at lower loads which will lead to more venting of steam. 3. charge the steam to turbine. drain line common isolation valve GT603 & GT 604 will be closed and common vent valve GT 609 shall be kept opened as long as air is purged out completely & then it will be closed. During cold start up of HRSG. Keep watch on flue gas temperature at IP SH inlet.102. However the deaerator pressure will be maintained by controlling LP start up vent valve as per LP pressurising curve. The pre requisites for this operation are: • Building the steam pressure in HRSG to a pressure slightly more than plant steam pressure. Other Manual valves in the system shall be kept locked open except for maintenance. This is to avoid steaming in CPH . Slowly bypass the CPH by closing inlet and outlet valve. Take into account the permissible rate of drum pressure increase to position the vent valves. Once IP section working pressure @ 24. Once. Emergency action HRSG TRIP Close the MSSV and boxup the HP.

Hot restart requires operations to be done fast. the required valve line up (as was stated for cold start up) will be available and can be quickly verified by visual inspection. with steam pressure not less than 40bar (a) is termed as a hot restart. Ensure that drain valves to Blow down Tank of HP SH Drain header (GT688). HRSG is ready for supply of LP steam to the plant. the required valve line up (as was stated for cold start up) will be available except for few vent valves these valves can be quickly verified as per the below mentioned list. In event of GT trip first & foremost important duty of operator is to close all steam outlets. • Attemperator can be taken in service if Superheater outlet temperature is exceeding rated value. The pressure differential across MSSV [M-029A] starts decreasing and when ∆P at MSSV <5 bar (a) – Valve [M-029A] opens and when open feed back is received. As the HRSG was in service till the trip out. As the HRSG was in service till the trip out. Start GT as per GT start up cycle. when the HRSG is still hot. to avoid superheater & reheater running dry do not open start up vent valves of HP section(PCV028) & IP section(PCV129). using the maximum Section C 81 . HRSG is ready for supply of HP steam to the plant. full load control station comes into service . When output signal from Level Indicating Controller exceeds 65%. Following are the valves need to be operated • HP Section – HP superheater 2 & 3 header motorised drain valve M038B & F – HP Superheater 1 motorised drain valve M038D/H 4 Hot and Warm Start up of HRSG Hot Start up of HRSG Restarting the HRSG immediately after a trip out. • Similarly for LP section • Initiate an open command for LP Main steam stop valve and observe – Valve [092B] opens. close chimney inlet isolation damper & maintain drum water level as recommended.During Hot start up of boiler super heater & atteperator motorized drain valve need to be opened for say 1 min for removal of condensate then leave the following valves crack open till respective section superheater outlet temperature reaches or 100% condensate is drained out. The HRSG hot restart sequence will comprise of various operations as detailed below: The HRSG hot restart sequence will comprise of various DCS and manual operations as detailed below 1.Operation & Maintenance Manual • With the build up of required steam pressure and temperature in HRSG. Open HP main steam stop valve & pass 100% HP steam generated through cold & hot reheat & dump into condenser by opening IP bypass valve (PCH0101). • Observe the feed control station. – -Valve [M-092B] (MSSV by-pass) close With the opening of valve [M-092A] . • Reduce the opening of the start up vent valve to about 15%. 4. permissible heat input rates so as to obtain quickly the required HP steam pressure and temperature . The pressure differential across MSSV [M-092A] starts decreasing and when ∆P at MSSV <5 bar (a) – Valve [M-092A] opens and when open feed back is received. Similarly dump the LP steam to condenser through LP bypass valve (PCH0101). using the maximum permissible heat input rates so as to obtain quickly the required HP/IP section steam pressure and temperatures. Reheater Drain Header (GT650). • Observe steam temperatures after the superheater of individual sections. 3. During Hot start up maintained the GT at 15 % load & ensure that the GT exhaust temperature is maintained at 510 Deg C. 2. Bypass CPH from water side to avoid steaming during start up. IP RHS Drain Header (GT 622) & IP LHS side header (GT 624) are open. During hot start up of HRSG. Hot restart requires operations to be done fast. – -Valve [M-029B] (MSSV by-pass) close With the opening of valve [M-029A] . • Initiate an open command for HP Main steam stop valve and observe – Valve [M-029B] opens. the main steam stop valve can be opened • When the HP Steam Pressure reaches the pressure of 5 Bar(a).

increase GT load gradually to pressurise the HRSG. Once the HRSG operation is stabilised & steam parameters suitable for STG operation is reached supply steam to STG. Section C 82 . Reheater 2 drain valves FVM – D201 • IP & LP Section – IP superheater motorised drain valve M076 – LP superheater motorised drain valve M098 • Ensure following vent valves are Closed – HP Drum vent valve M005A & M005B – IP Drum vent valve M061 5. The heat transfer commences and the water in the HRSG gets slowly converted to steam as a result pressure of steam in the drum starts gradually build up. C). Monitor Drum metal temperatures HP Drum TE 037 A – 037 D < 321 Deg. 8. During start up & continuous operation Monitor the skin metal temperature of HPSH3 < 612 Deg. C. 10. EBD valve is fully closed 11. Ensure that GT is maintained at 15% load & exhaust temperature is maintained at 510 Deg C. The saturated steam temperature rise rate (and hence rate of rise in metal temperature) is controlled as per hot start-up pressurisation curve to safe guard against impermissible stress. Ensure that during hot start-up of HRSG flue gas temperature at the inlet of HRSG is maintained at 510 Deg C. C) & re-heater (RH 2 < 611 Deg. Monitor the water level in the drum. 7.Operation & Maintenance Manual • Reheater Section – Reheater 1 & 2 motorised drain valve M038C. & Reheat RH 2 < 611 Deg. After having stabilised the positive steam flow through superheater & reheater. C . The operator anticipates this and controls the level by opening the EBD valve. There may be chance of swelling of water level in the drum. C for ensuring cooling. If the Skin metal temperature reaches set point please stop gas flow to HRSG. Monitor the metal temperature of super heaters (HPSH3 < 612 Deg. 9. When the swelling in the drum level is over. 6.

Section C 83 .Operation & Maintenance Manual HRSG Hot Start-Up Curve for HP section Please refer section E — Curves The pressurisation curve for hot start up for HP section is illustrated above. The hot start up curve of IP & LP section will follow the pressurisation according to the heat input received based on HP section curve.

In case if condenser is not ready to dump the steam then follow the procedure as mentioned in cold start up procedure for steam venting & pressurisation. Section C 84 . Monitor the metal temperature of supper heaters (HPSH3 < 612 Deg. to avoid superheater & reheater running dry do not open start up vent valves of HP section(PCV028) & IP section(PCV129). 3. 2. increase GT load gradually to pressurise the HRSG. The HRSG warm restart sequence will comprise of various operations as detailed below 1. Reheater Drain Header (GT650). Ensure that drain valves to Blow down Tank of HP SH Drain header (GT688). During warm start up maintained the GT on Reserve spinning mode with 7 % load & ensure that the GT exhaust temperature is maintained at 430 Deg C. with the HRSG steam pressure of not less than 10-kg/cm² (g) is termed as a warm start . C. close chimney inlet isolation damper & maintain drum water level as recommended. C . Monitor the water level in the drum. Ensure that GT is maintained at 7% reserve spinning & exhaust temperature is maintained at 430 Deg C. 5. & Reheat RH 2 < 611 Deg. If the Skin metal temperature reaches set point please stop gas flow to HRSG. 11. The operator anticipates this and controls the level by opening the EBD valve.Operation & Maintenance Manual Warm Start up of HRSG Restarting of a hot HRSG within few hours time after a trip or stoppage. Ensure that during warm start-up of HRSG flue gas temperature at the inlet of HRSG ia maintained at 430 Deg C. 4. EBD valve is fully closed 12. 7.C) & re-heater (RH 2 < 611 Deg. The heat transfer commences and the water in the HRSG gets slowly converted to steam as a result pressure of steam in the drum starts gradually build up. There may be chance of swelling of water level in the drum. Bypass CPH from water side to avoid steaming during start up. In event of GT trip first & foremost important duty of operator is to close all steam outlets. Once the HRSG operation is stabilised & steam parameters suitable for STG operation is reached supply steam to STG. 8. During warm start up of HRSG. the required valve line up (as was stated for cold start up) will be available except for few vent valves these valves can be quickly verified as per the below mentioned list. Reheater 2 drain valves FVM – D201 • IP & LP Section – IP superheater motorised drain valve M076 – LP superheater motorised drain valve M098 • Ensure following vent valves are Closed – HP Drum vent valve M005A & M005B – IP Drum vent valve M061 6. Monitor Drum metal temperatures HP Drum TE 037 A – 037 D < 321 Deg. C). During start up & continuous operation Monitor the skin metal temperature of HPSH3 < 612 Deg. Similarly dump the LP steam to condenser through LP bypass valve (PCH0101). 10. Following are the valves need to be operated • HP Section – HP superheater 2 & 3 header motorised drain valve M038B & F – HP Superheater 1 motorised drain valve M038D/H • Reheater Section – Reheater 1 & 2 motorised drain valve M038C. After having stabilised the positive steam flow through superheater & reheater.During warm start up of boiler super heater & attemperator motorized drain valve need to be opened for say 1 min for removal of condensate then leave the following valves crack open till respective section superheater outlet temperature reaches or 100% condensate is drained out. When the swelling in the drum level is over. As the HRSG was in service till the trip out. 9. Start GT as per GT start up cycle. Open HP main steam stop valve & pass 100% HP steam generated through cold & hot reheat & dump into condenser by opening IP bypass valve (PCH0101). The saturated steam temperature rise rate (and hence rate of rise in metal temperature) is controlled as per warm start-up pressurisation curve to safe guard against impermissible stress. C for ensuring cooling. IP RHS Drain Header (GT 622) & IP LHS side header (GT 624) are open.

The warm start up curve of IP & LP section will follow the pressurisation according to the heat input received based on HP section curve.Operation & Maintenance Manual HRSG Warm Start up Curve for HP section Please refer section E — Curves The pressurisation curve for warm start up for HP section is illustrated above. Section C 85 .

inspection. • On the working HP dosing pump. if feed control valves remain full open. Close the Main steam stop valve. hence close the manual isolation valve. • Stop the gas turbine. • If water is to be drained from HRSG. HRSG may trip due to tripping of Seal air fans. Operation In The Event Of STG Trip & HRSG Running Condition When ever STG trips. dump the hot reheat steam to condensor through HP.Operation & Maintenance Manual 5 HRSG Shutdown • GT Exhaust gas Pressure high at inlet of HRSG. • Allow the HRSG to cool down naturally. entire steam will get dumped to condenser via HP. Section C 86 . continue to reduce GT load till the HRSG reaches minimum MCR mode of operation.g. Instruments and controls may still be available as they are usually powered from UPS (please check the plant philosophy). HRSG is started when the Gas Turbine comes into service. This scenario will likely result into a plant blackout. Maintain water level in the drum till the pressure drops to 2-bar (g) • At 2 bar (g) pressure (or slightly lower) open the respective section Drum vent valves. start-up vent valve remain full open. while HRSG is in operation.25 bar (g) HRSG Trip Due to Instrument Air Failure When the HRSG trips due to instrument air failure.2 HRSG Emergency Trips Emergency trips can occur in HRSG due to any of the following causes: • HP Drum level very Low • IP Drum level very Low • LP Drum level very Low • HP Steam O/L Pressure high-"Hi Hi Pressure Trip In Case of STG Trip and HP Bypass System Valve Not Open Safe Gaurding the HRSG after a Trip • Upon tripping of steam turbine. Close CBD valve. normally it can be done only when the drum pressure drops below 1. isolating valves before or after the control valves are to be closed. • Depending on the GT load restrictions. feed water control station isolation valve after maintaining level in the steam drum. 5. 2. 5. E. Close Main steam stop valve.IP. Suggested action by the operator for the above types of shutdowns are indicated below HRSG Trip Due to Gas Turbine Trip In this case the operator action is to shut down the HRSG. where the operator gets advanced notice. IP/LP bypass PRDS and pass the steam through reheat to cool the reheat. Run the HP dosing pump for about one hour to keep the line clear of phosphate up to the drum. exercise extra caution to see that the fail-safe valves do not endanger the boiler. if restart of the Gas Turbine will be delayed. Trip on protection or a stop due to emergency. Planned shutdown for maintenance. During STG trip & hot start-up ensure that HP to cold reheat bypass PRDS is opened immediately without any delay during this watch the reheat metal temperature. • Close CBD valve. HRSG to be restarted after restoration & normalising of all services. Also reduce the steam demand from the plant or transfer the steam load to other boilers. • In case of failure of bypass valve safety valves provided on respective section steam drum & superheater section will release the steam also start up vent valve shall be open to release the steam in auto mode. However the status of availability of instrument air.LP Bypass. feed water supply and fuel supply will determine the continuation of HRSG in operation. HRSG Trip Due to Power Failure In an extreme case of power failure. Shutdown of HRSG can be of two types 1. charge over to DM water to the pump inlet and close the phosphate solution inlet to the pump.1 Planned Shutdown A planned shut down has to be coordinated with other working boilers such that loads reduced from the HRSG are picked up by them without affecting the performance of the plant • Reduce to the load to 50% MCR by reducing the GT load.

