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Edition 2.2 (1984-10)
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART II TEMPERATURE-RISE
( First Revision )
(Incorporating Amendment Nos. 1 & 2)
© BIS 2003 BUREAU
MANAK BHAVAN , 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002
Price Group 5
IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART II TEMPERATURE-RISE
( First Revision )
Transformers Sectional Committee, ETDC 16
Chairman SHRI U. K. PATWARDHAN Prayog Electricals Pvt Ltd, Bombay Members Representing Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (R&D Unit) SHRI S. AMMEERJAN SHRI N. S. S. AROKIASWAMY Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Madras SHRI M. K. SUNDARARAJAN ( Alternate ) SHRI B. G. BHAKEY Kirloskar Electric Co Ltd, Bangalore DR B. N. JAYARAM ( Alternate ) SHRI A. V. BHEEMARAU Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara SHRI J. S. IYER ( Alternate ) SHRI S. D. CHOTRANEY Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking, Bombay SHRI Y. K. PALVANKAR ( Alternate ) DIRECTOR (TRANSMISSION) Central Electric Authority, New Delhi DEPUTY DIRECTOR (TRANSMISSION) ( Alternate ) SHRI T. K. GHOSE Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Ltd, Calcutta SHRI P. K. BHATTACHARJEE ( Alternate ) JOINT DIRECTOR (SUB-STATION) Research, Designs and Standards Organization, Lucknow DEPUTY DIRECTOR STANDARDS (ELECTRICAL) ( Alternate ) SHRI J. K. KHANNA Directorate General of Supplies and Disposals (Inspection Wing), New Delhi SHRI K. L. GARG ( Alternate ) Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi SHRI B. S. KOCHAR SHRI R. D. JAIN ( Alternate ) SHRI J. R. MAHAJAN Indian Electrical Manufacturers’ Association, Bombay SHRI P. K. PHILIP ( Alternate ) SHRI D. B. MEHTA Tata Hydro-Electric Power Supply Co Ltd, Bombay SHRI R. CHANDRAMOULI ( Alternate ) ( Continued on page 2 ) © BIS 2003 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act (XIV of 1957) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.
PRAHLAD SHRI A. V. Bhopal SHRI V. Bombay SHRI S. V. NARKE Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd SHRI ISHWAR CHANDRA ( Alternate I ) SHRI PREM CHAND ( Alternate II ) SHRI S. N. Bombay SHRI D. New Delhi SHRI S. Bangalore SHRI K. K. ISI Panel for Revision of IS : 2026 Specification for Power Transformers. KHANNA ( Alternate ) NGEF Ltd. S. C. SHARIFF Karnataka Electricity Board. SRINIVASAN ( Alternate III ) 2 . RAMAN ( Alternate ) SHRI M. GURJAR ( Alternate ) SHRI K. SACHDEV. ISI ( Ex-officio Member ) SHRI S. R. G. MANERIKAR Crompton Greaves Ltd. Director (Elec tech) Secretary SHRI VIJAI Drputy Director (Elec tech). VARIER Crompton Greaves Ltd. SANGAR SHRI R. SHANMUKHAPPA SHRI P. New Delhi SHRI I. R. Bangalore SHRI B. G.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 ( Continued from page 1 ) Members Representing Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd SHRI D. Bombay National Electrical Industries Ltd. Hyderabad SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER TECHNICAL (PROJECTS) ( Alternate ) SHRI C. C. MANERIKAR ( Alternate ) Director General. P. SALVI ( Alternate ) Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking. ALVA ( Alternate ) SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Department (OPERATION) (Electricity Projects and Board). PALHAN ( Alternate ) Pradip Lamp Works. Patna SHRI CHANDRA K. A. NARKE SHRI ISHWAR CHANDRA ( Alternate I ) SHRI PREM CHAND ( Alternate II ) SHRI I. P. ETDC 16 : P6 Members SHRI S. PATEL Hindustan Brown Boveri Ltd. N. Bombay SHRI A. RAMASWAMY Directorate General of Technical Development. SAHGAL Siemens India Ltd. S. V. ROHATGI SHRI D. C. V.
