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Mahindra and Mahindra Limited | Swaraj Division

Industrial Training Report


End Semester Industrial Training Report - May 2009

Submitted by:
Harpreet Singh
Roll number: -11235
Registration number: - UCE (P)-05-194
B.Tech. (Mechanical Engineering) – 4th Year
University College of Engineering
Punjabi University
Information
Report submitted by: Harpreet Singh
B.Tech. (Mechanical Engineering)
8th Semester
Roll Number :11235
Registration Number : UCE (P)-05-194
Batch: 2005-2009
University College of Engineering
Punjabi University
Patiala
India

Company Address
where Industrial training was undertaken
Acknowledgement |

Sometimes words fall short to show gratitude, the same happened with me during this
project. The immense help and support received from Reliance Money Limited
overwhelmed me during the project.
It was a great opportunity for me to work with Swaraj Tractor division, pioneers in
the field of farm equipment manufacture, a part of Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd. I am
extremely grateful to the entire team of Swaraj Tractors, SAS Nagar (Mohali) who has
shared their expertise and knowledge with me and without whom the completion of
this project and my industrial training would have been virtually impossible.
My sincere gratitude to Mr. Rajendra Singh (Senior Manager and my mentor,
Swaraj division, Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd. , SAS Nagar(Mohali)) for providing me
with an opportunity to work with them as a trainee who has provided me with the
necessary information and his valuable suggestion and comments on bringing out this
report in the best possible way.
I feel great pleasure to thank Mr.Avtar Singh (In charge-PDI) and all other team
members. I am also very thankful to my friends, partners during the training period and
all the workmen at the Swaraj Division, Plant -1 and who helped me in the completion of
my projects. I am thankful to that power that always inspires me to take right step in the
journey of success my life.

Harpreet Singh
Contents
1. The Indian Tractor Industry Page 1
2 Introduction and Business Description Page 2
Swaraj Tractor Division - Mahindra and
Mahindra Limited
3 Background of the company Page 2
4 Timeline of the company Page 3
5 Company Organization chart Page 5
6 Manufacturing facilities at plant -1 Page 7 -14
1. Light machine shop
2. Heavy machine shop
3. Paint shop
4. Assembly shop
5. Heat treatment shop
6. Quality Engineering
7 Products and specifications Page 15 - 23
8 Project Reports
1. Project – 1 Page 24 - 49
(Elimination / reduction of water-
mixing in the engine oil )

2. Project – 2 Page 49 - 65
(Elimination / reduction of diesel
leakage from fuel cock)
The Indian Tractor Industry |

Page | 1
India is mainly an agricultural country. Agriculture accounts for approximately 25 percent of India’s
GDP. Agriculture in India is the means of livelihood of almost two thirds of the workforce in the
country and employs nearly 62 percent of the population. It accounts for 13 percent of India’s
exports. About 42 percent of India’s geographical area is used for agricultural activities. It is therefore
considered a vital sector of the Indian economy.

The Indian tractor industry is the largest in the world, accounting for one third of global production.
The other major tractor markets in the world are China and the USA. The global spotlight on tractor
manufacture in terms of unit volume seems to be swinging away from the USA, UK and Western and
Eastern Europe towards India and China, where growth in the number of producers and the total
volume of production in recent years has been impressive.

Until 1960, the demand for tractors was met entirely through imports. Indigenous manufacture of
tractors began in 1961, but India continued to import tractors to bridge the total volume needs up to
the late 1970s. The Indian Tractor Industry has come a long way since then. Volume growth in the
past four decades show a compound annual growth rate of 10 percent, despite seasonal variations
that cause natural fluctuations in the demand for tractors, subsequently impacting the industry
volumes.

The Indian tractor market is traditionally a medium-horsepower market consisting of mostly 31-40
hp, which constitutes almost 51 percent to growth in this category. Growth of the Industry is closely
related to growth in this category. In other-size categories, 41-50 hp category achieved the second
highest growth of 34 percent and constitutes 24 percent of the total market share. The rest of the
market share is largely with the 21-30 hp category followed by the category of tractors having more
than 50 hp.

The Indian Tractor Industry has numerous challenges, some of them being:-

1. Reducing the average age of tractor buyers from the age group of above 40 to younger people
2. Development of new products using latest technology and advancements in the field of
electronics and mechatronics and making the tractors more comfortable, stylish and yet
keeping them in range of a farmer.
3. Reduction of emissions in accordance with the new international emission standards
Introduction and Business Description |
Swaraj Tractor Division, Mahindra and Mahindra Limited, is the farm equipment manufacturer
division and the flagship company of the erstwhile Punjab Tractors Limited of which a major share
was acquired by Mahindra and Mahindra Limited in the year 2007. The Company's principal activity Page | 2
is to manufacture, market and servicing of tractors ranging from 25-100 HP. Other products include
self propelled harvester combines, forklifts, tractor drawn agricultural implements, gears, spare
parts, casting and accessories. The Company has manufactured and sold more than 600,000 tractors
over the past 30 years (with 36000 tractors being manufactured and sold in the fiscal year 2008-
2009 alone).The basic credibility of the company is the manufacture of reliable tractors requiring
least maintenance and low cost of ownership. The Company is one of the major share-holder in the
Indian Tractor Industry in a market with rivals like John Deere, Case New Holland, TAFE, etc. The
company has in-house competence in producing engines and transmission systems and has been the
best financially managed company in the Indian Tractor Industry. The reputed Swaraj brand of the
company is sold through 475 exclusive dealers stocking only Swaraj products The manufacturing
plants and the Research and Development centre of the company are located in Mohali, Punjab. The
company exports auto components to the markets of African/SAARC countries.

The company has 3 farm equipment manufacturing facilities:-

1. Swaraj Tractor Division (STD) Phase –IV, Industrial Area, SAS Nagar(Mohali)
2. Swaraj Foundry Division (SFD) Mazri, SAS Nagar(Mohali)
3. Swaraj Combine Division (SCD) chapparcheri, SAS Nagar(Mohali)

Background of the company |


Keeping in mind Punjab’s agrarian economy, it was decided by the Punjab government to encourage
the growth of the industries, which complement Punjab’s agriculture growth. This task was entrusted
to P.S.I.D.C. (Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation), which has played a major role in
bringing Punjab to the threshold of the industrial revolution. With the dual objective of industrial &
agriculture growth, Punjab Tractors Limited was established on 27th June 1970 as a project of Central
Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur, West Bengal.

Punjab Tractors Limited (PTL) was promoted by Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation
(PSIDC) to commercialize the indigenous tractor developed by the Central Mechanical Engineering
Research Institute (CMERI). The Swaraj brand of tractors were India's first indigenously made tractor
suitable for medium land holdings. A number of plants of the company are situated in the S.A.S. Nagar
(Mohali) District, Punjab, India. The construction of the first plant of the company located at phase-IV,
Industrial Area, S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali) started in March 1972 and the first batch of tractors rolled out
on 14th November 1973. The commercial production commenced in the year 1974. Initially, PSIDC
contributed 42% equity capital against the total paid up capital of Rs.140.00 lakhs. The facility was
initially created to manufacture 5000 tractors and the capital cost at that time was Rs.321 lakhs

The company's product line also includes Combine Harvestors and Forklifts. The production capacity
of tractors has increased to 60000 tractors per year from the level of 5000. The company, over the
years, has also promoted two companies, namely, Swaraj Mazda Limited (manufacture of Light
Commercial Vehicles) & Swaraj Engines Ltd. (manufacture of Diesel Engines in collaboration with
Kirloskar limited). Both Kirloskar Oil Engines limited and Swaraj Engines Limited manufacture
tractor engines for the Swaraj Brand of tractors.

