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Anthony Giddens Anthony 8 Born January Giddens 1938 (age 75) in 2004 London, England University Institutions Sociology Fields

British Nationality England Residence of Leicester University of Cambridge London Alma University mater School of Hull of Economics (BA) London School of Economics (MA) University of theory Structuration Known for Cambridge (PhD) The Third Way Risk society Weber  Influences Durkheim  Sch?tz  Merton  Goffman  Parsons  L?vi-Strauss  Elias  Habermas  Archer  Influenced sky  Anthony Dilthey  Giddens, Barley Beck Baron Bauman Giddens (born 8 January 1938) is a British sociologist wh o is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern socie ties. He is considered to be one of the most prominent modern sociologists, the author of at least 34 books, published in at least 29 languages, issuing on aver age more than one book every year. In 2007, Giddens was listed as the fifth most -referenced author of books in the humanities.[1][2] Three notable stages can be identified in his academic life. The first one invol ved outlining a new vision of what sociology is, presenting a theoretical and me thodological understanding of that field, based on a critical reinterpretation o f the classics. His major publications of that era include Capitalism and Modern Social Theory (1971) and New Rules of Sociological Method (1976). In the second stage Giddens developed the theory of structuration, an analysis of agency and structure, in which primacy is granted to neither. His works of that period, suc h as Central Problems in Social Theory (1979) and The Constitution of Society (1 984), brought him international fame on the sociological arena. The most recent stage concerns modernity, globalization and politics, especially the impact of modernity on social and personal life. This stage is reflected by his critique of postmodernity, and discussions of a new "utopian-realist"[3] th ird way in politics, visible in the Consequences of Modernity (1990), Modernity and Self-Identity (1991), The Transformation of Intimacy (1992), Beyond Left and Right (1994) and The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy (1998). Giddens ' ambition is both to recast social theory and to re-examine our understanding o f the development and trajectory of modernity. Giddens served as Director of the London School of Economics 1997 2003, where he i s now Emeritus Professor. Contents * 1 Biography * 2 Work o 2.1 Overview o 2.2 The nature of sociology o 2.3 Structuration o 2.4 Connections between micro and macro o 2.5 Self-identity o 2.6 Modernity o 2.7 The Third Way * 3 Outside consultancies * 4 Theory of 'reflexitivity' * 5 Select bibliography * 6 References o 6.1 Video clips * 7 Further reading * 8 External links o 8.1 Selected interviews Biography Giddens was born and raised in Edmonton, London, and grew up in a lower-middle-c lass family, son of a clerk with London Transport; he attended Minchenden School .[4] He was the first member of his family to go to university. Giddens received his undergraduate academic degree (in joint sociology and psychology) at Hull U niversity in 1959, followed by a Master's degree at the London School of Economi cs. He later gained a PhD at King's College, Cambridge. In 1961, he started work ing at the University of Leicester where he taught social psychology. At Leicest


Giddens also holds 15 honorary degrees from various un iversities. it was Giddens whose "third way" political approach has been Tony Blair's guiding polit ical idea. From 1997 to 2003. In 1969. of Southgate in the London Borough of Enfield and sits in the H ouse of Lords for Labour. He is cofounder of Polity Press (1985). support ing the centre-left Labour Party with media appearances and articles (many of wh ich are published in New Statesman). He was given a life peerage in June 2004. He was also an adviser to former British Prime Minister Tony Blair. a sub-unit of the Faculty of Economics. he was director of the London School of Economi cs and a member of the Advisory Council of the Institute for Public Policy Resea considered to be one of the seedbeds of British sociology he met Norbert Elia s and began to work on his own theoretical position. a s Baron Giddens. He has been a vocal participant in British political debates. where he later helped create the So cial and Political Sciences Committee (SPS now PPSIS). he was appointed t o a position at the University of Cambridge. Giddens worked for many years at Cambridge as a fellow of King's College and was eventually promoted to a full professorship in 1987.[5] Work Overview * Theory Outline Sociology * Positivism History * Antipositivism * Functionalism * Conflict theories * Middle-range * Mathematical * Critical theory * Socialization Research * Structure Quantitative methods and agency * Qualitative * Historical * Computational * Ethnographic * Change Topics Network-analytic * Cities * Class * Crime * Culture * Development * Deviance * Demography * Education * Economy * Environment * Family * Gender * Health * Industry * Internet * Knowledge * Law * Literature * Medicine * Mobility * Movements * Networks * Organizations * Politics * Race & ethnicity * Religion .