Part 2 Temperature-rise’. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. Side bar indicates modification of the text as the result of incorporation of the amendment. *Specification for power transformers.3 In this revision the requirements for power transformers are covered in four parts as follows : Part I General Part II Temperature-rise Part III Insulation levels and dielectric tests Part IV Terminal markings.7 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. 0.2 incorporates Amendment No. ||Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ). 0.4 This standard (Part II) has been based on IEC Pub 76-2 (1976) ‘Power transformers. the final value. †Specification for power transformers: Part I General ‡Specification for power transformers: Part III Insulation levels and dielectric tests.2 The first revision of IS : 2026-1962* has been undertaken with a view to bring it in line with the revision of IEC Pub 76 (1967) Power transformers. 3 . shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960| |. F O R E W O R D 0. after the draft finalized by the Transformers Sectional Committee had been approved by the Electrotechnical Division Council.6 This edition 2. IS : 2026 (Part III)-1977‡ and IS : 2026 (Part IV)-I977§. 1 had been incorporated earlier. tappings and connections. 2 (October 1984). 0. issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. §Specification for power transformers: Part IV Terminal markings.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 Indian Standard SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS PART II TEMPERATURE-RISE ( First Revision ) 0.1 This Indian Standard (Part II) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 24 February 1977. expressing the result of a test.5 This part shall be read in conjunction with IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977†. 0. Amendment No. observed or calculated. tappings and connections 0. 0.
2. an oil-immersed transformer with forced directed oil circulation and forced air circulation shall be designated ODAF. auxiliary windings and stabilizing windings.2.2 The order in which the symbols are used shall be as given in Table 2. epoxy resin). TABLE 1 LETTER SYMBOLS ( Clause 2. separate tapping windings.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 1. 2. for instance.1 Dry-type transformers without protective enclosures are identified by two symbols only for the cooling medium that is in contact with the windings of the surface coating of windings with an overall coating (for example. however. NOTE — In transformers with forced directed oil circulation a certain proportion of the forced oil flow is channelled so as to pass through the windings. 2. Oblique strokes shall be used to separate the group symbols for different cooling methods.2.1 This standard (Part II) covers temperature-rise requirements of power transformers. 2.4 For oil-immersed transformers in which the alternatives of natural or forced cooling with non-directed oil flow are possible.2 Arrangement of Symbols — Transformers shall be identified by four symbols for each cooling method for which a rating is assigned by the manufacturer. may have a non-directed oil flow.1 ) i) Kind of Cooling Medium a) Mineral oil or equivalent flammable synthetic insulating liquid b) Non-flammable synthetic insulating liquid c) Gas d) Water e) Air ii) Kind of Circulation a) Natural b) Forced (oil not directed) c) Forced (directed oil) N F D Symbol O L G W A 2. typical designations are : ONAN/ONAF ONAN/OFAF 4 . Letter symbols for use in connection with each cooling method shall be as given in Table 1. Certain windings.1 Identification Symbols — Transformers shall be identified according to the cooling method employed.2. SCOPE 1. IDENTIFICATION ACCORDING TO COOLING METHOD 2. 2. 2.3 For example.
2 ) 1st Letter 2nd Letter 3rd Letter 4th Letter Kind of cooling med.1. If these windings are identical.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 2. 3.3 In certain types of transformers with concentric windings and vertical axes of core and windings two or more windings can be arranged one above the other.1.5 The cooling method of a dry-type transformer without a protective enclosure or with a ventilated enclosure and with natural air cooling is designated by : AN 2.2.1. LIMITS OF TEMPERATURE-RISE 3.1 The method of verification of the forced directed oil flow shall be subject to agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.2. of transformers designed for operation at altitudes not exceeding those given in 3 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977* and with cooling medium temperatures as described in 3 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977* shall not exceed the limits specified in Tables 3 and 4 when tested in accordance with 4.6 For a dry-type transformer in a non-ventilated protective enclosure with natural air cooling inside and outside the enclosure the designation is : ANAN TABLE 2 ORDER OF SYMBOLS ( Clause 2. the arithmetic mean value of their temperature-rises shall not exceed the permissible temperature-rises given in Tables 3 and 4. 3. If the windings *Specification for power transformers: Part I General 5 .2.1 Normal Temperature-Rise Limits — The temperature-rises of the windings.2 The temperature-rises of transformers immersed in nonflammable synthetic insulating liquids and using insulating materials whose temperature classes are different from A may be raised by an amount to be agreed by manufacturer and purchaser. cores and oil.Kind of circulation ium indicating the cooling medium that is in contact with the windings Kind of cooling med.Kind of circulation ium indicating the cooling medium that is in contact with the external cooling systems 3. normally at the time of tender. 3.
