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Mathematical Methods CAS 3&4 (2012

)
July ‘Holidays’ revision work:
Remember: For all multiple choice questions, you have access to a CAS calculator As you work through these questions, make additions and adjustments to your bound book. 1. Study On:  StudyOn Practice VCE questions for: o Area of study 1 Functions & graphs  Topic 6 – Exponentials & Logs o Area of study 2 Algebra  Topic 3 – Logarithm and exponential laws o Area of study 3 Calculus  Topic 1 – Rates of change (Topics: 6, 7, 8)

Remember: You need to connect to your teacher on StudyOn using their email address: kanaan.issam.i@edumail.vic.gov.au pagon.theresa.t@edumail.vic.edu.au vanotterdyk.marcel.j@edumail.vic.gov.au 2. Essentials :     Copies of Questions are attached: Chapter 8 Chapter 9 – Chapter review Chapter 10 – Chapter review (Note: no need to do questions that are crossed out) Chapter 11 – Chapter review (Note: no need to do questions that are crossed out)

Go to sscmathematics.wikispaces.com and follow the links to the Yr 12 Methods page to find the following:  PDFs of the chapters above.  PDFs of fully worked solutions to all questions (If the solutions are not there when you check – please check later.) The ‘Yr 12 Maths Methods Study and Revision Program’ consists of 5 sessions as detailed below: Date Time Topic th Thurs 26 July 2012 3:30 - 5:00 p.m. Graphs and Functions Revision Thurs 2nd August 2012 Thurs 23rd August 2012 Thurs 30 August 2012 Thurs 13 September 2012
Note:
th th

3:30 - 5:00 p.m. 3:30 - 5:00 p.m. 3:30 - 5:00 p.m. 3:30 - 5:00 p.m.

Trig Functions & Graphs Revision Calculus Revision Probability Models Revision Exam strategies

- all sessions will be held in the theatre at VSSEC - a light afternoon tea will be available for participants from 3:30 – 4:00pm. - a CAS calculator must be brought to each session

Participants in the program are required to pay an amount of $25 to assist with the cost of photocopying, preparation of session notes and the provision of a light afternoon tea. Payment for the sessions must be made to the FINANCE OFFICE by Thursday 26 July 2012.
th

C H A P T E R

Revision

8

Revision of Chapters 1–7
8.1

Multiple-choice questions
1 The domain of the function whose graph is shown is: A B C D E (−3, 1] (−1, 3] [1, 3] [−1, 3) (−1, 3)
–1 y 1 0 –1 –2 –3 1 2 3 x

2 Which of the following sets of ordered pairs does not represent a function where y is the value of the function? 1 A {(x , y ): x = 2 y 2 , x ≥ 0} B {(x , y ): y = , x ∈ R \{0}} x D {(x , y ): y = 3x 2 + 7, x ∈ R } C {(x , y ): y = 2x 3 + 3, x ∈ R } E {(x , y ): y = e x − 1, x ∈ R } 1 is: 3 The implied (largest possible) domain for the function with the rule y = √ 2−x A R \{2} B (−∞, 2) C (2, ∞) D (−∞, 2] E R+ 4 If f (x ) = A x then f x −1 B −1 − 1 , in simplified form, is equal to: a a2 C 0 D 1−a 2x − 2, x ≥ 0 −2x − 2, x < 0

1 −1 − a

E

1 a+1

5 The graph shown has the equation: A y= x − 2, x > 0 −2x − 2, x ≤ 0 B y=

282

Chapter 8 — Revision of Chapters 1–7

283

C y= D y= E y=

x − 2, x > 0 −2x − 1, x ≤ 0 x + 2, x > 0 −2x − 2, x ≤ 0 x − 2, x > 0 −x − 2, x ≤ 0

y

Revision

–1

0 –1 –2

x 1 2

Wrong answer in text: E

6 If f : [0, 2␲ ] → R where f (x ) = sin 2x and g : [0, 2␲ ] → R where g (x ) = 2 sin x , then 3␲ is: the value of ( f + g ) 2 A 2 B 0 C −1 D 1 E −2

7 If f (x ) = 3x + 2 and g (x ) = 2x 2 , then f (g (3)) equals: C 56 D 144 E 29 √ 8 If f (x ) = 3x 2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 6 and g (x ) = 2 − x , x ≤ 2, the domain of f + g is: A [0, 2] B [0, 6] C ( −∞, 2] D R + ∪ {0} E [2, 6] A 36 B 20

9 If g (x ) = 2x 2 + 1 and f (x ) = 3x + 2, then the rule of the product function f g (x ) equals: A 2x 2 + 3x + 3 C 6x 3 + 3 E 6x 3 + 2 B 6x 3 + 4x 2 + 3x + 2 D 6x 3 + 2x 2 + 3
5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 x 1 2 3 4 5 y

10 The domain of the function whose graph is shown is: A B C D E [1, 5] (1, 5] (−2, 5] (1, 5) (−2, 5) B {x : −2 < x < 2} E R+

11 The implied domain for the function with equation y = A [2, ∞) D (−∞, 2]

√ 4 − x 2 is:

C [−2, 2]

12 The graph of the function with rule y = f (x ) is shown.

y 2 x

0 –2

2

4

(cont’d.)

284

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

Revision

Which one of the following graphs is the graph of the inverse of f ?

A
4 2 –2 0 –2

y

B
4 2

y

C
4 2

y

2 y

4

x

–2

0 –2

x
2 4

–2

0 –2

2

4

x

D
4 2 –2 0 –2

E
4 2
2 4

y

x

–2

0 –2

x 2 4

13 The graph shown has the rule: A y= B y= C y= D y= E y= (x − 2)2 , x ≥ 2 x − 3, x < 2 x − 2, x ≥ 2 x − 3, x < 2 (2 − x )2 , x ≥ 2 2x − 3, x < 2 (x − 2)2 , x < 2 2x − 3, x ≥ 2 (x − 2)2 , x ≥ 2 2x − 3, x < 2
–1

y

0

x
2

–3

14 The inverse, f −1 , of the function f : [2, 3] → R , f (x ) = 2x − 4 is: x +4 x B f −1 : [3, 2] → R , f −1 (x ) = A f −1 : [0, 2] → R , f −1 (x ) = + 4 2 2 1 1 D f −1 : [0, 2] → R , f −1 (x ) = C f −1 : [2, 3] → R , f −1 (x ) = 2x − 4 2x − 4 x +4 −1 [0 −1 E f : , 2] → R , f (x ) = 2 15 f is the function defined by f (x ) = that f ∗−1 exists, would be: A f ∗ : [−1, 1] → R , f ∗ (x ) = x2 1 , x ∈ R . A suitable restriction for f, f ∗ such +2 B f ∗ : R → R , f ∗ (x ) = 1 +2

1 x2 + 2

x2

Chapter 8 — Revision of Chapters 1–7

285

C E

1 +2 1 f ∗ : [−1, ∞) → R , f ∗ (x ) = 2 x +2 f ∗ : [−2, 2] → R , f ∗ (x ) = x2

D

f ∗ : [0, ∞) → R , f ∗ (x ) =

x2

1 +2

Revision

16 Let h : [a , 2] → R where h (x ) = 2x − x 2 . If a is the smallest real value such that h has an inverse function, h −1 , then a equals: 1 A −1 B 0 C 1 D −2 E 2 17 If f (x ) = 3x − 2, x ∈ R , then f −1 (x ) equals: 1 1 C (x − 2) D 3x + 6 B 3x + 2 A 3 3x − 2 18 The solution of the equation 2x = A 4 B −2 3x − 4 is: 2 C −8 1 (x + 2) 3

E

D 1

E 2
y

19 The graph shows: A B C D E y+2= x y = 2x − 2 y + 2x + 2 = 0 y = −2 x + 2 y−2= x

0 –1 –2

x
1

20 If

5 2(x − 1) x + 4 − = , then x equals: 3 2 6 21 7 C A 5 B 5 5

D 21

E 3

21 The equation of the line that passes through the points (−2, 3) and (4, 0) is: 1 C 2y + x = 4 B y =− x −2 A 2y = x + 4 2 1 D y = x −2 E 2y − x = 4 2

Not in MMCAS course

22 If the angle between the lines 2 y = 8x + 10 and 3x − 6 y = 22 is ␪ , then tan ␪ is best approximated by: A 1.17 B 1.40 C 2 D 0.86 E 1 4 x − 4 meets the x-axis at A and the y-axis at B. If O is the 5 origin, the area of the triangle OAB is: 2 1 C 10 square units B 9 square units A 3 square units 5 5 D 15 square units E 20 square units

23 The line with equation y =

y ) → (x + 3. ∞) C (2. y ) followed by a dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis 1 B a translation (x . y ) followed by a dilation of factor 3 from the y-axis D a translation (x .286 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Revision 24 If the equations 2x − 3 y = 12 and 3x − 2 y = 13 are simultaneously true. y ) followed by a dilation of factor 3 from the y-axis E a translation (x . A possible equation for this parabola is: A y = (x + 2)2 + 3 D y = (x − 2)2 + 3 B y = (x − 2)2 − 3 E y = 3 − (x + 2)2 C y = (x + 2)2 − 3 x 29 Which one of the following is an even function of x? Not in MMCAS course A D f (x ) = 3x + 1 f (x ) = −x 2 B E f (x ) = x 3 − x f (x ) = x 3 + x 2 C f (x ) = (1 − x )2 √ √ 30 The graph of y = 3 x + 2 can be obtained from the graph of y = x by: A a translation (x . 3). ∞) D [−2. y ) followed by a dilation of factor 3 from the y-axis √ 31 A function with rule f (x ) = 3 x − 2 + 1 has maximal domain: A (−∞. the x-coordinate of the point of intersection is: A −2 B −1 C 1 D 2 E 3 26 A possible equation for the graph shown is: y 1 A y−3= x −1 1 0 1 4 B y+3= 3 x +1 –1 1 C y−3= –2 x +1 –3 1 D y−4= x +1 –4 1 E y= −3 x −1 1 − 2 has the range given by: 27 The function given by f (x ) = x +3 A R \{−2} B R C R \{3} D R \{2} E R \{−3} 28 A parabola has its vertex at (2. y ) → (x + 2. y ) → (x − 2. ∞) . ∞) E [2. y ) → (x + 2. y ) → (x − 2. 2) B [1. then x + y equals: A −5 B −1 C 0 D 1 E 5 25 If the graphs of the relations 7x − 6 y = 20 and 3x + 4 y = 2 are drawn on the same pair of axes. y ) followed by a dilation of factor from the x-axis 3 C a translation (x .

4) y (3. f (x ) = A (3. then k equals: A −4 B −1 C 1 D 4 E 0 35 The quadratic equation whose roots are 5 and −7 is: A x 2 + 2x − 35 = 0 D x 2 − 12x − 35 = 0 B x 2 − 2x − 35 = 0 E −x 2 + 12x + 35 = 0 C x 2 + 12x − 35 = 0 36 If x 3 − 5x 2 + x + k is divisible by x + 1.Chapter 8 — Revision of Chapters 1–7 287 32 A possible equation of the graph shown is: √ A y =2 x −3+1 √ B y = −2 x − 3 + 1 √ C y = x −3+1 √ D y =− x −3+1 √ E y = −2 x − 3 + 2 33 The range of the function f : R \{2} → R . when P (x ) is divided by (x − 2) the remainder is: A 31 B 15 C 1 D −2 E −29 . ∞) E (4. ∞) 34 If 3x 2 + kx + 1 = 0 when x = 1. 1) Revision 0 x (4. 4) C [3. 4] B (−∞. 0) 3 + 4 is: (x − 2)2 D [4. then k equals: A −7 B −5 C −2 D 5 E 7 37 Which one of the following could be the equation of the graph shown? A B C D E y y y y y = x (x − 2)(x + 2) = −x (x + 2)(x − 2) = −(x + 2)2 (x − 2) = (x − 2)2 (x + 2) = x (x − 2)2 y –2 0 x 2 38 The graph shown is: A y + 2 = −2(x + 1)3 B y − 2 = 2(x − 1)3 C y = x3 + 2 1 D y = − (x + 1)3 + 2 2 E y = 2(x − 1)3 − 2 –1 y 2 1 0 x 39 P (x ) = x 3 + 2x 2 − 5x − 6 has the factors: A (x − 1)(x − 2)(x + 3) C (x + 1)(x − 2)(x + 3) E (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3) B (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) D (x + 1)(x − 2)(x − 3) 40 If P (x ) = 2x 3 − 2x 2 + 3x + 1.