but in his analysis he rejects both of those approaches. with the exception of research design and methods. claiming that hu man social actors are always to some degree knowledgeable about what they are do ing. not automatic evolutionary response. psychology * Portal Browse Stratification * List of sociologists * List of criminologists * v Article index * t * e Giddens. He also noted the existence of a specific form of a social cycle: once sociological concepts are formed. insofar as str ucture He contrasted is produced Durkheim and with reproduced Weber's inapproach what people interpretative do". most of Giddens' writings offered critical commentary on a wide ran ge of writers. Social order is therefore a result of some pre-planned social actions. defining sociology as: "the study of social institutions brought into being by the industrial transform ation In Newof Rules the of past Sociological two or three Method centuries. invented by Durkheim. they filter back into ever yday world and change the way people think." (1976) (the title of which alludes to Durkhe im's Rules of the Sociological Method of 1895).. interpretive and dialectical relationship between social scientific k . philosophy. In New Rules. but also makes it possible.[7] sociology focused on understanding agency and motives of individuals. economics. treated society as a reality unto itself. has both a structural and an agency-component. he is also known for his interdisciplinary approach: he has commented not on ly on the developments in sociology. In view of his knowledge and works. Giddens took a stance against the then-do minant structural functionalism (represented by Talcott Parsons. linguistics. unlike natural scientists. ignoring the meanings as understood b y individuals. Because social actors are reflexive and monitor the ongoing flow of activities and structural conditions. history. schools and traditions. which a ttempted to predict how societies operate. he examined the work of Weber. His writings range from abstract. which is the principal unit of investigation. According to Giddens there is a "Duality of structure" by which social pr actice. he noted that the functionalist approach . modernity and institutions.[6] Rather he uses the logic of hermeneutic tradition (from interpretative sociology ) to argue for the importance of agency in sociological theory. arguing that despite their different approaches each was concerned wit h the link between capitalism and social life. He rejected Durkheim's sociological positivism paradigm. the author of over 34 books and 200 articles. as well as criticizing evolutionism and historical materialism. stating tha t while society is not a collective reality. essays and reviews. Durkheim and Marx. have t o interpret a social world which is already interpreted by the actors that inhab it it. Final ly. archaeology. Sociologists. In Capi talism and Modern Social Theory (1971). As a result. He has written comment aries on most leading schools and figures and has used most sociological paradig ms in both micro and macrosociology. social scientific knowledge of society will actually change human activities. they adapt their actions to their evolving understandings. and that form only has effects on people. political science. psyc hology. Giddens is closer to Weber tha n Durkheim. exponent of Max Weber). nor should the individual be treate d as the central unit of analysis. metatheor etical problems to very direct and 'down-to-earth' textbooks for students. social work and most recent ly. one may view much of his life's work as a form of 'grand synthesis' of sociological theory. The nature of sociology Before 1976. Giddens emphasised the social con structs of power. not reducible to individuals.* Science * Soc. but also in anthropology..[6] Giddens noted: "Society only has form. Giddens calls this t wo-tiered. has c ontributed and written about most notable developments in the area of social sci ences. The structural environment constrains individual behaviour. Giddens attempted to explain 'ho w sociology should be done' and addressed a long-standing divide between those t heorists who prioritise 'macro level' studies of social life looking at the 'big picture' of society and those who emphasise the 'micro level' what everyday lif e means to individuals.

