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Introduction. Straight Beam: - A beam is a straight structural member subjected to a system of external forces acting at right angles to its axis. They are classified by the type of supports. 1. If a member is fixed or built in one end while its other end is free, the member is called cantilever beam. 2. If the ends of the beam are made to freely rest on supports the beam is called a freely or simply supported beam. 3. If abeam is fixed at both its, it is called as built-in or fixed beam.
4. A beam which is provided with more than two supports is called as continuous beam.
A beam is said to be statically determinate beam, if its reaction components can be determined by using equations of static equilibrium only. Commonly encountered statically determinate beams are cantilever beams, SS beam and over hanging beams. Beams are subjected to transverse loads such as concentrated load, UDL, UVL & applied moments. Beam transfer applied load to supports, the beam develop resistance to moments & transverse shear forces at all its cross-sections. CURVED BEAMS A beam in which the neutral axis in the unloaded condition is curved instead of straight. Or If the beam is originally curved before applying the bending moment, are termed as “Curved Beams”. Applications of Curved Beams. Curved beams find applications in many machine members such as c – clampers , crane hooks, frames of presses, chains, links, rings, etc..,
Differences between Straight Beams & Curved Beams. Sl.no Straight Beams Curved Beams 1. Neutral axis of the Neutral axis does not co cross-section passes – incide with the crossthrough the centroid of section, but is shifted the section. towards the centre of curvature of the beam. 2. The variation of The distribution of the bending stress is linear, stress in the case of magnitude being curved beam is nonproportional to the linear (Hyper- bolic) distance of a fiber from because of the neutral the neutral axis. axis is initially curved.
Note:- In all the machine members, the line of action the load does not pass through the centroid of the section over which the stress is to be found out. Due to this, the total stress over section of the member will be the algebraic sum of direct stress & bending stress.
Q) Discuss the stress distribution pattern in curved beams when compared to straight beam with sketches. [VTU /Feb 2002](4) Curved beam Hyperbolic stress Distribution [nonlinear] ►The neutral axis of the cross section does not coincide with the centroidal axis but is shifted towards the center of
curvature of the beam. ►Bending stress in curved beams donot follow linear variation because of the variation of arc length. Straight beam Linear variation of stress ►Neutral axis coincides with the centroidal axis. ►Variation of normal stress due to bending across its section is linear. ►The stress is proportional to the distance of the fiber from the neutral axis.
[VTU/Jan/Feb/2003] (8) → . [VTU/Jan-Feb/2002](8) OR State the assumptions & derive the stress equation in case of a curved beam.Q) Derive the expression for the normal stress due to bending at the extreme fibers of a curved beam.
6. Material of the beam is isotropic & homogeneous & obeys hook’s law. mm R (Rc) = Radius of centroidal axis. 3. measured towards centre of curvature. mm Ci = distance from neutral axis to inner fiber (radius) mm Co = distance from neutral axis to outer fiber (radius) mm. Ri = inner radius of curvature.Assumptions:1. Let F =Load M =Applied bending moment. 2. N –mm e = distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis. Plane sections perpendicular to the axis of the beam remain plane even after bending. mm Rn = Radius of neutral axis. Young’s modulus is same in tension &compression. mm Ro = outer radius of curvature. The beam is subjected to pure bending. mm A = area of section. N/mm2 σo = Stress in the outer fiber. independent of the layer above or below it. The stress induced do not exceed elastic limit. mm2 σi = Stress in the inner fiber. Each layer of the beam is free to expand OR contract. 4. N/mm2 Consider a part of the curved beam between two radial planes ab & cd subtending an angle ‘θ’ at the centre of . 5.
curvature when the beam is subjected to bending moment ‘M’ as shown in fig. ∫dF = 0 ∫ +Ed θ y dA=0 Or +Ed θ ydA =0 .Young’s modulus σ = + E y dθ (1) (Rn + y)θ Load on the strip having the thickness ‘dy’ & the crosssection dA is given by σ = dF or dF = σ dA dA i. Now. (Rn+ y )θ Stress in the fibre is given by σ α Є within elastic limit or σ=EЄ E.sectional area ‘dA’ at a distance ‘y’ from the neutral axis. It is shortened by an amount ydθ. dA (Rn + y)θ Now applying the condition of equilibrium (i.. The strain across cross section dA would be Є= +yθ . consider a fiber of depth ‘dy’ & cross.e. the plane ‘cd’ rotates with respect to ‘ab’ through an angle ‘θ’ & takes new position ‘fg’.e.e. summation of forces over the whole cross-section is zero).. The original length of strip at a distance ‘y’ from the neutral axis is (Rn + y)θ. dF = + E y dθ .. i. The outer fiber are shantered due to compression and inner fibre are elongated due to tension.
