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Indian Standard

( Reaffirmed 2006 )

( Second Reprint MAY 1993 )






NEW DEL&i 110002 Gr 7 s$&mkr


1s : 102a1-1982

Indian Standard
Chairman S~IRI C. P. DE Mtmbtrs DR A. G. KULKARNI ( Akrnalc to Shri C. P. De) Pyrene-Rai Metal Treatments Ltd, Bombay DR M. BALAKRISHNAN SHRI M. S. PENDHUKAR ( Altcrnaie ) SHRI D. D. BHUPTANI Indian Tube Co-Limited, Jamshedpur Ministry of Shipping of Transport ( Roads Wing ) SHRI S. P. CHAKRABORTI Oil & Natural Gas Commission, Dehra Dun SARI V. K. JAIN SHRI K. S. BHATIA ( Alttrnale) Ministry of Railways JOINT DIRECTOR STANDARDS CARRIAOE-1 DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( MET )-4 RDSO, LUCKNOW(Alternate ) The Alkali & Chemical Corporation of India Ltd, SHRI V. R. KRISHNAN Calcutta DR SANDIP KUMAR ROY ( Afttrnatc) Engineers India Ltd, New Delhi DR A. K. LAHIRI Bharat Heavr Electricah Ltd SWRI R. C. MISHRA SHRI R. M. SIN~HAL ( A!ttm& I ) SHRI R. M. MISHRA ( Alternate II ) National Metallurgical Laboratory .( CSIR), SHRI K. P. MUKHERIEE Jamshedpur _ DR INDER SIN& ( Af~erna~e ) Steel Authority of India Limited (Bokaro Steel SHRI R. N. MUKHERJEE Plant ) SHRKK. ANNAIAH ( Alkrnate ) Tata Consulting Engineers, Bombay SHRI R. P. NA~AR SHRI D. P. MEHTA ( Al~crna~e ) Indian Lead/Zinc Information Centre, New Delhi SHRI L. PU~AZHENTHY Central Elecrro-Chemical Institute Research DR K. S. RAJAGOPALAN ( CSIR ), Karaikudi DR K. BALAKRISHAN( Al~trnnft ) Indian Telephone Industries Ltd, Bangalore SHRI S. RAMAJAYAM SHRI M. S. NANJUNDARAO ( Aftematt ) ( Continued on pagr 2 ) @ Copyrighr OF INDIAN 1982 STANDARDS













This publication is protected under the fndion Copyright Act (XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 10221 - 1982

Mtmbtrr Siiw G.

hginecring &

Locomotive (R & D)

Co Ltd,,Jamahcdl~ul


Alltrnalc )
Ministry ofDcfence Llyods Tar Products Ltd, New Delhi Oil India Ltd, Calciltta Fibreglasr Pilkington, Bombay Xational Test Hodsc, Calcutta



SHRI S. G. P~TRE ( Alftrnalc ) 1111 A. S. SAW SHRZD. K. ROY ( Alkrnafc )



Ministry of Dcfence ( DGOF ) Rourkela Steel Plant ( SAIL), Rourkcla National Buildings Organization, New Delhi

DR K. M. VERbIA SHRZ R. K. SINHA ( Al~trnoft SHRZ C. R. RAMARae, Director (Strut & Met)

T-he Fertilizer ) Diector

Corporation ISI

of India Ltd, Sindri Mtmbtr )


( Rx-@&

SHRI B. MULHERJEE Deputy Director ( Metals ), ISI

Panel for Cozting of Underground


Pipelines, SMDC 29 : P-5

Oil India Ltd, Gauhati


fhmt B. M,


Ahrnatr to
Osnar Pipe Coatitig Pvt Ltd, Bombay

Lloyd Insulations (bndia) Private Ltd. New Delhi SHRI M. M. NATH (Mlrmalr) Oil & Natural Gas 6ommirsion, Dcbradun SHRt V, K. JAIN _ SHRI K. S. BHATIA ( Ahrnate ) Enginecrr India Ltd, cw Delhi DR V. M. KELKAR Electra Cow-Damp, E mbay Snnt V. T. PUROWT Dodral Private Ltd, -bay SHRt V. K. RAYAKRtlHNA SHRZ C. G. GOPALDA~ ( Altrnale) Pibreglass2ilkington Lrd, Bombay SHRI G. H. RODRtCKI SHRI C. G. PITRE ( &female) Shalimar Tar Products C 1935) Ltd, Calcutta Ssmt T. K. ROY


Shh D. S&I Gupta ) SXRX 0. P. DEOAN

Alttmaft )

IS : 10221- 1982

Indian Standard

I.1 This Indian Standard was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution In 31 May 1982, after the draft finalized by the Corrosion Protection sectional Committee had been approved by the Structural and Metal Division Council. 9.2 Thic code has been prepared to serve as a guide for corrosion protection of underground mild steel pipelmes by using coating and wrapping materials, with the reasoning that if the metal could be isolated from contact with the surrounding earth, corrosion could be controlled. 0.3 Underground pipelines may be protected against corrosion by various methods like a concrete sheathing, coating and wrapping and cathodic protection. This code provides for protective exterior coating. with a coating of primer followed by the application of enamel, one/multiple wrap of fibre glass tissue and a layer/layers of impregnated fibreglass tissuelkraft paper andlora coat of water resistant white wash. 0.4 Thetesting procedures for determining the characteristics of coal tar and asphatic primer and enamels have been describe6 in Apperdix A. 0.5 In overseas countries, certain types of impregnated wrapping tapes, like PVC tapes, have been developed for protection of pipelines. Although such tapes are not yet very widely used in this country, some information regarding the material and application requirements of wrapping tapes, is' given in Appendix B for the ,guidance of users. 0.6 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard covers the material and application requirements for a hot melt protective coating system for steel pipelines to be installed under normal or average construction conditions in soil.
*R&a for rounding off numerical values ( rmisad).