Structures are then ". the universe is bein g constituted or produced by the active doings of subjects. * The production and reproduction of society thus has to be treated as a skilled performance on the part of its members.. * The sociological observer cannot make social life available as 'phenomenon' fo r observation independently of drawing upon his knowledge of it as a resource wh ereby he constitutes it as a 'topic for investigation'. the transformative capacity of people to change the social and material world.sets of rules and resources that individual actors draw upon in the practices that reproduce social systems "[11] (Politics. In Giddens own words (from New rules. * Sociological concepts thus obey a double hermeneutic."[10] as consisting of rules and resources involv ing human action: the rules constrain the actions.[8] In New Rules. maintained and changed through actions... which is means to ends.). He eschews extreme positions . norms and power. the primary tasks of sociological analysis are the following: (1) The hermeneutic explication and mediation of divergent forms of life within descript ive metalanguages of social science. * Immersion in a form of life is the necessary and only means whereby an observe r is able to generate such characterizations. His ideas find an echo in th e philosophy of the modernist poet Wallace Stevens who suggests that we live in the tension between the shapes we take as the world acts upon us. Systems display struct ural properties but are not structures themselves. this means that people make society. and not under conditions of their own choosi ng. Giddens specifically wrote[9] that: * Sociology is not about a 'pre-given' universe of objects. S ociology and Social Theory) and "systems of generative rules and sets.. * The realm of human agency is bounded. At a basic level. * Processes of structuration involve an interplay of meanings. and hence is directly involved in the actions of every person.. structure and agency are a duality that cannot be conceived of apart from one a nother and his main argument is contained in his expression "duality of structur e". but they do so as historically located actors. see Theory of structuration. exi . Individuals produce society. (2) Explication of the production and repro duction of society as the accomplished outcome of human agency.nowledge and human practices the "double hermeneutic". the resources make it possibl e. is closely shaped by knowledge and space-time. b ut also as enablers. they nonetheless are the agency which reproduc es the social structure and leads to social change. He also differentiates between systems and structures.. while actions are given meaningful form only through the background of the structure: the line of causality runs in both directions making it impossible to determine what is chan ging what. Giddens also stressed the importance of power.) : "social structures are both constituted by human agency. and the ideas of order that our imagination imposes upon the world."[10] systems is called structuration. arguing that although people are not entirely free to choose their own actions . Giddens writes that the co nnection between structure and action is a fundamental element of social theory. Giddens' theory of structuration explores the question of whether it is individu als or social forces that shape our social reality. System s here mean to Giddens "the situated activities of human agents"[10] (The Consti tution of Society. through the application of generative rules and resources is produ ced and This process reproduced of structures in social (re)producing interaction.). Power. Structuration For more details on this topic. * Structures must be conceptualized not only as constraints upon human agency. * In sum. and their knowledge is limited. but are at the same t ime constrained by it. as st ructures are created. He notes in his article Funct ionalism: apr?s la lutte (1976) that: "To examine the structuration of a social system is to examine the modes whereby that system. Action and structure cannot be analysed separately.) and "the patterning of social relations across space-time"[1 0] (ibid. and yet at the same tim e are In this the regard very he medium defines of this structures constitution. implicate d in the articulation of social systems"[10] (The Constitution of Society.

one of individuals' internal sense of self and identity. but at the same time it is usually broader than those we would expe . ones that they have learned through socialisation and experience. women's liberation and egalitarian ism). mor al codes.. actors (agents) employ the social rules appropriate to their culture. The media do not merely reflect the social world but also activel y shape it.[6] In order to illustrate this relationship. but the movements usually grow out of everyday li fe grievances a micro-scale phenomenon.[6] But the structure also provides rules that allow new actions to occ ur. as the relat ionship becomes a reflexive project that has to be interpreted and maintained. These levels should not be treated as unconnecte d. Consider the example of language: structure of la nguage is represented by the rules of syntax that rule out certain combinations of words. one of our main providers o f information. change caused by different practices and changing attitu des on the level of everyday lives (micro). which offers vast new opportunities for investment and development. which creates new opportunities but also more work. but can be changed. and other sets of expectations established ways of doing things) are g enerally quite stable. Practices and attitudes in turn can be affected by social movements (for example. consider the exa mple of a family: we are increasingly free to choose our own mates and how to re late with them.] The range of lifestyles or lifestyle ideals offered by the media may be limited. but crises like the Asian fin ancial crisis can affect the entire world. Social relationships and visible sexuality (mic ro-level change) are related to the decline of religion and the rise of rational ity (macro-level change). replace them. but as enabling. Y et this micro-level change cannot be explained only by looking at the individual level as people did not spontaneously change their minds about how to live. but it also enables action by provi ding common frames of meaning. but also with changes in the laws relating to marriage and sexuality (macro). These rules togeth er with the resources at their disposal are used in social interactions.[6] All of this is increasingly tied in with mass media. consider the example of globalization. Structure can act as a constraint on action.[6] Structures should not be conceived as "simply placing constrains upon human agency.[12] He claims that any effort to explain this phenomenon solely in terms of micro or macro level causes will result in a circular cause and consequence. enabling us to create new. Giddens discusses changing attitudes t owards marriage in developed countries.. independent of the context in which they a re created.) Giddens suggests that structures (traditions. in fact they have significant relation to one another. Connections between micro and macro Structuration is very useful in synthesizing micro and macro issues. Structuratio n therefore means that relations that took shape in the structure. On a macro scale.). An example is the relationship between a teacher and a student: when they come across each other in another context. institutions. Thus. nei ther can we assume they were directed to do so by social institutions and the st ate. but are applied refl exively by knowledgeable actors. the outcome of action is not totally predictable.sting virtually "out of time and out of space"[10] (New rules.. Gender and Identity that: "The importance of the media in propagating many modern lifestyles should be obv ious.."[9] (New rules. [.... albeit that actors awareness may be limited to t he specifics of their activities at any given time. On a micro scale. Thus. when people start to ignore them. a macro-scale phenomena. especially through the unintended con sequences of action. A serious explanation of such issues must lie somewhere within the net work of macro and micro forces. the hierarch y between them is still preserved. meaningful sentences. or reproduc e them differently. and last but not least directly influences ind ividuals.[6] David Gauntlett writes in Me dia. spreading far outside the local setti ng in which they first developed. being central to modern reflexivity. can exist "ou t of time and place": in other words. say on the street.. Rules a nd resources employed in this manner are not deterministic. one of the state and social organizations like multinational c apitalist corporations.