All equipment interlocks should always be in line. connections and fittings. 4.. 6 Aim Cooling of a Shutdown Boiler This chapter describes the methods of cooling a shut down HRSG and the steps to be taken to preserve the HRSG to minimize corrosion. permissible water level is maintained in the drum (+150mm to – 250mm) by intermittent feeding. After the steam drum pressure falls below 2-bar (g) maintaining water level in the drum is not essential. rectify the cause and opt for restart of HRSG. 7. Evaporator. Check for steam or water leaks from valves. Check for unusual noises. Super Heater headers. EBD and SWAS valves are closed as for natural cooling. System Description HRSG after shut down has to be cooled carefully. If the cooling rate is accelerated. 6. the HP. Check for passing from safety valves at normal operating pressure.IP & LP dosing to Drum • CBD /EBD valve of all HP . Walk around the furnace exterior and observe for any hot spots or gas leaks. 2. Till the HP . A HRSG is shut down either for keeping it in reserve as a stand by unit or for maintenance and inspection. attemperator etc. When the steam drum pressure is less than 2-bar (a) . CBD. Check for unusual traces of water on floor.Operation & Maintenance Manual • Continue to supply feed water to the drum to maintain normal level. thermal stresses develop in the thick components such as the steam drum. Check for expansion. after closing the CBD and sample line valves. any obstruction for thermal 8 Do’s Do’s and Don’ts For HRSG Operation 1. A table showing the 6. The following valves are also closed. 8. 2. the HRSG is allowed to cool naturally in the boxed up condition. 5. HRSG casing and ducting.IP & LP dosing. 3. Inspect the glass for discoloration or fouling. Check to see that proper water level is being shown by the direct water level gauge. De-pressurization of steam in the HRSG is also speeded up by controlled opening of the start up vent valve De-pressurization rate is not to exceed 10kg/cm2 per hour. If the cause of the trip is known.IP & LP steam drum pressure drops to 2-bar (g). It is recommended to cool the HRSG under normal circumstances at the rate of heating.IP & LP Drum • Sample line to HRSG water/saturated steam / SH steams to Swas The HRSG cools slowly. After the shut down of the HRSG.IP & LP drum is also maintained between permissible levels till the steam drum pressure falls to 2 bar (a). For 8 hours after the shut down.1 Natural Cooling The HRSG after a shut down is allowed to cool slowly in a ‘boxed up condition’. 6. However forced cooling is not done unless absolutely essential. HRSG cools to an accessible level in about three-four days. 4. After 8 hours. Check that the drain lines and drip pans are not plugged. to be reduced to a minimum. the access doors in the HRSG are kept open to create a natural draught through the HRSG to the chimney. The purpose of the shut down determines the method of cooling to be adopted 7 HRSG Operation Walk Down Checks 1. Water level in the HP . • HP. which will cause a false water level in the gauge glass. Maintain normal water level in steam drum. This may be from steam or water leakages.2 Forced Cooling If the HRSG has to be made available for inspection or repair and the shut down time has Section C 87 . 3. Maintain all instruments in good working condition. • Investigate the cause of the trip from the first up signals and DCS data acquisition system. loosing its heat by radiation to the environment. access doors on HRSG are opened to allow airflow through the HRSG to the stack. forced cooling of the HRSG is done. Check for air / flue leakage from windbox. Check for water or steam leak from ports or drain connections. Maintain water quality as per the recommended limits. Economiser.

piping. 18. Don’t leave the instrument control panel unattended 8. insulated. Don’t alter the equipment maintenance schedule 7. 9. 11. Don’t allow unauthorized persons to operate the HRSG and associated equipments Section C 88 . HRSG beyond the 10. Maintain proper regularly. 7. Maintain the feedwater temperature at economizer inlet and flue gas temperature at economizer outlet as recommended . Use genuine spares. Use proper lubricant and maintain the schedule as recommended by the manufacturers. close the steam stop valve. HRSG surroundings and equipments must be properly illuminated. Don’t bypass any instruments and safety interlocks 2. 16. Don’t leave the furnace door open while the HRSG is in operation 5. All the duct joints must be leak proof. operation log sheets 12. Don’t mix up different lubricants 6. Operate the blowdown recommendation. If the water level goes up above the limits operate the emergency blowdown valve immediately and maintain the water level to normal . HRSG. Pressure raising from cold start must be done as per the cold start up curve. 20. Maintain the instrument air free from moisture and oily matters and the pressure as recommended . Carry out regular cleaning of direct water level gauge glasses of HRSG drum. Use proper gaskets for flange joints . 5. 6. 15. Don’ts 1. ducts must be properly 17. Use proper valve gland packing to avoid leakage . Don’t operate the operation limits. 13. 21. Don’t use raw water as HRSG feedwater 3. Servicing of equipment should be done as per the manufacturer’s schedule . 19. valves as per 4. Operate the HRSG within the recommended operation limits . 8.Operation & Maintenance Manual DM water & drum water quality is included at the end of this section . 14. In case of power failure.

1. Feedwater. HRSG running hours. outage hours. Logbook should furnish the details about SL. troubleshooting and maintenance purposes. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 HP PARAMETER GT LOAD DRUM LEVEL UNIT MW mmWC mmWC mmWC Bar (a) Bar (a) Bar (a) TPH TPH TPH 9..BEFORE CPH Bar (a) 12 Bar (a) 13 Bar (a) 14 DEG C Section C 89 .Operation & Maintenance Manual 9 Boiler Log Sheet 5. jobs carried out. Observed abnormalities (if any) recorded can be used for analysis. 2. HRSG shut down details (forced or planned. HRSG water quality are also to be noted once in four hours 3. HRSG trips with reasons and time 6.1 Log Sheet for HRSG Date: Shift: TIME TIME TIME IP DRUM LEVEL LP DRUM LEVEL HP MAIN STEAM PRESSURE IP MAIN STEAM PRESSURE LP MAIN STEAM PRESSURE HP IP LP STEAM FLOW STEAM FLOW STEAM FLOW 11 FEED WATER PRESSURE AT HP CONTROL STATION INLET FEED WATER PRESSURE AT IP CONTROL STATION INLET FEED WATER PRESSURE AT LP CONTROL STATION INLET CONDENSATE TEMP. Log sheet to be filled once in every hour by the operating staff. etc. 7. It is suggested to record the HRSG parameters during startup and normal operation.) Sample log sheet is enclosed. 4. Total steam production of a day to be noted.

AT IP ECONOMIZER OUTLET FLUE GAS TEMP.Operation & Maintenance Manual SL. NO PARAMETER CONDENSATE TEMPERATURE AFTER CONDENSATE PRE-HEATER FEED WATER TEMP. AT HP ECO 3 OUTLET FEED WATER TEMP. AT DD OUTLET FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER HP ECONOMIZER 3 FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER LP EVAPORATOR UNIT TIME TIME TIME 15 DEG C 16 DEG C 17 DEG C 18 DEG C 19 DEG C 20 DEG C 21 DEG C 22 DEG C 23 DEG C 24 DEG C 25 DEG C 26 DEG C 27 DEG C 28 DEG C Section C 90 . AT HP ECO 1 OUTLET FEEDWATER TEMP. AT HP ECO I INLET FEED WATER TEMP. AT HP SUPERHEATER 3 FLUE GAS TEMP AFTER REHEATER FLUE GAS TEMP AFTER HP EVAPORATOR FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER IP ECONOMIZER FLUE GAS TEMP. AT HP ECO 2 OUTLET FEED WATER TEMP. AT IP ECONOMIZER INLET FEED WATER TEMP.

AT DD OUTLET FLUE GAS PRESSURE AT HP SUPERHEATER 3 FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER REHEATER FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER HP EVAPORATOR FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER HP ECONOMIZER 3 FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER IP ECONOMIZER FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER LP EVAPORATOR FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER CONDENSATE PRE-HEATER FLUE GAS TEMP. AT STACK UNIT TIME TIME TIME 29 DEG C 30 mmWC 31 mmWC 32 mmWC 33 mmWC 34 mmWC 35 mmWC 36 mmWC 37 mmWC 38 DEG C Section C 91 .Operation & Maintenance Manual SL. NO PARAMETER FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER CONDENSATE PRE-HEATER FLUE GAS PR.

& Sh Steam Analysis: pH 41 Conductivity TDS Silica Operator Name: Signature: Date: Section C 92 . NO PARAMETER Feed Water Analysis pH Conductivity UNIT TIME TIME TIME 39 TDS Silica Hardness Oxygen Drum Water Analysis: pH TDS Alkalinity as CaCo3 Silica Phosphate Po4 as 40 Sulphite as SO3 Sat.Operation & Maintenance Manual SL.

Inspect the furnace for any signs of bulging or damage to the tubes. 2. Reduce the necessary steam discharge rate. Drain the boiler after cooling 7. Take the drum level control loop into manual mode 2. Simultaneously. then open the by manual operated pass valve to maintained the drum level Boiler Explosion Causes 1. Feedwater control malfunction 2. Assess the damage if any and rectify the same. Find out the root cause for the explosion and rectify the same. Evacuate or clean the furnace to the possible extend Conditions for Boiler Restart after Furnace Explosion After a case of furnace/ boiler explosion. Following necessary actions have to be completed to prevent the repeat incidence of explosion and before restart of the boiler. 1. If any tube rupture and bulging is observed rectify the same 8. Shut off the main steam stop valve . Tube leak Action Compare control room indication with gauge glass level. If instrument air supply failure. If the water level falls out of sight due to momentary failure of water supply system. the restart of the boiler has to be carried out only after a thorough and detailed investigation & understanding of the cause of explosion. Reduce the steam pressure gradually 4. due to momentary fluctuations that might occur with extraordinary changes in load. if 4. Instrument air supply failure Action 1. Open the drum air vent when the pressure drops below 2 kg/cm² 5. Any decision to continue to operate. 5. Operator error 3. If any tube leakage were observed rectify / repair the leaking tubes and after the repairs conduct hydrotest 9. if feedwater has become available and the operator is assured that no pressure part has been damaged 1. Carry out the hydro test of the boiler. Feedwater control system failure. even if only for a short time at a reduced rating would have to be made by someone in authority who is thoroughly familiar with the circumstances that led to the emergency and positively certain that the water level can be restored immediately without damaging the boiler.Operation & Maintenance Manual 10 Boiler Emergency Safety Procedures 10. identify the tubes that have failed and proceed to rectify Section C 93 . 2. Analyse the reasons for explosion and rectify the system 2. In-sufficient purging of furnace With the mixture of unburned fuel with air in explosive proportions and the application of heat sufficient enough to raise the temperature of the mixture to ignition point. appropriate action should be taken at once to trip the fuel. (Do not hurry up which may lead to sudden quenching and tube leak) if pressure part damage is suspected 3. BFP failure 3. Reduce the water level immediately by operating the intermittent blow down to maintain the drum level 3.1 Emergency Procedures Low Water Level Causes 1. In the absence of such a decision 1. Take the feedwater control system into manual mode 2. Action 1. Cool the boiler so as to examine the extent of damage 6. Determine the cause of low water High Water Level Causes 1. In the event of a failure of the hydro test. Inspect the economizer casing for damages 4. Inspect the expansion bellows in the air and flue ducts for damages 3. due to negligence of the operator. Allow the water flow to boiler gradually to normal water level.

Operation & Maintenance Manual the same as explained in the maintenance section. Section C 94 .

• Before startup of a HRSG. The water is then shut-off and the HRSG is allowed to cool. ensure complete knowledge of water chemistry. Boiler salt in the wet steam will accelerate corrosion.4 Tube Failures Operating the boiler with a known tube leak is not recommended. • Furnace explosion is also possible if boiler operating instructions are not followed or if the protections are bypassed. Before operating a HRSG. In case of tube failure. A loss of boiler water chemicals or by the noise made by the leak. (Steam Drum. inspection doors have been properly closed and pad locked. Efficient drum internals can only reduce mechanical carry over. 10. The boiler water may be lost. Always use deaerated de-mineralized water for boiler feeding. tools. conforming to relevant ASME code. An investigation of the tube failure is very important so that the condition causing the tube failure can be eliminated and future failures can be prevented. The raising and lowering of steam parameters should be restricted to the value given in the starting diagram. which can be identified by hearing the noise in the HRSG gallery and increase in draught pressure.) Ensure that all manholes. These Alarm and Interlock values can be revised at the time of commissioning of the boiler.3 Operational Precautions for Safety Operating the HRSG with low feedwater temperature will result in corrosion of economizer coils. Exceeding these values will result in reduced fatigue life of pressure parts. Small leaks can sometime be detected by the loss of water in the cycle or system. Continuous monitoring of sodium and silica in boiler water and steam is desirable. The final revised alarms and interlocks list shall be submitted post commissioning of the boiler. Large leaks can be dangerous. the ignition may be lost and boiler casing can get damaged. A few suggestions are listed below which can form part of the plant safety code for the HRSG. ensure that all maintenance personnel. The steam drum should normally be filled up to the point when water is showing in the bottom part of the gauge glass.2 Alarms and Trips Note 1. Section C 95 . Filling the drum like this will prevent 10.Operation & Maintenance Manual 10. Silica is always carried over in vaporous form. check all safety interlocks before HRSG start up for proper functioning. Otherwise large number of surrounding tubes may fail due to steam erosion and impingement. peepholes. • The boiler operation and maintenance staff must recognize hazards of high pressure. This investigation should include a careful visual inspection of the failed tube and in some cases a lab analysis. gas ducts. have been withdrawn from the HRSG. scaffolding etc. 10.5 Safety in Boiler House It is expected that the final user will evolve a comprehensive safety code for all operations in the plant. high temperature steam and water . It is recommended that every effort be made to find the cause of tube failures before operation is resumed. the HRSG should be shutdown at the earliest by regular procedure for maintenance work. This is to allow for the swell on heating and to reduce any blowing down resulting from this cause to a minimum. the leaks may be repaired by replacing the failed tube or by splicing in a new section of tube. Carryover of salt in steam occurs either due to mechanical or vapor carryover from steam drum. excessive temperature differentials along the drum wall. If a leak is suspected the boiler should be shut down as soon as possible by following the normal shutdown procedure. the water level in the steam drum must be raised to the very top of the drum. Steam or water escaping from a small leak at pressure can cut other tubes by impingement and set up a chain reaction of tube failures. Whenever HRSG is started after a shutdown of more than 3 days. stack etc. Once the HRSG is boxed up. After the exact location of the leak or leaks is located. flue gas and steam temperature.

• Before removing manholes or flanges in drum or pipeline. ensure that the drum/line has been isolated and drained. The power supply be from an earth leak circuit breaker (ELCB) • Before entering through gates and dampers.. piping. oil guns etc. ensure that their drive mechanism have been locked. 11 Trouble Shooting Chart The following chart is to be used for solving problems arising during operation. only use low voltage extension cords with low voltage bulbs with the cords properly earthed. wear protective gloves while working around the HRSG. Section C 96 . ducts. steam and water valves should be checked closed and tagged. • Operators trained in Fire fighting. • Do not use toxic fluids like CTC for cleaning in a confined space without adequate ventilation. • Never enter drums. First aid. furnace etc. • When you need illumination for inspection. ventilated and assured safe for human entry. until the HRSG has been shut down and cooled. • Use a full face mask and tinted glass for safety • For personal safety in handling hot valves. handling electric shocks etc may save lives and property in an emergency.Operation & Maintenance Manual • Do not attempt to open the observation ports in a working HRSG without observing proper safety procedure. The Natural gas. The confined spaces where you are entering have to be cooled. • Install and strictly follow a system of permits and tagging for any maintenance or inspection work to be done by any person in the boiler house.