∞) E [0. ∞) → R where f (x ) = loge (x − 3) has an inverse. Which one of the following statements is true? 1 −3 . ∞) C [4. ∞) B (0. The domain of this inverse is: A [0. b = 3 D a > 0 and b > 0 E a= Revision y f (x) = mx + 3 3 0 x 1 −3 . ∞) D (3. then a equals: A −8 B −4 C −2 D 0 43 Which of these equations is represented by the graph shown? A B C D E y y y y y = (x + 2)2 (x − 2) = 16 − x 4 = (x 2 − 4)2 = (x + 2)2 (2 − x ) = x 4 − 16 –2 0 2 x 44 The function f : R → R where f (x ) = e−x + 1 has an inverse function f −1 . 1] D [1. The inverse f −1 is defined as f −1 : R → R . 1) C (0. ∞) 45 The function f : R + → R where f (x ) = 2 loge x + 1 has an inverse function f −1 .288 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS 41 The graph shown is that of the function f (x ) = mx + 3. The domain of f −1 is: A (0. ∞) E [0. where a and b are constants. ∞) D (1. 1] 47 The function g : R → R where g (x ) = e x − 1 has an inverse whose rule is given by: 1 A f −1 (x ) = x C f −1 (x ) = loge (x − 1) B f −1 (x ) = − loge (x + 1) e −1 D f −1 (x ) = loge (1 − x ) E f −1 (x ) = loge (x + 1) 48 The function f : [4. ∞) B (0. ∞) B R C [1. The function with the rule y = f (g (x )) has the range: A (1. ∞) E R .b = A a= m m B a < 0 and b < 0 C a = −m . where m is a constant.b = m m E 2 y 42 If x 3 + 2x 2 + ax − 4 has a remainder 1 when divided by x + 1. The rule for f −1 is given by: A D f −1 (x ) = 2e x −1 f −1 (x ) = 2e x +1 B E f −1 (x ) = e 2 (x −1) 1 f −1 (x ) = e x −1 2 1 C f −1 (x ) = e 2 −1 x 46 Let f : R → R where f (x ) = e−x and g : (−1. f −1 (x ) = ax + b. ∞) → R where g (x ) = loge (x + 2).

∞) . The rule for 2 D 2e x E 1 log e 2 x Revision 50 The function f : R + → R where f (x ) = loge f −1 is given by f −1 (x ) = A e2x 1 B loge 2 x C 1 x e2 2 51 For what values of x is the function f with the rule f (x ) = −2 + loge (3x − 2) defined? 2 2 C [−2.5 C 2 D ±2 E 6.4 54 The equation log10 x = y (log10 3) + 1 is equivalent to the equation: A x = 10(3 y ) D x = y 3 + 10 B x = 30 y E x = 10 y 3 C x = 3 y + 10 loge N 2 55 The graph indicates that the relationship between N and t is: A N = 2 − e−2t B N = e2−2t C N = e2t + 2 e−2t D N= 100 E N = −2e2t 0 1 t . ∞) .5 B ±1. ∞) D A (−2. ∞) → R where f (x ) = 2 + loge (x + 2) and its inverse f −1 are best shown by which one of the following? A y y=x B y C y 2 x 0 –2 0 2 x –2 0 –2 y=x x 2 D y E y y=x –2 0 x 0 –2 –2 x 53 For log2 8x + log2 2x = 6.∞ B E (2. x = A 1.∞ 3 3 52 The graphs of the function f : (−2.Chapter 8 — Revision of Chapters 1–7 289 49 The function f : R → R where f (x ) = e x −1 has an inverse whose rule is given by f −1 (x ) = A e−(x −1) B − loge x C 1 + loge x D loge (x + 1) E loge (x − 1) x has an inverse function f −1 .

240◦ C 2␲ 5␲ . 3 3 7␲ 11␲ . 3 3 3 = 0 are: D E 61 A possible equation for the graph shown is: ␲ A y = sin x − 6 ␲ B y = sin x + 6 ␲ C y = − sin x − 6 ␲ D y = cos x − 6 ␲ E y = cos x + 6 y 0 π 6 7π 6 x . 5] C R √ 60 Two values between 0 and 2␲ for which 2 sin ␪ + A B 60◦ . 6 6 – 0 π 12 5π 12 θ 59 The function f : R → R where f (x ) = 2 − 3 cos 2 ␪ + A [−3.290 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Revision 56 A possible equation for the graph is: A B C D E y y y y y = 1 − ex = 1 − e−x = 1 + ex = 1 + e−x = e−x − 1 y y=1 1 0 x 57 A possible equation for the graph is: A y = loge (x − 2) 1 B y = loge (x + 2) 2 C y = loge 2(x + 1) D y = 2 loge (x + 1) 1 E y = loge (x + 2) 2 58 A possible equation for the graph shown is: ␲ −4 A y = 2 cos 3 ␪ + 4 ␲ −2 B y = 2 cos 2 ␪ + 4 ␲ −2 C y = 2 sin 3 ␪ + 4 ␲ −2 D y = 2 cos 3 ␪ + 4 ␲ −2 E y = 2 cos 3 ␪ − 4 y –2 0 x y π 4 –2 –4 ␲ has range: 2 D [−1. 5] ␲ 2␲ . 3 3 B [2. 2] 4␲ 5␲ . 5] E [−3.

3] D [0. 6] E [−3. 3] D [−3. The equation p (x ) = 0 has exactly: A 1 distinct real solution C 3 distinct real solutions E 5 distinct real solutions B 2 distinct real solutions D 4 distinct real solutions 65 The gradient of a straight line perpendicular to the line shown is: A 2 B −2 −1 C 2 1 D 2 E 3 2 y 0 x 1 66 The graph of a function f whose rule is y = f (x ) has exactly one asymptote for which the equation is y = 6. The inverse function will have: A a horizontal asymptote with equation y = 6 B a vertical asymptote with equation x = 6 −1 C a vertical asymptote with equation x = 6 D a horizontal asymptote with equation y = −6 E no asymptote 67 The function f : R → R . 3] E [−1. The inverse function f −1 exists. f (x ) = a sin(bx ) + c where a. f (x ) = 3 sin 2x has: A amplitude 3 and period ␲ ␲ C amplitude 1 and period 2 1 E amplitude 1 and period 2␲ 2 A [0. 3] B [−2.∞ B A [2. 6] C [−3. f (x ) = 2x − 4 and g : R → R . g (x ) = log2 x are used to define the composite function g ◦ f . ∞) 2 69 The rule for the inverse relation of the function with rule y = x2 − 4x + 5 and domain R is: √ √ B y2 = 2x + 5 C y=2± x −1 A y=2± x +1 √ E y = 4x − 5 D y = 4x − 5 70 The range of the function with rule y = −3| sin 2x | + 3 is: A [0. b and c are positive constants has period: 2␲ 2␲ A a B b C c D E a b + 68 The functions f : [18. where f (x ) = 3 sin 2x has range: C [2.Chapter 8 — Revision of Chapters 1–7 291 62 The function f : R → R . 34] → R . 3] B [0. 6] . 5] 64 Consider the polynomial p (x ) = (x − 2a )2 (x + a ) (x 2 + a ) where a > 0. 2] Revision ␲ B amplitude 2 and period 2 3 D amplitude and period 2␲ 2 63 The function f : R → R . 6] D R+ E R . The range of g ◦ f is: 3 C [5.

OH. measured from the central position. find the values of b and c. of the bar above the ground is 6. 2]. A B –4 0 4 x . its horizontal position x.e. The height.) c A horizontal bar FG is placed across the arch as shown. varies from −4 cm (at A) to 4 cm (at B). taking axes as shown. b Solve the equation: 2x 3 = x 2 + 5x + 2 c i Given that the expression x 2 − 5x + 7 leaves the same remainder whether divided by x − b or x − c. show that b + c = 5 ii Given further that 4bc = 21 and b > c.2 Extended-response questions 1 An arch is constructed as shown. b A man of height 1.3 m. How far above his head is the point E on the arch? (That is. 2 a The expression 2x 3 + ax 2 − 72x − 18 leaves a remainder of 17 when divided by x + 5. d Find the period of the pendulum. x is given by the rule: x = −4 sin ␲ t a Sketch the graph of x against t for t ∈ [0. b Find the horizontal position of the pendulum for: 1 iii t = 1 i t=0 ii t = 2 c Find the first time that the pendulum has horizontal position x = 2. where b = c. a Find values of a and b. y Z OA = OB F E D A C 7m O B H G x The height of the arch is 9 metres (OZ = 9 m). i. 3 As a pendulum swings. The equation of the curve is of the form y = ax 2 + b. Determine the value of a. The width of the arch is 20 metres (AB = 20 m).292 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Revision 8. the time it takes to go from A to B and back to A.8 m stands at C (OC = 7 m). Find the length of the bar. find the distance DE.

25 m above the ground. The rope is held 1. b For V = 20. The horizontal distance travelled by the football after being kicked is given by the formula: V 2 sin 2␣ 10 where ␣ is the angle of projection.25 a Find y when: 1 i t=0 ii t = iii t = 1 2 b How long does it take for one revolution of the rope? c Sketch the graph of y against t.Chapter 8 — Revision of Chapters 1–7 293 4 Two people are rotating a skipping rope.00 metres above the ground.m. It was turned on. of the point P on the rope at time t seconds is given by the rule: y = −1. at which time the urn was turned off and the water began to cool. d Find the first time that the point P on the rope is 2. 7 A large urn was filled with water. sketch the graph of x against ␣ for 0 ≤ ␣ ≤ 90◦ . c Find the expected population on 1 January 2000.25 cos (2␲ t ) + 1. Revision P 2. where 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 where t is the number of hours after 2:00 p. Jenny measured the temperature of the water every hour on the hour for the next 10 hours and recorded the results.m.m. c If the ball goes 30 m and the initial velocity is 20 m/s. Commencing at 2:00 p. and finishing at midnight. She found that the temperature (T degrees Celsius) of the water could be described by the equation: T = Ae−kt + 15. 5 The population of a country is found to be growing continuously at an annual rate of 2. Jenny recorded the temperature of the water to be 55◦ C.. At 4:00 p.It reaches a height of 2. . y m. x= a Find the distance the ball is kicked if V = 25 m/s and ␣ = 45◦ .5 m above the ground. b Find the population on 1 January 1950.96% after 1 January 1950. and just touches the ground.25 m The vertical position. d After how many years would the population be 300 × 106 ? 6 A football is kicked so that it leaves the player’s foot with a velocity of V m/s. find the angle of projection. The temperature of the room where the urn was located remained constant at 15◦ C.m. This occurred at exactly 2:00 p.5 m 1. and the water was heated until its temperature reached 95◦ C. The population t years after 1 January 1950 is given by the formula: p (t ) = 150 × 106 ekt a Find the value of k.

At a distance x m from B the strength is given by the rule S = (0. d A piece of glass fibre that will have to carry loads of up to 0. 8 On an overnight interstate train an electrical fault meant that the illumination in two carriages. in terms of x.92) 10 per metre length of the fibre. for the load the fibre will stand at a distance x m from B. Every time the train stopped the illumination in carriage A reduced by 17% and by 11% in carriage B. A and B.5 units is needed.02 × (0. How much of the 5 m fibre could be used with confidence for this purpose? 10 A pizza is divided by a number of straight cuts as shown. At how many stations did the train stop before this occurred? 9 The diagram shows a conical glass fibre. Before the fault occurred the illumination in carriage A was I units and 0.294 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Revision a b c d Find the values of A and k. b At some time after the fault occurred the illumination in both carriages was approximately the same. . was affected. a Write down exponential expressions for the expected illumination in each carriage after the train had stopped for the nth time. Find the temperature at midnight. 1 n f (n ) 0 1 1 2 2 4 3 7 4 5 a Find a quadratic model for this data. b Use your model to find the greatest number of pizza pieces produced by: i 4 straight cuts ii 5 straight cuts c Check your answers to b by drawing diagrams. The table shows the largest number of pieces f (n ) into which it is divided by n cuts.92)10−3x . B A The total length is 5 m.02 mm2 . The cross-sectional area diminishes by a factor of (0. At what time did Jenny first record a temperature less than 24◦ C? Sketch the graph of T against t.92)2. If the load the fibre will take at each point before breaking is given by load = strength × cross-sectional area.66I units in carriage B. b What is the cross-sectional area of the fibre at a point one-third of its length from B? c The fibre is constructed in such a way that the strength increases in the direction B to A. write down an expression. a Write down a rule for the cross-sectional area of the fibre at a distance x m from B. The circular cross-sectional area at end B is 0.