maintain and revise a set of biographical narratives. nor important though this is in the reactions of others. which Gid dens (The Transformation of Intimacy) links with the rise of the 'narrative of t he self' type of self-identity: "Romantic love introduced the idea of a narrativ e into an individual's life. but also offers narrow interpretations of cert ain roles Another example or lifestyles explored by depending Giddens is where theyou emergence look. Liberating in the sense of increasing the likelihood of one's self-fulfillment. a Modernity ll of us answer. 1999). either discursively or through day-to-day social behaviour. but is based on the internal understanding between two people a t rusting bond based on emotional communication. on some level or another. But increased choice can be both liberating and troubling. At the same time we are faced with dangers related to unintended consequences of our actions and by our reliance on the knowledge of experts. We create. modern and late (high) modern societies and doesn't dispute that important changes have occurred but takes a neutral stance towards those c hanges. traditional societies w e would be provided with that narrative and social role. social roles and lifestyles the story of who we are.and macro-level forces. and sort them into the ong More oing than 'story' ever about before thewe self. produced by the extension of the sam e social forces that shaped the previous age."[7] Giddens' recent work has been concerned with the question of what is characteris tic about social institutions in various points of history."[6][7] have access to information that allows us to reflect on the causes and consequences of our actions. Giddens agrees that there are very specific changes that mark our current era. While in earlier. Romanticism. but argues that it is not a "post-modern era". Giddens nonetheless differentiates between pre-modern. Thus w e have 'a democracy of the emotions in everyday life' (Runaway World. in the post-traditional society we are usually forced to create one ourselves. but just a "radicalised modernity era" (similar to Zyg munt Bauman's concept of liquid modernity). Consider also the transformation of intimacy. and troubl ing in form of increased emotional stress and time needed to analyse the availab le choices and minimise risk of which we are increasingly aware (what Giddens su ms up as "manufacturing uncertainty"). but an account of a person's life. It is not a quality of a moment. As Giddens (Modernity an d Self-Identity: 70) puts it: "What to do? How to act? Who to be? These are focal questions for everyone livin g in circumstances of late modernity and ones which. The individual's biography. So the media in modernity offers possib ilities and celebrates diversity. Where such a bond ceases to exist . Self-identity Giddens says that in the post-traditional order. It's jus . if she is to maintain regular interaction w ith others in the day-to-day world. modern society is generally happy for the relationship to be dissolved. He also stresses that we haven't really gone beyond modernity. self-identity is reflexive. cannot be wholly fictive. saying that it offers both unprecedented opportunities and unparalleled dangers. but in the capacity to keep a particular narrativ e going.ct to just 'bump into' in everyday life. and how we came to be where we are now. It must continuall y integrate events which occur in the external world. the 18th and 19t h century European macro-level cultural movement is responsible for the emergenc e of the novel a relatively early form of mass media. Giddens concludes that all social change stems from a mixture of mic ro. so that the bond between partners e ven within a marriage has little to do with external laws."[13] Although history of sex clearly demonstrates t hat passion and sex are not modern phenomena. regulations or social expectations. Giddens writes (Modernity and Self-Identity: 54) that "A person's identity is not to be found in behaviour. We are increasingly free to choose what we want to do a nd who we want to be (although Giddens contends that wealth gives access to more options). the discourse of romantic love is said to have developed from the late 18th century."[6] of romantic love. The growing literacy and p opularity of novels fed back into the mainstream lifestyle and the romance novel proliferated the stories of ideal romantic life narratives on a micro-level.[7] Inevitably. Giddens asserts that intimate soci al relationships have become 'democratised'. gi ving the romantic love an important and recognised role in the marriage-type rel ationship.