*In accordance with IS : 1271-1958 Classification of insulating material for electrical machinery and apparatus in relation to their thermal stability in service.3 and 4. natural or forced TEMPERATURE CLASS OF INSULATION* (4) A E B F H C — — TEMPERATURE-RISE (5) °C 50 65 70 90 115 140† a) Same values as for windings b) The temperature shall in no case reach a value that will damage the core itself. 4.3. In this case. the allowable temperature-rises for the windings.5.3. †For certain insulating materials. 3. cores and oil shall be reduced. their temperature-rises shall be subject to agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser. if operated under rated conditions. other parts or adjacent materials i) Windings (Temperaturerise measured by resistance method) ii) Cores and other parts a) Adjacent to windings b) Not adjacent windings to All All NOTE — Insulating materials may be used separately or in combination provided that in any application each material shall not be subjected to a temperature in excess of that for which it is suitable.1. TABLE 3 TEMPERATURE-RISE LIMITS FOR DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS ( Clauses 3. (1) PART (2) COOLING METHOD (3) Air. *Specification for power transformers: Part I General.1 ) SL NO . 3. the axial dimensions of each winding are to be considered.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 are not identical.1. 3.2 Reduced Temperature-Rises for Transformers Designed for High Cooling-Medium Temperatures or Special Cooling-Medium Conditions — If the transformer is designed for service where the temperature of the cooling-medium exceeds one of the maximum values shown in 3 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977* by no more than 10°C. 6 . temperature-rises in excess of 140°C may be adopted by agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
55. when the transformer is equipped with a is equipped with a conservator or sealed conservator or sealed 45.1. other parts or adjacent materials adjacent materials NOTE — The temperature-rise limits of the windings (measured by resistance method) are chosen to give the same hot-spot temperature-rise with different types of oil circulation. 7 . ii) Top oil (temperature-rise measured by thermometer) If the rated power is 10 MVA or greater.4 and 4. when the transformer 55.60. PART TEMPERATURE-RISE EXTERNAL COOLING MEDIUM (1) Air Water (3) (4) °C °C i) Windings (temperature. For smaller rated powers the allowable temperature-rises shall be reduced as follows : a) by 5°C if the excess temperature is less than or equal to 5°C. Any site conditions which may either impose restrictions on the air cooling or produce high ambient air temperatures shall be specified by the purchaser.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 TABLE 4 TEMPERATURE-RISE LIMITS FOR OIL-IMMERSED TYPE TRANSFORMERS ( Clauses 3.1. For this reason the windings of transformers with forced directed oil flow can have temperature-rise limits (measured by resistance method) which are 5°C higher than in other transformers. 3. the allowable temperature-rises shall be agreed to between the manufacturer and the purchaser. metallic parts. when the transformer 50. when the oil circulation is forced directed tion is forced directed (2) 50.3.3. Where for air-cooled transformers the excess temperature specified above exceeds 10°C.5.3.1 ) SL NO . 4. when the transformer is neither equipped is neither equipped with a conservator with a conservator nor sealed nor sealed iii) Cores. and The temperature shall in The temperature shall in adjacent materials no case reach a value that no case reach a value that will damage the core will damage the core itself. the reduction shall correspond to the excess temperature. other parts or itself. Transformers with forced directed oil flow have a difference between the hot-spot and the average temperature-rise in the windings which is smaller than that in transformers with natural or forced but not directed oil flow. when the oil circularise measured by resistance tion is natural or tion is natural or method) temperature class forced non-directed forced non-directed of insulation A 60. 3. when the oil circula. when the oil circula. or for water-cooled transformers the temperature of the cooling water exceeds 30°C. 4. and b) by 10°C if the excess temperature is greater than 5°C and less than or equal to 10°C.65. The hot-spot temperature-rise cannot normally be measured directly.