Point C is the vertex of the curve and a is a positive constant. y R Revision Q O P t b The number of hours of daylight on the 21st of each month in a city in the northern hemisphere is given by the table: x Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec y 7. etc.5 8. OR in terms of h and k. . ii Find the length of PS and SQ in terms of a.5 Using suitable scales. Call December month 0.0 14. and treat all months as of equal length. iii Give the area of triangle PSQ in terms of a. ii Find the area of triangle ABC in terms of a.2 9. January month 1. plot these points and draw a curve through them. i Give the coordinates of S. 3 S 5a 4 3 a +a .2 15.5 15. v Find the value of a for which the area of the triangle is 1500. a) 0 y C x A B i Use a calculator to sketch the graph x 0 for a = 1.9 14. c Find the values of h and k so that your graph is approximately that of: ␲t y = h − k cos 6 12 a In the figure y = 1 − a (x − 3)2 intersects the x-axis at A and B..Chapter 8 — Revision of Chapters 1–7 295 11 a The graph is of one complete cycle of: ␲t y = h − k cos 6 i How many units long is OP? ii Express OQ. 2. iv Find the value of a for which the area of the triangle is 4.– Q −4 3 27 3 a +a =0 ii Find the values of a for which 27 −4 3 a +a <0 iii Find the values of a for which 27 −4 3 a + a = −1 iv Find the value of a for which 27 −4 3 a +a =1 v Find the value of a for which 27 vi Plot the graphs y = (x − a )2 (x − 2a ) + a for the values of a obtained in iv and v.1 7. c Triangle PSQ is a right-angled triangle.8 8.3 12.0 9.9 12. i Find the coordinates of A and B in terms of a. b The graph shown has rule: y = (x − a )2 (x − 2a ) + a where a > 0 y P(a.8 16.

3. then f (x ) = g (x ) + h (x ) If y is a function of x. then g (x ) = k f (x ) If f (x ) = g (x ) + h (x ). f (x ) = ax a −1 . f (x ) = 0 If g (x ) = k f (x ). the derived function is denoted by f .Differentiation Review Chapter summary For points P (x . for x > 0 and a ∈ R . f (x )) and Q (x + h . and for n ≥ 1. and for f (x ) = 1. . f (x + h )) on the graph of y = f (x ) the gradient of the chord PQ is: f (x + h ) − f (x ) h The gradient of the graph of y = f (x ) at P is defined as: h →0 lim f (x + h ) − f (x ) h For f : R → R. f (x ) = nx n −1 . where k is a constant. . where. u and v are functions of x dv du dy =u +v dx dx dx The quotient rule f (x ) . The chain rule dy du dy = · dx d x du and in function notation: ( f ◦ g ) (x ) = f (g (x ))g (x ). f (x ) = 0 For n ≤ −1. where f ◦ g (x ) = f (g (x )) For f (x ) = x a . 2.342 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Chapter 9 . g (x ) = 0. the domain of f is taken to be R. For f (x ) = 1. then: g (x ) g (x ) · f (x ) − f (x ) · g (x ) F (x ) = [g (x )]2 If F (x ) = dy dx . then: F (x ) = f (x ) · g (x ) + g (x ) · f (x ) In Leibniz notation: If y = uv . n = 1. the domain of f is taken to be R\{0}. . The product rule If F (x ) = f (x ) · g (x ). f (x ) = nx n −1 . then the derivative of y with respect to x is denoted by For f (x ) = x n . n is a non-zero integer.where f : R → R and f (x + h ) − f (x ) f (x ) = lim h →0 h For f (x ) = x n .

1 . v = 0 v dv du −u v dy d x d x = dx v2 The following are important results that are useful for the evaluation of limits: r lim ( f (x ) + g (x )) = lim f (x ) + lim g (x ) x →c x →c x →c i. −1)... r lim (k f (x )) = k lim f (x ). then f (x ) is equal to: 3x 16x 3 − 24x 16x 3 − 24x C B 4x 2 − 4 D 4x 2 − 8x 3x 3 5 . We say that a function is continuous everywhere if it is continuous for all real numbers.e. D For x > 0 the gradient is positive. E For x > 0 the gradient is decreasing. power functions and rational functions 343 Review In Leibniz notation: u If y = where u and v are functions of x . A function f is continuous at the point x = a if the following three conditions are met: 3 lim f (x ) = f (a ) 1 f (x ) is defined at x = a 2 lim f (x ) exists x →a x →a x →c x →c x →c x →c A function is said to be discontinuous at a point if it is not continuous at that point. Then is equal to: dx B 8x 2 f (4x 3 ) C 8x 4 f (x ) f (x 3 ) 8x 3 f (2x 4 ) E 8x 3 2 f (x ) f (x 3 ) E 8x 3 − 16x 3x E x >5 4 Which of the following is not true for the curve of y = f (x ) where f (x ) = x 3 ? A The gradient is defined for all real numbers. C The curve passes through the points with coordinates (1.e. f (x + h ) − f (x ) A function f is said to be differentiable at x if lim exists.Chapter 9 — Differentiation of polynomials. the limit of the sum is the sum of the limits. the limit of the product is the product of the limits. lim f (x ) r lim f (x ) = x →c .. the limit of the quotient is the quotient of the limits. 1) and (−1.e. f (x ) > 0 for: f : R \{7} → R where f (x ) = 5 + (7 − x )2 R \{7} B R C x <7 D x >7 dy y = f (g (x )) where g (x ) = 2x 4 . provided lim g (x ) = 0 x →c g ( x ) x →c lim g (x ) i. B The curve passes through the origin. k being a given number (non-zero) x →c x →c r lim ( f (x )g (x )) = lim f (x ) lim g (x ) i. h →0 h Multiple-choice questions 1 If f (x ) = A 2 For A 3 Let A D 4x 4 − 12x 2 .

−4 E 0. −5) E (−2. 0) C (−3. 6) B (−4.344 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 5 The graph of the function with rule y = of k is: A 1 B 2(x 3 k has gradient 1 when x = 1. the gradient is positive for: A −3 < x < 2 B −3 ≤ x ≤ 2 C x < −3 or x > 2 D x ≤ −3 or x ≥ 2 E −3 ≤ x ≤ 3 –5 1 (2. D 0. 0) D (−3. The value + 1) E −1 4 y (–3. D x> 3 3 dy 8 For y = 3 − 2 f (x ). is equal to: dx −1 2 f (x ) B A 2 3 − 2 f (x ) 3 − 2 f (x ) 3 1 − f (x ) D E 2 [3 − 2 f (x )] 3 − 2 f (x ) C x= 1 3 C 1 3 − 2 f (x ) 2 9 The point on the curve defined by the equation y = (x + 3)(x − 2) where the gradient is −7 has coordinates: A (−4. 2 2 2 2 Short-answer questions (technology-free) 1 Differentiate each of the following with respect to x: √ 4x + 1 b a x + 1 − x2 x2 + 3 √ √ 2+ x e (x − 9) x − 3 d x x x2 − 1 h g 2 2 x +1 x +1 2 2x + 1 k (3x 2 + 2) 3 j 2 x +2 √ 1 + 3x c √ f x 1 + x2 i (2 + 5x 2 ) 3 1 . –4) 3 x 7 For the function f (x ) = 4x (2 − 3x ). f (x ) < 0 for: 2 1 B 0<x < A x< 3 3 2 1 E x = 0. B 0. 5) −1 −8 C D −4 2 3 6 For the graph shown. 0) 10 The function y = ax 2 − bx has a zero gradient only for x = 2. The x-axis intercepts of the graph of this function are: 1 −1 −1 1 A . 4 C 0.

show that = x2 + 4 dx (x 2 + 4)2 dy b Find the values of x for which y and are both positive. 4] c [ f (x )]2 Extended-response questions 1 a For the functions f and g that are defined and differentiable for all real numbers. power functions and rational functions 345 Review 2 Find the gradient of the curve of each of the following functions at the point corresponding to the x-value given: x −1 b y= 2 .x =0 a y = 3x 2 − 4. g (1) = −2. dy 2x − 3 8 + 6x − 2x 2 . b. c and d. Find the values of a. . f (−1) = 2 and g (6) = −1 Find: ii (go f ) (1) iii ( f g ) (1) i ( f ◦ g ) (1) iv (g f ) (1) v f g (1) vi g f (1) b It is known that f is a cubic function with rule f (x ) = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d .5 x 4 Find the derivative of 4x + 5 a For y = 9 x 2 and values of x at which the derivative is zero.Chapter 9 — Differentiation of polynomials. it is known that: f (1) = 6. g (6) = 7 and f (−1) = 8 f (1) = 6. g (1) = −1. x = −1 x +1 c y = (x − 2)5 . dx 6 Find the derivative of each of the following. given that f (x ) ≥ 0 only for x ∈ [0. x2 a x f (x ) b | f (x )|. x = 3 1 3 Sketch the graphs of the derivative functions for each of the following functions from the graphs shown: a y b y c y 3 0 1 x 0 1 2 x –1 0 1 2 1. x = 1 d y = (2x + 2) 3 . given that f is a differentiable function for all real numbers.

346 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 2 Let f be a function. find the set of values for which f (x ) > 0 ii If m is odd and n is even. with graph defined by the rule y = f (x ). a Show that f (x ) = 1 − n x +1 c Show that 0 ≤ f (x ) < 1 for all x. It is known that: f (x ) = 0 for x = 1 and x = 5 f (x ) > 0 for x > 5 and x < 1 f (x ) < 0 for 1 < x < 5 f (1) = 6 and f (5) = 1 a For y = f (x + 2) find the values of x for which: dy dy =0 i >0 ii dx dx b For y = f (x − 2): dy =0 i Find the values of x for which dx dy =0 ii Find the coordinates of the points on the graph for which dx c For y = f (2x ): dy =0 i Find the values of x for which dx dy =0 ii Find the coordinates of the points on the graph for which dx x : d For y = f 2 dy i Find the values of x for which =0 dx dy =0 ii Find the coordinates of the points on the graph for which dx x : e For y = 3 f 2 dy i Find the values of x for which =0 dx dy =0 ii Find the coordinates of the points on the graph for which dx 3 Let f (x ) = (x − ␣)n (x − ␤)m where m and n are positive integers with m > n and ␤ > ␣ a Solve the equation f (x ) = 0 for x b Find f (x ). which is differentiable for R. 4 Consider the function with rule f (x ) = 1 + xn 1 b Find f (x ). find the set of values for which f (x ) > 0 xn where n is a positive even integer. d State the set of values for which f (x ) = 0 f Show that f is an even function. e State the set of values for which f (x ) > 0 . c Solve the equation f (x ) = 0 for x d i If m and n are odd.

b] if f (x ) ≤ M for all x ∈ [a . the equation of the tangent to the curve at (x1 .Chapter 10 . b]. The value of c is: √ 5 2 −45 D E − C 2 B −1 + 2 2 A 2 5 4 . y1 ) is y − y1 = f (x1 )(x − x1 ) and the equation of the normal to the curve at (x1 . The point (a . y1 ) and have gradients m1 and m2 respectively. y1 ). b]. Multiple-choice questions 1 The line with equation y = 4x + c is a tangent to the curve with equation y = x2 − x – 5. The curve with equation y = f (x ) has stationary points where f (x ) = 0. y) on the curve with equation y = f (x ). N is the absolute minimum value of a function f in an interval [a . f (b)) is a local minimum if f (b) = 0 and immediately to the left the gradient is negative and immediately to the right the gradient is positive. b] if f (x ) ≥ N for all x ∈ [a . The point (c. y1 ) is 1 y − y1 = − (x − x1 ) f (x1 ) Two curves with equations y = f (x ) and y = g(x) intersect at (x1 .Applications of Differentiation Chapter 10 — Applications of differentiation 391 Review Chapter summary For point (x. The point (b. m1 − m2 Then tan ␪ = 1 + m1m2 The relationship f (x + h ) ≈ f (x ) + h f (x ) for a small value of h is used to estimate a value of f (x + h ) close to a known value f (x ). f (c)) is a stationary point of inflexion if f (c) = 0 and immediately to the left and the right the gradient is positive or immediately to the left and the right the gradient is negative. f (a )) is a local maximum if f (a ) = 0 and immediately to the left the gradient is positive and immediately to the right the gradient is negative. Let ␪ be the angle between the curves at (x1 . M is the absolute maximum value of a function f in an interval [a .

f (a )) and local maximum at (b. f (b)) B local minimum at (a . The cone has a base radius of 20 cm and a height of 100 cm. the values of x for which the graph of y = f (x ) has stationary points are: 2 2 2 1 1 A only B 0 and C 0 and − D − and 1 and −1 E 3 3 3 3 3 8 Let f be differentiable for all values of x in [0. f (a )). of the volume of the sphere is: 500␲ 40␲ 4000␲ 2000␲ E D C A 2000␲ B 3 3 3 3 6 The graph of the function with rule y = f (x ) has a local maximum at the point with coordinates (a . f (a )) and local minimum at (b. 6]. f (b)) D stationary point of inflexion at (a . The rate of decrease of h in cm/min is given by: 24 12 500 3750 D 10 E C 30␲ h2 B A 2 2 ␲ ␲h ␲h 5 The radius of a sphere is increasing at a rate of 5 cm/min. f (a )) and local maximum at (b. When the radius is 10 cm. Let h cm be the depth of water in the funnel at time t minutes. 4). the rate of increase. −2 f (a ) + k ) a . f (b)) C stationary point of inflexion at (a . −2 f (a ) − k ) E a local minimum at the point with coordinates (2a . f (b)) E local minimum at (a . f (a )) and (b. −2 f (a ) + k ) 7 For f (x ) = x 3 − x 2 − 1. f (x) > 0 for x ∈ [a. f (x) < 0 for x < a and f (x) > 0 for x > b. The graph with equation y = f (x ) has a local minimum point at (2. in cm3 /min. The value√ of x for which √ the volume is a maximum is: E 2 3 D 2 C B 1 A 0 . f (a )) and stationary point of inflexion at (b. 4) is: A y = 2x B x=2 3 C y=4 D 2x − 4y = 0 2 E 4x − 2y = 0 9 The volume V cm of a solid is given by the formula V = −10x(2x − 6) where x cm is a particular measurement. f (b)) 4 Water is draining from a cone-shaped funnel at a rate of 500 cm3 /min. The graph of the function with rule y = −2 f + k where k is a 2 positive real number has: A a local maximum at the point with coordinates (2a . f (a) = f (b) = 0. −2 f (a ) + k C a local maximum at the point with coordinates 2 D a local maximum at the point with coordinates (2a . The graph also has a local minimum at the origin but no other x stationary points. b].392 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 2 The equation of the tangent to the curve of the function with equation y = x4 at the point where x = 1 is: 1 1 5 A y = −4x − 3 B y = x − 3 C y = −4x E y = 4x − 3 D y= x+ 4 4 4 3 For the function with rule f (x ). 2 f (a ) + k B a local minimum at the point with coordinates 2 a . f (a )) and local minimum at (b. The nature of the stationary points of the graph of y = f (x ) at the points with coordinates (a . f (b)) is: A local maximum at (a . The equation of the tangent at the point with coordinates (2.