Operation at normal loads should put chemical back in solution. varying supply pressure or control loop adjustment Excessive water level fluctuation Water load or control conditions Correct condition leading to the problem Section C 97 . Inspect or determine whether tube splicing or wholesale tube replacement is necessary. Steam explosion in furnace followed by inability to maintain water level. or boiler water contamination. Tube rupture Failure of tube from low water. Over-heating as from scale or tube seat leakage. Repair by welding or splicing as indicated and as approved by insurance or State Inspection. High boiler concentrations. Sound of steam blowing in furnace or seeing visible steam from the stack. Determine cause of failure and correct it.Operation & Maintenance Manual Indication Probable Source Probable Cause Repair method & Preventive Measures Remove HRSG from service at first convenient time. Remove HRSG from the line immediately. and correct airflow if required High conductivity Solids carry over in the steam or high CO2 or NH3 in HRSG water High boiler water concentrations. Unable to maintain HRSG water concentration Tube Leak Hideout Slight leakage from pitting or cracking of tube or tube seat leak. Hydrostatic test to be done to locate leak. Tube leak Substantial leak from tube/tubes. excessive water level fluctuation drum baffle leakage or deposits on scrubbers High gas temperature High excess air Improper control /adjustment of airflow. extreme load swings. The same as above plus tubes re-rolling. tube blockage or erosion of exterior metal surface. Check for baffle leaks in steam drum when out of service. Check of degasified steam sample will indicate if CO2 or NH3 is high Check excess air at furnace HRSG outlet.

Extensive drum pitting can be welded but is subject to approval by either the manufacturer & insurance carrier or State.Operation & Maintenance Manual Indication Probable Source Probable Cause Repair method & Preventive Measures Severity of bowing will determine extent of tube replacement. internal cleaning and correction of water conditions are required Section C 98 . Internal scale will call for internal cleaning. Usually internal deposits result in tubes bowing away from the furnace & low water /starve results bowing toward the furnace. Tube blisters Localised overheating Internal deposit Internal pitting sharp edged and covered with barnacles in drum or tubes. Clean internally by turbining or acid cleaning. Depth and extent of pitting determines need and extent of tube replacement. Corrosion Oxygen in Boiler water Internal loss of metal not sharply defined and accompanied by black iron oxide (Fe 3 O4 ) Overheating resulting in breakdown of water into H & O2 Corrosion Cause is usually from or sludge letdown pluggage . If low water is indicated a thorough inspection for drum damage and tube seat leakage must be made. Source of oxygen must be located and eliminated Bowed water wall generating tubes Overheating Internal deposit or low water. Take steps to prevent recurrence or low water condition Repair by retubing or welding in tube section or by heating and driving back blister depending upon insurance carrier or State Inspector’s approval. Individual inspection will determine extent or replacement.

Operation & Maintenance Manual Indication Probable Source Probable Cause Repair method & Preventive Measures Extent of repair must be determined by individual inspection. Tube cracking Mechanical stress or a combination of stress corrosion or tube variation. Inspection or a thermocouple installation will determine cause of overheating External pitting Corrosion From corrosive ash deposit and moisture either from dew point or external source such as leaking soot blowing tube. the cracks can be ground out and welded. Highly polished area Erosion Mechanical abrasion from soot blower action. In emergency tubes out of high heat zone can be plugged. Eliminate channeling of steam from soot blowers or use tube shields Extent of metal loss will determine extent of tube or tube section replacement. Section C 99 . External metal loss. Vibration set up by turbulent gas flow characteristics over tubes. Using tube spacers can stop vibration. being sure they are cut to vent and to prevent differential expansion with adjacent tubes. Locate & eliminate source of expansion difficulty by inspection or hot to cold expansion measurements. Proper external cleaning can prevent out of service corrosion. Locate and eliminate source of moisture. External metal loss. Where accessible and with insurance or State approval pad weld or splice in a tube section. Oxidized fire scale area. otherwise splice in section or replace tube. take steps to raise metal temperature When accessible and with insurance or State approval. Overheating Prolonged or repeated overheating. If dew point is from in -service corrosion. Interference with expansion or differential expansion with adjacent parts to give mechanical stress or this stress plus corrosion attack.

Vendor manuals for various equipments suggest inspection periods. prescribe certain minimum maintenance requirements which are to be carried out in one of the above two maintenance categories. It may be found that due to varying site conditions. some additional spares not included are also required. Maintenance can be classified as • Preventive maintenance – mostly condition based • Annual Boiler overhauls to clean and inspect pressure parts. Some equipment have 100% reserve standby units. 1. Based on site experience.. Three and six monthly inspections are done utilizing an available planned shutdown approximately in the specified time period. scanners have replacement spares which can be utilized when the working equipment are to be maintained without affecting the boiler operation.. A scientific method of preparation of the preventive maintenance schedules is to make them condition based. irrespective of the equipment condition. Action has to be initiated to procure such spares. weekly monthly etc.1.Operation & Maintenance Manual Section D Topics Covered in this Chapter ♦ Section Overview ♦ Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) ♦ Boiler Preservation Procedure ♦ Tube Failures ♦ General Principal of Weld Repairs ♦ Failure Reporting Format ♦ Water Chemistry ♦ Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning recommended spares. control valves with their positioners and actuators. Mandatory inspections prescribed by the vendors are also taken care of. overhauling. Also discussed are failures and repair techniques 1. In condition based maintenance. motors.1Preventive Maintenance The objective of the preventive maintenance program is to obtain trouble free service from the component till the next maintenance. weekly and monthly inspections given in the following pages do not require a boiler shutdown and in fact can only be done when the boiler is in service. Effective maintenance aims at timely inspection of parts to repair or replace defective components and to prevent their failure when the boiler is in service.1 Recommended Maintenance Practices Systematic maintenance is essential to keep the boiler and its auxiliaries in good condition and to obtain reliable operation of the boiler with high availability and plant load factor. Suggested inspection program is given in this section. checks to be done and Section D 100 . the frequencies and work schedules can be modified. the frequencies and quantum of work scheduled as per vendor manuals are either too much or too less. Maintenance of such equipments can be organized even when the boiler is in service. as per a suggested schedule by the local operators and deteriorating conditions if any observed are reported. The true objective of the maintenance program can only be realized. the equipment and components of the plant are inspected daily. (Feedwater pumps etc. Equipment such as igniters. It may be found that in the first two years of operation due to variations of site conditions. Full benefits of maintenance can be obtained only if proper parts are used. maintenance works are planned for the next available planned shut down. and preservation techniques. if a master plan of maintenance of all the components is prepared as per vendor instructions. Mandatory spare part list covers most of the spares required. although some minimum risk is involved.1. Objective of these inspections is to ensure that • The components are in trouble free condition 1 Section Overview This section describes the various maintenance practices. 1. instruments and controls. power cylinders etc. The shutdown period of the overhaul is also utilized to attend to systems and parts which cannot be attended during short shutdowns or when the boiler is in operation The vendor manuals of the fans.). The prepared master plan for maintenance should be periodically reviewed during the first three years of the boiler operation.2Schedule of Inspections for Condition Based Maintenance The schedule of daily. Based on operator reports of such inspection.

Local level gauge on steam drum CHECK Daily Checks To be done once a day by the local operator during his walkdown checks. Instrument tapping leaks. start the reserve equipment (if avl. • Check bearing temperatures • Check for vibration levels. correct grade and quality of oil. glands etc. If bearing temperatures are very high. Maintenance to be planned to eliminate the source either immediately or during next planned shut down (depending on the source and quantity of leak and accessibility for maintenance) If higher than normal bearing temperatures are noticed check for cause-proper oil level / oil circulation. Report discrepancies.. Traces of water on boiler cladding etc. Section D 101 . • Leaking valve glands. 4. • Leaking ports. • Replace fused bulbs • Isolate level gauges and tighten leaking glands • Replace leaking ports • Steam wash mica as suggested by vendor (Not to be done too frequently) 2. abnormal sound or vibration. during the next available shutdown • To collect a database to determine optimum service life of the systems and components before maintenance is required The schedule can be expanded. If there are serious discrepancies. WORK TO BE DONE • Check illumination is proper. Such walkdown checks are to be encouraged to be done in each shift by the operators. Only those operational checks that require maintenance work for correction have been included. calibration of the remote level indicators has to be planned immediately. • Blurred level. of the level gauge and indicators. EQUIPMENT 1. Such spots are indicative of valve leaks. which cannot be attended when the boiler is in service. Comparison of levels indicated by local level gauge with that of remote level indicators in the control room Compare the levels after verifying there are no leaks from valves. boiler tube leaks etc. 3..Operation & Maintenance Manual • To carry out any minor repairs or adjustments which can be done with the boiler in service • To plan for repair of such items. curtailed or modified based on experience in the first two years of operation.) and plan for a maintenance check. Fans & drive motors. Trace the source of leak.

faulty power cylinder. plan for maintenance during shut down. Source of leakage has to be located after selective removal of insulation (to be planned for the next planned shut down) Section D 102 .Operation & Maintenance Manual EQUIPMENT 5. Purity of Instrument air • Check by visual observation that the instrument air is oil and moisture free • If there is a feel by visual inspection. and faulty positioners. • Tighten the gland nuts. Check for possible cause. Boiler cladding. CHECK Check for passing of safety valves (noise or wisp of steam through silencer) WORK TO BE DONE • Hand pop the affected safety valve one or two times to clear any dirt sticking to the valve seats. stuck damper. Oil and moisture content can also be checked by laboratory examination as per standards • Oil and moisture in the instrument air is likely to clog the positioners of pneumatic controllers / solenoids and make their operation sluggish or unreliable. request for check of the safety valve during next planned shutdown. If the leakage not getting arrested. 8. • Open drain valves of air-receivers for short time to drain condensate if any. • Tighten the bolts. • Lightly tap on the stem of the safety valves. 6. Check for their proper operation Sluggish operation of fan suction damper may be due to stuck linkage. inform the Maintenance Group 7. Drum safety valves. Scanner cooling fan suction-damper linkages and power cylinders. • If these measures do not succeed. air duct or flue gas duct Check for hot spots Hot spots may be due to leakage of flue gas or hot air. Steam or water leakages from valves and from flange joints • Loose valve gland • Loosened bolts of flange joint and / or failed gasket 9. Maintenance works have to be planned. If the gasket failed then plan for the maintenance during shut down. • If these measures are not successful.

re-calibrate 1. carry out the checks to identify malfunctioning or sluggish pressure.Operation & Maintenance Manual Monthly Checks EQUIPMENT CHECK WORK TO BE DONE By monthly recording of data. Boiler Pre-interlock. With a vibration analyzer record vibration and measure bearing temperature. during the shut down period.. boiler trip protection. Pressure temperature. Check its amplifier and flame relay Plan for maintenance or re-calibration of defective items if any noticed. all pressure. An overhaul once in two or three years may be adequate. actuators etc. establish a database for deciding the overhaul time of the equipment. start permissive. Also note the operating condition of the equipment at the time of the above observations and record them. Burner refractory work. positioners. temperature switches. differential pressure controllers level and d/p controllers as per vendor manuals Section D 103 . 3. UV Scanner components Checks Every Year EQUIPMENT CHECK (Refer also work listed under Boiler overhaul) WORK TO BE DONE Carry out any maintenance replacement or adjustment needed to secure initial calibration values as per commissioning records Utilizing the boiler annual shut down for overhaul. 2. WORK TO BE DONE 1. Adjust amplifier flame relay if required. Visual check that there are no loose bricks. temperature. Flow level. purge interlocks. solenoid operated valves. If any abnormalities are seen repair works to be planned during next available shut down Replace scanner cells if output is suspect. proximity switches. Coinciding with a planned shut down of boiler. spalling or cracks Clean UV Scanner cell and check its output as per vendor manual. Such a database will help in deciding the time frame. flow. Checks Every Six Months EQUIPMENT CHECK During a planned shut down of the boiler. Sharp increase in vibration levels bearing temperatures or sound levels may call for early scheduling of overhauls 1. the following checks can be done. Fans and blowers.

actuators Verify functioning of positioners and actuators by feeding current inputs to positioners and measuring the air pressure output of the positioners and opening closing of actuators Section D 104 . Verify tightness of air connections 3. Positioners. Verify functioning of pressure/temperature switches as per design WORK TO BE DONE Repairs or adjustments as necessary Repairs or adjustments as necessary as per vendor manuals to obtain performance as per commissioning records. Verify functioning of proximity switches where provided. Pressure gauges. Check functioning of air regulators.Operation & Maintenance Manual EQUIPMENT 2. Clean filters of air regulators. temperature gauges. Pressure/temperature Switches CHECK Re-calibrate.

scaffolding materials required for the job.) Services of TBW are also available for carrying out annual overhauls and inspections. collected on trays and disposed off outside the drum. pitting. (high conductivity) may be made to reduce the deposits in the next year of operation. The shut down period is restricted to a minimum by deploying adequate resources. clean the manhole seats and provide new gaskets. the chemist is asked to analyze the nature of the deposits. Drums Inspection • Open the access doors at either end of the drums • Allow the drum to ventilate for about 8 hours. contract labor etc. tackles. Inspection After Cooling Carry out a preliminary inspection after cooling to check cleanliness and any sign of deposition on water wall panels and the need for water wash. Refer to the Section B of this volume for the shutdown procedures. If necessary two fan coolers can be fitted over temporary stands to force air through the drum Section D 105 . which can not be attended when the boiler is in service. A review of phosphate concentrations and boiler water quality control.3Boiler Annual Maintenance and Overhaul In addition to the check and inspections listed under preventive maintenance. the deposits (which are normally soft) are cleaned. • Ensure tools. corrosion and metal wastage. The shutdown opportunity is also utilized for overhaul of safety valves. They need not to be dismantled. Washing down the deposits to the boiler tubes is not recommended • In case of excessive deposits. The demisters can be examined in position. No welding however is permitted on the drum metal. superheater and economizer pressure parts. which may block water circulation through them and can cause tube failures • Carry out a preliminary inspection of the drum to check for any deposits on the waterside of the drum • Using nylon brushes. without corrosion pitting or holes. Eroded or corroded drum internals to be attended. • Ensure availability of manpower required for the job (Own sources. Reasonable water tightness of the baffles is to be ensured – Examine that feedwater pipe is intact with flange connections tight and discharge exit correctly oriented – Examine that the continuous blowdown and dosing pipes are not plugged or corroded. (Drum thickness is measured at a few selected spots using ultrasonic instruments and compared to design thickness) – Inspect fastenings of the baffles and demisters to see that they are intact. Shutdown and Cooling the Boiler Shutdown the boiler in a planned manner. and their holes have been correctly oriented After the inspection.Operation & Maintenance Manual 1. • After cleaning the following examinations are made – Examine the boiler drum metal for scale. This precaution is to prevent accidental dropping of foreign material through the water wall tubes. inspection ad overhaul of boiler pressure parts.1. Persons coming out of the drum after inspection should be asked to account for the material they carried into the drum. If required. (The valve overhauls need not be done every year). • Ensure availability of spares required for the proposed jobs. • From the time the drum manholes are opened till they are closed after inspection. Cool the boiler. Field Engineering department of TBW can assist the customer in carrying out the boiler overhaul. their supports are normal. Open all access and inspection doors. After the inspection Annual Overhaul Planning Before Overhaul • Prepare a list of jobs to be done during the overhaul based on earlier inspection reports and the jobs listed below. along with tools they carry must be entered in a register. the area around the drum must be cordoned to restrict entry only to specifically authorized personnel • The names of persons who are entering the drum for inspection. regulating and isolating valves and components. The annual shutdown is utilized for cleaning and inspection of the pressure parts and to collect data on the wear pattern of boiler. the boiler requires an annual shut down of about 10 to 15 days for cleaning.

