ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

ANATOMY
The pelvic girdle is the place where the lower limbs attach to the body. The right and leftcoxae, or hip bones, join each other anteriorly and the sacrum posteriorly, to form a ring of bonecalled the pelvic girdle and the coccyx. The sacrum and the coccyx form part of the pelvis butare also part of the axial skeleton. Each coxa formed by the three bones fused to one another toform a single bone. The ilium is the most superior, the ischium is the inferior and the pubis is theanterior and inferior. An iliac crest can be seen alongthe superior margin of each ilium and ananterior iliac spine, an important hip landmark, is located at the anterior end of the iliac crest.The coxae join each other anteriorly at the pubic symphysis and join the sacrum posteriorly at thesacro ilac joints. The acetabulum is the socket of the hip joint. The obturator foramen is the largehole in each coxa that is closed off by muscles and other structures.

PHYSIOLOGY
The organs of the reproductive systems are concerned with the general process of reproduction, and each is adapted for specialized tasks. These organs are unique in that their functions are not necessary for the survival of each individual. Instead, their functions are vital to the continuation of the human species. In providing maternity gynecologic health care to women, you will find that it is vital to your career as a practical nurse and to the patient that you will require a greater depth and breadth of knowledge of the female anatomy and physiology than usual. The female reproductive system consists of internal organs and external organs. The internal organs are located in the pelvic cavity and are supported by the pelvic floor. The external organs are located from the lower margin of the pubis to the perineum. The appearance of the external genitals varies greatly from woman to woman, since age, heredity, race, and the number of children a woman has borne determines the size, shape, and color.

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