1/pg 132 (RN+y)Ae . we get Mb = +∫y dF substitute the value of dF Mb = Ed θ ∫ y2 . i.(RN+y) θ But E.e .e.y Eqn 10.. θ ∫ y dA =0 (Rn + y) θ (RN+y) Now talking moments about the neutral axis.e.e (3) θ Or E dθ/θ = Mb/Ae from eqn (1) Edθ = +σ (RN+y) θ On comparing we get. Mb = +σ (RN+y) Ae y Or σ = +Mb.e. the product of total area A and the distance ‘e’ from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis. i. the product it may be reduced by A.dA represents the moment of area. Mb = E dθ .. it may be replaced by A.dA θ (y + RN) 0 = Edθ ∫ y – y RN dA θ y + RN from (2) Mb = Edθ ∫ y dA θ Since ∫y.A.dθis not equal to zero.
y = + Ci Bending stress σbi = MbCi (RN . At the outer fiber.MbCo [RN + Co = Ro] A e Ro At inner fibre.MbCo (RN+Co)Ae Or (compressive) σbo = .This is the general equation for the stress in a fiber at a distance ‘y’ from the neutral axis. Bending stress σb = . y=+Co.Ci)Ae σi = + MbCi A e Ri [RN – Ci = Ri] .
b= 30mm. Ri= 125mm. The centre of curvature of the section is at a distance of 125mm from the inside section & the load line is 100mm from the same point. Find the capacity of the hook if the allowable stress in tension is 75 N/mm2. Soln:1) Given data :. σRi = F + MbCi A A e Ri Inner radius = Ri = 125mm .Problems:The section of a crane hook is rectangular in shape whose width is 30mm & depth is 60mm. σRi = 75N/mm2 To find the capacity of the the hook. h=60mm. use eqn.
Ri = 153.153.045mm Ln(185/125) Distance of centroidal axis from neutral axis = e = Rc – RN = 155. R + C2 = Ro.045mm Distance of neutral axis to outer radius = Co = Ro .045 e = 1.RN = 185-153.955mm Distance of neutral axis to inner radius = Ci = RN .Outer radius = Ro = 125 + 60 = 185mm Radius of = Rc = 125 + 60/2 = 155mm Centroidal axis Radius of = RN = h --.C 1 = Ri RN = h ln(Ro/Ri) RN = 60 = 153.c)) But R = Rc. R .table 10.045-125 = 28.045 = 31.955mm Area of cross-section = A = b × h = 30 × 60 = 1800mm2 Distance from centroidal axis to force = l = Rc – 25 = 155-25 = 130mm .1/pg 134 Neutral axis ln((R + c)/(R .
955 × 125) Solving for ‘F’ we get F = 8480.Bending moment about the centroidal axis = Mb = F × l = 130. depth = 100mm & inner radius = 120mm. if the permissinble stress is 100MPa.F × 28. A crane hook of trapezoidal cross-section has an inner fiber width = 120mm.4N -------. Calculate the width if stresses are numerically equal at inner & outer fibres. Also determine the capacity of the hook.F N-mm Combined stress at the inner fiber σRi = F + Mb Ci A AeRi 75 = F/1800 + (130.045)/ (1800 × 1.Capacity for the hook. soln:2) .
b) h (R – C1) table 10. MCi = MCO AeRi AeRO ⇒ Ci = CO Ri RO But Ci = RN – Ri & CO = RO – RN R N – R i = RO . .b) h Ri Substituting the values.1/pg 135 But R + C2 = RO & R – C1 = Ri But RN = A B1RO – bRi ln RO .(b1 .for stress to be numerically equal. RO = 220mm.(b1 .RN Ri RO RN [ 1/Ri + 1/RO ] = 2 ⇒ R N = 2 Ri R O R i + RO But Ri = 120.29mm 120 + 220 But RN = A B1(R + c2) – b(R – C1) ln (R + C2) . RN = 2 × 120 × 220 = 155.R N Ri RN RN -1 = 1 .Given data:.
29 = 50(120 + b) 120 × 220 – 120b ln 220 . The distance between the centroidal axis of the rod & the centre of curvature of the hook is 50mm. Determine the load ‘F’ so that the maximum stress in the rod is not to exceed 40 N/mm2.6mm ≈ 28mm (ii) Max load:σRi = F/A + MbCi/AeRi 100 = F + F × 220 × (3) A crane hook shown in figure below is made of 30mm diameter steel rod. we get b = 27.b) 100 120 On solving.155.(120 .] soln:- .