. disturbed vertical alignment of panels) • On suspicion of any abnormalities consult TBW or a metallurgist for advice. normally once in three years even if condition reports do not indicate any abnormality. Vulnerable locations are usually chosen. damages due pitting. Earlier overhauls can be scheduled if condition reports warrant. actuators etc. Expansion Joints Examine the expansion joints. Inspections in the Furnace Check the water wall tube panels in the furnace for • Evidence of pitting / erosion / corrosion on tube outer surfaces (exposed to the flue gas path) • Evidence of overheating (bulging of tubes. Overhauls of the valves are as per their vendor manuals enclosed. Burner performance has to be verified and its axial position corrected if required. Insulation and Cladding Verify insulation as per drawings and correct wherever necessary. • Any loose material inside the furnace needs to be cleared. A boiler overhaul is considered successful if it enables another twelve months of trouble free boiler operation. • Check the duct burner & accessories as per R& V manual & its setting. super heaters and economizers’ tubes must be specified and indicated on a drawing. The boiler expansions must be verified during pressure raising. control valves. every alternate year. Eroded / corroded parts can be patched by welding. hotspots. performance of the safety valves must be verified by floating them. • The scaffolding inside the furnace should be removed after such inspection (if any) and manhole door to be closed tightly after ensuring that the refractory blocks is placed in the manhole. is scheduled as per vendor instructions and condition monitoring described under preventive maintenance Light Up of the Boiler after Maintenance and Overhaul The pressure-raising rate during the first light up after the overhaul should be slower than usual giving time for check of equipment and components. close the manholes and bolt them tight. blue color of tubes. Collapse or stretching of the expansion joints is usually due to forces exerted by the connecting ducts. Start Up Vent Valves and other Isolating Valves These valves require regular overhauls. If overhauled. dislocation etc.. For a useful tube thickness survey program measurement location on water wall. Inspect cladding for Section D 106 . The tube thickness survey provides useful data on corrosion / erosion rates and can alert the owner when serious loss of thickness is noticed. Overhauls of the valves can be staggered after the first two years of operation in a manner that certain number of valves are overhauled every year. blisters.Operation & Maintenance Manual and verifying that all men and material have been removed from the drum. during the first annual overhaul.4Tube Thickness Survey To make a quantitative assessment of wastage of tubes (both internal and external) a tube thickness survey using ultrasonic tube thickness gauges is recommended. Readjustment of duct supports will solve the problem and will assist the expansion joints to regain their original dimensions. the Field Engineering Department of TBW can establish such a program. Other Equipment Overhaul of seal air fans. When severe erosion is noticed (after several years of service) the expansion joints are to be replaced. The base value is the design thickness of the tubes. The following are the suggested areas for a tube thickness survey • Boiler bank.. economizer coils. Repaired as necessary. Tube thickness measurements at the selected locations are made and recorded after water washing and drying. Valve flange joints and glands must be checked for absence of leaks and can be re-tightened where necessary when the boiler pressure is less than 5 Kg/cm2. 1. Safety Valves.1. Subsequent measurements are made at the same locations. deaerator panel tubes & MUWH. On request.

Although the wet storage procedures is preferred such factors as availability of good quality water. but also when any repair or maintenance works are to be done. slag inclusions or defects of any kind. length of storage period. type of electrode) • Radiographic inspection of root weld if required • Subsequent runs of welding (TIG. As the electrode deposits materials. shape) • Joint preparation (cleaning. the parent metals should fuse together. Nickel. TBW has WPS to cover every welding job connected with fabrication of the boiler in the factory and erection of the boiler at site. etc may dictate that the dry storage procedure is more practical. There are two methods available for storing the unit dry storage and wet storage. The welding process specification defines the following for each category of welding. without cracks. To minimize the possibility of corrosion. if any required (method of pre-heating. The coating of the electrode also must meet specific requirements. The welding procedure distinguishes between welding of thin and thick material. For the purpose of economy and convenience the lowest water quality consistent with requirements is specified in these various procedures. It is known that many of the corrosion problems of boiler and auxiliary equipment have their inception during storage. as indicated by the formation of the red hematite (Fe2O3). The WPS also lays down the type of electrode to be used for each category of welding. Such requirements can only be met if the welding process used is strictly controlled. Welding is the basic technique used in the fabrication of the boiler. indicating defects if any to be corrected • Correction of weld defects • Final acceptance of the weld joint The WPS indicates compatible categories of materials that can be welded. The terms that identify the different Section D 107 . P9) as per carbon content and alloying metals (chromium. type of electrode. The WPS must be used not only during fabrication of the boiler. 3 Boiler Preservation Procedure Introduction Both the gas and waterside of a boiler should be protected against corrosion during out of service periods. Arc or other methods. TIG or Arc. Molybdenum etc. size of electrode. P3. The weld joint apart from proving its mechanical strength in tension must also be able to resist bending without cracking. conforming to IBR requirements.) and specify the procedure to be used for welding materials of the same category or one category with another category. gap) and tagging • Joint pre-inspection before welding • Pre-heat of the weld joint. The Field Engineering Department of TBW will be glad to provide a WPS for any site repair weld jobs required for maintenance. 3. In the weld joint. auxiliary supply of heat. blowholes. rate of cooling) • Radio graphic examination of the weld joint. Transfer surfaces during idle periods. not only cause a roughened tube surface but also results in attack of parent metal. number of runs) • Post weld heat treatment if any required (temperature. Protection from corrosion during storage becomes vitally important considering the number of times during the life of a boiler when it and its auxiliary equipment are idle. ASME (and other organizations) classify materials into categories (P1 P2. Rusting of tube surfaces. holding time. method of increasing temperature. temperature method of checking temperature) • Root weld (gas welding. ambient weather conditions. The advantages of efficient feedwater and boiler water treatment during operation may be lost if the same diligence is not applied to protect heat. boiler to be placed into storage must be carefully prepared for the idle period and closely watched during the outage. • Edge preparation (angle. size of electrode.Operation & Maintenance Manual 2 Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) The pressure part of the boiler is made of several types of steel of varying thickness. rate of increase of temperature. The joints produced by welding should have strength not less than that of the parent metal. A specification of the materials and shapes adopted by TBW can be obtained on request. hydrostatic testing and storage require water of higher quality than others. the composition of the electrode must be compatible with the material welded and add strength.1 Definitions of Water Quality Some cleaning procedures.

Fire the boiler according to the normal start-up procedure and establish upto 3. Treated demineralised water .Mixed bed demineralised water that has 200 ppm of hydrazine and enough ammonia added to give final concentration of 10 ppm (or a pH of 10. Install trays (of non-porous construction and capable of passing through the drum manhole) containing the moisture absorbent (silica gel is preferred) into the drums. etc.2 Dry Storage Preservation When it is known that a boiler is to be idle for a considerable length of time and that a brief period will be allowed for preparation to return it to service.3 kg/cm2G. the trays should not be more than ½ full of dry absorbent. sodium zeolite softened water with total hardness less than 1 ppm. Mixed bed demineralised water . silica gel.Water that has been passed through a mixed bed demineraliser.6 kg/cm2G with nitrogen. Stop firing. With the boiler pressurized. open the drums to allow air to circulate for drying of all internal surfaces. Section D 108 . etc.5-kg/cm2G-drum pressure. To maintain the nitrogen pressure.Water then has been passed through cation and anion ion exchanges in series. Open the isolation valve for nitrogen connection. We would recommend that periodic inspection of the unit be performed every 3 months to assure that no corrosive action is taking place and to replenish the absorbent as required. or other moisture absorbent may be placed in the drums to draw off the moisture in the air trapped by the closing up of the boiler. The following general procedure is recommended when placing a unit into dry storage: 1. Check gas pressure daily to ensure protection. portable heaters. As soon as possible. and then closed up tight to exclude both moisture and air..5 %. 2. drain the unit under air.Water normally used for drinking.Filtered. Insert the trays into the drum being certain that none of the absorbent comes into contact with the metal surface of the drum. fire protection. For a unit that has never been in service. Softened water . 3.0).3 to 0.6-kg/cm2G nitrogen pressure maintained at the steam drum. In this procedure. Secure the boiler and when the pressure decays to 1. Trays of lime. all connections and valves should be blanked or tightly closed. Before entering drums test to prove that the oxygen concentration is at least 19. 4. alternately open all boiler drains to purge air from the unit until pressure decays to zero. The amount of absorbent can vary but the recommended minimum is one Kg of absorbent per 1000 Kg per hour steam flow capacity of the unit. The unit should be properly tagged and the appropriate warning signs attached noting that the boiler is stored under nitrogen pressure and that complete exhaustion of the nitrogen must occur before anyone enters the drum. The above procedure is intended to include the economizer. If the unit is full of water and cold. Since air will enter the unit during this inspection. 3.Operation & Maintenance Manual water qualities along with their definitions are list below: Station service water . operate these heaters to assist in drying the internal boiler surfaces. Two. If an external source of heat is available such as a steam coil air heater. This step is included for a unit that has been in service and is to be placed into storage. The unit should now be stored under 0. The amount of nitrogen required will vary according to the volume of the unit.bed demineralised water . Water from an evaporator is considered to be of equal quality. immediately drain the boiler and headers under air. start with Step 2. close all other vents and drains and pressurize the boiler to 0. on the steam drum. it will be necessary to repeat Steps 3 & 4 to expel the air. It may be necessary to repeat this process several times to reduce the amount of oxygen left in the unit to a minimum. In this method the unit is emptied.3 to 0. All non-drainable boiler tubes should be blown with compressed air. thoroughly cleaned internally and externally dried. To insure against an overflow of corrosive liquid after the moisture has been absorbed. condensate is considered to be treated demineralised water. the dry storage method is recommended.

In preparing a unit for wet storage. In some cases. an expansion tank or surge tank (such as a 55-gallon drum) above the steam drum elevation may be required to accommodate volume changes due to temperature changes. This tank is equipped with a tight cover and sight glass and contains properly treated water.6 Bar G to prevent air from entering the unit during the storage period. visual check of water level or in leakage during lay up. A source of low-pressure nitrogen should be connected to the surge tank to maintain 0. At some later date when the unit is to be placed into service. Samples of the treated water can be taken at the continuous blowdown line or any suitable drain connection. and when necessary. Fill the unit with the treated demineralised water to the normal centerline of the steam drum. This tank will provide a ready.5%. This can be accomplished by the blend-fill method. Back-fill the with treated Demineralised water until a rise in steam drum level is noted. the boiler can be drained to normal start-up water level and placed into operation. the following procedure is recommended.3 to 0. Section D 109 . Before entering drums test to prove that the oxygen concentration is at least 19. sufficient chemicals should be added through the chemical feed line. The tank should be connected to an available opening. unless sufficient heat is delivered to the furnace (i. Continue filling until water exits from the steam drum vents. firing the boiler) to induce natural circulation throughout the boiler. We strongly recommend pre-mixing of the chemicals with the water to insure a uniform mixture entering the boiler. to establish the proper levels recommended. The unit should be properly tagged and the appropriate warning signs attached noting that the boiler is stored under nitrogen pressure and that complete exhaustion of the nitrogen must occur before anyone enters the drum. this will require approximately 10 ppm ammonia).e. Simply introducing the chemicals through the drum after establishing water level will not insure adequate dispersion of chemicals to all internal surfaces. Demineralised water treated with 200 ppm hydrazine (N2H4) for oxygen removal and sufficient ammonia (NH3) in order to attain a pH of 10 (for demineralised water. The treated demineralised water should be analyzed weekly. such as a vent line at the top of the steam drum in order to create a hydrostatic head. If storage continues into winter. ambient temperatures below the freezing point of water create a real hazard to the boiler pressure parts and it will be necessary to provide a means of keeping the unit warm to avoid damage. No unit should be stored wet when there is any possibility of a temperature drop to the freezing point unless sufficient heat can be provided to the unit to eliminate the danger of water freezing and subsequent damage to pressure parts. It is suggested that volatile chemicals be used to avoid increasing the level of dissolved solids in the water to be used for storage.3 Wet Storage The advantage of employing the wet storage procedure is that the unit is stored completely wet with the recommended levels of chemicals to eliminate a wet-dry interface where possible corrosion can occur. A source of low-pressure nitrogen should be connected at the steam drum to maintain 0.3 to 0. The blend-fill method consists of blending the chemicals with the demineralised water at a continuous rate such that a uniform mixture is entering the boiler. Stop filling further. all connections should be blanked or tightly closed. After filling. The unit should be filled with deaerated.6 Bar G to prevent air from entering the unit during the storage period.Operation & Maintenance Manual 3.

