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Maktab Sains Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Economics Form 5 Population Part 2 Age and sex distribution Age distribution refers to the classification of the population into different age groups, e.g. those below school leaving age (0-14), the working age group (15-60); and those above the retirement age (60 and above). Sex distribution on the other hand, means a classification of the population by the number of males and females in a country. Geographical distribution of population refers to the classification of the location of population within a country, eg. evenly or unevenly distributed with heavy densities of population ion certain areas, Density of population means the number of people per square kilometer of space. For example, an area is considered to be densely populated if the number of people per square kilometer is more than in any other area. The population of a country could be evenly or unevenly distributed. Typically, the geographical areas, towns, cities and other urban areas where there are more job opportunities, while inaccessible areas like mountainous regions, deserts and areas with fewer job opportunities will have low population density. Occupational distribution Occupational distribution means the classification of population by type of occup: eg, primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector. Primary sector includes agriculture, mining, fisheries and forestry. Secondary sector includes manufacturing and construction while tertiary sector covers public administration and services, distributives (wholesale and retail) trades, advertising, insurance, entertainment and banking. As economies develop, there is a tendency for the percentage of working population in primary industries to drop, with a relatively small decrease in secondary industries and a relatively large increase in tertiary industries. This change can be due to the increase in real income which affects the demand for primary, secondary and tertiary products, Working population Working population refers to members of the population who are willing to work and able to work and who are currently employed, such as those between the age of 15-60. Dependent population refers to members of the population who cannot support themselves and are dependent on others, e.g. babies, children below the age of 14 and the elderly above 60 years of age. irth Rate The birth arte refers to the number of live birth per 1000 of the population per year. Its calculation is explained below. For example, suppose that the total population of a certain country is 2 million and the number of new babies born is 4000 in a year. The birth rate is calculated as follows: Birth rate = Numbers of births _x 1000 Total population = 4000 x 1000 = 2 per 1000 2,000000 Death rate The death rate refers to the number of deaths per year per 1000, of the population. If ‘the total population of a country is three million and the number of deaths in one year is 12,000, the death rate would be: Death rate = Total numbers of deaths x 1000 Total population = 12,000 x 4006-x 1000 = 4 per 1000 3,000 000 Natural Incre: Natural increase in population refers to the difference between the birth rate and the death rate, It could be positive or negative, depending on whether the birth rate is greater than the death rate or otherwise. Natural increase in population in a country = Birth rate ~ Death rate It does not include migration of population, For example, if the birth arte and death rate of a country are 25 and 20 respectively, the natural increase would be 25 minus 20 which is equal to 5 per thousand. If the total population of a country is 150 000 and its birth rate and death rate are 10 and 7 respectively, the natural increase in the population in a year is calculated as follows; Natural increase = 10 - 7 = 3 per thousand In relation to the entire population of 150, 000, the natural increase would be: 3.x 150, 000 1000 450 people a year earl ‘Arai increase in population is said to occur if the birth rate is higher than the mortality rate (death rate). This is due to early marriages, a young population and a large number ‘of women of childbearing age. A natural decrease in population takes place if the death rate is greater than the birth rate. Under population and Over-population A country is over-populated if resources are insufficient to meet the demand on them, as is the case in developing countries. National income per head will be very low. If a country is under-populated, resources are not being used sufficiently and lead to wastage. National income per head will be lower than it should be. A change in the state of technology will affect the size of the optimum population because resources can be more efficiently employed even without population changes. Population pyramids A population pyramid is the most popular way of presenting age distribution and sex distribution of a population in a country. It shows the percentage of males and females in different age groups. In a pyramid, the length of each bar shows the number of people in that particular age group. A country with high birth rate and death rate will have a large percentage of young people in its population. This is found in developing countries where as the result, the life expectancy will be low while the dependency ration will be high. In developed countries, the dependency ration will be low, mortality as well as the birth rates will be low, while life expectancy will be high, The higher the dependency ratio is, the lower standard of living of a country will be and vice-versa, Population pyramids of developing countries like India and Kenya will have broad base which decreases as it gets to the top. However, as a country develops, its birth rate will decline and this is shown in the shrinking of the broad base of the population pyramid.