Ri = Rc – (d/2) = 50 .42 N 4) A section of frame for a punch press is shown in figure below.15× 35 On solving for ‘F’ we get F = 1556. From DDHB. Rc = 50mm.14 × 1.15mm Area of cross-section: A = π d2/4 = π302/4 = 707.14mm2 Bending moment : M = F × Rc = f × 50 = 50F N-mm Total stress = Direct stress + Bending stress at inner fiber = F/A + MbCi/AeRi 40 = F/707.Given data:. σRi = 40 N/mm2 From the figure.85/707. for circular c/s RN = ½ C2 = ½ (152) R – √ R2 – C 2 50 – √ 502 – 152 RN = 48.1/pg 134.15 =35mm RO = Rc + (d/2) = 50 + 15 =65mm C1 = C2 = d/2 = 15 mm.85 = 1.14 + 50F × 13.15 = 13.85mm e = Rc – RN = 50 – 48.d = 30mm. Determine the capacity of the press if the maximum tensile stresses in the frame is not to exceed 60MPa.85mm CO = C2 + e = 15 + 1. . table 10.15mm Ci = C1 – e = 15 – 1.15 = 16.
Ri = 80 mm .Soln:Given data:σRi = 60 N/mm2 . To find RN.3/pg 8 C1 = aH2 + bd2 2(aH + bd) & C2 = H – C1 .From table 10.1 /pg 136 RN = A B ln R + d – C1 + a ln R + C2 R – C1 R + d + C2 To find C1 & C2 from table 1. RO = 80 + 40+ 100 = 220mm.
88 – 127.85 = 47.02mm e = RC – RN = 138.88 + 200) Mb = 338.88 = 81. . b = 40mm.12mm. H= 140 mm.88 × 47. C1 = 40(140)2 + 40(40)2 = 58.where a = 40mm.88 – 11.85 × 80 F = 24253.88mm 2(40 × 140 + 40 × 40) IIIly C2 = 140 – 58.03mm 60 = F + 338.88F Total stress = σRi =F/A + MbCi/AeRi Ci = C1 – e = 58.32N capacity of the frame. A Again RN = B ln Ri– C1 + a ln RO Ri RO + d Because R – C1 = Ri & R + C2 = RO A = area of cross-section = 80 × 40 + 100 × 40 = 7200mm2 RN = 7200 80 ln 80 + 40 + 40 ln 220 80 80 + 40 RN = 127.02 = 11.03 7200 7200 × 11.85mm Bending moment : Mb = F × (Rc + l) = F(138. d = 40mm.
5/pg 133 At section B-B :MbB = -0.182FR eqn 10. MbA = 0. σd = F.318FR eqn 10.STRESS IN CLOSED RINGS:- A closed ring is an example of a Curved beam with restrained ends.sinθ/2A . The bending moment at any cross-section of the ring is given by BM = Mb = F. Load is acting at section B-B & sectiona A-A is 90o away from the point of application of load. Direct stress at any cross section ‘DD’ at an angle θ with vertical is given. Let the ring be subjected to a central load shown in the figure.sinθ]/2 At section A –A:θ = 0.6/pg 133 here -ve sign is considered as tensile.R [ 2/π .
Problem :1) Detrermine the stress induced in a circular ring of circular c/s of 25mm diameter subjected to a tensile load of 6500N. Soln:- . The inner ring diameter is 60mm.
49mm A = π × d2/4 = 491.5mm RN = ( √RO + √Ri ) 2 /4 ---.5 – 41.318 F RC (because sin 0 = 0) .51 – 30 = 11.99mm Ci = RN – Ri = 41.51 = 0.51mm e = Rc – RN = 42.51 = 13.Given data:Ri = 30mm RO = 30 + 25 = 55mm RC = 30 + 25/2 = 42.51mm CO = RO + RN = 55 – 41. θ = 0o Direct stress = σd = F sinθ/2A = 0 Bending moment: Mb = 0.07mm2 Consider section A-A.for circular c/s = ( √55 + √30 )2 /4 = 41.