according to Giddens. with all the ir uncertainty. even i f he has never been there. and which transform constraints int o means. Another characteristic is enhanced reflexivity. etc.[6] In contrast. Thus the phenom ena that some have called 'postmodern' are to Giddens nothing more than the most extreme instances of a developed modernity. due to flexibility of law and public opinion. Another distinctive property of modernity lies in the field of kn owledge. One is from the actor himself. and they have more choices. endure.). or his further line of action. the other of the invest igator who tries to give meaning to the action he is observing. In this regard. it was the elders who possessed the knowledge: they wer e definable in time and space. but we must trust them. agents) are much less concerned with the precedent s set by earlier generations. The uncer tainty can however be managed. the social space is no longer confined by the boundaries set by the s pace in which one moves. In traditional societies.[6] This however means that individual actions now requir e more analysis and thought before they are taken. The problem is. we will never be able to influence its course. hold risks. For example. This is the reason that positive science. we know that something could go wrong: there's always a risk we have to take. This enhanced reflexivity wa s enabled as language became increasingly abstract with the transition from premodern to modern societies. and deny that there is a problem.[citation needed] is never possible in the social sciences: every time an investigator tries to i dentify causal sequences of action. 'late' modernity. Giddens concentrates on a contrast between traditional (pre-modern) culture and post-traditional (modern) culture. illustrating it with examples rang ing from state governance to intimate relationships. The actor who pe rforms the action. In this regard. but as long as the modern institutions. traditions. he endorses the term reflexive modernization as a more accurate descripti on of the processes associated with the second modernity. and therefore change his own interpretation. is that we are di sembedded from time and space. the juggernaut gets even more .t a developed. individual actions need not to be extensively thought about. Society is more reflexive and aware. time was the experience one had while moving.[6] Giddens examines three r ealms in particular: the experience of identity. because available choices are already predetermined (by the customs.[6] The most defining property of modernity. Also the technologies which we use. there is always a heightened sense of uncerta inty in contemporary societies. that conflicting viewpoints in social science r esult in a disinterest of the people. It is also in this regard that Giddens talks about "double hermeneutica": every action has two interpretations. In modern societies we must rely on expert system s. Humanity tries to steer it. Consequently. connections of intimacy and pol itical institutions. something Giddens is fascinated with. however. by 'reembedding' the expert-systems into the stru ctures which we are accustomed to. In pre-modern societies. people will withdraw from that arena. Even if we t rust them. space was the area in wh ich one moved. detraditionalized. In modern societies . in post-tradit ional society people (actors. both at the level of individuals and at the level of institutions. Therefore. becoming institutionalised into universities. however. It is also in this regard that Giddens uses the image of a 'juggernaut': modernity is said to be like an unsteerable juggernaut traveling through space. the more the sciences expand.[6] Along with Ulrich Beck and Scott Lash. when scientists don't agree a bout the greenhouse-effect. since it opposes itsel f (in its earlier version) instead of opposing traditionalism. radicalised. endangering the v ery institutions it created (such as the national state. the actors can change their further line of action. Giddens talks about virtual space and virtual time. can get to know the interpretation of the investigat or. One can now imagine what other spaces look like. The latter requires an explanation: in modern institutions there is always a component which studies the institutions themsel ves for the purpose of enhancing its effectiveness. however. according to Giddens. These are not present in time and space. In pre-modern societies. the more uncertaint y there is in the modern society. the political parties o r the nuclear family).

the separation of th e political and economic spheres. property freely alienable as capital. 4. industrialism. There exists no necessary overall mechanism of social change. where globalising influences intrude deeply into the reflexive project of the self. While class conflict is integral to capitalist society. the politi cal science is being transformed. accept that active trust implies generative politics 4. via the "democratisation of democracy". confront violence . h as radically altered the existential parameters of social activity. which places people into new relations of trust and dependency with each oth er and their governments. Anthony Giddens Modernity and self-identity. or periodization. Life politics concern s political issues which flow from processes of self-actualisation in post-tradi tional contexts. where that refl exivity links self and body to systems of global scope . no universal mo tor of history such as class conflict. 2. addresses a r eflexive reality. there is no teleology that guarantees the emergence of the working class as the universal class and n o ontology that justifies denial of the multiple bases of modern society represe nted by capitalism. recognize the centrality of life politics 3. of social development. In his most recent works. rethink the welfare state 6.[10] Giddens. as a result of many factors. Sociology. repair damaged solidarities 2. surveillance and industria lization of warfare. 3. life politics is a po litics of lifestyle. Giddens moves away from explaining how things are to t he more demanding attempt of advocacy about how they ought to be. [14] In A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. that new social movemen ts may lead to more social change than political parties. most centrally the absenc e of a clear alternative to capitalism and the eclipse of political opportunitie s based on the social class in favour of those based on lifestyle choices.steerless. and conversely where processes of self-realisation influenc e global strategies. Pre-capitalist societies are class-divided. but only with capitalism are ther e class societies in which there is endemic class conflict.. relying on his past familiar themes of reflexivity and system integrati on. Societies do not have needs other than those of individuals. In "Beyond Lef t and Right" (1994) Giddens criticizes market socialism and constructs a six poi nt framework for a reconstituted radical politics:[10] 1. to a new era of Habermasian "dialogic democracy" in which differences are settled. so notions such as adaptation cannot properly be applied to them. as a subject concerned pre-eminently with modernity. 5. embrace dialogic democracy 5. While emancipatory politics is a politics of life chances. bureaucratisation. The Third Way In the age of late and reflexive modernity and post scarcity economy. and that the reflexive project of the self and changes in gender and sexual relations may lead the way . through disc ourse rather than violence or the commands of authority. 6. Giddens concludes[10] that : 1. It is a poli tics of self-actualisation in a reflexively ordered environment. and practices ordered.. as well as by human agency and the inherent "histor icity" of societies. Life politics is the politics of a reflexively mobilised or der the system of late modernity which. There are no universal stages. and "fre e" labour and labour markets. on an individual and collective level. Giddens notes that there is a possibility that "life politics" (the politics of self-actualisation) may become more visible th an "emancipatory politics" (the politics of inequality). argues that the political concepts of 'left' and 'righ t' are now breaking down. these being ruled out by intersocietal systems and "time-space edges" (the ever-prese nce of exogenous variables). Self and society in the late modern age 1991.

which Giddens also terms the 'radical centre'[15] . He makes many intelligent and perceptive points.[16] where he argued that the country had been dramatically t ransformed.[10] (The Consequences of Modernity). In addition. The Th ird Way supplies a broad range of policy proposals aimed at what Giddens calls t he 'progressive centre-left' in British politics. academics and contemporary thinkers who will have interest in publishing papers and articles o n Libya . the more entitlemen ts are given to the citizens. a high-ranking Libyan official in July 2006.[16] Giddens' first visit to Libya resulted in articles in the New Statesman. We are delighted that after a number of conversations. and by 'realist ic' he stresses that this idea is rooted in the existing social processes and ca n be viewed as their simple extrapolation... "You usually get about half an ho ur with a political leader. that Libya's government engaged Monitor Group as advisor on mat ters of public relations. Moni tor Group organized a panel of "three thinkers" Giddens. McWorld chaired by Sir David Frost. Information gathering is known as the concept of 'individuation. however. Instead he advocates going after the 'small picture s'. Lord Giddens has now accepted our invitation to visit Libya in July.[10] the future of humanity: "There is no single agent. demilitarised and planetary-caring global world order variously ar ticulated within green. Monitor Group." he recalls. He likes t he term 'third way because his own political philosophy is a version of this idea . I leave enlivened and encoura ged. Gaddafi is relaxed and clearly enjoys intellectual conversation. In a letter to Abdullah Senussi.' Individua lity comes as a result of individuation as people are given more 'informed choic es.' The more information the government has about a person. transformations in p ersonal remains Giddens life andfairly our relationship optimistic about to nature". Mo nitor Group reported that: We will create a network map to identify significant figures engaged or interest ed in Libya today .[10] Outside consultancies Main article: LSE Gaddafi links On two visits to Libya in 2006 and 2007.[17] Giddens remarked of his meetings with Gaddafi. "My conversation lasts for more than th ree." Theory of 'reflexitivity' Giddens introduces 'reflexivity' and in information societies. but there are many points of polit ical engagement which offer good cause for optimism".. Saif Gaddafi is a drivi ng force behind the rehabilitation and potential modernisation of Libya. In the New Statesman he wrote: "Gaddafi's 'conversion' may have been driven partly by the wish to escape sanctions. author of Jihad vs.[10] (Beyond Left and Right Giddens discards the possibility of a single. information gathe ring is considered as a routinized process for the greater protection of the nat ion. By 'utopian' he means that this is something new and extraordinary. Monitor Group allegedly received 2 million pounds in r eturn for undertaking a "cleansing campaign" in order to improve Libya's image. El Pa?s and La Repubblica. This. ones people can directly affect at their home. organized by the Boston-based consultan cy firm. all-connecting ideo ) logy or political programme. as Marx's proletariat was sup posed to do. comprehensive. is authorising these processes. Giddens met with Muammar al-Gaddafi.The Third Way (1998) provides the framework within which the 'third way' . Gaddafi.' singling out individuals that are suspic .. and Benjamin B arber. to Giddens."[16] During the second visit. According to Giddens: "the overall aim of third way politics should be to help citizens pilot their wa y through the major revolutions of our time: globalisation.[3] which he defines as envisaging "alternative futures whose very pr opagation might help them be realised". Gaddafi Sr. Such a future has at its centre a mor e socialized. We will identify and encourage journalists. and within the wider democr atic movement. is a difference between pointless utopianism and useful utopi an realism.[16] The Guardian reporte d in March 2011. workplace or local community. women's and peace movements. but I get the strong sense it is authentic and there is a lot of motive power behind it. can carry the hopes of justified. The process of information gathering helps governm ent to identify 'enemies-of-the-state. group or movement that. Giddens has decline d to comment on the financial compensation he received.

Select bibliography Anthony Giddens is the author of over 34 books and 200 articles. * Giddens. Anthony (1977) Studies in Social and Political Theory. Anthony (1976) New Rules of Sociological Method: a Positive Critique of interpretative Sociologies. 43. Ulrich & Giddens. Anthony & Mackenzie. * Giddens. * Giddens. * Giddens. * Giddens.) (2000) On The Edge. Anthony (1979) Central problems in Social Theory : Action. With the development of ICT. Sociology and Social Theory: Encounters with Classical and Contemporary Social Thought. Essays in Honour of Ilya Neustadt. In other words. Hence. This is a selec tion of some of the most important of his works: * Giddens. Will & Giddens. Structure an d Contradiction in Social Analysis. Cambridge : Cambridge University P ress.) (1982) Social Class and the Divisio n of Labour. Vol . Power. the military relied o n armed force to deal with threats. Cambridge: Polity. * Giddens. Anthony (1994) Beyond Left and Right Cambridge : Polity. Gavin (Eds. An Analysis of th e writings of Marx. Anthony (1971) Capitalism and Modern Social Theory. * Giddens. Durkheim and Max Weber. biometric scans . 2. real time programs and other related intelligent program s have made the identification of terrorist activities much easier compared to t he past. Property and the State. Cambridge : Polity. * Giddens. the Future of Radical Politics. The Nation State and Violence. Cambri dge : Polity. language translation. Historically. . Love and Er oticism in Modern Societies. 1. * Giddens. Scott (1994) Reflexive Modernization. London : Macmillan. Anthony (1995) Politics. * Giddens. * Giddens. London : Hutchin son. the collection of information is necessary as 'stringent safeguards' for the protection of the nation. The Renewal of Social Democracy. surveillance and ICT goes hand-in -hand with information gathering. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . London : Macmil lan.ious of plotting activities against the state. Anthony (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Anthony (1992) The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality. Anthony & Lash. Social Research. London : Fontana Modern Masters. Anthony (1982) Profiles and Critiques in Social Theory. * Giddens. Anthony (1985) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. Anthony (1973) The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies. * Giddens. Anthony (1998) The Third Way. Anthony (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. London : Hutchinson. Cambridge : Polity. Anthony (1996) Durkheim on Politics and the State. * Hutton. Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Cambridge: Polity. London : Profile. Anthony (1999) Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping Our Live s. Anthony (1984) The Constitution of Society. prevent ing it from imminent attacks. Anthony (1976) Functionalism: apres la lutte. * Giddens. * Giddens. The advent of technology has brou ght national security to complete new level. London : Hutchinson. Anthony (1996) In Defence of Sociology. Anthony (1978) Durkheim. Politics. Cambridge : Polity (publisher). * Beck. Outline of the Theory of Structuration. London : Vintage. 32 5-66 * Giddens. Cambridge : Polity. Data about citizens can be collected through identification and credential verification companies. Anthony (1982) Sociology: a Brief but Critical Introduction. The analyzing of algorithm patterns in biometric databases have given g overnment new leads. * Giddens. * Giddens. London : M acmillan. Cambridge: Polity. Anthony (Eds. London : Macmillan. Vol . Cambridge : Polity. * Giddens. Self and Society in the L ate Modern Age. Cambridge : Polity. Living with Global Capitalism. Anthony (1981) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. * Giddens. * Giddens.

Anthony (Ed. University of California Pr ess. ISSN 1527-5558. 1989. site by David Gaunt lett. * Giddens. Cambridge : Polity.* Giddens. David Jary. Shumway. ^ a b David Halpin. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Resources at Theory. Cambridge : Polity. 1998. Google Print 14. Palgrave Macmillan. New York: Routl edge. 1987. Anthony Giddens . * Giddens. Anthony (2002) Where Now for New Labour? Cambridge : Polity (publisher) . 2001. The Social Map & The Problem of Order: A Re-evaluation of Hom o Sociologicus . Blackwell Publishing. Conversations with Anthony Giddens. Routledge. John B. ^ a b c d Syal. The Guardian (London). A. * Giddens. Anthony (Ed. ISBN 1-4051-059 5-X. The Reith Lectures. ^ Giddens. Self and society in the late modern age' Cambridge (Polity Press). The Nation-State and Violence.How Labour Can Win Again. "Anthony Giddens' tr ip to see Gaddafi vetted by Libyan intelligence chief". 2003.63 4. Jeevan (5 March 2011). ^ Times Higher Education Most cited authors of books in the humanities. 44 46. online 12. ^ Mother Jones article Video clips The Great Debate: What is radical politics today? Discussion with Will Hutton an d Jonathan Pugh. * Giddens. Vasagar. ISBN 0-8147-9831-4. Cambridge : Polity. ^ LSE profile 6. Cambridge University Press. 2000 * Anthony Giddens. Stan . ^ Gill. 2007. and the Marriage Crisis. Cambridge : Polity. Times High er Education. Anthony (Ed. Bryant.) (2003) The Progressive Manifesto.) (2001) The Global Third Way Debate. December 2008 Further reading * Christopher G. ISBN 0-333-77904-5 * David Held. ^ a b Stjepan Mestrovic. Routledge. Media Gender and Identity. Cambridge : Polity. ISBN introduction to a social theorists. London: Profile. Modern Love: Romance. Anthony (2006) Sociology (Fifth Edition). 16. Google Print p. Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives. 'Modernity and self-identity. Rajeev. Anthony (2013) Sociology (Seventh Edition). 13. (2009) Giddens trumps Marx but French thinkers triumph. * Giddens. Anthony (1999). Anthony Giddens: The Last Modernist. New Ideas for the Cen tre-Left. Camb ridge : Polity. pp.). ^ Giddens. BBC. ^ Giddens. About Giddens' work on modernity and self-identity. London : Routledge. 214 15. 3. Anthony (1998). Anthony (2000) The Third Way and Its Critics. ^ David R. References 1. Bl ackwell. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m George Ritzer (ed. Cambridge : Polity * Giddens. Anthony (1991). Anthony (2009) The Politics of Climate Change. * Giddens. Anthony (2000) Runaway World. ISBN 978-0-7456-2267-1. Hope and Education: The Role of the Utopian Imagination. 1999. 26 March 2009 2. Social Theory of Modern Societies : Anthony Gidden s and his Critics. Google Print 8. p. ISBN 0-415-23368-2. 2002.7 Google Print 9. Christopher Pierson. ^ a b c d David Gauntlett. 2003. ^ "The Lecturer: Anthony Giddens". * Giddens. Theory & Science (2005). Anthony (2009) Sociology (Sixth Edition). ISBN 0 -415-18960-8. 26 March 2009. Cambridge : Polity * Giddens. ^ John 2003. * Giddens. Mr Brown . The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. J. Google Print 11. P olity Press. ISBN 0-415-09572-7. 5. Anthony (2007) Europe In The Global Age. Anthony (2007) Over to You. Thompson. Retrieved 2 009-11-24.47 Google Prinet 10.) (2005) The New Egalitarianism Cambridge : Polity. Intimacy. last accessed on 19 February 2006 7. NYU Press. ISBN 0-521-27855-4 * Lars Bo Kaspersen.The Contemporary Giddens : Social Theory in a Globalizing Age. Bone. Cambridge : Polity. Times Higher Education. p. ^ Anthony Giddens. * Giddens. The Blackwell Companion to Major Contemporary Social Theorists.

A starting-point in which Gidde ns explains his work and the sociological principles which underpin it in clear. elegant language. 1999. ISBN University Press. .