the measured temperature-rises are to be reduced by the above mentioned amounts for each 500 m by which the test altitude exceeds 1 000 m.0 percent NOTE 1 — If air-cooled transformers. NOTE 2 — These reductions in temperature-rise limits or in measured temperaturerises are not applicable to water-cooled transformers.1. 3. If nothing has been stated by the purchaser. natural air-cooled transformers 2. having a time constant of about two hours. NOTE 2 — A transformer may be expected to operate without permanent injury so long as it is operating within the absolute temperature limits and other conditions specified in IS : 6600-1972 ‘Guide for loading of oil immersed transformers’.1.1 Measurement of Temperature of Cooling Air 4.2 and 4. TEST OF TEMPERATURE-RISE (TYPE TEST) 4.1. which are designed for operation below 1 000 m. NOTE 1 — While above mentioned tapping limits may be applicable in respect of temperature-rise test only.3 Reduced Temperature-Rises for Transformers Designed for High Altitudes — Unless otherwise agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser for air-cooled transformers designed for operation at an altitude greater than 1 000 m but tested at normal altitudes.0 percent b) Dry-type. and b) For tapping ranges exceeding 10 percent on negative side. the test shall be carried out as indicated below: a) For tapping ranges less than or equal to 10 percent tapping on negative side. the limits of temperature-rise given in Tables 3 and 4 shall be reduced by the following amounts for each 500 m by which the intended working altitude exceeds 1 000 m : a) Oil-immersed. They shall be protected from draught and abnormal heat radiation. the test shall be performed on the lowest tap at appropriate current relating to this tapping. 4.5 percent c) Oil-immersed. forced air-cooled transformers 3. The value to be adopted for the temperature of the cooling air for a test is the average of the readings taken on these thermometers at equal intervals of time during the last quarter of the test period. are tested at altitudes above 1 000 m. there shall be no injury to the transformer when delivering the appropriate rated current on any tap including the extreme negative tap.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 3.4 Choice of Tapping for Temperature-Rise Test — Temperaturerise test shall be performed at the tapping as desired by the purchaser. 8 . forced air-cooled transformers 5.3. natural air-cooled transformers 2.1 General — The cooling-air temperature shall be measured by means of several thermometers arranged according to 4. the test shall be performed at – 10 percent tapping with appropriate current relating to this tapping. the thermometers may be inserted in cups filled with liquid.0 percent d) Dry-type. To avoid errors due to the time lag between variations in the temperature of the transformer and that of the cooling air.
at a distance of 1 to 2 m from the cooling surface.( 235 + θ 1 ) – 235 for copper R1 R2 θ 2 = -----.9.2 Measurement of Temperature of Cooling Water — The cooling water temperature shall be measured at the intake of the cooler and the temperature shall be taken as the average of at least three readings taken at approximately equal intervals not greater than one hour. The readings shall be taken in the last quarter of the test period. 4.1. especially during the last quarter. The temperature of a winding ( θ 2 ) at the end of a test period shall be calculated from its measured resistance ( R2 ) at that temperature and its measured resistance ( R1 ) at some other temperature ( θ 1 ) using the formula : R2 θ 2 = -----. The resistance ( R1) is generally the cold resistance measured in accordance with 16.( 225 + θ 1 ) – 225 for aluminium R1 where θ 1 and θ 2 are measured in °C. the thermometers should be placed in this intake stream. 4.1.3 Forced Air-Cooling — If there is a well defined flow of air from the surroundings towards the intakes of the coolers.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 The temperature of the cooling air should be as constant as possible during the test period. In case of transformers with concentric windings and vertical axes of core and windings where two or more identical windings are arranged one above the other. all these windings can be connected in series for the *Specification for power transformers: Part I General 9 . They should be far enough away from the tank and cooler surfaces to prevent disturbance by radiant heating (distance of 1 m to 2 m). 4. outside the recirculation streams. at a level approximately half way up the cooling surface. the temperatures shall be measured around the complete transformer. preferably on the side without cooler.2 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977*. 4.2 Natural Air-Cooling — The thermometers (at least three) shall be placed at different points around the transformer.3 Determination of Winding Temperature — The winding temperatures shall in principle be ascertained using the resistance method. or without interruption of the supply by means of the super-position method ( see Appendix A ) which consists of injecting into the winding a dc measuring current of low value superposed on the load current. having regard to the corrections indicated in 4. The resistance ( R2 ) is measured either after switching off the supply. if any. without much recirculation of warm air. If these conditions cannot be fulfilled.