5 % Section D 110 . Due to differences in plant layout. Through the steam drum 2. The unit should be properly tagged and the appropriate warning signs attached noting that the boiler is stored under nitrogen pressure and that complete exhaustion of the nitrogen must occur before anyone enters the drum. either from their permanent system or from portable tanks.Operation & Maintenance Manual 3. Before entering drums test to prove that the oxygen concentration is at least 19. Through the main steam line The nitrogen required to seal the drainable components may be supplied from a permanent nitrogen system or portable tanks located near the vent elevations.4 Nitrogen Blanket Nitrogen can be introduced at the following locations 1. to the vent (or drain) locations listed. the owner should choose his own method of piping the nitrogen.

Power up the panel instruments and check the operation 3.3 to 0. Check operation of Ignition Transformer once in 2 weeks 8.6 kg/cm2G over the steam drum. Operate quick shutoff valves frequently (Twice a week) 6. If the equipment is going to be under long shutdown a. 5.3 to 0.Unit is Drained. Establish 0. Check operation of Flame Scanners & Flame Amplifiers once in 2 weeks Short Outages 4 Days or Less. Ensure that O2 analyzer is powered up and reference air supply is given when flue gas is present.5 Boiler Lay Up Procedures TYPE OF SHUTDOWN Short Outages 4 Days or Less. Establish nitrogen cap of 0. Nitrogen cap of 0. Unit is Drained Long Outages Longer than 4 Days Upto 15 Days.3 to 0. Fill bearing block full of oil to preserve the bearing and rotate the Fan/Pump Shaft by 90o once in every 48 hours b. 3.6 Preservation of Rotating Equipments 1. Installed silica gel tray in the steam drum to soak moisture if any present in the drum atmosphere. Unit Not Drained PROCEDURE Maintain the same hydrazine and ammonia concentration as present during normal operation.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G nitrogen cap on the steam drum Drain and open only those sections require repair.Operation & Maintenance Manual 3.7 Preservation of Instruments 1.6 kg/cm2G to be maintained on the steam drum. Maintain the same nitrogen and ammonia concentration for water remaining in the cycle Fill the boiler with Polish water having 200 ppm of hydrazine and 10 ppm of ammonia to maintain pH 10. Cover all field instruments with plastic sheets Section D 111 . Put the rotating equipment in service once in every 48 hours or atleast once in a week 2. Keep the control room dust and moisture free 4. 2.6 BarG nitrogen pressure where possible. Operate control valves. 7. Ensure no dust/water accumulates on the rotating equipment 3. Dry storage of boiler with nitrogen alone is preferred procedure. Isolate remainder of the unit under 0. Unit is Drained Long Outages More than 15 Days . Cover the bearing block & uncovered portion of shaft with plastic sheets to prevent dust/water ingress c. power cylinders once a week and check operation.

Operation & Maintenance Manual 4 Tube Failures SAME MAY BE SENT TO TBW ALONG WITH TUBE SAMPLE FOR ANALYSIS. 1. • Collection of background & selection of samples • Preliminary examination of the failed part (visual examination & record keeping) • Non destructive testing • Mechanical testing (including hardness & toughness testing) • Selection. Large leaks can be dangerous. This investigation should include a careful visual inspection of the failed tube and in some cases a laboratory analysis. and/or cleaning of all specimens • Macroscopic examination and analysis (fracture surfaces. Stages of Failure Analysis Although the sequence is subject to variation. Water chemistry analysis. it is important to identify the mechanism and root cause of tube failures. whenever a spool piece is inserted in the failed zone. corrective action should be initiated that will prevent similar failures. A failure investigation and subsequent analysis should determine the primary cause of a failure. It is recommended that every effort be made to find the cause of tube failures before operation is resumed. however failure analysis involving detailed metallurgical investigation is necessary. Informed visual inspection is often adequate for this purpose. PLEASE FILLUP THE ENCLOSED (end of this sub-section) OBSERVATION FORM AND THE Collection of Background Operating Data: Boiler operating data just before & at the time of a tube failure is very important. the weld joint needs to be of proper weld quality. Excess weld penetration can cause internal tube erosion and results in tube failures. a loss in boiler water chemicals or by the noise made by the leak. 2. preservation. & other surface phenomena) • Microscopic examination and analysis • Selection & preparation of metallographic sections • Examination and analysis of metallographic sections 4. erosion. Steam or water escaping from a small leak can cut other tubes by impingement and set up a chain reaction of tube failures. the ignition may be lost. It is suggested to have all the joints are x-rayed and interpreted by qualified / experienced radiographer. After the exact locations of the leak or leaks are identified. corrosion. If a leak is suspected the boiler should be shut down as soon as possible by following normal shut down procedures (If situation permits). Operating a boiler with a known tube leak is not recommended. Free from excess weld penetration to avoid any obstruction in the water / steam mixture flow inside the tube. as it will give information of the service conditions faced by the tube at the time of failure. To avoid or minimize outages and the associated economic penalties. Tube failures may be due to overheating. and the boiler casing may be damaged. It should be ensured that. 4. which needs to be followed to find the actual root cause of the problems. This data Section D 112 . identification. The boiler water may be lost. hydrogen damage etc. fatigue. depending upon the nature of a specific failure. the principal stages that comprise the investigation & analysis of a failure are: An investigation of tube failure is very important so that the condition causing the tube failure can be eliminated and future failures can be prevented. fuel analysis should also form an important part of this data.1 Tube Failure Investigation / Analysis Method Investigation / analysis methodology is listed as follows. secondary cracks. and based on determination. Small leaks can some times be detected by the loss of water in the cycle or system. Objectives of Failure Investigation Boiler tube failures are the largest cause of forced outages experienced by a utility. the leaks may be repaired by replacing the failed tube or by splicing in a new section of tube as per relevant codes. 3. This operating data should also be co-related with the past operation data & abnormalities if any should be taken care off.

internal scale from drum & tubes. any mechanical impact should be avoided. start up vent crack open / close etc. The failed tube. 8-10 inches above & below the affected area • The exact location & elevation should be marked on the tube sample • The direction of the fluid flow should be marked on the tube sample • Immediately after cutting the tube sample both the ends should be covered with plastic caps.Operation & Maintenance Manual & the metallurgical analysis will help us in true sense to arrive at the exact cause of a tube failure.NO: Analysis DATE: Observation Section D 113 . steam flow with oil paint. scaling / lump formation on pressure parts. keeping NAME OF THE CUSTOMER Boiler Specifications Capacity Steam Pressure Steam Temperature Fuel Fired Location of Tube Sample Duration of Service of Boiler Duration of Service of Tube Sample Date of Failure Sample Received on No. Pune. The failed pressure part tube should not be hammered. In such case taking photographs will help in great extent in analyzing of the tube failure. of Samples Handed Over to Lab on (With Identification Mark/No) Nos. other / secondary failures etc. bulging of pressure parts. While doing this.e. distortion of pressure parts/coils. if any abnormality noticed. Carry out dimensional measurement of failed tube and affected adjacent tubes. The failed tube samples should be carefully packed in plastic bag / wooden case accompanying duly filled format with water chemistry of boiler log sheets should be sent to TBW. flue gas flow. if any. etc. blockage of flue gas path. boiler problem. Investigation of Tube Failure in aBoiler Study the boiler log sheet & water chemistry record prior to tube failure and after tube failure. Tube Failure Sheet SR. very high or low temperature/loads. recording and photography. Inspect the failed tube and record all findings on the same as well as its adjacent tubes. Record. fluctuating loads. poor water chemistry. / Date Visual Inspection Report the failed portion in middle should be cut for total length of minimum 350 mm. such as mal operation. Immediately after cutting the tube sample both the ends should be covered with plastic caps. Gas cutting of the tubes should be avoided as much as possible. external scale samples). Removal of Failed Tube Sample • The tube sample should be cut with a hacksaw blade. sudden increase in load or temperature. cut the failed tube and affected adjacent tube. malfunction. Preserve the copies of these log sheets. After completion of inspection. Internal or external scale of tube should not fall down The failed tube sample nicely packed in plastic bag / wooden case accompanying duly filled format as given below with water chemistry of boiler log sheets should be sent to TBW H. Number mark the failed tube for its location. (if possible collect and send the water samples.O for metallurgical investigations. Gas cutting should be avoided • The sample should be cut approx. with the help of HACKSAW only. After entering in boiler and before proceeding to tube failure location inspect & record the condition of boiler and pressure parts without disturbing the evidence i. internal or external scale of tube should not fall down. etc.

2 Window Patch Welding Purpose Welding 1. The tube section may then be removed using an oxyacetylene gas cutting torch or by mechanical means BASE MATERIAL P1 TO P1 P3 TO P3 P3 TO P3 P4 TO P4 P5 TO P5 P8 TO P8 Carbon Steel to Carbon Steel Carbon ½ Moly to Carbon ½ Moly ½ Cr ½ MOLY TO ½ Cr ½ MOLY 1-1/4 Cr TO 1-1/4 Cr 2-1/4 Cr 1 MOLY TO 2-1/4 Cr 1 MOLY Stainless to Stainless Testing 1. A welder qualified to the requirements of ASME shall make the tube and patch welds in accordance with an approved weld procedure. The area to be patched shall be cleaned to bare metal 2. The patch shall be made from tube material of same type. The fit up of the patch weld gap shall be 2.B3 ER308 E7018 E7018A1 E8018B2L E8018B2L E9018B3L ER308-16 Section D 114 . 2.8 mm 4. The standard for accepting /rejecting is specified in ASME section I 2. as the tube being welded 3. Preparation 1. diameter and thickness. The root pass shall be done with GTAW process. Completed welds are subject to hydrostatic test FILLER METAL ER 70S.Operation & Maintenance Manual NAME OF THE CUSTOMER With Sketch / Nature Of Failure Tube Material ( Specified) Tube OD X THK (Specified) Orientation of Tube Fluid Flow Direction (With Marking) Boiler Operating Condition At the Time of Failure (Water Chemistry & boiler operation log sheets) ANY OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE FAILURE 4.B2 ER80S. The weld may then be completed with either SMAW or GTAW process.B2 ER90S.4 0. The weld preparation shall be made as per the Figure #1.2 ER80S.B2 ER80S. The area of the tube to be removed shall be carefully marked out as close as possible to contour of the patch. This procedure is restricted to that use. All the tube and patch welding shall be subject to close visual inspection and 100% radiography in accordance with the requirements of ASME section V. Some acceptable weld procedure specifications are listed in Table below The purpose of the window patching method is to allow the welding of tubes that could not otherwise be welded because of limited access to part of the tube diameter.

Operation & Maintenance Manual Figure 7 Section D 115 .

a complete replacement of the damaged tube length is the best solution. • Use a clamp or guide lug to hold one end of the replacement tube alignment while the first weld is made. Also the tube cannot be cleaned from inside and there is always a possibility internal deposits will contaminate the weld. In this case. • If a backing ring is not used. Remove all deposits of oxide. Plugging Tubes in Drums & Headers Often after a tube failure. Do not start welding the upper end of the replacement tube until both the replacement and the existing tubes have cooled to ambient temperature. Poor fit-up increase the possibility of an unsuccessful weld. another similar failure could occur at or near the original crack. A circumferential crack indicates a failure due to excessive stress applied by expansion restriction. However. • Prior to welding. Internal deposits. boiler water salts and slag to avoid gas or slag inclusions in the weld. it is desirable to plug the failed tube in the drum or header shell so the boiler may be returned to service with the least possible delay. • Pre heat or post heat is not required for welding carbon steel furnace or boiler tubes. bending or fatigue. Particularly copper. However. Weld Repair of Small Cracks in Tube In the interest of saving time and cost. It is recommended that the failed tube be replaced whenever possible in lieu of plugging. A damaged tube should be cut at least 75 mm each side of the defective area. the faulty section of the tube should be cut out and replaced rather than plugging. first complete the welds at the lower end of the replacement tube. clean the tube ends to bright metal inside and outside for at least 40 mm from the weld area. unless the cause of failure is diagnosed and corrected. it is difficult to accurately measure the tube diameter or circumference to detect the minor swelling. A butt weld in the tube will shorten the total tube length about 1. remember. • Backing rings must not to be used in welding heat absorbing tubes carrying water or mixture of steam and water. If visual indicates swelling and reduction of wall thickness at the crack. Inert Section D 116 . The weld passes may be completed by either process. Water wall tubes (space tube) should be replaced if possible and plugged only as a last resort. Over-heating the tube may have caused the longitudinal crack. the weld metal and parent metal are melted in the welding process and the molten metal shrinks as it solidifies. foul Furnace and Boiler Tubes • The minimum replacement tube length should be not less than 150 mm. welding can repair such cracks. the tube has swollen and the weld thickness reduced. Do not tack weld both end of the replacement tubes particularly if the existing tubes are rigidly supported • As a general rule. • Allow for shrink in the welding. Membrane tubes must be repaired and not plugged. • Fit-up of the weld joints is important. In the modern welded wall construction. Note This type of the repairs entails some risk. the first pass of the weld must be made with inert gas-arc or oxy acetylene. It is difficult to obtain accurate cuts on furnace tubes especially those in welded furnace walls. the old tube should be removed from the boiler setting since it probably will burn off due to lack of cooling and could become displaced and obstruct gas lanes.6 mm. The crack must be ground out to form an acceptable welding groove. If the leak is remote from the tube seats and accessible. The groove should continue well beyond the ends of the crack. it is better to weld small cracks rather than replace a length of the tube. The plugged tube must be free to expand and distort with respect to the adjacent tubes. it is worth to spend extra time to get the existing tube ends squared and correctly chamfered and to cut the replacement tube to the correct length. When tubes are plugged. may exist under the crack which will result in damaging the parent and/or weld metal causing failure in a short period of time.Operation & Maintenance Manual 5 General Principal of Weld Repairs gas arc or oxy acetylene process must make the first pass of the weld. or by a manual metal arc.

