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Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 
The Online Library Of Liberty
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Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, trans. Francis Hutcheson and James Moor, edited and with an Introduction by James Moore and Michael Silverthorne (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008). Author: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Translator: Francis Hutcheson Translator: James Moor Editor: James Moore Editor: Michael Silverthorne
About This Title:
This influential classical work offered a vision of a universe governed by a natural law that obliges us to love mankind and to govern our lives in accordance with the natural order of things. In their account of the life of the emperor, prefaced to their translation from the Greek, Hutcheson and Moor celebrated the Stoic ideal of an orderly universe governed by a benevolent God. They contrasted the serenity recommended and practiced by Marcus Aurelius with the divisive sectarianism then exhibited by their fellow Presbyterians in Scotland and elsewhere. They urged their readers and fellow citizens to set aside their narrow prejudices.
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Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
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Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Table Of Contents Introduction A Note On the Text Acknowledgments The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Introduction Containing Some of the Most Memorable Passages. Preserv’d. Book I Book Ii Book Iii Book Iv Book V Book Vi Book Vii Book Viii Book Ix Book X Book Xi Book Xii Errata * Maxims of the Stoics Gataker’s Apology and Bibliography PLL v6.libertyfund. 2011) 4 http://oll.0 (generated September. of the Life of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus.org/title/2133 .
Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
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On May 31, 1742, Francis Hutcheson in Glasgow sent to Thomas Drennan in Belfast some copies of The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Newly translated from the Greek: With Notes, and an Account of his Life (Glasgow: Printed by Robert Foulis and sold by him at the College: 1742).1 The letter that accompanied the dispatch of the books contained the following intriguing account: The bearer Mr. Hay takes over some copies of a new translation of Antoninus, the greater half of which and more, was my amusement last summer, for the sake of a singular worthy soul one Foulis;2 but I don’t let my name appear in it, nor indeed have I told it to any here but the Man concerned. I hope that you’ll like it; the rest was done by a very ingenious Lad one Moore. 3 Pray try your critical faculty in finding what parts I did & what he did. I did not translate books in a suite, but I one or two, & he one or two. I hope if you like it that it may sell pretty well with you about Belfast I am sure it is doing a publick good to diffuse the Sentiments & if you knew Foulis you would think he deserved all incouragement.4 Hutcheson’s letter raises a number of questions: (1) Which books of The Meditations contain Hutcheson’s translations and notes and which books should be attributed to Moor? (2) What considerations prompted Hutcheson to undertake this translation and edition, apart from his announced desire to be of assistance to Robert Foulis and the Foulis press? (3) What might be the significance of Hutcheson’s notes to the text? Do they make up a coherent set of ideas concerning human nature, morals, politics, and religion? And what may be the relevance of these notes for our understanding of his other writings? (4) Why was Hutcheson determined that his name should not appear in the volume and that no one in Glasgow and its environs apart from Foulis should know the identity of the persons responsible for the translation and the notes? (5) And, finally, what was the significance of Hutcheson’s adaptation of The Meditations for the Enlightenment in Scotland?
1. Hutcheson And Moor: The Division Of Responsibility
There is a prima facie problem concerning the respective contributions of Hutcheson and Moor to The Meditations. There are three pieces of external evidence, and they do not agree. The first is Hutcheson’s letter to Drennan, with his claim that he had done “the greater half . . . and more”; a claim complicated by the circumstance that Hutcheson originally wrote “the first half and more” and then struck through “first” and substituted “greater.” Clearly Hutcheson was reluctant to be specific and preferred to make a game of it with Drennan. The second bit of evidence is found in The Foulis Catalogue of Books (Glasgow, 1777), where it is reported that the first two
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Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
books were by James Moor and the remainder by Hutcheson.5 This record of the matter has been accepted by many later scholars. 6 It has the merit of consistency with Hutcheson’s claim that he had done “one or two books,” and Moor, “one or two”; and it leaves Hutcheson with responsibility for the “greater half,” although not for the “first” half, as he had originally written. There is another account of the matter. Thomas Reid entered the following note in his own copy of the 1764 edition of The Meditations: “Dr. Moor translated the 9th and 10th books. Dr. Francis Hutcheson the rest. Dr. Hutcheson wrote the Preface and Dr. Moor collected [sic!] the Proofs. This information I had from Dr. Moor.”7 We believe that Reid’s note is the most authoritative of the three versions of this matter. Books IX and X differ from the other books. The style of the translation of books IX and X lacks the characteristic flow of Hutcheson’s prose. These two books also contain a number of phrases not found elsewhere in the text. “Nature” or “the nature of the whole” is referred to as “she” (for example, bk. IX, art. 1, pp. 107–8)—the Greek phusis is a feminine noun—whereas elsewhere in The Meditations nature is referred to as “it.” In the notes for books IX and X there are a number of references to Greek terminology and to Thomas Gataker’s translation of The Meditations from the Greek into Latin. A preoccupation with the original Greek of Marcus and with the quality of the translation by Gataker is not a conspicuous feature of the notes found in the other books. It is a concern, however, that might be expected of someone like Moor, who was renowned for the accuracy of his command of ancient Greek. In every one of the other books there are extensive notes that expand upon and interpret the philosophy of the Stoics, with the exception of the first book, which is concerned not with ideas but with individuals who influenced Marcus (many of them Stoics). The term Stoic is never used in books IX and X. Finally, in books IX and X, there is an abundance of citations to writers of the New Testament: fourteen in all; twice as many as are found in the notes to all of the other books combined. In light of these considerations, we conclude that Reid’s record of his conversation with Moor may be taken as the most authoritative of the three pieces of external evidence: books IX and X by Moor; the rest by Hutcheson.
2. The Glasgow Edition In Context: Other Editions And Influences
What prompted Hutcheson and Moor to undertake this translation and edition of The Meditations? One of their expressed motivations was stylistic. They were dissatisfied with the two translations then available in English. One was the translation by Meric Casaubon (1599–1671) published in 1634, 8 described by Hutcheson as “the old English translation”: it “can scarce be agreeable to any reader; because of the intricate and antiquated stile” (“Life of the Emperor,” p. 3). The other translation, published in 1701 (and reissued in 1714 and 1726), was by Jeremy Collier (1650–1726), a nonjuring Anglican clergyman best known for his attack on the English stage.9 This edition was described by Hutcheson as an exercise that “seems not to preserve the
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Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
grand simplicity of the original.” Hutcheson tells us that his translation is “almost intirely new” and has been made “according to Gataker’s edition of the original, and his Latin version” (“Life of the Emperor,” p. 4). Thomas Gataker (1574–1654) was an Anglican clergyman with Puritan sympathies, who maintained good relations with Presbyterians and was a member of the Westminster Assembly. Gataker’s edition of The Meditations10 in Greek, with a translation and commentary on the text in Latin, has been described by a modern classical scholar as “a monument of vast and fastidious erudition,” which “has long been and will always remain, the principal authority for any one undertaking to study or edit the Meditations.”11 An enlarged version was published in London in 1697,12 with a dedication by George Stanhope (1660–1728) to Lord John Somers and a translation into Latin by Stanhope of a life of Marcus Aurelius, composed in French, by André Dacier (1652–1722). It is this 1697 edition of The Meditations that Hutcheson and Moor used as the basis for their edition. Hutcheson informs the reader that the “short abstract” of the life of the emperor prefaced to his edition is “taken from the collections made by Dacier and Stanhope.” The “Maxims of the Stoics,” appended to the Hutcheson and Moor edition, was excerpted from Gataker’s “Praeloquium”:13 it had been included in the 1697 edition and, in English translation, in the 1701 edition. An abbreviated version of the 1697 edition was published in Oxford in 1704, with emendations by R. I. Oxoniensis (thought to be Richard Ibbetson).14 This edition, with the Greek text and Latin translation by Gataker on facing pages, was republished by Robert and Andrew Foulis, in Glasgow, in 1744.15 It was one of a dozen classical texts, published by the Foulis Press, that Hutcheson donated to the University of St. Andrews in 1746.16 While Moor’s particular talent was his mastery of ancient Greek, Hutcheson was also sensitive to the challenge of translating the technical Stoic vocabulary employed in The Meditations: such terms as hegemonikon (“ruling principle”) and hypexairesis (“reserve clause”) were part of this vocabulary.17 Hutcheson called attention to the difficulty of finding English words that would convey the meaning of these terms. He translated hegemonikon as “the governing part,” and in a note to bk. IV, art. I, p. 47, he wrote of the term hypexairesis: “The word here translated reservation, is a noted one among the Stoics, often used in Epictetus, Arrian, and Simplicius.” As Hutcheson explained it, the governing part of the mind may exercise a reservation upon desires for external things and then redirect the mind to the pursuit of “our sole good,” which “is in our own affections, purposes, and actions.” It will also be evident that the language of Hutcheson’s translation remains very much his own. A. S. L. Farquharson, the editor of The Meditations,18 renders the first sentence of bk. II, art. 1, as follows: “I shall meet today inquisitive, ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men.” 19 Hutcheson translates the same sentence in his own idiom: “to day I may have to do with some intermeddler in other mens affairs, with an ungrateful man; an insolent, or a crafty, or an envious, or an unsociable selfish man” (p. 33). As Hutcheson presents The Meditations, Marcus’s reflections are designed to directly affect the sensibility of the reader and excite a desire to contribute to the happiness of others. Marcus’s soliloquies, he tells us, “contain some of the plainest, and yet most
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is … to obey the common Reason.”23 And he cited sayings of Marcus. or that sort of civility which rises from a just sense of the common rights of mankind. Shaftesbury went on to account for the origin of families. humanity. to urge readers to withdraw their admiration and desire from objects that are merely pleasurable and direct them instead to “objects. to affect the hearts of those who have any sense of goodness”. clans. Horace. they cannot fail to inspire in us “a constant inflexible charity. Henry More. of inward worth and beauty (such as honesty.20 It was in the glosses of those commentators on the term translated by Hutcheson as “an unsociable.libertyfund. and to practise Truth and Justice. cited sayings of Marcus repeatedly throughout his handbook of morals. IX.”21 In the same essay. whatever they are. nay. he thought that “Universal good. Shaftesbury elsewhere considered Marcus “one of the wisest and most serious of ancient authors.26 that “in the Judgment of that wisest Philosopher … to acquiesce in Nature’s common Law.25 More was particularly impressed by Marcus’s concept of the rational soul. Hutcheson’s concern for “universal happiness” has more in common. it may be added. however. 3). that is in God. together with excerpts from the works of Epictetus and Horace.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus striking considerations. as we shall see. pp. and the natural equality there is among those of the same species. and Seneca “to signify sense of public weal and of the common interest. after PLL v6. or our little interfering worldly interests” (p. and tribes in a manner similar to Marcus (bk. integrity. superior to all the force of anger or envy.0 (generated September.”29 Hutcheson’s earliest reference to the work of Marcus Aurelius appears in An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections with Illustrations on the Moral Sense (1728) in the course of a response to John Clarke of Hull. His reading of The Meditations may also have been influenced by the recognition that moralists whom he very much admired had discovered in the reflections of Marcus Aurelius insights of great relevance for themselves. is a kind of remote philosophical object. Enchiridion ethicum. Shaftesbury declared that he had discovered the proper meaning of sensus communis. 2011) 8 http://oll. art. of the idea that there is a divinity within us: “that every Man’s Mind is a God. 9. in short. and had its Original from him”. societies. which is little less than God himself. love of the community or society. Marcus’s language. with Marcus and with Stoic ideals.”28 More. Instead. honour). and good-will and compassion toward our fellows. that there is a universal happiness or good that all mankind may share.”22 In this respect. was attempting in these citations to reconcile Stoic and neo-Platonic ideas concerning virtue with a reading of Aristotle’s ethics in which Right Reason was ultimately nothing more than the promptings of an “Inward Sense. friendship. or the interest of the world in general.org/title/2133 . faith. natural affection. 109–10). posed no obstacle to Hutcheson’s discovering in The Meditations a moral philosophy very much congenial to and in harmony with his own. Shaftesbury did not draw the conclusion formed by Marcus. For he is the living Law”.”24 Another moralist whom Hutcheson held in high regard. obligingness. selfish man” that Shaftesbury recognized that sensus communis had been used by Juvenal.27 “that it was highly estimable to live benignly. as that phrase had been used by Roman moralists and satirists. in the notes and commentaries on The Meditations by Meric Casaubon and Thomas Gataker. That greater community falls not easily under the eye. who had argued.
in many places. tranquility.libertyfund. that desire arises from the need to relieve uneasiness of some kind.”32 In this connection it may be recalled that Hutcheson was also diffident about revealing his authorship of the System. 3. . and observe the structure of the human soul. but composed in the 1730s). we must find a sacred tye of nature binding us even to foreigners. as he understood it. Hutcheson replied: “the noblest Desire in our Nature. worse. in some warm Tempers. See Marcus Aurelius. True piety was not to be found in the asceticism of the early Christians nor in the perpetuation of their “melancholy notions of sanctity” in the absurd provisions of the canon law: “piety is never more sincere and lively than when it engages men in all social and kind offices to others. mercy and good-will which is due to all. . resignation. 2011) 9 http://oll. and a sense of that justice. all men are recommended to the affectionate good-will of all: which would always appear. or so Hutcheson reminds the reader of The Meditations: “The Stoics always maintained. III. as well as in a wilderness. the rational soul.”30 A similar appeal to the reader to enlarge the scope of our desires was made in A System of Moral Philosophy (1755. It is remarkable that the same notes also illuminate Hutcheson’s own moral philosophy. . in A System of Moral Philosophy. who. . Antonin. . God. This will become evident as we consider his treatment in The Meditations of Stoic theories of human nature. may be practiced even in a court or camp. pretty much the same in all nations. by a lively Imagination and frequent Attention to general Ideas. . raise something of Passion even toward universal Nature. the citizen. . the law. were it not for the interfering of falsely imagined interests” (bk. out of a sense of duty to God: and just philosophy. could teach that true devotion. A central theme of Hutcheson’s moral philosophy.33 It was also the professed position of the Stoics. had been that human nature is so constituted that mankind is naturally sociable. .org/title/2133 . This theme was the subject of his inaugural lecture following his appointment as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. from the earliest to the last of his publications. and recollection too. is generally calm. in which Hutcheson explains the diversity of moral judgments by the tendency to confine moral approval to one’s own countrymen or. to members of one’s own party or sect or cabal. See Marc Antonin in a variety of passages.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Locke.0 (generated September. that by the very constitution of our nature. . He proposes that “we enlarge our views with truth and justice. The Significance Of The Annotations How should we understand the significance of Hutcheson’s notes to the text? Hutcheson’s notes typically provide short explanatory discourses or exegeses of the ideas of the Stoics. . PLL v6. that of universal Happiness.”31 Again. Hutcheson drew upon the work of Marcus to explain the meaning of true piety. as well as religion. See this often inculcated in Marc. and wholly free from any confused uneasy Sensation: except. it was circulated only privately in his lifetime. and divine providence. . .
The intellect or the soul was “the governing part. “Won’t you. or in a notion of absolute and infinite perfection (Burnet. p. in Marcus’s mind.0 (generated September. that you have something more excellent and divine within you.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus art. 19. Hutcheson noted that Marcus was employing “a metaphor from puppets.37 PLL v6. the intellect. the spark of divinity within us.” Hutcheson notes: “This. but the reasoning required by these “metaphysicians” was beyond the abilities of many who were undoubtedly virtuous or capable of virtue and goodness. Balguy). 34). they failed to focus upon the only quality in human nature that could properly be considered good: benevolence or kind affection. that it is the presence of kind affections.” the hegemonikon. Hutcheson. 19. Such are men when led by their passions against what their higher faculties incline to and recommend. 5. and moves you. 134. is such as both recommends to us all pious veneration and submission to God. too. the kind affections. for desire and aversion. These efforts were misdirected. which he called diversely the moral faculty or conscience but most often the moral sense. or moved about by unsociable passions. Hutcheson discovered this “governing part” in “the heart. a natural desire to perform good offices for others. public spirit—benevolence. XII. art. Marcus had reminded himself not to be misled by the passions: “suffer not that noble part to be enslaved. note). p. In a passage of the text where Marcus writes of “the peculiar structure and furniture of human nature.libertyfund. art. Pufendorf). must be subordinated to the more noble desires.35 Hutcheson found a similar ordering of the passions and affections in the thought of Marcus Aurelius. XII. 38. without its own approbation” (bk. He was at pains to remind readers. 5. in a word—that disposes us to be naturally sociable. p.” Hutcheson had been critical in his earlier writings. the appetites of the body. that the Stoics. mov’d by others. in truth (Wollaston). the rational soul. notably in Illustrations on the Moral Sense. in An Essay and in A System of Moral Philosophy.” had made provision for the passions and affections.34 But the Stoics had also recognized that the lower passions. p. joy and sorrow. as the wires do a puppet. art. desires for external things. 148). art. 2011) 10 http://oll. in his inaugural lecture and elsewhere in his writings. Hutcheson had maintained. “the avowed enemies of the passions. perceive. p. 148). 42. 132. note). p. and makes such dispositions our chief satisfaction and happiness” (bk. The “noble part” that must direct the passions and not be enslaved by them was. than that which raises the several passions.org/title/2133 . 2. of contemporary rationalists who attempted to discover moral good and evil in the relations of things (Clarke). at last. XI. bk.” Marcus invoked the puppet metaphor later in the text (bk. and all social affections. II. art. as it was often mentioned already. X. recognized that there was a governing part in human nature.36 There were other rationalists who recognized the fundamental importance of benevolence and sociability in the general scheme of things (Cumberland. without your own approbation? What now is my intellectual part? Is it fear? Is it suspicion? Is it lust? Is it any such thing?” (bk.” And he understood “the heart” to be the moral and spiritual equivalent of “the rational soul. etc.
Moor refers to the “grand law of promoting the perfection of the whole. 127. Now the Stoics. and. . to be a being or substance distinct both from the gross body. of virtue and vice. note) The law of nature is the law of God. . 137. the double-daggered note). lower appetites and passions” (bk. p. from the very feelings of the heart. when the lower passions are restrained” (bk. art. art. 2011) 11 http://oll. 90). Paul. did not depend upon a law. VII. p. pp. “the rational soul” was synonymous with “the heart”: “they [the Stoics]. how we come to know the law of nature is not problematic: it is quite simply “the law of God written in the heart. 65. art. too. art. and bk. art. X. . in which are the sensations. XI.38 But in a note on The Meditations. . 125. art. VII. In bk. the double-daggered note). The rational soul was conceived by “the Stoics.” In Hutcheson’s mind. who created and still pervades all things. 95. X. p. the rational soul. condemned by St. p. . the daggered note). that the perception of moral distinctions. 10. art. This article and note are cited elsewhere (e. 75–76. moral good and evil. 56. according to Marcus. note). indeed. Moor. maintained that there is a law of nature and that this law is known by reason. note). ever pervaded. obedience to which is the supreme happiness. 91. and the animal soul. II. 25. The rational soul so conceived was the faculty that distinguished virtue and vice. Also. VII. art.0 (generated September. in Antoninus. . in the supreme Being. is taken in a very high sense: ’Tis living up to that standard of purity and perfection. art. A man must read Antoninus with little attention. . p. which every good man feels in his own breast: ’Tis conforming our selves to the law of God written in the heart: ’Tis endeavouring a compleat victory over the passions. 13. art. p. “the most important practical truths are found out by attending to the inward calm sentiments or feelings of the heart: And this constitution of heart or soul is certainly the work of God. who confounds this with the natural man’s life. the life according to nature. (bk. . note. in the Inquiry and elsewhere. 28. endeavoured to make virtue eligible. perceived moral good and evil: considered in this light. art. under the same immutable eternal law of promoting the good and perfection of the whole. Hutcheson acknowledged that human beings are governed by a law of nature: “all intelligent beings are.” Moor noted that “this passage clears up many others where the same word occurs obscurely. and inspired by it to all moral good. 110. attracted. and kind affections to our fellows” (bk. 24. the intellect. V. he wrote of “these things which are ordered by him who governs all: Who is the law.org/title/2133 . appointing to every one what is proper for him. PLL v6. IX. flows essentially from his nature: in created beings.libertyfund. note). 2. This. p. entire resignation to the will of God in all events. 13. VI. 19. . and the Platonists too. Hutcheson provided the following note to a reference by Marcus to “that divinity which is within us”: “Thus the Stoics call the rational soul. at bk. at bk. 55. 87. p. 12. the seat of knowledge and virtue: deeming it a part of the divinity. ” (bk. by their nature.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus The Stoic conception of reason and the rational soul was not subject to those objections: it was a faculty capable of immediate perception of virtue and vice. of rights of various kinds. Marcus Aurelius among them.g. p.. the law is God. VIII. ” (bk. . Hutcheson had maintained. 37. in his notes on books IX and X refers to the “law of our nature. and a total conformity to the image of God. p. after Plato . .” It may be remembered here once for all. it is a gift from him” (bk.
art. 91). 2011) 12 http://oll. and for the individuals to which it happens: An intimate and permanent conviction of this. what can be more suitable?” (bk. VIII. XII.libertyfund. and so the transgressor of the law is the fugitive” (bk. as they are occasions of exerting the noblest virtues. VII. Hutcheson was employing the scholastic language of the communicable attributes of the deity: that God communicates to or shares with human beings some but not all of the attributes of divinity.org/title/2133 . must be the best foundation for the practice of the maxim here recommended. Marcus declared. XI. IV. pp. A mind entirely conformed and resigned to God. for. p. which are its supreme good. the piety that should govern relations between citizens and their ruler in the city of God. a man who desires only what God destines him. then. a spark of the divine fire. p. chap. cannot imagine any event to be hurtful to the universe. must be that city. 133. 4. Everyone. note) Hutcheson’s enthusiastic acceptance of Marcus Aurelius’s conception of divine providence is consistent with the views expressed in A System. or devotion. and in forming in it all holy affections. and just apprehensions of himself. and goodness. Marcus had written: “Love and desire that alone which happens to you.] VII. 65–66. must be really best for the whole. as he loves all his works. art. 22. art. since infinite power. in the renovation of the heart. art. 25. 48–49).’ ” Hutcheson agreed (bk. The universe. to all minds which by earnest desires are seeking after him” (bk. the great governour of this city. note. He thought rather that acting in a manner consistent with the divine plan was the most effective way to promote PLL v6. p. and persuaded of his wisdom. art. can never be disappointed. (bk. 105. note). and in “A Synopsis of Metaphysics. and. Hutcheson endorsed this idea of citizenship and expanded upon its implications for the relationship that should pertain between the citizens of the universe and its ruler: This city is the universe. p. and is destined by providence for you. 127). p. must always accomplish its designs. and when it is united in will with God. Hutcheson had not replaced the Stoic doctrine of fate or predestination with benevolence. art. bk. the sense of duty. pp. Marcus also described all who live under the law that is common to all rational beings as fellow citizens of the universe or the world. 54. 57. 1. note). X. “who flies from his master is a fugitive-slave. exactly impartial to all. power. every event ordered by him.0 (generated September. But Hutcheson had earlier observed that God is also present in every human being: “such is the divine goodness that he is ever ready to communicate his goodness and mercy. is God.] 31. 144. Now. wisdom. 57. He was also contending that the notion that God is present in the heart or soul of everyone who.” He also referred the reader to “the book de Mundo. [art. “by earnest desires. Hutcheson endorsed this maxim unreservedly: For. “We are all fellow-citizens: and if so. art.” is “seeking after him” is consistent with the Stoic idea that there is a part of God. and goodness. and can make all events good to itself. [bk. we have a common city.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus See.” part III. VII. art. ‘For our law. it must acquiesce in all that happens. (bk. which goes under Aristotle’s name. p. for of what other common city are all men citizens?” (bk. the law is our master. 6. A Short Introduction. that is present in every human being. 91. 1. V. note) Marcus and Hutcheson were in basic agreement concerning the obligations.
59. VII.0 (generated September. had the best opportunities of trying all the happiness which can arise from external things. in which the original or natural constitution of human nature contains something divine within: a heart or a soul that is oriented toward affection for others.org/title/2133 . we should do it as to God” (bk. art. 91). p. p. Hutcheson considered this excellent advice.libertyfund. benevolence. by substituting for it a particular variant of Stoicism. the version represented in The Meditations. Hutcheson And Christianity It is clear then that Hutcheson was refashioning Christian doctrine. that it has ordered for every good man that station of life. V. VII. The crucial difference between Hutcheson and more orthodox Calvinists did not turn on predestination: it was rather that Hutcheson. love of fame: these were the dispositions. the passions which were productive of moral evil. Moor also perceived in Marcus’s pleas that we should attempt to imitate the gods “the same with the grand Christian doctrine of the divine life” (bk. 31. p. art. art. it was as a result of bad education. note). that Marcus had given the same advice to himself and to anyone who might read his Meditations. They were also observing. One may see in the Stoicism of Marcus Aurelius and Hutcheson’s enthusiastic endorsement of it the possibility of a benign redescription of the predestinarian doctrine of Calvinists and the Presbyterian or Reformed Church. Paul). p. he had placed particular emphasis on the state of innocence. 2011) 13 http://oll. Marcus had written: “Look inwards. and exert themselves in all worthy social affections of piety and humanity. 68. the pursuit of external things. note). note). By recollection we find the dignity of our nature: the diviner powers are disentangled. the asterisked note). In his inaugural lecture. 123. Was it a view consistent with the life and teachings of Christ? Hutcheson and Moor clearly thought so. 59. this “original disposition of nature” applied to every human being. In Hutcheson’s mind. Hutcheson thought that Marcus’s reference to his own “publick service to the Gods” expressed “the same divine sentiment with the Apostle. He thought that mankind was naturally kind. good offices. in every case. stupify the nobler powers. 7. p. art. benevolent. and the soul has an inexpressible delight in them” (bk. according to that original disposition of nature which God had given him” (bk. property and riches. 8. “The author of this advice.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus benevolence. within is the fountain of good. which is ever springing up. and those circumstances. that whatever we do in word or deed. which Reformed theologians attributed only to Adam and Eve before the Fall. They celebrated again and again in their notes the exhortation of Christ to his followers to return good for evil. X. Insofar as men were presently to be found in a condition of sinfulness and depravity. however. He considered it “an amiable notion of providence. 135. good. which infinite wisdom foresaw were fittest for his solid improvement in virtue. Augustine and St. did not think that mankind was naturally sinful. unlike Calvin (and St. confused imaginations. notably the Presbyterian or Reformed doctrine of original sin. 91. PLL v6. if you be always digging in it” (bk. art. The dissipating pursuits of external things. 4. XI.