it shall be continued for sufficient time with full cooling to prevent errors in the measurement of the final oil temperature-rise.5. 4. Practical difficulties due to the short time available for the measurement of hot resistances may affect the accuracy of such measurement by about one percent. the resistance method may be inaccurate. The temperature-rise so determined shall not exceed the limiting value for oil given in Table 4. 10 . an opening shall be provided through which the thermometer can be inserted. The measured temperature-rise of these series-connected windings shall not exceed the appropriate value given in Tables 3 and 4. alternatively. Temperatures shall be taken where possible during operation.1 Method a — Evidence shall be obtained that the highest temperature-rise will not exceed the value given in Table 3 or 4. even if the test were continued until thermal equilibrium is reached. as well as when the supply to the transformer is switched-off. In such cases the temperature-rise at the end of a temperature test shall be determined as follows : ‘The temperature of the oil shall be measured by a thermometer placed in a thermometer pocket. The method shall be chosen by the manufacturer.005 ohm or greater the winding temperatures shall be ascertained by means of the resistance method. to ensure true measurement of the top oil temperature. 4. or placed in an appropriate position on the tank. 1 shall be employed for the determination of the final temperature-rise. The method shown in Fig.005 ohm.2 Method b — It shall be demonstrated that the top oil temperature-rise does not vary more than 1°C per hour during 4 consecutive hourly readings.5 Duration of Test of Temperature-Rise — The test shall be continued until the requirements of one of the following methods have been met. as appropriate. the pocket shall be long enough. 4. If the windings have a resistance of 0. 4.4 Measurement of Top Oil Temperature — The temperature of the top oil shall be measured by a thermometer placed in an oil-filled thermometer pocket on the cover or in the outlet pipe to the cooler. The temperature-rise so determined shall not exceed the limiting value for oil given in Table 4. If the test is performed initially with reduced cooling or without any cooling. but in the case of separate coolers it shall be located in the outlet pipe adjacent to the transformer. Should the tank not be completely filled with oil.’ Any one method shall be used for the determination of the winding temperatures. For winding having a value less than 0. The test shall not be regarded as completed until the temperature-rise increment is less than 3°C in 1 hour.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 test of temperature-rise.5.
11 IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 FIG. 1 METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE FINAL TEMPERATURE-RISE OF OIL .
*It is assured that the transformer has no tappings.4 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977† ] cannot be obtained. The input test current It shall be held constant at a value as near as possible to the rated value IN and at least equal to 90 percent of this value. is steady.8 1.1 and 16. 4. θ t . it is necessary to replace in the text the words ‘rated voltage’ and ‘rated current’ by ‘appropriate tapping voltage’ and ‘appropriate tapping current’. corrected to the reference temperature and the measured no-load losses) [ see 16.8.1 Top Oil Temperature-Rise — The top oil temperature-rise shall be obtained by subtracting the cooling medium test temperature from the measured top oil temperature. θ N . NOTE 1 — During the test the power required for the pumps and fans may be measured.6 1. different losses. The temperature-rise of the windings above the temperature of the cooling air. that the test is made on the principal tapping. and the run continued until the temperature-rise.7 Test Method for Oil-Immersed Type Transformers* — Temperature-rise tests of oil-immersed type transformers include the determination of top oil temperature-rise and of winding temperature-rises. 4. or if it has. the losses at which the test is to be conducted and the details of the test shall be subject of agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.8 NOTE — For loading method see 4. The input power shall be maintained at a steady value. for rated load conditions.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 4.7.6 Test Method for Dry-Type Transformers* — The method shall be one involving excitation of the core at normal flux density. shall be supplied and the following correction factor applied to the top oil temperature-rise so determined : Total losses x ------------------------------Test losses The value of x shall be as follows : For natural air circulation: For forced air circulation and water cooling: 0. the transformer being supplied with the total losses. NOTE 2 — For loading method see 4.0 NOTE — In cases where testing facilities are not available for carrying out the test at 80 percent of the total losses. is calculated from the formula : IN q θ N = θ t -----It The value of q shall be taken as follows : AN AF transformers = transformers = 1. of the windings. but in any case not less than 80 percent. as near as possible to the above losses.8. †Specification for power transformers: Part I General 12 . If the test is made on another tapping. If the total losses (taken as the sum of the measured load losses.
OF and OD cooling the average oil temperature shall be determined as the difference between the top oil temperature and half the temperature-drop in the cooling equipment. the tube or radiator element chosen being as near as practicable to the middle of a side of the tank. If the rated current cannot be supplied. a current providing the total losses may be supplied. the average oil temperaturerise is taken approximately as 0. the temperature-drop shall be taken as the difference in readings of thermometers in thermometer pockets adjacent to the main tank in the inlet and outlet pipes to and from the cooler. In either case the following correction factor shall be applied to the determined temperature-rise of the windings above average oil temperature : Rated current y -------------------------------------Test current The value of y shall be as follows : For natural and forced non-directed oil circulation: For forced directed air circulation: 1.2 Winding Temperature-Rises — Winding temperature-rises shall be obtained on all windings by subtracting the external cooling medium test temperature from the average temperature of the windings as measured by resistance. The winding resistances shall be determined after switching-off the supply according to 4. after circulating the rated current at rated frequency in the winding under test. b) In transformers with ON.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 4. c) For transformers having rated powers up to 2 500 kVA with natural oil circulation and plain or corrugated tanks or with tubes or radiators mounted on the tanks. Alternatively.7. the tests may be performed with a current not less than 90 percent of the rated current. For tanks with tubes or radiators mounted on them. 13 .0 NOTE — In cases where testing facilities are not available for carrying out the test at 90 percent of rated current the current at which the test is to be conducted and the details of the test shall be subject of agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.6 2.9. The average oil temperature may be determined by any of the following ways : a) For all cooling methods the average oil temperature in the surroundings of the different windings shall be calculated according to Fig.8 times top oil temperature-rise. the temperature-drop shall be taken as the difference between the surface temperatures at the top and the bottom of a cooling tube or radiator element. In the case of a separate cooler. 2 from the resistance R′ where the straight line L cuts the ordinate.