If a liquid solvent is used to clean either the stub and/or tube hole. then the tube must either be seal welded to the drum shell or the counter bore can be plugged with the cylindrical plug and seal welded per Figures 3 and 4. If the tube seat is leaking.500 / 0. stubs do not require cleaning beyond the removal of dirt. If the tube is not removed from the setting. They must also ensure that the welding is done to the applicable qualified weld procedure. An example of this conversion for a 2 ½" OD by 0. 3. Ensure that welders are qualified in accordance with ASME Section IX and local provincial requirements. which may become loose.261 Stub ID after expanding Plug all internal counter bored holes in the field with the cylindrical plug when the tube is still in the seat. and etc.231 Stub ID @ Contact 2. the only alternative is to calculate the increase in the stub ID that is necessary to prove that the wall has in fact been reduced by the required percentage.031 Clearance 2. Seal welding of tube ends. Liquid trapped between the stub and its seat prevents contact of the two metal surfaces. abrasive paper.150 x 2 = 2.531 2. The stub seat (tube hole) should be similarly cleaned.150-inch wall tube stub for a 10% wall reduction is as follows Measure = Hold Dia Measure = Stub OD Measure = Stub ID Clearance = Stub ID @ Contact 10% of 0. a cylindrical plug must be installed and seal welded to the drum shell. Before rolling stubs in. scale or foreign material. (3) the least preferred. A expanded tube leaking at the seat should be removed from its seat and 1.031 / 2. Before the expanding tool is inserted. Deviations from these parameters will normally result in unsatisfactory connections. Since the stub wall itself cannot be measured after it is rolled in its seat. These stubs and plugs are standardized to have only one tube stub and one plug for each standard tube hole. the clearance between these two and also the stub wall. The compound selected should be water soluble to facilitate cleanup. In general. the inside of the stub should be lubricated with a suitable compound. tapered plugs. Some counter bores may be shallow enough that the tube ends are exposed sufficiently to permit seal welding to a tapered plug. The tube stub is properly expanded when the wall thickness in the seat is reduced by 6 to 10 percent for generating tubes and 10 to 14 percent for other boiler tubes. rust. a definite hole must be punched or drilled in the tube to prevent a possible dangerous buildup of pressure between the tube plugs. if the drum shell is internally counter bored. a new short stub rolled in and plugged. This depends upon the tube seat ID (hole diameter). It Section D 117 . 2. This is to prevent over rolling which could cause adjacent tube seats to leak. or cylindrical plugs to the shell should be done in such a manner as to minimize the heating of adjacent tube seats. The rolled-in tube stub extends into the shell and a solid plug is installed and seal welded to the stub. The rolling process should not be rushed since heat generated during rolling is detrimental to the strength of the rolled joint. The tube stub wall reduction for thin shells should be less than that for thicker shells. See Figure 2. tube stub OD.Operation & Maintenance Manual up soot blowers. It also to be ensured that the proposed repair has been approved by the Boiler Inspection Branch of the local jurisdiction. care must be taken to dry the metal completely.231 = 0. they should be cleaned inside and outside with a wire brush. Note No. the tube end seal welded to the shell or. It is essential that the welding process should be as per standard procedure for carbon steel shells and tubes to be followed very closely to ensure success. The major welding parameters for shells or tubes other than carbon steel may be obtained from qualified welding procedures. be dangerous to personnel after shutdown.030 / 2. a new tube rolled in. (1) is the preferred fix with No. or a liquid cleaner until the metal is free of all foreign substances. Machined tube stubs and plugs are used where the old tube can be removed from its seat without seat damage and for new construction that is drilled for future addition of tubes.200 0.

A 3/32-inch diameter shielded metal arc-welding electrode is recommended for the remainder of the joint. Tubes can be removed from their seats without seat damage if the following procedures are carefully followed. Figure 6 shows the details of this tapered plug and give instructions for a plug to fit tube diameters from 1-3/4" through 4 ½" OD and any wall thickness. the following methods may be employed. When the tongue (the metal between the two grooves) is knocked free. Figure 5 shows the details of this cylindrical plug and gives instruction for the specific plug size desired. In very heavy gage tubes. If the tube seat is damaged. Figure 8 shows a tube seal welded to the shell. a third groove is often cut. Care must be taken to prevent slag from entering the tube. Heat is first applied for a short period . The plugs and seal welds described above are designed for the boiler pressure to be on the head (seal weld side) of the plug only. Of course. then drive or "jack" the tube out. To remove heavy gage tubes. Figure 7 shows the arrangement of the tapered plug seal welded to the tube. so that less heavy pounding will be required to collapse the stub. To remove light tube tubs. the tube can be collapsed and removed. Headers & Tube Plates The removal of tubes from their tube seats must be done very carefully to prevent damage to the tube seats.Operation & Maintenance Manual may be necessary to machine the tube ends back in order to provide a seat for the cylindrical plug installation. but it is necessary that the tool be suited to the tube thickness so that it will cut the grooves as deep as possible and yet leave a minimum thickness of metal over the tube seat. Gouging of the tube seat could also affect the ligaments between tube holes and integrity of the shell.not long enough for it to be transferred to the tube sheet. The length of the replaced section should be a minimum of 12 inches. Heat is applied to the inside of the tube end with a torch. With light. the pressure is on the internal end of the plug and the external strength weld restrains the plug. Therefore. The welding parameters for tubes may be obtained from qualified Welding Procedures. When the tube end cools. the joint will have loosened enough so that the second heat will not be transferred readily to the tube sheet. These latter two methods require that the flare on the end of the tube be crimped straight before starting.gage tubes. It is used with a pneumatic hammer. These plugs must be tailor made for each tube diameter and tube wall thickness. The tube end can then be heated sufficiently for crimping and the tube can be pushed out of its seat. This arrangement may be used when the tube seat is leaking and it is not practical to replace or remove the tube and use a rolled stub and plug. but it is preferable to use a saw or wafer disc. as nearly opposite the tongue as possible. it is often possible to cold crimp the tube end to loosen it in its seat. Care must be taken in the plug removal process to not damage or thin the tube stubs wall. Tapered plugs are used to plug existing tubes where it is not practical to remove the tube from its seat and there is no internal counter bore. The ¾ inch diameter by 1/8-inch thick button weld on the plug is to eliminate leakage through the “piping” which can occur at the center of some bar stock. after chemical cleaning it is necessary that the plug to be removed and the stub swabbed out to remove the chemicals in these stubs. to cut the grooves for collapsing the tube. it is advisable to cut grooves about 3/4 inch apart with a round nose chisel. tube replacement is recommended. the type of grooving tool shown in figure 12 is used to prepare the tongues without damage to the tube seat. In these two figures. the Section D 118 . The ends are prepared for welding by grinding or with special tools. it may be impossible to ever roll another tube in and make a tight seal. When the tubes are too heavy for cold crimping. See Figures 3 and 4. If neither of these methods is applicable. The plug can then be welded back in or in some cases it will have been destroyed in the removal process and anew one will have to be installed. Replacement of Sections of Tubes Experienced personnel must do the replacement of a section of failed tube. Economizer headers and superheater headers may be plugged as shown in Figure 9 & 10 where external access is available and the conditions shown on the figures are met. If those conditions cannot be satisfied. Plugged tubes that are below the horizontal centerline of the shell will not drain. Usual practice is to cut out the defective section with an oxyacetylene torch. The root pass of the joint should be deposited with the gas tungsten arc process. the two-stage heating method may be used. Removing Tubes From Drums.

This must be done carefully to prevent damage to the drum shell. Attached Figures 2 to 10 Figure 8 Section D 119 .Operation & Maintenance Manual seal weld around the end of any tube must be ground or machined off before attempting to cut the grooves for collapsing the tube.

Operation & Maintenance Manual Figure 9 Section D 120 .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Figure 10 Section D 121 .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Figure 11 Section D 122 .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Figure 12 Section D 123 .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Figure 13 Figure 14 Section D 124 .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Figure 15 Section D 125 .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Figure 16 Section D 126 .

This will go a long way to generate a data bank on the auxiliary equipments and come out with improvement rather for the final users. The enclosed formats are exclusively for the use by O & M engineers of the client for reporting any malfunctioning or failure of the boiler pressure parts and its auxiliaries. Even in such cases it is the request of TBW with the enclosed reporting formats be filled in and faxed over to TBW. in turn. Company Name Communication Address It is suggested that enclosed formats be used for this purpose and help provide better and quicker services for trouble shooting. Most of the boilers at site need to be investigated with the help of pas experience and guidance from the O & M. immediately on occurrence. Pune. required precise and systematic information on which the failure analysis will have to be based. There may be cases when problems arising during the O & M are resolved on temporary or permanent basis by the O & M engineers and there may not be any immediate need for service of TBW or OEM. The O & M.Operation & Maintenance Manual 6 Failure Reporting Format Enclosed is a format for reporting of failure of equipment etc. TBW request the boiler users to report to TBW any problems that they may come across during routine O & M of the plant.NO PROBLEM DETAILS OBSERVATIONS Equipment Details: CORRECTIVE ACTIONS TAKEN COMMENTS / RECOMMENDATIONS Other Informations : Expectations from TBW : Reply Awaited / Service Engineer Visit : Signature & Date: Section D 127 . Customer Feed Back Form CUSTOMER DETAILS: Telephone Number Fax Number E-Mail Address Contact Person Other Details (If Any) Boiler Details: Boiler Number : Date of Commissioning Boiler Capacity – MCR Steam Pressure Steam Temperature Fuel Fired Feed Back Details: SL.

4.) that settle rapidly. G) Microbiological Growths: Various growths occur in surface water (lake and river). Amounts ranges from almost zero in most ground waters and 60. The presence of chlorides. In modern high-pressure boilers its presence is reduced as low as 10-50 ppm. which can be removed by simple blow-down method. The microorganisms include diatons. bicarbonates. molds. H) Color: Surface waters from swampy areas become highly colored due to decaying vegetation. manganese and sulfate reducing bacteria and many others. 7. Dissolved gases. in muddy and turbulent river water. sulfates and chlorides. The hardness of water is classified as temporary and permanent hardness. Other materials (a soil. The impurities present in the feed water are classified as given below 1. The water containing ferrous bicarbonate deposits becomes yellowish and reddish sediment of ferric hydroxide if exposed to air. The necessity for reducing the corrosive nature and quantity of dissolved and suspended solids in feed water has become increasingly important with the advent of high pressure. Their presence is troublesome as they are alkaline in nature and accelerate the corrosion.1 Undissolved and Suspended Solid Materials A) Turbidity and Sediment: Turbidity in the water is suspended insoluble matter including coarse particles (mud. C) Chlorides: Majority of the chloride corrosive action of water. The turbidity of feed water should not exceed 5 ppm. E) Manganese: It also occurs in similar form as iron and it is also equally troublesome. algae. Both are objectionable as they cause damage to the boiler system.Operation & Maintenance Manual 7 Water Chemistry D) Iron: Most common soluble iron in water is ferrous bicarbonate. Majority of ground surface water contains less than 5 ppm but 0. 2. F) Silica: Most natural water contains silica ranging from 1 to 100 ppm. Dissolved salts and minerals. The boiling converts the soluble bicarbonates into less soluble carbonates. liquid and gaseous impurities and therefore. sediment sand etc. Color of feed water is objectionable as it causes foaming in boilers and may interfere by chlorinating of absorption by activated carbon. 3. sulfates and nitrates of calcium Section D 128 . The impurities present in the water should be removed before its use for steam generation. Introduction The natural water contains solid. causes increased 7. critical and supercritical boilers. B) Sodium and Potassium Salts: These are extremely soluble in water and do not deposit unless highly concentrated. acid) either in mixed and unmixed forms. bacterial slimes.3 ppm. The presence of these salts is recognized by the hardness of the water (hardness of water is tested by soap test). Un dissolved and suspended solid materials.2 Dissolved Salts and Minerals A) Calcium And Magnesium Salts: The calcium and magnesium salts present in the water in the form of carbonates. These materials can be removed by settling coagulation and filtration. Its presence is highly objectionable as it forms very hard scale in boilers and forms insoluble deposits on turbine blades. this cannot be used for the generation of steam in the boilers. can create trouble in the feed water system by soft scale formation and accelerating the corrosion. These can cause coating on heat exchanger and clog the flow passages and reduce the heat transfer rates.000 ppm.1 = ppm. A standard of measurement of hardness is taken as being the amount of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the water and is referred to in part per million (ppm) or grains per gallon (grain/gallon) X 17. Their presence is undesirable because heating or evaporation produces hard stony scale deposits on the heating surface and clog fluid system. The temporary hardness is caused by the bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium and can be removed by boiling.