Page | 3

Timeline ||

Year Event
1965 Govt. of India's research institute (CMERI) at Durgapur initiates design and
development of SWARAJ tractor based on indigenous know-how.
1970 Punjab Govt. through PSIDC acquires SWARAJ tractor's design from CMERI
and establishes Punjab Tractors Ltd. (PTL) for its commercialization.
1971-73 PTL sets up SWARAJ Project for 5,000 tractors per annum at a capital
outlay of Rs. 37.0 million with an equity base of Rs 11.0 million.
1974 Swaraj 724 (26.5 HP) tractor commercially introduced.
1975 2nd tractor model SWARAJ 735(39 HP) developed by own R&D,
commercially introduced.
1978 3rd Tractor model SWARAJ 720 (19.5 HP) developed by own R&D,
commercially introduced. Maiden equity divided declared.
1980 Guided by social concerns and responsibility, PTL takes over PSIDC's sick
scooters unit - Punjab Scooters Ltd. (subsequently renamed as SWARAJ
Automotives Ltd.)
India's first Self propelled Harvester Combine - SWARAJ 8100 developed
by own R&D, commercially introduced.
SWARAJ Foundry Division set up in Backward area.
1981 Issue of maiden Bonus Shares (2:5), paid-up equity moves to Rs 15.4
million.
1983 4th Tractor Model - SWARAJ 855 (55 HP) developed by own R&D,
commercially introduced.

Expansion of annual capacity to 12,000 tractors per annum at Plant 1.


1984 SWARAJ MAZDA Ltd. promoted in technical and financial collaboration
with Mazda Motor Corporation. & Sumitomo Corporation. Japan for
manufacture of Light Commercial Vehicles. PTL's equity participation is Rs.
30.4 million (29%) and that of Mazda and Sumitomo's Rs. 27.0 million
(26%).
1985 Industrial Forklift Trucks developed by own R&D, commercially
introduced.
1986 SWARAJ ENGINES Ltd. promoted in technical and financial collaboration
with Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.(KOEL) for manufacture of diesel engines.
PTL's equity participation is Rs. 6.9 million (33%) and that of KOEL's Rs 3.6
million (17%).
1989 1st Right Issue (1:1) at a premium of Rs 50/- per share (plus reservation of Page | 4
200 Shares per employee) paid up equity moves to Rs 31.6 million.
1990 2nd Right Issues (1:2) at a premium of Rs 60/- per share (plus reservation
of 200 Shares per employee) paid-up equity moves to Rs 50.6 million.
1992 1st right issue of Bonus Shares (1:1), paid up capital moves to Rs. 101.2
million.
1993 Annual tractor capacity expanded to 24,000 per annum at Plant 1.

1995 Setup of tractor Plant II at Village Chappercheri, SAS Nagar with annual
capacity of 12,000 per annum.
1996 3rd issue of Bonus Shares (1:1), paid up equity moves to Rs. 202.5 million.
1998 Commencement of expansion to 60,000 tractors (30,000 at each plant).
Capital outlay of Rs 1000 million, funded mainly through internal accruals.
1999 5th and 6th tractor models - SWARAJ 733 (34 HP) & SWARAJ 744 (48 HP)
developed by own R&D, commercially introduced. FY 1999's divided @
250% was corporate India's highest.
2000  Expansion of annual tractor capacity to 60,000 completed.
 4th issue of Bonus Shares (2:1), paid up equity moves to Rs 607.6
million.
2001  PTL won National Championship trophy in competition organized
by All India Management Association (AIMA) for young managers.
 Economic times and Boston Consulting Group selects PTL as one of
the India's finest 10 companies out of Economic times top 500
Companies.
2002 Cumulative tractor sales crosses 500,000.
2003 PSIDC's disinvestment of its entire Equity holding (23.49%) in PTL in
favour of CDC Financial Services (Mauritius) Ltd. With this, total holding of
CDC & its associates in PTL stands at 28.48%.
2004 7th & 8th tractor models - Swaraj 939 (41 HP) & Swaraj 834 (34 HP)
developed by own R&D, commercially introduced
2005 PTL disinvested 15,73,000 equity shares of Rs. 10/- each of Swaraj Mazda
Ltd. (constituting approx. 15% of SML's paid up capital) in favour of
Sumitomo Corporation, Japan, a joint venture partner in Swaraj Mazda Ltd.
at a total consideration of Rs. 629.2 million
2007  CDC/Actis Group and Burman Family's disinvestment of their
Equity holding in PTL (43.3%) in favour of Mahindra Group (M&M).
 M&M made open offer to shareholders for another 20% equity of
the Company.
 Mahindra Group's equity holding in the Company stands at 64.6%
 Cumulative Tractor Sales cross 600,000.
 Swaraj Track Type Combine designed and developed by in-house
R&D, commercially launched

2008 Swaraj 3 Tonne Battery forklift, designed and developed by in-house R&D,
commercially launched Page | 5

Company organization chart |


Board of Directors

Working Directors

Vice Chairman Managing Director

4) Executive Directors:

 Finance
 Human Resource and Development
 Manufacturing International Business Division,
 Material Services
 Swaraj Automotive Limited
 Swaraj Motors Limited
 Senior Vice-President (Marketing)
5) Vice Presidents:
each under Executive Director (in previous level)

Page | 6

6) Assistant Vice President

7) General Manager

8) Deputy General Manager

9) Senior Manager

10) Manager

11) Assistant Manager

12) Senior Engineer

13) Engineer

14) Assistant Engineer


15) Junior Engineer

Page | 7
Operating Class

The level 5-15 is under each vice president of level 4

Manufacturing Facilities at Plant-1 |


A number of manufacturing facilities are available at the Mahindra and Mahindra, Swaraj Division, Plant -1

The whole manufacturing system is divided into a number of departments

1. Light machine shop


2. Heavy machine shop
3. Paint shop
4. Assembly shop
5. Heat treatment shop
6. Quality Engineering

Light Machine shop ||


LMS is the largest section in the factory. All transmission components including shafts and
gears used in tractors are manufactured here. It has 117 machines. Facilities of this shop
include equipment for blank operation, boring, drilling etc. Except the bevel gear
generator & gear shaver, which have been imported from WMW & Churchill of West
Germany respectively, all other machines are from HMT Ltd. The Rs. 31 million plant and
machinery of this shop are installed in an area of 33,000 sq. ft. and casting/forging and bar
worth Rs. 24 million are machined annually. In view of complexity of operation and high
standard of quality this shop is manned by 160 highly experienced operators and
inspectors.

Heavy Machine shop ||


All heavy casting of tractors are machined in this shop with the help of variety of special machine
(SPM). These machines are tailors made by IIMT to suit component requirements. In addition,
facilities of this shop include general-purpose turning, drilling and milling machines. About 20 SPM
and 30 GPM are installed in a covered area of 47,000 sq. Ft. At a cost of 20 million, 2600 tones of
castings are machined every year on a two-shift basis. In addition to the machining of casting for
the tractor, some jobs are also performed for Swaraj Mazda Limited.
Page | 8

Paint shop ||
Paint Shop is the place where the different sheet metal components are painted. They are
made to pass through various chemicals before they are actually painted. The painting
method opted is that of Spray Painting. The paint shop at the plant is equipped with the
washing and drying facility for the engine and transmission section of the plant as well as
the sheet metal components of the tractor.

Heat Treatment shop ||


Heat treatment shop plays a very important role in every industry. In automobile industry all the
gear and shafts need to be heat treated to impart desired strength and increase life of the
component. The Heat Treatment shop at plant is equipped with several gas carbonizing furnaces,
quenching tanks, induction hardening machines and shot blasting furnaces. All the gears and
shafts that have been manufactured in the plant are heat treated before they are ready to be
installed in the tractor.

Assembly shop ||
The Assembly line at Swaraj Tractor division deals with the assembly of tractor models 722, 724, 733, 735
FE, 735 XM, 744, 834. Assembly is the joining of various constituents to form a final product. The assembly
process is carried out on the main line, which has various sub assemblies along its length.

Assembly shop can be divided in two main areas: -

1. Before paint area


2. After paint area.

Before paint area


The area before painting can further be divided into sub assemblies/ loops namely

a) Differential loop.
b) Gearbox loop.
c) Rear cover loop.
d) Engine assembly loop.