8.8. it is necessary to replace in the text the words ‘rated voltage’ and ‘rated current’ by ‘appropriate tapping voltage’ and ‘appropriate tapping current’.1 and 4. that the test is made on the principal tapping. AND THE AVERAGE OIL TEMPERATURE Allowances shall be made for variation in average oil temperature during tests as explained in detail in 4.8.8. for twowinding transformers any one of the loading methods according to 4. or if it has. It shall be accepted that the average oil temperature-rise may vary with the losses according to the law given in 4.1 to 4. No correction for average oil temperature need be applied to the winding temperaturerise of oil-immersed type transformer. *It is assured that the transformer has no tappings.3 may be applied for oil-immersed type transformers and either of the loading methods according to 4. 4. 2 METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE WINDING RESISTANCE AT THE INSTANT OF SWITCHING-OFF THE SUPPLY.2 for dry-type transformers.8 Loading Methods* — At the choice of the manufacturer. 14 .3.7. 4.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 FIG.1 for the top oil temperature-rise.1 Direct Loading Method — One winding of the transformer shall be excited at rated voltage with the other connected to a suitable load such that rated currents flow in both windings.8.8. If the test is made on another tapping.
by correcting the difference between the temperature of the windings and the average oil temperature to the conditions corresponding to rated current and rated frequency.1.3. In certain cases the rated powers of the individual windings may preclude the testing of the transformer at the full total losses.8. The input shall then be reduced to a value which results in the circulation of rated current at rated frequency in the windings. the temperature-rise of the windings above the cooling medium temperature for total losses at rated current and rated voltage may be derived from the temperature-rise of the windings at the end of the run with total losses. shall be connected in parallel and excited at the rated voltage of the transformer under test. one of which is the transformer under test. The temperature-rise of the windings above the average oil temperature.8. determined in the second part of the test. The drop in average oil temperature during this hour is taken into account when calculating the temperature-rise of the windings above the average oil temperature. rated frequency and rated voltage.7. The temperature of the windings shall then be determined by the resistance method. By means of different voltage ratios or an injected voltage. The top oil temperaturerise and the average oil temperature-rise shall be recorded.2 shall be made.7. In these calculations the manufacturer may take account of the stray and eddy current losses at this loading combination. and this value shall be maintained for 1 hour. No correction for average oil temperature need be applied to the winding temperature-rise of oil-immersed type transformers. 4. For such cases the correction of the top oil temperature-rise of oil-immersed type transformers shall be made as described in 4.8.2 Back-to-Back Method — Two transformers. one of its windings being excited and another short-circuited at its terminals. mentioned in the first sentence of 4. 4. Calculated corrections according to 4. to determine the individual winding temperature-rises at the specified loading combination which is the most severe for the particular winding. determined in the first part of the test. Alternatively. added to the average oil temperature-rise. shall give the temperature-rise of the windings above the cooling medium temperature for total losses at rated current.4 Loading of Multi-Winding Transformers — In the case of multiwinding transformers where more than two windings can be loaded simultaneously in service the temperature-rise tests shall normally be performed by separate two-winding tests. where necessary. rated current shall be made to flow in the transformer under test.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 4. 15 .3 Short-Circuit Method — To determine the temperature-rise of the oil. the sum of the no-load and load losses at the reference temperature shall be supplied to the transformer.8.
