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Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering - (Malestrom)

Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering - (Malestrom)


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Published by Nguyen Dang Hanh
Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, 153 page
Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, 153 page

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Published by: Nguyen Dang Hanh on May 17, 2009
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Purpose of this method is to estimate the slope deformation for those cases where the
pseudostatic factor of safety is less than 1.0, which corresponds to failure condition. It is
assumed that slope will deform during those portions of earthquake when out of slope
earthquake forces make pseudostatic factor of safety below 1.0 and the slope accelerates
downwards. Longer the duration for which pseudostatic factor of safety is zero, greater the
slope deformation.

Fig. 9.2(a) shows horizontal acceleration of slope during earthquake. Accelerations
plotting above zero line are out of slope and accelerations plotting below zero line are into
slope accelerations. Only out of slope accelerations cause downslope movement and are used
in the analysis. a

y in Fig. 9.2(a), is horizontal yield acceleration and corresponds to pseudostatic
factor of safety exactly equal to 1. Portion of acceleration pulses above a

y (darkened portion
in Fig. 9.2(a)), causes lateral movement of slope. Fig. 9.2(b) and (c) represent horizontal
velocity and slope displacement due to darkened portion of acceleration pulse. Slope displacement
is incremental and occurs only when horizontal acceleration due to earthquake exceeds a


Slope Stability Analyses for Earthquakes 95

Fig. 9.2 Diagram illustrating Newmark method (a) acceleration versus time (b) velocity versus time for

darkened portion of acceleration pulse (c) corresponding downslope displacement versus time in

response to velocity pulses (Courtesy: Day, 2002)

Magnitude of slope displacement depends on variety of factors. Higher the a

y value,
more stable the slope is for a given earthquake. Greater the difference between peak ground
acceleration a

max due to earthquake and a

y, larger the downslope movement. Longer the

earthquake acceleration exceeds a

y, larger the downslope deformation. Larger the number of

acceleration pulses exceeding a

y, greater the cumulative downslope movement during earthquake.

Most common method used in Newmark method is as follows:

log d=0.90 + log














d=estimated downslope movement due to earthquake in cm.

y=yield acceleration.


max=peak ground acceleration of design earthquake.

Essentially a

max must be greater than a

y. While using Eq. (9.3), pseudostatic factor of
safety is determined first using the technique described in Fig. 9.2. If it is less than 1, k

h is

reduced till pseudostatic factor becomes equal to 1. This value of k

h is used to determine a

using Eq. (9.1). This a

y and a

max is used to determine slope deformation. Analysis is more

accurate for small and medium size failure masses.

9.3.1 Limitations of Newmark Method

Major assumption of Newmark method is that the slope will deform only when peak
ground acceleration exceeds yield acceleration. Analysis is most appropriate for wedge type failure.

96 Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

One limitation of Newmark method is that it is unreliable for slopes not deforming
as single massive block. Slope composed of dry and loose granular soil is such slope.
Earthquake induced settlement of dry and loose granular soils depend on relative density,
maximum shear strain induced by earthquake and number of shear strain cycles. It is
anticipated that the lateral movement of slope is the same order of magnitude as the
calculated settlement.

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