18–23) in the larger “Life” by André Dacier.” He goes on to make an apology for their weakness. there is much that Hutcheson found objectionable in the doctrines and in the conduct of Christians. XI. 136. who. scholastics of all denominations who insist on their understanding of the divine attributes. 21) The number of churchmen and churches who are included in this indictment of Christian practices and Christian dogmas would appear to be very extensive indeed: ecclesiastics who insist on rituals and pageantry and dissenters who oppose them. p. which all sides own to be quite incomprehensible by us. abhor all Christian persecutions. just as if he had habitually read them” (“Gataker’s Apology. and the stable persuasion of a future state. about some metaphysical attributes or modes of existence. Their references to the writers of the New Testament typically provide confirmation and endorsement of the Stoic morality of Marcus and Epictetus. p. note). which must have supported this ardour. or deem them excluded from the divine favour. p. either in pardoning of their sins. Here Hutcheson retorted upon Christians the charge against Antoninus that he had been guilty of persecuting Christians: Let none make this objection to Antoninus. (p. those philosophers who quibble about liberty and predestination PLL v6. rather than one rectified and amended’ ” (bk. from their hearts. about the advantage of ‘being always straight and upright. service to God.” below. even though one of those attributes of God was widely deemed to be his incomprehensibility. 162). . Christianity could not have been expected to “extirpate all sort of human frailty.” which similarly discovered an equivalence between the ethical teachings of Christ and the reflections of Marcus Aurelius: “All these same precepts [of Christ] are to be found in Antoninus. art. “A continued innocence of manners is preferable to even the most thorough repentance after gross vices. for the different opinions about human liberty.0 (generated September. XI. for different opinions. 3. art. and was censured even by some of the primitive fathers. 8. note). piety properly understood as service to God and mankind in general. or forms of words. who cannot hate their neighbours. He was unimpressed by the Christian doctrine of repentance after vice. At the same time. .Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Hutcheson and Moor were pleased to discover in the teachings of Christ expressions of kindness. To this refer many thoughts in the former books. or renewing them in piety and virtue. And there is something so noble in the stedfast lively faith. and pieces of outward pageantry. about which the best men who ever lived have had opposite sentiments: for different opinions about the manner in which the Deity may think fit to exercise his mercy to a guilty world. forgiveness.libertyfund. They were also pleased to enclose “Gataker’s Apology. or for exceeding in them. and gives the strongest confirmation of the divine power accompanying the Gospel” (bk. either for neglecting certain ceremonies. that it makes a sufficient apology for this weakness.org/title/2133 . He was pointedly critical of what he took to be the desire for martyrdom among the early Christians: “It is well known that their ardour for the glory of martyrdom was frequently immoderate. Hutcheson’s most scathing criticisms of Christian practice appear in the closing paragraphs of his “Life of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus. . but those. 2011) 14 http://oll.” There is no counterpart to these pages (pp. 134.
and the Whole of Things. and his Maxims of Virtue so stupendously great and commanding. Given the force and the directness of his indictment. and in their creeds. of philosophy at Marischal College in Aberdeen.libertyfund. The Meditations In The Scottish Enlightenment It has been said of Hutcheson and Moor’s edition of The Meditations that its influence in the Scottish Enlightenment was both great and lasting: “Its educational influence can be judged from the fact that it was reissued three times after his death and that devotion to Marcus became a badge of Hutcheson’s followers. usually expended upon extolling the virtues and the goodness of human nature. against ideas and practices to which he was deeply and passionately opposed. the saintship of Marcus Antoninus. arrogantly. 1748) a glowing description of Marcus Aurelius as a philosopher. as he told Thomas Drennan. considering how rashly. John Witherspoon wrote a satirical critique of those who preferred The Meditations to the Westminster Confession of Faith: “let religion be constantly and uniformly called Virtue. or teacher. should have come under forceful criticism from Scots Presbyterians who adhered to a more orthodox. 2011) 15 http://oll. those who would consign their neighbors to eternal damnation for failure to subscribe to the correct dogma concerning sin and redemption. the perspicuity and sublimity of A[kensid]e [?]. reissued four times in the next ten years) includes “The Athenian Creed”: “I believe in the divinity of L. notwithstanding their present tendency to oblivion. or hold not the same mysterious tenets or forms of words” (p. H[utcheso]n’s works.”40 It is understandable that The Meditations. particularly the manner in which Marcus’s thinking had been represented and interpreted by Hutcheson. that he would not allow “his name to appear in it. they are cursing one another in their synodical anathemas.” 5. it is indeed understandable that he should have taken pains to ensure. as Hutcheson knew it from direct acquaintance.0 (generated September. most seriously. wrote in his Dialogues Concerning Education (1745. and the perpetual duration of Mr. pronouncing eternal damnation on all who are not within the pale. in its churches and in its universities that appear to have been foremost in his mind as he penned his concluding peroration: “Christians may be ashamed to censure our author on this account. of the moderate character.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and. and presumptuously. “because an eminent person. S[haftesbury].”42 PLL v6.”39 David Fordyce (1711–51).” particularly Marcus Aurelius. a Creature more elevated above the World. and more enlarged in his Affections to Human-kind. says. The concluding paragraphs of Hutcheson’s “Life of the Emperor” may be the finest illustration in his writings of his ability to turn his eloquence. antiModerate position in theology and philosophy. “whose Principles are so sublime. 22). that no Man can enter into his Soliloquies without becoming a greater and better Man.”41 Witherspoon’s satire on all this in Ecclesiastical Characteristics (1753. a regent. and let the Heathen philosophers be set up as the great patterns and promoters of it.org/title/2133 . his Meditations is the best book that ever was written for forming the heart. But it was particularly the dogmas and practices of the Church of Scotland.
Hume’s depiction of “The Stoic” (1742) was not a description of an ascetic philosopher obsessed by the importance of extinguishing all passion and affection. Hume’s Stoic was a “man of action and virtue” like Marcus and Hutcheson. to stop the motion of the universe. that “our sole good is in our actions and affections. for the light they shed on Hutcheson’s other works on moral philosophy. It is.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus But criticism of Marcus Aurelius and the kind of Stoicism represented by The Meditations.org/title/2133 . .45 Adam Smith devoted several paragraphs to the Stoic system of Marcus in The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Smith considered “too absurd to deserve any serious consideration. invoked by Hutcheson) to have a God within him: “Thou art thyself thy own idol.44 Hume was reluctant to grant Marcus the title of theist. indeed. from the Greek. Robertson had begun his own translation of The Meditations in the early 1740s. He was. a believer in lesser gods. so far as in him lies.” This second paradox.” the Platonist complained. in Lucan’s Pharsalia. should be regarded as part of the divine plan and should be embraced. however painful. catastrophic. whoever wishes otherwise. and the compassion and beneficence of the deity.50 Hutcheson’s translation and edition of The Meditations are important. on whose work Cicero’s Offices was modeled). appalling. it may not be fanciful to see in Hutcheson’s introduction and notes a way of understanding Presbyterianism. “wishes.49 In his Sermons. an abiding source of inspiration. perhaps PLL v6. to disorder and discompose the whole machine of the world. review of Hutcheson’s System of Moral Philosophy in 1755. in Blair’s case. their friends William Robertson and Hugh Blair found in Marcus Aurelius’s and Hutcheson’s ideas of virtue and divine providence an early and. like all the other Stoics (except for Panaetius. was not confined to the theologically orthodox. and. in auguries and divinations. the humane. not uncritical. for some little convenience of his own. He had completed his translation.48 Blair had endorsed an understanding of the law of nature based upon the moral sense and the benevolence of human nature. the benevolent Antoninus. Smith identified two basic paradoxes of the Stoics: one. the divine government of the passions. Indeed. the second paradox he traced to “the mild. which Smith found in the fragmentary writings of “the independent and spirited. so very absurd that one can scarce help suspecting that it must have been in some measure misunderstood or misrepresented. In them we find one of the most forceful statements of one of his most central themes.libertyfund.” One may also return to his other works with a deeper understanding of his theory of the soul and the manner in which the rational soul is understood to be synonymous with the heart. finally. he declared. in the form in which it had been cast by Hutcheson. He wrote a generous. then he abandoned it when Hutcheson and Moor’s translation was published. up to book VIII.” The latter was the paradoxical position that whatever befalls us in life. . Blair adumbrated and echoed the main themes of Hutcheson’s notes to The Meditations: the union of piety and morality.”46 In contrast with David Hume and Adam Smith. . contempt for life and death and complete submission to the order of providence. but often harsh Epictetus”.43 Hume’s Platonist (1742) was critical of the Stoic for claiming (like Cato. the mixture of bad men with the good in human society.47 In a thesis published in Edinburgh in 1739. the paradox of Antoninus.0 (generated September. 2011) 16 http://oll.
org/title/2133 . a religion of social virtue for men and women of an enlightened age. 2011) 17 http://oll.0 (generated September.50 PLL v6.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Calvinism itself. of public spirit and benevolence. as a religion of kind affection.libertyfund.
The 1742 edition was the only edition of the English translation published by the Foulis Press in the lifetime of Francis Hutcheson. The footnotes provided by Francis Hutcheson and James Moor for the 1742 edition remain at the foot of the page and are designated in the text. daggers. and similar symbols. 2011) 18 http://oll. Page breaks in the 1742 edition are indicated by the use of angle brackets (for example. by asterisks. The same press in 1744 published the Greek text of The Meditations established by Thomas Gataker in 1652. together with Gataker’s Latin translation. Hutcheson and Moor used single square brackets to indicate the insertion of words in the text that were not in the original Greek.org/title/2133 . PLL v6.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] A NOTE ON THE TEXT The translation of The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus that is reproduced here is the first edition published in Glasgow by Robert Foulis in 1742.libertyfund. as they were in eighteenth-century editions. page 112 begins after ). The notes to the text and to the footnotes that have been provided by the present editors are marked by numbers and are gathered at the end of the volume.0 (generated September.
A number of our fellow scholars have provided assistance and advice. David Weston of the Department of Special Collections of the University of Glasgow made available to us the text of the Glasgow edition of 1742. a quality that contributed in no small way to bring our work on this volume to a conclusion. along with other classical texts. published in Glasgow in 1744.0 (generated September. we are indebted to Knud Haakonssen for his encouragement and for his sense of urgency. and the librarians of Concordia University who assisted us in various ways.D.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In the preparation of this volume we have enjoyed the cooperation and assistance of many individuals and institutions. to the Special Collections Library at the University of Exeter. Sandy Stewart. Aaron Garrett. brought to our attention the copy of The Meditations. Andrews. We are particularly grateful for the contributions of Edward Andrew. PLL v6. Moira Mackenzie and Elizabeth Henderson. in 1746.org/title/2133 . “as a testimony of his Regard for the Honour they had done him” in conferring upon him. We are also obliged to Raynald Lepage and the staff of the Department of Rare Books at McGill University. that was presented to the university by Francis Hutcheson. 2011) 19 http://oll. the degree of LL. Wendy Knechtel.libertyfund. Finally. Keeper of Rare Books at the University of St. and Luigi Turco. Donald Baronowski. and to Judy Appleby. Frederick Rosen. Daniel Carey.
PLL v6. 2011) 20 http://oll.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] THE MEDITATIONS OF THE EMPEROR MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS THE MEDITATIONS of the emperor MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS. over against St.org/title/2133 . and by Andrew Millar. Clements Church.libertyfund. in Edinburgh. GLASGOW: Printed by Robert Foulis. by Mess. Newly translated from the Greek: With Notes. and sold by him at the College. MDCCXLII. Hamilton and Balfour.0 (generated September. London. and an Account of his Life.
and penetration. either to shew art and ingenuity in drawing a character of this great man. and yet most striking considerations. as well as to gratify his natural curiosity. His aunt by his father. according to Gataker’s edition of the original. is almost intirely new.libertyfund. in making an history of his life. to affect the hearts of those who have any sense of goodness. the commentators cannot pretend certainly to explain. Of The Life Of The EMPEROR MARCUS ANTONINUS. or in making encomiums upon him.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] INTRODUCTION Containing Some Of The MOST MEMORABLE PASSAGES.8 His grandfather had been thrice Consul and Prefect of the city. Preserv’D. or our little interfering worldly interests. superior to all the force of anger or envy. and the true text of the original is not always certain: but. humility. even as ’tis imperfectly preserved to us. from Numa. and a constant inflexible charity. His own meditations. The late translation3 seems not to preserve sufficiently the grand simplicity of the original. and resignation to GOD.5 Marcus Aurelius6 was born in the year of our Lord 121. descended. and. or to display our diligence or knowledge. contempt of sensual pleasure. The old English translation2 can scarce be agreeable to any reader. in public affairs. and fame. while they are kept in the learned languages. Some of these meditations cannot well be apprehended. and warm them with the noblest emotions. as ’tis said. the most invincible meekness. This translation. to every judicious reader. and sur-vived Annius Verus. was married PLL v6. adorned with the soundest understanding. to remove what prejudices may possibly occur to him. To give these meditations the greater force upon the mind of the reader. 2011) 21 http://oll. and his strength of mind. gratitude. Annia Faustina. the design of which. and the most entire resignation to GOD. we subjoin the following short abstract of his life. taken from the collections made by Dacier and Stanhope.7 By his father Annius Verus. the most amiable sweetness and kindness of affections. which contain some of the plainest. steddy justice. because of the intricate and antiquated stile. without a considerable acquaintance with the philosophy and stile of the Stoics: Some of them are only memorial hints this great man intended only for him-self. and intrepidity amidst the greatest dangers. judging that these divine sentiments of Antoninus. will present a great soul. therefore. during the reign of Adrian.org/title/2133 . and his Latin version.4 ’Tis quite foreign to our design. and good-will and compassion toward our fellows. of piety. calmness. there are many of them obvious to every capacity.0 (generated September. wealth. worldly grandeur. and simplicity. will shew his great capacity. undertook to make them as plain as the subjects would admit. And the history of his life. The authors of this translation. he was of one of the greatest families in Italy.1 may be of some advantage to many who have not access to them.
ad139. who was married to Numidius Quadratus. ’Tis said that Marcus had dreamed. as the natural means of health and vigour. who had loved him from his infancy. and that in practice. He was even intrusted with some great charges. effeminacy. Marcus Aurelius’s mother was also of an eminent consular family. geometry. and his mother’s estate too. But. upon the death of his former adoptive son Cesenius Commodus. by Claudius Severus. and rhetoric. 2011) 22 http://oll. racing. He had some taste for painting. He lived up to all their austerities. and luxury. But his soul was soon intent upon something still greater than these ingenious accomplishments. in spare diet.12 He was dear to Adrian.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus to Antoninus Pius the Emperor. He shewed his perpetual gratitude to these good men. then about 18 years of age. Adrian. his chief delight was in the Stoic philosophy. so early. He often encountered the fiercest boars.libertyfund. Nature had formed him for the greatest dignity and constancy. and acquitted himself with as great decency and dignity. tennis. He was but a child when his own father died. plain dress. with a singular firmness of soul. and peculiar to him. He was instructed in the Stoic philosophy by Sextus Chaeronensis. before he was twenty.9 Our Emperor’s first name was Annius Verus. not to be moved by any accidents. to dignity and wealth. When he was adopted into the Aurelian family. he took the name of his adoptive father Marcus Aurelius. even from his being twelve years of age.org/title/2133 . in the very beginning of his meditations. as well as speculation. his own gratitude. but by a continual respect for them. from the early appearance of candour and veracity in his temper. that scarce ever did joy or grief make any change in his countenance. Claudius Maximus.11 Philosophy was his favourite study. so that most of the historians assure us. that his shoulders and arms were PLL v6. he adopted Antoninus Pius. called him Annius Verissimus. And. the preceeding night. and his honest humility. Adrian. to his sister Annia Cornificia. Plutarch’s grandson. and hunting. and abstinence from all softness. inclined to have adopted Marcus Aurelius to be his successor.10 Iunius Rusticus. not only by promoting them in the world. He studied also the laws of his country under Volutius Mecianus. in ascribing all his virtues to their instructions. music. the daughter of Calvisius Tullus. with safety and honour. in his youth. but deeming him too young. who procured for him the best instructors in pronunciation. even when he was in the highest elevation of fortune. and in the Peripatetic. as any of the old magistrates. in a manner truly original. and practised it for some time. and this gravity was ever easy to others. the same with his father’s.0 (generated September. he has perpetuated their memory. being free from all moroseness or pride. on condition that he should immediately adopt Marcus. for the discharging all honourable offices. oratory. that he was advanced to the equestrian dignity at six years of age.13 He gave up all his father’s. or. probably. and made one of the priests of Mars at eight. Greek. and L. Verus. and nothing to himself. and Cinna Catulus. and he shewed no high taste for them. but was educated by his grandfather. But he more admired wrestling. the son of the same Commodus. the most celebrated lawyer of that age.
2011) 23 http://oll. Antoninus Pius his successor betrothed his daughter Faustina in marriage to Marcus Aurelius. ad140. After this. whatever persecution there might be in the remoter provinces. however. conferred on him the honours of the successors to the empire. ad161. the senate conferred on him all manner of honours and powers. so that their mutual friendship was inaccessible to all the attempts of designing men. At the age of 25. and. and he assumed L. ’Tis even denyed by Valesius. Antoninus Pius replied in his defence. tho’ some ascribe it to his predecessor. by the heathen priests. he could not refrain from tears. apotheosis of Antoninus. who had had the constant charge of him from his infancy. we have no assurance that it was authorised by the Emperor. put him in mind of his usual constancy and steddiness.15 PLL v6. and Marcus betrothed his daughter Lucilla to Verus. Upon the death of Antoninus Pius. soon after. and. and raised him to the consulship. that the apology of Justin Martyr called the first. Eusebius preserves to us a letter of this Emperor’s. He brings several reasons to prove that both these apologies were wrote and presented to Antoninus Pius. to assist him. during his reign. She soon bore him a daughter. and he spoke a great deal.14 ’Tis. Upon Adrian’s death. and each of the new Emperors made a funeral oration upon him. and seemed to pay still greater deference to Antoninus the Emperor. application was made from all quarters.libertyfund. and when some about the court. tho’ truly the second. even higher than on any of his predecessors. or. Verus as partner in it. About this time. and that he found them much stronger than formerly. Marcus’s old tutor died. in his notes upon Eusebius. when they had been terrified by some pretended prodigies and earthquakes. in several parts of the empire. and governors of provinces. was addressed to this Emperor. for leave to persecute the Christians. about the evils and dangers which always attend supreme power. to raise any distrusts or suspicions between them. and he ever employed them for the good of the state. perpetually attending him. the senate obliged Marcus Aurelius to take upon him the government. or to the senate. and carries along with it many characters of this author. It was directed to some general council of Asia. that there have been some considerable persecutions. upon applications made by some of the heathens. The news of his adoption seemed to afflict him. the ceremonies of which are told by all antiquaries. in the same year. As soon as he was settled in the supreme power.0 (generated September.org/title/2133 . They both took the name of Antoninus.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus of ivory. during his reign. and doing him all manner of kind offices. and Antoninus Pius brought Apollonius the Stoic from Athens. for leave to persecute the Christians. on that occasion. But. philosophers.” ad147. the funeral. as indeed it was intirely contrary to his principles and inclination. he married Faustina: a wife no way suited to such an husband. “You must give him leave to be a man: neither philosophy nor im-perial dignity can exstinguish our natural affections. These things increased his keenness in the study and practice of philosophy. On this occasion. with the greatest magnificence. always promoting men solely on account of their merit. probable. they celebrated.
than to live. If any shall still persist in prosecuting them. must easily convince us that he never could authorise such persecution of men. I wrote to them in the same sentiments with my father. Antoninus. as her husband.17 and Verus went against the Parthians. for some time past.libertyfund. as well as the heathen. as well as other things. &c. and the burning of several cities. To the assembly of Asia. by the invasions of the Parthians. to be at no vain expence in her reception. but you. hoping to reclaim him by all the ties of affection. his son Commodus was born. such as inundations. and of the Catti. to my divine father. offered him in marriage his daughter Lucilla. I am sure the gods will take care that such men as you describe. which yet continue. under such accusations. Upon the success † of this war. In this first year of his reign. rather to die for their own God. and all the worship due to that immortal Being. earthquakes. but was not reformed by his sickness. He declined going with her himself. Many have applied to me about the same matter. Many of the go-vernors of provinces wrote about these matters. let the person prosecuted be acquitted. but to let her perform her journey in a private manner. confide more in their God. As to those earthquakes. unless they were found making some attempts against the Roman state. They. give to this Emperor. as she passed through their provinces. which they managed successfully. or. Thus they always defeat you. continued his march. a princess of singular beauty. he gave himself up to all debauchery. and it suits themselves much better to punish such as refuse them worship. pleased with the success. one of the suburbs of Antioch. This princess shewed as little regard to virtue. PLL v6. or her character. neglect the Gods. all this time. should not be hid. the two Emperors had a triumph. they say.org/title/2133 . merely as Christians.0 (generated September. and let the prosecutor be punished. on such occasions. than you. either unapprised of his returning to his vices. tho’ it should appear he were a Christian. and he prohibited their giving the Christians any disturbance. greeting. throwing away their lives rather than do what you require of them. ’tis proper to admonish you. only confirms them more in their sentiments. Antoninus went thither to see him. He wrote to the several * proconsuls and governors in her way. But as soon as Verus left Rome. merely for christianity. through your ignorance. M. whose worshippers. and lenity of temper. whose horrid vices were. into Ger-many. Calphurnius16 Agricola was sent to command in Britain. upon his recovery. and committed the war to his lieutenants. the Christians. while he was in Syria. To them it must be eligible. He plunged again into all sort of debauchery at Daphne. and fell sick at Canusium. 2011) 24 http://oll. Aufidius Victorinus to oppose the Catti. for justice.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. and that extraordinary character which the Christian writers. This letter. to compare your conduct with theirs. and was no longer overawed by the authority and virtue of Antoninus. The Emperor was immediately engaged in wars on all sides. as far as to the country of the Grisons: the Britons too revolted. Verus. Your harassing them with charges of Atheism. fore-boded by several dismal prodigies. lest any should imagine he aimed to share the glory of these conquests. you are harassing and persecuting to death. and gave him his best advice as to his future conduct. and. and sent her to him. all the way to Syria.
and put the Romans to flight. that only such should die. the governors of some remote provinces renewed the persecution against the Christians. that. at that rate. asking what the Emperor inclined should be done with some Christian prisoners. whether they were guilty of the crimes laid to their charge. with a great slaughter of near 20000. to appease the Gods. in some provinces. for this purpose. and never had reason to repent of his choice. But the Emperor rallied them at Aquileia. taking Verus along with him. where he forced at last the barbarous nations to submit to his own terms. telling them that “he could not do it but at the expence of their brethren and kinsmen. scarce any would have been released. attacked Antoninus’s army. There is no other evidence of the Emperor’s authority interposed. Antoninus shewed his wisdom and steddiness on this occasion. should be put to death. upon this ambiguity. there was. and then went against the enemy. a violent persecution. made him one of his lieutenants. when Justin Martyr is said to have suffered. who rather inclined to have continued in his debaucheries at Rome. and the shepherds in Egypt took arms. PLL v6. Antoninus marched against them in person.18 who afterwards was raised to the empire. The year following. his beautiful and just defence of the Christians yet extant. 2011) 25 http://oll. that none should be punished for the name of Christian.21 It was probably on this occasion. and. the Moors ravaged Spain. that Athenagoras composed. and gave the greatest disturbance to the Romans in that province. a more dangerous war arose from the Quadi and Marcomanni. given him by his wife Lucilla.24 while he was heading the armies in the north. upon an insurrection of the Germans. and not all such as confessed that they were of the Christian religion. The Germans were defeated.0 (generated September. “that such only as confessed.”19 ad169. and sent to the Emperor. for. The Emperor used great variety of sacrifices and religious rites. after their many vigorous efforts. ’Tis very credible the Emperor intended by this order. except. and yet. and from his own judgment of the abilities of Pertinax. as some suspect. by poison. the murdering of infants. assisted by the Sarmatians. or.org/title/2133 . upon finding an incestuous intrigue of his with his own sister. and defeated the enemy. in his return. ’Tis thought that Antoninus was not at Rome in the year 166. by the bravery of the Emperor and his army. Vandals. such as treason and sedition.23 About this time. but only upon a fair trial. after their great and dangerous services. for whom he was accountable to God. and the rest released. About this time. but both were quelled by the vigilance of the Emperor. and drove them out of all Pannonia. The Marcomanni and Quadi. Christians were ordinarily accused for other crimes than any religious tenets. but abroad. and vindicating the Christians from them: This. and incestuous debaucheries in their assemblies.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus About this time. and eating them. This war was also successful. or countenance given. and other nations.”20 Now. procured them peace. and the bravery of his lieutenants who commanded there. when the victorious army. Antoninus soon conquered the enemy. demanded an augmentation of their pay: he refused it. while the plague also raged in Italy. probably. Verus died of an apoplexy at Altinum. as confessed these crimes. during the rest of this reign. he ordered. made more terrible efforts than ever.22 insisting for less ambiguous orders.libertyfund. in answer to a letter of the governor of Gaul.