8 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x3 − 3x2 − 9x + 11 at x = 2. and find the rule for f . – 4). b Find the equations of the tangent at the point (2. 2 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = 3x2 at the point where x = a. find in terms of a the y-coordinate of P. 4 . Find the x-coordinate of a second point at which the tangent is parallel to the tangent at x = 1. If this tangent meets the y-axis at P. 1) and (0. 1). where f (x ) = 3 + 6x2 − 2x3 Determine the values of x for which the graph of y = f (x ) has a positive gradient. c Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two tangents. b Find the coordinates of the point where the tangent meets the curve again. 3 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve with equation y = x 3 − 7x 2 + 14x − 8 at the point where x = 1. 4 Use the formula A = ␲ r2 for the area of a circle to find: a the average rate at which the area of a circle changes with respect to the radius as the radius increases from r = 2 to r = 3 b the instantaneous rate at which the area changes with r when r = 3 5 Find the stationary points of the graphs for each of the following and state their nature: c h(x) = x3 − 9x + 1 b g(x) = x3 − 3x − 2 a f (x ) = 4x3 − 3x4 6 Sketch the graph of y = x3 − 6x2 + 9x 7 The derivative of the function y = f (x ) is: dy = (x − 1)2 (x − 2) dx Find the x-coordinate and state the nature of each stationary point. 9 Let f : R → R . 10 For what value(s) of x do the graphs of y = x3 and y = x3 + x2 + x − 2 have the same gradient? 11 For the function with rule f (x ) = (x − 1) 5 : a State the values for which the function is differentiable.Chapter 10 — Applications of differentiation 393 Review 10 The equation of the normal to the curve with equation y = x2 at the point where x = a is: 1 −1 −1 x + + a2 B y= A y= x + 2 + a2 C y = 2ax − a2 2a 2 2a 1 D y = 2ax + 3a2 E y= x + 2 + a2 2a Short-answer questions (technology-free) 1 a Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 3 − 8x 2 + 15x at the point with coordinates (4.

d Find the values of x and y that give the maximum area. and its perimeter is 48 m. the total cost per kilometre. a Write down an expression for the area. as shown in the ym figure. . a Show that V = 4(x3 − 13x2 + 40x) b State the set of x-values for which the expression for V in terms of x is valid. c Find the values of x such that dx d Find the dimensions of the box if the volume is to be a maximum. c Find the maximum value of y and the corresponding value of x. b Find y in terms of x. e Sketch the graph of y against x. b Find the rate of increase of volume with respect to time when the radius is 4 cm. in terms of x. The area of the shaded region is y m2 . a What is the total cost per kilometre if the truck is driven at: ii 64 km/h? i 40 km/h? b Write an expression for C. f State the set of possible values for y. 2 A flower bed is to be L-shaped.40 per hour to pay the driver. a Find an expression for y in terms of x.008x) dollars per kilometre to operate a truck at x kilometres per hour. In addition it costs $14. in terms of y and x. Extended-response questions 1 The diagram shows a rectangle with sides 4 m and x m and a square with side x m. e Find the maximum area. 4m y m2 xm xm xm xm 3y m 3 It costs (12 + 0. a Find the rate of increase of volume with respect to the change in radius when the radius is 4 cm. initially of radius length 1 cm. its radius increases by 1 cm/s and it bursts after 5 seconds. Let the lengths of the sides of the squares be x cm and V cm3 the volume of the box formed. c Write down an expression for A in terms of x. dV = 0. A m2 .394 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 12 A spherical bubble. expands steadily. d At what speed should the truck be driven to minimise the total cost per kilometre? 4 A box is to be made from a 10 cm by 16 cm sheet of metal by cutting equal squares out of the corners and bending up the flaps to form the box. b Find the set of possible values for x. c Sketch the graph of C against x for 0 < x < 120. d Explain briefly why this value of y is a maximum.

The top of each box consists of a double flap that opens as shown.Chapter 10 — Applications of differentiation 395 Review e Find the maximum volume of the box. from selling n articles is given by P = 100n − 0. where k is a constant. 8 A manufacturer produces cardboard boxes that have a square base. b Find A in terms of ␪ . spent in producing a certain size metal component is related to its weight. d i Find the weight that yields the minimum average machinery time. y) x 7 At a factory the time. y d Find the value of n which maximises the profit per article. .4n2 − 160 a i Find the value of n which maximises the daily profit. $P. 5 A manufacturer finds that the daily profit. the area of cardboard required. ii Find the maximum daily profit. a If a 5 kg component takes 75 seconds to produce. Let the area of the sector be A cm2 . w kg. c Find the value of ␪ for which A is a maximum. (Use a continuous graph. ii State the minimum average machining time. The bottom of the box has a double layer of cardboard for strength. T seconds. f Sketch the graph of V against x for the domain established in b. x d i What dimensions of the box will minimise the amount of cardboard used? ii What is the minimum area of cardboard used? x 9 An open tank is to be constructed with a square base and vertical sides to contain 500 m3 of water. 6 A rectangle has one vertex at the origin. = 3x2 + 4xh double b Express C as a function of x only.) c State the allowable values for n for a profit to be made. by T = k + 2w2 . What must be the dimensions of the area of sheet metal used in its construction if this area is to be a minimum? 10 A piece of wire of length 1 m is bent into the shape of a sector of a circle of radius a cm and sector angle ␪ . d Find the maximum area of the sector. c Sketch the graph of C against x for x > 0. b Sketch the graph of T against w. another on the positive x y-axis and a fourth on the line y = 8 − 2 What is the greatest area the rectangle can have? 0 1 y=8– x 2 (x. a Find A in terms of a and ␪ . c Write down an expression for the average time A (in seconds per kilogram). h a Show that C. Each box must have a volume of 12 cubic metres. another on the positive x-axis. b Sketch the graph of P against n. find k.

a Show that the area. The point F is on the shore. He starts at A. d Find the time taken if the boy runs from A to D and then D to C. for the value of ␪ found in b ii. ii Find the minimum time. P O C B 13 The point S is 8 km offshore from the point O which is located on the straight shore of a lake. swims to a point P on DC. The circle has centre O and radius r cm. 3 and runs from P to C. L cm. Contestants race from the start. √ 3 Show that T = x 2 + 900 + (75 − x ) + 2 5 dT b Find dx c i Find the value of x for which the time taken is a minimum. the time taken by this contestant to complete the course is 8 km (in hours): √ 20 − x 64 + x 2 O L F + T (x ) = 5 15 x km 20 km b Show that the time taken by this contestant to complete the course has √ its minimum value when x = 2 2. Find this time.5% of the area of sector OPQ. the area of the triangle OPQ is approximately 45. L. by rowing in a straight line to some point. A certain contestant rows at 5 km per hour and runs S at 15 km per hour. as shown in the diagram. He takes 2 seconds to pull himself out of the pool. A a Let DP = x m and the total time be T s. to the finish. on the shore and then running along the shore to F. of the sector is given by: P Q θ 1 A = r L − r2 2 dA b i Find a relationship between r and L for which =0 dr ii Find the corresponding value of ␪ . 12 A Queensland resort has a large swimming pool as illustrated D with AB = 75 m and AD = 30 m. .396 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 11 A piece of wire of fixed length. iii Determine the nature of the stationary points found in i. a Show that. A cm2 . F. S. The angle of the sector is ␪ radians. is bent to form the boundary OPQO of a sector of a circle. A boy can swim at 1 m/s 2 and run at 1 m/s. if the distance OL is x km. c Show that. 20 km from O.

y a Show that the area of the trapezoid is: 1 (4 − x 2 ) (2x + 4) 2 b Show that the trapezoid has its greatest area when x= 2 . 0) (2. for some time after planting in ideal conditions. 0) (x. At what time will the fishing boats be closest together and how far apart will they be? 15 A rectangular beam is to be cut from a non-circular tree trunk whose cross-sectional outline can be represented by the equation y2 = 2 − 2x2 a Show that the area of the cross-section of the beam is √ given by A = 4x 2 − 2x 2 where x is the half-width of the beam. y (x. given by y = − t3 + bt2 + ct where t is the number of weeks after planting.Chapter 10 — Applications of differentiation 397 Review 14 At noon the captain of a ship sees two fishing boats approaching. y) x y2 = 2 – 2x2 0 16 An isosceles trapezoid is inscribed in the parabola y = 4 − x2 as illustrated. when. A. what area will it cover after 4 weeks? . dx a iii Show that a maximum occurs when x = . 3 17 It is believed that. c Find the value of x for which the cross-sectional area of the beam is a maximum and find the corresponding value of y. travelling south at 6 km/h. the area covered by a particular species of ground-cover plant has a rate of increase of y cm2 /week. d Find the maximum cross-sectional area of the beam. is: i the area covered by the plant a maximum? ii the rate of increase in area a maximum? c According to the model. of the trapezoid = (a 2 − x2 )(a + x) dA ii Use the product rule to find . The other is 6 km due north. One of them is 10 km due east and travelling west at 8 km/h. if the plant covered 100 cm2 when planted. b State the possible values for x. a Find b and c given the following table of observations: t y 1 10 2 24 b Assuming that the model is accurate for the first 8 weeks after planting. y) x c Repeat with the parabola y = a2 − x2 i Show that the area. 3 0 (–2. during this period.

where t is the time in days from 1 January. 3 27 a Find a. t seconds. and also touches. The volume. of water in the flask at time. dV = 20 000 − 0.398 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review d Discuss the implications for the future growth of the plant if the model remains accurate for longer than the first 4 weeks. e If dt dV against y for 0 ≤ y ≤ 60. b Find the rate of flow of water. find the capacity (m3 ) of the reservoir. c Sketch the curve. 18 Let f (x ) = x3 − 3x2 + 6x − 10 a Find the coordinates of the point on the graph of f for which f (x) = 3. y. b Find the rate of change of volume with respect to height. V mL. sketch the graph of dt 21 Water is being poured into a flask. e At what time is the flow greatest and what is the flow at this time? 22 A cone is made by cutting out a sector with central angle ␪ from a circular piece of cardboard of radius 1 m and joining the two cut edges to form a cone of slant height 1 m as shown in the following diagrams. the x-axis at the point (1.005␲ ( y + 630)2 . . V m3 . d Sketch the graph of V (t) against t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20. is given by: V (t ) = 3 t3 10t 2 − 4 3 . dt c Sketch the graph of V(t) against t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20. b. in a reservoir when the depth indicator shows y metres is given by the formula: ␲ V = [( y + 630)3 − (630)3 ] 3 a Find the volume of water in the reservoir when y = 40. 20 The volume of water. 0 ≤ y ≤ 20 a Find the volume of water in the flask when: ii t = 20 i t=0 dV . c Sketch the graph of V against y for 0 ≤ y ≤ 60. c and d. d If y = 60 m is the maximum depth of the reservoir. b Express f (x) in the form a(x + p)2 + q c Hence show that the gradient of f is greater than 3 for all points on the curve of f other than that point found in a. 0). b Find the values of x for which the curve has a negative gradient. but does not cross. 19 A curve with equation of the form y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d has zero gradient at the point 1 4 . into the flask.