Differential Assembly loop Page | 9


In the differential loop, the differential casting is mounted on trolley after washing and left and
right Bull pinion Shaft is fitted. Then the Cage assembly consisting of Crown Wheel is fitted. Tall
pinion assembly, Roller bearing, PTO shaft, Rear axle/trumpet, PTO shifter assembly ,Gearbox
assembly, Rear cover assembly , Brakes , Parking brake, Suction pipe, PTO cover,Trailer hook,
Angle bracket, Rocket link ,Footboard and Clutch pedal is fitted.

Gearbox loop
In the gear box loop, the Gearbox housing mounted on trolley, Drive shaft, input shaft ,output
shaft , Lay shaft, connecting shaft assembly, Shifter rod assembly, Steering assembly are
assembled.

Rear cover loop


In the rear cover loop Rear cover mounted on trolley. Control valve and response valve assembly,
Ram assembly are fitted.

Engine Assembly loop


In the engine loop the Engine mounted on trolley, Dynamo, Self-motor, Oil pump, Front axle beam
and bracket and Clutch plate is fitted.

After that the chassis is carried to the next level by the lift where the engine & the 3-point
assembly of the tractor along with the other components are fixed. The parts fitted here are:

3-point linkage which contains the following parts:

 Bracket.
 Lower link fitted at the left side.
 Leveling rod fitted at the right side.
 Stabilizer stainer.
 Draw bar.
 Top link.
 Battery frame.
 Front frame.
 Tie rod attached with the drop arm of the steering system.
 Accelerator link.
 Delievery pipe.
 Engine attachement.
The engine is attached with the chassis system in this level of assembly. The engine is also carried
to this level with the help of the lift crane, which lifts the engine assembly & delievers it to this
level. Shlug is applied at the corneror we can say at rhe circumference of the gearbox where
engine is attached with studs & bolts. Shlugs works as gaskets or seals & avoid the oil leakage and
water mixing in the engine. Then the engine and chassis system, mounted on the coveyor system Page | 10
enter the paint shop area, where it is washed, dried and painted.

The engine and chassis assmbely after the paint shop reach here, and gets fitted with
following parts:

 Front axle.
 Extension in the front axle used for the setting of the wheels.
 K.P.S.A. (King Pin Shaft Axle) with the wheel disc & nuts fitted in there for the fitting of
the wheels.
 Drop arms.
 Tie rods.
 Bucket.
 Clutch plates
 Alternator.
 Self starter.
 Fuel pump.

Then the whole assembly is mounted over the conveyor, which takes that piece to different chambers
of washing, drying, primering, baking, painting & again baking.

The chassis
and the
engine going
for washing
and drying
and then it
goes to the
paint shop
After paint area
After painting the conveyor takes the assembled piece to the Dismounting stage where
different parts & components like tyres, radiator, dashboard, sheet metal parts, seating,
steering wheel ,etc are fitted on the tractor & the tractor was completed. After that the
testing of the tractor is done. A tractor has to pass through different tests to claim itself to be Page | 11
worthy to be sold and if there is some problem coming out in this stage, the tractor is send to
the recovery shop, where the problem of the tractor is recovered. After the recovery the
tractor is again tested & after passing the test the tractor finally send to the yard from where
it is dispatched after Pre – dispatch inspection (PDI).

The assembly line


Quality Engineering ||
Quality engineering is that department of the plant that deals with the analysis of a manufacturing system
at all stages, to improve the quality of the production process and of its output. It is divided into two parts:
- Page | 12

1. Suppliers quality

Suppliers section consists of maintaining the quality of products that are being supplied by
suppliers. It contains inspection of the raw materials being supplied by suppliers. It also
includes discussion regarding delay of raw material and defective parts supplied.
Subsequent actions are taken if the supplied products being supplied are found defective
and inspectors from the industry are sent regularly to avoid such defects. This inspection
is regularly done by the industry so maintain good quality supply and sound relationship
with suppliers.

2. In-House Quality

It is said the prevention is better than cure. To eliminate any problem in the further
stages, In house quality is embedded into every department of the industry. As such there
are six in-house quality check posts:-

– Q.E.L.M.S (Light Machine Shop)


– Q.E.H.M.S (Heavy Machine Shop)
– Q.E.H.T (Heat Treatment)
– Q.E.P.M (Plant maintenance)
– Q.E.A (Assembly)
– IQS
– Pre-Dispatch inspection (Final check post)

Pre-Dispatch Inspection
P.D.I (Pre Dispatch Inspection) is the final quality post which carries a major responsibility of
dispatching the tractors as manufactured by the assembly line of plant-1. This is similar to giving
final touches to the jewellery being sold. This department carries rigorous checks as per the pre-
designed checklist prior to dispatch of machinery.

P.D.I acts as one of the major diagnosing center for every daily to daily outgoing failure and
scrutinizing them and hopefully trying to remove these failures. This way forthcoming problems
reported by dealers are reduced. This helps to maintain a healthy relationship with dealers and
customers.
Measures under PDI
Page | 13
1. TRANSMISSION FLUID LEVEL
2. ENGINE OIL LEVEL
3. FUEL INJECTION PUMP OIL LEVEL
4. WATER LEVEL IN RADIATOR
5. ELECTRICAL FUCTIONING
6. COMPONENT STORAGE
7. CHECKING OF AIR LEAKAGE FROM THE AIR INTAKE FILTER

Transmission oil dipstick

Fuel Injection Pump


Page | 14
Products and Specifications | Page | 15

Mahindra and Mahindra limited, manufactures a number of farm equipments under the Swaraj Brand.
Given below is the list of the farm equipment manufactured along with some of its specifications being
manufactured at Plant-1, phase IV, SAS Nagar (Mohali): -

Specifications:

Engine :
HP : 39 S.A.E
Type : 4 Stroke, direct injection, diesel engine.
No. of Cylinders : 3
Bore and Stroke : 100 X 110 mm
Displacement : 2592 cc
Rated Engine Speed : 2000 rev/min.
Air Cleaner : 3 stage Air cleaning system comprising of Cyclonic pre-cleaner, Oil bowl &
Paper element to enhance engine life.
Cooling System : Water cooled with No Loss tank.
TRANSMISSION
Clutch : Heavy duty single dry plate type, 280 mm diameter Page | 16
No. of Gears : 8 forward, 2 reverse speeds with high and low selector lever.
Speed Chart
Gear 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Rev.R
Low 2.3 3.1 4.6 7 2.84.7
High 8.9 12.1 18 27.4 11.2
P.T.O. 21 splines for 1000 rpm
6 Splines for 540 rpm corresponding to 1650 engine rpm (Optional)
BRAKES Heavy Duty self energizing, water sealed disc brakes
Parking brake for additional safety, Oil immersed disc brakes (Optional)
STEERING Heavy Duty single drop arm steering for high efficiency and comfortable
drive.
HYDRAULICS 2 lever live hydraulic system having automatic position & draft with mix
control
a) Position control To hold lower links at any desired height.
b) Automatic Draft Control To maintains uniform draft.
c) Mix Control For optimum field output
Hydraulic lift pump Gear type hydraulic pump delivers 17 l/min at rated engine speed.

LIFTING CAPACITY 1000 kgf at lower link ends.