This reaction lowers pH of the solution and levels to stimulate corrosion. The Role Of pH in Corrosion: The role of pH in corrosion of metals is extremely important. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to reduce the impurities below a safe limit for the proper working of the power plant.Operation & Maintenance Manual cause the permanent hardness of the water and magnesium and they cannot be removed just by boiling because they form a hard scale on heating surfaces. It is derived by measuring the amount of hydrogen ion (H+) in grams per liter of solution. It causes sludge. The greater the amount of hydrogen ions present in solution its acid reaction becomes stronger. any solution producing more hydrogen ion than pure water will be acidic and degree is governed by difference and other solution producing less hydrogen ions than pure water will be alkaline and the degree is also governed by the difference. 7. The corrosion rate of iron in the absence of oxygen is proportional to pH up to a value of 9.5 pH Value of the Water and its Importance The pH value of the feed water plays very important controlling the corrosion. B) Carbon Dioxide: The river water contains 50 ppm & well water contains 2-50 ppm of CO2. The required alkalinity of feed water is adjusted by adding soda ash caustic soda or trisodium phosphate. The scale formation reduces the heat transfer rates and clogs the flow passage and endangers the life of the equipment by increasing the temp above the safe limit. Scale Formation Feed water containing a group of impurities in dissolved and suspended form flows into the Boiler for continuos generation of Steam.6 Effects of Impurities The major troubles caused by the feeding of water of undesirable quality are scale formation. The calcium hardness. the solubility of some salts (as calcium sulphite) decreases with the increase in feed water temperature. alkalinity and pH are inter-related variables in scale control. solids are left behind to concentrate the remaining water. The pH value of feed water should be maintained greater than 9. Its effect is further accelerated at high temperature. carry-over and priming. Therefore. B) Oil: Generally the lubricating oil is carried with steam into the condenser & thorough the feed system to the boiler. corrosion. scale & foaming in boilers.4 Other Materials A) Free Mineral Acid: Usually present as sulfuric or hydrochloric acid and causes corrosion. Its presence is highly objectionable. Alkalinity adjustment and film formation are closely related. brass and other metals. It causes corrosion and pitting of water lines. The other gases are H2S. At this point. The effects of all the impurities present in the water are the scale formation on the different parts of the boiler system and corrosion.6. N2 and many others but their percentage are negligible Therefore their effects are not discussed here. Strainers and baffle separators generally remove it. The corrosion phenomenon reduces the life of the plant rapidly. pH is a Section D 129 . The presence is required by neutralization with alkalis.6 to reduce the corrosion effects caused by the reason mentioned above. The Oxygen in the water unites with ferrous hydroxide to form ferric hydroxide. CH4. pure water is being neutral solution. The scale formation tendency increases with the increase in temperature of feed water. Calcium carbonate is one of the most troublesome deposits responsible for scale formation. foaming.3 Dissolved Gases A) Oxygen: It presents in surface water in dissolved form with variable percentage depending upon the water temperature and other solid contents in water. boilers and heat exchangers. It does not indicate the quantity of acid or alkali in a solution as found by filtration method. as it is corrosive to iron. Because. number denoting the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance. hydrogen gas formation and dissolving of iron practically stops. caustic embrittlement. zinc. 7. With conversion of water into steam in Boiler. This is the came pH produced by a saturated solution of ferrous hydroxide Fe (OH) 2. Calcium sulphite has solubility 7. 7. The details described below: 1. It also helps to accelerate the corrosive action of oxygen.

lowering water level in the boiler and maintains constant load on boilers. The corrosion of boilers. The over-heating of metal causes layer of metal to separate and form a blister. sudden load changing or a combination of these factors.O2 generally enters into closed system through make up condenser leakage and condensate pump packing. The effect of CO2 is minimized by the addition of ammonia or neutralizing the amines in water. The presence of oxygen is mostly responsible for corrosion among all other factors. Therefore ‘sludge’ of boiler water is thrown over with the steam. eventually this cause for major repairs or expensive shut -downs or replacements. at 230 Deg. C and it reduces to 55 ppm. At 320 Deg.5 cc per liter . Sodium salts are highly soluble in water and are non-scale forming. Adding alkali solution to neutralize acids in water and raise the PH value can minimize the corrosion. Such bag provides a pocket for the accumulation of sludge and scale. which eventually causes failure. 2. which broke down into sodium carbonate in the boiler and partially hydralized as shown by the following reaction in case of embrittlement. at 15 Deg. Among all. which is responsible for corrosion. CO2 is next to O2. The priming effect is reduced by installing steam purifier. The permissible limit of oxygen content varies with the acidity of water. Boiler water solids are also carried over in the moisture mixed with steam even when there is no indication of either priming or foaming. The priming is a violent discharge of water with steam from the boiler. 3. This is necessary because CO2 lowers the PH of the boiler feed water and dissolved solids to leave the boiler. it is cemented into a hard mass by Silica. It has been always found that the feed water was high in sodium bicarbonate. This is known as ‘carry-over’. The carry-over of boiler water solids is partly a mechanical and partly a chemical problem. This is caused by long exposure of boiler steel to combination of stress and highly alkaline water. The high percentage of dissolved solids. excessive alkalinity and presence of oil in water are responsible for foaming. The course of embrittlement takes place under following condition: a) When boiler water contains free hydroxide. Even a thin layer of scale in high heat zone can over-heat the metal enough to rupture the tubes. alkalinity and some silica. The metal tubes weakened due to over-heating yield to pressure providing a protrusion known as bag. This gas again unites with water to form carbonic acid and the cycle is repeated. It can be compared to the pumping of water that frequently accompanies rapid heating in a open vessel. Another effect of scale formation is to reduce the transfer of heat form the hot gases to water. Caustic Embrittlement The caustic embrittlement is the weakening of boiler Steel as a result of inner crystalline cracks. The CO2 comes out of bicarbonates on heating and combines with water to form weak acids known as carbonic acid. Calcium sulphate. C. magnesium sulphate and other Chlorides are sufficiently soluble in water and are not much troublesome. The foaming is the formation of small and stable bubbles throughout the boiler water. Corrosion The corrosion is eating away process of boiler metal. high water level. This acid slowly reacts with iron and other metals to form their bicarbonates. economizers. overloading. The priming is caused due to improper boiler design. In priming the water level in the boiler undergoes rapid and great changes and there are violent discharges of bursting bubbles.Operation & Maintenance Manual of 3200 ppm. The amount of suspended solids and alkalinity in the boiler water is also important in addition to other reasons like boiler design. calcium is the principal offender and particularly. Generally it should not should exceed 0. Sometimes. improper method of firing. Section D 130 . Real dangers of the scale formation exist in radiant heat zone where boiler tubes are directly exposed to the combustion. The scale formation retards the flow of heat and metal temperature increases. The scale formation takes place mainly in feed water piping and Boiler Tubes. C and 27 ppm. and overloading and fluctuating loads on boiler. The newly formed bicarbonates of metals decompose by heat once more and CO2 is again liberated. Scale formation takes place mainly due to salts of calcium and magnesium. It causes deterioration & failure of the equipment. Its first effect on the piping system is to choke the flow of water by reducing the flow area and increases the pressure required to maintain the water delivery. feed water heaters & piping is caused by an acid or low PH in addition to the presence of dissolved oxygen & carbon dioxide in the boiler feed water.

ammonia and amines are used as corrosion inhibitors. C. leading to the expensive failures. This may be caused by faulty design and expansion etc. In order to protect boiler from corrosion. Under temperature and pressure inside the boiler and due to concentration. it is recommended that the care and control of water quality be entrusted to water treatment specialist. Tri sodium phosphate. In order to meet above objectives. At high temperature. boiler entirely depends on the rate of corrosion of boiler metal. Scale / Deposit Control: Raw water contains dissolved solids.Operation & Maintenance Manual Na2CO3 + HOH = CO2 + 2 NaOH b) Slow leakage of boiler water through a joint or seam. Corrossive Control Water is corrosive to boiler metal.To remove suspended matters. traces of residual oxygen must be removed by chemical conditioning. c) Boiler metal is highly stressed at the point of leakage. • Filtration . there fore. Typically corrosion due to water will reduce thickness of tube @ 1 mm/year. The objective of the water treatment is: • Eliminate scaling . pre-treatment is done to remove excessive corrosion ions like chloride. A combination of above equipments are used to remove undesirable impurities in raw water. The most practical method of preventing caustic embrittlement is to regulate the chemical composition of the boiler water. These chemicals form a protective film over metal surface and reduce corrosion. caustic. Catalyzed oxygen scavengers are used for quick reaction. A complete pre-treatment and internal chemical treatment is necessary to make raw water suitable for boiler feed. Need for Water Treatment A. Sodium sulfite. The obvious solution to embrittlement is to eliminate all free NaOH from feed water by addition of Phosphates. However. Thus prevention of oxygen lead to pin holes in economizer. The water as available to industry is not suitable for boiler use. steam drums and steam tubes. Oxygen Corrosion Inhibitor: Oxygen is present in dissolved form in water. It is not possible to cover the subject fully. hydrazine and amines are recommended for oxygen removal. condense and feed water systems. Scale Control Hardness salts in feed water cause formation in boiler. which cause failure of boiler tubes. The quality of water must have accurate for trouble free operation of boiler. B. A brief review of important factors is given in this section to assist those taking charges of new boiler equipment. Thus the life and safety of Section D 131 .To remove hardness salts and excessive alkalinity • Demineralization . sulphate etc. • To maintain peak boiler efficiency by keeping complete boiler water system clean. It is necessary to maintain prescribed concentration of these chemicals in boiler water systems continuously. hardness salts 8 Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning 1.deposition in boiler which cause tube over heating leading to accidents. • Clarification . • Control corrosion of boiler system. oxygen reacts with metal to cause pitting corrosion. 2.To remove residual salts and silica from DM water. hardness salts and suspended matters. These chemicals react with residual oxygen making it inactive and protect metal against pitting corrosion.To remove residual salts and silica • Mixed bed .To remove residual turbidity • Softening .To remove hardness salts Dealkaliser . it is necessary to maintain certain chemical conditions in boiler. • Reduce carry over of water with steam. External treatment is used to remove such impurities. further chemical conditioning is required to protect boiler and auxiliary systems from corrosion. The prevention of caustic embrittlement consists of reducing the causticity or adding inhibiting agents to the feed water. Most of the oxygen is removed externally by deaerator and preheating of feed water. leading to unscheduled shutdowns. However. Introduction The successful use of boiler is dependent on proper water conditioning and treatment. which is the cause of deposition on super heater/turbine blades.

Chelant. The recommended concentration in boiler water is given in Table -1 Note 1 : TSP will act as hardness conditioner. styrene maleic acrylics are commonly used. Mechanical Factors: • Boiler load . condensate corrosion inhibitor like ammonia cyclohexylamine and filming amine is recommended. calcium sulphate and Ca/Mg silicate scales. Turbine / Superheater Deposition Control: The solids in boiler feed water get concentrated in boiler. Phosphate Conditioning Trisodium phosphate is commonly used. lower is steam purity. E. The carryover of boiler water with steam depends on. internal chemical conditioning is always recommended as additional safety. Most of the polymers are proprietary in nature and therefore dosage is best recommended by manufacturer. Iron is picked up mostly in condensate system due to corrosion of condensate line. apart from acting as hardness conditioning agent. of these equipment. methacrylic. Excessive chelant dosing cause corrosion of boiler Hence balanced chelant program as recommended by experts should be used. demineralization or de-alkalisation removes most of the hardness salts from boiler feed water. Therefore. Below 9.5 . coordinated or congruent phosphate treatment is recommended. Trisodium phosphate. polymeric disersent help to prevent fouling due to turbidity and organic matter. Such organic polymer disperse scale forming compounds like CaCO3 & Ca(PO4)2 in colloidal form facilitating their removal through blow down. leading to bursting of tubes in extreme conditions. Hardness salts react with trisodium phosphate to form calcium phosphate precipitate. • Load Variation . Section D 132 .Higher the water level in drum.Polymer treatment: Hardness scales do not precipitate in presence of chelant like NTA/EDTA The chelant treatment is recommended when hardness ingress in boiler is experienced regularly.Sudden increase in load reduce steam purity for short time. However.5 pH TSP may cause hard scale formation of Ca3 (PO)2. External treatment like softening.5 colloidal in nature and therefore do not allow for form hard scale of carbonate and silicates.Operation & Maintenance Manual precipitate in tubes as calcium carbonate. also is a good corrosion inhibitor. inspire of elaborate external treatment.Higher the load. Therefore. D. However due to mfg. The concentration of solids in boiler is decided blowdown and feed water quality. Following chemical methods are used for internal treatment. oil/grease /oxygen & iron salts commonly cause fouling inside the boiler. In case of upsets or occasional contamination. Similar to hardness scales. malfunctioning of this equipment. contamination through condensate and concentration in boiler cause fouling of boiler tubes. All hardness salt precipitate inside boiler leading to hard scale formation on tubes. Thermax Chemicals can provide services for arriving at right chemical treatment for your boiler. Most of the suspended matter and iron salts are removed by external treatment. Such scale has lower conductivity causing increase in metal temperature. Thus fouling causes overheating of tubes. Polymer and copolymer of acrylic. In such case. The water treatment experts can advise you right treatment after studying your water quality and operation conditions. occasional bypassing of the softener/DM plant or contamination of condensate or feed water with raw water often led to ingress of hardness in the boiler. Fouling can best be avoided by maintaining quality of feed water as per norms. lower is the steam purity • Water level in boiler . Organic polymer conditioners are used to prevent hardness scales. such foulants are poor conductor of heat. The precipitated hardness salts are then removed through blow down as sludge and boiler tubes are kept scale free. This precipitate above pH of 9. Fouling Control Suspended matter. only when boiler pH is above 9.

Maximum allowable concentration of silica depends on water analysis. Maintaining boiler water quality as per norms and maximum steam purity is the only way to prevent deposition due to carryover of water with steam. and Sodium sulfite.Higher alkalinity as % of TDS lower is steam purity • Organics . Expert’s best decide the maximum permissible concentration after striding the operating parameters. Section D 133 . In superheater or in turbines. Condensate Corrosion Control: The carbon dioxide is present in boiler feed water in dissolved and combined from as carbonate. leaving dissolved and suspended matter as scales or deposits. it is recommended that the care and control of water chemistry be entrusted to specialist.Higher efficiency. Hydrazine. Maintenance of Peak Efficiency: Corrosion. • Total Alkalinity . better is steam purity. scaling. However. Thus severity of scaling and fouling of superheater and turbine depends on boiler water quality and steam purity. In turbines. lower is steam purity. The water carried over with steam due to above reasons is exactly similar in quality to blow-down or boiler water. Under boiler pressure and temperature it is liberated and carried over with steam as CO2 gas. fouling carryover and condensate corrosion can cause unscheduled shutdown. the evaporated silica precipitates during pressure and temperature reduction and form hard scales.Therefore for trouble free operation and maintenance peak operation efficiency. lower is steam purity. a combination of various internal chemical treatments is essential along with a good control over boiler water quality. Silica Deposit Control: Silica is volatile under high temperature and pressure inside boiler. G. Maintaining boiler water quality by using commodity chemicals likes TSP. Antifoam agents help to some extend to improve steam purity in case of excessive in boiler. This gas re dissolves in steam condensate to form carbonic acid.Higher the foaming character of water. • Foaming . accidents and deterioration of system efficiency. Lower is steam purity.Higher TDS in boiler.Higher the organic contamination. water evaporates. Chemical Factors: • TDS .Operation & Maintenance Manual • Separation efficiency . F. CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 H.