Correction of the temperature-rise as determined by the resistance method to the instant of switching-off the supply shall be made by extrapolation back to the instant of switching-off the supply from time/temperature curves or time/resistance curves.2. In taking actual resistance measurements by some bridge methods it is more accurate to determine times for fixed changes in resistance ∆R.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 4. where the resistances R are determined at equal intervals of time ∆t.9 Temperature Correction for Cooling of Transformers After Switching-Off the Supply 4.3 Method of Extrapolation Using Log-Linear Scales — The difference ∆R′ between the measured resistance and the resistance R′. 16 .9. the fans and water pumps shall be stopped but the oil pumps shall remain running.3 or by taking resistance readings after the supply to transformer is switched-off.1 General — Winding temperature measurement may be made while the transformer is in operation by the superposition method mentioned in 4. but allowing sufficient time for the inductive effect to disappear. When the supply to transformer is switched-off. a correction shall be applied so as to obtain as nearly as practicable the temperature at the instant of switching-off the supply. 2. This extrapolation shall be done according to Fig. corresponding to the temperature to which the winding is cooling after switching-off the supply shall be drawn on log-linear graph paper with time as linear and ∆R′ as the logarithmic axis. ∆Rn corresponding to equal time interval are put down horizontally at the appropriate points of the ordinate and give the straight line L. The resistance R′ shall be chosen in such a way that the test points plotted appear almost on a straight line. time as noted at the moment the indicator of the pre-set bridge passes through zero. that is. 4. The resistance at the instant of switching-off the supply *Specification for power transformers: Part I General.9. as indicated from the cold resistance measurements [ see 16.1 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977* ]. In the latter case. The highest winding temperature shall then be calculated from the resistance at the instant of switching-off the supply. to provide for the interval between the instant of switching-off the supply and the measurement of the temperature. which is extrapolated back to the instant of switching-off the supply. R2 is the resistance of the winding at the instant of switching-off the supply. Readings shall be taken as soon as possible after switching-off the supply. 4.2 Method of Extrapolation Using Linear Scales — The correction shall be determined approximately by making a series of resistance measurements and from this plotting a time/resistance curve.9. The decreases in resistance.
the accuracy being in the order of 1°C. 3 shows the circuit for a star/star transformer with the neutrals brought out from both windings.9. the sum I of the dc currents injected into the three phases is measured by means of a millivoltmeter connected across a shunt placed in the injection circuit. the temperature test being carried out by the short-circuit method. the temperature of the hot-spot in a winding shall be taken as the sum of the temperature at the top oil ( θ r + cooling air temperature ) and 1.1 The injection of dc through the winding neutral does not present any difficulty. Nevertheless it is necessary to arrange for a return neutral point which will generally be that of the supply transformer or a neutral point of the external circuit. supplied preferably from a storage battery is superposed on the ac load current in the transformer winding under consideration. 4. a microammeter is connected between the neutral point of the winding and the neutral point of three reactors connected in star to the phase terminals. These measurements are made at least at the beginning and end of the temperature-rise test and are used to determine the mean temperature of the windings by the variation of resistance. The test arrangements vary according to the winding connections.3 ) TEMPERATURE-RISE OF WINDINGS BY RESISTANCE MEASURED BY THE SUPERPOSITION METHOD A-1. Measurements are made of the magnitude of the superposed current circulating in the winding and also the voltage drop at the terminals of the winding due to this direct current. For each of the two windings. where ∆R′o is found by drawing a straight line through the point on the graph and extrapolating it back to zero time. Fig. One point of the injection circuit should preferably be earthed.4 Temperature of Hot-Spot in Winding — For the purpose of calibrating winding-temperature indicators. or. These reactors are for the 17 . APPENDIX A ( Clause 4. in the case of a short-circuited winding. The method is equally applicable to temperature-rise tests carried out by means of the direct loading. the two most frequent connections are described in A-2 and A-3.1 times the temperature-rise of the winding above average oil temperature.1 A small auxiliary dc current. the short-circuit connection at the phase terminals. back-to-back or short-circuit methods. A-2.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 shall then be equal to R′ + ∆R′o. PRINCIPLE OF THE METHOD A-1. For the energized winding. STAR WINDINGS WITH NEUTRAL BROUGHT OUT A-2.