ELECTRICALS 12 volt, 88 Ah. Battery
Starter motor & alternator
Head light with parking lamps
INSTRUMENTS
Engine rpm cum hour meter, Fuel gauge, Water Temp. Gauge, Oil pressure
gauge, Ammeter, High beam indicator, Trailer light indicator.
TYRES Front 6.00 x 16
Rear 12.4 x 28
WHEEL TRACK Front 1200 - 1750 mm
Rear 1350 - 1900 mm
Page | 17

Specifications:

Engine :
HP : 34 S.A.E.
Type : 4 Stroke, direct injection, diesel engine.
No. of Cylinders : 3
Bore and Stroke : 100 X 105 mm
Displacement : 2474 cc
Rated Engine Speed : 2000 rev/min.
Air Cleaner : 3 Stage Air cleaning system compromising of cycolonic pre-cleaner,
Oil Bowl and Paper element to enhance Engine Life
Cooling System : Water cooled
TRANSMISSION
Clutch : Heavy duty single dry plate type, 280 mm diameter
No. of Gears : 8 forward, 2 reverse speeds with high and low selector lever.
Speed Chart
Gear 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Rev.R
Low 2.1 2,9 4.4 7 2.6
High 8.3 11.3 17.4 27.4 10.4
P.T.O. 21 splines for 1000 rpm
6 Splines for 540 rpm corresponding to 1650 engine rpm (Optional)
BRAKES Heavy Duty self energizing, water sealed disc brakes
Parking brake for additional safety, Oil immersed disc brakes
STEERING Heavy Duty single drop arm steering for high efficiency and comfortable
drive.
HYDRAULICS 2 lever live hydraulic system having automatic position & draft with mix
control
a) Position control To hold lower links at any desired height.
b) Automatic Draft Control To maintains uniform draft.
c) Mix Control For simultaneous use of position and draft controls for optimum field
output.
Hydraulic lift pump Gear type hydraulic pump delivers 17 l/min at rated engine speed.

LIFTING CAPACITY 1000 kgf at lower link ends.


ELECTRICALS 12 Volt, 75 Ah. Battery, starter motor & alternator.
Starter motor & alternator
Head light with parking lamps
INSTRUMENTS
Tractor meter with direction indicators, Fuel Gauge, Ammeter, Water
Temp. Gauge & Oil Pressure Gauge
TYRES Front 6.00 x 16 Page | 18
Rear 12.4 x 28
WHEEL TRACK Front 1200 - 1750 mm
Rear 1350 - 1900 mm

Specifications:

Engine Specifications:
HP : 48 S.A.E.
Type : 4 - Stroke, Direct Injection, Diesel Engine
No. of Cylinders : 3
Bore and Stroke : 110 X 110 mm
Displacement : 3136 cc
Rated Engine Speed : 2000 rev/min
Air Cleaner : 3 Stage Air cleaning system compromising of cycolonic pre-cleaner, Oil Bowl
and Paper element to enhance Engine Life
Cooling System : Water Cooled with Oil Cooler for engine oil.
Transmission:
Clutch : Heavy Duty single dry plate type, 305 mm dia, Dual Clutch, 280 mm
dia. (optional)
No. of Gears : 8 forward, 2 reverse speeds with high and low selector levels.
Gear Speeds (Km/hr)
1 2 3 4 R
Low 3.1 4.2 6.5 8.9 4.3
High 10.2 13.8 21.4 29.2 14.3
P.T.O.
21 Splines for 1000 rpm at rated engine
6 Splines for 540 rpm corresponding to 1650 engine rpm (Optional)
Brakes
Heavy Duty Self energizing, water sealed disc brakes with parking brake for additional safety.
Oil immersed disc brakes (optional) Page | 19

Steering
Heavy Duty single drop arm steering for high efficiency and comfortable drive.
Hydraulic and Implement Linkage
2 Lever live hydraulic system having automatic position and draft with mix control.
Position Control: To hold lower links at any desired height
Automatic Draft Maintains uniform draft.
Control:
Mix Control: For simultaneous use of position and draft controls for optimum
field output.
Hydraulic Lift Pump: Gear type hydraulic pump delivers 17 l/min at rated engine speed.
24 l/min for 1500 kg capacity hydraulics.
Linkage
3 point category-I suitable for category-II type implement pins
Lifting Capacity
1000 kgf at Lower Link Ends
1500 kgf at Lower Link ends (Optional)
Electricals
12 Volt, 88 Ah. Battery, starter motor & alternator.
Instruments
Tractor meter with direction indicators, Fuel Gauge, Ammeter, Water Temp. Gauge & Oil
Pressure Gauge.
Tyres:
Front : 6.00 X 16
Rear : 13.6 X 28
Wheel Track:
Front : 1200-1750 mm
Rear : 1350-1900 mm
Deluxe Features
Higher capacity hydraulic (1500 kg.) with improved sensitivity. *
Concealed lockable battery near starter.
Aesthetically designed heavy duty telescopic front axle beam.
Telescopic stabilizers bars for easy adjustment and better implement stability.
Adjustable sliding P.U. seat for operator's comfort.
Centrally located horn switch on steering wheel (like cars) - for operational convenience.
Oil immersed (multi disc) wet brakes. *
(*optional)
Features
Horse Power - 48 SAE
Improved fuel combustion system - lesser diesel consumption.
Most modern oil Cooler - for longer life of engine.
8+2 speed gear box (combination of CM & SM Gears) with suitable speeds for haulage,
field, straw making machine
PTO available in 540/1000 rpm
Dual Clutch for PO driven implements (Optional)

Page | 20

Specifications:

Engine Specifications:
HP : 34 S.A.E.
Type : 4 - Stroke, Direct Injection, Diesel Engine
No. of Cylinders : 2
Bore and Stroke : 100 X 116 mm
Displacement : 2204 cc
Rated Engine Speed : 2000 rev/min
Air Cleaner : 3 Stage Air cleaning system compromising of cycolonic pre-cleaner, Oil Bowl
and Paper element to enhance Engine Life
Cooling System : Water Cooled with Oil Cooler for engine oil
Transmission:
Clutch : Heavy Duty single dry plate type, 280 mm dia
No. of Gears : 8 forward, 2 reverse speeds with high and low selector levels.
Gear Speeds (Km/hr)
1 2 3 4 R
Low 2.1 2.9 4.4 7.0 2.6
High 8.3 11.3 17.4 27.4 10.4
P.T.O.
21 Splines for 1000 rpm at rated engine speed.
6 Splines for 540 rpm corresponding to 1650 engine rpm (Optional)
Brakes
Heavy Duty Self energizing, water sealed disc brakes with parking brake for additional
safety.
Steering
Heavy Duty single drop arm steering for high efficiency and comfortable drive.
Hydraulic and Implement Linkage Page | 21
2 Lever live hydraulic system having automatic position and draft with mix control.
Position Control: To hold lower links at any desired height
Automatic Draft Maintains uniform draft.
Control:
Mix Control: For simultaneous use of position and draft controls for optimum
field output.
Hydraulic Lift Pump: Gear type hydraulic pump delivers 17 l/min at rated engine speed.
Linkage
3 point category-I suitable for category-II type implement pins
Lifting Capacity
1000 kgf at Lower Link Ends
Electricals
12 Volt, 75 Ah. Battery, starter motor & alternator.
Instruments
Tractor meter with direction indicators, Fuel Gauge, Ammeter, Water Temp. Gauge & Oil
Pressure Gauge.
Tyres:
Front : 6.00 X 16
Rear : 12.4 X 28
Wheel Track:
Front : 1200 - 1750 mm
Rear : 1350-1900 mm
Deluxe Features
Concealed lockable battery near starter.
Aesthetically designed heavy duty telescopic front axle beam.
Telescopic stabilizers bars for easy adjustment and better implement stability.
Adjustable sliding P.U. seat for operator's comfort.
Centrally located horn switch on steering wheel (like cars) - for operational convenience.
Features
Horse Power - 34 SAE
Most modern air Cooler - for longer life of engine.
8+2 speed gear box (combination of CM & SM Gears) with suitable speeds for all farm
operations.
Live hydraulics.
Alternator - for powerful headlights and longer battery life.
Water separator in fuel line for extra protection of fuel injection pump.
PTO available in 540/1000 rpm.
Low Diesel Consumption
Ideal for all field and haulage operations.
Ideal for paddy cultivation
Shorter turning radius
Page | 22

Specifications:

