Ɂɛɨɪɧɢɤ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢʁɟ “Ɋɚɡɜɨʁ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢʁɟ ɤɨɞ ɋɪɛɚ IV”

Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ 22-26. ɚɩɪɢɥ 2006,
ɭɪɟɞɧɢɤ Ɇ. ɋ. Ⱦɢɦɢɬɪɢʁɟɜɢʄ
ɉɭɛɥ. Ⱥɫɬɪ. ɞɪɭɲ. “Ɋɭɻɟɪ Ȼɨɲɤɨɜɢʄ” ɛɪ. 7, 2007, 227-233

ɇɂɄɈɅȺ ɌȿɋɅȺ ɂ ȺɋɌɊɈɇɈɆɂȳȺ
ȳȿɅȿɇȺ ɆɂɅɈȽɊȺȾɈȼ-ɌɍɊɂɇ1, ɋɅɈȻɈȾȺɇ ɇɂɇɄɈȼɂȶ2 ɢ
ɊȺȾɈɆɂɊ ȭɈɊȭȿȼɂȶ3
1

Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɤɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ, ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɫɤɢ ɬɪɝ 16, 11000 Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, ɋɪɛɢʁɚ
Ⱥɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɫɤɚ ɨɩɫɟɪɜɚɬɨɪɢʁɚ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, ȼɨɥɝɢɧɚ 7, 11 160 Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ 74,
ɋɪɛɢʁɚ
3
Ɏɢɡɢɱɤɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɬɟɬ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɫɤɢ ɬɪɝ 16, 11 000 Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, ɋɪɛɢʁɚ
2

Ɋɟɡɢɦɟ. Ƚɨɞɢɧɟ 2006. ɨɛɟɥɟɠɚɜɚ ɫɟ 150 ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɨɞ ɪɨɻɟʃɚ ɇɢɤɨɥɟ Ɍɟɫɥɟ ɲɢɪɨɦ
ɫɜɟɬɚ. ȵɟɝɨɜ ɤɪɭɝ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ ʁɟ, ɧɟɫɭɦʃɢɜɨ, ɛɢɨ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɲɢɪɨɤ. ɇɟɤɟ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɟ ɢɞɟʁɟ ɫɭ,
ɧɚ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɚɧ ɧɚɱɢɧ, ɪɟɥɟɜɚɧɬɧɟ ɢ ɭ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢʁɢ, ɩɚ ʁɟ, ɫɦɚɬɪɚɦɨ, ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɚɧ ɢ ɨɫɜɪɬ
ɧɚ ʃɟɝɨɜ ɪɚɞ ɢ ɢɡ ɬɟ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ.

1. ɍȼɈȾ
ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ (1856-1943) ʁɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɬ ɩɨ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭʄɢɦɚ, ɩɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ ɧɚ
ɩɨʂɭ ɟɥɟɤɬɪɨɬɟɯɧɢɤɟ. ɂɡɦɟɻɭ ɨɫɬɚɥɨɝ, ʁɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ ɡɚ ɦɚɝɧɟɬɧɭ ɢɧɞɭɤɰɢʁɭ ɭ
Ɇɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ʁɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ (SI) ɧɨɫɢ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɢɦɟ (T). Ɉɫɢɦ ɜɟɨɦɚ
ɱɟɫɬɨɝ ɩɨɦɢʃɚʃɚ ʃɟɝɨɜɨɝ ɢɦɟɧɚ ɭ ɜɟɡɢ ɫɚ ɧɚɢɡɦɟɧɢɱɧɨɦ ɫɬɪɭʁɨɦ ɢ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɨɦ
ɟɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɧɟ ɫɬɪɭʁɟ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɟ ɪɚɡɞɚʂɢɧɟ, ɨɞ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɚ ʁɟ ɢ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫ ɧɚ
ɩɨʂɭ ɫɥɚɛɢɯ ɫɬɪɭʁɚ, ɬʁ. ɬɟɥɟɤɨɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢʁɚ. ɇɚɠɚɥɨɫɬ, Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɢ ɪɚɞɨɜɢ ɧɚ
ɩɨʂɭ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɤɟ ɧɢɫɭ ɞɨɛɢɥɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚʃɟ. Ɂɚ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɨɝ
ɠɢɜɨɬɚ ɦɧɨɝɟ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɞɟ ʃɟɦɭ ɧɚɧɟɬɟ ʁɚɜɧɨ ɫɭ ɢɡɧɟɬɟ. Ɍɚɤɨ ʁɟ, ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɫɥɚɜɢ 80. ɝɨɞɢɲʃɢɰɟ ɇɢɤɨɥɟ Ɍɟɫɥɟ ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ, ɨɞɪɠɚɧɨʁ ɨɞ 26. ɞɨ 31.
ɦɚʁɚ 1936, ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɭɱɟɫɧɢɤɚ, ɭɤʂɭɱɭʁɭʄɢ ɭɝɥɟɞɧɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɰɟ, ɛɢɥɨ
ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɤɚɤɨ ʁɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɛɢɨ ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧ ɢ ɡɚɩɨɫɬɚɜʂɟɧ. Ɍɟɫɥɚ, ɦɟɻɭɬɢɦ, ɧɢʁɟ
ɞɨɠɢɜɟɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɨɬɤɪɢʄɟ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɬɚɥɚɫɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ
ɜɚɥɨɪɢɡɭʁɟ. Ⱦɨ ɬɨɝɚ ʁɟ ɞɨɲɥɨ ɬɟɤ ɩɨɫɥɟɞʃɢɯ ɞɟɰɟɧɢʁɚ XX ɜɟɤɚ. Ɉ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫɭ
Ɍɟɫɥɟ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢʁɢ ɛɢʄɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɚ ɭ ɫɥɟɞɟʄɟɦ ɨɞɟʂɤɭ.
2. ɇȿɄȿ ɌȿɋɅɂɇȿ ȺɄɌɂȼɇɈɋɌɂ ɊȿɅȿȼȺɇɌɇȿ ɁȺ
ȺɋɌɊɈɇɈɆɂȳɍ
Ɍɟɫɥɚ ʁɟ 1899. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɨ ɦɨʄɧɢ ɛɟɠɢɱɧɢ ɩɪɟɞɚʁɧɢɤ ɢ ɞɚɨ ɫɟ ɧɚ
ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɟ ɧɚɱɢɧɚ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɬɚɥɚɫɢ ɦɨɝɥɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚɬɢ ɤɪɨɡ Ɂɟɦʂɭ. Ɂɚ
227

ɭ ɥɟɬɨ 1899. ɛɢɩ-ɛɢɩ-ɛɢɩ. Ɍɢɦɟ ɫɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɭɤʂɭɱɢɨ ɦɟɻɭ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚɱɟ ɜɚɫɢɨɧɟ. ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ ɫɟ ɤɚɨ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɢɡɚɡɨɜɚɧ ɞɨɩɪɢɧɨɫ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢʁɢ. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. ɬʁ. ɛɢɩ-ɛɢɩ. ɋɥɢɤɚ 1. ɛɢɩɛɢɩ-ɛɢɩ-ɛɢɩ. ɩɨɧɟɤɚɞ.ȳȿɅȿɇȺ ɆɂɅɈȽɊȺȾɈȼ-ɌɍɊɂɇ. 4. ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɨ 228 . ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. Ɂɚ ɧɟɤɨɥɢɤɨ ɦɟɫɟɰɢ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɬɨʁ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɢ ɛɢɨ ɭ ɫɬɚʃɭ ɞɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟ ɟɥɟɤɬɢɱɧɟ ɚɤɰɢʁɟ ɭɩɨɪɟɞɢɜɟ. 1). ɧɚ ɧɚɞɦɨɪɫɤɨʁ ɜɢɫɢɧɢ ɨɞ 6000 ɫɬɨɩɚ ɝɞɟ ʁɟ ɩɨɞɢɝɚɨ ɛɚɪɚɤɭ ɫɚ ɚɧɬɟɧɨɦ (ɋɥ. ȵɟɝɨɜɨ ɡɚɩɚɠɚʃɟ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɫɬɢɝɥɢ ɢɡ ɤɨɫɦɨɫɚ. Ʉɚɤɨ ʁɟ ʃɟɝɨɜ ɭɪɟɻɚʁ ɭ Ʉɨɥɨɪɚɞɨ ɋɩɪɢɧɝɫɭ ɛɢɨ ɩɨɞɟɲɟɧ ɞɚ ɩɪɢɦɚ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɞ ɨɤɨ 10 kHz ɤɚɤɜɟ ɧɢɤɨ ɧɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɢ ɫɟɦ ʃɟɝɚ ɬɚɞɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɨ. ɭ ɩɪɜɨʁ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɢ 1899. 3. Ɍɟɫɥɢɧ ɭɪɟɻɚʁ ɭ Ʉɨɥɨɪɚɞɨ ɋɩɪɢɧɝɫɭ 1899. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. ɋɥɭɱɚʁ ʁɟ ɞɨɧɟɨ ɜɪɥɨ ɛɪɡɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬ – ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢʁɭ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ “ɢɡɚ ɨɛɥɚɤɚ”. 2. ɤɚɨ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚɥɢ ɛɪɨʁɟɜɟ 1. Ɍɟɫɥɚ ʁɟ ɱɭɨ ɫɥɚɛɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɫɬɢɡɚɥɢ ɭ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɧɨɦ ɪɟɞɨɫɥɟɞɭ ɬɚɤɨ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɦɭ ɢɡɝɥɟɞɚɥɢ ɤɚɨ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɧɭɦɟɪɢɱɤɢ ɤɨɞɢɪɚɧɢ: ɛɢɩ. ɩɚ ɱɚɤ. ɢ ʁɚɱɟ ɨɞ ɦɭʃɚ. ɋɅɈȻɈȾȺɇ ɇɂɇɄɈȼɂȶ ɢ ɊȺȾɈɆɂɊ ȭɈɊȭȿȼɂȶ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɟ ɢɡɚɛɪɚɨ ʁɟ ɩɥɚɬɨ Ʉɨɥɨɪɚɞɚ. ɉɪɟɦɚ ɫɨɩɫɬɜɟɧɨʁ ɢɡʁɚɜɢ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɢɨ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɭ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɫɥɚɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɟ ɧɚ Ɇɚɪɫ ɚɥɢ ʁɟ ɫɬɜɨɪɢɨ ɦɨɝɭʄɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ ʃɟɧɨ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟʃɟ ɩɪɢ ɟɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢɦɚ ɭ ɬɨɦ ɩɪɚɜɰɭ (Ɍɟɫɥɚ 1919).

ɜɢɲɟ ɩɭɬɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɨɩɪɟɡɚɧ. ɤɚɨ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ 1901: “ȳɚ ɧɢɫɚɦ ɬɜɪɞɢɨ ɞɚ ɫɚɦ ɞɨɛɢɨ ɩɨɪɭɤɭ ɫɚ Ɇɚɪɫɚ. ɞɨ 19. ɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɚɪɫɤɨɝ ɤɪɢɥɚ ɨɩɲɬɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɟ ɤɪɢɜɟ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɬʂɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɞɭɠ ɟɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɟɬɧɨɝ ɫɩɟɤɬɪɚ. Ɍɟɫɥɚ ʁɟ ɡɚɭɡɢɦɚɨ ɬɨɤɨɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟ ɫɬɚɜɨɜɟ. ɉɨ ɦɢɲʂɟʃɭ ɫɚɦɢɯ Ʉɨɪɭɦɚ ɤʂɭɱɧɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭʄɟ ɭ ɜɚɥɨɪɢɡɚɰɢʁɢ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɢɯ ɤɨɫɦɢɱɤɢɯ ɨɬɤɪɢʄɚ ʁɟ ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚʃɚ ʁɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɫɤɨɝ ɩɪɨɡɨɪɚ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɢɦɚ ɫɭ ɪɚɞɢɥɢ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɢ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɰɢ ɚ ɤɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɞɚɧɚɫ ɡɧɚ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪ ɢ ɋɚɬɭɪɧ ɫɩɨɪɚɞɢɱɧɨ ɟɦɢɬɭʁɭ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɬɚɥɚɫɟ. ɭɜɟɱɟ. Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɟ ɢɞɟʁɟ ɫɭ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɞɟɬɚʂɧɨ ɢɫɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɛɪɚʄɚ Ʉɟɧɟɬ ɢ ȹɟʁɦɫ Ʉɨɪɭɦ (Corum and Corum. ɭ ɩɨɞɪɭɱʁɭ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɤɨɪɢɫɬɢɨ. ɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɚ ʁɚɜɧɨɫɬ ɫɟ ɜɟʄ ɧɚɫɥɭɲɚɥɚ ɨ ɤɚɧɚɥɢɦɚ ɧɚ Ɇɚɪɫɭ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ ɜɟɪɨɜɚɬɧɨ ɩɪɨɤɨɩɚɥɚ ɧɟɤɚ ɧɚɩɪɟɞɧɚ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɠɢɜɢɯ ɛɢʄɚ. Ɉɧ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɫɜɟɫɬɚɧ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɨɛʁɚɜʂɢɜɚʃɟ ɜɚɧɡɟɦɚʂɫɤɟ ɩɨɪɭɤɟ ɭ ɧɨɜɢɧɚɦɚ ɢɡɚɡɜɚɥɨ ɜɟɥɢɤɢ ɲɨɤ. ɡɚ ɤɨʁɟ ɫɭ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɢ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɰɢ ɭ Ʉɨɥɨɪɚɞɨ ɋɩɪɢɧɝɫɭ ɛɢɥɢ ɩɨɞɟɲɟɧɢ ɢɡɧɨɫɢ ɨɤɨ ɞɟɫɟɬɢɧɟ ɞɟɰɢɛɟɥɚ. ɍ ɬɨɦ VLF ɞɟɥɭ. ɫɚ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɚ. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. ɂɡɪɚɱɭɧɚɬɚ ɧɨʄɧɚ ɤɪɢɜɚ ʁɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɫɤɟ ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɚɤɨɡɜɚɧɨɝ ɟɤɫɬɪɚɨɪɞɢɧɚɪɧɨɝ ɬɚɥɚɫɚ ɢɦɚ ɞɭɛɨɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ ɢɡɦɟɻɭ 200 kHz ɢ 2 MHz (ɢɫɩɨɞ 60 dB). Ʉɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢʁɚ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɥɚ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɚ. ʁɚ ɫɚɦ ɫɚɦɨ ɢɡɪɚɡɢɨ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɭɛɟɻɟʃɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɪɟɦɟʄɚʁ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɚɦ ɞɨɛɢɨ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɧɨɝ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɚ“.” Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɚ ɢɞɟʁɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɞɚ ɚɤɨ ɧɟɤɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥ ɫɬɢɠɟ ɢɡ ɤɨɫɦɨɫɚ. ɨɤɬɨɛɪɚ 1996. Ɍɚ ɢɞɟʁɚ ʁɟ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧɚ ɢ ɭ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɨ ɜɪɟɦɟ. ɩɪɟɤɨ ɨɞɥɭɱɧɢʁɟɝ ɫɬɚɜɚ 1907 “…ɞɚʂɟ ɫɬɭɞɢʁɟ ɫɭ ɦɟ ɡɚɞɨɜɨʂɢɥɟ ɭ ɬɜɪɻɟʃɭ ɞɚ ɦɨɪɚʁɭ ɛɢɬɢ ɢɡɪɚɱɟɧɢ ɫɚ Ɇɚɪɫɚ” ɞɨ ɫɜɟɫɬɢ ɨ ɜɟɥɢɤɨɦ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɭ (1919) “… Ʉɚɫɧɢʁɢɯ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɝɨɪɤɨ ɫɚɦ ɡɚɠɚɥɢɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɚɦ ɫɟ ɩɨɜɟɨ ɡɚ ɭɡɛɭɞʂɢɜɢɦ ɢɞɟʁɚɦɚ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɨɜɧɢɦ ɩɪɢɬɢɫɰɢɦɚ ɭɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɚ ɫɚɦ ɫɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɫɚɨ ɫɜɭ ɫɜɨʁɭ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɭ ɧɚ ɨɜɨ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚʃɟ. ɍ ɬɭ ɩɪɟɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɭ ɫɟ ɭɤɥɚɩɚɥɚ ɱɢʃɟɧɢɰɚ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɢ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɥɢ ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ Ɇɚɪɫ ɡɚɲɚɨ ɡɚ ɨɤɨɥɧɚ ɛɪɞɚ. ɩɪɟɦɚ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁɢɦɚ ɇȺɋȺ. 1996a) ɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚ ɞɚ ʁɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɫɬɜɚɪɧɨ ɦɨɝɚɨ ɞɚ ɩɪɢɦɢ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɟ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɫɢɝɧɚɥɟ ɫɚ ɭɪɟɻɚʁɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɢɨ. Ɍɚ ɤɪɢɜɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ ɧɚɫɬɚɜɚɤ ɞɟɫɧɨɝ. ɉɪɟ ɫɜɟɝɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɤɥɚɫɢɱɧɟ ȿɩɥɬɨɧ-ɏɚɪɬɪɢʁɟɜɟ (Appleton-Hartree) ʁɟɞɧɚɱɢɧɟ ɡɚ ʁɨɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɭ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɭ ɩɨɞ ɭɬɢɰɚʁɟɦ ɦɚɝɧɟɬɨɝ ɩɨʂɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɨɛɢɬɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚʃɟ ɬɚɥɚɫɚ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɞ ɩɥɚɡɦɟɧɟ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɞɟɫɧɨ ɩɨɥɚɪɢɡɨɜɚɧɢ ɬɚɥɚɫ ɭ ɥɨɧɝɢɬɭɞɢɧɚɥɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɭ (ɞɭɠ ɦɚɝɧɟɬɧɢɯ ɥɢɧɢʁɚ ɫɢɥɚ). ɧɚ ɧɟɛɭ ɢɫɬɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɫɢʁɚɥɢ Ɇɚɪɫ ɢ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪ.ɇɂɄɈɅȺ ɌȿɋɅȺ ɂ ȺɋɌɊɈɇɈɆɂȳȺ ɞɚ ɩɨɦɢɫɥɢ ɞɚ ɨɧɢ ɞɨɥɚɡɟ ɨɞ ɧɟɤɟ ɜɚɧɡɟɦɚʂɫɤɟ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢʁɟ. Ʉɪɚʄɢ ɪɚɞ ɨ ɬɨɦɟ ɫɭ ɢɡɥɨɠɢɥɢ ɧɚ V ɦɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨʁ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɨʁ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢʁɢ ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ ɨɞɪɠɚɧɚ ɨɞ 15. ɞɨɤ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɧɨɫɬɢɦɚ ɨɤɨ 10 kHz. ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪ ɢ ɋɚɬɭɪɧ ɫɩɨɪɚɞɢɱɧɨ ɟɦɢɬɭʁɭ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɛʂɟɫɤɨɜɟ. ɩɚ ʁɟ ɫɬɨɝɚ ɭ ɩɨɱɟɬɤɭ ɢɡɛɟɝɚɨ ɞɚ ɬɚ ɜɟɫɬ ɞɨɩɪɟ ɞɨ ɧɨɜɢɧɚɪɚ. ɨɧɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɬɩɭɧɨ ɪɚɡɭɦɧɚ ɩɪɟɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɚ ɞɚ ɩɨɬɢɱɟ ɨɞ ɢɧɬɟɥɢɝɟɧɬɧɢɯ ɛɢʄɚ. Ɍɟɫɥɚ ʁɟ ɤɚɨ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɝ ɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬɚ ɢɡɚɛɪɚɨ Ɇɚɪɫ. (1996b). ɭ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɭ. ɫɤɪɚʄɟɧɢɰɚ SETI). ɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɧɢɡ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɢɯ ɛɪɨʁɟɜɚ. ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɭ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɭ ɬɪɚɝɚʃɚ ɡɚ ɜɚɧɡɟɦɚʂɫɤɨɦ ɢɧɬɟɥɢɝɟɧɰɢʁɨɦ (ɟɧɝɥ. 229 . Ʉɚɤɨ ɫɭ ɬɨɝ ɥɟɬɚ.

ɇɚʁɛɨʂɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚ 21. ɧɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɜɟʄɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɧɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɢɡɪɚɱɭɧɚʁɭ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁɢ ɫɚɬɟɥɢɬɚ ɂɨ. ɩɟɬ ɩɭɬɚ ɭɜɟɱɟ ɦɨɝɥɨ ɞɚ ɞɨɻɟ ɞɨ ɛɭɪɚ ɧɚ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɭ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ ɫɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɡɚ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɟ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɤɟ ɛɢɨ ɲɭɦ Ɂɟɦʂɢɧɟ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɚ ɧɟ ɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɨɫɬ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɤɚ. ɦɚɥɨ ɢɡɧɚɞ ɩɥɚɧɢɧɫɤɨɝ ɥɚɧɰɚ ɧɚ ɜɢɞʂɢɜɨɦ ɯɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɭ. Ƚɥɚɜɧɚ ɩɪɟɩɪɟɤɚ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɫɥɨʁ ɢɫɩɨɞ 100 km. Ɂɜɭɱɧɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥ “ɛɢɩ” ɫɟ ɩɨʁɚɜʂɭʁɟ ɤɚɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɚ ɬɪɢɝɟɪɨɜɚʃɚ ɤɨɯɟɪɟɪɚ ɩɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɭɛɚɰɢɜɚɧɢɦ RF ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɦ. ɭ Ⱦɟɜɢɰɢ. ɛɥɢɡɭ ɦɟɪɢɞɢʁɚɧɚ. ȳɨɲ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɩɪɜɢɯ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɜɚɱɚ ɪɚɞɢɨ ɡɪɚɱɟʃɚ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɚ – ȹɨɧ Ʉɪɚɭɫ (John Kraus 1956) ɩɪɢɦɟɬɢɨ ɞɚ ɩɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɞɨɥɚɡɢ ɢ ɞɨ ɞɜɨʁɧɢɯ ɩɚ ɢ ɬɪɨʁɧɢɯ ɛʂɟɫɤɨɜɚ ɧɚ 27 MHz. ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɨ ɢɡɧɚɞ ʁɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɟ. ɉɨɫɟɛɚɧ ɧɚɩɨɪ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɭɥɨɠɟɧ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɫɟ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɢɨ ɪɚɞ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɨɝ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɤɚ. ɧɚ ɜɟɱɟɪʃɟɦ ɧɟɛɭ. Ɇɨɝɭ ɫɟ ɩɪɨɪɚɱɭɧɚɬɢ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɧɤɚ ɛʂɟɫɤɨɜɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɧɢɯ ɢ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɧɢɯ ɨɞ ɫɚɬɟɥɢɬɚ. ɤɚɞɚ ɢɡɥɚɡɢ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɛɢɨ ɢ ɛʂɟɫɚɤ ɡɚɜɢɫɬɚɧ ɨɞ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁɚ ɫɚɬɟɥɢɬɚ ɂɨ ɢ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɚɧ ɨɞ ʃɟɝɚ ɚ ɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ Ɇɚɪɫ ɬɨɝ ɞɚɧɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɨ ɡɚɥɚɡɢɨ ɭ 21:05 ɩɨ ɥɨɤɚɥɧɨɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɭ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɫɤɨɪɨ ɩɨɤɥɚɩɚ ɫɚ ɩɪɨɪɚɱɭɧɚɬɢɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɨɦ ɩɪɟɤɢɞɚ ɨɥɭʁɟ ɭ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɨɜɨʁ ʁɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɢ. ɂɧɬɟɧɡɢɬɟɬ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɡɪɚɱɟʃɚ ɩɚ ɢ ɫɚɦɚ ɩɨʁɚɜɚ ɛʂɟɫɤɨɜɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ ɨɞ ɤɨɧɮɢɝɭɪɚɰɢʁɟ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɨɜɨɝ ɦɚɝɧɟɬɧɨɝ ɩɨʂɚ ɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁɚ ɫɚɬɟɥɢɬɚ ɂɨ ɤɨʁɢ ɪɟɦɟɬɢ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɨɜɨ ɦɚɝɧɟɬɧɨ ɩɨʂɟ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ ɫɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɢ ɬɭ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɨ ɫɜɨʁ ɬɚɥɟɧɚɬ ɩɨɛɨʂɲɚɜɚʁɭʄɢ ɨɫɟɬʂɢɜɨɫɬ ɤɨɯɟɪɟɪɚ ɡɚ 106 dB ɭ ɨɞɧɨɫɭ ɧɚ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɤɟ ɬɨɝ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ. ɨɤɨ 21 ɱɚɫɚ. ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɨɜɨ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɡɪɚɱɟʃɟ ʁɟ ɢɫɬɪɚɠɟɧɨ ɭ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɦ ɨɩɫɟɝɭ ɟɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɟɬɧɨɝ ɫɩɟɤɬɪɚ ɨɞ 1 kHz ɞɨ ɞɟɫɟɬɢɧɟ GHz. ɋɅɈȻɈȾȺɇ ɇɂɇɄɈȼɂȶ ɢ ɊȺȾɈɆɂɊ ȭɈɊȭȿȼɂȶ ɍ ɨɤɜɢɪɭ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɚ ɅɈɎɌɂ ɦɟɪɟʃɚ ɧɚ 18 kHz ɫɭ ɨɛɚɜʂɟɧɚ ɬɚɤɨ ɲɬɨ ʁɟ ɟɦɢɫɢɨɧɚ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɚ NBA ɭ ɡɨɧɢ ɉɚɧɚɦɫɤɨɝ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɚ ɤɚɨ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɢɡɜɨɪ ɚ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɤ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɦɨɧɬɢɪɚɧ ɧɚ ɫɚɬɟɥɢɬ ɭ ɨɪɛɢɬɢ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ ɫɟ ɞɚ ɧɨʄɭ ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɢɩɨɞ 13 dB. ɦɟɪɢɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬ ʁɨɧɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɭ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɚ ɋɭɧɱɟɜɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ. ɉɪɢɛɥɢɠɧɨ ɬɚɤɜɚ ɮɚɡɚ ɋɭɧɱɟɜɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ʁɟ ɛɢɥɚ ɢ ɭ ɥɟɬɨ 1899. ɭ Ʌɚɜɭ. ɋɚɬɟɥɢɬ ɅɈɎɌɂ-1 ʁɟ ɩɨɞɚɬɤɟ ɫɥɚɨ ɧɚ 136 ɆHz ɧɚ ɡɟɦɚʂɫɤɭ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɭ. ɋɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢʁɚ ɡɧɚ ɞɚ ʁɟ Ɇɚɪɫ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɫɥɚɛ ɢɡɜɨɪ ɪɚɞɢɨɡɪɚɱɟʃɚ ɚɥɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪ ɫɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨ ʁɚɤ ɢɡɜɨɪ.ȳȿɅȿɇȺ ɆɂɅɈȽɊȺȾɈȼ-ɌɍɊɂɇ. ɇɚ ɬɚʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ Ʉɨɪɭɦɢ ɫɭ ɭɫɩɟɥɢ ɞɚ ɩɪɟɰɢɡɢɪɚʁɭ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɭ ɢɡʁɚɜɭ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɜɚɧɡɟɦɚʂɫɤɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɟ ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚɨ ɥɟɬʃɟ ɜɟɱɟɪɢ. ɢɫɩɪɟɞ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢʁɟ ɭ Ʉɨɥɨɪɚɞɨ ɋɩɪɢɧɝɫɭ ɦɨɝɥɢ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɜɢɞɟɬɢ Ɇɚɪɫ. ɧɚ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɦ ɞɟɥɭ. Ɍɚɦɨ ɝɞɟ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɢ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɰɢ ɞɚʁɭ “ɛɢɩɨɜɟ” ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɰɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭ “ɤɥɢɤɨɜɢɦɚ” ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɤɢɦ ɲɭɦɨɦ. ʁɭɥ. ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪ. 230 . Ɉɛɟ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɫɭ ɛɪɚʄɚ Ʉɨɪɭɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɞɢɥɢ ɢ ɞɨɛɢɥɢ ɤɚɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬ ɞɚ ɛɢ ɭ ɥɟɬɨ 1899. Ʉɚɨ ɲɬɨ ɡɚ ɞɚɧɚɲʃɟ ɪɚɱɭɧɚɪɟ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɢɡɪɚɱɭɧɚ ɩɨɥɨɠɚʁ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɚ. ɍ ɥɟɬɨ 1899. Ɂɧɚ ɫɟ ʁɨɲ ɨɞ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɩɪɨɧɚɥɚɫɤɚ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɨɜɨɝ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɡɪɚɱɟʃɚ ɨɞ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ Ȼɟɪɤɟɚ ɢ Ɏɪɚɧɤɥɢɧɚ (Burke and Franklin 1955) ɧɚ 22 MHz ɞɚ ɬɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɩɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ ɞɚ ɛɭɞɟ ɜɟɨɦɚ ʁɚɤ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɢɡɜɨɪ. ɑɚɤ ɢ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɚɲʃɢɦ ɤɨɦɟɪɰɢʁɚɥɧɢɦ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɞɢɦɚ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɢ ɩɪɢʁɟɦɧɢɰɢ ɫɭ ɛɢɥɢ ɜɢɲɟ ɧɟɝɨ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚʁɭʄɢ ɡɚ ɞɟɬɟɤɰɢʁɭ RF ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɨɞ 30 ɞɨ 300 µV.

ɫɥɚɜɭ ʁɟ ɫɬɟɤɚɨ ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɜɚɠɧɨɝ ɦɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝ ɫɤɭɩɚ (URSI) ȵɭʁɨɪɤ ɬɚʁɦɫ. 1933. The Life of Nikola Tesla”. ɋ. Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɨɩɢɫɚɨ ɫɜɨʁɭ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢʁɭ ɛɟɠɢɱɧɨɝ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɚ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɢ ɡɪɚɤɨɜɚ ɫɦɪɬɢ (ɡɪɚɰɢ ɫɦɪɬɢ . Ɂɚɛɟɥɟɠɟɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɧɚ ɫɜɟɱɚɧɨɦ ɨɛɪɨɤɭ ɩɨɜɨɞɨɦ ɫɜɨɝ 82. ɩɨɡɧɚɬɢ ɚɦɟɪɢɱɤɢ ɧɨɜɢɧɚɪ ɤɨʁɢ ʁɟ ɧɚɩɢɫɚɨ ʁɟɞɧɭ ɨɞ ɩɪɜɢɯ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɢɯ ɛɢɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɚ (“Prodigal Genius. Ɍɨɦ ɩɪɢɥɢɤɨɦ ʁɟ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ ɪɟɤɚɨ ɞɚ ʄɟ ɦɨʄɢ ɧɚ Ɇɟɫɟɱɟɜɨʁ ɧɨʄɧɨʁ ɫɬɪɚɧɢ. ɩɨɡɧɚɬɚ ʁɟ ʃɟɝɨɜɚ ɨɞɛɨʁɧɨɫɬ ɩɪɟɦɚ . ɝɨɞɢɧɟ.. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɭ ɦɟɪɟʃɭ ɋɭɧɱɟɜɨɝ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɡɪɚɱɟʃɚ. ɢɚɤɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɧɬɧɢ ɩɨ ɢɞɟʁɢ. ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɧɬɧɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ɫɭ ɫɟ ɨɛɨʁɢɰɚ. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. ɢ 1935. Jovanoviü 1993). ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɢ ɩɨɤɭɲɚʁɢ Ɉɥɢɜɟɪɚ Ʌɨʇɚ (Sir Oliver Lodge) 1902. ɚɥɢ ɧɢʁɟ ɢɡɧɨɫɢɨ ɧɟɨɩɯɨɞɧɟ ɞɟɬɚʂɟ) ɞɚ ɛɢ ɩɨɬɨɦ ɢɫɬɚɤɚɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɨ ʁɟɞɚɧ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɦɟɻɭɩɥɚɧɟɬɧɟ ɤɨɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɤɨʁɢ ʄɟ ɞɨɡɜɨɥɢɬɢ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɨ ɨɞɚɲɢʂɚʃɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɦɚɥɟ ʁɚɱɢɧɟ. ɋ ɞɪɭɝɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ. Ʉɚɪɥ ȳɚɧɫɤɢ (Karl Jansky) ɤɨʁɢ ɫɟ ɫɦɚɬɪɚ ɡɚɱɟɬɧɢɤɨɦ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢʁɟ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɜɚɨ ʁɟ ɤɨɫɦɢɱɤɢ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɲɭɦ ɩɪɜɢ ɩɭɬ ɬɟɤ 1931. Ɉ'ɇɢɥ (John O'Neill). ɪɨɻɟɧɞɚɧɚ. ɢ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɢ ȳɚɧɫɤɢ. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. Ɉɜɢɦ ɛɢ. ɧɟɝɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɧɨɫ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɢɯ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɚ. ɇɢʁɟ ɩɨɬɜɪɻɟɧɨ ɧɢ ɬɜɪɻɟʃɟ Ɇɚɪɤɨɧɢʁɚ ɞɜɚɞɟɫɟɬ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɤɚɫɧɢʁɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚɨ ɋɭɧɰɟ ɭ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɞɨɦɟɧɭ. ȳɚɧɫɤɢ ʁɟ. ɧɟɫɭɦʃɢɜɨ. ȹ. ɞɨɲɚɨ ɧɚ ɢɞɟʁɭ ɨ ɥɚɫɟɪɢɦɚ ɢ ɢɦɚɨ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɟ ɩɥɚɧɨɜɟ ɡɚ ʃɢɯ? Ɍɟɲɤɨ ʁɟ ɪɟʄɢ. ɛɪɡɨ ɪɚɡɭɦɟɨ ɲɬɚ ʁɟ ɫɬɚɥɧɚ “ɫɬɚɬɢɱɤɚ” ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɭɨɱɢɨ ɞɚ ɫɟ ʃɟɧ ɲɭɦ ɩɨɧɚɜʂɚ ɫɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɦ ɨɞ ʁɟɞɧɨɝ ɡɜɟɡɞɚɧɨɝ ɞɚɧɚ. Ɉ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɨɦ ɧɟɨɛɢɱɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɥɚɡɭ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ ɪɨɬɚɰɢʁɟ Ɇɟɫɟɰɚ ɩɢɫɚɥɢ ɫɭ Ⱥ. 1951). ɂɚɤɨ ʁɟ ɫɜɨʁɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɟ ɨɛʁɚɜɢɨ 1932. Ⱦɚ ɥɢ ʁɟ ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ. ɧɢɫɭ ɞɚɥɢ ɜɚɥɢɞɚɧ ɩɨɫɦɚɬɪɚɱɤɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬ. ɡɚ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɦɥɚɞɢɧɟ. ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɟ ɩɪɚɜɰɚ ɢɡ ɤɨɝɚ ʁɟ ɲɭɦ ɞɨɥɚɡɢɨ ɡɚɤʂɭɱɢɨ ʁɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɢɡɜɨɪ ɛɢɨ ɰɟɧɬɚɪ Ɇɥɟɱɧɨɝ ɩɭɬɚ.ɇɂɄɈɅȺ ɌȿɋɅȺ ɂ ȺɋɌɊɈɇɈɆɂȳȺ ɉɪɢɯɜɚɬɚʁɭʄɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɜɚɨ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɛɭɪɟ ɫɚ ȳɭɩɢɬɟɪɚ ɭ ɥɟɬɨ 1899. ɉɪɟɞɥɨɝ ȿɞɢɫɨɧɚ (Thomas Edison) ɢɡ 1890. ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɞɭɠɢɯ ɪɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɚ ɫɚ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɦ ɫɬɜɚɪɚɨɰɟɦ.ɪɟɜɨɥɭɰɢʁɢ ɭ ɮɢɡɢɰɢ" ɫ ɩɨɱɟɬɤɚ XX ɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɡɚɬɨ ʁɟ ɜɪɥɨ ɦɚɥɨ ɜɟɪɨɜɚɬɧɨ ɧɟɤɨ ʃɟɝɨɜɨ ɬɟɦɟʂɢɬɨ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚʃɟ 231 . ɨɛjɚɜɢɨ ɨɬɤɪɢʄɟ ɧɚ ɧɚɫɥɨɜɧɨʁ ɫɬɪɚɧɢ. Ɉ'ɇɢɥ. ɩɨɦɢʃɟ ɧɟɤɟ ɩɪɚɜɨɥɢɧɢʁɫɤɟ ɫɧɨɩɨɜɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɦɨɠɞɚ ɥɢɱɟ ɧɚ ɥɚɫɟɪɟ. ȳɟɞɚɧ ɨɞ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɚɬɚ ɧɚ ɤɨɦɟ ʁɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɢɫɬɢɪɚɨ. ɡɚɢɫɬɚ. ɦɚʁɚ 1933. ɤɨʁɚ ʁɟ. ɛɢɥɚ ɢɫɤɨɪɢɲʄɟɧɚ ɦɧɨɝɚ ɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɜɚ Ɂɟɦʂɟ. ɛɚɜɢɥɢ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢʁɨɦ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɬɚɥɚɫɚ ɫɚ ɦɭʃɚ ɢ ɭɫɩɭɬ ɧɚɢɲɥɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɫɦɢɱɤɭ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɭ. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ.ʁɟɞɧɚ ɜɪɫɬɚ ɨɪɭɠʁɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɨ ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ. ɤɚɨ ʇɢɧɨɜɫɤɟ ɚɧɬɟɧɟ ɡɚ ɩɪɢɤɭɩʂɚʃɟ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɬɚɥɚɫɚ. ɭ ȵɭʁɨɪɤɭ 1938. Ɂɟɦʂɟ. ɢ ɫɚɦɚ ɧɟɛɟɫɤɨ ɬɟɥɨ. Ɍɨɦɢʄ ɢ Ȼ. Tomiü. ɝɨɞɢɧɟ ɭ ɱɭɜɟɧɨɦ ɱɚɫɨɩɢɫɭ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɢɧɠɟʃɟɪɚ. ɋɦɟɥɟ ɢɞɟʁɟ ɧɢɫɭ ɧɚɩɭɲɬɚɥɟ Ɍɟɫɥɭ ɧɢ ɤɚɞɚ ʁɟ ɞɭɛɨɤɨ ɡɚɲɚɨ ɭ ɝɨɞɢɧɟ. ɩɚɤ. ȳɨɜɚɧɨɜɢʄ (ɧɚɩɪ. ɛɢɨ ʁɟ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬ ɨ ɤɨɪɢɲʄɟʃɭ ɧɚɲɟ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɟ. ʁɟɪ ɧɢɤɚɤɜɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɢ ɞɨɤɚɡɢ ɭ ʃɟɝɨɜɨʁ ɡɚɨɫɬɚɜɲɬɢɧɢ ɧɢɫɭ ɩɪɨɧɚɻɟɧɢ. ɦɨɪɚɦɨ ɝɚ ɫɦɚɬɪɚɬɢ ɩɢɨɧɢɪɨɦ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢʁɟ. ɭ ɫɭɲɬɢɧɢ. ɍ ɱɚɫɬ ȳɚɧɫɤɨɝ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɚ ʁɟ ʁɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ ɮɥɭɤɫɚ ɪɚɞɢɨ-ɡɪɚɱɟʃɚ ɩɨ ʁɟɞɢɧɢɰɢ ɭɱɟɫɬɚɧɨɫɬɢ ʁɚɧɫɤɢ (jy). ɇɢʁɟ ʁɚɫɧɨ ɤɚɤɨ ʁɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɩɪɢɥɚɡɢɨ ɨɜɨɦ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɭ. ɞɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟ ʁɟɞɧɭ ɫʁɚʁɧɭ ɩɟɝɭ ɤɨʁɚ ʄɟ ɫɢʁɚɬɢ ɤɚɨ ɫʁɚʁɧɚ ɡɜɟɡɞɚ ɩɚ ʄɟ ɦɨʄɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɜɢɞɢ ɢ ɛɟɡ ɩɨɦɨʄɢ ɬɟɥɟɫɤɨɩɚ.

: 2006. ɚ ɢ ɫɚɦ ʁɟ ɢɧɫɩɢɪɢɫɚɨ ɛɪɨʁɧɟ ɭɦɟɬɧɢɤɟ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɭ ɫɚ ɞɢɜʂɟʃɟɦ ɩɢɫɚɥɢ ɨ ʃɟɦɭ (Ȼɟɤɯɚɪɞ. ɜɢɞɢ ɫɟ ɞɚ Ɍɟɫɥɭ. L. ɫɭɞɛɢɧɚ ɝɨɬɨɜɨ ɫɜɢɯ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɯ ɫɬɜɚɪɚɥɚɰɚ ɡɚɧɟɬɢɯ ɫɧɨɜɢɦɚ ɨ ɨɬɤɪɢɜɚʃɭ ɬɚʁɧɢ ɢ ɡɚɝɨɧɟɬɤɢ ɫɜɟɬɚ. 3. 2004). Ɍɨ ʁɟ. Hale). “ȳɚɫɟɧ”. ɞɢɜɢɨ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɢ ɢ ɛɢɨ ʁɟ ɜɢɲɟ ɨɤɪɟɧɭɬ ʃɨʁ ɧɟɝɨ ɫɜɚɤɨɞɧɟɜɧɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɭ ɢ ʂɭɞɢɦɚ. . J. Ⱦɚɤɥɟ. ɪɟɤɥɨ ɛɢ ɫɟ. ɝɞɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɥɢɱɧɨ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɚɧ. Ɍɭ ɫɟ ɩɨɦɢʃɟ “ɦɚɥɢ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɚɤɬɚɧ ɚɩɚɪɚɬ ɤɨʁɢ ɫɥɭɠɢ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɡɧɚɬɧɟ ɟɧɟɪɝɢʁɟ ɦɭʃɟɜɢɬɨ ɩɪɟɧɟɫɭ ɤɪɨɡ ɦɟɻɭɡɜɟɡɞɚɧɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨʂɧɨ ɪɚɫɬɨʁɚʃɟ ɛɟɡ ɢ ɧɚʁɦɚʃɟ ɞɢɫɩɟɪɡɢʁɟ”. ȭɨɪɻɟɜɢʄ. ɁȺɄȴɍɑȺɄ ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɩɪɟɬɯɨɞɧɢɯ ɫɬɚɜɨɜɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɫɟ ɪɟʄɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɢɦɚɨ ɜɟɥɢɤɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚʃɟ ɢ ɡɚ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɫɤɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ.. : 1958. 1936. Franklin. Proceedings of IRE. ɚ ɢ ɢɡ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɛɢɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɚ ɨɜɨɝ ɫɬɜɚɪɚɨɰɚ. 2006). ɇɚ ɧɚɲɭ Ɂɟɦʂɭ ɝɥɟɞɚɨ ʁɟ ɤɚɨ ɧɚ ʁɟɞɧɭ ɨɞ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɚ. Ɍɨ ɧɢʁɟ ɧɢɦɚɥɨ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɧɨ. Ⱦɚʂɟ ɢɫɬɢɱɟ ɞɚ ʄɟ ɞɟɬɚʂɧɨ ɨɜɚʁ ɭɪɟɻɚʁ ɞɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢ ɩɪɟɞ ɮɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɢɦ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɨɦ ɭ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɜɭ ɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɧɚɝɪɚɞɭ ɤɨʁɚ ɧɨɫɢ ɢɦɟ ɉʁɟɪɚ Ƚɢɰɦɚɧɚ (Pierre Gutzman). Ƚɨɪɞɢʄ. Ⱦɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɡɚ ɩɨɞɢɡɚʃɟ ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɇɢɤɨɥɟ Ɍɟɫɥɟ. D. ɡɧɚɦɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɨɧ ɛɢɨ ɡɚɨɤɭɩʂɟɧ ɫɢɥɚɦɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ. Ȼɟɤɯɚɪɞ. F.ȳȿɅȿɇȺ ɆɂɅɈȽɊȺȾɈȼ-ɌɍɊɂɇ. Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɢɫɬɢɱɟ ɞɚ “ɦɭ ɧɨɜɚɰ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɧɢɲɬɚ. ɨɞɟʂɚɤ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧ ɫɬɜɚɪɚɥɚɱɤɢ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɤ . ɨɫɢɦ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɨ ɫɟ ɢ ɡɚ ɭɦɟɬɧɢɱɤɟ ɜɢɡɢʁɟ ɨ ɫɜɟɬɭ. ɋɅɈȻɈȾȺɇ ɇɂɇɄɈȼɂȶ ɢ ɊȺȾɈɆɂɊ ȭɈɊȭȿȼɂȶ ɩɨʁɚɜɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɟ ɤɚɨ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɫɚɧɚ ɟɦɢɫɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɨʁ ʁɟ ɡɚɫɧɨɜɚɧɚ ɫɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɥɚɫɟɪɫɤɚ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ. 60. ɧɢ ɞɨ ʃɟɝɨɜɢɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞʃɢɯ ɞɚɧɚ ɧɢʁɟ ɧɚɩɭɲɬɚɥɚ ɢɞɟʁɚ “ɤɨɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢʁɟ ɫɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɫɜɟɬɨɜɢɦɚ”. ɧɟɝɨ ʁɟ ɫɚɦɨ ʃɟɝɨɜ ɬɟɤɫɬ ɛɢɨ ɩɪɨɱɢɬɚɧ. “Planetary and Solar Radio Emission at 11 Meters Wavelength”. ɬɟ ɢ ɡɛɨɝ ɬɨɝɚ ɝɚ ɱɟɫɬɨ ɧɢɫɭ ɫɯɜɚɬɚɥɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɭ ɝɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜʂɚɥɢ ɤɚɨ ɱɭɞɚɤɚ ɢ ɱɚɪɨɛʃɚɤɚ. Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɫɩɨɦɟɧɢɰɚ ɩɨɜɨɞɨɦ 80 ɝɨɞɢɲʃɢɰɟ. ɜɢɞ. Ɉɜɞɟ ɬɪɟɛɚ ʁɨɲ ɞɨɞɚɬɢ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɦɨɝɭʄɟ ɞɚ ʁɟ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɭ ɟɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢɦɚ ɤɨʁɟ ʁɟ ɨɛɚɜʂɚɨ ɭ ɫɜɨʁɢɦ ɧɚʁɛɨʂɢɦ ɝɨɞɢɧɚɦɚ (ɤɪɚʁɟɦ XIX ɢ ɩɨɱɟɬɤɨɦ XX ɜɟɤɚ) ɨɬɤɪɢɨ ɪɟɧɞɝɟɧɫɤɟ ɡɪɚɤɟ ɢ ɤɨɫɦɢɱɤɨ ɡɪɚɱɟʃɟ.. ɍ ɜɟɡɢ ɫ ɬɢɦ Ɍɟɫɥɚ ɩɨɦɢʃɟ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɨɝ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɚ ȹ. Ɉɧ ʁɟ ɛɢɨ ɜɟɨɦɚ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧ. B. 232 .: 1955. Burke. Ⱥ. Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ. ɞɨɧɟɤɥɟ. ɍɜɨɞ ɭ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢʁɭ ɮɢɡɢɤɟ. ɫɚʃɚʁɭʄɢ ɞɚ ɢɯ ɭɩɨɡɧɚ ɢ ɫɬɚɜɢ ɭ ɫɥɭɠɛɭ ʂɭɞɢ (ȭɨɪɻɟɜɢʄ. ɀɢɜɟɨ ʁɟ. ɢɡ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɢɯ ɫɩɢɫɚ.: 2004. ɩɪɟɜɨɞ Ⱥ.ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ". K. Ɋ. ɛɟɡ ɨɛɡɢɪɚ ɤɚɤɨ ɫɚ ɞɚɧɚɲʃɟ ɬɚɱɤɟ ɝɥɟɞɢɲɬɚ ɢɡɝɥɟɞɚʁɭ ɨɜɢ ɩɪɨʁɟɤɬɢ. Ƚɟɧɢʁɟ ɟɥɟɤɬɪɢɰɢɬɟɬɚ ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ. ɧɟɝɨ ɞɚ ʁɟ ɭ ɩɢɬɚʃɭ ɜɟɥɢɤɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɚ ɱɚɫɬ ɡɚ ɤɨʁɭ ʁɟ ɛɟɡɦɚɥɨ ɜɨʂɚɧ ɞɚ ɞɚ ɫɜɨʁ ɠɢɜɨɬ”. “Observations of a Variable Radio Source Associated with the Planet Jupiter”.ɤɨɧɮɟɪɢɲɟ" ɨ ɨɜɨʁ ɡɚɦɢɫɥɢ. Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ. 266/274. Ɂɚɧɢɦʂɢɜɨ ʁɟ ɢ ʁɟɞɧɨ Ɍɟɫɥɢɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɚɜɚʃɟ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɭ ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɭ ɡɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɬɚʃɟ ɭɫɟʂɟɧɢɤɚ. Journal of Geophysical Research. Ɇɚɪɢɧɱɢʄ. ɤɥɭɛ . ɭ ɧɟɤɨɦ ɫɜɨɦ ɫɜɟɬɭ. Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ. ɩɪɟɞɝɨɜɨɪ ɢ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢʁɚ ɩɪɟɜɨɞɚ Ⱥ. 46. 213-217. E. ɤɚɨ ɫɜɨɝ ɩɪɢʁɚɬɟʂɚ ɫɚ ɤɨʁɢɦ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ . ɏɟʁɥɚ (G. Kraus.ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɢɯ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɤɢɯ ɨɬɤɪɢʄɚ. ȿ.

“Nikola Tesla And The Planetary Radio Signals”. 119-126. ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ . L.ɇɂɄɈɅȺ ɌȿɋɅȺ ɂ ȺɋɌɊɈɇɈɆɂȳȺ Ɉ'ɇɢɥ. relevant also in astronomy so that. ɇɢɤɨɥɚ Ɍɟɫɥɚ (1856-1943). Tomiü. 1996.: 1998.. ȹ. no doubt. A. Radio Astronomy.: 1951.. Ɇɭɡɟʁ ɇɢɤɨɥɟ Ɍɟɫɥɟ. Penguin Books. a comment on his work from this perspective becomes necessary. N. Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ. No. “Signals to Mars Based on Hope of Life on Planet”. Publ. ɜɢɞɟɬɢ ɬɚɤɨɻɟ ɢ ɤɚɫɧɢʁɚ ɢɡɞɚʃɚ.. October 17. ɐɜɟɪɚɜɚ. F. Corum K. Ʉɥɭɛ ɇɢɤɨɥɟ Ɍɟɫɥɟ. B.com).: 1960. A Pelican Book. S. very large. London. “Nikola Tesla: The Moon s Rotation” .: 1993.ɉɪɨɫɜɟɬɚ". 44. in our opinion. Obs.. in some way. The Fifth International Tesla Conference “Tesla III Millennium”. Smith F. NIKOLA TESLA AND ASTRONOMY During 2006 the 150th anniversary from the birth of Nikola Tesla is celebrated throughout the world. His field of interest was.G. Ɍhɟ NY Herald. Astron. F.ɧɟɧɚɞɦɚɲɧɢ ɝɟɧɢʁɟ.: 1919. (www.: 1996. PV Scientific. Corum J. L. Belgrade. Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ Corum K. “Nikola Tesla And The Electrical Signals Of Planetary Origin”.arcsandɫparɤs. 233 . Belgrade. Ʉ. Some ideas of Nikola Tesla are. Ƚ. Tesla. .: 1996. Jovanoviü. October 15-19. Corum J.

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