with great slaughter. nor that impious flattery of building altars and temples to himself. and the enemy are dismayed. Here they were like to perish with heat and thirst. and his army. the grateful love of his soldiers protected him. even by employing the gladiators. sharing his power with the Senate. that he omitted no public business on that account. then seven years old. and the greatest patience and constancy. and endeavouring to preserve all that could be cured or relieved. enraged with the fresh remembrance of their late danger.libertyfund. for prevention of frauds.org/title/2133 . and the treasury much exhausted. while all the lightning fell among the Barbarians: With this. with the most ardent prayers. were vain. feigning a flight. After the battle. making wise laws. Before he marched against the enemy. all the passes being possessed by the enemy. to all the great offices. This expedition proved more tedious and dangerous than any of the former. under a clause of redemption.26 which some ignorantly averred had on this occasion got the name of the Thundering Legion. the Emperor was continually employed for the good of his people.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus When peace was restored. and could not escape. and consulting in the Senate about public affairs. in the days of Augustus. The old enemies of the Romans. There were also many Christians in the army. employed no doubt. because they had thunderbolts engraved or painted on their shields. perfidiously renewed their hostilities. he lost his second son Verus. having exposed himself to the utmost hazard. than to convince them that they were reserved sacrifices to the fury of the Barbarians. The Romans attack them in this confusion. That name was given to this legion. in the administration of justice. as well as fidelity. the most valuable moveables of his palace. in searching out and promoting men of ability and integrity. He is said to have committed himself and them to God. by selling. from which. and the speedy administration of justice.27 ’Tis told indeed confidently. appealing to God for the innocence of his conduct in life. been exceedingly impaired by the great fatigues he had endured. He supplied his treasury. 2011) 26 http://oll. In the event.25 and the Christians universally to the prayers of the legion of Mitilene. soon after. The heathens ascribe this deliverance to the Emperor’s piety. for a quite different reason. by PLL v6. toward the public. They made some vigourous efforts to force their way. deprived of all water. for some years. All the Emperor’s efforts to rouse the spirits of the fainting soldiers. in like supplications to God. with a most plentiful shower. He would admit of no lofty titles. He at first gave them a defeat. scarce ever losing one moment of his time. and thunder. and reforming all abuses. and bore it with such fortitude. the Romans take courage. The enemy. His assidui-ty was the more surprizing. his aim being only that he might reform whatever was amiss in it. the Marcomanni. clouds suddenly arose. when the Roman troops were diminished by a plague. but without other effect. that his health had. He was particularly inquisitive about the censures past upon his conduct. which he bore with the greatest meekness. that they were inclosed on all sides. led the Emperor and his army into such straits amidst mountains. He discovered the greatest penetration. by skirmishing parties. the Emperor himself went to the field. which the Emperor’s compassion for his people kept very low. and put them to flight.0 (generated September. watching their opportunity. weeping over the slain among the enemies.
and Arabia. he wrote to the Senate.28 No doubt. is reputed by many to be a forgery. He had added all these countries as provinces to the Roman empire. had suspicion of his ambitious designs. Antoninus pursued this war. When he was thus promoted. by putting him to death. courage. pretended to draw his pedigree from the old Cassius.29 and talked much of restoring the old common-wealth. in the pursuits. and that. he formed high designs. and his jests upon Antoninus’s studious disposition.” I cite him to you. where the poor Barbarians were lurking. and constantly employed. The Emperor’s conduct in the whole affair. he will perish without any cruelty of ours. deserves to be more particularly related. to employ the Christians of his army in prayer to their God. PLL v6. because the best sayings of Tyrants have not the weight they may deserve. by his early atchievements in Armenia.30 I have read your letter. had he not been interrupted by the revolt of Cassius. and give them full liberty for the exercise of their religion. Cassius was employed by the Emperor to recover the army quartered in Syria from their luxury. which shews more of an anxious and timor-ous spirit. such a letter would be suppressed by an heathen Senate. and dissolute. ’Tis not improbable.” But if ’tis not decreed him. but prodigal. who. To which. contracted under Verus. so near the time of that event. he said. “no prince ever killed his successor.libertyfund. And. to stop all prosecutions against them. tho’ the one now bearing that stile. warning him to prevent his designs against him and his children. going himself into the woods and marshes. and that he did so. You know your great grandfather’s proverb. 2011) 27 http://oll. from his conduct. as by it his temper. than of that becoming an Emperor. from these bold affirmations of Christians. At last. this was Antoninus’s answer. is more shown than by his glorious military atchievements. On the account of these good qualities. before his death. till they fall by them. then. that the Emperor was advised by the captain of his guards. and protecting them from the fury of his own soldiers. If the Gods have decreed him the empire. in consequence of this. with great rigour. refused nothing to their prayers. and kept the army sober. they are never credited about conspiracies formed against them. You know what your grandfather Adrian used to say. and clemency. sometimes.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Christian writers near those times. rather than Domitian. He was a man of great art. the author of the observation. with the greatest bravery. and he was much recommended by the Emperor to the governors of these eastern provinces. “The lot of sovereigns is hard. we cannot dispatch him. Egypt. He revived the antient strict military discipline. tho’ we would. Cassius had been endeared to the army. that there has been such a letter. and even forced to accept of less advantageous terms of peace from these Barbarians. than they had formerly agreed to. There is no condemning a man whom no body accuses. we are deemed to have injured even those persons who are fully convicted. and suits not my government. and whom the army loves. conduct. and patience. and found the surprizing event immediately answering upon their prayers. and the greatness of his soul. he defeated them intirely. tho’ he could well conceal his vices. and wrote his suspicions to Antoninus. by many perilous encounters.0 (generated September. and possessed himself of all their fortresses. Let Cassius take his own way. Verus. in cases of treason.org/title/2133 . of this revolt.
He wrote also to the same purpose to the Senate. the extortions of the proconsuls and governors. therefore. that we may consult about these affairs. He first expressed the deepest regret for the impending misery of a civil war. He gave all places in the army to his friends. under the protection of the Gods. as a manifesto. As for caution about my children.0 (generated September. when he had formed the ambitious design. and he endeavoured to conceal them from the army. are grown very seditious. and it be more the interest of our country. the corruption of men.” She returned this answer. by the sickness of her daughter. as you order.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus especially. he addressed the army. and his experience of the fidelity and bravery of these he addressed. ad175. You see the tender years of Commodus. the ingratitude and perfidy. He sends a letter to his son at Alexandria. either raised a report of Antoninus’s death. to extirpate these rebels. since he is a good general. but must advise you. to Alba. “Let the Gods favour the Cassii. the Emperor wrote to her to meet him at Formiae.” Faustina being detained. his knowledge of the dastardly disposition of these dissolute troops and nations who had revolted. if Cassius better deserves the love of the Romans than they. Our son-in-law Pompeianus is old. 2011) 28 http://oll. my mother advised Antoninus Pius. who neglects his wife and children. but she was detained at Rome. They will cut you off. from this report. but. who neglected public affairs. and pardoning him. and confiscated his estate to the city. by dispatching him.org/title/2133 . would be to him more joyful than any triumph. under a bookish Emperor. Cassius. to shew his tenderness and goodness to his own. without fear. You have heard what the fortune-tellers have told him. that Cassius should live. from Syria to mount Taurus. to assume the sovereign power. Both the officers and soldiers. In a like revolt of Celsus. than the children of Marcus. keeps strict discipline. Come. is brave.32 to this effect. PLL v6. where he was to embark. the matter was soon divulged: Upon this. which immediately declared Cassius a traitor. or took occasion. and the decay of antient rigour and severity of manners. and concludes. if you love your children. He subjoined the tenderest expressions of clemency and pity. since the Emperor would not take it to himself. (as Dion Cassius relates). sent accounts of all these things to Antoninus. inveighing against the corruptions in the administration.”31 Martius Verus. and a stranger. not to imagine that all faith and integrity were gone out of the earth. even toward Cassius. that he designed to usurp.libertyfund. He wrote also to Faustina this letter. and that preserving his life. contrary to her expectation. and wrote him this Letter. discovered by those to whom he had done the kindest offices. first. A prince cannot be deemed to have the just fatherly affection to his people. “I will go to Alba to morrow. supported both by his own innocence. and the common-wealth shall regain its antient dignity. and that the army in Pannonia had elected himself for Emperor. “Verus’s account of Cassius was true. and in whom he had confided: But he exhorted his soldiers. let my children perish. He had still many faithful and brave friends: He had no fear of success. and necessary to the state. and then to others. unless you prevent them. and caused all to submit to him.
pressing me to be severe toward the conspirators with Cassius. or lived in such a manner.37 Of his letter to the Senate. You are mad. My dear Faustina. You shew a most dutiful concern for me. “I have not served the Gods so ill.36 Some thought this clemency too great. that. Let no Senator be put to death. and son-in-law. As to the revolt of Cassius. whose years seemed long ago to have claimed it. One used the freedom to ask him. Had the war ended as I would have wished.0 (generated September. that I had reason to fear the Gods would allow Cassius to conquer me”: And counted over most of the Emperors who had been dethroned and assassinated. But. nor the blood of any eminent person be shed. or punished. and restore the estates of the proscribed. Don’t spare those. My fatherly affection to mankind must be acceptable to them. laying aside your rigour. This obtained your father the title of Pius. and your own. The Gods protect me. are talking about you. and. Would to God I could recall to life many of the dead. this part is yet preserved: In gratitude. but I am resolved to spare his children. and our children. On this occasion. if I don’t overtake you. Cassius himself had not died. and his wife. I shall speedily follow you. 2011) 29 http://oll. and had fallen under Antoninus’s displeasure for some maladministration. and shall write to the Senate. that they make no rigid proscription. It appears too severe. about three months after his revolt.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Consider. then.”35 Cassius succeeded no better in soliciting some other provinces to revolt. what Cassius’s wife and children. You must.libertyfund. had not some brave worthy persons intervened. spare you. and his head was sent to Antoninus. nor any cruel punishments. He wrote a long letter to Herod. nor our children. if they were victorious. was dispatched by some of them. and began to lose his credit with the army. I beseech and obtest you. or had returned an answer to Faustina’s last letter. he wrote to her thus. Fadilla’s sickness hindered me from meeting you at Formiae. why say I par-don? they have committed PLL v6. therefore. “Herod to Cassius. I never can like an Emperor’s resentment of any injury aimed at himself. at last.34 a man of good abilities. I have made Pompeianus our son-in-law consul for next year. Nothing can more recommend a Roman Emperor to the love of all nations. But Herod had such veneration for the Emperor. and his wife. even when very just. for my victory. I have read your Letters to me at Formiae twice over. nor me. you have made my son-in-law consul.33 Cassius made all efforts to strengthen his party. than clemency. who would not. Let the banished return. how he thought Cassius would have treated him and his family. shewing. his son-in-law. Don’t be afraid. therefore. his son-in-law. he returned him this short answer. how you ought to treat Cassius and his associates. had he been victorious? He replied. Fathers. to engage him to join against Antoninus. that their own tyranny or folly occasioned their fate. to whom that debt was first to be paid by the state. that before he had read out all Cassius’s letter.—I shall send you accounts. ’Twas for this virtue that Cesar and Augustus were reputed Divinities.org/title/2133 . pardon the sons of Cassius. you would act suitably to my clemency. before he left Formiae. who commanded in Greece.
and were treated in a friendly manner by Antoninus. He marched immediately to the East: soon appeas-ed the revolt. He spent three days in discoursing with them. and having been initiated in the Eleusinian mysteries:41 On this occasion he gratified the Romans * with magnificent shews. to save the lives of so many of his fellow-citizens. and son-in-law. Some say. having settled the East. 2011) 30 http://oll. ad176. to stop these proceedings. But. and then set out for the army. fear.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus no crime. in this case of usurpation. as to his own death. this had been done by his faithful friend Martius Verus. heard Aristides the orator40 at Smyrna. and advising them about state affairs. Faustina died in this expedition. at Vienna in Austria. and furniture: Let them live in wealth. When he came to Syria. he was seized with a distemper. and carry with them. popular odium. may be deemed justly slain. This clemency to the wives and children of the proscribed. Antoninus. “If I cannot obtain from you the lives of all the conspirators. and were always suc-cessful. tho’ the particulars of the wars are not preserved. with the greatest clemency. for the honour of my government. among all nations.libertyfund. indeed. and reformed many abuses. it would be pleasing to the good Emperor. In this expedition. proscription.”39 Cassius’s eldest son Mecianus was killed in his government at Alexandria. his prudence and valour appeared invariably the same. and great liberality to the distressed. continued in Rome. and attacked the Emperor’s lieutenants. his strength of mind and resignation to the divine will. thinking it would be some alleviation of the Emperor’s sorrow.38 This letter was read with innumerable acclamations and blessings. those who were killed in the suppressing of the tumult. near mount Taurus. on the very day in which Cassius was killed: His other children were only banished to an island. returned to Rome. that. and saying. concluding. or at Sirmium. if it was not. and of your’s. he wrote the most pressing letter to the Senate. and about the great principles of philosophy. And he. which. upon the first notice of it. he could willingly die. The Senate. Let them live on the fortune of the family given up amongst them: Let them enjoy their gold and silver plate. When he apprehended there was no hope of his recovery. but his affection to PLL v6. retaining all their estates. in a few days. from death. who were exceedingly solicitous about his life.0 (generated September. The Emperor buried Cassius’s head decently. the old seat of learning. he burned all the papers of Cassius without reading them. His daughter. is but a small matter. But. before his arrival. The Senate paid extravagant honours to Faustina. and all manner of vexation. and at their full liberty to stay or go as they please. The Scythians took arms again. Conscript fathers. to shew their zeal for him. and security. and feel they live under Antoninus. the marks of my clemency. I must request you further: defend all the conspirators of the Senatorian or Equestrian order. Allow it. infamy. made him easy. I shall wish to die. The peace of the empire was soon disturbed by new commotions in the North. renewed their severity against the late conspirators. Let them live secure. resolved upon another expedition: Nor could his friends of the Senate. out of mean flattery.org/title/2133 . after eight years absence. justly presuming. expressing no small grief for the loss of such a man. to prevent entertaining suspicions or hatred against any. put an end to his glorious life. tho’ old and infirm. having extended his liberality to Athens. dissuade him from it.
always watching over him. and will obey their prince. he be intirely shipwrecked among vices. are to be confided in. but an hearty love by their goodness. so many fathers in my stead. ’tis hard to set proper measures or bounds to men’s passions. to make grateful returns. or any dispositions of his to virtue. and. during his reign. deifying his predecessor. and admitting the like honours to be paid to Verus and Faustina: and. not any dread by their cruelty. I presume you have the like to me. If you suggest such thoughts to him. with all possible encomiums of his virtues: All which were no more than his due. even zealously sacrifising to false Gods. and the long series of kind offices done. through want of experience. he fell down on the bed. than what ensued among all ranks. would not be able to withstand the temptations he would be exposed to in that dangerous elevation. and to shew you have not forgot the favours you received. and do the most grateful office to my memory. his continuing in the Pagan religion. except when they are forced into it by insolent oppression. and not from necessity. Tho’ his son had not disclosed his vicious dispositions during his life. or suffer for him. you will make him an excellent prince to yourselves. The only prejudices which can obstruct the most favourable reception of these divine meditations. yet the examples of Nero and Domitian made him dread that any good instructions he had received. being carried aside. 2011) 31 http://oll. when they have lost the affections of their people. PLL v6. his suffering the Christians to be persecuted. From my consciousness of the most sincere affection to you. and with the dearest appellations of their good Emperor.libertyfund. He saw his northern conquest very unsettled. who loudly bewailed his death. With all these cares oppressing him. or their brother. as by this alone you can make it immortal. nor any guards protect them. Never was there a more universal undissembled sorrow. no treasures can satisfy the luxury of tyrants.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus his country gave him considerable anxiety. you are under more peculiar tyes to me. just entring into manhood. when they are before our eyes. and. and giving him good counsels: For. from the author’s character. exerting all his strength. who stood around his bed: He presented to them his son. who have infused into the minds of their people. without flattery and dissimulation. for me to discern that the honours I have conferred on you. and for you. You see there my son. I am not surprized that you are troubled to see me in this condition. were not employed in vain.42 As he was thus speaking. their general. and died next day.0 (generated September. or prove refractory. they excite a deeper compassion. It is natural to mankind. he called for his principal officers. Now is the opportunity. These princes only have had safe and long reigns. he sate up. who was educated by your selves. secondly. like a ship in a stormy sea. Such alone. lest. therefore. in the 59th year of his age.org/title/2133 . and spoke to this effect. nor will such ever rebel. their father. But. his sickness and pains recurred more violently the last day of his life. are these two: First. and other provinces not sufficiently established. their protector. to be moved with any sufferings of their fellow-creatures. and made him aware of his approaching end: Upon this. and keep him in mind of what he now hears. needing prudent pilots. his voice failed. and to all the state. Be you to him. In unlimited power. as obey with good-will.
were. and the christians their own heroes and martyrs. in those who have had no prohibitions by revelation. and rebellion against the state. and all the Stoics. tho’ a great fault. Maximus Tyrius.0 (generated September. this very doctrine generally prevailed. or expressions of gratitude to them. and. Verus too had his virtues. sincerely. 2011) 32 http://oll. they universally abstain from it. our prayers. in their several nations. who had very little real virtue. nor how they are employed. even from the 5th to the reformation. is less than that of the apostle Paul. who have been guilty of some very bad actions. Some men of little constancy in their conduct. who himself persecuted with great fury. and both often raised to this dignity. and be employed as ministering spirits to the heirs of salvation. all incestuous impurities. indeed. the heathens using the words God. the princes must. This last is the common charge. whatever better knowledge the inferior magistrates might have of the matter of fact. made by all persecutors. that is. yet. But. they also believed there were many inferior created spirits. the souls of persons. avowed atheism. and condemn it. ’Tis a small fault to err on the charitable side. to whom. believed only one supreme God.libertyfund. of all. as it was full of ridiculous superstitions. The heathens worshiped the old heathen heroes and princes.org/title/2133 . have had also some eminent virtues not universally known. different. or. they were represented as a confederacy for the most monstrous wickedness. let us remember. or. by almost continual wars. for what christians called Angels and Saints. not to mention his perpetual avocations. for many centuries. But. according to old traditions and custom. having no particular knowledge who these Angels or Saints are. that we have no proof of his giving orders for it: We can only charge him with the omission of his duty. and superintend the civil affairs of them. let us not imagine it worse in the wiser heathens. But. As to the second charge. (See B. he had served God with all good conscience. tho’ no man of sense can vindicate the heathen worship.43 and many others. To extenuate this fault in the Emperor. that the souls of some good men were advanced to this dignity. of persecuting the Christians:45 Let us remember. agreed in this. without any other difference than that of sound. than it truly was. about the dead. and the protestant persecutions in PLL v6. nor any evidence that they can know our devotions. assure us. both in the eastern and western christian churches. seeing all such worship prohibited in the holy scriptures. as it generally has a bad tendency. against such as differ from the established orthodoxy: As we see in all the defences of the R. such as. remembring what mixed characters are recorded of some Jewish and Christian authors whose works we read with veneration. generally. without any proper evidence. in not making a strict inquiry into the cause of the Christians: This. is not so great as we commonly apprehend it. the government of certain parts of na-ture was delegated by the supreme God.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus As to the first. Nay ’tis probable the vices of Faustina were never known to Antoninus. the murdering of infants. Let us shew an impartial candour in this matter. according to what he then thought his duty. the moral evil of such practices. and many of his vices have been hid from our author.= I. and that honours were to be paid to these presiding spirits. 14). original cause. beside the multitude of civil affairs in so vast an empire. Now. Now. have had only such views of the Christians as the zealot pagan priests and magistrates presented to them. that. Nay the protestants allow that created beings may have delegated powers from God. the blaspheming all the Gods. and feeding on them. that all Wise men in the heathen world. Daemon. catholic persecutions in France. and yet could afterwards truly say.44 We see that Antoninus. The persons denoted by these names in the heathen and christian religions.
who cannot hate their neighbours. that any persecution is the more odious. in every thing almost. Now. Under these impressions of the Christians. as it shews a greater insolence of pride and ill-nature. and that their worship was instituted by such devils. It rejected all their popular Gods: Nay. and the same Saviour. between the religious tenets of the persecutor. to conceive him so furious and captious. and confirmed by a philosophy which espoused a good deal of the popular superstitions. over the consciences of men. not. but those. abhor all Christian persecutions. grant he had persecuted the Christians upon their religious opinions. what shall we say of Christians persecuting each other. a prince of great goodness might even directly order a persecution against them. And it shews also the baser sentiments about the Deity. while under these mistakes. would be under strong temptations from his very devotion. who. the smaller the difference is. even those whom they think mistaken in such points. who have no partial attachments to their own parties. opposite to what they in their own wisdom have pronounced sound and orthodox. from prejudices of education. and so detracting PLL v6. But. and their rites of worship: Let such as make this objection to his character. about which the best men who ever lived have had opposite sentiments: for different opinions about the manner in which the Deity may think fit to exercise his mercy to a guilty world. impiously to invade the prerogatives of God.0 (generated September. to suppress Christianity: This is a great extenuation of the Emperor’s guilt. and their uniting in the same cause. and his ignorance could scarce be wholly invincible. their rejecting and reviling the heathen Gods.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus England and Scotland. for different opinions. or deem them excluded from the divine favour. notwithstanding their hearty intention and desire to please him. the christian religion was intirely opposite. deeply prejudiced by education. without the guilt of a great omission of his duty. the early Christians averred them all to be impure devils.org/title/2133 . As for these who are conscious of such sincere undissembled good-will to all. from their hearts. and pieces of outward pageantry. of loving God with all our heart. to be so much provoked for such small differences. A devout heathen. or forms of words. and own the same grand practical rules of life. his intention might be only the suppression of the most odious crimes. about some metaphysical attributes or modes of existence. no vanity or pride exciting any anger at the different opinions of others. and forms of worship as are no way hurtful in society. as far as they know what is acceptable to him. 2011) 33 http://oll. can exclude his creatures intirely from his favour. either in pardoning of their sins. either for neglecting certain ceremonies. indeed.libertyfund. since he ought to have made a more thorough inquiry into the matter. who yet believe in the same God. and from all compassion or mercy. and those of the persecuted. or for exceeding in them. But. by penal laws about such religious opinions. which all sides own to be quite incomprehensible by us. which he thought chargeable on the Christians. consider. for the different opinions about human liberty. But. in favour of these popular Gods. when the clergy have once persuaded the legislator. to the Pagan. or renewing them in piety and virtue. that the smaller mistakes in opinion or wor-ship. and refused any sort of joint worship with them. and our neighbour as ourselves! Let none make this objection to Antoninus.
as if because the author was not a Christian. reject these noble devout sentiments.0 (generated September. and flagitious. persons of this character. the early Christians believed the spirit of Christ operated in Socrates. on account of the author’s having persecuted. pronouncing eternal damnation on all who are not within the pale. Those who find the simple. in not embracing it. against rashly entertaining ill-natured representations of whole sects or bodies of men. and were by profession in the christian church. which allowed little leisure. let men consider the power of education. he is not to be defended in his neglecting to examine the evidences of christianity. none of these divine influences. and know particularly the physical principles by which the several medicines operate. have been persecuting their fellowchristians with fire and sword.libertyfund. and often. he should find any better instructions in theories of religion.org/title/2133 . they are cursing one another in their synodical anathemas. and a perpetual love to God. whatever were the sins or failings of the author. 2011) 34 http://oll. but most horridly impious. that. and in their creeds. pleasure. or suffered others to persecute during his reign. in a constant course of public business. ’Tis but a late doctrine in the christian church. Let this be a warning to all men. or hold not the same mysterious tenets or forms of words. No doubt. and how long christian magistrates. and presumptuously. that a physician cannot cure a disease. yet they never denyed these blessings could be conferred on any who knew not the meritorious or efficient cause of them. with the deepest humility and simplicity of heart. I hope. immoral. they maintained that it is by the merits of our Saviour alone. considering how rashly. meek. unless the patient be first instructed in the whole art of medicine. But. sure. To maintain they could not. and how much he was employed from his very youth. or any better motives to virtuous actions. often much better than those of the persecutors. But such men will easily see. * acknowledges that he owes to God’s PLL v6. and that they were Christians in heart. that these pious and charitable meditations and suggestions must be valuable for their own sakes. he keenly embraced the scheme of philosophy most remarkable for piety. and humble love of truth alone. to prevent another silly prejudice. who plainly depended on God for such sanctifying influences. Christians may be ashamed to censure our author on this account. Nay. we may charitably judge the same of this Emperor. spirited up by the pretended embassadors of the meek Jesus. and useful to every attentive reader. How little probability could there occur to him. he could have no real piety or virtue acceptable to God. which we are taught are necessary to every good work. and other virtuous heathens. is as absurd as to assert. peaceful. may with some shew of decency. than what were among the philosophers? We see with what a just contempt of ease. austerity. that the grace of God. influencing their sentiments. men can either be justified or sanctified. and a calm uniform charity operating in their hearts toward all men. and all divine influences purifying the heart. Plato. arrogantly. and disinterested goodness. without the historical knowledge: And. The earliest Christians and martyrs were of a very different opinion. and luxury. and recommends them as the matter of our most earnest prayers.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus from their superior penetration. and that for very honourable tenets. in a sect at that time universally despised. ’Tis needless. and diminishing their glory and popularity. even those who despise and affront their religious sentiments. and represented. or. were confined to such as knew the christian history. However. not only as weak and illiterate.
libertyfund. all those virtuous dispositions.0 (generated September. 2011) 35 http://oll. PLL v6. in his providence about him.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus preventing grace.org/title/2133 . in which he had any delight or complacence.