Lubrication Schedule Lubrication Schedule Spare Part List Spare part list Curves Cold start up Curve . Spare Part List & Curves for HRSG.pdf Warm start up Curve .HP Section.HP Section.pdf Section E 134 .Operation & Maintenance Manual Section E This section holds the Lubrication Schedule.pdf Hot start up Curve .HP Section.

pdf 25.pdf 04.pdf 13. HP Steam Drum_P21-0HR-10693_3. Assly & Details of IP Evaporator_PH2-1HR-71022_1.Vent & Blowdown system_D12-0HR-4496P_5.pdf Volume 2 — Drawings 135 .pdf 27.A._D11-0HR-10514_0.pdf 02. Condensate Preheater Assly_PF4-0HR-10365_1.pdf 09. Steam Purifier Assly for LP Steam Drum_PF5-1HR-73637_0. I.pdf 23. Assly & Details of I. Assly & Details of Reheater (RH1 & RH2)_PQ1-0HR-11006_1. H. Pressure Part Assly Showing Down Comer. 1B & Eco. Pressure Parts Assly for IP Economiser_D11-1HR-70558_0. P & ID for IP Section_D12-1HR-7971P_4.pdf 20. IP Superheater Assly_PH1-1HR-69759_1. P & ID for Gas Path_D12-1HR-7973P_3.pdf 19. Assly & Details of HP Evaporator_PG2-0HR-10657_1.pdf 24.pdf 17. of HRSG_D11-0HR-10102_3. Assly & Details of CBD Tank_W31-1HR-72751_1.pdf 16.pdf 03.pdf 14.HP Superheater -1.P.pdf 05.pdf 28. Steam Drum_P25-0HR-10792_2. P & ID for LP & CPH Section_D12-1HR-7972P_4. P & ID for Drain. HP & RH Attemp.pdf 26.pdf 12.2 & 3 Assly_PG1-0HR-10762_1.pdf 18. P & ID for HP Section_D12-1HR-7970P_3. Economiser_PH3-1HR-67149_0.pdf 21. Steam Purifier Assly for IP Steam Drum_P25-1HR-72514_0.pdf 11. Economiser -3 Assly_PG3-0HR-10449_0. Steam Purifier Assly_P21-1HR-71575_0.pdf 22.pdf 15. LP Evaporator Assly_PF2-1HR-69634_1. Pressure Parts Assly Elevation & Sectional Views_D11-0HR-10513_0.pdf 10.P.pdf 07.P.pdf 08. Arrangement of Pressure Part Supports_PI1-0HR-11151_1.2_PG3-0HR-10450_1. G. LP Steam Drum_PF5-0HR-10985_2.Operation & Maintenance Manual Volume 2 — Drawings Chapters Covered in this Part ♦ List of Drawings List of Drawings 01.pdf 06. Assly & Details of HP Eco-1A. LP Superheater Assly_PF1-1HR-69636_1.

Operation & Maintenance Manual Volume 3 — E & I Specifications Chapters Covered in this Part ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Volume 3 — E & I Specifications 136 .

pdf Section 9 9. Logic Diagram for drives.pdf 10.pdf Section 2 2. Instrument Hook Up Diagram.2 Control Scheme Narrative.pdf 10. EMS2 for recirculation pump.pdf 5.3 Valves and actuators.pdf Section 8 8.pdf 2.1 Control Schematic Diagram.pdf Section 10 10.pdf Section 5 5. Instrument canopy.pdf Volume 3 — E & I Specifications 137 .pdf Section 6 6.pdf Section 4 4.pdf 10. Specification for Motorised Actuator.1 Transmitter.pdf Section 3 3. Local Control Station.5 CEMS.1 EMS1.Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 1 1.pdf 10.pdf Section 7 7. DCS IO List.2 Gauges and Switches.2 Electrical load list.pdf Section 11 11. Junction Box and Cable Schedule.4 Sensors.

2 CBD Valve for IP Drum.pdf Section 13 13.pdf 13.1 CBD Valve for LP Drum.pdf Volume 3 — E & I Specifications 138 .2 Valve Schedule.1 Motorised valves.pdf 13.pdf 12.Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 12 12.3 CBD Valve for HP Drum.

Operation & Maintenance Manual Volume 4 — Vendor Manuals Chapters Covered in this Part ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Volume 4 — Vendor Manuals 139 .

Chemtrols O & M Manual IP & LP Drum Transparent Level Gauge Glass Manual Drawing and Data Sheet IP & LP Drum Transparent Level Gauge Glass Drawing Volume 4 — Vendor Manuals 140 . LP Dosing for LP Drum Certificates Section 03 HP Drum Level Gauge Glass – Hi tech. HP Dosing for IP Drum Drawing 3. HP Dosing for IP Drum Certificates 3. O & M Manual HP Drum Level Gauge Manual Drawing and Data Sheet HP Drum Level Gauge Glass Drawing Section 04 IP & LP Drum Transparent Level Gauge Glass . HP Dosing for HP Drum Certificates 2. HP Dosing for HP Drum Drawing 2.Metapow O & M Manual VK Pump Manual_Model PR10 VK Pump Manual_Model PR15–20 Drawings 1. LP Dosing for LP Drum Drawing Test Certificates 1.Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 01 Recirculation Pump .Sulzer O & M Manual Pump Manual Datasheet & Curves Pump Datasheet & Curves Drawings Drawings Section 02 Dosing System .

HSJ SV IOM Drawing & Data sheet Safety Valve Data Sheet and Drawing Volume 4 — Vendor Manuals 141 . Installation Instuctions for SV 2.Chemtrols O & M Manual Blow Down Tank Reflex Level Gauge Glass Manual Drawing and Data Sheet Blow Down Tank Reflex Level Gauge Glass Drawing Section 06 Stack Damper — Indira Damper O & M Manual Stack Damper Manual Drawing GA of Damper Section 07 Spring Hanger – Pipe Support O & M Manual Spring Hanger Manual Data Sheet Z1E Support Datasheet Z1B Support Datasheet Section 08 Flow Nozzle — Micro Precision Datasheet Flow Nozzle Datasheet Section 09 Safety Valve — Tyco Sanmar O & M Manual 1.Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 05 Blow Down Tank Reflex Level Gauge Glass . HCI SV IOM 3.

JOS_JBS_JLT RV IOM 2. JOS_JBS_JLT RV Product Range Drawing & Data sheet Relief Valve Datasheet & Drawing Volume 4 — Vendor Manuals 142 .Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 10 Relief Valve — Tyco Sanmar O & M Manual 1.

Operation & Maintenance Manual Volume 5 — Vendor Manuals Chapters Covered in this Part ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Volume 5 — Vendor Manuals 143 .

Yokogawa_Manual Datasheet Temperature Transmitter Datasheet 2.2 HART Protocol (EJA) – Yokogawa O & M Manual Temperature Transmitter (YTA Series) .Yokogawa O & M Manual Temperature Transmitter (YTA Series) .Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 01 1.1 Differential Pressure Transmitter (EJA) – Yokogawa O & M Manual Differential Pressure Transmitter (EJA) – Yokogawa_Manual Datasheet Differential Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Datasheet 1.3 HART Protocol (EJA Series) .2 HART Protocol — Yokogawa O & M Manual HART Protocol — Yokogawa — Manual Volume 5 — Vendor Manuals 144 .Yokogawa_Manual Section 02 2.1 O2 Analyser (ZR 402G) — Yokogawa O & M Manual O2 Analyser (ZR 402G) — Yokogawa — Manual 3.2 Absolute & Gauge Pressure Transmitter (EJA) – Yokogawa O & M Manual Absolute & Gauge Pressure Transmitter (EJA) – Yokogawa_Manual Datasheet Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Datasheet 1.Yokogawa_Manual Section 03 3.1 Temperature Transmitter (YTA Series) .Yokogawa O & M Manual HART Protocol (EJA Series) .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 04 Motor for Recirculation Pump .Emerson O & M Manual DO2 Analyser Manual 1 DO2 Analyser Manual 2 Volume 5 — Vendor Manuals 145 .Siemens O & M Manual Motor Manual Datasheet Motor Datasheet Section 05 Thermocouple .Pyroelectric O & M Manual Thermocouple Manual_100 series Thermocouple Manual_400 series Thermocouple Manual_500 series Drawing & Datasheet Thermocouple Drawing Section 06 Electronic Level Switch – Levelstate O & M Manual Electronic Level Switch Manual Datasheet Electronic Level Switch Drawing Section 07 DO2 Analyser .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Volume 6— Vendor Manuals Chapters Covered in this Part ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Volume 6— Vendor Manuals 146 .

Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 01 In-Situ Stack Gas Analysers .BHEL O & M Manual Blow Down Valve_Manual Volume 6— Vendor Manuals 147 .Auma O & M Manual Motorised Actuator .CODEL O & M Manual In-Situ Stack Gas Analysers_Manual Section 02 Process Valve – Xomox Sanmar O & M Manual Process Valve_Manual Forged Gate. Globe & Check Valves_Manual Stem Replacement Process Datasheet Process Valve Datasheet Section 03 Motorised Valve – Xomox Sanmar O & M Manual Cast Steel Gate Valve Cast Steel Globe Valve Drawings Forged Motorised Valve Drawings PS Motorised Valve Drawings LPBB Motorised Valve Drawings Section 04 Motorised Actuator .Auma_Manual Wiring Diagram Section 05 Blow Down Valve . Globe & Check Valves_Manual LPBB Gate.

Bourdon O & M Manual Pressure Gauge Manual Section 07 Temperature Gauge – General Instrument O & M Manual Temperature Gauge_Manual Datasheet Temperature Gauge Datasheet & Drawing Section 08 Control Valve – Fisher O & M Manual HP control valve ET & EAT CV IOM EHD & EHT CV IOM ED CV IOM EWT CV IOM YD CV IOM 657 Actuator IOM 667 Actuator IOM 667–6010–6020 Controller IOM DVC 6000 Series IOM Datasheet & Drawing Control valve Datasheet & Drawing Volume 6— Vendor Manuals 148 .Operation & Maintenance Manual Section 06 Pressure Gauge .

..................... 16 Design Code ... 61 I IP Boiler Feed water Control Station ...................................................... 10 HRSG Cold Start Up Curve . 6 F Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning ............................................................................................................. 26 IP Line Back Pressure Control ........ 12 N Natural Cooling.................................... 53 GENERAL PRINCIPAL OF WELD REPAIRS ........... 86 HRSG Operation Walk Down Checks... 60 HP Boiler Components Description ....... 6 Exhaust Gas Analysis ................... 25 HP Superheater............. 17 HP Drum.............. 31 D Description of HRSG Operation ................... 75 HRSG Start Up and Shut Down ...... 89 LP Drum / Deaerator.................................................116 H B BOILER ANNUAL MAINTENANCE AND OVERHAUL ..20. 81 HP Attemperator Control ....................................................... 107 Hot and Warm Start up of HRSG ................................... 87 149 ....................................................................................... 129 Emergency Procedures........................ 4 G GAUGE GLASS ................................. 63 HRSG System Protection ... 28 HP Economiser ................. 87 HRSG Shutdown ........................................................ 24 HP/IP/LP Dosing System .... 45 Drum Level Control.............. 51 C CBD Drain Temperature Control .......................................... 4 Design Specifications........... 93 Evaporating Heating Surface Area ..................... 19 HP Evaporator........................................................... 61 IP Main Steam line.. 32 IP Section Components Description .... 89 BOILER PRESERVATION PROCEDURE............................ 43 FORCED COOLING .............................................................................. 93 Boiler Log Sheet ... 60 LP Evaporator ............................................................................................................ 95 Automatic Controls .......... 128 Do’S and Don’ts For HRSG Operation ................................ 87 CPH Recirculation Temperature Control .................. 33 LP Superheater ....................... 26 IP Superheater ... 79 Charging IP steam to reheat......... 4 Log Sheet for HRSG ...... 38 LP Feed Regulating Station............................................................................................................................. 80 Charging HP Steam to Reheater........................ 35 LP Section Components Description ........................................ 129 Dissolved Salts and Minerals....................................... 31 HP Main Steam line .................................. 17 HP Boiler Feed water Control Station ............................................................Operation & Maintenance Manual Index A Alarms and Trips .................... 26 IP Economiser .. 86 HRSG Start Up & Pressurisation.............................................................. 87 M Maintaining Quality Of Steam ......... 131 Flue Gas System ............. 35 LP Drum Pressure Control ........................................ 105 Boiler Emergency Safety Procedures ................................................... 53 L Levels With Respect To Center Line........ 87 Drain & Dosing System ........................ 38 E Effects of Impurities ......................... 6 Cooling of a Shutdown Boiler.................... 2 Dissolved Gases .................................................................. 79 Chemicals for Dosing ........ 9 Condensate Pre heater (CPH) ..... 59 Charging & Operation Of CPH .................................................... 42 Material Specifications ................................... 78 HRSG Emergency Trips ...............................................................................23............ 33 CONTINUOUS BLOWDOWN........................................

........... 61 Steam & Water System .................... 86 Pressure Parts ...................................................................... 100 W Water And Steam Quality Control And Monitoring ............................................................................................ 40 Water Chemistry.......................Operation & Maintenance Manual O OPERATION ................... 107 150 ... 32 Relief Valves ............. 95 Safety Valves ......................................... 17 P Parallel HRSG To The Plant Steam Mains ...... 95 TUBE THICKNESS SURVEY ............................. 66 S Safety in Boiler House............................ 129 Planned Shutdown............................................ IP & LP) Control .......................... IP & LP Section (Before Light Up) ....................... 128 WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS)........ 95 Other Materials............................................ 13 Stack Temperature (CPH Bypass 3................................... 80 pH Value of the Water and its Importance ........ 63 Operational Control................................................................. 79 Trouble Shooting Chart .. 59 Start up Vent (HP................................................................. 15 RH1 Attemperator Control ............................. 10 Recommended Boiler Water Quality .................. 7 Recommended HP Feed Water Quality ......... 60 Undissolved and Suspended Solid Materials ................................................................................................................................................ 8 V Valve Positions Chart For HP..... 4 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ... 39 Operational Precautions For Safety ......... 128 Utilities..... 100 SECTION OVERVIEW ..............................................................................Way) Control ...................... 100 T Taking Reheater On Line.............................................................................. 13 SCHEDULE OF INSPECTIONS FOR CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE.............................. 96 Tube Failures ..... 9 Stack Damper ..... 7 RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE PRACTICES................................... 106 U R Recirculation Pump............................................................................. 129 Site Condition.......................................... 100 Reheaters ................. 63..................................................

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