Engine Specifications:
HP : 26.5 S.A.E.
Type : 4 - Stroke, Direct Injection, Diesel Engine
No. of Cylinders : 2
Bore and Stroke : 100 X 110 mm
Displacement : 1728 cc
Rated Engine Speed : 2000 rev/min
Air Cleaner : 3 Stage Air cleaning system compromising of cycolonic
pre-cleaner, Oil Bowl and Paper element to enhance
Engine Life
Cooling System : Water Cooled
Transmission:
Clutch : Heavy Duty single dry plate type, 254 mm dia
No. of Gears : 8 forward, 2 reverse speeds with high and low
selector levels.
Gear Speeds (Km/hr)
1 2 3 4 R
Low 2.3 4.2 6.3 7.2 3.2
High 8.9 16.4 24.9 28.4 12.5
P.T.O.
21 Splines for 1000 rpm at rated engine speed.
6 Splines for 540 rpm corresponding to 1650 engine rpm (Optional)
Brakes
Heavy Duty Self energizing, water sealed disc brakes with parking brake for
additional safety.
Steering
Heavy Duty single drop arm steering for high efficiency and comfortable drive.
Hydraulic and Implement Linkage
2 Lever live hydraulic system having automatic position and draft with mix control.
Position Control: To hold lower links at any desired height
Automatic Draft Maintains uniform draft.
Control:
Mix Control: For simultaneous use of position and draft
controls for optimum field output.
Hydraulic Lift Pump: Gear type hydraulic pump delivers 17 l/min at Page | 23
rated engine speed.
Linkage
3 point category-I suitable for category-II type implement pins
Lifting Capacity
1000 kgf at Lower Link Ends
Electricals
12 Volt, 75 Ah. Battery, starter motor & alternator.
Instruments
Tractor meter with direction indicators, Fuel Gauge, Ammeter, Water Temp. Gauge &
Oil Pressure Gauge.
Tyres:
Front : 6.00 X 16
Rear : 12.4 X 28
Wheel Track:
Front : 1200 - 1750 mm
Rear : 1350-1900 mm
Deluxe Features
Concealed lockable battery near starter.
Aesthetically designed heavy duty telescopic front axle beam.
Telescopic stabilizers bars for easy adjustment and better implement stability.
Adjustable sliding P.U. seat for operator's comfort.
Centrally located horn switch on steering wheel (like cars) - for operational
convenience.
Features
8+2 speed gear box (combination of CM & SM Gears) with suitable speeds for all farm
operations.
Live hydraulics.
Alternator - for powerful headlights and longer battery life.
Water separator in fuel line for extra protection of fuel injection pump.
PTO available in 540/1000 rpm.
Economical in haulage, ploughing, threshing and pump-set operations
Shorter turning radius
Ideal for paddy cultivation
Project 1
Elimination of water
mixing in the engine oil

 Project Leader :
Mr. Rajendra Singh
( In House Quality )
 Team Member :
Mr. Satpal Parmer
( In house quality –
Assembly )
 Mr. Ashwani Kumar
(Supplier quality – SEL)
 Mr. R.k jain (Research and
development)
 Mr. Avatar Singh (SCPC)
 Mr. Brij Lal (Quality)
Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Problem Identification and Definition |


Eliminate the rejection/wastage of the engine oil in engine assembly due to mixing of water in all
models of tractor which is observed in Re-work and Pre-delivery Inspection Stage in the plant Page | 24
before dispatch. Its average in the last 5 months has been 4475 PPM at present while the target
is to achieve is 1000 PPM.

Component(s) under focus: Complete engine assembly.

Brief description of the problem |


Engine “M” oil is used in the engine for lubricating moving parts to reduce friction between them.
While checking the correct level of oil in the sump with the help of dipstick during pre-dispatch
inspection of the tractors, colour of the engine oil was found changed due to water mixing.

||Water mixing in engine oil leads to


1. Rejection of oil is a monetary loss to the company
2. Wastage of man hours in replacing defective oil
3. Wastage of oil leads to national loss and environment pollution
4. Engine paper oil filter swells and has to be replaced
5. Engine moving parts get rusted
6. Loss of lubricating properties of oil which may result even in engine
seizure

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

History of problem|
Dealer PDI (Pre-dispatch inspection) report and MQN (market quality news) had
given feedback for the water mix in the engine oil of the tractors of all models. This Page | 25
water mixing leads to the loss of value of oil and also affects the life of the engine
components working inside the engine assembly. Based on the feedback from the
PDI area of the plant, same problems were also being faced in the plant also.
Tractors having such problem were taken for investigation and analysis for the
problem identification.

Supplier/ Aug’08 Sept’08 Oct‘08 Nov’08 Dec’08 Jan’09 Feb’09 Mar’09


month

Swaraj 1 3 1 1 10 6 7 6
Engines
Limited
Kirloskar Oil 8 4 4 3 9 2 1 1
Engines
Limited

Numbers of engines found to be defective from both the manufactures


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Total number of cases observed from August ’08 to March ‘09

Page | 26

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Observation| Recognition of the features of the problem


Page | 27
||Observation of the process Problematic
zone

SEL Engine
with oil filled Engine SEL Engine
Engine
storage on Tractor
coupled
conveyor washed and
KOEL Engine KOEL engine filled with
with Oil filled by
cleaned with
empty chassis
Assembly high pressure
department

Tractor
dismounted

Tractor roller
tested

YES
Tractor R/W. If water Tractor
Oil changed mix R/W Oil
observed changed
YES

No
If water
Dispatched mix PDI
NO observed
Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Page | 28
The problematic area – Tractors being washed and washed with high pressure

This washing of
the tractors with
high pressure
takes place on
the assembly line
before the paint
shop, where the
engine assembly
is washed, dried
and then
painted.

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

||Observation of symptoms
Page | 29

 In certain cases oil level in oil sump is found high and water level in radiator low.

 In other cases there is no rise in oil level.

 In all the cases engine oil red colour turns whitish ( milky ) as shown in the photograph

The water-mix paste turns to a milky colour when it comes in contact with water in the oil
Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

 Air leakage test conducted on 5 engines reveals as under –

a. Air leakage observed from breather pipe joint in three cases –KOEl-2 & SEL-1
Page | 30
b. Air leakage observed oil filler cape in one case- SEL

c. Air leakage observed from dipstick one case – ASSEMBLY

A B

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Page | 31

||Observation of variation

Supplier wise contribution in


problem
KOEL SEL

48%
52%
Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Analysis| discovery of main root causes

The analysis of the problem lead to the formulation of theories and sub-theories in their logical Page | 32

inter relationship. These came forward after experiments were conducted and brainstorming was

done with team members, line supervisor and work force.

|| Possible causes

The analysis of the problem led to following possible causes

1. Water may be entering through

a. Masking cap for Hour meter cable mounting if Masking cap–

i. fitment not as per SOP ( standard operating procedure)

ii. Loose fitted due to outer diameter under size

iii. (cap) is missing

b. Breather pipe inserting hole in Oil Filler Body if –

i. Excessive clearance between pipe outer diameter and hole in Oil filler body

ii. Breather pipe is not fully inserted

iii. Sealing material not applied as per the SOP

iv. Design is poor

c. Oil filler cap assembly due to

i. Non conformance of SOP

ii. Rubber plug ( bellow ) outer diameter undersize

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

iii. Bellow material not ok

iv. Bellow eccentric and not perpendicular with respect to cap

v. Plain washer corner sharp


Page | 33
vi. Inadequate design

d. Dipstick assembly if

i. Dip stick not seated fully

ii. Sealing ring damaged

iii. Sealing ring loose in groove

iv. Guide inner diameter over sized

v. Design not adequate

vi. Diameter over outer ring undersized

vii. Flash over plastic molding not dressed

e. Oil filler body

i. Blow hole in casting.

ii. Variation in diameter 60 mm.

iii. Variation in bore diameter 50mm.

f. MISC

i. Gap between Rubber Bush and Push Rod

ii. Leakage in joint between Fuel Injection Pump and Gear Casing

iii. Leakage in joint between Oil Filler Body and Gear Casing

iv. Excessive clearance between pipe outer diameter and hole in Oil Filler Body

v. perpendicularity of face with respect to bore


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

|| Cause and effect diagram| the cause and effect diagram gives a systematic overview of the problem

Page | 34

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

|| Probable causes selected for testing |establishing root causes

1) Breather pipe not inserted fully in hole.

2) Breather pipe not seated or eccentric. Page | 35

3) Excessive clearance between pipe O/D and hole in Oil Filler Body

4) Breather Pipe fitment design inadequate.