IS : 10221- 1982 2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2.1 Minimum requirements of a suitable coating for underground steel lirtes should comprise ^ . a relatively high melting point thermoplastic _. . mmuous coatmg ot known permanent low water absorption, resistance to product spi!!age and high electrical resistivity conforming to the physical properties specified in Table I to 6 plus a conventional type asbestos felt wrapper as a shield. 2.2 Material specifications given in this code are based upon the proved performance of such products during many years of service. The properties given in TabIes 1 to 6 do not in themselves constitute a guaranteed good performance except when they refer to coal tar/asphaltic enamel coatings. A material of unknown composition might be made to meet the requirements specified in this standard but would not necessarily be a good protective coating. 2.3 Material Packaging 2.3.1 All coating, primers and wrappers purchased or used under the specifications laid down in this standard shall be packed in suitable and approved containers. The containers shall be plainly marked with the name of the manufacturer, type of material, batch or lot number and date of manufacturer. 2.4 Approval of Materials 2.4.1 Prior to use, samples of all materials proposed to be used under these specifications shall be submitted to the inspector for test and analysis and no material shall be used until it has been approved by the inspector. 3. TERMINOLOGY .3.0 For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions shall apply. 3.2 Purchaser - The person, firm, corporation or government sub-division entering into a contract or agreement for the purchase of any material or of any work to be performed or both under this standard. 3.2 Contractor - The person, firm or corporation executing the contract or agreement with the purchaser to furnish any material or to perform any work under this standard. 3.3 Inspector - The inspector or engineer employed by the purchaser and acting as his representative, their respective assistants properly authorized and limited to the particular duties assigned to them, or the purchaser himself acting as his own inspector. 4

IS : 10221- 1982
3.4 Blasting -

Blasting with sand or steel shot or grit.

3.5 Centrifugal Lining - The process of applying coal tarlasphaltic enamel to the inside surface. of pipe, whereby molten coal tarlasphaltic enamel introduced into the pipe is spread on the surface of the pipe and held thereon by the centrifugal force developed by rotating the pipe about its longitudinal axis until the enamel has cooled and solidified and become bonded to. the pipe. 4. MATERIAL 4.0 The materials, commonly used for. coating ground pipelines are as follows : a) Coating primer, b) Coating enamel, and c) Wrapping materials. and wrapping of under-

4.1 Primer - There are three types of primer namely, coal tar primer, asphaltic primer and synthetic primer. The choice of primer to be used in connection with any hot applied coating is highly important and the first requirement is compatibility with the type of enamel being used. 4.1.1 CoaZ 7r Primer - Coal tar primer shall consist only of processed coal tar pitch and retined coal tar oils, suitably blended to produce a liquid that ma) be applied cold by brushing or sprayrng and that shall produce ive bond between the metal and a subsequent coating of coal tar The primer shall contain no be%zdlor other-toxic or highly volants and no other solvents or other substances. This prohibition nd to added pigments and inert fillers. The primer shall show no tendency to settle out in the container and shall have the characteristics as specified in Table 1. 4.1.2 Asphaltic Primer - This primer shall be composed of a $etroleum asphaltk base and petroleum solvents, suitably blended to produce a liquid coating which may bc applied cold by brushing or spraying and which shall produce a suitable bond between the metal and asphalt enamel. The primer shall have good spraying, brushing and levelling properties and a minimum tendency to produce bubbles during application. It shall be homogenous, free from water and shall have the characteristics as specified in Table 2. 4.1.3 Synthetic Primer - Fast drying synthetic primer shall consist of chlorinated rubber, synthetic plasticizer and solvents. They shall be suitably compounded to produce a liquid coating that may be readily applied cold by brushing or spraying and that shall produce a suitable and effective bond between the metal and subsequent coating of coal tar/asphalt enamel. The primer may bc used both with coal tar enamel and asphaltic enamel and shall have the characteristics as specified in Tables 3 and 4.

IS : 10221- 1982

and4.1.1 ) TEST METHOD r--_-_-___,~ Rcf to Clause Ref to of Appendix A Relevant IS -



Drying time ( IO touch ) at 70 prrcrnt relntivc humidity and 30C. 11 3lf,I.V Flnsh point ( .\bcl ), C, .Uin Volatile mnttrr ( 1.15-15OC), pcrccnt loss by *nnss Filler Boiling material point of solvent C, Max


ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii)

23 30-50 None shall be present 215 5-7 110

IS: lOl-1964+ 1s : 1203-19787 IS: 1205-1978$

A-8 -

Penetration of residue at 25C/ 100 g/5 s, 10-t mm Softening Min point of residue C,

*Methods of tests for ready mixrd paints and enamels ( srcond reoision ). determination of penetration thfethods for testing tar and bituminous materials: (_Frrt rekion ). 1 Methods for testing tar and bituminous materials : determination of softening point (.firsf rcuision ).

4.2 Enamel - There are two types of enamel - coal tar and asphalt. Depending on the primer used, the respective enamels are used and should bc from the same manufacturer. The enamel should also be immune to attack ,of calcium. magnesium and other salts normally encountered in the route of the pipeline. A gist of the saline content and other &mica1 salts prerent in every 10 km of the soil along the route should be provided to the enamel supplier to ensure guarantee of immunity of the enamel to these salts. The enamel should be impermeable to water and immune to attack by sea water, thereby making it useful to protect submarine pipelines. The ensmal should not be attacked by any micro-organisms found in the ground. 4.2.1 Coal Tar EnamelThe enamel shall consist of specially processed tar pitch, blended with inert and nor,-hygroscopic mineral fillers, properly graded, clean, dust free and without asphalt, to be applied at the recommended temperature. The quality of coal tar enamel is liable to be effected by the quality of coal carbonised and the temperature of carbonisation as well as by the subsequent methods of pitch processing and particulars of formulation. To rectify this defect, coal tar should be produced from coal that has 6

Is :10221-1982

( c1arrscs2.1, 2.2 osd 4.1.2 )




TesT METHOD ~__~~~~.~~~-~-~ Rcf to Clause Ref to of Appendix A Relevant IS IS: 101 - 1964* A-9

i) ii) iii)

Flash point

( Abel ), C, Min

23 30-200

Viscosity (Flow time at 20% by No. 4 Flow cup ), s Disrillation : To To To To

a) Distillate, percent of total distillate to 360%, Min

190C - 35 225% - 75 260C - 87 315C-97


: 1213 - 1978t

b) Residue from diatillations to 36OC, volume percent ( by difference ) iv) Tests on residue from distillation a) Softening b) :sen$r;a;at point, C 25C/lOO g/ in carbon tetrapercent, Min


71 - 107 2 - 25 99


: 1205 - 1978t

IS: 1203-19788 ( second rcuision).