e. σRi = σd + σb = 6.07 × 0.Ri) = 6.5 N – mm Max stress at inner fiber .07 = 6.RO) = 87847.r.e.Ci/(A.σb = 0 .σb .49 491.5) × 11.618 + (.50277.t horizontal) Direct stress = σd = F sinθ/2A = 6500 × sin90 2 × 491.5 N – mm Max stress at inner fiber .= 0.51 491.5 × 11.99 × 55 σRo = -44.51 491.50277.182 × 6500 × 42. σRi = σd + σb = 0 + Mb. σRo = σd .99 × 30 σRi = -33.5 = 87847.CO/(A.052 N/mm2 (compressive) Max stress at outer fiber .618 + Mb.182 F RC = -0.5 = .07 × 0.e.318 × 6500 × 42. σRo = σd .5 × 13. θ = 90o ( w.Ri) = 87847.07 × 0.99 × 30 = 69.32 N/mm2 Consider section B-B.32 N/mm2 (tensile) Max stress at outer fiber .Ci/(A.Mb.618 N/mm2 Bending moment: Mb = -0.
Ci/(A.99 × 30 σRo = 31.51 491.e.07 × 0.= 6.618 .Ri) = 6.98 N/mm2 .50277.(.618 .Mb.5) × 11.
toys etc. Applications 1) To absorb or control energy due to either shock or vibratgion as in automotives. 5) To store energy as in watches.HELICALSPRINGS Helical springs are made of wire coiled in the form of helix and are primarily intended for compressive or tensile loads. 4) To measure forces as in spring balances and engine indicators. The cross-section of the wire from which the spring is made may be . whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its original shape when the load is removed. 2) To apply forces. aircrafts. TYPES OF SPRINGS 1). clutches and spring loaded valves. landing gears and vibration dampers etc. as in brakes.SPRINGS Introduction A spring is defined as an elastic body. railways. 3) To control motion by maintaining control between two elements as in CAMS & followers.
Conical and Volute springs. e) Their performance can be predicted more accurately. Another feature of these types of springs is the decreasing number of coils results in an increasing spring rate. 3). Torsion springs. a) These springs are easy to manufacture. f) There characteristics can be varied by changing dimensions. . Advantages. o Helical springs are said to be closely coiled. The conical and volute spring shown in the figure are used in special applications where the spring rate increases in increase in load. This characteristic is some times utilized in vibrations problems where springs are used to support to body that have varying mass. c) They are highly reliable. where as in open coil helical spring the helix angle is large. b) They are available in wide range.circular. d) They have constant spring rates. 2). when the helix angle is very small (< 10 ). square or rectangular. The two forms of helical springs are compression helical spring and tension helical spring as shown in figure.
These springs may be of helical or spiral type as shown in figure. 4). Spiral type is used where the loads tends to increase the number of coils and are used in watches and clocks. . The laminated or leaf spring (also known as flat spring) consists of a number of flat plates (known as leaves) of varying lengths held together by means of clamps and bolts. Laminated or Leaf springs. These types of springs are most used in automobiles. Helical types of springs are used where the load tends to wind up the springs and are used in electrical mechanisms.
Ls = n . l Solid length. Mathematically. These springs are used in applications where high spring rates and compact spring units are required. Terms used in compression springs 1. The solid length of a spring is the product of total number of coils & the diameter of the wire.d l Where n .5). These springs consists of a number of conical discs held together by a central bolt or tube as shown in figure. Disc springs. Solid length: - When the springs are compressed until the coils come in contact with each other. then the spring is said to be solid.dia of the coils .no of coils d .
diameter of coil.2. N δ . K= F/ δ F.d + δmax + 0. Spring index = C = D/d 4.15 δmax 3. Free length . the diameter of the . l Pitch of the coil. def + clearance between adjacent coils. mm 5.Free length Ls . LF . p = ( LF – Ls)/n + d where.spring rate (stiffness/spring constant) is the defined as the load required per unit deflection of the spring. Spring index: . Stress in helical spring and circular wire.Pitch of the coils is defined as the axial distance between adjacent coils in un compressed state.It is defined as the ratio of the man diameter of the coil to wire.load.Solid length l n . Pitch: .Lf = solid length + max.Total number of coils d . Spring Rate: .Defection. l Lf = n . Free length:- Free length of a compression spring is the length of the spring in the free or unloaded condition & is equal to the solid length plus the maximum deflection or compression of the spring & the clearance between the adjacent coils. Mathematically. Spring Rate.