5) Oil filler cap assembly not fully tightened as per SOP.

6) Bellow eccentric and not perpendicular w.r.t. cap.

7) Bellow material not as per requirements

8) Bellow O/D u/s after expansion i.e. tightening

9) Filler Body bore o/s

10) Dipstick not fully seated O/D- Outer diameter


u/s – under sized
11) Sealing ring loose on plastic body. o/s - over sized
SOP –standard operating
12) Dip Stick design not adequate. procedure

13) Flash over plastic molding not dressed

14) Water accumulates inside oil filler cap.

15) Gap between Rubber Bush and Push Rod

16) Leakage in joint between Fuel Injection Pump and Gear Casing

17) Leakage in joint between Oil Filler Body and Gear Casing
Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

||Testing of hypothesis

All the possible causes were tested after discussion with the team members and marked as a
Page | 36
valid reason or invalid reason accordingly.

Sr. Probable Testing and observations Conclusion


no. causes
1 Breather Pipe Besides observation on defective tractors, for this Hypothesis
not fully inserted defect ,100 engine assemblies were visually invalid.
in hole inspected in plant and were found OK

2 Breather pipe Visually inspected. No case found. Hypothesis


not seated or invalid.
eccentric.

3 Excessive Failed in Air & Water leakage test Hypothesis


clearance Valid.
between hole in
Filler Body &
pipe Outer
Diameter.
4 Gap between Observation on 5 defective engines 26.945, 26.952, Hypothesis
bush Outer 26.958, 26.948 & 26.937mm. In addition to above Bush invalid.
Outer Diameter checked with micrometer at SEL for 25
Diameter and pieces. All pieces in between 26.93/26.958mm. Hence
hole in Oil Filler found OK.
Body

I) Bush Outer Specification: Hole size 27+.033/+0 Bore Inner Hypothesis


Diameter Under Diameter checked with plug gauge for 5 Defective invalid.
Sized engines and 25 engines from the latest supply of
engines. All were found OK with plug gauge.
ii) Oil Filler Body
hole U/S
5 Sealant Failed in air & water leakage test. Air leakage test Hypothesis
application not was conducted at 2kg/ cm2 pressure on five valid.
OK defective engines. Air leakage was observed in 3
engines at this point. Then possibility of water
leakage was checked by pouring water as shown in

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

photograph. Leaking water can be seen inside.

Page | 37

In one such opened up case sealant application was


there but seemed to be inadequate.

Proper sealant was applied in this case and test was


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

re-conducted. In this case no air or water leakage


was found. Hence the reason is established.

When checked at SEL, application method was not


mentioned in SOP.
Page | 38
6 Sealant not While analyzing defective tractors & 50 other cases Hypothesis
applied at SEL, it was found that although the sealant invalid.
application was done, but sealant was not applied
appropriately & the phenomenon was listed in point
no. 5.
7 Oil filler cap Observation on defective cases & randomly audited Hypothesis
assembly not 50 cases in two shifts in plant no case was found invalid.
tightened where the cap was not fully tightened.

8 Rubber plug Out of 5 engines, water leakage was observed in one


sealing not engine because of this fault.
effective

i ) Rubber Plug 100 pieces were checked with gauge at the supplier Hypothesis
eccentric and end and 10 pieces were found defective as nut valid
not welding fixture was not there.
perpendicular
w.r.t cap

ii) Rubber Plug Required material : Nit rile rubber Hypothesis


material not as invalid
Rubber material of failed parts were checked and
per requirement
found as per specifications.

iii) Rubber Plug 50 Cases were checked for leakage. Seepage was Hypothesis
head Outer observed in 2 cases. valid
Diameter less by
design

9 Oil filler cap Leakage observed in1 out of 5 cases when water was Hypothesis
assembly Design poured at this point. valid.
inadequate.

I)Steel washer
There was metal to metal contact due to steel

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

ineffective washer, As the hand tightening could not compress


the steel washer required enough to provide
effective sealing. When steel washer was replaced
with “O” ring , no leakage was observed.
Page | 39
10 Filler body Gap Specified bore size: 50.8+0.25/*0.00 mm Hypothesis
between bush invalid.
Checked with Vernier for failed cases & 25 new
Outer Diameter
cases. It varied from 50.81 to 51.02 mm which was
& hole
within limits.
i )Bore Over
Sized

11 Dipstick not fully Checked visually. No case was found among Hypothesis
seated. defective and 100 other cases observed. invalid.

12 Dipstick “O” ring


sealing not
effective.

I)“O” Ring size & Specification: Diameter 5.0 mm, Thickness 2.0 +/- .08 Hypothesis
thickness not OK invalid.
Observation on failed engine.

ii) Groove Specification Dia. - 4.99 /5.1 mm, Thickness- 1.98/ 2.04 mm Hypothesis
diameter under invalid.
Found OK.
sized
Actual : OK with Plug gauge

No case was found in 100 cases Checked.

iii) Hole Specification : 5.3mm + 0.1 with plug gauge Hypothesis


diameter over invalid.
sized in Crank Actual : OK with Plug gauge
Case No case found in 100 cases checked

Specification: Dia. 9.0±0.03

13 Dipstick design Dipstick looses in 10 out of 100 Cases. Water Hypothesis


not adequate. seepage was also observed .Thus Design needs valid.
Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

improvement. As per given tolerances on hole size,

Maximum hole diameter. = 9.03mm

Min. diameter over “O” ring after fitment in groove =9.04mm


Page | 40
So sealing compression on "O" ring is 10 micron only.

Minor flash / oval-ness or eccentricity of “O” ring groove


diameter in plastic mold made the ring free (without
compression) on one side. Thus making way for water.

Besides Dipstick Head design being flat is not helpful in


preventing the water reach “O” ring.

14 Flash over plastic Water seepage was observed due to flash over plastic Hypothesis
molding not valid
dressed. Mold. It causes the dipstick tilt to one side thus creating
gap on one side of the “O” ring
I)Die not
reworked In one case of engine oil contamination by water,
Dipstick had conspicuous flash on parting line. This
dipstick was tried on loose Crank Case (as shown in
photograph) by pouring water.

Water seen dripping across “O” ring

Supplier has no Die rework schedule.

Again all these defective dipsticks were refitted after


proper dressing and no leakage were observed. Hence the
problem is established.

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Air leakage test|||


Page | 41

Air leakage test is done to find out any points of leakage in the equipment. In the present

situation the air leakage test was performed on the engine assembly to find out and

leakage point from where water was supposedly getting mixed with the engine oil in the

sump.

After the test was performed, following results were observed

 Air leakage observed from breather pipe joint in three cases –2 KOEL engines & 1 SEL

engines.

 Air leakage observed oil filler cape in one case - SEL

 Air leakage observed from dipstick one case – ASSEMBLY

|| Root causes identified

1. Sealant not applied properly between Breather Pipe bush Outer Diameter and Oil Filler

body Inner Diameter

2. Rubber Plug (Bellow) eccentric and not perpendicular w.r.t. cap. (Oil filler cap).

3. Rubber Plug head Diameter less as per Design.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

4. Steel Washer ineffective in Oil Filler Cap Assy.

5. Dipstick design not adequate.

Page | 42
6. Flash over Plastic Outer Diameter due to plastic molding (Dipstick).