. c) Solubility
chloride, *Methods tDistillation $Detcrmination Determination

of test for ready mixed paints an enamels test (jrst rcuirion ). of softening point (Jirsl rreision) . (jirsf r&ion ;. of Renetration







TESTMETHOD r,--_-Ah----, Ref to Clause of Ref to IS Appendix A IS: 101 - 1964* ( second reuirion ). A-9 A-8

i) ii) iii)

FIash point

( Abel),

C, Min

30 45 - 55 50 -80

Viscosity ( Flow time at 20C by No. 3 Flow cup ), s Volatile matter ( 100-l 10C ), percent loss by mass *Methods

of test for ready mixed paints and enamels

IS : 10221- 1982
TABLE 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNTHETIC USE WITH ASPHALT ENAMEL (Clarses2.1, CHARACTERISTIC 2.2 and4.1.3) TEST METHOD ~~~~-*~~_~~~ Ref to IS Rcf to Clause of Appendix A IS: 101.: i964* 0 :.:z ( w~a~%kkvs ). A-9 A-S PRIMER FOR


: :&

ii) iii)

Flash point ( API),

Vucostty (Flow tqe at 2OC,, by No. 3 Flow cup ), s Volatile matter.4 100-iIO%.), percent loss+ mass :. . *Methoda

. .

C, Min

30 35 - 55

50 - 60

of tes& &r ready mixed paints and enamels

a minimum heating value of 320 kJ\g on a moisture- and mineral-matterfree basis and that has been carbonised in a slot - type coke oven at a temperature of not less than 900C. The enamel shall have the characteristics as specified in Table 5. 4.2.2 AsphalPEnamelThe asphalt enamel shall be composed of a petroleum asphalt combined with appropriate inert mineral fillers. It shall be uniform in character, free from water and shall not foam when heated to 205C. The en&Be1 shall have the characteristics, as specified in Table 6. 4.3 Wrapping Materials 43.1 Inner Wrap - Inner wrap shall be of glass tibre tissue. The glass fibre tissue is a thin, flexible, uniform mat, composed of glass fibres in an open porous structure, bonded with a suitable_ inert material, compatible with coal tar or asphaltic enamel. The fibrous glass mat is reinforced with continuous filament glass yarn at 10 mm pitch in the longitudinal direction. The glass tibre shall have the characteristics specified in Table 7. 4.3.2 Outer Wrap Glass Fibre Outer Wrapping - The outer wrap shall conform to glass fibre felt type 1, as specified in IS : 7193-1974*.. It shall consist of glass fibre, tissue, as specified in 4.3.1, saturated with coal tar/asphalt enamel, as specified in Tables 8 and 9. The resultant outer wrap shall be uniform, flexible and of uniform porosity to facilitate the release of hot gases and achieve better finishing. The outer surface of outer wrap shall be lightly dusted with talc, fine sand, or other approved mineral powder sufficient to prevent sticking in the rolls under conditions likely to be met at site. The inside surface shall receive minimum dusting, as excessive amount may impair the bond between outer wrap and enamel. The finished outer wrap shall have the characteristics as specified in Table 10.
*Specification for glass fibre base coal tar pitch and bitumen felts. 8

1S :10221-1982

(Cluum 2.1, 2.2, and A-2.2)




TYPC 1 i) ii) SofJ;ing point ( ring and ball), 104115

Type 104.115


: 1205 - 1978*
1217 - 1978t

Filler content by ignition, ccntagc mass Finrncss passing Specific






of filler, percentage 75pm IS Sieve, Min gravity at 25C




: 1607 - 1960;

iv) v)

1.4 - 1.6

1.4 - 1.6

lcnctratidn, a) 25C, b) 48X,

10-l mm: 100 g, 5s 50 g, 5s 5-10 12-30 lo20 IS

: 1203 - 19785

15 - 55


Sa,g, mm, niox - 71% for 24 h Defection test ( Initial area, test ): 12 Maw 3 200





a) First crack, 11) Disbondcd viii) Deflection

mm, Min mn?,

20 1 950


test ( After heating) mm, Min area, mma, Max 7.5 5 200 15 3 200 A-4

a) First crack, b) Disbondcd ix) Impact test

a) Direct impact, area, mm2, Maw


10 300 3 900

6 450 1 300


h) Indirect impact. disbonded area, mm, ;2lax S) Peel test

So peeling allowed

No peeling allowed

A-6 (after


Bond Testing may be done by test or by the impact test depending of softening of mineral point matter (Jirsf r&ion ( ash)

Deflection (initial test), deflection upon the equipment available. ).

*Detrrmination +Determination $Methods SDetermination

(first re?ision ).

for dry-sieving. of penetration (f;rsi revision).

IS : 1@221-1982


CHARACTERISTICS ( Clnusrs 2.1, 2.2, 42.2

and A-2-2 j


SL No.


IIE~REF.~ENT ~~__~~~~h~_. ------? 'Type .\ 'Type B

TEST hkTrfon (REP TO 1s OR Cf.*rrse OF APPENDIX A )

9 ii)

Softening point ball), C Pcnctratilm, a) 2jC, 10-l

( Ring




IS : 120.578*

mm 14 5 7 3 IS: 1448 P: 69 ( 1969 )t IS: 1212-19789 1s : 3203-3378~

100 g, 5s-.$frrs

b) 45C, 50 g, Ss-Mitr iii) Flnrh point ( Clevrlnnd _? fin



cup ), C,

232 0.5

232 -


on heating at 163C .5h, percent, Max


v) vi) \Gi)

Filler content ( Ash), tion, percentage Nater content, percent,

by igni25-35 Max 0.05 25-35 0.05 IS : 1217-1978~~ IS: 1211-1978~

Sag, mm, Max a) at 60C for 24 h b) at 75C for 24 h 1.5 1.5 A-2 A-2



test: impact, mm*, Max disbanded disbanded 6 500 1 250 6 500 1 250 A-5 A-5 -

a) Direct

b) Indirect impact, arca, mm, nf0.x ix)

Settlement ratio ( of ash in bottom half to ash in top half after 5h at 205C: ), Max of softening of penetration of loss on heating of mineral ofwatcr matter content point

2: 1

2: 1

*Determination TDetermination RDetermination IjDetermination l]Determination

(jifir~l rcrision ). ( open ) cup. (jirrt revision ). ( ash ) (firsf wi~ion ). ( Dean and Stark method ) (Ifur rsvision ).

(J;rsr revision).

fFlash and fire. point

by Cleveland


IS : 10221- 1982





i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Mass, g/m*, Min Thickness, mm, Min Breaking strength ( in the longitudinal N/cm, Min Tear strength, N, Min Porosity direction ),

40 0.33 23.2 9

The inner wrap shall have a porosity, when related to pressure diffcrencc across the sample of not less than 955 mm and not mom than 1.9 mm of water gauge, at an air velocity of 1 m/s. resistance Unaffected under for 1 minute. load in hot bitumen at 288C

vi) vii)

Temperature Pilability

There shall be no cracking when bent over a 3 mm radius, after immersing in water for IO-15 minutes through a 90 arc.