Therefore. F = Axial load on the spring. Shear stress induced in the wire. as shown in figure. G = Modulus of Rigidity for the spring material. Consider a point of the spring shown in fig (b).Consider a helical compression spring made of circular wire & subjected to an axial load F. n = number of active coils. Let us consider that part of spring is in equilibrium under the action of two forces ‘F’ & twisting ‘T’. C = spring index = D/d p = pitch of the coils & δ = deflection of the spring. The load ‘F’ tends to rotate the wire & as a result twisting moment (T) is developed in the wire. τ = Max. Let. 3 T = F × D/2 = π × τ1 × d n eq 3. D = Mean diameter of the coil d = Diameter of the spring wire. & thus torsional shear stress is induced in the wire.1/pg 142 .
Direct stress due to the load.16 Therefore τ1 = 8. Stress due to curvature of wire.615 4C .26/pg 139 Stress distribution diagram. & 2. the resultant shear stress induced in the wire τ = τ1 ± τ2 = 8FD ± 4F 3 2 πd πd Positive sign is used for the inner edge of the wire & Negative sign is used for the outer edge of the wire. F.K 3 πd n eq 11. Therefore. 1. Max shear stress induced in the wire = 8FD + 4F 3 2 πd πd = 8FD 1 + d 3 πd 2D = 8FD 1 + 1 3 πd 2C Therefore τ = 8FD . Factor n eq 11.1a/pg 139 (but C = D/d) = Torsional shear stress + Direct shear stress Where K = 4C .F. Since the stress is maximum at the inner edge of the wire. .4 C Wahl stress Conc.d In addition to the torsional shear stress (τ1) induced in the wire.D 3 π.1 + 0. Direct stress due to load F τ2 = Load = F 2 = 4F 2 πd c/s Area π × d /4 τ2 = 4F 2 πd Now. the following stresses also act on the wire.
G π × d × G/32 G×d n Substituting eq (2) in (1) for ‘θ’ 2 2 3 δ = 16.n × D = 8.D . T = τ = Gθ J OR R l ⇒ θ = T .d G.G 4 J = πd /32 & G – Modulus of Rigidity.n 4 4 G.Deflection of helical springs of circular wire.d θ = T .d 2 G.F.F.D . 2 = (F × D/2) (πDn ) = 16FD n 4 4 J. Therefore.l ----------(1) T = τ = Gθ J But D/2 l J. we have. Axial deflection of the spring δ = θ × D/2 Also. Let l = total active length of wire = πD × n θ = Angular deflection of the wire due to Torque t.F.C .n = 8. n eq 11.3/pg139 Substituting the values of l & J.l (b’coz C = D/d) .
Stiffness or Spring Rate: Fo = F/y 6.615 4C .2d)/i PROBLEMS 1/3 n eq 11.1a/ pg139 n --------. for Chrome-Vanadium steel.2525 1/3 n --------. .Vanadium Steel From table 11. The deflection under load is limited to 60 mm. 1.5a/pg139 n eq 11.F = 3000N y = 60mm c=6 FOS = 2 Mat . Free length: lo ≥ (i + 2) d + y + a 5.8/pg 153. Diameter of the wire: d = ((8FDK)/πτ) 2.7 / pg 152 (1) Design a helical compression spring to support an axial load of N.4 C + 0. Pitch: p = (lo .615 = 1. 3 2 τy = 690N/mm & G = 0. Diameter of wire τ = 8FDK 3 πd d= 8FDK πτ But K =4C .eq 11.45 × 10 N/mm 2 τ = τy/ FOS = 690/2 = 345 N/mm 1. n Sol : .7a/ pg139 -----------.table 11.1 + 0.6/ pg139 n eq 11.07485 × 10 N/mm = 78. Design Procedure for Helical Springs.Chrome . The spring index is 6.eq 11. The spring is made of chrome-vanadium steel & FOS = 2. k = 4×6 – 1 .20a/ pg142 n eq 11.3 3 Therefore δ = 8FD n = 8FC n 4 Gd G. Number of coils: I = yGd 3 8FD 4.Given data.d Where n – number of active coils. Mean diameter of the coil: D = cd (a) Outer diameter of the coil: Do = D + d (b) Inner diameter of the coil: Di = D – d 4 3.1b/ pg139 C = 6 therefore.
20a / pg 142 a = 25% of max. Free length:lo ≥ (i + 2)d + y +a n eq 11.Assuming square and ground end P = (lo – 2d)i = (257 – 2×13)/12 = 19.13 = 65mm 3.d = 78 . Diameter of the coil:C =D/d 6 = D/13 D = 78mm --. Outer dia: Do = D + d = 78 + 13 = 91mm Inner dia : Di = D . Standard diameter size = d = 13mm 2.8 3 8×3000×78 i = 12 4.13mm (ii) Mean dia . Therefore 345 = 8×3000×6d×1. deflection = 25×60/100 = 15mm lo ≥(12 + 2)13 + 60 +15 lo ≥257mm 5.Mean diameter of the coil. Stiffness/spring rate:Fo = F/y = 3000/60 = 50 N/mm Spring specifications (i) Wire dia . d = 12.4×6 – 4 Also c = D/d 6 ⇒ 6 = D/d or D =6d.45×10 ×13 = 11. Pitch:.89mm Select standard diameter of the wire from table 11.25mm 6.257mm .2525 3 π×d Solving.6 / pg 139 3 4 = 60×78.3a/pg 150.78mm (iii) Free length . Number of coils or turns: 4 i = yGd 3 8FD n eq 11.
4 C + 0.2mm .vanadium (2) Design a helical compression spring for a max.F = 1000N y = 25mm c=5 3 G =84 × 10 N/mm 2 τ = 420N/mm 1.3mm Select standard diameter of the wire from table 11.31 1/3 n --------.d = 25. d = 6.3 D = 31. Outer dia: Do = D + d = 37. .Mean diameter of the coil.615 4C .1a/ pg139 n --------. load of 1000N for a deflection of 25mm using 2 the spring index as 5. k = 4×5 – 1 4×5 – 4 Also c = D/d ⇒ 5 = D/d or D =5d.615 5 = 1. Diameter of wire τ = 8FDK 3 πd d= 8FDK πτ But K =4C .p – 19. Therefore 420 = 8×3000×5d×131 3 π×d Solving. the max permissible shear stress for spring wire is 420 N/mm & G = 3 2 84×10 N/mm n Sol : .l (iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 12 + 2 = 14coils (v) Style of ends = squared & ground (vi) Pitch .8mm Inner dia: Di = D .1b/ pg139 C = 5 therefore.Given data.5mm --.1 + 0.eq 11.25mm (vii)Spring rate – Fo = 50N/mm (viii)Material – Chrome.3a/pg 150. 4. Diameter of the coil:C =D/d 5 = D/6.eq 11.
3 ≈ 14 3 8×1000×31. Pitch:.3 + 25 +6.5 m Clearance = a = 2d . Take G = 0.3mm (ii) Mean dia – 31.25mm lo ≥ (14 + 2)6.75mm (vii)Spring rate – Fo = 40N/mm (3) A railway carriage weighing 40KN & moving at 8km/hr is to be brought to rest by 2 buffer springs.Number of springs = 2 y = 500mm = 0.Weight of the carriage .3)/14 = 8.20a / pg 142 a = 25% of max.2mm l (iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 14 + 2 = 16coils (v) Style of ends = squared & ground (vi) Pitch .5mm (iii) Free length – 131.5.2 – 2×6.p – 8.75mm 6. Stiffness/spring rate:Fo = F/y = 1000/25 = 40 N/mm Spring specifications (i) Wire dia – 6.Velocity .Assuming square and ground end P = (lo – 2d)i = (131.8km/hr = /3600) m/s = 2.25 lo ≥ 131. Free length:lo ≥ (i + 2)d + y +a n eq 11. Deflection = 25×25/100 = 6. Assume spring index as 8. Number of coils or turns: 4 i = yGd 3 8FD n eq 11.8 * 10 N/mm.5 i = 14 4.6 / pg 139 3 4 = 25×84×10 ×6. The compression between the coils must be twice the wire diameter.2mm 5.40 * 10 N v . And allowable shear stress for the spring material = 450N/mm. Design the spring? n Sol : Given data:w.22m/sec n .
1 + 0.81 = 10047.5mv = 0.E on the each spring = 10047.5mm (standard value) (ii) Mean diameter D = c.5 ×40 × 10 × 2.12525 2 πd ⇒ d = 9.5m.306mm ≈ 9.80 * 10 N/mm c=8 K.k.70/2 = 5023.09KN (i). 5023.5mm Inside dia = Di = D – d = 57 – 6 = 47.5/2 F = 20095. G = 0. then energy stored U = F × y/2 i.5mm (iii) Number of coils C 4 ×8 .t. τ = 8FDK = 8FCK 3 2 πd πd 550 =8×2489×6×1.7N-m K.85 N-m If 'F' is the gradually applied force which would defect the spring by 0.184 4C – 4 w.4 8 (b’coz D/d = c) .E imported on the two springs due to the impact 2 2 U = 0.4N ≈ 20.. Wire diameter C =8 (given) Therefore K = 4C – 1 + 0.615 = 1.5wv /g 3 2 = 0.d D = 6 × 9.85 = F × 0.τ = 450N/mm.e.615 = 4 × 8 .22 /9.5 = 57mm Outside dia = Do = D +d = 57 + 6 = 66.
d = 25mm.375 – 2 × 9. Take G = 82. Find the max.33mm (ii) Mean dia . the spring has 20 turns.5)/10 P = 9.5 + 0.42N/mm Spring specifications (i) Wire dia .7GN/m 3 = 82.Given data: W = 2KN = 2000N. Shear stress induced in the spring 7 the amount of compression produced.25×3.5 = 0.7 × 10 N/mm Potential energy of falling weight = U = W (h + y) = 2000(250 + y) Energy absorbed by spring = U = Fy/2 .5a/ pg139 n eq 11.68.264mm (iii) Free length . c = 8 τ = ? y =? G = 82.4 i = Gd y 3 8FD 3 4 i = 3.7a/ pg139 (4)A load of 2KN is dropped axially on a helical spring from a height of 250mm.375mm (vii)Spring rate .Assume Square & Ground ends P = (lo – 2d)/i P = (118.73 ≈ 10 n eq 11.9375mm (vi)Spring Rate: .5 + 3.7GN/mm n Sol : .875 lo ≥ 118.Fo =F/y Fo = 166 /3.25y = 0.5 3 8×166×57 (iv) Free length: lo lo ≥ (i + 2)d +y + a a = 0.18N/mm = 9. & it is made of 25mm diameter wire.20a/ pg152 n eq 11. h= 250mm i = 20 turns.875mm lo ≥ (10 + 2)9.F = 40.5 = 47.375mm (v)Pitch: . The spring index is 8.1160mm l (iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 16 + 2 = 18coils (v) Style of ends = squared & ground (vi) Pitch .p .5×84×10 ×9.
48F – 10 = 0 F = 7407.03962F – 158. Design a helical spring for a spring loaded safety valve for the conditions: (i) Diameter of the valve = 65mm (ii)Operating pressure (iii) Max.5mm 5).(2) Substituting eqn (2) in (1) for ‘y’ 2 6 0.876N/mm Therefore y = 0.75N/mm following 8 .184 2 π × 25 2 τ = 285.7N/mm 2 = 0. Deflection: y = 8FD i = 8FC i 4 Gd Gd 3 y = 8×F×8 ×20 3 82.37N Now.615 4×8 – 4 K = 1.615 4C – 4 C but c = 8 K = 4×8 – 1 + 0.7×10 ×25 y =0.5mm 2 = 0.10 = 0 2 6 0.03962F – 4000(0.03962×7407.184 Shear stress = τ = 8FDK = 8FCK 3 2 πd πd τ = 8×7407. K = 4C – 1 + 0.37×8×1.03962 F ------------.03962F).Equating the above two equations: Fy/2 = 2000(250 + y) Fy = 4000(250 + y) 6 Fy = 4000y + 10 -----------. Pressure on the valve (iv) Max.37 y = 293. lift of the valve when pressure = 3.47 ≈ 293.(1) 3 3 Now.03962F = 0.
81mm ≈ 33mm .2525 4C – 4 C 4 ×6 .09×10 ×8×1.75N/mm y = Max.615 = 1.Always design the springs for maximum load & maximum deflection. Therefore F1 = P1 × A 2 = 0.75× π×65 /4 = 2489N 2 2 III Therefore.4 6 ( b’coz D/d = c) w.184 2 πd ⇒ d = 32. Force which produces deflection of 3.1 + 0. Pressure.t. Maximum force = F2 = 2489N (i).75 N/mm 2 (v) Max. τ = 8FDK = 8FCK 3 2 πd πd 3 450 =8×20.k.rises from 0.615 = 4 × 6 .7 ×π × 65 /4 ly F1 = 2322.7N/mm 2 P2 = Max.7 to 0. Wire diameter C =6 Therefore K = 4C – 1 + 0.8 ≈ 2323N 2 F2 = P2 = 0. Allowable stress = 550MPa (vi) Spring index n =6 ----------------.5mm τ = allowable shear stress = 550N/mm 3 2 G = 84×10 N/mm C=6 Let ‘F1’ be the initial force due to operating pressure & ‘F2’ be the force at Max.5mmis F = F2 – F1 = 2489 – 2323 = 166N Note:. Pressure = 0.VTU/August-2005 Sol :Given data:Let D1 = dia of the valve = 65mm P1 = Operating pressure = 0. Deflection = 3.
09 × 10 /500 = 40.42N/mm 6).9375mm (vii)Spring rate .375mm l (iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 10 + 2 = 12coils (v) Style of ends = squared & ground (vi) Pitch .5a/ pg139 .(ii) Mean diameter D = c.Fo =F/y n eq 11.375mm (vi)Spring Rate: .34×10 MPa & τy = 690N/mm .04 ≈ 16 (iv) Free length: lo lo ≥ (i + 2)d +y + a lo ≥ (16 + 2)33 + 500 + 2 × 33 lo ≥ 1160mm (v)Pitch: .C Engine is 40mm long. Assume 3 2 spring index to be 6 &G = 79. 5 4 0.Assume Square & Ground ends P = (lo – 2d)/i P = (1160 – 2 × 33)/16 P = 68.p – 9. (given a = 2d) n eq 11. Design the spring. The valve spring of an I.d D = 8 × 33 = 264mm Outside dia = Do = D +d = 264 + 8 = 272mm Inside dia = Di = D – d = 264 – 8 = 256mm (iii) Number of coils 3 y = 8FD i 4 Gd 3 3 500 = 8×20.20a/ pg152 n eq 11.09×10 ×264 ×i. when the valve is open & 48mm long when the valve is closed .5mm (ii) Mean dia .7a/ pg139 3 Fo = 20.8×10 ×33 i = 16. The spring loads are 250N when the valve is closed & 400n when the valve is open.57mm (iii) Free length – 118.18 N/mm Spring specifications (i) Wire dia – 9. The inside diameter of the spring is not to be less than 25mm & take FOS = 2.F = 47.
FOS = 2.F1 = 250N.710m ≈ 5. 3 2 G = 79.24 ≈ 13 (iv) Free length: lo lo ≥ (i + 2) d +y + a lo ≥ (13 + 2)5 + 21. Load & max.33 lo ≥ 101. Di = 25mm.k. Deflection. 2525 2 πd ⇒ d = 4. Deflection is given by l y2 = (F2y )/ (F2 – F1) = 21.2525 4C – 4 w.n Sol :Given data:. 2 2 τy = 690N/mm ⇒ τall = 690/2 = 345N/mm l l Let y be the deflection of the spring between opening & closing of the valve. Wire diameter C =6 Therefore K = 4C – 1 + 0. C = 6. Therefore.33 + 0.33 = 8×400×30 ×i. y = 48 – 40 = 8mm Now Max.33mm ----.refer fig 11. (i).5a/ pg139 C 4 ×6 . F2 = 400N. τ = 8FDK = 8FCK 3 2 πd πd 345 =8×400×6×1.20a/ pg152 n eq 11.4 6 (b’coz D/d = c) .00mm (ii) Mean diameter D = c.1 + 0.66mm n eq 11.25 × 21.d D = 6 × 5 = 30mm Outside dia = Do = D +d = 30 + 5 = 35mm Inside dia = Di = D – d = 30 – 5 = 25mm (iii) Number of coils 3 y = 8FD i 4 Gd 3 21.t.79×10 ×5 i = 12.2a / pg156 Design the spring for max. 5 4 0.615 = 4 × 6 .615 = 1.34×10 N/mm .
66mm l (iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 13 + 2 = 15coils (v) Style of ends = squared & ground (vi) Pitch .1 times the wire diameter.05mm (vii)Spring rate . The ends are squared & ground and the gap between the adjacent coils is 0.33 = 18.05mm (vi)Spring Rate: .Assume Square & Ground ends P = (lo – 2d)/i P = (101. The allowable shear stress is 827MPa.F = 18. Determine the following (i) Spring rate (ii) Free length (iii) Pitch (2) The following data refers to the valve of a petrol engine Length of the spring when the valve is open – 40mm Length of the spring when the valve is closed – 48mm Spring load when the valve is closed – 350N Spring load when the valve is open – 220N Spring index – 6.75N/mm (viii) Allowable shear stress = 345N/mm Assignment:(1) A helical spring made from 6.p – 7.3mm diameter steel wire has an outside diameter of 57.7a/ pg139 .75 N/mm Spring specifications (i) Wire dia – 5mm (ii) Mean dia .8 (3) The maximum shear stress allowed is 150MPa & the modulus of rigidity is 84GPa.3mm with squared & ground ends and has 12 coils.66 – 2 × 5)/13 P = 7.30mm (iii) Free length – 101.(v)Pitch: . Determine the following (i) Wire dia (ii)Mean dia 2 n eq 11.Fo =F/y Fo = 400/21.
(iii) Number of coils (iv) Free length (v) Pitch .