iii Plot the graph(s) of y = f (x ) for these values of a and b using a graphics calculator. . b Let g(x) = 6x4 − x3 + 21x2 − 6x + 8 i Plot the graph of y = g(x) ii Find the minimum value of g(x) and the value of x for which this occurs. Determine the maximum volume using calculus. b = 1 iv a = −1. Find the coordinates of the stationary points and state the nature of each. i Use a calculator to determine the value of ␪ that maximises the volume of the cone. ii Find the maximum volume. giving your answer in terms of a and b. iv Using a calculator solve the equation g (x) = 0 for x. iii Find g (x). b = 1 b i Find f (x). iv Plot the graph of the corresponding derivative functions on the same set of axes. d State the relationship between a and b if no stationary points exist for the graph of v = f (x ) 24 Consider the function with rule f (x ) = 6x4 − x3 + ax2 − 6x + 8 a i If x + 1 is a factor of f (x ) find the value of a. a i Find r in terms of ␪ . 2␲ − ␪ 2 1 2␲ − ␪ 2 1− iii Show that V = ␲ 3 2␲ 2␲ ␲ Find the value of V when ␪ = 4 Find the value of ␪ for which the volume of the cone is 0. ii Solve the equation f (x) = 0 for x.Chapter 10 — Applications of differentiation 399 Review 1m hm θ 1m rm 1 The volume of a cone is given by the formula V = ␲r 2 h 3 ii Find h in terms of ␪ . find the corresponding value(s) of a which satisfy the condition a2 − 3b = 0.) iii a = 1. b c d e 23 a For the function with rule f (x) = x3 + ax2 + bx plot the graph of each of the following using a calculator. ii Using a calculator plot the graph of y = f (x ) for this value of a. (Give axes intercepts. b = −1 ii a = −1.3 m3 . coordinates of stationary points and the nature of stationary points. b = −1 i a = 1. c i Show that the graph of y = f (x) has exactly one stationary point if a2 − 3b = 0 ii If b = 3.

f i State the relationship between b and a if there is a local minimum for x = 0. find the values of r for which dr dV is increasing. given that a = −b. a = −3 on a calculator. ii Find the maximum volume of the cylinder and the corresponding values of r and h. d Using a calculator plot the graph of y = f (x ) for several values of a and b. iii From the calculator. ii From the calculator. ii Solve the equation f (x ) = 0 for x. 26 For the quartic function f with rule f (x ) = (x − a)3 (x − b).400 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review vi Find the derivative of g (x). The cross-section through the centre of the sphere is as shown. e i If a = b. h cm. Find V in terms of r. then b = a and f (x ) = (x − a)4 g Show that if there is a turning point for x = 2 27 A cylinder is to be cut from a sphere.) iii Find the two possible values of r if the volume is 2000. find the values of r for which dr . dV against r. a+b . b i Solve the equation f (x) = 0 for x. dV . with rule f (x ) = (x − a)2 (x − b)2 . ii Illustrate this for b = 1. Let r cm be the radius of the cylinder. 25 For the quartic function f. c i Find dr ii Hence find the exact value of the maximum volume and the volume of r for which this occurs. c Hence find the coordinates of the stationary points of the graph of y = f (x ) d Plot the graph of y = f (x ) on a calculator for several values of a and b. iii Plot the graph of y = f (x ) for several values of a. find the coordinates of the stationary points. f (x ) = (x − a)4 . of the 10 cm cylinder. (Use a calculator. b i Plot the graph of V against r using a calculator. e If a = −b state the coordinates of the stationary points in terms of a. using a calculator. The radius of the sphere is 10 cm. a > 0 and b > 0: a Show that f (x) = 2 (x − a) (x − b) [2x − (b + a)]. v Find g (0) and g (10). a > 0 and b > 0: a Show that f (x) = (x − a)2 [4x − (3b + a)] ii Solve the equation f (x ) = 0 b i Solve the equation f (x) = 0 c Find the coordinates of the stationary points of the graph of y = f (x ) and state the nature of the stationary points. Sketch the graph of y = f (x) ii If a = −b. vii Show that the graph of y = g (x) has no stationary points and thus deduce that g (x) = 0 has only one solution. O a i Find y in terms of r and hence the height. y cm 2 r cm ii The volume of a cylinder is given by V = ␲ r h. d i Plot the graph of the derivative function dr dV is positive.

x a Water is poured into the container at O a rate of 100 cm3 /s.3% q in the volume. i Find h in terms of r. dS b i Find . b Find the equation of the parabola.section profile AOB is a parabola whose vertex is at a lowest B A 16 point O. 13x 12x C y 5x B 3 13x E 12x F 5x . Find the rate at which the level of liquid is rising when the depth of liquid in the container is 9 cm. ii Show that a small increase of q% in the radius will cause an approximate increase of 2. correct to three decimal places. For r = 4: 3 i Show that a small increase of p cm in the radius results in an increase of 80␲ p in the volume. the surface area of the prism. iv Find dr 2 3 2 b If h = 6. whose dimensions in cm are as 30 y indicated. c Given that x is increasing at 0. Find the rate of change of the surface area when y = 9. V cm3 .e. of the peg is given by V = ␲ r 2 h + ␲r 3 h cm 3 a If the surface area of the peg is 100␲ cm: ii Find V as a function of r. ii Find S cm2 . iii Find the possible values of r (i. 29 The diagram shows a container open at D 60 C the top. i Find the rate of change of x with respect to time when y = 9. in terms of x. dV v Sketch the graph of V against r. find the domain of the function defined in ii). A 30 A triangular prism has dimensions as shown in the diagram. given that the volume V cm3 of liquid when the depth of water is y cm is given by V = 300 y 2 . All lengths are in centimetres. D dx ii Find the minimum surface area. V = 6␲ r + ␲ r . ABCD is a horizontal rectangle. c The water is being poured in at a rate of 100 cm3 /s. The cross. The volume of the prism is 3000 cm3 . a i Find y in terms of x.Chapter 10 — Applications of differentiation 401 Review 28 A wooden peg consists of a cylinder of length h cm and a hemispherical cap of radius r cm so that the r cm 2 volume.5 cm/s find the rate at which the surface area is increasing when x = 10. ii The surface of the water is a rectangle (the rectangle with dashed lines in the diagram).

2 For f (x ) = x −a sin x cos x cos x sin x cos x sin x A + − B − − C 2 2 x −a (x − a ) x −a (x − a ) x −a ( x − a )2 x sin x x cos x cos x sin x D − − E x −a ( x − a )2 x x x 3 For f : R → R . in a sample increases with time. find f (x ). according to the rule N = 4000e0. e) C (0. 1) D (1. f (x ) = x For f (x ) = sin kx .1 cos 1 C 0. f (x ) = x 1 For f (x ) = loge |kx |. f (x ) = −k sin kx For f (x ) = tan (kx ). 1) e 1 .1 E 0. f (x ) = kekx 1 For f (x ) = loge kx . with kx > 0. 0) E (e. logs and trig functions Chapter summary For f (x ) = ekx .432 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review Ch 11 Differentiation of exponential. f (x ) = k sec2 (kx ) 1 =k cos2 (kx ) k = 2 cos (kx ) Multiple-choice questions 1 The derivative of e−2ax cos (ax ) with respect to x is: B ae−2ax cos (ax ) − 2ae−2ax sin (ax ) A −ae−2ax cos (ax ) − 2ae−2ax sin (ax ) D 2ae−2ax cos (ax ) + 2ae−2ax sin (ax ) C −2ae−2ax cos (ax ) − ae−2ax sin (ax ) E −ae−2ax cos (ax ) − 2ae−2ax sin (ax ) cos x .2t . the coordinates of the turning point of the graph of y = f (x ) are: 1 A 1. t hours. e is: 4 The equation of the tangent of y = eax at the point a A y = eax −1 + 1 B y = aeax x C y = 1 − aeax 2 e x D y= E y = aex a 5 If z = loge (x) then ␦z is approximately equal to: 1 ␦x 1 C B loge (␦x ) A loge (x + ␦x ) D E ␦x x x 6 If z = sin x and sin 1 = a then using the linear approximation the value of sin (1. where a is a constant. that the bacteria are growing 3 hours from the start is: A 1458 B 7288 C 16 068 D 80 342 E 109 731 .1 1 − a 2 7 Under certain conditions.1a A 0. The rate. f (x ) = e − ex .1 1 − a 2 + a D a + 0.1) is equal to: √ √ B 0. to the nearest whole number of bacteria per hour. the number of bacteria. B (1. N. f (x ) = k cos kx For f (x ) = cos kx .

2. a Prove that dt b If k = 0. t = 2 and t = 4 (seconds). 20 x 7 Find the equation of the tangent of y = e at (1. E (1. x = 0 c y = 5e3x + x 2 . Its displacement after t seconds is 0.0 B . 0) D −1. e). of material inside a nuclear power station at time t seconds after a 1 reaction begins is given by ␪ = e100t 4 a Find the rate of temperature increase at time t. x = 0 a y = e2x + 1. the coordinates of the turning point of the graph of 10 For f : R → R . ␪ ◦ C. find the rate of increase of D where D = 100. C − . x = 1 eax ebx 5 A vehicle is travelling in a straight line from a point O.25et metres. d2x dx 9 If x = 2e−2t + 3e−t . 8 The diameter of a tree (D cm) t years after 1 January 1990 is given by D = 50ekt dD = cD for some constant c. e 6 The temperature. show that 2 + 3 + 2x = 0 dt dt 10 Find the minimum value of e3x + e−3x . x = 1 d y = 5 − e−x . 4 Differentiate each of the following with respect to x: b eax +b c ea −bx d beax − aebx a eax . f (x ) = eax − e y = f (x ) are: 1 1 1 1 2 1 A − . a a e a e e Short-answer questions (technology-free) 1 Differentiate each of the following with respect to x: x b sin (3x + 2) c cos a loge (x 2 + 2) 2 e loge (3 − x ) f sin (2␲ x ) g sin2 (3x + 1) 2 loge 2x j x 2 sin (2␲ x ) i x 2 Differentiate each of the following with respect to x: loge x a e x sin 2x b 2x 2 loge x c x3 sin 2x 3 2 e g x sin2 (3x ) f cos (3x + 2) cos 2x d ex h 2 −2x loge x .Chapter 11 — Differentiation of transcendental functions 433 Review 8 The gradient of the tangent to the curve y = x 2 cos 5x at the point where x = ␲ is: B −5␲ 2 C 5␲ D −5␲ E −2␲ A 5␲ 2 9 The equation of the tangent to the curve with equation y = e−x − 1 at the point where the curve crosses the y-axis is: 1 1 C y= x D y = − x E y = −2x A y=x B y = −x 2 2 ax . t = 1. Find the velocity of the vehicle at t = 0. x > 1 d sin 2x cos 3x 3 Find the gradient of each of the following curves for the stated value of x: 2 b y = e x +1 . 1 b Find the rate of increase of temperature when t = .

␲ √ x at the point . Extended-response questions 1 A section of a rollercoaster can be described by the rule: ␲x y = 18 cos + 12. 0 ≤ x ≤ 80 80 dy a Find the gradient function. 2 Find the equation of the tangent of y = loge |x | at the point (−e. 2 dx dx Find the equation of the tangent of y = loge x at the point (e. dx dy against x.3x 3 Consider the function f : {x : x < a } → R . . 1). f Sketch the graph of y = f (x ) 4 a Using a calculator plot the graphs of f (x ) = sin x and g (x ) = esin x on the one screen. b Sketch the graph of dx c State the coordinates of the point on the track for which the magnitude of the gradient is maximum. 1). c Give the range of g. 2 . d State the period of g. d Find the rule of the inverse function f −1 . f (x ) = 8 loge (6 − 0. a Find f (x ) b Find the rate of growth of the kangaroo population when: i x = 0 and ii x = 4 100 000 1 + 100e−0. y 30 m x 6m 0 80 2 The kangaroo population in a certain confined region is given by f (x ) = where x is the time in years.2x ) where a is the largest value for which f is defined. b Find g (x ) and hence find the coordinates of the stationary points of y = g (x ) for x ∈ [0. . Find the equation of the tangent to y = 2 sin 2 2 3␲ Find the equation to the tangent to y = cos x at the point .0 . a What is the value of a? b Find the exact values for the coordinates of the points where the graph of y = f (x ) crosses each axis. e State the domain of the inverse function f −1 . Find two values of a. 2␲ ].434 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 11 y = eax is a solution of the equation 12 a b c d d2 y dy −3 + 2 y = 0. c Find the gradient of the tangent to the graph of y = f (x ) at the point where x = 20.