The direct current I which flows via terminal U1 divides equally between the two-phase windings each of resistance R connected to this terminal and flows out via terminals V1 and W1. The dc injection may be made through one of the phase terminals but the three phases of the winding do not play symmetrical roles and intervene in the measurement with different weights. The injection circuit must include in series a reactor capable of withstanding the ac phase voltage. 18 . DELTA WINDING OR STAR WINDING WITHOUT ACCESSIBLE NEUTRAL A-3. The shunt is thus at phase voltage and the millivoltmeter shall be read at a distance.1 Such winding connections do not lend themselves to the injection of dc when they are short-circuited. return of the dc may be effected in another way. In the absence of such an available neutral point in the internal circuit. Fig.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 purpose of limiting the circulation of alternating current. Return of the dc may often be effected by an accessible neutral point of the external circuit. then the microammeter measures a current i proportional to the sum of the dc voltages at the terminals of the three phases of the transformer. and to this effect. One point in the injection circuit is then fixed at earth potential and reactors interposed between this point and the two-phase terminals used. then i R = . The dc is injected via terminal U1. by a second phase terminal. If R is the mean resistance of the three-phase windings of the transformer under test.( 3 r + r1 ) I In the case of the windings on short-circuit. and the measuring shunt shall be placed between the terminal and the point of injection. Provided that the resistance of the voltage transformer winding in each phase is equal. which is then earthed. voltage transformers may be used.× 3r I A-3. for example. r again being the resistance of the voltage measuring circuit the relation becomes simply : i R = . three reactors are arranged as shown in the figure. To measure the dc voltage between terminal U1 and the combination of terminals V1 and W1. 4 shows the circuit for a delta-connected winding and where the neutral point is available on the supply transformer. r1 the resistance per phase of the reactors or voltage transformer and r the circuit resistance. The phase terminals shall necessarily be connected to an external circuit such as a supply transformer or a loading circuit.
3 STAR/STAR TRANSFORMER WITH NEUTRALS BROUGHT OUT .19 IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 FIG.
IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 20 FIG. 4 DELTA WINDING WITH NEUTRAL POINT AVAILABLE AT SUPPLY .
For the shunt inserted in a phase conductor. Both instruments shall be filtered so that the presence of alternating current does not affect the instrument. If i is the current in the microammeter. A-4. the primary purpose of which is to ensure that overall resistances r2 and r3 are equal. MEASURING EQUIPMENT A-4.5. if necessary. The accuracy class shall be 0. in the case of a delta-connected winding.1 Shunts — The shunts placed in the neutral connection do not present any difficulty.2 Microammeter and Millivoltmeter — These instruments shall be accurate and linear. It shall therefore be constructed with particular care to completely eliminate these thermocouple effects. Adequate capacitances are connected between the ends of the reactances and earth to suppress residual alternating voltages.IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 These may consist of voltage transformers supplemented. it is necessary to consider possible thermocouple effects due to the alternating current which is of the order of 100 times the dc measuring current. the mean resistance of the two phases included in the measurement is : i ( 2r + r ) R = 1 2 I A-4. by additional resistors. 21 .
I. 1986 to promote harmonious development of the activities of standardization. PATNA. E9 MIDC. Amd. This does not preclude the free use. FARIDABAD. NAGPUR. KANPUR. I. Standards are also reviewed periodically. NALAGARH. Copyright BIS has the copyright of all its publications. PUNE. in the course of implementing the standard. Marol. BHUBANESHWAR. New Delhi 110002. CHANDIGARH 160022 Southern : C. 1 Amd. Users of Indian Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue of ‘BIS Catalogue’ and ‘Standards : Monthly Additions’. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg NEW DELHI 110002 : 1/14 C. marking and quality certification of goods and attending to connected matters in the country. Kankurgachi KOLKATA 700054 Telegrams: Manaksanstha (Common to all offices) Telephone 323 76 17 323 38 41 337 84 99. RAJKOT. No. 235 04 42 235 15 19. 832 78 58 832 78 91. T. 2 Date of Issue Incorporated earlier October 1984 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS Headquarters: Manak Bhavan.Bureau of Indian Standards BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act. it is taken up for revision. HYDERABAD. BHOPAL. Branches : AHMEDABAD. LUCKNOW. Sector 34-A. 337 85 61 337 86 26. IV Cross Road. GHAZIABAD. VISHAKHAPATNAM . a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are needed. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. This Indian Standard has been developed by Technical Committee : ETDC 16 Amendments Issued Since Publication Amend No. GUWAHATI. I. 832 78 92 Northern : SCO 335-336. of necessary details. 235 23 15 832 92 95. COIMBATORE. Andheri (East) MUMBAI 400093 BANGALORE. T. JAIPUR. 337 91 20 60 38 43 60 20 25 235 02 16. Campus. 323 33 75. No. CHENNAI 600113 Western : Manakalaya. type or grade designations. V. Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director (Publications). Road. 323 94 02 Regional Offices: Central Eastern : Manak Bhavan. Scheme VII M. BIS. such as symbols and sizes. if the review indicates that changes are needed. P. No part of these publications may be reproduced in any form without the prior permission in writing of BIS. Telephones: 323 01 31. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM. Review of Indian Standards Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments.