This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
NON PROJECTED AUDIOVISUAL AIDS
DEENA VINCENT 1ST YAER MSC NURSING
• 1. According to Kinder S. James: Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic. • 2. According to KP. Neeraja: an audio visual aid is an instructional device in which the message can be heard as well as seen.
Purposes of Audio Visual Aids
• i) convey meaning clearly • ii) capture attention, arouse and sustain interest • iii) increase the correctness, clarity and effectiveness of the idea and skills being transferred • iv) help in learning more, faster, and with thoroughness
• v) help in remembering longer • vi) reach more people, irrespective of their level of literacy, or language • vii) save the instructor's time • viii) reduce the possibility of misinterpreting concepts • ix) clarify the relationship between material objects and concepts • x) highlight the main points of the message clearly.
Principles of AV aids
• • • • • • Principle of selection Principle of preparation Principle of physical control Principle of proper presentation Principle of principle of response Principle of evaluation
Limitations of Audio Visual Aids • i) Learners may sometimes form distorted impressions. not giving the complete picture of a subject • iii) Some teachers acquire the mistaken idea that they have little to do when audio visuals are used . unless audio visual aids are supplemented with required explanations • ii) They may tempt the teacher to narrow down his teaching to only a few big ideas.
charts Display boards.DALE'S HIERARCHICAL CONE OF EXPERIENCE Verbal words Chalk board. models Projected AV aids Direct experience .
Classification – AV aids Projected aids Non projected aids Activity aids Audio aids .
Classification – non projected AV aids • Display boards • Graphic aids • 3-dimentional aids .
I. iv. ii. i. iii. v. Display boards Chalk board Bulletin boards Flannel boards Magnetic board PEG board .
Graphic aids i. Graphs iv.II. Charts ii. Posters v. Flash cards iii.Palmlets . Diagrams vii. Maps vi. Cartoons viii.
3-dimentional aids • • • • • • • Models puppets Objects Specimen Dioramas Mock-ups Moulage .III.
natural conditions. the details of boundaries of whole of earth‟s surface. countries etc. • A map is an accurate representation of plane surface in the form of a diagram drawn to scale. contours of the earth surface and important locations can also be represented. . Geographical details like location of mountains. location etc. altitude of a place. rivers.Meaning • The map is a record of spatial concepts. • Maps can also depict the climatic conditions. taught and learnt accurately. continents.
To depict geographical features of earth‟s surface and to understand the position of earth in the universe. directions. To show relationship between places 3. To understand the distinction between various types of maps such as relief . political. shapes and sizes. 2. 4.PURPOSE OR USES OF MAPS 1. distribution maps. To furnish information concerning distances. .
5. tints. contours. To reduce the scale of areas and distances and thus bring the abstract concepts of size..Contd. distance and directions into the region of reality. To understand the lines-boundary lines. 7. . lines indication the rivers. To understand the colors. symbols in a map or globe. 6. shadows. meridians and parallels.
The teacher often does not take effort to teach map reading to the students. • 3. If the lettering is not taken care of. Maps should be accurate. wall mounted and durable. well planned. well printed. • 4. • 5. • 2. it will prove futile. Each type of map should have the relevant details.Limitations of Maps • 1. Many of the maps are not visible to all the students in the class. .
. It makes learning more interesting and effective.CARTOONS • A cartoon is humorous caricature which gives a subtle message.
Uses of cartoons • It is simple. • A cartoon can be used to motivate students to start a discussion. • A cartoon can be used for making lesson lively and interesting . clear which tells story without too much explanation. • The symbol used is familiar and represent a concept or idea to which students can react intellectually.
science figures. .g.Diagrams • A diagram is the simplified drawing designed to show interrelationship primarily by means of lines a symbols. geometry designs. facial expressions. etc. E.
STANDARD OF A GOOD DIAGRAM • • • • Technically correct Neatly drawn in proper proportions Well labeled and explained It can be moved and seen from all the angles .
• USES: • Health information to public • Instructional material for students .PALMLETS • Short printed medium (single sheet with one. two or more folds) on a specific subject for a specific target group.
ADVANTAGES • • • • • • Relatively cost effective media Can be preserved and used for reference Can reach large section of literature population Can be revised. updated easily Can be tailored for different groups Can support other media .
3-dimentional aids .
Objects and specimen .
Definition • A collection of real things for instructional use refers to objects. . • A specimen is a sample of the real object or a material.
Points to be remembered: ▫ plan your teaching with certain simple and direct observations of the object or specimen being referred to. ▫ ask questions from the students to elicit more details of the features of the object or specimen under observation. ▫ clarify and emphasize important structural details of the object or specimen under observation ▫ provide review and practice to make learning permanent. .
Advantages: • Student‟s power of observation and first hand experiences is enhanced by collection of objects and specimens. • It arouse interest among students in learning • Objects and specimens involve all the five senses in the process of learning . • It makes teaching lively.
and cut outs to illustrate a central theme or concept. models. a planting scene etc. • The objects and models are generally placed in a big box or show case with a glass covering and background printed with a shade or a scene. .Definitions • A diorama is a three dimensional arrangement of related objects. Ex: a harvest scene.
Advantages • Provide a good opportunity to learn • It gives the appearance of actual things which can not be brought to the class room • Interesting and enhance creativity • Live things also can shown in diorama ex: aquarium • Provides students to do project works .
.Disadvantages: • • • • Sometimes cost effective Needs expatriation for the preparation Require budget Sometimes it may misguide the student if is not the replica of actual thing.
MOCK UPS .
testing a design. . etc. • Ex: An artificial kidney to demonstrate dialysis. usually used for teaching. demonstration. a mockup is a scale model of a structure or device. • In common usage.• Some what similar to models but it emphasizes the functional relationship between the device reality and its workability.
such as a part of body which shows evidence of trauma. surgical intervention or a disease. infection. .MOULAGE • .Moulage is a mould made up of plastic material to stimulate some life objects.
ii. iv. Field trip Demonstrations Exhibition Museums Computer assisted instructions Teaching machines . iii. vi. v.ACTIVITY AIDS i.
FIELD TRIPS .
Definitions • According to Hedgerken Field trip may be defined as “an educational procedure by which the student studies firsthand objects and materials in their natural environment.” .
• Field trips can effectively supplement the classroom learning through application and reviewing the experiences of student. . and systems in their real life setting. • It provides meaningful direct experience and hence results in lasting learning.Advantages of field trip • It provides accurate information objects. • Field trips are valuable aids to what students are curious about the natural and man-made process and objects. process.
and fails to fulfill the requirement . • 2) They can be expensive and out of reach for many disadvantaged and poor students. • 3) Field trips require proper and detailed planning to make them meaningful otherwise the trip leads to confusion.Limitations of field trip • 1) A field trip may be occasional activity which at best supplement some learning segments of the syllabus.
• It is a performance to show a process or activity to others. students observe and imitate to learn . • When a teacher demonstrates.DEMONSTRATIONS • The demonstration method teaches by explanation and exhibition.
• 4) It correlates theory with practice. . engages student‟s attention and concentration. • 5) It encourages student‟s participation.Advantages of demonstration • 1) It activates several senses. • 2) It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating the „why‟ or „how‟ of the procedure. • 3) It provokes interest by use of concrete illustrations.
EX HIBITION .
can see them ▫ well lighted ▫ both motion and sound should be utilized ▫ should include lot of demonstrations as they involve deeply the students and the visitors . labeled properly ▫ The exhibits should be so placed so the most visitors .Requisites for exhibition ▫ Should have a central theme with a few sub themes to focus attention to a particular concept ▫ The exhibits should be clean .
cooperation. coordination • Exhibitions foster better school community relations and make community members conscious about the school • Exhibitions couple information with pleasure • Exhibitions foster creativity among students.Advantages • Exhibitions inspire the students to learn by doing things themselves and they get a sense of involvement • Exhibitions give students a sense of accomplishment and achievement • Exhibitions develop social skills of communication . .
Disadvantages ▫ Requires thorough preparation ▫ Time consuming ▫ Require funds or budget. .
antiques. works of science. works of arts.definition • A museum is a building displaying a collection of historical relics. . literature and other artifacts of general interest. curiosities.
SETTING UP SCHOOL MUSEUM: • School should have enough space • Take the help of students. collect old and new objects and articles • Accept donations from various organizations who donates the articles • Students can be guided to prepare the exhibits • All the collected and prepared articles should be displayed and labeled • A detailed report book should be maintained giving a brief description of each museum pieces • The museum rooms should be well lighted • It should be cleaned and maintained timely. .
.THANK YOU. .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.