Actions| Actions Taken To Eliminate Root Causes

Sr.No. Root Cause Remedial Action

1 Sealant not applied properly (breather pipe bush ) SOP provided and operators
were educated as per SOP at
the suppliers end
2 Rubber plug eccentric and not perpendicular New welding fixture designed
w.r.t. cap (oil filler cap) ( J68080 ). Alternate design
for nut welding provided
(vides drawing no.
V085633/1)
3 Rubber plug head diameter less Diameter changed from
61mm to 63.5 mm
4 Steel washer ineffective in oil filter cap assembly Design changed
1 ) Steel washer replaced with
“O” ring

5 Dipstick design inadequate Dipstick head made cup


shaped
“O” ring thickness increased
from 2mm to 2.15 mm
6 Flash over plastic molding (dipstick) Dye re-work schedule made
(50,000 cycles )

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Page | 43

Check| Confirmation of effectiveness of actions

Week Wise Rejection for the defect - Water


mix in Engine oil ( in PPM)
2300

2200
Target: 1000
2100
PPM PPM
2000 Month Wise Rejection for the
defect - Water mix in Engine oil
1900 ( in PPM)

1800

1700
March WK1 March WK2 March WK3 March Wk4

Source of data : testing and PDI


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Page | 44

|| Tangible & Intangible Benefits

5.2 Return on investment

Following are the areas from where Impact of cost due to failure was reduced
@Return on investment (expected)
 Investment- Nil
 Cost of mobile Oil (Multi grade) = Rs. 463
 Cost of Paper element (P719101) = Rs. 27
 Cost of Diesel (3.5 Lts) = Rs. 100
 Cost of Labour (Rework) = Rs. 100

5.3 Intangible benefits ----- 1) Engine life improved.


2) Waste oil disposal problem solved.
3) Timely dispatch of tractors.

5.4 Adverse effects (If any) -------- Nil -----

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Standardization| Permanent Elimination of Problem Page | 45

List of documents changed ||

 SOP for sealant application at Engine suppliers end


 Permanent welding fixture (J68080) designed and provided at supplier end. Alternate design for
nut welding provided vides Drawing no.V085633/1. Resistance welding (weld nut) option in place
of tack welding was given
 Drawing released Rubber Plug head diameter changed from Ǿ61mm to Ǿ63.5mm (vides drawing
no. V085633/2)
 Oil Filler Cap Assembly
o ring introduced instead of plain steel washer (For better sealing) vides drawing
no.V085633.
o Concentricity of Ǿ 10±0.2 hole w.r.t. Ǿ65.5 of Cap mentioned vides Drawing
no.V085633/3
 Dipstick modified
o Head made Cup type (Drawing no. V085632
o b) “O” Ring thickness increased from 2mm t0 2.15mm Clearance of altered parts obtained
thru΄ P PAP. 6.2 Die rework schedule provided to suppliers.
Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Page | 46
Conclusion|

|| Lessons Learnt

1. Where ever possible , fool proofing should be done

2. Adequate design considerations before implementation

3. CFTs are very important for fast project results

4. Process adherence is must for good results

5. SOPs should be displayed at all the work stations

|| Horizontal developments

The gain of all the achievements will be automatically achieved in Plant -2

|| Critiquing

The selection of team members was very judicious. It went right up to the completion of the
project. In the beginning, the magnitude of the work involved in the project was not realized.
The pace of the project was rather slow so all members had to over exert in the lateral part of
the project. The work should have been started at war footing from the very outset.

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Page | 47
Final report | Submitted to the plant management on the requested pattern

Project Resolution Format – Early Hour Failures


M & M Swaraj tractors division.

Title of Project: Reducing problem of water mix in engine oil. Date of


Implementation:

TO resolve PDI and early hour failure (R/1000) in the tractor before and after
OBJECTIVE dispatch.

COMPONENT(S)
Complete engine assembly
UNDER FOCUS
Dealer PDI report and market quality news feed back for the water mix in the
engine oil of tractor. Which leads to loss of value of oil and also effect the life of
engine components working inside the engine assembly.Based on the feed
back, same problem were being faced in the plant also. Tractors having such
problem were taken for the investigation and analysis for the problem
BACKGROUND / identification.
OBSERVATION OF
FIELD DATA Water mixed in engine oil on tractor in the plant and MQN as given below

Supplier/ Jan-09 Feb-09 March Total


Month
SEL 6 7 6 19
KOEL 2 1 1 4
DESIGN No water ingress into the engine oil being used for lubricating the running
SPECIFICATIONS various engine parts and components.
Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

For finding the root cause of the problem. A reverse Engineering method were
developed and implemented to find the real cause. A dry air test method
design and developed as shown in the fig. test was conducted on the
problematic engine. Air leakage observed through the following points like:

Page | 48

ROOT CAUSE
ANALYSIS Air Leakage Test

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 1: Eliminating / Reducing Water Mix in Engine Oil

Sr. No. Defect Frequency


1. Oil filler cap not fully tightened. 1

2. Breather pipe not inserted in the oil teller 3


body; gaps remain left between the bush
Outer dia. and Inner Dia. of the housing.
Page | 49
3. Oil teller body not seated with gear casing. 2

4. F. I. P assembly not fully seated with gear 2


casing housing due to loose of
manufacturing nut. Tappet cover
manufacturing nut loose; gasket not seated
(torn or not match with casting profile).

5. Push rod bottom rubber plug damaged 3


during assembly.

6. Dip stick not fully pressed. 1


Dry air test recommended to both engines supplied and introduced RTU rubber
SOLUTION
solution application, tightening of fasteners; care to be taken in push rod
IDENTIFICATION
assembly, etc.

SOLUTION
SOP made and implemented for the above said solutions.
VALIDATION

SOLUTION
All the recommended solutions has been implemented.
IMPLEMENTATION

CONCLUSION Problem has drastically reduced

FURTHER ACTION
PLAN - TRACKING  Will be monitoring for further, for some time being till the fool proofing not
/ HORIZONTAL done at the supplier end.
DEPLOYMENT  Audits and checks are being carried out for the holding gains.
Project 2
Elimination / Reduction of diesel
leakage from fuel cock assembly

 Project Leader :
Mr. Rajendra Singh
( In House Quality )

Project under completion – In final stage


Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

Problem Identification and Definition | Page | 51

Eliminate Rejection / Wastage of Diesel due to leakage from fuel cock Assembly – High Diesel
leakage from fuel cock assembly. Its average in the last 4 months has been 7408 PPM at present
while the target is to achieve is 500 PPM.

Brief description of the problem |


Fuel Cock Assembly is connected between the Fuel Tank Assembly and to the Water Separator
through Fuel Pipe, Fuel Cock Assembly is used in the diesel circuit to stop and open the Diesel
flow to the feed pump by gravity. Fuel cock Assembly is connected to the Fuel Tank with a sealing
Rubber ring between Fuel Cock and Fuel Tank. A Fuel Pipe is used to carry the Diesel to Water
Separator with a banjo bolt and two metallic sealing washers (Aluminum)

|| The Diesel Leakage through Fuel Cock Assembly leads to


1. Loss of Diesel, which is monitory loss to the customer and to company also
2. Entire area below the Fuel tank Assembly becomes oily which is major irritation
3. Leakage accumulate on the parts showy shabby looks and eye sore to the customer
4. If the complaint is not attended immediately, this may lead to engine stop
5. It also leads to delay of the finish goods dispatch.
6. Environment of safety
Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

History of problem|
Based on the gate audit of the quality engineering. Reference 10% Audit report.

12000

10000

8000
PPM

6000

4000

2000

Based on the gate audit of the quality engineering. Reference 10% Audit report

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

Observation| Recognition of the features of the problem


Page | 53
||Observation of the process

Fuel cock Assembly fitment Fuel tank assembly fit on Correction


to the fuel Tank Assembly the tractor along with fuel stage
cock Assembly

Yes
No Roller
Rework Testing

Tractor advised to Sent to Yes No Road


OK
store QP6 Testing
stage

Rework and
PDI at STD before
Correct
Dispatch

OK
Leakage

Dispatch
Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

||Observation of symptoms

 Heavy leakage of diesel on tractors in rework.


 P.D.I audit (leakage)
 IQS score

1. I5 cases of Diesel leaksge from PDI area & 5 cases from tractor re-work area were studied.
In 15 Cases leakage was observed from bottom face of banjo bolt ,in 4 case mountings
with tank & 1 case from Fuel cock knob.
2. Leakage from the bottom face of the banjo bolts
3. This defect observed in all models of tractors.
4. Torque value of 18 lbsft for banjo bolt tightening was observed under torque with dial
type torque wrench. In other 4 cases leakage found from interface of Fuel cock Assembly
& Fuel Tank Assembly. In one case leakage was observed from Fuel Cock knob.