0 M c Find NQ in terms of ␪ . y P x . 2) 1 N a Show that the derivative of is −cosec2 ␪ . c Let f (x ) = e x and g (x ) = x + 1. Use a calculator to investigate functions of the form: h ( x ) = a f ( x − b) + c and k (x ) = ag (x − b) + c Comment on your observations. It is known that if x is the number of grams not dissolved after t hours then: x= 1 6 60 . ii Sketch the graph of dt iii Write a short explanation of your result. 2) to intersect the positive y-axis at Q and the positive Q x-axis at P. then the equation of x1 . Denote OP + OQ by x. d Hence find OP + OQ in terms of ␪ . c Show that f (x ) > 0 for all x. b Find {x : f (x ) = 0} d Sketch the graph of f . e Find d␪ f Find the minimum value for x and the value of ␪ for which this occurs. for x ≥ 0. 7 A straight line is drawn through the point (8. f (x ) = e x − e−x a Find f (x ). 8 Let f : R → R . d Use the chain rule and properties of transformations to prove that if the tangent of the curve with equation y = f (x ) at the point (x1 .Chapter 11 — Differentiation of transcendental functions 435 Review 5 a Show that the tangent to the graph of y = e x for x = 0 has equation y = x + 1 b Plot the graphs of y = e x and y = x + 1 on a calculator. y1 ) is y = mx + c. b Find dt ␭x 2 dx c i Show that = −␭x − dt 20 dx against x. tan ␪ θ b Find MP in terms of ␪ .) θ (8. where ␭ = loge 5e␭t − 3 2 5 a Find the amount of chemical present when: i t =0 ii t = 5 dx in terms of t. y1 a is the tangent of the curve with equation y = a f (bx ) at the point b y = a (mbx + c) 6 A certain chemical starts to dissolve in water at time t ≥ 0. (In this problem we will determine the minimum value of OP + OQ. dx .

to the nearest hour. c Sketch the graph of f . After t hours there are y grams of Aebt (1) and A and b are positive constants. or otherwise. 0). f (x ) = x loge x + 1. the ability to memorise at age x years is f (x ). b Find a Show that 0 < y < 1 for all values of t. and the magnitude of ∠ OAB = magnitude of ∠ CAB = ␪ . dt y c From (1) show that Aebt = 1−y dy = by (1 − y ) d i Show that dt dy occurs when y = 0.e. e Find the maximum volume of the cone in terms of a. 6] → R . given by f : (0. the height of the cone in terms of a and ␪ . d When is the mouse’s ability to memorise a maximum in this period? 13 Some bacteria are introduced into a supply of fresh milk. show that the maximum value of dt e If A = 0. ii Hence.01 and b = 0. . 1 The volume. V a Find h. The height of the cone is denoted by h. 3 c Use the results from a and b to show that: 1 V = ␲a 3 sin2 ␪ (1 + cos ␪ ) 3 dV (a is a constant) and hence find the value d Find d␪ of ␪ for which the volume is a maximum. c Use these results to sketch on one set of axes the graphs of y = 2 loge x and y = (loge x )2 d Find {x : 2 loge x > (loge x )2 } loge x a maximum? That is. i.7 find when.5. a Find f (x ) b Find the value of x for which f (x ) = 0 and hence find when the mouse’s ability to memorise is a minimum. b Find r. h cm A θ θ O B r C 12 A psychologist hypothesised that the ability of a mouse to memorise during the first 6 months of its life can be modelled by the function f . bacteria present where y = 1 + Aebt dy in terms of t.436 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 9 a Find all values of x for which (loge x )2 = 2 loge x b Find the gradient of each of the curves y = 2 loge x and y = (loge x )2 at the point (1. when is the ratio of the logarithm of a 10 For what value of x is x number to the number a maximum? 11 A cone is inscribed inside a sphere as illustrated. the bacteria will be increasing at the fastest rate. of the cone is given by V = ␲r 2 h . the radius of the cone in terms of a and ␪ . V cm3 . The radius of the sphere is a cm. The radius of the cone is denoted by r.

f (x ) = x a Find f (x ) b Find {x : f (x ) = 0} c Find the coordinates of the one stationary point and state its nature. When the angle of elevation ABR has ␲ the value radians. k d Show that y = xke is the only tangent to the curve y = ekx which passes through the origin. 16 a Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = e x at the point (1. N. If during this period the population was the same in 1965 as it was in 1930. in degrees per second. It is observed from another point B on the ground where B is 10 km from A. ii Find lim x →∞ f ( x ) f (x ) e Sketch the graph of f . which is flying at a constant speed of 400 m/s. R. at which the searchlight is turning at the instant when the aircraft is at a horizontal distance of 5000 m from the searchlight. t hours. f (x ) f (x ) d i Find and comment. f The number of birds (n) in an island colony decreased and increased with time (t) years according to the approximate formula aekt t over some interval of years. where t is measured from 1900 and a and k are constant. d Find this rate of growth when: i t =4 ii t = 50 . b Find the rate of growth at any time t. this angle is increasing at the rate of 0. 1 . c Show that the rate of growth is proportional to the number of bacteria present at any time. rises vertically from level ground at a point A. Find 4 in. 15 A rocket. The number. e Hence determine for what values of k the equation ekx = x has: i a unique real root ii no real roots x e 17 Let f : R + → R . at a height of 10 000 metres. find the rate. the velocity of the rocket at that instant. when was it least? n= 18 A culture contains 1000 bacteria and 5 hours later the number has increased to 10 000. e). of bacteria present at any time. If the light is continuously directed at the aircraft.e .005 radians per second. b Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = e2x at the point 2 1 c Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = ekx at the point .Chapter 11 — Differentiation of transcendental functions 437 Review 14 A searchlight is located at ground level vertically below the path of an approaching aircraft. Give your answer correct to three decimal places. is given by N = Aekt a Find the values of A and k.e . km/s.

5. A and B. the number of hours of night.03t B : population = 104 e0. The relationship between T. .2 sin (3␲ t ). D(t) metres. and t. is oscillating so that its length h metres above the floor after t seconds is given by: y = 0. c Find the average rate of change of hours of night from t = 0 to t = 6. c Find the rate at which the depth is changing when: i t =3 ii t = 6 iii t = 12 i At what times is the depth increasing most rapidly? d ii At what times is the depth decreasing most rapidly? 21 A particle on the end of a spring. are increasing according to the rules: A: population = 2 × 104 e0. T (hours) 20 4 0 6 12 t (months) a Find the value of: i r and ii p and q b Find T (3) and T (9) and find the rate of change of hours of night with respect to the number of months. 3 3 6 22 The length of night on Seal Island varies between 20 hours in midwinter and 4 hours in midsummer. The graph of T against t is illustrated. 0 ≤ t ≤ 24 a Sketch the graph of D(t) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 24. . b Find the values of t for which D (t ) ≥ 8. is given by T (t ) = p + q cos ␲r t where p . t ≥ 0 a Find the greatest height above the floor and the time at which this height is first reached.5 + 0.05t After how many years will their populations: a be equal? b be increasing at the same rate? 20 The depth. b Find the period of oscillation. which is hanging vertically. 1 2 1 c Find the speed of the particle when t = . q and r are constants. Assume that the year consists of 12 months of equal length.438 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 19 The populations of two ant colonies. d After how many months is the rate of change of hours of night a maximum? . of water at the entrance to a harbour at t hours after midnight on a particular day is given by: D (t ) = 10 + 3 sin ␲t 6 . the number of months past the longest night in 1991.

iv Solve the equation N2 (t ) = 0 and hence give the minimum population of this species of insects. find N3 (t ). b It is found that the change in population of another species is given by: N2 (t ) = 1000 − 1 t2 t + 1 t2 2e 20 i Find N2 (0). iii Plot the graph of y = N2 (t ) for t ∈ [0. iii Find N(0). 5000] on a calculator.2 square units. of the rectangle OABC in terms of x is 2x cos 3x dA . iv Find N(100). y 2 C B(x. ii Find N2 (100). c A third model is: N3 (t ) = 1000 − t 2 + 2e 20 Use a calculator to: i plot a graph for 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 ii find the minimum population and the time at which this occurs d i For N3 . √ ii Show N3 (t ) = 0 is equivalent to t = 20 loge (15 t ) 3 t . ii Find the minimum population size and value of t for which this occurs.Chapter 11 — Differentiation of transcendental functions 439 Review 23 A section of the graph of y = 2 cos 3x is shown in the diagram. iii Find the maximum area of the rectangle and the value of x for which this occurs. 1 dA = 0 is equivalent to tan 3x = d i Show that dx 3x 1 ␲ ii Using a calculator plot the graphs of y = tan 3x and y = for x ∈ 0. 24 a A population of insects grows according to the model N (t ) = 1000 − t + 2e 20 for t ≥ 0 where t is the number of days after 1 January 2000. and 3x 6 find the coordinates of the point of intersection. v Sketch the graph of N against t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 100. 6 dx 6 ␲ . c i On a calculator plot the graph of A = 2x cos 3x for x ∈ 0. 2 cos 3x) a Show that the area. i Find the rate of growth of the population as a function of t. b i Find dx x π ␲ dA A O ii Find when x = 0 and x = . 6 ii Find the two values of x for which the area of the rectangle is 0. A.

ii Apply Pythagoras’ theorem to triangle OBX to find R in terms of h and ␣. . 10).440 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS Review 25 The height h m of a cliff is determined by measuring the angle of elevation of the top of the cliff from a point P level with the base of the cliff and at a distance x m from it. Using a calculator plot the graph of: ␲ × 5 × sec2 (␣◦ ) for 0 < ␣ < 90 y= 18 c If the greatest error in the measurement of the angle is (0.e. ii Use calculus to find the x-values for which there is a turning point. then the ␲x calculation of the height of the cliff yields an error of approximately sec2 (␣◦ )␦␣ 180 b Let x = 50. hm α° xm P a Show that if an error is made in the measurement of the angle by (␦␣)◦ . ii Find ␦R if h = 0 and the semi-vertex angle of 30◦ is measured to be 29.1◦ . in terms of a. i Find the error in R. find the value of a. O is the centre of the circumcircle of the triangle. find the x-axis intercepts. If the curve passes through the point with coordinates (3. what is the greatest possible error for the calculation of the height of the cliff in terms of ␣? 26 Triangle ABC is isosceles with AB = AC. iii Use the result that 1 + tan2 ␣ = sec2 ␣ to show: R= A O B X C h sec2 ␣ 2 b If the measure of h is exact but that of the semi-vertex angle ␣◦ is to have an error of (␦␣)◦ . 27 a Consider the curve with equation y = (2x 2 − 5x )eax .02)◦ . Let AX = h cm and angle BAX = ␣◦ where X is the midpoint of BC. b i For the curve with equation y = (2x 2 − 5x )eax . The radius of the circle is R cm. i. a i Find BX in terms of h and ␣. find ␦R.

83) I . domain of g −1 = (0.89)n I b 6 stations x 9 a Area = 0.5 metres b x (m) 40 1449.. c = 2 2 y 3a 4 x = – 4 sin π t x 5 a (0. f ◦ g(x) = sin 5790 0 –4 x 1 2 bi x =0 ii x = −4 iii x = 0 7 ct = 6 2␲ = 2 seconds d Period = ␲ 4ai 0 ii 2. x = 2 2 3 7 c ii b = . 8:18:14 d T (°C) 95°C 15°C 0 n t (hours) 8 a Carriage A (0. 1]. range x of g −1 = [1. 1) 0 Answers Extended-response questions 1 a a = −0. 4) (4.m. c = 5097.5◦ C c 6 hours 18 minutes and 14 seconds after 2:00 p.66(0.95 m 1 2 a a = −3 b x = −1.79 m c Length of bar = 2 × 30 ≈ 10.7◦ Chapter 8 Multiple-choice questions 1D 7C 13 A 19 B 25 D 31 E 37 C 43 C 49 C 55 B 61 A 67 E 2A 8A 14 E 20 D 26 E 32 D 38 D 44 D 50 D 56 A 62 A 68 C 3B 9B 15 D 21 C 27 A 33 E 39 C 45 B 51 B 57 B 63 D 69 C 4E 10 B 16 C 22 A 28 D 34 A 40 B 46 B 52 C 58 D 64 B 70 A 5A 11 C 17 E 23 C 29 D 35 A 41 E 47 E 53 C 59 D 65 D 6A 12 C 18 C 24 D 30 A 36 E 42 B 48 A 54 A 60 D 66 B 7 a A = 80. carriage B 0.661 0.3466 b 17.02(0.5 1 t (s) d t = 0.92)10−2. ␲ ). b = 0. k = 0.e. 1] b (0.0292 b 150 × 106 c 6. ∞) 6 a i n = 5790 ii 1158 n iii c range of g ⊆ domain of f .92) 10 b 0. 1] 1 x d Not defined as range of f is not contained in the domain of g 1 e g −1 (x ) = .780 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS b i p=3 y iii ii h −1 (x ) = x 2 + 3 y=x (1. ∞) f range of f = domain of g −1 1 g −1 ◦ f ( x ) = sin x domain = (0.9x d x < 2.35 seconds 5 a k = 0.661 n ii n = 5097.0199 mm2 c Load = 0. i. b = 9 √b DE = 2.5 iii 0 b 1 second y c 1158 0 t 0 179 −100 loge iv t = 3 1600 b i a = 2.518.417 years 6 a 62.08 0 t 0 45° 90° α c 24◦ 18 or 65.09. x = − .4494 × 108 d 23.59 m .02(0.049. range = [1.

2} c h = 12. gradient = −92 1 f 2 . k = 4. 6 7 8 11 a y = h − k cos ␲t 6 d0 h 3x i 12 units ii OQ = h − k . ii 4 3 2a a .5. 27 3 iv a = 3 n=5 12 2 6 13 14 3 15 4 16 11 10 9 1 5 Chapter 9 Exercise 9A 1ah+9 b 9. gradient = 393 e (1. ∞) b (−∞. 6). gradient = −1 c (−1. 2x 5 h + 6. 1) 0 (5. –1) x √ 3 3 ii a = 2 iv a = 3 √ 3 3 iii a > 2 1 v a=1 2 . −1).5. −1) ∪ (0. OR = h + k b T (°C) 16. 594).5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 t (months) Exercise 9B 1 a 10x b3 c0 d 6x + 4 e 15x 2 f 10x − 6 2 a 5x 4 b 28x 6 c6 d 10x − 4 2 e 12x + 12x + 2 f 20x 3 + 9x 2 g −4 x + 4 h 18x 2 − 4x + 4 3 a −2 b0 c 15x 2 − 6x + 2 6x 2 − 8 e 4x − 5 f 12x − 12 d 5 g 50x 4 h 27x 2 + 3 4 a 8x − 4 b 2x + 2 c 6x 2 − 12x + 18 d x 2 − 2x + 1 5 a (3. gradient = −8 d (4.5) ∪ (2. −28). gradient = 0 2 6a1 b1 c (1. 2) c {−1. 0 . ∞) 2 d (−∞.0 a a=2 a=3 0 (0. 0. 1) e2 f 4 or − 2 3 7 a {x : x < −1} ∪ {x : x > 1} b {x : −1 < x < 1} c {1.5 12 7.Answers 10 a f (n ) = 1 2 1 n + n+1 2 2 b i f (4) = 8 + 2 + 1 = 11 25 5 ii f (5) = + + 1 = 16 2 2 c n=4 7 9 6 2 5 4 3 1 10 11 8 781 vi y a=1 Answers 1 2 a=3 (2.1 c9 2ax +1 b 2x 3 + 1 c 40 e5 f1 g 2x + 1 i 3x 3 + x j 6x 3 a 2 + 3h + h 2 b2 4 2x + h .5 1 12 a i 3 + √ . 0 a 1 ii √ a y bi a=1 1 3 − √ . 0. −1} 8 a (−1. gradient = 8 b (0. 16).5. –1) x c i −4 3 a +a 27 4 4a iii A = √ 81 v 3 4 375 a.

x =± 3 2 . f b R \{0}.28. f c R \{0}.5 dy dx x 42 4− 9 x2 4x + 9 x . 6 a f (x ) = b f (x ) = 2 1 (x ) = (x − 1)− 3 3 4 1 ( x ) = ( x )− 5 5 2 1 (x ) = x − 3 3 3 2 f (x ) = (x + 2)− 5 5 2x − 4 if x > 4 or x < 0 4 − 2x if 0 < x < 4 i −4x − 2x + 12 (x 2 + 3)2 −2 1 − 3 x2 2x 2 1 + 2x 2 √ 1 + x2 −x 2 + 1 (x 2 + 1)2 −2x 2 − 2x + 4 (x 2 + 2)2 d 1 6 c5 0 x 2x − 4 2x + 4 if x > 0 if x < 0 b y dy = –3 dx Exercise 9K 1a8 b −8 2aD bF cB dC eA fE −2 x 5 + 4 x 3 − 2 x b {0} 3a (x 4 − 1)2 4 a −7 b −14 1 1 b 5a5 2 8 √ 6 2x 3x 2 + 1 7 a 4x − 3 b −3 c {1} 3 2 8 − 12 10 24␲ 11 (0.Chapter Review Chapter 5 25 −3x (x 2 + 1)− 2 26 3 24 a 4 x 1 Multiple-choice questions 1B 6C 2C 7D 3A 8E 4A 9A 5B 10 B 0 –2 4 Defined for R \{−1} −2x − 2 if x > −1 f (x ) = −2 if x < −1 y Short-answer questions (technology-free) 2 1a1− √ x 1 − x2 b d f h j 3 c √ 2 1 + 3x 3x − 15 e √ 2 x −3 4x g 2 (x + 1)2 2 10x (2 + 5x 2 )− 3 3 1 k 4x (3x 2 + 2)− 3 2 a −6 b1 y 3a –1 0 –2 x 5 a R \{1}.786 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS 3 Defined for R \{1} f (x ) = y Answers 2x + 2 −2 if x > 1 if x < 1 1 b ( y + 1)2 (1 − x9 )2 .14) 25 3 8x 15 24 x − 12 14 − 2 (x − 2)2 1 2 17 16 −63(5 − 7x )8 18 9 3 19 −70 20 0 21 −1 2 b −2 22 a − (2x + 1)2 23 a x = 0 or x = −2 b x > 0 or x < −2 c −2 < x < 0 y= dy dx x 0 1 c y y= 0 1. f d R \{−2}. 0.

(1.0985 2000 h −3 e i ␦y ≈ − a 2 2 1 1 h ≈ √ − ii √ 3 a a+h 2a 2 3 −28q 23 p 230 p 4a % b 10 11 8 dy = 5 − 2 .c=− 2 4 4 1 1 6 a i y = 2x − 3 ii y = − x − 2 2 1 b i y = −3 x − 1 ii y = x − 1 3 c i y = −x − 2 ii y = x 49 1 d i y = 8x + 2 ii y = − x − 8 8 2 3 ii y = − x + 1 e i y = x +1 3 2 1 1 ii y = −2x + 3 f i y= x+ 2 2 . 6) and (7. y = − x + 3 4 2 1 2 y =− x −1 3 3 y = x − 2 and y = −x + 3 1 4 y = 18x + 1.Answers 5 b 3 3 .x = ␤ d i x> m+n ␣m + ␤ n ii x < ␣ or x > m+n nx n−1 d0 ex >0 4b n (x + 1)2 Exercise 10B 1 11. 18) and (10.48 8 cm 7 30 20 10 10 p ␲ cm2 1a Chapter 10 Exercise 10A 1 1 1 y = 4x − 5. ∞ ∩ (−1. d = 6 2 2 2 a i −1 and 3 ii x > 3 and x < −1 b i 3 and 7 ii (3.33) = 18◦ 26 c tan−1 (2. 6) and (10. 3) 3 a x = ␣ or x = ␤ b (x − ␤)m −1 (x − ␣)n−1 ((m + n )x − ␣m − ␤n ) ␣m + ␤n c x = ␣ or x = ␤ or x = m+n ␣m + ␤n .5) = 26 34 b tan−1 (0. 4) = . (1. y = − x + 1 18 3 11 29 5 .96◦ or 30◦ 58 3 161◦ 5 −1 ◦ 4 a tan (0. 2) and (−1.83) = 70◦ 39 5 a (1. 0)␣ = 45◦ . −1)␣ = 26◦ 34 b (0. −2)␣ = 12◦ 32 c (1.1 2 2 2 2 d i 2 and 10 ii (2. 1) and (−1. 4] and − f (x ) if x ∈ (−∞. c = − . 0) ∪ (4. 1)␣ = 63◦ 26 d 14◦ 2 Exercise 10C dy = 12x 2 − 16x b 16 c 0. 0)␣ = 18◦ 26 . 1) and (−1.32 dx 1 1 3 2 a − x− 2 b− 2000 2 3 c− d 0. 1) 1 5 5 1 c i and ii . 1). 1) e i 2 and 10 ii (2. ∞) 2x f (x ) − 2x 2 f (x ) c [ f (x )]3 3 2 4 ii y = − x + x+ 2 3 3 h i y = 4x − 16 1 15 ii y = − x − 4 2 i i y = −2 ii x = 2 1 ii y = − x + j i y = 4x − 4 4 3 1 7 a y = −1 by= x+ 2 2 c y = −2x − 1 d y = −4x + 5 8ax =4 b x = −5 1 cx =− d x = −5 2 g i y= 7 2 787 Answers 1 4 Extended-response questions 1 a i −4 iv −18 ii −6 v 6 iii −18 1 vi − 6 5 7 b a = . ␦y = 3p 5 dx x p 6 a 3p b √ 2 a −6 p d 8(2a + 1)3 p c (3a + 1)2 (−2a 2 − 10a + 2) p f e 36a (6a 2 − 1)2 p (a 2 + 1)2 5 2a h p g p 2 (a + 1)2 3(a 2 + 10) 3 31 1 9 −0.31◦ or 11◦ 19 2 30. (0.− .6 . 0) b 8◦ 8 and 0◦ ◦ 6 71 34 7 a (0.4 2 2 6 a x f (x ) + f (x ) b f (x ) if x ∈ [0. b = 1.

e y 25 + 2w cA= √w √ 5 2 d i kg ≈ 3.08) 793 Answers Multiple-choice questions 1A 6E 2E 7B 3E 8C 4B 9B 5A 10 B Short-answer questions (technology-free) 1 a y = −x b (0. 6 √ √ 3 + 1). 0) (248.b= . 0) b Max.61. ) 5 12 a 64␲ cm3 /cm b 64␲ cm3 /s c 2 ≤ n ≤ 248 d n = 20 6 32 7 a T = 2w 2 + 25 b T T = 2w2 + 25 25 0 w Extended-response questions 1 a y = 4x − x 2 b 0 < x < 4 c y = 4.74 14. The maximum area is 96 m2 . at (1.54 kg ii A = 10 2 ≈ 14.008x + x c C (120. at ( − 3 . 1). units/unit 5 a Max.14 2 48 8 b C = 3x 2 + x c C 0 4 x (2. 0) n 7 x = 1 stationary point of inflexion.40 b C = 12 + 0. min.39. 0) 2 −3a 2 and y = 6ax − 3a 2 11 3 y = 3x − 3. at (−1 .e. x = 2 minimum −1 8 y = −9 x + 7 9 (0. x = 2 d Gradient to the left of x = 2 is positive and to the right negative. x = 3 4 a 5␲ sq. 6 cm e 144 cm3 f V (2.Answers −(2d + 3) 11 − 4d 4d − 1 . 0).4Chapter review 38 bd = 67 10 a a = d x = 6. −6 3 + 1) y 6 (1. 2) 10 x = 2 1 4 11 a R \{1} f (x ) = (x − 1)− 5 5 4 3 4 b y = x − and y = − x + 1 5 5 5 1 c (1. h = 3 i. −4) √ c Max. 4) C = 12 + 0. 6090) 0 3 x 0 (1. at (1. 12 cm. stationary point of inflexion (0. 3 m ii 36 m2 . at ( 3. 144) 0 (5. 3 a i $12. √ min. 2 m.008x 12 0 x d 42. units/unit b 6␲ sq. 36) f0< y<4 2 a A = 4x y 2 b y =− x +8 3 2 8 c A = 4x 8 − x = 32x − x 2 3 3 0 x d i x = 2.68 ii $12. y = 4 e A = 96.43 km/h 4 a V = 4(x 3 − 13x 2 + 40x ) b0<x <5 cx =2 d 2 cm. 13.c= 2 4 Chapter 10 . 2 m. 0) x 5 a i n = 125 ii Maximum daily profit = $6090 b P (125.

the maximum cross-sectional area is 2 2 dA 16 c ii = −3x 2 − 2ax + a 2 dx 17 a b = 5. c = 6 b i 6 weeks ii 3. i. 5 3 27 –0.84. 1) 0.618 0 x 21 a i V (0) = 0 ii V (20) = 1 000 mL dV 3 b = (20t − t 2 ) dt 4 1.618 (1. 10 m. b = −2. 12 521.44) 0 y (–1. 75 mL/s 2␲ − ␪ 22 a i r = 2␲ ii h = 1− 2␲ − ␪ 2␲ 2 √ 49 15␲ b 1536 d i ␪ = 1. 0) x 0 (1.84 hours 15 14 1.618 0 y 0 1. –1) x d Capacity = 82 165 214 m3 e dV dt (0. −6) b 3(x − 1)2 + 3 c 3(x − 1)2 + 3 > 3 for all x ∈ R \{1} 19 a a = 1. 1. c = 1. 0) x 20 a 53 109 671 m3 c V (m3) (60.51) iii y (60.618 –1.5 ii 71 seconds d 63 seconds √ 20 + 16 2 13 b T = ≈ 2. 2.3281.794 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS 9 10 m. 5 m 1 1 100 2 ␪ bA= 10 a A = a 2 ␪ 2 2 ␪+2 1 2 m = 625 cm2 d c␪=2 16 L ii ␪ = 2 iii maximum 11 b i r = 4 3 x dT 12 b − = √ 2 dx 5 x + 900 c i x = 22. 75) 0 20 t (seconds) e t = 10 seconds. 2. y = ±1 2 √ dA=2 √ 2.5271 ii Vmax = 0.153 e 0.2 km apart 1 15 b 0 < x < 1 c x = √ . 13 765.16 hours after noon.403 m3 y = x3 + x2 + x (0. – 5 3 27 .e. 82 165 214) b dV = ␲ ( y + 630)2 dy No stationary points ii y – 1.852 weeks 2 2 c 190 cm 3 18 a (1.403 m3 y 23 a i c 0. d = 0 1 b x: < x < 1 3 y c 1. 4 3 27 c V (mL) 1000 0 20 t (seconds) d V'(t) mL/s (10.

1) stationary points of inflexion a = −3 or a = 3 iii.57) 0 x No stationary point b i f (x ) = 3x 2 + 2ax + b √ −a ± a 2 − 3b ii x = 3 c ii (−1. 0) e − . b + a (a − b)4 . –1) 0 x a = 3. 0). 0) x (0. ∴ only one solution b+a 25 b i x = a or x = b or x = 2 ii x = a or x = b c Stationary points (a.143. (0.18. local min. c (a . 0). 1) x a = –3. b = 3 y = x3 – 3x2 + 3x y = f (x) a 0 1 ii (a . 0). 0). (b − a )4 . g (10) = 24 114 g (x ) = 72x 2 − 6x + 42 g (x ) > 0 for all x. 2 16 a fi b =− 3 . (b.4) 8 –4 3 –1 0 1 2 2 x (–1. 2 16 y e i ii iii iv v vi vii y = (x – a)4 iv y x 0 y = f '(x) (1. – 0. (−a .15. 8) (0. 8. at (0. (1. –21.57) g (x ) = 24x 3 − 3x 2 + 42x − 6 0. 0).1427 g (0) = −6. −1). b = 3 Min. 7.45.4) 3b + a 26 b i x = a or x = 4 ii x = a or x = b 3b + a −27 .Answers iv y 795 b i y Answers (0. 0) is a stationary point of inflection a −27a 4 and (a. 4 256 (a . 7. Therefore g (x ) has no turning points.88) (1. a 4 ) y iii d a 2 < 3b 24 a i a = −21 ii y –a (0.143. iv y y = x3 + 3x2 + 3x y = f '(x) –1 (–1. a4) a x (– 0.

e). m = 2 e +1 1 e (1.796 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS √ √ 27 a i y = 100 − r 2 and h = 2 100 − r 2 √ ii V = 2␲r 2 100 − r 2 b i V (cm3) Answers 0 10 r (cm) ii V = 2418. 0). r = 8. m = 2 3 a (e. 1).456 or r = 9.32) 2 a e x (x 2 + 2x + 1) b e2x (2x 3 + 3x 2 + 6x + 5) c 2e4x +1 (x + 1)(2x + 3) −8x − 7 d √ 2e4x x + 1 x −2e x 3e − 2e4x b 3 a 3x (e x − 1)2 (e + 3)2 −8e2x c 2x (e − 2)2 2x 3 (2 − x ) b 2e2x +3 4a e2x 1 3 e x (x − 1) c (2e2x + 1)(e2x + x ) 2 d 2 x2 1 2 x 2 e xe 2 f − x e−x x e ( f (x ) − f (x )) 5 a e x ( f (x ) + f (x )) b [ f (x )]2 f (x ) x c f (x )e d 2e f (x ) f (x ) + [ f (x )]2 e x Exercise 11B 1a d g j 2a c 2 x 3x − 1 x2 2 2x + 3 3 15 − x 2x x2 + 1 1 − loge x x2 2 x 3+x e x −2 h −2x + 3 3 k4− x −6 b c 2x + f 3 x 1 x +1 6 i 2x − 3 b loge x + 1 d 2x (2 loge x + 1) 1 x 0 2√15 r (cm) 29 a 4 2 dy 2 by= x = 225 dt 27 50 ds dx 5 c i = ii = dt 9 dt 54 100 3000 30 a i y = 2 + 60x 2 ii s = x x 3000 ds b i = − 2 + 120x ii 1538. 0). m = 2 d (−e.47. m = 0 1 3 1 + 2x 4 6 72 82 5 2 2 5 1+x +x e e x loge x + Chapter 11 Exercise 11A 1 a 5e 5 x c −12e−4x + e x − 2x e (2x + 3)e x +3x +1 g 2e2x − 2e−2x 2 Exercise 11C 1 b −21e−3x e3x − e x d e2x 2 f (6x − 1)e3x −x 1 y 0 x .21) dr 100 − 3r 2 28 a i h = 2r ␲r (300 − 5r 2 ) ii V = 6 √ iii defined for 0 < r < 2 15 dV ␲ iv = (300 − 15r 2 ) dr 6 v V (cm3) (4.99 cm2 dx x c 585 cm2 /s f loge (−x ) + 1 x 2 + 1 − 2x 2 loge x g1 h x (x 2 + 1)2 1 b (e. 1). log (e2 + 1)). h = 11.55 iii r = 6. m = e 2e c (e. m = −2 h (0.165. 5. 468. dr 6 dV iii is increasing for r ∈ (0.4. 1). m = − e f (1.297 400␲r − 6␲r 3 dV c i = 1 dr (100 − r 2 ) 2 √ 4000␲ 3 occurs when ii Vmax = √ 9 √ 20 6 10 6 r= = 6 3 √ 20 6 dV d ii > 0 for r ∈ 0. m = −1 g (0. 0).

0. 8 loge 6)(25.e 2 2 e e d 2␲ as g (x + 2␲ ) = g (x ) 6 a i 30 g ii 12. 12) 3 000 000e−0.120 units/hour ii 1. . P is 400 metres from B for minimum time b aeax +b c −bea −bx 4 a aeax d abeax − baebx e (a − b)e(a −b)x 5 0. 0) c f (20) = −0. P0 = 30 b 9.3x )2 b i 294 kangaroos/year ii 933 kangaroos/year 3 a a = 30 b (0.373 units/hour √ 200 3 1 ◦ m/s b rad/s = 1.8 x eR d f −1 (x ) = 5 6 − e 8 y f (0. 8 loge 6) 0 x (25.3x 2 a f (x ) = (1 + 100e−0. 0.28 d1 ␲ 3␲ 1 1 . maximum area = 12 3 square units 75 seconds 4a cos ␪ b 220 − 60 tan ␪ seconds dT 75 sin ␪ − 60 d = d␪ cos2 ␪ −1 4 e ␪ = sin11 Chapter ≈ 53◦ 8 Chapter review 5 f T = 265 seconds. ∞) → R .78 c 15e3 + 2 ≈ 303.25 m/s. x +a f −1 (x ) = loge a 1 ii y = ax and y = x a iv Pairs of graphs of this form intersect at the origin.25e4 m/s 6 a 25e100t ◦ C/second b 25e5 ◦ C/second 7 y = ex 8 b 20 cm/year 10 2 11 a = 2 or a = 1 √ x ␲ 1 by= √ − √ + 2 12 a y = x e 2 2 2 −1 3␲ dy= x cy=x− e 2 Answers Extended-response questions 1a b dy −9␲ = sin dx 40 dy dx 0 80 x ␲x 80 –9π 40 Multiple-choice questions 1C 6C 2B 7A 3D 8E 4E 9B 5D 10 C Short-answer questions (technology-free) 1a 2x b 3 cos (3x + 2) +2 x 1 2 d (2x − 2)e x −2x c − sin 2 2 1 e f 2␲ cos (2␲ x ) x −3 g 6 sin (3x + 1) cos (3x + 1) = 3 sin (6x + 2) 1 2 − 2 loge 2x h i 2x loge x x2 x2 c Magnitude of gradient is a maximum at the point (40. c .e . 0) x = 30 4b j 2x sin (2␲ x ) + 2␲ x 2 sin (2␲ x ) 2 a e x sin 2x + 2e x cos 2x 1 − 3 loge x b 4x loge x + 2x c x4 d 2 cos 2x cos 3x − 3 sin 2x sin 3x 2 = 2 sec2 2x e cos2 2x f −9 cos2 (3x + 2) sin (3x + 2) g 2x sin2 3x + 6x 2 cos 3x sin 3x b0 3 a 2e2 ≈ 14.1373.25e2 m/s.625 hours c i 4. 0.9099 /s 2a 3 30 3 a 8 cos ␪ b Area =16 (1 + cos ␪√ ) sin ␪ .25e m/s.Answers d i f −1 : (−a .28 g dx −300␭e␭t b = dt (5e␭t − 3)2 c ii dx dt 0 x . 799 Exercise 11G 1 a ␭ = 0.

7 dt dN ii ≈ 4. where A = 1000 and dt 1 k = loge 10 5 dN c = kN dt dN d i ≈ 2905. when x = 1.66 years b t ≈ 9.61 × 1012 dt 19 a t ≈ 34.800 Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS 7 b MP = 2 tan ␪ c NQ = 8 tan ␪ 2 + 8 tan ␪ + 10 tan ␪ d When x = 6 bAebt dy = 13 b dt (1 + Aebt )2 e After 7 hours (to the nearest hour) 144 degrees per second = 1.632 0 6 7 x 0 6 12 24 t .833 degrees per 14 25␲ second 15 0.12 years 20 a D(t) ft = 13 10 1 1 e . when x = 1 y c y = (loge x)2 (e2.e. 0. 0) (1.37. minimum x −1 f (x ) d i = f (x ) x f (x ) ii lim = 1. during the fourth month of its life y c 1 ≈ 45.46 5 dN b = k Aekt . minimum occurred k in 1945 1 18 a A = 1000. e). 0 e2 y = 2loge x 4) x (1.1 km/s 16 a y = ex b y = 2ex c y = kex 1 e i A unique real root k = or k ≤ 0 e 1 ii k > e x xe − e x 17 a f (x ) = x2 bx =1 c (1. gradient of y = (loge x )2 = 0.27 years. e) 0 x d {x : 2 loge x > (loge x )2 } = [x : 1 < x < e2 } 10 x = e 11 a h = a (1 + cos ␪ ) b r = a sin ␪ dV 1 3 3 d = ␲ a [−sin ␪ d␪ 3 + 2 sin ␪ cos ␪ (1 + cos ␪ )] 1 ≈ 70◦ 32 ␪ = cos−1 3 32 3 eV = ␲a cm3 81 12 a f (x ) = loge x + 1 b x ≈ 0.e. ␪ = 26◦ 34 8 a f ( x ) = e x + e−x b {0} y d 0 x 9 a x = 1 or x = e2 b Gradient of y = 2 loge x is 2. i. k = loge 10 ≈ 0. f (x ) → f (x ) x →∞ f ( x ) as x → ∞ y e Answers d OP + OQ = e dx = −2 cosec2 ␪ + 8 sec2 ␪ d␪ f x = 18. i.

24 ii t = 6.2 square units b 10.9 square units 9 8 a square units b 9 square units 2 c 4 square units 0 π 6 x ii x = 0.6␲ m/s (moving 3 upwards).2 square units 3 a 10 square units b 10. 2 When t = . hours of night 3 3 4␲ hours/month increasing by 3 8 c − hours/month 3 d t = 9 (after 9 months) 23 a A = 2x cos (3x ) dA = 2 cos (3x ) − 6x sin (3x ) b i dx dA = 2. decrease strip width 5 a 36. r = 6 4 b T (3) = − ␲ .34 square units 35 c square units 2 2 a 13. c ii Minimum population is 297 and occurs when t = 100. 3 1 1 t d i N3 (t ) = − t 2 + e 20 2 10 ␲ sec2 ␣ 25 c 180 26 a i BX = h tan ␣ h ii R = (1 + tan2 ␣) 2 h sin ␣ ␲ b i ␦R = × ␦␣ 180 cos3 ␣ ii −0. 18 1 21 a The height is reached th of a second after 6 t = 0.6␲ m/s 3 (moving downwards).24. speed = 0 m/s. 2 b 3 1 c When t = . When x = .8 square units b 36. speed = 0.72 square units b 2.1209 27 a 1 loge 3 10 3 1 b i x = 0 and x = 5 2√ −4 + 5a ± 25a 2 + 16 ii x = 4a Chapter 12 Exercise 12A 1 a 3.5} = {t : 0 ≤ t ≤ 7} ∪ {t : 11 ≤ t ≤ 19} ∪ {t : 23 ≤ t ≤ 24} c i 0 metres/hour ␲ ii − metres/hour 2 ␲ iii metres/hour 2 d i t = 0.81 square units b 1. hours of night decreasing by 3 4␲ 4␲ hours/month T (9) = . 1 When t = .105 or x = 0.64 square units 4 a 0. 6 dx c i A v (100. 12.374 when x = 0. 6 1 22 a p = 12.88 square units.449 iii Maximum area = 0.7 square units 6 a ≈ 48 square units b Distance travelled 7 11. 974) 0 t b i N2 (0) = 1002 ii N2 (100) = 990 + 2e 2 iv Minimum population is 974 and occurs when t = (20 loge 10)2 . speed = 0. 900 + 2e5) 801 Answers N 1002 y = N(t) (20 loge 10. ii When x = 0. iii N (0) = 1002 iv N (100) = 900 + 2e5 Exercise 12B 1a x4 +c 8 x4 − x3 + c c 5 b 5 4 x − x2 + c 4 5 d 2z + z 2 − z 3 + c 2 . q = 8.287 1 t 24 a i N (t ) = −1 + e 20 10 ii Minimum population is 974 and occurs when t = 20 loge 10. dx ␲ dA − ␲.Answers b {t : D (t ) ≥ 8.