( Clauses and


No. i) ii)

CHARACTERISTIC Softening point, C Penetration at 25C/lOO gj 5s, IO-1 mm



80-85 15-25

: 1203-19787

*Determination tDetcrmination

of softening point (Jirst rrvision ). of penetration (J;rrr rrvtiion ).





(clauses and ) CHARACTERISTIC I% i) ii) Softening point, C Pe;;Fszrr at- 25C/lOO &is, REQUIREMENT 99-127 3.14 TEST MXTHOD (REPToIS) IS IS

: 1205-1978* : 1203- 1978t

*Determination *Determination

of softening point (jirrl rcvsXon). of penetration (jrs: revision ).


IS : 10221- 1982







i) ii) iii) iv) v)




0.75 550

Mars. g/ma Breaking strength N/150 mm of width, N/A&


535 45 63 - 75

Tear strength Inner diameter

( Transverse), of core, mm Asbestos felt outer wrapping - The outer wrap prepared from asbestos felt shall be made from high tensile, long fibre, flexible asbestos felt base materials. It shall be thoroughly saturated ( no skips, dry spots or wet spots) with air blown coal tar/asphalt coating. Both the coal tar/ asphalt saturant should be materials compatible with the enamel described in 4.2.1 and 4.2.2. One side of the wrapper is to be covered with reflective materials, such as, flake mica, while the other side shall have suitable mill finish. When unrolled at temperature from 0 to 5OC, the wrapper shall not crack or stick to such an extent as to cause breaking or tearing.

This outer Table 11.



shall conform

to the requirement

specified in







ii) iii)

Mass, g/m Thickness, Breaking -Along -Across mm strength, roll roll N/mm of width: Min

700 f 50 0*6*@1

6 1.7


IS : 10221- 1982 Kraft paper outer wrapping - This outer wrapping kraft paper shall be. waterproof and impregnated with coal tar/asphalt enamel; conforming to the characteristics given in Tables 8 and 9. The outer wrapper shall have the characteristics, specified in Table 12.

ii) iii)

VALUE 60-75

Thickness, N/mm mm of width,


Breaking strength, Min 4.5 When unrolled at temperatures up to SOY?, the wrapper shall not crack or stick to such an extent as to cause breaking or tearing. All the outer wrappers shall be supplied in tightly wound tied rolls with a 75 mm diameter core in widths and lengths as specified at time of purchase. The rolls shall be packed to exclude dust and dirt during shipping and handling, and shall have cardboard separators and end shields, adequate to prevent roll damage, when stacked. The rolls shall be clean, smooth and square cut and shall have no telescoping. 5. APPLICATION TO EXTERIOR. SURFACES of

5.1 Method of Application - There are three methods of application wrapping materials pamely: a) Mill wrapping; b) Site or ,yard wrapping; and c) Line wrapping.

5.1.1 The inner wrap shall be mechanically applied by continuous endfeed machine or by a lathe-type machine or by other approved application equipment. Application shall be simultaneous with the first coat of coal tar/ asphaltic enamel. The roll of inner wrap shall be under tension sufficient to embed the fibre glass tissue in the enamel before the latter sets or cools. The wrapper shall not be pulled through the hot enamel to the metal surface. 5.2 Choice of Method of Application - The choice between the three methods of application of pipe wrapping shall depend on a detailed assessment of site conditions and the technical aspects, including corrosion engineering and economic factors involved in the construction work, 13

I : 10221- 1982 5.2.1 The conditions which decide the selection of wrapping methoc are as follows: a) Weather conditions - Under variable weather conditions the mil wrapping shall be resorted to for carrying out uninterruptec coating/wrapping of pipes with controlled and trained labour. b) Sire condirions - Undulated ground does not permit line wrap. ping. Special surfacing of sides of trenches shall be needed for easy movement of machines and medium. c) Size of pipeline - Small diameter pipe permit the use of lit-n wrapping. Yard wrapping may be adopted for medium and large diameter pipes. d) Location of sire - Mill wrapping suitable and economical when the pipes are transported over small distances. When the coating ant wrapping is likely to be damaged in transit due to transportatior over long distances, yard wrapping shall be preferred. 5.3 General Procedure of Application 5.3.1 Material and Workmanship - All material furnished by the suppliel shall be of specified quality as per the standards laid down in this standard A!1 work shall be done in a thorough workmanlike manner. The entire opsrstion of priming the pipe, heating and applying the coating shall bc performed under the supervision of experienced men, skilled in the applica, :ion of protective coating. 5.3.2 Equipment - The equipment for cleaning, priming, coating ant wrapping shall be in such condition as to permit the applicator to follow the procedure and obtain results prescribed in this standard. 5.3.3 Cleaning Pipe surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned and dried before the primer is applied, and shall be free of dirt, grease, oil rust, scale or other roreign matter. The pipe shall be cleaned by any one of the following mutually agreed, methods : a) Grit/shot blasting, b) Sand blasting, and c) Mechanical cleaning. Before sand or shot grit blasting, all oil and grease, if present on the metal surface, should be removed by using a suitable solvent and clean rnfs The use of dirty, oily rags should not be permitted. All other foxign ynatter which cannot be removed by blast cleaning should be removed by suitable means. The surfaces then should be thoroughly clenned by blast cleanin_r and the operation should remove all scale, rust or any other superficial ilnr?!!ritics from the surfaces exposing b?se metal I>rescntinS 14

IS : 1022101982

a greyish matte appearance except that slight shadows, streaks or discoloration caused by rust stains or mill scale oxides need not be removed. Blasted surfaces which rust before the priming coat has been applied should be cleaned of this superficial rust by wire brushing or emery papering at the discretion of the Engineer. If the rust formation is heavy, that is if the pipes have been exposed overnight without priming, the same can be reblasted once again at the discretion of the Engineer. Adequate moisture separators should be used so as to remove effectively oil and moisture from the air supply of the blasting unit. After cleaning the pipes shall be protected from and maintained free from all oil, grease and dust that may fall on the pipes from outside sources till the pipe has received its final coat of enamel. Any pipe, that show deep pitting after blasting has been done, should be set aside pending examination by the Engineer for approval for reconditioning or rejection. 5.3.4 Priming One uniform coat of primer, compatible with the type of enamel to be used and free from floods or runs, shall be applied immediately after pipe has been cleaned and dried. Primer coverage shall be such as to ensure between the steel surface and the enamel coating. maximum bond Atmospheric conditions, type and coverage of primer determines the drying time. If the primer coat is found to be unsatisfactory, the pipe shall be reprimed. 5.3.5 Coating The primed pipe surface shall be free from moisture or any foreign matter immediately prior to the application of the hot coating. All enamel coating shall be broken into lumps suitable for the heating equipment employed and shall be free of any foreign material. The loaded heating kettle shall be brought to application temperature in a manner to prevent damage to the coating material. The kettles shall be equipped with mechanically operated agitators so as to supply uniform hot material to the coating and/or wrapping machines. Kettles shall not be used as a continuous coating supply source by adding unmelted coating material after application temperature have been reached. Kettles shall be completely emptied of one charge and cleaned when necessary before re-charging. 15

IS : 10221- 1982 535.5 Application temperature of enamel is normally 230-250C. In low ambient temperatures one would expect to operate at 250C while in warm weather it should be 330C. Any enamel which has been held in the melting kettle at application temperature for four hours or more, without The maximum temperature in the being circulated, should be rejected. Enamel which has melting kettle should never exceed 270C at any time. been heated to above this temperature should be rejected. temperature application temperature While the enamel may be kept in a kettle up to a maximum of 257C, the manufacturer shouId guarantee proper ff ow for by standard machines even at the lowest enamel application of 230C at an ambient temperature of 7C. When the enamel has reached application temperature it should be applied to the primed pipe through a standard flood box. Simultaneously with the flood, the glass fibre inner wrap and outer wrap should be applied under tension, the wrapping having a minimum overlap of 12 mm. There should be approximately 0.8 mm of enamel between the pipe surface and the inner wrap. Enamel should not be applied to the primed metal temperature is below 7C. 5.3.6 Hmdling The coated pipe shaIl be handled at all times with equipment, such as wide belt slings and wide padded skids, designed to prevent damage to the coating. Bare cables, chains, hooks, etc shall not be permitted to come in contact with the coating. When transported by rail, all coated pipe shall be carefully Pipes shall be separated so that they loaded on properly padded saddles. do not bear against each other and securely fastened to prevent movement in transit. In truck shipment, the coated pipe shall be supported in wide cradle of suitably padded timbers, hollowed out on the supporting surface to fit the curvature of pipe and securely fastened to prevent movement in transit. Along the trench side, coated pipe should off the ground to avoid damage to the coating. 5.3.7 Loweriq ntd Bd-$lling be suitably supported pipe when the pipe While lowering, the coated pipe shall be hoisted from the trench Chains, cables, tongs, or side to the trench by means of wide belt slings. other equipment likely to cause damage to the coating shall not be permitted, nor shall dragging or skidding of the pipe, The underside of the pipe should be inspected while lowering and any damage shall be I-epaircd before the coated pipe is lowered into the trench. 16

IS : 10221- 1982 Where the trench traverses rocky ground or hard objects that could penetrate the protective coating, a layer of soft earth or sand, not less than 75 mm thick, shall be placed at the bottom of the trench prior to lowering. After lowering, backfilling should be done in such a manner that the protective coating is not damaged in any way.



6.1 The pipe surface should be cleaned and primed in accordance with the

procedure given in 5.3.3 and 5.3.4. 6.2 The primed steel surface to be enamelled shall be dry and clean at the time the enamel is applied. The enamel shall be coal tar/asphalt conforming to the requirement of Tables 5 and 6. 6.3 The application of enamel, to the inside surface of all pipes shall be by centrifugal lining by either trough method or retracting weir or feedline method. The temperature of the enamel on application shall be as recommended in Care shall be taken to ensure that it is at no time heated above the maximum temperature recommended. 6.4 During application of enamel, the pipes shall be revolved at a speed best suited to produce a smooth glossy lining of uniform thickness. Finished enamel lining shall be free from wrinkles, sags, blisters or blow holes. 6.5 The thickness of the lining shall be 2.4 mm and the variation thickness shall be exceed f O-8 mm. in

6.6 All pieces of line pipe in which excessive rough areas appear or other irregularities exist shall be stripped off the entire lining and re-coated. 7. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS before taking up the work

7.1 The following factors should be considered

of pipe costing/wrapping: a) Nature of soil - The pipe coating system shall depend upon the type of soil (see 7.2), b) Past history of corrosion condition of the same pipeline or other pipelines running in that area, c) d) e) f) Environment, Pipe dimensions and material, Transport facilities, and feasibility of providing cathodic protection. 17

IS : 10221- 1982 7.2 Thickness

of coating shall be decided upon considering the degree of corrosivity of the soil. The coating system based upon the soil resistivity may be selected on the following basis:
Soil Rcsistivity Corrosivity Coating System

Below 1 000 ohm-cm From 1000 to 5 000 ohm-cm Above 500 ohm-cm

Extremely corrosive Corrosive Non-corrosive

3 Coats and 3 wraps 2 Coats and 2 wraps 1 Coat and 1 wrap,

8.1 All coated and wrapped pipes shall be tested with an approved high voltage holiday detector equipped with a positive signalling device to indicate any faults, holes, breaks or conductive particles in the protective coating.

8.2 The applied output voltage of the holiday detector shall have a spark discharge at least twice the thickness of the coating to assure adequate inspection voltage and compensate for any variation in coating thickness. 8.3 When selecting test voltages, consideration should be given to the tolerance of coating thickness and the voltage should be selected on the basis of maximum coating thickness likely to be encountered.
Thickness of Coating Suggested Test Voltage

mm 2.38 3.18 3.4 3.35 8.4 The test shall be carried out in co-ordination manufacturers, 9. CATHODIC PROTECTION

(V) 4500-I 8,000 6000-24,000 7500-30,000 12000-48,000 with the coating/wrapping

9.1 Since not even a reinforced coating can be guaranteed to provide satisfactory protection along its whole length, a cathodic protection system conforming to IS : 8062 ( Part II)-1976 shall be used in conjunction with the appropriate coating and wrapping system, where the soil-resistivity is less than 5 000 ohm-cm. For soil resistivity above 5 000 ohm-cm, cathodic protection may be used in consultation with corrosion engineers.
*Code pipelines. of practice for cathodic protection of steel structure: Part II Underground


IS : 10221- 1982

APPENDIX ( Clause 0.4 )

TESTS ON COAL TAR AND ASPHALTIC MATERIALS TESTING PROCEDURE A-l. PREPARATION OF TEST PLATES A-l.1 Test Plates - Steel plates of and grease. One side of each plate surface, with rust, mill scale and removed. A profile of 3 mils (0.075 suitable sizes shall be free of all oil shall be blasted to a uniform grey all other foreign matter completely mm) is intended.

A-1.2 Priming of Test Plates - All test plates prepared As specified in A-l.1 shall be primed using the coverage recommended by inspector/manufacturer. The primer shall be applied with a clean flat-bristle brush of 25 mm width. Plates shal1 be primed and dried while laying horizontally in a well ventilated room. A-1.2.1 Conditioning - These plates shall be kept in room, for drying where temperature shall be controlled between 21 to 33C and 66 percent maximum re1ative humidity. A-l.3 APPLICATION OF ENAMEL A-1.3.1 Preparation of Enamel for Testing - About 13 kg of enamel shall be broken into pieces approximately 100 mm in maximum cross-section. This shall be, rapidly melted over a large gas burner in a metal container of uniform cross-section of not less than 200 mm, nor more than 300 mm in diameter. A-1.3.2 Initial Heating - Immediately upon reaching the specified application temperature, the enamel shall be applied to the primed test plates required for the following tests. a) High temperature test ( see A-2 ); b) Deflection test ( initial test) (see A-2 ); c) Impact test (see A-5); and d) Peel test (see A-6 ). A-1.3.3 TLVOHour Heating - The remaining enamel in the container ( about 9 kg ) shall be maintained at the specified appIication temperature for 1 hour. The enamel shall be stirred with a metal bar at intervals of 15 minutes during the heating period. A 6 mm thick steel plate shall be interposed between the container and the gas flame to avoid superheating. 19

IS : 10221- 1982 After a 2-hour heating period, this enamel shall be applied to test plates required for the deflectiontest( see A-4 ). A-1.3.4 The application temperatures and method of application shall be as recommended by the inspector/the coating manufacuturer. A-2. HIGH TEMPERATURE ( SAG TEST )

A-2.1 Depending upon the laboratory equipment available, prepare two test plates in accordance with one of the following methods: Method A - Use 30 x 100 x 5 mm plates. Enamel one side in a> the manner previously described. Scribe three lines at 75 mm intervals across the enamel surface. b) Method B - Use 300 x 300 x 3 mm plates. Enamel one side in the manner previously described, with a 12 mm uncoated border left around the four edges of the plates. Scribe lines 25 mm apart across the face of the enamel surface and continue on the uncoated surface of the plate to the edges. A-2.2 Procedure - The plates prepared by either method shall be stored in vertical position so that the scribed lines are horizontal in the chamber in which the temperature shall be controlled at the temperature and for the period specified for the appropriate grades in Tables 5 and 6. At the end this period, the plates shall be removed and cooled to room temperature. The average of the sag of the scribed lines on two plates shall be recorded as sag of the enamel. A-3. DEFLECTION TEST ( INITIAL TEST )

A-3.1 Test Pieces - Four plates 250 x 100 x I.5 mm shall be enamelled on one side immediately after the enamel has reached the specified application temperature. A-3.2 Conditioning - These test pieces shall be stored in a chamber in which the temperature shall be controlled at 4C. After a 6-hour period, the plates shall be tested for deflection on equipment in this chamber. A-3.3 Procedure -The plates shall be supported on 3 mm radius knife edges which are spaced on 240 mm centrcs. The deflecting load shall be centrally applied across the plate by a 12 mm radius mandrel at the rate of 25 mm per minute ( to produce tension in the enamel ) until cracking occurs, as indicated by an electrical holiday detector. The deflection producing the initial cracking shall bc recorded and deflection shall then be continued to a maximum distance of 37 mm. The specimen shall then be removed from the machine for examination. All disbonded enamel shall be removed from the plate and the area of metal exposed on the four plates shall be measured. The average initial cracking and disbonded area shall be recorded. 20

IS : 10221 - J9h:

A-4. DEFLECTION A-4.1 Test Pieces -


Four plates 250 x 100 x l-5 mm shall bc cnamclled on one side with enamel that has been maintained at the specific application temperature for 2 hours as described in A-1.3.3. A-4.2 Procedure - Testing procedure as given in A-3.3. A-5. IMPACT TEST A-5.1 Test Pieces - Two plates 300 x 300 x 3 mm shall be enamelled on one side in the manner previously described ( see A-l.3 ). A-S.2 Conditioning -- When the plates reach room temperature, they shal; be immersed in a water both held at a uniform temperature of 25C for a period of at least 7 hours before testing. Each plate shall bc removed front the water bath, dried with a soft clean cloth for subjecting immediately to impact test. A-5.3 Procedure A-5.3.1 Direct Impact - Each plate shall be supported on the true plane surface of a block of wood. A steel ball weighing 650 g with a well polished spherical surface shall be dropped from a height of 2.45 m above the surface of the plate. The ball shall be dropped so as to strike the enamel at a point at least 100 mm from the edge of the plate. After one such impact, the enamel shall be examined for evidence of shattering and loosening from the plate ( see Table 5 ). A-5.3.2 hfirect Impact - After being subjected to direct impact, plates shall be ,placed with the coated face down on a wooden block through which a 90 mm dia hole has been cut. The same ball shall then bc dropped from a height of 2.45 m above the surface of the plate, so as to strike the steel plate at a point over the centre of the hole in the wooden support block. The point of impact shall be at least 100 mm from any edge of the plate and shall be at lcast 75 mm from the point of direct impact. After one such impact, the enamel shall be examined for evidence of shattering and loosening, of the coating fromthe plate (see Table 5 ). After removal of loose coating, the area of the loosened coating shall bc determined.


A-6.1 Test Pieces - Two plates of 300 x 300 x 12 mm shall be enamelled on one side in the manner previously described (see A-l.3 ). A-6.2 Conditioning - These plates shall be allowed to cool to room temperature. The condition of the bond shall be tested at temperatures of 27C, 38C, 49C 60C and 71C. Allow a tolerance of f 1C on these temperature requirements. 21

1s : 10221- 1982 A-6.3 Proccdurc A-6.3. I hrzci (hirid) - One test plate shall be tested directly. The plate shall be hcatcd by immersing it for a period of approximately 3 hour in the water bath maintained at the selected temperatu:e. At the end of each heating period, the plate shall be removed from the bath and immediately tested for peel. This shall be done as follows: a) With a knife c&e, cut two parallel lines through the enamel approximately 2 mm apart and approximately 100 mm in length; b) With the edge of the knife blade, cut under the enamel strip at one end and loosen the enamel from the full width of the strip for about 12 mm ; and c) Place the knife under the loosened end and with a firm grip and apply a slow, steady pull upward on the enamel strip. Adhesion of the cnamcl at each of the indicated test temperatures, to the extent of preventing peeling, stripping or lifting of not more than 3 mm, shall be recorded as no peeling. The use of the water bath for the 27C test may be omitted when the room temperature closely approximates 27C. A-6.3.2 Bmi ~JIP~ 72 Horn clt 71?C - The second test plate shall be stored in a horizontal position, with the enamelled side up, in a chamber the temperature of w!lic!r shall be controlled for 72 hours at 71C. At the end of this period, the nlatc shall be removed and cooled to room temperature and tested for condition of bond over a temperature range of 27-71C as above ( see A-6.3.1 ). A-7. DETERhlINATION A-7.1 Preparation OF SOFTENING POINT

of Sample

A-7.1.1 Heat the sample with care to prevent local overheating with In no case, constant stirring until it has become sufficiently fluid to pour. however, should the temperature be raised to more than 56C above the expected softening point for tar pitch or to 111C more than the expected Avoid incorporating air bubbles in the softening point for asphalt. sample. A-7.1.2 Bring the asphalt sample to the pouring temperature in not more than 2 hours. Coal tar pitch should be brought to the desired pouring conditions in minimum time, not exceeding 30 min. Pour the heated sample into two rings, preheated to approximately the pouring temperature. While being filled, the rings should rest on a brass plate, which has been amalgamated to prevent the bituminous materials from adhcrinq to it. Cool for a minimum 30 minutes. Test should be completed in 240 minutes. Samples that are room temperature should be cooled aminimum 22

1s : 10221- 1982 of 30 After knife fresh minutes at a minimum of 8C below the expected softening point. cooling cut the excess mate:i:d off clearly with a slightly heated or spatula. In case the test js repeated, use ;L clean container and sample.

A-7.2 Procedure

Procedure for materials having softening points 80C or below: a) Assembly of apparatus - AsscmhIe the apparatus with the rings, the thermometer and ball centering guides in position and fill the bath with freshly boiled distilled water at 5&l% to a depth of not less than 101.6 mm and not more than 108 mm. Maintain the bath temperature at 6C for I5 min, placing the test container in ice water if necessary. Using forceps, place the ball, previously adjusted to the bath temperature in each ball centering guide. b) Heating-Apply heat in such t manner that the temperature of t,he liquid is raised at the rate of SC/minute. Avoid the effects of drafts, using shields if necessary. c) Permissible variation in rise of temperature -. The rate of rise of temperature shall be uniform and shall not be taken as average over the period of the test. The maximum permissible variation for any 1 minute period after the first three shall befO9C. Reject all tests in which the rate of rise does not fall within these limits. d) Rccorrl- Record for each ring and ball the temperature shown b$ the thermometer at the instant the sample surrounding the ball touches the bottom plate. Make no correction for the emergent stem pf the thermometer. If the difference between values obtained in the duplicate determination exceed I%, repeat the test.

A-7.2.2 Procedure for Materials having Softening Points above 80C Use the same procedure as described in A-7.2.1, with the following exceptions: a) use glycerin instead of water, and b) the starting temperature of the gl)cerin bath shall be 32C. A-8. DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE MATTER IN PRIMER

A-8.1 Procedure - Weigh to the nearest milligram between I.0 g and 20 g of the primer into a tared ffat bottomed circular dish, about 75 mm in diameter. Heat the dish and its contents in an oven at the specified temperature for 3 hours. Allow the dish to cool to room.temperature in a desiccator and reweigh to the nearest milligram. 23


IS : 10221- 1982
A-8.2 Calculation-

Calculate the volatile matter, V, as a percentage mass of the primer as follows: J,7= IO0 M, - 121,


where M1 is the mass of sample before heating ; and MS is the mass of sample after heating.

The following apparatus shall be used in carrying out

a test: a) b) c) d) e) f)

A fiow cup, as specified in IS : 3944-1966; A thermometer accurate to within 0*5C; A stop-watch or stop-clock; A suitable stand, provided with lcvclling screws; A spirit level; and A straight-edged scraper for the top of the cup.

A-9.2 Place the flow CUP on the stand in a place free from draughts, preferably with the air tempertiture within the range 30 &- 5C. Level by the use of a spirit level placed on the rim. A-9.2.1 Strain the sample into a cletin cont:Gner and adjust the temperature to meet the requirements specified in 9.2.3. A 150-micron IS Sieve [see IS : 460 ( Part I )-19627 ] or finer, is suitable. This and the following operations shall be carried out with minimum delay to avoid loss of solvent. A-9.2.2 With the orifice closed by the finger, fill the cup with the bubblefree samplt until it just begins to overflow into the gallery, pouring slowly to minimize the formation of air bubbles. If bubbles are present,_ allow them to rise and then remove them from the surface. A-9.2.3 Check that the temperature of the material in the cup is within 0.5C of the test temperature. The cup may be at a temperature different from that of the sample and it is recommended that a minute or so be allowed to elapse before checking the temperature. A-9.2.4 Place the scrap& on the rim of the cup and draw it firmly across until the excess of the sample has flowed into the gallery. Place the receiver under the cup. Remove the finger and simultaneously start the stopwatch. Watch the stream of liquid flowing from the orifice. At the first evidence of a break of the stream into droplets the stop-watch. The time taken is recorded in seconds as time of ffow in flow cups.
*Specification for flow cups. tspecification for test sieves : Part ! Wire cloth test sieves ( second revision ).


IS : 10221- 1982

APPENDIX ( Clause 0.5 )



conventional B-l.1 Though most of the pipelines in the world have used the . hotmelt coating wrapping system as described in this code, its increasing use for transportation of commodities require anti-corrosion coating that may be applied easily over a widely differing range of climatic and site condition. It is with this idea that corrosion resistant tapes for the pipeline industry, have been developed. The principal application of these tapes are mainly limited to: Site wrapping of steel gas, water and oil pipelines; b) Protection of joints, bends and specials on large and small diameter factory-coated pipe with bitumen tar or plastic sheathing; Protection of couplings, saddles, valves, tees, etc; 4 d) Site repair of damage to factory and yard-applied coatings ; and 4 Repair to existing pipes where other coatings have deteriorated.


B-l.2 This appendix contains information regarding the material specification and application requirements for pipeline wrapping tapes. B-2. MATERIAL B-2.1 Primer - Primer shall be a coal tar/asphalt or suitable resin product. It shall be a liquid that can be applied without heating and shall produce an effective bond between the surface to be protected and the subsequent. coating of coal tar/asphalt tape. Primer shall contain no benzol and shall not settle in the container to form a cake that cannot be mixed easily by hand stirring. Primer shall have good spraying and/or brushing properties and a minimum tendency to produce bubble during application. B-2.2 Tapes - Tapes shall be comprised of coal tar/asphalt component supported on fabric of organic orinorgauic fibres. The coal tar/asphalt component shall comply with quality provisions as in 4.1.2 and Table 13. The fabric shall be thoroughly coated and completely covered on both sides Tapes shall be furnished in standard with coal tar/asphalt component. widths as recommended by the manufacturer. Rolls shall be warmed on hollow course having a minimum inside diameter of 37 mm. Tape shall have sufficient pliability at a temperature of 25C to unwind from the roll without disbanding the coal tar/asphalt component from the fabric. 25

tS : 1022l-


B-2.2.1 Length - The standard length of tape on one roll shall be either 9, 15 or 23 metres. B-2.2.2 Thickness - The variation in the thickness of the tape shall not exceed f -125 mm from the thickness specified. In no case shall thickness of the tape be less than 1.25 mm. B-2.2.3 General Requirement -When heated to a condition permitting conformation to the surface to be coated, the tape shall withstand, without tearing, the tensile force necessary to obtain a tightly wrapped coating free of voids. The tape shall provide a minimum thickness of I5 mils of coating between the steel surface and the inner face of the fabric when applied under the tension necessary to provide a void free wrap. Should the tape have a plastic film separator of the type that is not removed prior to application, the thickness of the separator shall not adversely affect the bond between overlapped sections of tape. B-3. APPLICATION OF WRAPPING TAPES

B-3.1 Field Application of Primer B-3.1.1 Special sections, pipe connections or fittings shall be free of all rust, weld spatter or other contaminants in accordance with 5.3.3 prior to application of primer. Primer shall be applied by brush, glove, or spray so as to give a coating thickness that is between 2 and 4 mils when wet. The primer shall be allowed to dry to the touch prior to tape application. Primer and tape shall be furnished by the same manufacturer. B-3.1.2 If application is done in cold weather, the surface of the pipe shall be preheated until it is warm to the touch, and until traces of moisture are removed;and then the primer shall be applied and allowed to dry. B-3.2 Field Application of Tape B-3.2.1 The tape shall be wrapped in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations in a manner that shall meet the adhesion and holiday detection requirements of this standard. In any event, there shall be a minimum of 12 mm, overlap per single wrap. Either single or double wraps shall be specified by the purchaser. In application, care shall be taken that there are no air pockets or bubbles beneath the tape, and it shall be in intimate contact with the primed steel. The manufacturer shall provide assistance in demonstrating the proper method of application if requested by the contractor or purchaser. B-3.3 Field Adhesion Test B-3.3.1 Adhesion tests shall be made to determine the proper bond between the coal tar/asphalt component of the tape and the properly primed 26

IS : 10221- 1982

pipe. The number of adhesion tests required to determine quality of application is at the inspectors option, but, desirably, no more than o:ie test per special section, connection, or fitting should be pcrformcd to avoid extensive repair unless defects are found in the first test. B-3.3.2 The temperature of the tape and pipe to be tested shall be between 10C and 27C. If the temperature is outside this range. hot or cold water shall be poured over the test arca until this temperature range tape ic is attained. A test arca shall be selected by the inspccto: where tfl~~ smooth for 15 cm in the longitudinal direction of the tape. T\\;c, knife cuts that are 15 cm long and 5 cm apart shall bc made thro:lgh the rai)c. A fl:lt blade shall be used to pry up 5 cm of the fabric. This 5 cm Jla~> ot frdxic: shall be grasped firmly in one hand and shall be pulled with a quick in~~tio!l in the direction of the remaining 10 cm of the 15 cm knife cut. B-3.3.3 The adhesion is satisfactory if the tape tears at the point of stripping or the fabric strips from the underlying coal tar component, leaving exposed not more than 10 percent of the primer or mctnl. B-3.3.4 Electrical inspection should be carried out as specified in 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, and 8.4.







TAPE PROPERTY Xx Width deviation, mm Thickness, mm Thickness deviation, pm Cb;~i;;:,;omponent Penetration softening set)


1-----_---7 Min


i) ii) iii) iv)

1.25 -

5 121 20 30

65 3 20

v) vi) Vii)

( 25C/lOOg/5

Filler, per cent Film separator ( if used and if of the type that is not removed prior to application ) -- pm





B-4.0 There are three other tapes a!so namely petrolatum tapes, petrolatum

tape with PVC backing film, and butyi rubber based tapes. H-4.1 Petrolatum Tape - Petrolatum tapes are cold applied over the temperature range of 20 to 80C and can be moulded to any profile. B-4.2 Petrolatum Tapes with PVC Backing Film -This coating consists of three components - a primer and two completely separate tapes, as described below: i) Primer -A petrolatum solution, which when applied even to indifferently prepared metal, wets the surface completely and penetrates any oxide film and forms an integral bond with the coating compound. ii) Protective Tape - A petrolatum compound coated on to, and impregnated into, a glassfibre pipeline felt reinforcement; the whole is laminated to a backing of tough sheeting. iii) Outerwrap - A plastic&d vinyl tape specially selected for flexibility and strength. It is applied separately over the protective tape with staggered laps to give added strength and electrical resistance, B-4.3 Butyl Rubber Based Pipeline Tape - This is a three-layer anti-corrosion system comprising a tough polythene film laminated to a layer of uncured synthetic rubber compound, and applied to the pipe with a special primer. It is designed for application by standard methods, that is powered or hand-operated machines, and for !umd wrapping welded joints between factory-sheathed pipes, bends and other sections. The system consists of the following components. 0 Primer - A rubber/resin blend designed to ensure a permanent bond between tape and pipe surface - it wets the metal surface, filling all voids and irregularities. ii) Inner adhesive layer - A butyl-rubber compound which is chemically inert and therefore remains unchanged by age. The plastic nature of the compound enables it to flow slightly under the tension applied during wrapping, thus effecting maximum conformability to pits, welds and other irregularities on the surface of a pipe, and giving an effective seal at the overlaps of the tape. iii) Outer backing layer - A layer of polythene sheeting, selected for its inertness, resistance to chemical exposure and, most important, toughness. This had been chosen as the outer layer because its water permeability is negligible and its excellent flexibility, even in Arctic conditions, means that wrapping may be carried out over the widest climatic temperature range. 28

rs : 102211982 B-4.3.1The coating may be continuously applied over the trench to a welded steel pipeline immediately prior to burial, thus obviating the damage which might be caused when transporting factory-sheathed pipe. The soft adhesive inner layer welds together under the applied tension thus forming a continuous membrane which is impermeable to water penetration. The polythene outer layer provides an extremely tough barrier to physical damage; however, if necessary additional outer wraps are available. Extremely high electrical resistance is achieved, giving excellent characteristics when cathodic protection is employed. Finally, the tape may be easily applied at sub-zero temperatures and, also shows remarkable stability even when exposed for long periods to tropical conditions.






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