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

||Brief Description
Fuel cock assembly is used in fuel line of the tractor assembly. Its main function is to cut-
off or release the fuel to the fuel line. Fuel cock assembly is consists of main parts like
body, knob, and rubber sealing ring. Fuel cock is fitted to the main tank with rubber Page | 55
ring.Fuel pipe is fitted with fuel cock with banzo and aluminium washer.

Fuel Cock
Assy

Upper leakage
point AL washer

Diesel Off / On Banjo bolt Bottom leakage


Knob leakage point AL washer
point

Interface of Fuel Cock


& Fuel Tank Assembly
Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

Fixed Torque wrench

||Observation of variation
Observation of leakage from fuel cock Assy and joints on 20 defective tractors. The Following
observations were made:-

Tractors belong to both the shifts. Assembly was done by different persons and at
different times. So there is no variation from

 Shift to Shift
 Person to Person
 Time to time

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

Analysis| discovery of main root causes


Page | 57

The analysis of the problem lead to the formulation of theories and sub-theories in their logical

inter relationship. These came forward after experiments were conducted and brainstorming was

done with team members, line supervisor and work force.

|| Possible causes
The analysis of the problem led to the following possible causes

Diesel leakage may have occurred due to


1. Carelessness of the workmen

a. Torque wrench not used


b. Assembly not as per Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)
c. SOP not adequate
d. Wrong torque wrench used
e. Person not skilled

2. Machine

a. Wrong impact no torque


b. Torque Ranch Setting
i. Setting over
ii. Setting under

3. Material

a. Fuel pipe rejected


i. Face dent or damage
ii. Crimping not ok
iii. Butting face not ||to each other
b. Al. washer
i. High hardness
ii. Face dented
Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

c. Fuel Tank ‘O’ Ring Seat depth access


d. Banjo bolt defective
i. Circular finish NOT OK
ii. Concentricity of Ø14 and M14x1.5 thread portion not ok
iii. Thread portion length less or more
iv. Thread inclined w.r.t face
e. Fuel cock assembly
i. M5 hole through
ii. M14x1.5 mot ┴ w.r.t to face
iii. Knob ‘O’ ring damaged
iv. Material porosity
f. Sealing mtg. ‘O’ Ring
i. Damage/cut
ii. Outer diameter undersized
4. Method

a. Grease not applied


b. Sop not displayed
c. SOP not made
d. No holding device used
e. ‘o’ ring setting Not OK

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

|| Cause and effect diagram| the cause and effect diagram gives a systematic overview of the problem

Page | 59
MAN
Torque wrench
METHOD
not used SOP not display
Person not
skilled SOP not made
Assy not as
per SOP
‘O’ Ring
SOP not adequate setting not
ok
No holding
Wrong torque Grease not device used
wrench used applied

FUEL COCK
LEAKAGE
Fuel Tank O/D U/S
Wrong
Sealing mtg.
impact no ‘O’ Ring ‘O’ Ring
torque seat
Face dented
depth Damage/cut Knob ‘O’ ring
Setting excess damage
over Al. washer Material porosity
Torque wrench
Fuel Cock Assy
setting
High M14x1.5 mot ┴
hardness w.r.t to face M5 hole
Butting face not
// to each other through
Setting
Thread
under
Fuel pipe inclined Thread portion length less or more
rejected
Face dent w.r.t face Banjo bolt
Crimping
or defective
not ok
damage
Concentricity of Ø14& M14x1.5
Circular finish
MATERIAL thread portion not ok
MACHINE not ok
Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

|| Probable causes selected for testing |establishing root causes

1. Banjo bolt under torque. Banjo bolt (M14x1.5 threading)


2. Washers face damage.
3. Washer hardness high.
4. Fuel cock M14 face (where banjo has to sit) not flat
5. Banjo bolt butting face not ┴ or to M14x1.5 thread axis.
6. Banjo bolt Ø 14 not concentric with m14x1.5 thread portion.
7. ‘O’ Ring diameter under size
8. ‘O’ Ring hardness excess.
9. ‘O’ Ring not seated in groove
10. Fuel Tank groove depth excess
11. M16x2 thread not ┴ or to groove.
12. Fuel Pipe faces not parallelism to each other.
13. Fuel cock assembly knob sealing rubber defective.

||Testing of hypothesis

All the possible causes were tested after discussion with the team members and marked as a
valid reason or invalid reason accordingly.

Sr. Probable Testing of hypothesis Conclusions


No. Causes
1 Banjo bolt On 15 defective tractors we have checked the leakage tractor Hypothesis
under testing of banjo bolt found under torque on 15 tractors. valid.
torque Specified = 18 lbsft
Observed =12 -14 lbsft

2 In all 15 defective tractor AL washer face checked all were ok


Aluminum Hypothesis
washer Invalid.
face

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

dented

Page | 61

3 Al washer At random 10 Pc of Al washers checked for hardness.


High Given hardness = 40-42HB Hypothesis
hardness Observed = 40-41HB Invalid

4 Fuel cock All fuel cock was checked for flatness with the help of calibrated Hypothesis
M16x2 square gauge. All pieces, were qualified the gauge. Invalid
face not
flat

5 Banjo bolt Five banjo bolts removed from the defective tractor and
Ø 14 not checked with concentric gauge (J61405A). All were qualified the Hypothesis
concentric gauge. ┴ =.05 max. invalid.
with
M14x1.5

6 Rubber In four out of 20 defective tractors when dismantled rubber ring Hypothesis
sealing found damage all sealing ring replaced with new ring fitted with valid
ring not tractor not leakage found.
seated in
fuel tank
groove
Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

7 Sealing 15 Sealing ring were checked for diameter & shore hardness. Hypothesis
ring invalid.
(P395208) Diameter-ØO/D Specified = 16.5±.10
diameter Ø O/D Observed = 16.5±.10
undersize Thickness = 1.78±..076
& Shore hardness -
hardness Specified = 65±5
variation Observed= 63-66

8 Fuel Tank Five defective fuel tank were checked for depth & ┴ 0.1 or all Hypothesis
groove were qualified in the gauge No. J61408. invalid.
depth Squareness checking gauge number
excess & Also 100 pieces at random were also checked on line with gauge
M14x1.5 all were qualified.
thread not
┴ or to
the
groove.

9 Fuel pipe All defective pipes checked for parallelism with micro meter. Hypothesis
butting All reading invalid.
not Specified = 0.1mm
parallel to Observed = 0.09mm
each

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

other

10 Fuel pipe In one case out of 20 , leakage observed from Fuel Cock knob Hypothesis
butting when tested with air pressure at 1.5 kg /cm2 Valid
not
Page | 63
parallel to
each
other

|| Root causes identified

1. Banjo bolt found under torque.


2. Rubber sealing not seated in groove
3. Fuel leakage from fuel cock knob
Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

|| Results of good product tests

10 tractors with no diesel leakage through fuel cock Assy and their joints were checked. For
verifying the observed possible root cause the following observations were made:-
 All the banjo bolts were fully tighten at 18 lbsft torque.
 Sealing rings were perfectly ok.
 No Fuel leakage from fuel cock knob

Actions| Actions Taken To Eliminate Root Causes

|| Development of remedies

S.NO Root cause Why Why Why


1. Banjo bolt under torque Torque wrench workmen not SOP not
not used aware about SOP prepare

2. Rubber sealing ring not Assembly not SOP not followed SOP not made
seated in fuel tank done properly
groove. To find out
3. Diesel leakage from fuel Air leakage leakage point
cock knob performed

|| Final remedies

Sr. no. Root Cause Remedial Action

1. Banjo bolt under torque Standard operation process


(SOP) made and worker
educated for adhering to
this.

Department of Quality Engineering | Swaraj Division | Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.


Project 2: Eliminating / Reducing Diesel Leakage from fuel cock assembly

2. Rubber sealing ring not seated in fuel Standard operation process


tank groove. (SOP) made and worker
educated for adhering to
this.
3 Fuel leakage from fuel cock knob System designed
Page | 65

Final report |
The final report, testing and checking of this project is still underway. The project is still under
process