I learned to be religious. that it was possible for the same man to be both vehement and remiss. or in long diseases. that I met with the discourses of Epictetus7 which he gave me. or exhorting men to philosophy by public harangues. 2. From the fame and character my † father obtain’d. and took a liking to the philosopher’s little couch and skins. and invariable stedfastness. I learn’d of him. Of Diognetus. and such other things. about their charms. to content myself with a spare diet. From1 my grandfather * Verus I learned to relish the beauty of manners. as occasion requir’d. that my temper needed redress and cure. either in writing upon the sciences. to read with diligence. but to have good and able teachers at home. ** not to frequent public schools and auditories. PLL v6. or of sorcerers. and to guard.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK I 1. 3. I observed also the simplicity of style in his letters. Not to keep * Quails. To Rusticus6 I owe my first apprehensions. and that I gave over the study of rhetoric. but right and reason. and a manly deportment. modesty. 2011) 36 http://oll. 5. which by the Grecian discipline belong to that profession. not only against evil actions. and to apply myself heartily to philosophy. Of my great. not to credit the great professions of such as pretend to work wonders. as also. 4. as soon as any of them inclined to be reconciled.org/title/2133 . that I never affected to be admired by ostentation of great patience in an ascetic life. I learned also from him an easiness and proneness to be reconciled and well pleased again with those who had offended me. nor quickly to assent to great talkers: Him also I must thank. nor to be keen of such things. not to intermeddle with the affairs of others. not even in the smallest degree. whether in the sharpest pains. To him I owe my seeing in a living example. or of activity and application. to serve myself. for my hearing first Bacchius.0 (generated September. In him I saw an instance of a man. then Tandasis. not to fret when my reasonings were not apprehended. which he wrote to my mother from Sinuessa. by walking at home in my senatorial robe. and the like. not to need many things. not to rest satisfied with a light and superficial knowledge. He who had the charge of my education. to account no expence too great. Him also I must thank. but even against any evil intention’s entering my thoughts. and for things of this nature. and that I did not fall into the ambition of the common Sophists. and to regard nothing else.libertyfund. ‡ Of my mother. far different from the softness and luxury so common among the wealthy. and Marcianus. to allow others all freedom in conversation. and not easily to admit of accusations against them. poetry. and to restrain all anger. or by any such things.5 that I wrote dialogues in my youth.4 not to busy myself about vain things. and the elegance of language. and their expelling Demons. taught me not to be fondly attached to any of the contending parties †† in the chariot-races. From Apollonius8 I learned true liberty. parti-cularly in that.2 He taught me also to endure labour. that I did not affect any airs of grandeur.§ grandfather. or after the loss of a child. or in the combats of the gladiators. and liberal. and always to remain the same man. without troubling others.
to maintain a constant. to observe sagaciously the several dispositions and inclinations of my friends. Of him also I learned how to receive from friends. in my answering. to decline or defer the duties. or any false pronounciation. yet he was at the same time highly respected and reverenced. nor yet seem insensible and ungrateful.11 to be sensible.org/title/2133 . From Sextus9 a pattern of a benign temper. the great maxims necessary for the conduct of life. or arguing the matter. tho’ injust. To him I owe my acquaintance with † Thraseas. that I am not at leisure.12 not often. upon any oc-casion. finding out. and to love my children with true affection. He taught me by his example. or by some other such courteous insinuation. or flouting at them for a barbarism. 2011) 37 http://oll. and to love truth and justice. how much envy. disengaged. which.libertyfund. solecism. not to be offended with the ignorant. always to hope the best. nor thus under pretext of urgent affairs. Of Alexander the platonist. Of Catulus. No man was ever more happy than he in comprehending. and more pleasing than any sort of flattery. 6. and uninterrupted study and esteem of philosophy. and Athenodotus. to say. and arranging in exact order. From Fronto. governed with true paternal affection and a stedfast purpose of living according to nature. Helvidius.13 not to contemn any friend’s expostulation. Dion. 10. and hypocrisy. and of a monarchic government. but dextrously to pronounce the words as they ought.10 to avoid censuring others. From Alexander the critic. to be bountiful and liberal in the largest measure. but still. and yet with-out noise: to desire much literature. to suppress even the least appearance of anger. I observed in him a candid openness in declaring what he PLL v6. and to be unsuspicious about the affections of my friends. 9. have somehow less natural affection. for tho’ his company was sweeter. From my brother * Severus. which chiefly regards the liberty of the subjects. and that generally those we account nobly born. not withstanding this perfect tranquillity. without affectation. and administred with equality of right. how a man may accomodate himself to all men and companies. or with those who follow the vulgar opinions without examination: His conversation was an example. deceit. approving. 8. Of him I learned likewise. to love my kinsmen. what are thought favours. Cato. and of a family. as it is reported of * Domitius. He gave me also the first conception of a republic. to be grave and venerable. the least of all his endowments. founded upon equitable laws. 7. and Brutus. without ostentation. or any other passion. nor without great necessity. and to be apt to approve and applaud others. surrounds princes. but to strive to reduce him to his former disposition: freely and heartily to speak well of all my masters. according to our various ties. 11.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus who esteem’d his excellent skill and ability in teaching others the principles of philosophy. to possess the tenderest and most affectionate heart. so as neither to be on that account subjected to them. we owe to those among whom we live. without taking direct notice of the mistake.0 (generated September. or write to any man in a letter.
to be little solicitous about the common honours. he spake. what he liked or disliked. and when absent. never to seem in a hurry. and that his friends might easily see. 12. Thus he left his friends at liberty. His regular moderate care of his body. I further observed the great honour he paid to all true philosophers. without presence of mind. or one of a sharp wit. an inflexible justice toward all men. He taught me. but a wise. his gracious and delightful conversation. to execute my designs vigorously without freting. and to be ready to do good to others. or perplexed. nor was there any. sweet. and readiness to hear any man. after their affairs had hindered them to attend him. From Claudius Maximus. 2011) 38 http://oll. and in nothing to be hurried away by any passion: to be chearful and couragious in all sudden accidents. one who could not bear to be flattered. and assiduity. his exact care even about small matters. his chearfulness. abstinence from all impure lusts: and a sense of humanity toward others. of which his fortune supplied him with great affluence. 13. complete man. and to speak truth. all men believed. He never quitted the search. and bore patiently the censures of others about these things: How he was neither a superstitious worshipper of the Gods. wellskilled in what was honourable. Whatever he said. not to be easily astonished or confounded with any thing. but sober in all things. and managed accurately the public revenue. to appear rather like one who had always been straight and right. his fore-thought about very distant events. As to these things which are subservient to ease and conveniency. or when remissness and moderation were in season. he used them without pride.org/title/2133 . nor an ambitious pleaser of men. to sup with him or not. nor yet to be dilatory.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus disliked in the conduct of others. without cloying them. and yet with all freedom. which after a due examination and deliberation were determined. able to govern both himself and others. angry. to go abroad with him or not. his contentment in every condition. to maintain a kind. and constancy. and yet not as one who despised it: Thus. as in sicknesses to have an easy command of my own temper. a just apprehension when rigour and extremity. fretful. or shewing any foolish fondness. either as a learned acute man. to forgive. he seldom needed any internal medicines. He was not celebrated. who offered any thing tending to the common good. or outward applications: But especially how ingenuously he would yield without envy. as they inclined. than ever rectified or redressed. or suspicious. through his own care. so open and plain was his behaviour. and that whatever he did. and in all this. or over studious of neatness. and they still found him the same. or who could find in his heart to think himself a better man than him: Nor did he ever affect the praise of being witty. his sociableness. I learned of him accuracy and patience of inquiry in all deliberations and counsel.15 in all things to have power over myself. neither like one desirous of long life. enjoyed them without affectation when they were present. without cloying. it was with a good intent. he found no want of them. How he restrained all acclamations and flattery: How vigilantly he observed all things necessary to the government. never affecting novelties.libertyfund. or dejected. stedfast. as he thought. satisfied with the first appearances. and elegancy. patience of labour.0 (generated September. without noise. experienced. without the trouble of conjectures.‡ From my father I learned meekness. without wavering in those things. to any who had obtained PLL v6. nor studious of popularity. without upbraiding those who were not so. and yet grave deportment. I observed his zeal to retain his friends. or as a great declaimer. who thought himself undervalued by him.
had I found myself successful in them. and almost all things good: and that I never thro’ haste and rashness offended any of them. wherein power and authority are requisite. Again. with a just selfgovernment. He never bathed at unseasonable hours. that my children wanted not good natural dispositions. that I retained my modesty. * as by his disposition might stir me up to take care of myself. that I have had occasion often and effectually to PLL v6. largesses. that it was not impossible for a prince to live in a court. in public buildings. in want whereof most men shew themselves weak. he returned fresh and vigorous to his wonted affairs. that I was no great proficient in the studies of rhetoric and poetry. torches. that I prevented the expectations of those. had no vanity in building. 2011) 39 http://oll. or incivility. and shewed a perfect and invincible soul. as either eloquence. good masters. nor were distorted or deformed in body. and how after his violent fits of the headach. and altho’ he observed carefully the ancient customs of his fore-fathers. but by the goodness of the Gods. and yet not become more mean or remiss in those publick affairs. His conversation was far from any inhumanity. he wore a short cloak. in all things. good domesticks. no such concurrence of circumstances happen’d as could discover my weakness: that I was not long brought up with my father’s concubine. 14. and the like. in exhibiting of shows for the entertainment of the people. Again. regularly. that every one of them might be regarded and esteemed. In all these things he acted like one who regarded only what was right and becoming in the things themselves. by whom I was brought up. without guards. with hopes and excuses that since they were but young I would do it hereafter. resolutely. intemperate: He remained firm and constant in both events. which might have engrossed my mind. a good sister. in the common way. tho’ I had such a temper as might have led me to it. that he knew both how to abstain from or enjoy those things. yet it was without ostentation. or of ancient customs.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus any peculiar faculty. had occasion offer’d. was never solicitous. and how he concurred with them strenuously. either about his meat. without confusion. that I lived under the government of such a prince and father. who took away from me all pride and vain-glory. and refrained from all venereal enjoyments. and gracefully. Rusticus and Maximus. but loved to continue both in the same places and businesses. or the knowledge of the laws. and in the fruition. and yet by his respect and love delighted me. but that he may reduce himself almost to the state of a private man. nor often. never doing any thing with such keenness that one could say * he was sweating about it. I owe to the Gods that ever I knew Apollonius. and such only as concerned public matters: His discretion and moderation. or about the beauty of his servants.0 (generated September. and friends.18 and at Tusculum. and convinced me. and parents. as at leisure. or the like. such as appeared in him during the sickness of Maximus. but on the contrary. or impetuosity. cloath made at Lunuvium. To the Gods I owe my having good grand-fathers. that he neither had many secrets. affectionate kinsmen. and in other faculties. for that in which he excelled. that I did not put them off. even longer than was necessary. His apparel was plain and homely.org/title/2133 . statues. extraordinary apparel. and not the applauses which might follow. such as that he chose to wear at Lorium. or such pieces of state and magnificence.libertyfund. sometimes making apologies for the plainness of his dress. A man might have applied that to him which is recorded of Socrates. they seem’d most to desire. That I have had such a brother. or about the nice workmanship or colour of his cloaths. how he was not fickle and capricious. in promoting them to the places and dignities. he acted distinctly.
that my body. as. yea. without the assistance of the Gods and * fortune. she lived with me all her latter years: that as often as I inclined to succour any who were either poor. that I never had to do with † Benedicta and Theodotus. nor dwelt upon the study of the meteors. by not observing the inward motions and suggestions. that by dreams I have received divine aids. nor embarrassed myself in the solution of sophisms.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus meditate with myself and inquire what is truly the life according to nature. how I might stay my spitting of blood. and it was my own fault that I did not sooner.libertyfund. All these things could not have thus concurred. to whom I might commit the education of my children. having been often displeased with Rusticus. when I fell into some foolish passions. for which afterwards I had occasion to repent: that since it was my mother’s fate to die young. yea. I never did any thing to him. I did not fall into the hands of some sophist. when I first applied myself to philosophy. so obedient. These things in the country of the Quadi near Granua. that. and afterwards. so ingenuous. and almost plain and apparent instructions of the Gods. that. and that I myself never had occasion for the like succour from any other.19 PLL v6. that I had choice of fit and able men. nor spent my time in reading many volumes. as for the Gods. that I was soon cured. and such suggestions. and cure my vertigo. as might be expected from them. for other things. in particular. helps and inspirations. that I have such a wife. hath been able to hold out so long. so loving.0 (generated September.org/title/2133 . 2011) 40 http://oll. I was never answered by the managers of my revenues that there was not ready mo-ney enough to do it. or fallen into some distress. which happen’d successfully to me at Cajeta. I might have already attained to that life which is according to nature. in such a life. so. and. so that.
4. so. But I have fully comprehended the nature of good. As one who is shortly to die. 2011) 41 http://oll. kindness of heart. nor without a connexion and intertexture with the things ordered by providence. and disentangle your soul from other solicitudes. from whom you flowed. and the net-work texture of nerves. Let these thoughts suffise. or an unsociable selfish man. What we ascribe to fortune. too. is full of wise providence. with an ungrateful man. It is high time to understand what sort of whole you are a part of. and how often you have neglected to use the opportunities offered you by the Gods. I cannot be angry at my kinsmen. with true unaffected dignity. but of the same ‡ intelligent divine part. since none of them can involve me in any thing dishonourable or deformed. in all affairs. veins. breathed forth and drawn in again. if you don’t employ in making all calm and serene within you. the upper and lower rows of teeth. and you along with it. nor dread what may befall you hereafter. despise this fleshly part. and sincerely grateful to the Gods. 3. Think thus: you are now old. by partaking. that you may die without repining.0 (generated September. as a small stream from a great fountain. and justice. and that I cannot be hurt by any of them. Say thus to thyself every morning: to day I may have to do with some intermeddler in other mens affairs. the universe is preserved. laying aside that thirst after multitudes of books. Quit your books: Be no longer distracted with different views. and bones. by the † changes of the Elements. or a crafty. without its own approbation. let them be your maxims. the hands. These bad qualities have befallen them through their ignorance of what things are truly good or evil. or the governing part. the eye-lids. is either this § poor flesh.org/title/2133 . Whatsoever I am. air. or the animal spirit. suffer not that noble part to be enslaved. Let this be your stedfast purpose to act continually. We were formed by nature for mutual assistance. Consider. You have it in your own power. as the two feet. as* only what is beautiful and honourable. arteries.libertyfund. meek. Now. Whatever the Gods ordain. and their utility to that whole universe of which you are a part. Consider the nature of mere animal spirit or life. Remember how long you have put off these things. which. by the changes of the complex forms. or hate them. 2. that must always be good to a part. You shall thus disentangle PLL v6. this putrifying blood. and of evil. and the nature of those persons too † who mistake their aim. happens not without a presiding nature. that they are my kinsmen. and never more return. The third part is that which go-verns. In every regular structure. not of the same blood or seed. and well satisfied. and who that President in the universe is. that it is always deformed and shameful. Opposition to each other is contrary to nature: All anger and aversion is an opposition. and a man.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK II 1. it will pass away. freedom. or an envious. the necessity of these events. There is a certain time appointed for you. and that always changing. Repine no more at what now befalls you according to fate. or moved about by * unsociable passions. 5. as becomes a Roman. an insolent. and which tends to preserve it. which the nature of the whole requires. as. Thence all things flow.
the Gods require no more of him. if you perform each action as if it were your last: without temerity. to prevent or rectify them. than those which flow from anger. Each man’s life is flying away. 10. or any passionate aversion to what reason approves. Let nothing which befalls thee from without distract thee. and have put it wholly in our power. Go on. by lust. to which they may direct all their desires and all their projects. If a man observe these things. by wearying themselves in life. conquer’d by pleasure. and guard also against this other wandering. o my soul! to affront and dishonour thy self! yet a little while. that the crime committed for pleasure. and they regard human affairs. which men are incited to. than that committed from the impulse of pain. We cannot ascribe such gross misconduct to it.5 as becomes a philosopher. undoubtedly. For the angry man seems to be turned from right reason. But how can that which makes not one a worse man. they would have also put it in the power of man to have avoided them altogether. says justly. by a sort of pain and contraction seizing him unawares. withs-out hypocrisy or selfishness. and effeminate in his vices.libertyfund. † (for in a popular style they may be compared) these are greater. that we should not fall into what is * truly evil. and the time to honour thyself shall be gone. 8. or their affections. be said to make a man’s life worse? And it could neither be from any ignorance. seems more dissolute.0 (generated September. But such as observe not well the motions of their own souls. deserves an higher censure. weak. or desire of pleasure. if they have no regard to human affairs. 9. 7. may live a prosperous and divine life.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus yourself. when it knew them. If there are no Gods. why should I desire to live in a world without Gods. One in the latter case seems like a person who is forced into anger by injuries first received. and as becomes the dignity of a philosopher. before thou hast paid * just honour to thyself. like him who first injures another. and without providence? But Gods there are. and take leisure to thy self. Undertake each action as one aware he may next moment depart out of life. or. But he who sins from lust. that the nature presiding in the whole has overlooked such things. You see how few these maxims are. of which thou art a part. Theophrastus. or freting at what providence appoints. To depart from men. Were there any real evil in other things. that in comparing crimes together. without having a settled scope or mark. 2011) 42 http://oll. 6. and of what sort of whole: and that no man can hinder thee to act and speak what is agreeable to that whole. go on. or want of power. whoever adheres. and thine is almost gone. can have nothing terrible in it. Remember these things always: what the nature of the universe is: what thine own nature: and how related to the universe: What sort of part thou art. at the instigation of some lust of pleasure. The Gods will involve you in no evil. For there are some too who trifle away their activity. but one in the former. having hitherto made thy happiness dependent on the minds and opinions of others. Wander no more to and fro. to which. He says justly. Seldom are any found unhappy for not observing the motions and intentions in the souls of others. must necessarily be unhappy.org/title/2133 . to learn something truly good. if there be really Gods. 11. PLL v6.
and the memory of them in the tide of ages. and that he now lives no other life than what he is parting with. and from repining at any thing done by Gods or men. all these happen promiscuously to the good and bad. as that good and evil should happen confusedly and promiscuously.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus either from want of power. and nothing else? He must be a child. or. How the corporeal forms. when it returns to him again. Our rational power should apprehend. as proceeding from their ignorance of good and evil.† If thou shouldst live three thousand years. says one. Nothing is more miserable. is only a moment. how dead are they! What sort of creatures are they. whether a man beholds the same things for an hundred years. Again that the longest and the shortest lives have an equal loss at Death. It is then worshipped and honoured. as the sayings of Monimus7 make evident. how despicable.libertyfund. first. who dreads what is natural. That all things which have happened in the continued revolutions from eternity. Whatever is done by the Gods. and dives even into things below the earth. since they are our kinsmen. or want of skill. and yet is not sensible of this. is deprived of. or. The longest life. Such are all sensible things. pain and pleasure. The usefulness of his sayings appear. especially those which ensnare us by pleasure. For how can one take from a man what he hath not? We should also remember these things. A man cannot part with what he has not. and by close thought strip it of those horrible masks with which it is dressed. but useful to nature. The present moment is all which either is deprived of. that no man loses any other life than that he now lives. if one attend to his pleasantries. All depends upon opinion. How mean. what is lost or parted with is equal to all. What flows from men. or an infinite duration. are of the same kind with what we behold: And ’tis of little consequence. And for the same reason. riches and poverty. and the shortest. come to one effect: since the present time is equal to all. or terrify us by pain.0 (generated September. They are not less pityably maimed by this defect. 2011) 43 http://oll. what is parted with. that ’tis sufficient for a man to dwell and converse with that * divinity which is within him. both to good and bad men. as far as truth confirms them. how a man is related to God. glory and reproach. how sordid. we should entertain with love. is venerable for its excellence. to apprehend how swiftly all things vanish. ’Tis the office of our rational power. too. would he not see it to be a work of nature. when it is kept pure from every passion. Now.org/title/2133 . 12. with pity. how perishable. sometimes. every instant. 14. whose voices bestow renown? What is it to die? Would one consider it alone. But as they are neither honourable nor shameful. and in what state this part shall be. than he who ranges over all things. and strives by conjectures to discover what is in the souls of others around him. and folly. 15. 13. are swallowed up in the material World. yet remember this. since that is all he has. what is either past or future. it is not only a work of nature. they are therefore neither good nor evil. and by what part. Nay. PLL v6. or as many myriads. than by that which hinders them to distinguish between black and white. No man at death parts with. and pay it the genuine worship. this blindness. or are celebrated with such vanity. death and life.
feignedly. when it does or says any thing hypocritically. What is it then. and fame injudicious. but exerts them inconsiderately. when it does not direct to some proper end all its desires and actions. and a journey in a strange land. And if no harm befalls the elements when each is * changed into the other. and nothing natural can be evil. an abscess or wen in the universe. The duration of human life is a point. Freting at what happens. as conceiving it to be only a dissolution of these elements. superior to pleasure and pain. which can conduct us honourably out of life. when conquered by pleasure or pain. and. to follow the * reason and law of their most antient and venerable city or country. its substance perpetually flowing. it affronts itself.org/title/2133 . without understanding. the senses obscure. what belongs to the animal life. which contains all other parts. the end of rational beings should be this.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 16. Fifthly. from whom itself was derived. life a warfare. why should one suspect any harm in the changes and † dissolution of them all? It is natural. Fourthly. expecting death with calm satisfaction.0 (generated September. when it has aversion to any man. as far as it can. The soul affronts itself. the body. is making itself an abscess from that nature. or insincerely and hypo-critically.libertyfund. Whereas. is a dream. and all things related to it. Again. when it becomes. above all. as wrathful men do. and the compound body tending to putrefaction: The soul is restless. and smoak. To sum up all. This at Carnuntum. And this consists in preserving the divinity within us free from all affronts and injuries. surviving fame is but oblivion. are like a river.8 PLL v6. 17. doing nothing either inconsiderately. fortune uncertain. and accompany us in our future progress? philosophy alone. 2011) 44 http://oll. of which every animal is compounded. Now. independent on what others may do or not do: embracing chearfully whatever befalls or is appointed. and opposes him with intention to hurt him. And thirdly. even the smallest things should be refered to the end. or falsly. as coming from him.
the real vast jaws of savage beasts will please him. and for those theories which make one skilled in things divine and human. therefore. Pompey. The Chaldeans foretold the fatal hours of multitudes. earth. not only because death is every day so much nearer. So when figs are at the ripest. For if one begin to dote in these things. yet because of their connexion with things natural. whether his understanding shall continue equally sufficient for his business. and the remainder grown less. and cut off in battle so many myriads of horse and foot. the stern brow of the lyon. looks well. Vermin destroyed Democritus. the laden’d ear of corn hanging down. each day.3 Alexander. but only to those who have the genuine affection of soul toward nature and its works.5 who wrote so much about the conflagration of the universe. perhaps. the Gods are also there: if into a state of insensibility. of considering distinctly all appearances which strike the imagination. This also should be observed. a part of his life is spent. much more excellent than the body? The soul is intelligence and deity. Is not the soul. some parts of a well baked loaf will crack and become rugged. of performing completely the duties of life. not credible to all. and penetration into the constitution of the whole. which is often enslaved to it. but the true power of governing himself. We should. and invites the appetite.org/title/2133 . continue to breathe. considered apart. scarce any thing connected with nature will fail to recommend itself agreeably to him. at least you shall be no longer disturbed by sensual pleasure or pain. yielded to a disease at last. made your voyage. Heraclitus. PLL v6. but that it is very uncertain.6 [the inventor of the atomical philosophy:] and another sort of vermin destroyed Socrates. have nothing comely. that such things as ensue upon what is well constituted by nature. must be intirely extinguished in him. go ashore. and of judging well this very point. What is thus cleft beyond the design of the baker. Thus. to have vain imaginations. but because the power of considering well and under-standing things. Thus. and many other things. and fate afterwards carried themselves away. The body. and bedaubed with ox-dung. not only that. or be in slavery to this mean cor-poreal vessel.libertyfund. make haste. 2011) 45 http://oll. and delight the spectator. tho’ he should live longer. no less than the imitations of them by painters or statuaries. With like pleasure will his chaste eyes behold the maturity and grace of old age in man or woman. Thus. If into another life and world. Thus in full ripe olives.0 (generated September. their approach to putrefaction gives the proper beauty to the fruit.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK III 1. arrived to your port. they adorn them. often leaves us before death. and exert the low appetites.1 3.7 To what purpose all this? You have gone aboard. Hippocrates2 after conquering many diseases. and the inviting charms of youth. he may. died swollen with water. 2. they begin to crack. at last departed from this life themselves. and putrifying blood. and all other powers which require a well exercised vigorous understanding. Thus. Many such things will he experience. have also something graceful and attractive. to one who has a deep affection of soul. and Caius Caesar. One ought to consider.4 who so often razed whole cities. to receive nourishment. and the foam flowing from the mouth of the wild boar. whether he should depart from life or not.
such or such matters: so that all within might appear simple and good-natured. Remember. and. to sum up all. Join also a chearful countenance. or any other passion that we would blush to own we were now indulging in our minds. For others. or is appointed by providence. has torn itself off PLL v6. as Socrates expresses it. how in the light. Thus. we could freely answer. than to have your mind perfectly satisfied with what actions you are engaged in by right reason. or the observation of others. And let the God within thee find he rules a man of courage. except where it is subservient to some public interest: conjecturing what such a one is doing. Spend not the remainder of your life in conjectures about others. and enjoy the noble discovery. what he is projecting. or without full inquiry. I say. examined all appearances which may excite them. or forgetting the* kind social bond. for they cannot please or applaud themselves. such as becomes a social being. envy. and that it suits human nature to take care of every thing human. A man thus disposed wants nothing to entitle him to the highest dignity. how abroad. and what providence orders independently of your choice: if you find any thing better. a mind which needs not retirement from the world. and not as amended or rectified.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 4. or hurried into it by any passion. but can maintain it without the assistance of others. fortitude. We ought. of a priest and fellow-worker with the Gods.0 (generated September. what another says. Seldom solicitous. 5. one won’t value the praise of such men. the guarding of his own soul. But if nothing appears more excellent than the divinity seated within you. but only from those who live agreeably to nature. what he is thinking. and is advantageous to him. if we were of a sudden examined. makes one wander from his own business. and that not without some generous public view. this attention to the affairs of others. If you can find any thing in human life better than justice. who needs not for a bond of obedience. who rightly employs the divinity within him. who despises pleasure. is a-kin to thee. Seek not to set off your thoughts with studied elegance. or any injuries from others: A victorious champion in the noblest contention. what he is saying. that against the passions: deeply tinctured with justice. an aged man. invincible by pain. 2011) 46 http://oll. and with what a wretched mass they are blended. or intends: Solely intent on his own conduct. a good citizen. inaccessable to reproach. truth. when it hath subjected to its self all its passions. or. whatever is rational. and thinking continually on what is appointed to him by the governor of the universe. and is free from emulation. as. Do nothing with reluctance. and such like. temperance. without reluctance at his dissolution. who regulates his life. whatever is superfluous or vain. how in the dark. which can make the man undefiled by pleasure. does. as waiting for the signal to retreat out of it.org/title/2133 . to exclude from the series of our thoughts. and with what view. Be neither a great talker. to obtain tranquillity. and persuaded that what providence orders is good. a Roman. Making his own conduct beautiful and honourable. turn to it with all your soul. and enure ourselves to think on such things. and much more every thing intermeddling and ill-natured. One should rather ap-pear to have been always straight and right. still remember. each one’s lot is brought upon him by providence. nor undertaker of many things. how they live at home. For. 6. Nor ought we to desire glory from all. therefore. an independence on the services of others. either the tie of an oath. and all sensual enjoyment. embracing with all his heart whatever befalls. suspicion. what are we now musing upon. that.libertyfund.
that it may make a just and impartial inquiry. other things. which may force you to break your faith. immediately become our masters and hurry us away. guarding in the whole of life against this alone.org/title/2133 . the divinity within him. In the well-disciplined and purified mind you will find nothing putrid. suspect. such as the views of popular applause. with PLL v6. what is greatest of all. He who to all things prefers the soul. 2011) 47 http://oll. has subjected it self to the Gods. or unsound. riches.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus from the attachments to sense. and give it. and hold to it resolutely. therefore. complaints. Never value that as advantageous.0 (generated September. and has an affectionate care of mankind: If you find all things mean and despicable in comparison with this. If so to the rational nature. but if only to the animal. nor yet broken off from them. and with honour. gives him no solicitude. Remember also that each man lives only the present moment: The rest of time is either spent and gone. you will not be able. that any thing of a different kind withstand the proper good of the rational and social nature. Were he to depart this moment. power. that no opinion thy soul entertains. by any hatred. or groans. and in a small corner of the earth. and. so as to view what sort of thing it is in its own nature. and in obedience to the Gods. makes no tragical exclamations. And whether the soul shall use this surrounding body. 11. 9. men who neither knew themselves. and the sacred mysteries of its virtues. to hate. nor the persons long since dead. But do you I say. as for any other work. or is quite unknown. that his soul should ever decline. nothing which needs correction or concealment. or to desire any of these things which need walls or curtains to conceal them. accomplished. retain it. Fate can never surprise his life unfinished. and this conveyed through a succession of poor mortals. or sensual enjoyments. to dissemble. each presently a-dying. to quit your modesty. or be averse to any thing which becomes the rational and social nature. without distraction of mind. or subjected to others by any partial bond. Cultivate with all care that power which forms opinions: All depends on this. for a longer or shorter space. if we allow them even for a little to appear suitable to our nature. What is most excellent is most advantageous. and lean towards any thing else. he lives without either desires or fears of death. For it is against the law of justice. Our natural constitution and furniture is intended to secure us from false and rash assent. impure. 10. to engage us in kindness to all men. To the former subjoin this further rule: To make an accurate definition or description of every thing which strikes the imagination. as one says of a tragedian who goes off before he ends his part: You will find nothing servile or ostentatious. He needs neither solitude nor a croud. if you once give way. And preserve the judging power unbyassed by external appearances. and retain these few.libertyfund. or imprecate evil on any one. It is a very little time which each man lives. and simplicity of heart. 7. and in all its parts considered distinctly. All these things. and the longest surviving fame is but short. he is as ready for it. Quit. chuse what is most excellent. give place to nothing else: for. be inconsistent with the nature and constitution of the rational animals. renounce it. 8. with liberty. which can be gracefully. to preserve the preference of esteem and honour to your own proper and true good. or sense of honour.
with atheists. and for doing every thing. at the same time. nor any duty to God. so have you always at hand the grand maxims requisite for understanding things divine and human. the appetites and passions: to the intellectual. completely satisfied in discharging your present offices according to nature. in what sort of regular universe they happen. like puppets. if. contentment. as aware of the connexion between these two. Phalaris. 12. truth. then. then. to purchase. this happens according to that destined contexture and connexion of events.11 If these things. To be moved. neither will you rightly discharge any duty to men. are common to the lowest and most PLL v6. is common to us with the wild beasts. 16. is common to us with the cattle. I must behave toward him with good-will and justice. you regard not the connexion between things human and divine. and. of what to man. ignorant. or the collections you have made out of the writings of others.0 (generated September. I pursue them according to their real estimation or value. into which also it must be resolved. and benignity. or the rest? We should therefore say of each event. or the actions of the ancient Greeks and Romans. you will live happily. The bodily eye sees not these things: another sort of sight must discern them. fortitude. and keep unviolated and pure the divinity within you as if just now about to restore it to the Gods who gave it: If you adhere to this without further desires or aversions. how long it can endure. To have sensible impressions exciting imaginations. To examine what that is which affects the mind. For. to your proper end: cast away vain hopes and speedily succour yourself if you have that care of yourself. of which the other cities and states are but as families. 14. Make haste. If. and in the heroic sincerity of all your professions. the intellectual. Quit your wandering: for you are neither like to read over again your own commentaries and meditations. of what is agreeable to nature: but I am not ignorant of what is so. Now your doing this none can hinder. according to the natural and social law. and what virtue it is fit to exercise.libertyfund. its proper name. and with traitors to their country. 13. you may at present. to be in tranquillity. Nothing is more effectual for giving magnanimity. the* animal soul. of what importance they are to the whole. To the body belong the senses: to the animal soul. therefore.10 and Nero. the maxims of life. without any bye views. resolution. to discern what’s to be done. for what use they are fit.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus thy self. or by conjunction with them in fortune. to sow. simplicity. of what compounded.‡ to steal. such as meekness. even the most minute. my kinsman. fidelity. by appetites and passions. with the most effeminate wretches. Men don’t understand how many things are signified by these words. my friend. The body. As to things* indifferent. this comes from one of my own tribe. and while you consider them. in consequence of right reasoning upon natural principles you discharge your present duty with diligence. which you have been storing up for your old age. As † physicians have always their machines and instruments at hand for sudden occasions. the citizen of that higher city. and to all the parts in its composition. 15. than a methodical true examination of every thing which may happen in life. perhaps.org/title/2133 . 2011) 48 http://oll. to revolve at the same time. this comes from God.
nor quits the road which leads to the true end of life. pure. modesty. and accommodated to his lot without reluctance. he neither takes this amiss from any one.libertyfund. never speaking against truth. 2011) 49 http://oll.0 (generated September. with simplicity. to have the intellectual part governing and directing him in all the occurring offices of life. and to follow with a graceful reverence the dictates of it as of a God. or acting against justice. And.org/title/2133 . undisturbed by a croud of imaginations. at which he ought to arrive pure.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus odious characters. and ever calm and well-pleased. to preserve the divinity placed in his breast. ready to part with life. calm. and tranquillity. PLL v6. tho’ no man believe he thus lived. to love and embrace all which happens to him by order of providence. this must remain as peculiar to the good man.
libertyfund. all you have heard and assented to. and turned to ashes?” Cease. when you renew in your remembrance that disjunctive maxim: “either it is providence which disposes of all things. hatred. and refresh and renew your self. Have these two thoughts ever the readiest in all emergencies: one. then. as a citizen. when you reflect how all things shall be involved in oblivion. and shall be no more. and suffise to wash away all trouble.” Frequently PLL v6. then. Retain your freedom. remember to retire into this little part of yourself: Above all things. and even thence increases its own strength.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK IV 1. but stand without. have been stretched on their funeral piles. when it once recovers itself. under one polity. or mountains: you too used to be fond of such things. that “the things themselves reach not to the soul. whether grateful or harsh. when it masters the things which fall on it. and that. What vice of mankind can you be chagrined with. Let nothing be done at random. that the intellectual or governing part. It goes about what seems preferable.0 (generated September.” and that. it can easily change and adapt itself to whatever occurs as the matter of its exercise. on the sea-coasts. 3. from such passions. All your perturbation comes from inward opinions about them. “all mistakes and errors are involuntary. too. is not concerned in the impressions made on the animal soul. and intense desires.” The other. and quarrels. as a mortal. and the vast immensity of eternal duration on both sides.1 And if any thing contrary be cast in. how empty the noisy echo of applauses. 2011) 50 http://oll. tho’ they would have extinguished a small lamp: the bright fire quickly assimilates to itself and consumes what is thrown into it. and no where will he find a place of more quiet and leisure than in his own soul: especially if he has that furniture within. and of how little worth. It is not fondly set upon any one sort of action. who are to praise us! For the future. Recall. how narrow the bounds within which our praise is confined: the earth itself but as a point in the universe: and how small a corner of it the part inhabited: and. “bearing with them is a branch of justice. or atoms”. When the governing part is in its natural state. I mean the most graceful order. By tranquillity. how fickle and injudicious the applauders. Or will you be touched with what regards your body.” and “how many of those who lived in enmity. Or shall the little affair of character and glory disturb you. consider every thing as a man of courage.org/title/2133 . that “all rational beings were formed for each other”. A man may any hour he pleases retire into himself. and send you back without freting at any of the affairs to which you return. and knows its own power. makes this also the matter of its proper exercise. Have also at hand some short elementary maxims. when you recollect the maxim. as a man. But this is all from ignorance. Will you fret at that distribution which comes from the whole. They seek retirements in the country. with a proper * reservation. As a fire. suspicion. but according to the complete rules of art. how few are they. which may readily occur. that “all these things presently change. about pleasure and pain. still and motionless. when you consider. even there. keep yourself from distraction. Allow yourself continually this retirement. or recollect how many have proved the universe to be a regular state. the view of which immediately gives him the fullest tranquillity. 2.
not even the name of either shall remain. we derive our intellectual power. even from this com-mon city. according to the intellectual and true notion of goodness. or wishes you to entertain: but look into these things as they truly are. and make you quit any of your opinions. 9. or public utility. Our intellectual part hath also come from some common fountain of its own nature. PLL v6. my aerial part from its proper fountain. life is opinion. is common. you should always remember. that nature acts in this manner. If so. and from one who distributes according to merit. If you attend well. to be ready to change your conduct. too. 10. nor hurts him either without or within.org/title/2133 .” and you remove the harm. For. may as reasonably expect figs should be without juice. or such like. 6. nothing can arise from nothing. The universe. Observe this in all your actions. 12. for of what other common city are all men citizens?3 Hence. our law. and not any view of pleasure. and the warm or fiery part from its proper fountain too. 11.0 (generated September. then that commanding power. when any one present can rectify you. ’Tis for some advantage in the whole. the one a commixture of elements. “I am hurt. and. This.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus recollect what changes thou hast observed. The intellectual part is the same to all rationals. our reason. The world is a continual change. whence we are called rational. 8. Go on in observing this.libertyfund. 4. 2011) 51 http://oll. as you have begun: and whatever you do. therefore. the other a resolution into them: In neither is there any thing shameful. If so. or glory to yourself. and therefore that reason also. and you have removed the complaint. or contrary to the intention of its structure. you will find that whatever happens. Death is. Don’t entertain such opinions as the man who affronts you has. a mystery of nature. If so. that in a very short time both you and he must die. one. 5. we have a common city. is common to all. But let this change be always made upon some probable species of justice. like our birth. as my earthly part is derived to me from some common earth. Take away opinion. What makes not a man worse than he was. must be that city. 7. the other. we have all a common law. a little after.” Remove “I am hurt. do it so as you may still remain good. but also according to justice. You should always have these two rules in readiness. we are all fellow-citizens: and if so. happens justly. then. From such men such actions must naturally and necessarily proceed. which shews what should be done or not done. makes not his life worse. my moisture from some common element of that kind. to act only that which the reason of the royal and legislative faculty suggests for the interests of mankind. He who would have it otherwise. or return into it. I don’t mean only in an exact order and destined connexion. or unsuitable to the intellectual nature.
It is neither made better nor worse by being praised. you unseasonably quit what nature hath put in your power. the law. 2011) 52 http://oll. and give place to others in like manner to cohabit with them. would they become bad. If the animal souls remain after death. called so by the vulgar. and works of art. or intend. Why don’t you use it? When it performs its proper office. Whatever is beautiful or honourable. after they have remained some time. truth. 18. so the animal souls removed to the air. and to reverence your intellectual part. a shrub. after remaining a while in the earth. by a change shall be resumed again. who takes no notice what others say. but at-tends to this only. are changed. upon supposition that the souls survive their bodies. you shall disappear again. and so must his successor a little after him. which is handed down through a series of stupid perishing admirers. during so long a time? As in this case the bodies. what is that to the dead? but what is it to the living. must soon die himself. and. to make room for other bodies. whether sooner or later. who now repute you a wild beast or an ape. Are any of these made good by being praised? Or.0 (generated September. but running on the straight line. Many pieces of frankincense are laid on the altar: One falls. what more do you require? 14. into that productive intelligence from whence you came. except * for some further view? In the mean time. if they were censured? Is an emerauld made worse than it was. how hath the aether contained them from eternity? How doth the earth contain so many bodies buried. by grasping at something else dependent on another. And there’s no difference. or. We PLL v6. Within ten days you’ll appear a God to them. This may be answered. Thus. and these immortal. What is truly beautiful and honourable. returning into your source. if it is not praised? Or. and its excellence rests in itself: its being praised is no part of its excellence. Grant your memory were immortal. who retain it. This holds too in lower beauties. is so from itself. a dagger. Don’t form designs. Death hangs over you. needs not any thing further than its own nature to make it so. 20. 17. ivory. without turning aside. The man who is solicitous about a surviving fame. 19. a sense of honour. 16. considers not that each one of those who remember him. 15. a flower. diffused. rather. become good. then another.4 that there be nothing black or ill-natured in his temper? He ought not to be looking around. While you live. made worse on this account? 21.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 13. benevolence. purple. till at last this remembrance be extinguished. are dissipated and changed. rekindled. that his own actions be just and holy. What agreeable leisure does he procure to himself.libertyfund. do. yet what is that to thee? Not to say. Have you reason? I have. according to Agathon. is gold. in material forms.org/title/2133 . while you may. You have arisen as a part in the universe. and resumed into the original productive spirit. if you turn to observe the moral maxims. as if you were to live a thousand years.
superfluous actions. and satisfied with the justice of his own actions. 22. would not ensue. Would we cut off the most part of what we say and do. try also this. the crafty. and spun out to you by the destinies. life is short. diverting us from our purpose. thus. preserve the judging faculty safe. and buried in the bodies of those who feed on them. which. “thou dearly beloved city of God!”6 24. To sum up all. shall be agreeable to me. Either there is an orderly well disposed universe. beside the human bodies which are buried. 2011) 53 http://oll. Hath any thing succeeded with you honourably? Whatever befalls you was ordained for you. by a true estimation of things. or a mixture of parts cast together. Don’t suffer the mind to wander. and yet the same places still afford room.” He might rather have said. which is seasonable to thee. which we and other animals feed on. yet. the savage. And in all imaginations which may arise. can there subsist in thee a regular structure. Don’t perplex yourself. “Mind few things. the bodies of so many beasts.org/title/2133 . 25. the beastly.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus may consider. 23. the buffoonish.libertyfund. of one who is pleased with the lot appointed him by providence. but that also which arises from having few things to mind. we should have much leisure and freedom from trouble. by the changes into blood. the foolish. but even imaginations. is this necessary? But we ought to quit. and. 27. whatever thy seasons bear. The true account of all these things is by * distinguishing between the material. shall be joyful fruits to me. And this will not only secure the tranquillity arising from virtuous action. What a multitude of them is thus consumed. with conspiring harmony?8 28. Make trial how the life of a good man would succeed with you. and the benevolence of his dispositions. PLL v6. “thou dearly beloved city of Cecrops!” And wilt thou not say. without design. to thee they return. “if you would preserve tranquillity. O graceful universe! Nothing shall be to me too early. air and fire. in thee they subsist. Consider the deformity of these characters. and in the way it directs. You have seen the other state. and by justice: and retain sobriety in all relaxations. by the providence of the whole. the black or malicious. O nature! From thee are all things. and what the reason of the creature formed for social life and public good recommends. the effeminate. not only unnecessary actions. make an orderly composition. mind only what is necessary. and the active or efficient principle. Has any man sinned or offended? The hurt is to himself.” said one. You must make the best use of the present time. or too late. as unnecessary.0 (generated September. We should suggest to ourselves on every occasion this question. Whatever is agreeable to thee. 26. the childish. the tyrannical. and yet no regular constitution be in the universe? and that when we see such very different natures blended together. Could one say. the faithless. Keep justice in view in every design. Or.
not adhering to it. our speech entirely sincere. nor contented with it. and other nations. repining at their present circumstances. who withdraws or separates himself from the reason which presides in the whole. who flies from the governing reason in this polity. and our disposition such as may chearfully embrace whatever happens. pursuing consulships and kingdoms: This life of theirs is past. our actions social. after him. and has not from himself all that is necessary for life. He is the seditious citizen. Resign yourself willingly to your destiny. Leonnatus. in each action. the names of such as were once much celebrated. and yet I adhere to reason. Scipio. and not a citizen of the world. fighting. 30. allowing it to involve you in what matters it pleases. And spend the remainder of your life. as well known. and neither acts the tyrant or the slave. 34. He is an abscess of the world.0 (generated September. are unknown and forgotten. and then Augustus. 31. and a third half-naked. But chiefly represent to your mind those whom you yourself knew vainly distracted with such pursuits. as one who with all his heart commits all his concerns to the Gods. who * separates his private soul from that one common soul of which all rational natures are parts.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 29.org/title/2133 . that you are not allowed to be employed longer than is proper. that. and need explication. He is a deserter. Says another. such as. what is this eternal memory? ’Tis wholly vain and empty. and he too. by repining at what befalls: That same nature produces this event which produced thee. and is no more. Volesus. One acts the philosopher without a coat. Cato. and were dissolved into their elements. feasting. bringing up children. Consider other periods of time. But you must also remember. Camillus. 33.libertyfund. About what then should we employ our diligence and solicitude? This alone. dying. who knows not what is in it. I have not even the spiritual food of instruction. courting mistresses. obstinate in their own will. whose intellectual eye is closed. and yet I adhere to it. the times of Vespasian. shall speedily seem old fables. for example. farming. toward any of mankind. and as flowing from such springs and causes. wishing the death of others. I have not bread. after their keen pursuits of such kinds. Come down to Trajan’s days. as being necessary. as soon as they expire. 32. presently fell. sickening.9 you will see all the same things you see now. about matters of less value. He is blind. Says one. Hadrian. and then be buried in oblivion. He is a foreigner. and see how many. who always needs something from others. are now become obscure. and Antonine. Men marrying. Words formerly the most familiar are now grown obscure. and in like manner.10 you’ll see the same things again: That life too is past. and another without any books. And then. 2011) 54 http://oll. Caeso. hoarding up. Delight yourself in the little art you have learned.11 All things hasten to an end. there is a care suited and proportioned to the importance of the affair: And thus you’ll not be disgusted. suspicious. who knows not what ordinarily happens in it. The rest of men. PLL v6. This I say of those who have shone in high admiration. and acquiesce in it. that our souls be just. and quitting that course which suited the structure of their nature. He is the beggar. flattering. undermining their neighbours. Recollect. soon after them. trading.
or suppurated. and what a connexion and contexture there is among all things. All things are transitory. and their cares. Thy evil cannot have its subsistence in the soul of another. treache-ries. Whatever happens. is swept off and disappears. and how it’s will accomplishes all things. 38. and one spirit. let the opinionative power be quiet. The things now existing are a sort of seed to those which shall arise out of them. and customary. is as natural. 39.† Look well into their governing part. 45. but for a day. nor against it. “Thou art a poor spirit. be cut. 44. Time is a river. or burned. You must die presently. and what they pursue. yet necessarily succeeding. as it were.” says Epictetus.libertyfund. nor any good in arising into being from a change. and. or fruit in summer. can neither be * according to nature. or mortify. 2011) 55 http://oll. and is succeeded by another. carrying a dead carcase about with thee. and in producing others like them. Where. each one. but they are in a regular connexion. For what equally befalls one who lives according to nature. 41. which is swept away in its turn. 43. Let this part form no such opinions. which is nearest to thee.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 35. that all things exist in consequence of changes. and yet you have not attained to the * true simplicity and tranquillity. Consider always this universe as one living being or animal. let it judge that. then? In that part of thee. which forms opinions concerning evils. or violent torrent of things coming into being.13 40. nor in any change or alteration of the body which surrounds thee. calumnies. Observe continually. that is. as soon as it has appeared. You may conceive that there are no other seeds than those that are cast into the earth or the womb. and the things. Things subsequent are naturally connected with those which preceeded: They are not as numbers of things independent of each other. Enure yourself to consider that the nature of the universe delights in nothing more than in changing the things now existing. and all is well.0 (generated September.org/title/2133 . 37. can be neither good or evil. There is no evil befalls the things which suffer a change. both those who remember. and how the whole concurs to the production of every thing. And as things now existing are joined together in the PLL v6. Such are diseases.14 42. what things they study to avoid. and one who lives against it. as a rose in the spring. what may equally befall a good man or a bad. but such a mistake shews great ignorance. nor have you that kind affection toward all. and how all things are referred to the sense of this spirit. deaths. nor to that freedom from all suspicion of hurt by external things. 36. Tho’ this poor body. nor do you place your true wisdom solely in a constant practice of justice. and persons remembred. with one material substance. and known. and all which gives fools either joy or sorrow.
hath all his nature requires.org/title/2133 . 49. after they had made many long dissertations upon death and immortality.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus most apposite contexture. rather than this strength of mind a felicity? But. Nay. with great ostentation of their art. have at last yielded to death themselves: And how many astrologers. as the full ripe olive falls of its own accord. nor dreading the future. [Wretched am I. or from meriting those other characters. after they had exercised their power of life and death with horrid pride.17 and others innumerable. neither broken by the present. and but for a day. What yesterday was a trifling embryo. If any God would assure you. upon which the waves are always breaking. 2011) 56 http://oll. to morrow shall be an embalmed carcase. that “the * death of the earth. and all this in a short time. which is not contrary to the will or purpose of his nature. all human affairs are mean. how many tyrants. The like might have befallen any one. cautious of rash assent. that of water its becoming air. in general. in a series. And so back again. after they had slaughtered multitudes. you have known. its becoming fire. 48. nor like children. unless you were exceedingly mean-spirited: for how trifling is the difference? Just so. Doth this event hinder you to be just. which does not frustrate the intention of his nature? Can that frustrate the intention of it. say you. how many whole cities. possessed of a sense of honour and modesty. you would little matter whether it were to morrow or the day after. Consider frequently how many physicians. and then buried by a third. so.0 (generated September. Why should the event be called a misfortune. is its becoming water. to a man. but a wonderful suitableness and affinity to what preceeded. merely because we have been so instructed by our parents. who had often knit their brows on discovering the prognostics of death in their patients. if I may so speak. 46. temperate. those which ensue. says one. (for even in sleep we seem to speak and act). can still remain without sorrow. prudent. and which governs the universe: and are surprised at those things as strange. as its proper PLL v6. or to morrow. or the next day at farthest. magnanimous. Herculanum. and of true liberty. which they meet with every day. or hinder it to attain its end. and how many philosophers. whether you are to die in extreme old age. have not barely a necessary succession. that of air.libertyfund. free from error. nay. with which they have always to do. you must die either to morrow. and thankful to the tree that bore it. who. you should repute it of small consequence. What is this will or purpose? Sure you have learned it. which whoever enjoys. one taking care of the funeral of another. Pompeij. and depart contentedly. happy I. but stills the fury of the waves.”16 Think of † him who forgot whither the road led him: And that men are frequently at variance with that reason or intelligence. tho’ this has befallen me. applauding the earth whence it sprung. are dead: Helice. can you call that a misfortune. how many warriors. or ashes. Then run over those whom. as if they had been immortal. after foretelling the deaths of others. 47. that this has befallen me. Remember always the doctrine of Heraclitus. And. It not only keeps its place. Stand firm like a promontory. Pass this short moment of time according to nature. That we ought not to speak or act like men asleep. but every one could not have remained thus undejected.
Fabius. Look backward on the immense antecedent eternity. Julian. PLL v6.org/title/2133 . and artful management. to consider the fate of those who have been most earnestly tenacious of life. for enabling us to despise death. but the bearing it courageously is a great felicity. This resolution will free you from much toil. and ostentation.19 and such like. and of three ages like Nestor’s?20 51.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus perfection? And then. that this event is not a misfortune. and forward into another immensity. how small is the difference of time! and that spent amidst how many troubles! among what worthless men! and in what a mean carcase! Don’t think it of consequence. Caedicianus. upon every occasion of sorrow. who carried out the corpses of multitudes. Lepidus.libertyfund. and yet a very effectual one. How small is the difference between a life of three days. have been carried out themselves.0 (generated September. Ever speak and act what is most sound and upright. remember the maxim. ’Tis a vulgar meditation. The shortest way is that according to nature. and dissimulation. In sum. Haste on in the shortest way. What have they obtained more than those who died early? They are all lying dead some where or other. and warring. and enjoyed it longest.]18 50. 2011) 57 http://oll.
All these when struck with their several objects. 4. that earth which supplied me for so many years with meat and drink. you have not come up to the measure. or the vain man his applause. must we not take rest? You must: but nature appoints a measure to it. contempt of pleasure. the bees. But there are many other qualities. which you are not to regard. a temper unsolicitous about superfluities. otherwise. This state is the pleasanter. and be not dissuaded from it. PLL v6. my nurse her milk for my nourishment. and for which I was brought into the universe? Have I this constitution and furniture of soul granted me by nature. and not at all for action. When you find yourself. don’t under[xnvalue yourself so much as to think you are unworthy to speak or act thus. who love their respective arts. Judge no speech or action unsuitable to you. beyond what is sufficient: but in action. this comely world. and exercising your powers? Don’t you behold the vegetables. and their own inclinations. each of them adorning. good-nature. falling into that earth whence my father derived his seed. In rest you are going beyond these measures. Other artificers. the spiders. sincerity. on their part. and its proper will or purpose. my mother her blood.0 (generated September. than to improve in what they are fond of.libertyfund. and the common nature of the whole. 2011) 58 http://oll. contentment with a little. as far as their powers can go? And will you decline to act your part as a man for this purpose? Won’t you run to that which suits your nature? But. of which you can’t pretend you are naturally incapable.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK V 1. can even emaciate themselves by their several labours. by any ensuing censure or reproach of others. the ants. and so many ways abusing it. say you. gravity. and deserving less diligence and application? 2. And do social affectionate actions appear to you meaner. Were you then formed for pleasure.org/title/2133 . You cannot readily gain admiration for acuteness: be it so. say you. without due refreshments of bathing or food: but you honour your nature and its purpose much less than the Turner does his art of turning. shunning even superfluous talk. that I may lye among bedcloaths and keep my self warm? But. which is according to nature. These censurers have their own governing parts. patient diligence. till I fall down to rest. But go on straight in the way pointed out by your own nature. breathing out my last breath into that air I daily drew in. have this thought at hand: I arise to the proper business of a man: And shall I be averse to set about that work for which I was born. as it has to eating and drinking. Approve yourself in those which are in your power. They both direct you to the same road. or the dancer does his art. the little sparrows. I walk on in the path which is according to nature. don’t more desire to eat or sleep. averse to rise. in a morning. you would have loved your own nature. How easy is it to thrust away and blot out every disturbing imagination. you are far within the bounds of your power: you don’t then love yourself. But if the speaking or acting thus be honourable. freedom. and forthwith to enjoy perfect tranquillity? 3. an heart never repining at providence. or be diverted by. not suited to nature. and bears me walking on it. 5. the covetous man his wealth.
that its partners and fellows should be sensible it acts thus? What you say is true. for the sake of health.” in the former case. and in the latter too. by the Gods! you might have escaped those vices long ago. Don’t you observe what a number of virtues you might display. yet secretly look upon you as much indebted to them. or the cold bath. when he hath run his course. imports that he enjoined it as conducing to health. who. diligence and exercise. Conceive. We ought to be among those. then. and charge your own faults on it? to fawn on others? to be ostentatious? to be so unsettled in your purposes and projects? No. But if you desire fully to comprehend what I said. for which you have no pretence of natural incapacity? And yet you voluntarily come short of them. when ’tis said. and the Man. but ought we not. when he has followed the track. A third sort seem not to know what they have done. there is one grand harmonious composition of all things.0 (generated September. but in this. 2011) 59 http://oll. 7. in a manner. when it has made its honey. rain. might have helped the defect. Does any natural defect force you to be querulous at providence? to be tenacious and narrow-hearted? to flatter? to complain of the body. and as the regular universe is formed such a complete whole of all the particular bodies. is made a complete cause out of all the particular causes. and know sufficiently the value of what they have done. which produces its bunches of grapes. the accomplishing and completing the purposes of the PLL v6. Aesculapius1 hath prescribed to one a course of riding. to understand that it acts the social part? nay. Yet if you misapprehend what I said above. that. but go on to repeat the like actions. 6.” We should either not pray at all. don’t make a noisy boast of it. and suit each other in a certain position. Now. when they have done you a good office. hath prescribed to one a disease. “fate ordered this event for such a one. but are like the vine. the bee. yet. when he hath done good to others. as the vine in its season produces its new clusters again. if you had not neglected it. One charge. who. so it may be said. of a slow and tardy understanding. or pray with such simplicity. There are some.” Let us understand this even as when we say. 8. who are led aside from the highest perfection. Well. is appointed as conducive to the purposes of fate or providence. by some probable specious reasons. so the universal destiny or fate of the whole. or such like. don’t be afraid that it will ever retard you in any social action.libertyfund. which. As.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and in true grandeur of mind. “rain. a maim. are apt to charge it to your account. he prescribes many harsh disagreeable things. to understand this point? Is it not the property of the social being. by Jove! to desire too. the hound. as the squared stones in walls or pyramids. we embrace willingly. you shall remain in one of the former classes. seem not to understand what they have done.* nor taken a mean pleasure in it. They tell you. are said by the workmen. to fall or join together. you could not well avoid. and seeks no more when it hath yielded its proper fruit. is. The word “prescribed. perhaps. Our very word for* happening to one. and such kind affections of free citizens toward our fellows. “the physician has ordered such things for the patient”: for. whatever befalls any one. Others are not apt thus to charge it to you. or walking bare-footed.org/title/2133 . say you. as a great obligation. to go together appositely. and this was prescribed or appointed for him. The very vulgar understand what I say. This is a prayer of the Athenians. that the nature presiding in the whole. kind Jupiter! upon the tilled grounds and pastures of the Athenians. a loss of a child. The horse.
first. or a robber! Review again the manners of your contemporaries. or self-command. or murmur.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus universal nature. to the prosperity and felicity of Jupiter in his administration. The natures of things are so covered up from us. But you are often wanting something different. but are often angry with themselves. 11. as to a severe tutor. despond. To what purposes am I now using my animal powers? This should be matter of frequent self-examination: As also. nay. that it was formed. to many philosophers. had it not conduced to good. Where is the infallible man. and destined originally by the most venerable causes. and rest yourself in this. and complete administration of that mind. the other. simplicity of heart. If you are beat off from them. that it is always in our power. We see not any particular nature aiming at or admitting what does not suit the little private system. one is. and these no mean ones. by Jupiter! to the stability and permanence of the whole. if you have not always opportunities as you desire. and destroy it. to be in the universe. and thus embrace whatever happens. 9. What can be easier and sweeter than these things. 2011) 60 http://oll. You should require no more than being conscious that you have obeyed reason. which governs the whole. He never had permitted this event. who never changes his opinion? Consider the objects of our knowledge. as one who has tender eyes.org/title/2133 . Now. or of a whore. and of the things moved. of acting according to the right maxims. and how mean! how often are they in the possession of the most effeminately flagitious. which are agreeable to nature? Sensual enjoyments by their pleasure insnare us.0 (generated September. and rejoice in these good offices to which you return. Amidst such darkness and filth. Should you not on these two accounts embrace and delight in what ever befalls you. how transitory are they. as another flies to plaisters. and adapted for you. either of parts or causes. that it is subservient to the prosperity. and content yourself that your actions are generally such as become a man. the hopes of our natural dissolution should be our consolation. all things seem uncertain and incomprehensible. what your health is to you. that nothing can befall us but what is according to the nature of the whole: and then. not to mention that few can well comport with their own manners. never to counteract the Deity or Genius within us: to this no force can compell us. a third to fomentation. when you repine at any thing which happens. of time. and this perpetual flux of substance. But consider. as far as you can. Don’t return to philosophy with reluctance. On the contrary. in which it presides. altho’ it should appear harsh and disagreeable: because it tends to the health of the universe. and make us bear with patience the time of our sojourning among them: refreshing ourselves with these thoughts. liberty. you break this off. when you are conscious of success and security from error in what belongs to the intellectual and scientific powers? 10. that. The Stoics themselves own it to be very difficult to comprehend any thing certainly. but as to your medicine. can there be any thing sweeter than magnanimity. purity? What is sweeter than wisdom. Don’t fret. return to them again. what are the views and purposes of that governing PLL v6. For. of motions. Remember that philosophy requires no other things than what your nature requires. the whole would be maimed and imperfect. they are scarce tolerable to the most courteous and meek disposition. meekness. flies to the* sponge and the egg. I see nothing worthy of our esteem or solicitude. and prescribed. All our Judgments are fallible.libertyfund. if you broke off any part of this continued connexion.
Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
part, as we call it? What sort of soul have I? of what character? Is it that of a trifling child? of a passionate youth? of a timorous woman? of a tyrant? of a tame beast, or a savage one? 12. Of what value the things are, which many repute as good, you may judge from this; If one previously conceives the true goods, prudence, temperance, justice, fortitude, he cannot bear any thing attributed to them which does not naturally agree to the true kinds of good. But one thinking of what the vulgar repute as good, can patiently hear, and will with pleasure entertain as proper to the subject, that known raillery of the comic poet.3 And thus even the vulgar conceive the preeminence of the former; otherwise, they would not be offended with the application of that jest to them, and reject it as unworthy of the subject. But we all relish that jest, when ’tis applied to riches, and all the possessions subservient to luxury, as being suitable to the subject, and humourously expressed. Go on, then, and ask yourself, are these things to be honoured and reputed as good, which, when we consider, we can yet deem it proper raillery to apply to the possessor, the jest, “that he has such abundance of finery around him on all sides, he can find no place where he can ease himself.” 13. I consist of an active and a material principle. Neither of these shall return to nothing; as they were not made out of nothing. Shall not, then, every part of me be disposed, upon its dissolution, into the correspondent part of the universe; and that, again, be changed into some other part of the uni-verse; and thus to eternity? By such changes I came into being, and my parents too, and their progenitors, from another eternity. We may assert this,* tho’ the world be governed by certain grand determined periods of dissolution and renovation.4 14. Reason, and the art of the rational agent, are powers which are satisfied with themselves and their own proper action, (without the aid of what is external or foreign to them). They act from their internal principle, and go straight forward to the end set before them. The actions are called right, or straight, from their straight road to their end.† 15. None of these things should be deemed belonging to a man as his perfection, which don’t belong to him as he is a man; which can’t be demanded of him as a man; which the structure of his nature does not undertake for; and which do not perfect his nature. The supreme end or happiness of man, cannot, therefore, consist in such things, nor be completed by them. Did any such things belong to man as his perfection, it would never be a suitable perfection in him to despise and oppose them; nor would he be commendable for making himself independent of them, and not needing them. Were they truly good, it would never be the part of a good man to quit or abate his share of them. But the more one remits of his share of certain things reputed good, the more patiently he bears being deprived of them by others, the better we must esteem the man to be. 16. Such as the imaginations are which you frequently dwell upon, such will be the disposition of your soul. The soul receives a tincture from the imagination. Tincture thy soul deeply by such thoughts as these continually present that, wherever one may live, he may live well: one may live in a court, and, therefore, one may live well in it.
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Again, whatever one’s natural structure and powers are fitted for, ’tis for this purpose he is designed; and by a natural impulse is carried to it; and his supreme end is placed in that to which he is thus carried. In this end consists his advantage, and his good. The good of a rational creature is in society; for, we have long ago demonstrated, that we were formed for society. Nay, was it not manifest, that the inferior kinds were formed for the superior, and the superior for each other? Now, the inanimate are inferior to the animated; and the merely animated are inferior to the rational.5 17. ’Tis the part of a mad-man to pursue impossibilities. Now, ’tis* im-possible the vicious should act another part than that we see them act. 18. Nothing can befall any man, which he is not capable by nature to bear. The like events have befallen others; and they, either through ignorance that the event hath happened, or through ostentation of magnanimity, stand firm and unhurt by them. Strange! then, that ignorance or ostentation should have more power than wisdom! 19. The things themselves* cannot in the least touch the soul; nor have any access to it; nor can they turn or move it. The soul alone can turn or move itself; and such judgments or opinions, as she condescends to entertain, such she will make all occurrences become to her self.6 20. In one respect, men are the most dearly attached to us, as we are ever obliged to do good to them: but in another respect, as they sometimes obstruct us in our proper offices, they are to be reputed among things indifferent, no less than the sun, the wind, or a savage beast; for, any of these may obstruct us in the discharge of our proper external offices; but, none of them can obstruct our purpose, or our dispositions, because of that† reservation and power of turning our course. For the soul can convert and change every impediment of its first intended action, into a more excellent object of action; and thus ’tis for its advantage to be obstructed in action; and it advances in its road, by being stopped in it. 21. Reverence that which is most excellent in the universe; which employs all parts of it as it pleases, and governs all. In like manner, reverence that which is most excellent in yourself. Now, this is of a like nature with the former, as it is what employs and directs all other powers in your nature; and your whole life is governed by it. 22. What is not hurtful to the‡ state or city, cannot hurt the citizen. Make use of this rule upon every conception of any thing as hurting you. If the city is not hurt by it, I cannot be hurt. If the city should receive hurt by it, yet we should not be angry at him who hurt it, but* shew him what he has neglected, or how he has done wrong.7 23. Consider frequently, how swiftly all things which exist, or arise, are swept away, and carried off. Their substance is as a river in a perpetual course. Their actions are in perpetual changes, and the causes subject to ten thousand alterations. Scarce any thing is stable. And the vast eternities, past and ensuing, are close upon it on both hands; in which all things are swallowed up. Must he not, then, be a fool, who is either puffed up with success in such things; or is distracted, and full of complaints about the contrary; as if it could give disturbance of any duration?
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24. Remember how small a part you are of the universal nature; how small a moment of the whole duration is appointed for you; and how † small a part you are of the object of universal fate, or providence. 25. Does any one injure me? Let him look to it. He hath his own disposition, and his own work. I have that disposition, which the common president nature wills me to have, and act that part, which my own nature recommends to me. 26. Keep the governing part of the soul‡ unmoved by the grateful or painfull commotions of the flesh; and let it not blend itself with the body; but circumscribe and seperate itself; and confine these passions to those bodily parts. When they ascend into the soul, by means of that sympathy constituted by its union with the body, there is no withstanding of the sensation which is natural. But let not the governing part add also its opinion concerning them, as if they were good or evil. 27. We should live a divine life with the Gods. He lives with the Gods, who displays before them his soul, pleased with all they appoint for him, and doing whatever is recommended by that divinity within, which Jupiter hath* taken from himself, and given each one as the conductor, and leader of his life. And this is the intellectual principle and reason in each man. 28. Can you be angry at one, whose arm-pits or whose breath are disagreeable? How can the man help it, who has such a mouth or such armpits? They must have a smell. But, says one, man has reason: he could by attention, discern what is injurious in his actions; [these may justly raise anger.] Well, God bless you, you have this reason too. Rouse then his rational dispositions, by your rational dispositions; instruct, suggest to him, what is right. If he listens to you, you have cured him, and then there is no occasion for anger. Let us have no tragical exclamations against the vices and injuries of others; nor a base concurrence with them, like that of harlots. 29. You may live at present in the same way you would chuse to be living, when you knew your death was approaching. If you are hindered to do so, then you may quit life; and yet without conceiving the quiting it as evil. If my house be smoaky, I go out of it; and where is the great matter? While no such thing forces me out, I stay as free; and who can hinder me to act as I please? But my pleasure is, to act as the rational and social nature requires. 30. The soul of the universe is kind and social. It has, therefore, made the inferior orders for the sake of the superior; and has suited the superior beings for each other. You see how it hath subordinated, and co-ordinated, and distributed to each according to its merit, and engaged the nobler beings into a mutual agreement and unanimity. 31. [Examine yourself thus:] how have you behaved toward the Gods, toward your parents, your brothers, your wife, your children, your teachers, those who educated you, your friends, your intimates, your domestics? Have you never said or done any thing unbecoming, toward any of them?11 Recollect through how many affairs of life you have past, and what offices you have been able to sustain and discharge. The history of your life, and of your* publick service to the Gods, is not completed. What
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then. Assist him to the utmost of your power. The things most honoured in life are but vain. 34. There is no evil in such things. Why. and a name. You may so manage. without extending further. mean. tho’ he knew well it was a childish toy.” Nay. “tho’ I have not forgot it. have you forgot the nature of these things you are so keen about.13 and considering external things subservient to thy poor body and life. Don’t let your imagination hurry you away incautiously in any seeming distress of your friend. not even a name. should one say to you. 33. 2011) 64 http://oll. justice.org/title/2133 . He has the PLL v6. and truth. you must act in life about the toys which others value. When you are vehemently declaiming from the rostrum. Why should the instructed. man. rotten. because others are fools.0 (generated September. But. bearing with their weakness. Presently you shall be only ashes and dry bones.” What. without any stability: The senses themselves but dull.14 the old foster-father asks from the child. A name is but a certain noise or sound. laughing. abstaining from injuries. or translation into another state? And. “What. and skilful soul be disturbed by the rude and illiterate? What soul is truly skilful and intelligent?‡ That which knows the cause and the end of all things. nor in thy power. then.** “From the wide range of earth have soar’d to heaven. as far as he deserves in these‡ indifferent sorts of things. or. and apt to admit false appearances: The animal life. you do well to act thus. that they can* be hindered by nothing external. don’t imagine that he has sustained any evil.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus beautiful and honourable things are seen in your life? What pleasures and what pains have you despised? What occasions of vain ostentation have you designedly omitted? Toward how many perverse unreasonable creatures. as a token of his love. to men. therefore. who can hurt the whole? 36. in right opinions and actions. that. in whatever place or time one comes upon you. with great earnestness. 35. one. why am I disturbed by it. his top. the other. the intelligent. You may always be prosperous. nor any action from any vitious disposition of mine. if you go on in the right way. is a poor empty thing. and every rational soul. yet I know these are matters of serious concern to others”. little dogs snapping at each other. or echo. as in the§ comedy. and to do good to men. and presently weeping again. but an exhalation from blood: To have reputation among such animals. and governs the whole universe by§ certain determined periods. and that reason which pervades all substances in all ages. Nay. perhaps. but. should detain thee here? Since all things sensible are in perpetual change. that they have their† proper good or happiness in their just disposi-tions. children squabling and vying with each other. But take care you don’t in your own sentiments become a fool. nor be hurtful to the whole. you may be found a man of an happy lot. say you. But integrity. have you † exercised discretion and lenity? 32. what should suffise thee? To reverence and praise the Gods. just so. If this event be neither any vice of mine. and. modesty. as what are not thine. till the proper season for it comes. These two advantages are common to Gods. and actions. and can make their desires terminate and cease here. should you not wait patiently for either your extinction.libertyfund.
2011) 65 http://oll. good desires and purposes.org/title/2133 .Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus happy lot. The happy lots are good dispositions of soul.libertyfund. PLL v6. who distributes one to himself.0 (generated September. and good actions.
by surrounding objects. of doing evil to any. dying is one piece of the natural business of every living creature. than what is absolutely unavoidable. Provided you act the part that becomes you. or contained as distinct within it. 5. 3. and trust in him. and rest in it. whether by dying. The best sort of revenge. of any thing. Either the universe is a confused mass and intertexture. If the former. Look narrowly into things. knows its own dispositions and actions. and the nature of that matter it is acting upon. 2011) 66 http://oll. The governing mind in the universe. or be solicitous about any thing. PLL v6. 4. and forms itself. All things are accomplished by the nature presiding in the whole. whether in good report. further than “* how to become earth again”? Or. It has no malice. whether you do it shivering with cold. and makes every event appear such to itself. 7. 6. You shall acquire greater power of retaining this harmony. I stand firm. The governing part is that which rouses. or bad report. either surrounding it without. let it be of no account with you.0 (generated September. why should I wish to stay longer in this confused mix-ture. The matter of the universe is obedient. But. nor can it do any thing maliciously. Delight thy self in this one thing. 11. by having frequent recourse to it. do what I please. or dignity. why should I be disturbed about any thing? The dispersion will overtake me. then. 2. or by any other action. For. as it inclines.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK VI 1. whether drousy through long watching. such as it chuses to be. and easily changed: the intelligence. nor is any one hurt by it. soon to be dispersed. escape your observation. then I adore the governour of the whole. with remembrance of God.1 8. either* by exhaling and rarifying. to be going from one kind social action to another. All things now existing shall speedily be changed. Let not the proper quality. or be dissolved and dispersed into the several elements. or one orderly whole. or externally annexed to it. or agreeably warm. as it were into some confusion or disturbance. has no cause in itself. if the latter be the case. if all be one substance. 10.libertyfund. nor can they be influenced by any other. under a providence. which governs it. ’Tis sufficient. return into yourself as speedily as you can. as it executes all things. or refreshed with sleep.org/title/2133 . When you find yourself forced. 9. is. It is the cause of all that happens. not to become like the injurious. and depart no more from the true harmony of the soul. if it be well performed. and turns.
are already extinct. 16. either in perspiring.libertyfund. In this vast river. in this universal city. and. Thus. and view their meanness. a rank higher. when you were born. this is the wool of a sheep. 2011) 67 http://oll. Such is the life of each man. olive-trees. above all things. There is little valuable. or the day before. and social. which you received. or in mere PLL v6. how powerful are they to display to us their despicable value? Thus2 we should employ the mind. a hog: about wine. External pomp and high language. what is there. a fowl. 15. such as are preserved by mere cohesion. since it can never be stopped or retained? As if one should grow fond of one of the sparrows. and most impose upon us. and wild beasts do.4 by our several passions and appetites. as cattle.‡ or a breathing in of air: and such as it is to draw in that air. about the nicest delicacies of sense: about food. by which they seem so glorious. Some things hasten into being: Some hasten to be no more: Some parts of things in being. such also is this whole power of breathing. a step-mother. such as flocks and herds. in these social dispositions and affections. and co-operate with those souls which are akin to it. or in having sensible impressions made upon the imagination. this is the dead car-case of a fish. or in being moved like puppets. he will study to preserve his own rational soul. or. yet your constant resort and refuge. among the things swept away with it. You may revolve such thoughts as these. and a convulsive sort of excretion of a mucus. seem worthy of high estimation: we should strip them naked. not as it is akin to the universal spirit. when we are employed in matters commonly reputed of great dignity. Men. turns upon what is accomplished by a rational soul. These fluxes and changes renew the world. which. like vegetables. with a more elegant taste. and a mother. would be the latter: Such to you is the court and philosophy. Remember* what Crates said. First. or public-spirited. as it flies by us. and cast aside these pompous descriptions of them. and explaining the nature of these subjects. at first. and merely on this account.org/title/2133 . regular. but inanimate structure. may be reduced to some general classes. touching so nearly. and make you tolerable to those about it. but as artificial. These conceptions. tho’ you respected the former. in all parts of life: when things occur. fig-trees. when it shall be immediately out of sight. in the same purpose. an exhalation from blood. and acute.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 12. he will despise these other objects of admiration. The objects of vulgar admiration. But he who honours and admires the rational soul. which you are presently to breath out again every minute. as it were. Return often to your true mother. as universal. at once. numbers of † slaves are valued. this is the juice of a little grape: about your purple robes. such as stones. are great sophisters. and refresh yourself: She will make the affairs of the court tolerable to you. or organisation. ever present to us new parts of the infinite eternity. timber. vines. they are the attrition of a base part of our body. 14.0 (generated September. as the constant flux of particular periods of time. yesterday. and must presently restore again to the source whence you derived it. 13. admire things preserved by an animal soul. philosophy. or breathing. that one can value. The admiration of a third and higher class of men. Had you. and otherwise ingenious. about the solemn gravity of Xenocrates. steeped in the blood of a little shell-fish: about venereal enjoyments.
and the breeder of the hound. in all desires or pursuits. this is what all design and art is tending to.0 (generated September. This. and a part of his proper work.libertyfund. Won’t you. But. 17. nor do we suspect him for the future. The praises of the vulgar are nothing but the noise of tongues. therefore. you’ll never attain to freedom. be upon our guard. ’Tis truth I am searching for. Let us thus behave in all parts of life. but without suspicion or enmity. we express no resentment. and even accusing the Gods. What strange conduct is this! Some men cannot speak a good word of their contemporaries. The motions of virtue are like none of these. The elements are tossed upwards. as a person secretly designing our destruction: and yet we are on our guard against him. praising whatsoever they distribute or appoint to men. this is all its aim. is placed all that is valuable. laying snares for those who possesss them. 21. they could not value being praised by them. with whom they live. and pining with vexation. you need not be solicitous to acquire any thing further. and‡ ever prosperous. and all around. This seems as foolish. going on in a way not easily discerned. cease to value other things? If you don’t. or in being nourished. [and. selfcontentment. * to move. If you succeed well in this. quit the pursuit of this trifling sort of glory. or a person suspected. one has torn us with his nails. 19. If any thing seems exceedingly difficult for you to accomplish. or bruised us accidentally with his head. are in quest of. independency. the planter. whom they never saw. according to the proper fabric or structure of your nature: For. If you have. PLL v6. Let us. I will joyfully alter them. If. and the vine-dresser. or shew me. conclude that you also may attain to it. as I said. 18. then. If any one can convince me. nor shall see. has been wrong. or tranquillity: for. At what does all education and instruction aim? In this. if you see any thing possible to man. then. one would thence imagine. will make you agreeable to yourself. harmonious with your fellows. that my sentiments.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus herding together. What. Nor is the applause of tongues more valuable. 20. downwards. 2011) 68 http://oll. as to be concerned that we cannot obtain the praises of the ages which preceeded our existence. and in a perfect concord with the Gods. you must be enviously and suspiciously vying with those who can deprive you of such things as you highly value. but with a good-natured caution. or stop yourself. not as an enemy.org/title/2133 . don’t conclude it to be impossible to all men: but rather. then. and conceive many things thus done. is valuable? To be received with claps of applause? Not at all. should be adapted to the work it is designed for. in the exercises. I imagine. the† reverencing and honouring your own intellectual part. that the thing formed by art.] and yet are very solicitous. the horse-rider. we are not offended. as in the exercises. There is nothing in this superior to the discharging again what is superfluous of the food we have taken in. which never hurts any man. But men are often hurt. for our own safety. or conduct. but are of a more divine sort. what remains as valuable? This one thing. by remaining in error and ignorance. about gaining the praises of posterity. when you want them.
Life is short. goodness. 28. piety. or† dispersed into the atoms. when they died. Well: instruct them. and in our souls too. at once exist in this one universal system. 23. support the interests of mankind. Endeavour earnestly to continue such as philosophy requires you to be. ’Tis very dishonourable in life. love of justice. or irrational. Is it not cruel. would you not distinctly pronounce to him each one of the letters? Should he turn into any angry dispute about it. for what space of time you shall continue thus employed. we call the world. 25. and all other irrational objects. when you are angry at the mistakes. and in kind actions. and sustain its part. in each one of our bodies. and of the servitude to the flesh. all are carried toward what appears to them their proper good. [As well as the three ages of Nestor. good nature. go straight on in executing what is our present business? 27. and repute it of no consequence. gravity. as one possessed of reason. how many different things are done. Take care you don’t degenerate into the manners of the Cesars. and don’t be angry with them. 30. I endeavour. But. Alexander of Macedon. and wrong actions of men: for. kind affection. or wandering from the right way. and. Death is the cessation of the sensual impressions. it is not their proper good. to restrain men from desiring. to do my duty. and you will the less wonder.libertyfund.0 (generated September.8 Imitate his constant PLL v6. or elements: [according to the many different relations and obligations of each person:] ought we not to observe all these calmly.org/title/2133 . were in a like condition. then. and to act the kind and social part. who enjoy reason as I do. Act as it becomes the scholar of Antoninus Pius. to use the brute animals. in our present business. implore the assistance of the Gods. is in the purity and holiness of our dispositions.]5 24. Reverence the Gods. Three hours of such a life is sufficient. our duty consists of a great many numbers. The sole enjoyment of this terrestrial life. I endeavour. that all things which now happen. They were either* resumed into the original productive causes of all things. that far more. what appears to them as their proper good or advantage? And yet you seem chargeable in a certain manner with this conduct. would you also turn angry. of the impulses of the appetites and passions. and his muleteer. in the very same moment. and what becomes me. toward my fellow-men. and not rather mildly count over the several letters to him? Thus. Other things don’t give me solicitude: They are either inanimate. freedom from ostentation.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 22. 26. and ignorant of it. In all things. with magnanimity and freedom. Consider. integrity. or be tinctured by them. Preserve your simplicity of manners. 2011) 69 http://oll. that the soul should fail and desert its duty. stedfast firmness in your duty. nay. and teach them better. say you. 29. without anger at those who are angry with us. or pursuing. while the body can hold out. of the toilsome reasonings. Should one desire you to spell the name Antoninus.
and how he bore those who accused him unjustly. are the consequences PLL v6. his serenity of countenance. as mire. all things are indifferent. or the foot. changeable. while he is doing what suits the nature of a man. No more is labour contrary to the nature of man. his sanctity. till he had thoroughly examined it.libertyfund. that these were but dreams which disturbed you. as you see. and the foot what is proper to the foot.0 (generated September. tho’ they may comply to a certain length with the unskilful. 34. through his great abstemiousness. To the body all things are indifferent. than the man [as he is rational] shews to the rules of human life. without easing himself. and whatever is pernicious. 32. which are not its own operations. his contempt of vain glory. when you are awake in the business of life. by tyrants? [Can the happiness of man consist in them?] 35. how patient he was of labour.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus resolute tenor of rational actions. it cannot distinguish them. how stedfast and evenly he was in his conduct to his friends. should shew a greater reverence to the rules of their peculiar arts. Asia. 33. Its past and future operations are to it now indifferent. how religious he was. by parricides. how accurately he inquired into the manners and actions of men. his equability on all occasions. how common artificers. how hard to be provoked. or sophistry. attendants. are but little corners of the universe: The whole ocean is but a drop of it: Athos9 but a little clod. it cannot be evil to him. suspicion. and his close attention in examining every thing. table. All the time of this present age is but a point of eternity. and all its own operations are in its power. when you are fully roused. as to his habitation. either by direct and primary intention. Remember how he never quitted any subject. and can’t endure to depart from them? Is it not grievous. and call yourself up. as he is man. and patient of their opposition to his sentiments. yet still adhere to the rules of their art. how he discouraged all accusations. furniture. Don’t you see. I consist of a mean body. and presently to vanish. poisons. consider the things which may disturb you. how free from fear. What great sensual enjoyments may be obtained by robbers. and of these. to the intellectual part. or the physician. and a soul. well aware of it. and understood it. rules which are common to him with the Gods? 36. as it came on him. and how joyfully he received any better informations from them. and if it be not contrary to his nature. and. Thus. without making any angry returns. and prepared to meet it. without superstitious dread: that thus the hour of death may come upon you. All things proceed from the universal governing mind. 31. 2011) 70 http://oll. that the architect. how he was ever calm without hurry. how he was contented with a little. as thorns. by the most infamously dissolute. and. Europe. he could persist in business till the evening. for. how cautious he was of reproaching any. dress.org/title/2133 . so. while the hand is doing the proper work of an hand. it is only affected by what are present. or by necessary consequence and connexion with things primarily intended. Awake. All things are but little. Labour is not contrary to the nature of the hand. the horrid jaws of the lion. as of a like nature with those which disturbed you in sleep. his sweetness of temper.
which.* you must necessarily accuse the Gods. all things are as you should wish. One contributes to this one way. if you fall into such imagined evils. I fancy.”10 accomplishing. a silly ridiculous sentiment expressed by a fool in a comedy makes. but all jointly contributing to the same end? PLL v6. or. 40. and to obstruct what happens. and hate those men. as. as it were. or are disappointed of such goods. or Aesculapius that of Ceres?12 The several stars. Don’t. that “men asleep are also then labouring. and conduct yourself according to the intention of this artificial power which formed you. according to its inclination. in the artful works of nature. in what class you would wish to rank yourself. But. then. but yet is an agreeable part in the play. another way. who. and are. 41. with whom it is your lot to live. who attempt to oppose the course of nature. The presiding mind will certainly make a right use of you. All things are. We are all co-operating to one great work. or suspect will be causes of such misfortunes. if you are disposed. there remains no further cause of accusing the Gods. any of these things which are not in your power. what’s beyond expectation. either by connexion of place. 2011) 71 http://oll. on their part. that. mutually friendly. and undesignedly. the events of the universe. is then right. Think. others. when it is fit for its work. and similar. therefore. one way or other. you deem. Thus. in a natural series. were the causes. therefore. therefore. if we judge only the things in our power. a tool. contribute also to this purpose: for. even tho’ the artificer who formed it be gone. but consider well the fountain of all things. Consider frequently the connexion of all things in the universe. an utensil. Does the sun affect to perform the work of the rain. to reverence them the more. ignorantly. Whenever you imagine. the artificial power which formed them. Thus. An instrument. and the relation they bear to each other. “of its self is very silly and vitious. Heraclitus says. all things are to the whole. Adapt thy self to those things which are destined for you by providence. to be good or evil. 39. [The intention of the universal mind in the world. You ought.”11 43. Don’t chuse to be such a part. But. or by continuity of substance. 42. entangled with each other. This is a natural consequence.org/title/2133 . are good or evil to you.libertyfund. imagine them foreign to that constitution of nature which you reverence. or of any hostile disposition against men. and to judge. Chrysippus says. and will inlist you among his labourers and fellow-workers.0 (generated September. with the other. with knowledge and understanding.] some.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus of those venerable and lovely things you admire. all are of the like nature. even the querulous and the murmurers. 37. for. 38. He who sees things present. has seen all things which either have been from eternity. and love those men. Nay. or mutual conspiring to the same end. or shall be to eternity. have they not different courses.† the world must needs have within it such persons also. too. Our solicitude about such things leads to a great deal of injustice. remains and resides within them. and another. and that with a sincere affection.
they certainly have about the common interest of the universe. is. we might quit sacrifising. 45. Add to these. have gone before. they take no counsel about any thing. This is enough. Now. certainly. therefore. have died. here. of all nations. the high sense of honour and modesty in another. of all kinds of studies or pursuits. which is agreeable to the structure of his nature. But. Whatever happens to any one.libertyfund. you will see this also holds universally. Phoebus. if you attend. at last cloy us. yet.16 and his brethren. have them ready to reflect upon. but. My deliberation must be about my true interest. And. which it would be impious to believe. to relate to things indifferent. and other virtues. Archimedes. I may deliberate about myself. My city and country. we must all remove to that place.15 and other acute. for. and* humanity. ’tis the universe. and all acts of devotion. as I am a man. and the things to befall me. that. that is the true interest of every one. in others. and so many heroes. or even to such obscure men. such as. When you would chear your heart. 47. always presented. 2011) 72 http://oll. Let the word profitable be * taken. or to the universe. consider the several excellencies and abilities of your acquaintances. the liberality of a third. and arrogant genii. and swearing by them.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 44. the same happens in the whole of life: for.14 Go to other tribes. A God without counsel and providence is inconceivable. that which happens in consequence of what is well ordered for the universe. as I am Antoninus. yea. whither so many great orators. is profitable to the whole. Socrates. Nothing rejoyces the heart so much as the appearances or resemblances of the virtues. sublime. 48. is profitable also to others. and chearfully embrace. are just the same. grant they took no thought about our affairs. fitted for civil society. If the Gods have taken counsel about me. Hipparchus. and concern in the affairs of human life: but. that all men. such as Menippus.org/title/2133 . what is there calamitous in this to them. to love. can be good to me. justice. whose names don’t remain? The one thing valuable in this life. which is profitable to those cities. and. is Rome. that the same and like things. then. 46. That alone. such as have wittily derided this fading mortal life. Let us. the activity of one. and so many generals and princes have followed. Consider that all these are long since in their graves. either to themselves. therefore. prayers. frequently occurring to our view. which is but for a day. in the manners of those we converse with. PLL v6. of all sorts. Return back to Philistio. which we now perform. the result of their counsel is certainly good. My natural constitution is that of a rational being. Eudoxus. As it happens in the theatre and such places of the shows. earlier or later. from a persuasion of their presence. so many venerable philosophers. what happens to any one man. If. all things.0 (generated September. what could move them to do me any mischief? What advantage could thence accrue. Heraclitus. therefore. laborious. in a more popular sense. then. toward even the false and unjust. Consider frequently. about which they are chiefly concerned? If they have not taken counsel about me in particular. to spend it in a steddy course of truth. and from the same causes. and Origanio. indeed. can we desire to stay gazing on them. How long. Pythagoras. I ought. artful.
Let us study to convince others of what is just. so. Enure yourself to attend exactly to what is said by others. 2011) 73 http://oll. and water is formidable to those who are bitten with a mad-dog. with the space of time appointed for you. 54. The vain-glorious man places his good in the action of another. In this you succeed. 59. then rouse your resignation to providence. 52. Be content. honey seems bitter. contrary to the plan of the universe. as with the quantity of matter. To men in the jaundice. and remember. whether they will or not. and by what actions they expect to please them.libertyfund. and improve this obstruction for the exercise of some other virtue. what sort of men they are. Are you grieved that you are only of such or such a small weight. and thus to keep your soul undisturbed.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 49. then. altho’ you don’t obtain what you first aimed at. and with what views. are gone off before me? 57. If the sailors revile the pilot. and to enter into the soul of the speaker. and not three hundred weight? No more reason have you to be grieved that you live to such an age. and obey? And. To boys the ball seems beautiful and honourable. that you were never to aim at impossibilities. 55. is not the interest of the bee. You have it in your power. Examine well. let us ourselves act what is just. And nothing can befall you. and the patients the physician. but. No man can hinder you to live according to the plan of your nature. 50.org/title/2133 . did you chiefly propose? To make a good attempt. and your tranquillity. What. how will the one procure safety to the sailorsr the other to the patients? 56. The external things themselves have no power of causing opinions in us.0 (generated September. How many of those who entered the world along with me. in his own suffering or passive feeling: The wise man places it in his own action. your former purpose was taken up with this† reservation. or a little poison in the man who was bit? 58. and not to a greater. whom they study to please. to have no such opinion. Should one oppose you with superior force. 53. How speedily eternity will sweep them away into obscurity! and how many it hath already swept away! PLL v6. but the sensual. 51. whom will they attend to. Why am I angry? Has error in the mind less power than a little bile in the man who is in the jaundice. What is not the interest of the hive.
or present ages: of such things. I either give place in this work to those who can better execute it.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK VII 1. the involuntary agitations of puppets by wires! We ought to persist amidst such things with good-nature. and be persuaded that such is the worth of each person. and in business. 8. Every thing is ordinary. What if. Be thus persuaded. whether by my self. You may revive when you please. just the same. little bones cast in for contention among little dogs. as is the value of the things he pursues. are now delivered up to oblivion? and how many of those who sung the praises of others. Is my understanding sufficient for this subject or not? If it is sufficient. possessed of the same reason you now employ in your present affairs. How many of those. are now entirely gone? 7. What is vice? ’Tis what you have often seen. then. earlier or later. alone. How can the grand maxims of life ever become dead in the soul. all cities and families are full. can accomplish something seasonable and useful to the public. 4. The vain solicitude about shows. flocks and herds. 3. 2011) 74 http://oll. who. 5. Nothing is new. baits cast into a fishpond. I execute it as well as I can. unless the opinions suitable to them be extinguished? And it is still in your power to revive and kindle again these true opinions. and. unless it be some way incumbent as duty upon me. PLL v6. and you stand upright and firm. is of no consequence to it. or middle. 2. I can always have the sentiments I ought to have about such things. which is useful and suitable to the public. to what end it is refered. by directing my mind. as you have done formerly.libertyfund. and their carrying of burdens.org/title/2133 . to what is done: in the former.0 (generated September. or with the assistance of others. I use it as an Instrument given me by the universal nature for this work: If it is not. taking the aid of those. Have this thought ready on all emergences that they are such things as you have often seen: you’ll find all things. scenical representations. because of your lameness. you cannot mount the works alone? you may do it with the assistance of others. that we may understand what is signified. the fluttering of affrighted flies. in the latter. Such matters as fill all histories of the antient. Be not disturbed about futurity: You shall come to encounter with future events. am I disturbed? What is external to my soul. and. as it is a soldier’s to storm a breach in a wall. why. Don’t be ashamed to take assistance. Consider things again. Your design should be to discharge your duty. This is reviving again. 6. In Conversation. we should give good heed to what is said. ought to be directed to that. and of short duration. For whatever I do. without storming at them. the toiling of Ants. in that case. skirmishing. who were once much celebrated.
libertyfund. 12.0 (generated September. 10. and agreeable to reason. Let any one do or say what he pleases. one law. only. All things are linked with each other. or which is struck with imaginations or opinions about such things. as matter of duty and obligation. Be gone. The † soul which is ter-rified or dejected. such are all rational beings. In the rational being. And the memory of every thing shall soon be buried in eternity. 2011) 75 http://oll. I am not hurt. imagination! Go. Every active principle shall soon be resumed into the intelligence and cause of the whole.org/title/2133 . it may be free from all disturbance and obstruction. would suffer nothing. be gone. and complain when it suffers. There is one orderly graceful disposition of the whole. As the several members are in an organised body. and bound together with a sacred bond: Scarce is there one thing quite foreign to another. or a good divinity. PLL v6. or the purple were always saying. if you often speak to yourself thus. if it can. In like manner. tho’ distant in place. Every thing material shall soon vanish. who are of the same nature. 14. according to the old custom: I am not angry with you. You only do good. lest it suffer any thing. its desires? If any other thing can raise its fears or sorrows. 11. and not as doing. let it do so. and jointly adorn the same world. And it is in my power to prevent it. if you would not give it up to such imaginations. at the same time.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 9. without further views. I must continue an emerauld. 15. I am a member of that great rational body or system. If you merely call yourself a * part of mankind. and one truth. you don’t yet love mankind from your heart. I must be a good man. let men do or say what they please. or as one well corrected and amended. and partake of the same rational power. Let the despicable body take thought. if it don’t make it self indigent. This thought will more deeply affect your heart. There is one God in the whole. the emerauld. and one reason common to all intelligent beings. 13. Just as if the gold. Either shew yourself as one always upright. the greatest good to yourself. nor does the doing of good yet ultimately delight you. for it self. Is not the governing part the sole cause of its own disturbance? Does it not raise in it self its fears. But if I can prevent any apprehension that the event is evil. the * things which can be affected by them. as there must be one sort of perfection to all beings. To have good-fortune is to have a good divinity governing our lot. There is one substance. then. You came. since both are fitted for one joint operation. if it don’t disturb and obstruct it self. and be swallowed up in the matter of the whole. The governing part is free from all indigence or dependence. by the Gods! as you came: for I have no more use for you. 16. governing us. within. They are all arranged together in their proper places. let those complain of them which suffer by them. and retain my lustre. the same conduct is agreeable to nature. ’Tis in its own power not to be moved by opinions about such incidents. as they please. Let external things affect. its sorrows. 17.
About this alone I am solicitous. as out of wax. that they have done thee no dammage. its beauty dies. 26.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 18. that they offend through ignorance. again. about every person. and then. and others. that your undergoing a change. out of its matter forms a tree. and Socrates. And consider the things you enjoy. without changes? Don’t you see. If the sense of moral evil is gone. may be equally necessary to the nature of the whole? 19. how earnestly and PLL v6. or some such like thing. and each of these forms subsisted a little while. hath led him into this misconduct. as through a torrent. 22. upon what you have.0 (generated September. if he would consider that those who offend are our kindred by nature. The time approaches when you shall forget all things. When you discover this. you yourself may imagine the same thing. Perhaps. about some good.1 hath the course of ages swallowed up? Let this thought occur to you. or evil. 2011) 76 http://oll. what reason could one have for desiring to live? 25. both we and they must die: and especially. they cannot make thy soul worse than it was before. a man. There can be nothing dismal in a chest’s being taken asunder. sometimes a colt. 24. all. flow all particular bodies. and cannot be revived again. and neither be surprised. which are dearest to you. then. or in a time not suitable. and then. and Epictetus. too. unless wood undergoes a change? Can you be nourished. as. consider what opinion of his. so much. to be good. of the same nature. 20. and out of their substance make other things. and fellow-workers with the whole. you can easily be indulgent and gentle to those who are in a mistake. ’Tis the part of a man to * love even those who offend him. When the countenance is often thus deformed. and this one may do. unless your food is changed? Or. † and unwillingly. 23. How many a Chrysippus. A wrathful countenance is exceedingly against nature.org/title/2133 . 21. or done any thing wrong. The presiding nature forms out of the universal substance. If you don’t at all look upon such things as good or evil. and afterwards. out of theirs. Does one dread a change? What can arise without changes? What is more acceptable or more usual to the nature of the whole? Can you warm your bagnio. and that. 27. and be forgotten by all. can any thing useful be accomplished. When one has offended. and event. in a little. as there was nothing dismal in it’s being at first joined together. All things you behold. for. as the same members of our body co-operate with each other. that I may not do any thing unsuitable to the constitution of a man. Through the substance of the universe. something different.libertyfund. or in another manner than it requires. By this very thing you may ‡ apprehend that it is against reason. you will pity him. nor angry. that the universe may be always new. Don’t let your thoughts dwell upon what you want. changing that again. shall the nature presiding in the universe change.
so that if you should lose them.org/title/2133 . love mankind. all happens by an inevitable law. and. and be obedient to the Gods. What is lasting is tolerable. and the governing part becomes no worse. 30. and change and compose itself as the soul directs. and enter deeply into what is done. and the thoughts of the indifference of all things between virtue and vice. while yet the soul cannot conform and adorn itself. The fault another commits there let it rest where the guilt resides. the former ages are presently buried by the ensuing. 31. or atoms. Wind thyself up within thy self. Circumscribe the present time. you would be much disturbed. Consider well the last hour. The * parts which suffer by pain. ’Tis either a dispersion. can human life appear a great matter? ’Tis impossible. either. that it * can fully satisfy itself. Consider the understandings of those who confer praises. Concerning pain. This from † Plato. the latter bury and hide the former: Just so. The understanding can preserve a calm. by its opinions. says he. if you wanted them: And yet be on your guard. The rational governing part has this natural power. let them determine about it if they can. and into those who do it. 32. 2011) 77 http://oll. as heaps of sand are driven upon one another. or. ’Tis unworthy. to others. in acting justly. Stop the brutal impulses of the passions. What is intolerable must soon carry us off. Says one. you enure yourself to value them too much. 38. and a view of the whole of time. what they shun? and what they pursue? And. by doing so. ’Tis a saying of Antisthenes.libertyfund. by your delighting in the enjoyment of such things. 28. 36.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus anxiously you would desire them. Distinguish between the mate-rial and the active principle. To the man who has a true grandeur of soul. lest. in life. an extinction. or a translation to another state. that our countenance should be obedient to our soul. to yourself.” † But what if all be elements and no more? ’Tis sufficient that even in that case. and of all substance.0 (generated September. enjoying tranquillity. 34.5 37.—“all things by certain laws. Apply your mind attentively to what is said in conversation. 29. 33. Can then such a one conceive death to be terrible? ’Tis impossible. Concerning Glory. Concerning death. modesty. Rejoice yourself with simplicity. except ‡ a very few things. a vanishing. according to its own inclination. 35. ’tis truly royal to do good and be reproached. Blot out all imaginations. PLL v6. and apprehend well the nature of every thing which happens.
nor be inwardly moved. 48. and to th’ immortal Gods. whether he acts justly or unjustly. 2011) 78 http://oll. man. all things terrestrial. as virtuously as he can. consider.”7 40. that ‘no man can avoid his destiny.org/title/2133 . Again. “For life is. 44. or. “But. the part of a good or of a bad man?”11 45. as from an high tower. the tumults of courts of justice. to think that a man of any worth makes much account between living and dying.’ and study how he shall pass. as thinking that you revolve along with them. cut down. if the Gods neglect.libertyfund. divorces. assenting to the maxim of even our old women. or ‡ wheresoever he is placed by his commander. And some must fall. births. I think. continually. But. “Me and my children. ’Tis thus in Plato. like the loaden’d ear. Consider the course of the stars. Ought he not to consider this alone. pray. men employed in agriculture. PLL v6. he ought to stay at all hazards. or any other evil. nor ought he to love it much. O Athenians! wheresoever one has placed himself by choice. judging it the fittest for him. “For I keep right and justice on my side. Don’t sorrow along with them. in being preserved. the time destined for him. This is beautiful in Plato.”10 43. whether what is truly noble and good. He says again. —”6 39. we should view.0 (generated September. also. It is for some good reason. Such extensive thoughts purge off the filth of this terrestrial life. be not placed in something else than preserving life. “When we consider human life. there. armies. in marriages. deaths. consider.”9 42. You are much mistaken. Nor is it so very desirable to one of a truly manly disposition to continue in life a long time. he should rather commit this to the will of God. and some unreap’d remain. “In truth. “I would give him this just answer.”14 46. “Give joy to us.”8 41. but vice. making no account of death. the changes of the elements into each other.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus “Vain is all anger at th’ external things For they regard it nothing.”15 47. such as herds.
51. for. By meats and drinks and charms and magic-arts.18 52. Where we can have the advantage or enjoyment of acting prosperously. But what’s of heav’nly seed remounts to heaven. Consider things past. Toiling. a medley of all things. For. Death’s course they would divert.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus desolate lands. what further can you see? 50. whither it is that nature leads you: The nature of the whole.0 (generated September. The intellectual part claims to itself PLL v6. feasts. He is a better wrestler than thou art. He is not more social and kind. Wherever one can act according to that reason which is common to Gods and men. there’s nothing terrible. various barbarous nations. and thence you may foresee what shall happen hereafter. is the command over all bodily appetites and passions. there. but look well into this.org/title/2133 . for they shall be just of the same nature.”16 49. and the rational are formed for each other. What the structure of human nature is chiefly adapted to. is a social communication of good. Other beings are fitted to be subservient to the rational. and your own nature. according to the structure of our nature. The gale that blows from God we must indure. by suggesting what part you should act. common to the brutes. or some such dispersion of immutable elements. the revolutions of so many empires. 55. 2011) 79 http://oll.17 Euripides intends by this. and * skill-fully examine all arising imaginations. to † circumscribe itself. nor can they break off the harmony or concert now begun. nor better prepared to meet the accidents of life. nor more modest. you may devoutly acquiesce and be satisfied with what befalls you. as all inferior beings are subordinated to the superior. 54. and. ’Tis the proper work of the rational and intelligent power. To earth returns whatever sprung from earth.libertyfund. Hence. and thus escape. Each one should act the part he is fitted for by his nature. ’tis much the same to view human life for forty or for a myriad of years. both these are inferior faculties. next to this. but not repining ——. nor more gentle toward the offences of his neighbours. by external events. 53. either the disentangling again of the entangled atoms. be it so. there we should suspect no hurt. and to be unconquerable by the appetites and passions. in a system adorned by contrarieties. markets. that none may insinuate themselves. and have just dispositions toward your neighbours. Don’t be prying into the souls of those around you. In all places and times. wailings. till you thoroughly comprehend them.
Upon every accident. But where are they now? They are gone for ever. Be you intent upon this. so. very justly. and every virtue. thought it strange.libertyfund. and resolve to be a good man in all your actions.0 (generated September. and not to be subjected to them. as. or social. are indifferent. and are changed. But these things are to be observed without affectation. fitted to command. drowsiness. The third office pointed out by the constitution of the rational nature. Only attend well to yourself. recollect. They stormed at the event. keep in view those to whom the like hath happened. ’Tis highly necessary to remember this continually: You will thence be made gentler toward all. good-nature. ’Tis against its will. 64. or destroy it. nor will you require their approbation. and employ all these lower powers. either as it is rational. tho’ they truly are: Thus. 61. 59. nor does it make the soul the worse. And still remember. says Plato. by its own nature. since the wrestler must ever be ready on his guard. if you look into the springs of their sentiments and affections. As to the far greater part of those pains we are subject to.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus this power over them. about which your actions are employed. and stand firm against the sudden unforeseen efforts of his adversary. which we don’t repute of the same nature with pain. which is ever springing up. Why would you act the like part? Leave these unnatural changes and commotions to those fickle men. § within is the fountain of good. Look inwards. if you remember the narrow bounds within which it is confined. how to make good use of such events. Let the governing part retain these things. You may make an excellent use of them. it should in the whole body. what sort of souls they have. and that.org/title/2133 . and error. and don’t add opinions to it. than of the dancer. Thus. Upon any pain. The art of life resembles more that of the wrestler. they may be matter of ‡ virtuous action. whose approbation you desire. that there’s no moral turpitude in it. the maxim of Epicurus24 may assist you. What little surplus there is beyond expectation. When you are fretted with any of these things. and complained. temperance. 60. and is destined by providence for you. that many other things fret us. what can be more suitable? † 58. you will neither accuse such as unwillingly mistake. Recollect this.23 You may say the same of justice. who thus change. and the want of a natural appetite. as the soul displays itself by the countenance. when one would be lively. and go straight on in her course. * 57. “that it cannot both be intolerable and lasting”: especially. that any soul is deprived of truth. Consider your life as now finished and past. Revolve often what sort of men they are. spend it according to nature. for. Love and desire that alone which happens to you. free from loose inconstant motion. We should study also a stability of body. if you be always digging in it. For. being too warm. and she has all her own good or perfection. rouse PLL v6. 2011) 80 http://oll. is to guard against rash assent. in a wise and graceful air. 63. too. 56. that the external things. 62.
as they have toward their fellows. but are still striving to restrain it in others. One may be a most divine man. Remember this always: and this also. “it was such an event as thou art. you need not therefore despair of becoming free. without further view. 2011) 81 http://oll. and fly from all vice in yourself. tho’ wild beasts were to tear the poor members of this corporeal mixture. ’Tis ridiculous that you don’t endeavour to repress. without sloth or hypocrisy. Entertain no such affection toward the most inhuman of your fellows. For whatever occurs. too. 68. which you have in your power to do.0 (generated September. possessed of an high sense of honour and modesty. nor yielding up his soul to be affected by the passions of the body? 67. what sort of soul he had: Could he satisfy himself. is to me § matter of rational and social virtue.org/title/2133 . kind and social. The perfection of manners can make one spend each day as his last. must be fretted and tired with it. and yet be unknown to all. Whatever occurs is familiar. as that it cannot circumscribe itself. And tho’ you despair of becoming a good logician. in all tranquillity. are not fretted. or because of any stately airs or gate he assumed in public. which you can never do.libertyfund. Nature hath not so † blended the soul with the body.26 or that when he was ordered * to apprehend the innocent Salaminian. tho’ you are one of these wretched creatures yourself! 71. were all men loudly to rail against you as they please. pious toward God. * Yet you who are presently to cease from being. or argued acutely with the sophists. “such is thy real nature. nor sinking under it as intolerable. nor servilely flattering them in their ignorance. 66.25 and an excellent disposition? ’Tis not enough that he died gloriously. and execute its own office by itself. who are immortal. that. he gallantly disobeyed at all hazards the unjust command. not vainly provoked by the vices of others.” The ‡ faculty which directs how to use every thing. The Gods. that I wanted. which. You may live superior to all force. in being * just toward men. and is not new nor untractable. and in a proper use of what is cast in its way? So that the judgment may say. tho’ thou appearest otherwise. in the highest delight. in a long eternity. What hinders the soul to preserve itself amidst these things. PLL v6. and resigned to God. by saying thus to yourself: What? Do you yield yourself as vanquished by pain? 65. and keep himself always calm. that the happiness of life consists in very few things. but well known and easy. or that he kept watch patiently in the Areopagus. 70. in just judgments about the things which surround it. or naturalist. may say. Whence do we conclude that Socrates had a bright genius. they always take care of it.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus your mind. they must always bear with such a numerous wicked world: Nay. and of the proper art of man or God. and suited either to the purpose of God or man. counting nothing strange which was appointed by the President of the universe. and avoid the effects of it.” 69. further. one may justly disbelieve: [tho’ charged on him by Aristophanes:] ’Tis this we should look to. which has been nourished along with you.
happen. Your gain consists in acting according to nature. and thus want also the reputation of beneficence. § according to a necessary consequence or connexion. require any thing further. and another is profited by it. The remembring this will make you much more serene on many occurrences. why do you.org/title/2133 . as neither subservient to any improvement of the understanding. Whatever the rational and social power observes.libertyfund. Since the gain is yours. The presiding nature of the whole once set about the making this universe. nor of social dispositions. that all things. which yet appear to be the peculiar objects of intention in the universal mind. in the production of these things which are most excellent. PLL v6. † like the fools.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 72. with those excellent things primarily intended. 73. even the worst we see. 2011) 82 http://oll. there was no rational intention or design. or must say. and below its regard. it just-ly deems inferior to itself. why should you be weary of such a course of action? 75. And now either we must allow.0 (generated September. No man is tired of what is gainful to him. When you have done a kind office. and to get returns? ‡ 74.
All are changes. away with this affair of reputation. is it to be found? In acting the part which human nature requires. As to the former. ’Tis the constant business of the universal nature. and be solicitous about nothing else. courageous. and without Hypocrisy. and free: and that nothing can be evil to a man. without finding happiness. 6. and carrying them hence. Act. all are customary. 2011) 83 http://oll. PLL v6. Alexander. ’Tis not found in philosophical arguments. attentively consider the nature of what occurs to you: Remember you must persist in the purpose of being a good man. and materials: And thus their governing parts were employed. that you cannot make the whole of your life. from your youth.” 2.6 And. as well as to your own conscience. Nay. be spent as the constitution of your nature requires. the grand purpose of your life is opposite to this view of reputation. if my present action be such as becomes an intellectual and social being. to be transferring what is now here. be it more or less.org/title/2133 . appear such as became a philosopher. What maxims? Those concerning good and evil: “that nothing is truly good to a man. and speak always what appears to you just. This will repress the desire of vain-glory.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK VIII 1. subject to the same law with the Gods?* 3. Caius2 Pompey. then. Such men † will go on doing such actions. which gives him not the contrary dispositions. All things happen according to the nature of the whole. tho’ you should burst with indignation. be not disturbed or put into confusion.5 and Augustus. All are subjected to the same law. what a multitude of things were the objects of their care? To how many were they enslaved? * 4. temperate. should I desire.4 and Socrates? These latter knew the natures of things. then. that you were far from true wisdom.3 Heraclitus. About every action. and yet with calm good-nature and modesty. as Hadrian. In a little time you shall be gone. thus examine yourself. 5. and their causes. you must be full of confusion: It can be no easy matter for you to gain the reputation of a philosopher. Study this point exactly. and placing them elsewhere. then.libertyfund. How shall you act thus? By retaining firmly the great maxims from which our desires and actions flow. If you know wherein true excellence consists. You have experienced many wanderings. If this be your aim. into another place. which does not make him just. and the opinions of others.0 (generated September. then. ’Tis known to many. what were they in comparison with Diogenes. nor in fame. you need not fear any thing new. nor in riches. Be satisfied with this. What sort of one is it? Shall I never repent of it? I shall presently be dead. but knowing what your nature requires. inflexibly what suits the nature of a man. In the first place. Where. that what remains of life. nor in sensuality. Not at all. and all these things gone. and acting accordingly. to be changing things. What further.
that. so is it equally. of active principle. and that of human nature. or your own life. consider that it is according to your constitution. You want. and the ungrateful. and worthy of the care of a good and honourable man. 15. What is peculiarly suited to the nature of each species. pleasure and pain. most adapted. Whatever is good. and events. and has its affections directed to something social and kind. if you don’t merely compare one circumstance of one with the corresponding circumstance in another. Repentance is a self-reproving. but consider the whole nature and circumstances of one. must be useful in some sort. But never did such a man repent of his neglecting some opportunity of sensual pleasure: Such pleasure. even of retaining an affectionate concern about them. indeed. the leaf is a part of an insensible irrational system. and the causes of them. of powers. In these. perhaps. about glory and infamy. opportunity for reading. as to its active principle? What is its business in the universe? How long shall it endure? 12. and compare them with the whole of another. is common to us with the brutes. When you are averse to be roused from sleep. while it assents to no false or uncertain opinion.] What is the nature of it. according to its constitution and end? What is its substance or matter? What. and vainglory. And then we shall recollect too. that must be most familiar. nay. as it would be silly to be surprized that a fig-tree bears figs. that he is under * a necessity of acting thus. their proper portions of time. To sleep. and its desires and aversions turned toward these things alone which are in its power. continually endeavour to apprehend its nature. and of restraining all anger against the insensible. or in a pilot. and to reason well about it. which can be obstructed in the intention of its nature: but the human nature is a part of that universal nature which ‡‡ cannot be obstructed. This nature distributes. that the wind has turned against him.libertyfund. 8. as a leaf is a part of a tree. there is nothing wondrous or strange. 10. Every being is satisfied while it continues prospering.0 (generated September. that he acts such a part. Upon each occurrence which affects the imagination. The rational nature is prosperous.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 7.org/title/2133 . to be surprized that the universe produces those things of which it was ever fruitful. say thus to yourself: What are this man’s maxims about good and evil. of that it is a part. 9. of matter. For. Remember. of keeping yourself superior to pleasure. is neither good nor profitable. and is intelligent and just. 13. PLL v6. while it embraces contentedly whatever is appointed by the universal nature. 2011) 84 http://oll. But you never want opportunity of repressing all insolence. and its effect upon our affections. therefore.§ This you will find. and most delightful to it. and pain. death or life? If he have such maxims. suitably to all. to be employed in social actions. [Ask yourself thus about every thing. 11. When you have to do with any one. to be surprized that one is fallen into a fever. Let no man hear you accusing either a court-life. 14. ’Tis silly in a physician. because we have neglected something useful.
libertyfund. of which the world and you too consist. whom do you accuse? It must either be the a-toms. These too are changed. Am I in action. and is changed. If not. ’Tis just you should suffer. in a little corner of one climate. the nature of the whole intends the ceasing of each being. As he who throws the ball. the filth of the skin. and to follow the advice of another who suggests better measures. 24. than to day. If this matter is in your own power. of himself. Epitynchanus buried Diotimus. or a speech. nay. I refer it to some benefit thence to accrue to mankind. 20. 17. 23. nothing should be done to no purpose. too. and then Antoninus was buried. are of short continuance. Correct the matter. few agree with themselves. where. Why do you act thus? If it is not. There is nothing therefore to be accused or blamed. an action. the fountain of all things. Every thing is formed for some purpose: the horse. all don’t agree in the characters they give. For what end are you formed? For sensual enjoyments? See if the Sentiments of your soul can bear this thought. dirt. Such are all parts of animal life. all the objects before us. And this whole earth is but a point. Secunda buried Maximus. and then Epitynchanus was buried. To accuse either is a piece of madness. and would rather become a good man to morrow. Lucilla buried Verus. 19. when extinguished. not only intends its motion and direction. and understanding. Why do you wonder at this? The sun too is formed for a certain office. Turn out the inner side of this body. and view it: What shall it become when it grows old. but the place where it should stop.0 (generated September. Does any thing befall me? I accept it. 22. Celer buried Hadrian. to what purpose complain? Now. for this is also your own action. than when fallen or stopt? What good is it to the bubble in water that it continues? or evil. Attend well to what is at present before you. that it is broken? The same you may say of the lamps. water. and then Celer followed. What dies is not gone out of the verge of the universe. If that which is dissolved stays here. when he thinks fit. it returns to those elements. or dead? The applauded and the applauder. it equally becomes a man truly free. whether it be a maxim.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 16.* Antoninus buried Faustina. 25. Remember. the rememberer and the person remembered: And all this. the vine. as referring it to the Gods. or sickly. 2011) 85 http://oll. and judgment. because you neglect your present business. from whom all things are ordered in a fixed series. or the Gods. so. 18. too. sweat. What things occur in bathing? How do they appear? Oil. no less than its commencing and continuance. and then Secunda herself was buried. and don’t murmur at it. if you can. 21. accomplished according to your own desire. and soon after was buried herself. all nauseous. to change his course. What better is the ball while ascending or descending.8 All go the same way: Those PLL v6. and so are the * other Gods.org/title/2133 .
Receive the gifts of fortune. 28. as that of the Pompeys. Now. and brought into another place. in this. the third. without pride. and. aim rather at a decent dignity. so that if each action answers its end. where are they now? Charax. but. Go next. and aversion. and of some. Some external effects of your actions may be obstructed. who foretold the fates of others. there may arise another action of your’s. not merely to the death of one. to which no evil can ascend.0 (generated September.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus artful men. than elegance. then. nothing can hinder you. Demetrius Platonicus. and say often to yourself thus. 29. Blot out the false imaginations. All judgment. in contempt of sensual impressions. the wise part. and part with them. all confusion or disturbance. say you. all yielded to death. as I discern the natures of things. whether in the senate or elsewhere. intimates and friends. his kinsmen. but of a whole family or name. grand-children. are within the soul. step-sons. that they might leave a succession of their own posterity. let the body pronounce it to be evil. in considering the nature of the whole. you may be satisfied. and are gone long ago.11 his physicians. sacrificers. 31. some gone into a fable. intention. daughter. The joy of man is in doing the proper office of a man. that either this corporeal mixture must be dispersed: or that the spirit of life must be either extinguished.libertyfund. to the soul: But. and the things which happen according to it. All of us stand in three relations: the first. one by one.9 and such others? All were but for a day. Maecenas. in distinguishing the profitable appearances. the second toward the divine cause which effects all things. toward the present immediate causes. ’Tis now in my power to preserve my soul free from all wickedness. 30. or. in your acquiescence under this impediment. Remember these things. and your calmly converting yourself to that conduct which is in your power. what solicitude the ancestors of such men have had. Eudaemon. and Agrippa. Pain is either an evil to the body. even the old fable itself is vanished. and this consists in goodwill toward his own tribe. Remember this noble power granted you by nature.12 33. his wife. 2011) 86 http://oll. then. Thus you see the death of a whole kindred. and let your speech ever be sound and virtuous. But. and not conceive pain to be evil.org/title/2133 . And yet. or were swoln with pride.† Make yourself regular. and have what perfection belongs to it. 32. or removed. the soul* can maintain her own serenity and calm. equally suited to this regularity and orderly composition of life. by regulating your several actions. and what we meet sometimes inscribed on tombs: “This was the last of his family. I can use them all in proportion to their value. without reluctance. Some scarce remembered for any time after their death. may not something external withstand me? Nothing can hinder you to act the just. his sister. desire. toward our neighbours with whom we live. or species. there should be a last one of that race. 27. Arius. we are speaking of. PLL v6. The court of Augustus. In your speeches. and yet it was necessary.” And then think. the temperate. 26. all lust.
2011) 87 http://oll. to no other parts. to return. but a nauseous bag of blood and corruption? 38. when they are once cut off. And. as the nature of the whole converts into its use.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 34. If you remove your own opinions about the things which grieve you. If you have great penetration. Well: let not your reason then disturb itself. that. what would have become of their masters? What is all this for. and can use it for its grand purpose.0 (generated September. and greatness of the pains or troubles. if it cannot bear up against this one thing thus alone. whatever seems to withstand or oppose it. thus. but I see temperance destined to restrain sensual pleasures. nor what is future. as it hath imparted to each rational being almost all its faculties and powers. and lament for ever? Was it not destined they should grow old and die? and when they should die. as far as he can. and lying dead at a distance from it: Such does one make himself. if you circumscribe or consider it by itself. say you. but you have cut off yourself. a foot. if they were pleased with it. by considering the whole of your future life. and makes subservient to its purpose. this one in particular. and then put it in their power. is there any thing intolerable and unsufferable in them? You’ll be ashamed to own it. to which you may probably be exposed. Don’t confound yourself. you may presently stand on the surest ground. not to be broken off from this unity. or who does any thing unsociable: You are broke off from the natural unity: Nature formed you for a part of the whole. each rational being can make every impediment in its way the proper matter for itself to act upon. in the condition of parts. He first put it in their power. 39. 40. even when they are thus broken off. 36. and by dwelling upon the multitude. and grow together again naturally. so. Consider the goodness and bounty with which God hath honoured mankind. that you can re-unite yourself to the whole. Is Panthea15 or Pergamus now sitting and wailing at the tomb of Verus? or Chabrias and Diotimus at the tomb of Hadrian? Ridiculous work this. In the constitution of the rational creature. who repines at any event which happens. whatever it be. exercise it in what is the subject of the greatest wisdom. then. cut off from the rest of the body. 37. and tears himself off from the whole. The Gods have granted such a power of returning again. and makes it a regular part of that orderly fated series. And this will be much diminished.* PLL v6. or an head. there is no virtue or excellence. 35. recollect. and chide your own mind. would it give them any pleasure? Or. and re-uniting with the whole. The president nature of the whole. would their masters be sensible of it? Or if they were sensible. But let the part which suffers form opinions concerning this matter. If you have ever beheld an hand. could these men be immortal.org/title/2133 . that it is neither what is past. destined to withstand or restrain justice. which can oppress you.libertyfund. But ask yourself about such as are present. Yet this is glorious. I am not reason. ’tis only what is present. If they were still sitting there. What is that self? ’Tis reason.
as if you had accomplished it. One rejoices in one thing.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 41. An obstruction of any sense is the evil of an animal.0 (generated September. in like manner. with the same serenity. while its affections and actions are suited to its own structure and natural furniture. then. for. every thing in proportion to its worth. which is the evil of the vegetative nature. 43. The obstruction of the understanding is. which is usual. No other person can hinder that which is the proper work of the intelligent nature. that. Nor fire. “But some superior force withstands.org/title/2133 . as a mean suppliant. 44. set about it effectually. 2011) 88 http://oll. When it is as a ‡ sphere complete within itself. who never willingly grieved any one. or terrified? Can you find any thing which can deserve all this? 46. what cause is there for indignation? The presiding nature of the whole hath brought nothing upon you. which you cannot bear? 47. It would be unjust in me to vex or grieve myself. Is. without aversion to any man.” Quit life. then. if this be not accomplished. Does any thing obstruct any external design of yours? If you have designed without the proper † reservation. If. and cast me where you please. or any event incident to mankind. but your judgment about it. Take me up. My joy consists in having my governing part sound. this is evil to you. can reach it. 42. and with good-will. and naturally incident to it. and bound as a slave along with the body. becoming abject. nor to a stone. and accepting. PLL v6. if you have taken in the general reservation. nor to a vine. what sounds they shall make with their voices. who hinders you to correct your maxims of life? If you are grieved. so is the obstruction of any external motion or design: There is another sort of obstruction. even toward those who withstand you. If you are grieved about anything external. you are not hurt nor hindered. rather than be grieving that it is undone. I shall have my own divinity within me propitious: that is. and prostrate. and another in another. nor to an ox. because you have not accomplished some sound and virtuous design. whose manners we scarce can bear: and they too will be mortal. as you are rational: But. If you are grieved at any thing in your own disposition. nor a tyrant. and become worse than it was. which is not a natural incident to these species. any external event of such worth. nor calumny. Nothing can befall a man which is not a natural incident of mankind. on its account. Those who rather pursue a surviving fame. “But. ’tis not the thing itself that afflicts you. nor sword. my soul should suffer. and using. don’t consider that posterity will just be such as our contemporaries. the evil of an intelligent nature: apply all these things to yourself. without any corners which can be struck off by external force. Do pain or pleasure affect you? Let the sense look to it. Allow to yourself the little time you have. then. satisfied. it remains so. the fault of the omission lyes not in you.” Then you have no cause of sorrow. and it is in your power to correct this judgment and get quit of it. or what opinions they shall entertain about you? 45. And what is it to you. but beholding with a serene look. that alone can befall any thing.libertyfund. life is not worth retaining.
Remember the governing part becomes invincible. should reproach it. and. beyond what the appearances directly declare. Does this hinder your soul to continue pure. wash them away. with tranquillity. who is deficient in either of these parts of knowledge. when. that. waxing old. even when it is obstinately set upon things unreasonable. nor too much hurried in life. cut you to pieces. having circumscribed itself within certain bounds. when. must he appear. who know not where they themselves are. where they can throw these superfluities. pursue you with curses. or dreads the censures of men. He who has. out of them. But the nature of the whole has no external place for this purpose: And herein its art is wonderful. then. add what becomes one who understands the nature of all which happens in the universe. just? As if one standing by a clear sweet foun-tain. simplicity. nor troublesome in conversation. Want you to be praised by a man who curses himself thrice in an hour? Can you desire to please one. who repents of almost every thing he does? PLL v6. or a shoe-maker. all within it which seems corrupting. He. Don’t be adding. knows not himself. who pursues the applauses. is illiterate. and add nothing to them. cannot tell you for what purpose he is fitted by nature. and knows not the world. He. makes other new forms. He who has not discerned this.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 48. and become invincible for the future. and not a dead cistern? Form yourself anew each day into liberty. it has fixed its judgment according to reason? The soul. knows not where he is. so as neither to need matter from without. and not also that he is in danger of dying. prudent. and become free from all pollution. 49.org/title/2133 . who is not pleased with himself? Is he pleased with himself. Is the cucumber bitter? Throw it away. Should he throw into it clay or dung.libertyfund. nor inconstant in your opinions. ’Tis satisfied with its own substance. rather. Are there thorns in the way? Walk aside. who knows not for what purpose he was formed. because shavings and parings of their Works are lying about in their work-houses. too. and its own art. 2011) 89 http://oll. it transforms into itself. as would a carpenter. to which he can fly. What sort of person. collected into itself. is miserable. and does not fly to it. temperate. This alone is told you. yet it ceases not to send forth its refreshing waters. That is enough. How. and not that you are hurt by it. who knows not there is an orderly universe. ’Tis told you. “Why were such things in the universe?” A naturalist would laugh at you. is a strong fort. nor can a man find any stronger. and no harm befalls you: Or. after due deliberation. They slay you. nor dragged away in your soul. this only I see. or useless. shall you get this perpetual living fountain within you. if you were finding fault. then. that one has spoken ill of you. These artificers have places too without their work-shops. nor sallying out by the impulse of passions. from within. thus free from passions. 50. What shall it be then. 51. it will soon disperse them. nor what they are? 53. and a sense of what is decent and becoming. Neither appear languid and tired out in Action. Dwell thus upon the first appearances. its own space. He. nor want a place where to cast out its superfluities. Pronounce no more to yourself. I see my child is sick.0 (generated September. 52. it can be satisfied with acting only as it pleases.
or falls aside. in deliberation about what to pursue. Men were formed for each other. is even then carried straight forward toward its proper mark. 57. He who dreads death. as his animal life. Such opaque objects as will not receive and transmit the rays. such ought to be the direction and diffusion of your understanding. this should not be.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 54. but correspond in sentiment with that intelligence which surrounds all things. you become another sort of living creature. but not poured out.libertyfund. The mind.0 (generated September. no less than the air does to such as can receive it into themselves by breathing. 55. 59. this * intelligence diffuses itself to all. and it is reflected around. and illuminating whatever will re-ceive it. The sun seems to be poured forth. lest it should be in the power of another to make me unhappy. 58. and is diffused all around. Acting the good part. or bear with them. that. deprive themselves of the splendor. dreads either an extinction of all sense. then. The motion of the arrow is different from that of the mind. and don’t cease to live. there can be no sense of evil. This diffusion is a sort of extension of its rays. Teach them better. but terminating directly on it. which does not admit it into itself. but an extension of it toward even any obstacle that occurs: Not violently and impetuously dashing against it. 60. [viz. and lay yours open to them. Its direction is straight. To my elective power. nor falling aside. has this gracious privilege. 2011) 90 http://oll. he may be free from it altogether. It hurts himself only. or his flesh is. The nature of a ray you may observe. For. who. Don’t content yourself in merely corresponding with the surrounding air.org/title/2133 . to enter into it. If all sense is extinguished.] 61. Upon this the light is fixed. by breathing in it. or. PLL v6. and hence the† Greek word for the rays is thought to be derived. when turning to all sides. or dreads a different sort of sensation. yet the governing part of each one has its own proper power: otherways. And how much soever we were formed for the sake of each other. no part of it is lost. and advances toward all those who can draw it in. or emptied. if you see it entring through some small hole into a darkened chamber. 56. Now. the vice of another might become my proper evil or misery: God thought fit. the elective power of another is indifferent. when it falls upon any solid body. as soon as he heartily desires it. Penetrate into the governing part of others. not an effusion or emptying of itself. If a different sort of sense is acquired. There is no universal wickedness to hurt the universe. Particular wickedness of any individual hurts not another. when cautiously avoiding. yet.
org/title/2133 . 2. as it is one of the things which nature wills. and things which exist.2 For such as it is to be young. Whoever. is guilty of impiety: for such a one must needs frequently blame the common nature.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK IX 1. For. 3. he who would follow nature. is impious: and. then. to depart from among men. all which the nature of the whole regards as indifferent. yet. When I say the common nature regards them as indifferent. at a certain period. she is called truth. she set about this fair structure and arrangement of the universe. and is the first cause of all truths: He. and beard. (for she had not made both. as making some unworthy distributions to the bad and the good. are a-kin to their causes. and the good often meet with pain. to grow up. he who transgresses this her will. to expire. life and death. is thus guilty of impiety against* the most ancient and venerable of the Gods. in those things to which the common nature is indifferent. is guilty of impiety. who sets himself against truth. and what causes pain. after she had conceived and fixed the plan of all that was to exist. in opposing the comely order of the universe: For he fights against its nature and design. hypocrisy. he who dreads pain. according to which. to breed teeth. when cloy’d with these vices. Don’t despise death. in as far as his voice dissents from the nature of the whole. as they are animals. and shuns pain as evil. by deceiving. in this too. luxury. who lyes unwillingly. But. who pursues pleasure as good. to beget. persuade you to fly from amidst the plague? For a corruption of the intellectual part is far more a plague than any pestilential distemper and change of this surrounding fluid which we breathe. to go with child. besides. were she not indifferent to either). but the other to men. The one is only a pestilence to animals. since nature had furnished him with means for distinguishing falsehood from truth. He. to agree with her in his sentiments. and undergo the other natural effects which the seasons of your life produce. as he is acting ungracefully.0 (generated September. and that is manifestly impious. it is plain he is guilty of impiety. by neglecting which he is now unable to do it. Further. ought. or vanity. is not indifferently dispos’d to pain and pleasure. then. and be indifferently dispos’d to either. to be full grown. rather than continue among them: and does not even experience. unacquainted with falsehood. as they are men.† For the nature of the whole is the nature of all things which exist. He who does an injury is guilty of impiety. The next choice were. to be old. he who pursues pleasures will not abstain from injury. 2011) 91 http://oll. now. such is it PLL v6. and ensue upon others. and never hurtful. suitably to a certain ancient purpose of that providence and design. glory and ignominy. must sometimes dread that which must be a part of the order and beauty of the universe: this. he does an injury: and he. I mean she regards their happening or not happening as indifferent events in the grand establish’d series. and appointed the distinct powers which were to produce the several substances. and grow grey. in as far as.libertyfund. and successions. but receive it well-pleas’d. in which things exist. to be delivered. since the nature of the whole has formed the rational animals for one another. who willingly lyes. because the bad oftimes enjoy pleasures. each for being useful to the other according to his merit. too. changes. and possess the means of them. then. It were the more desirable lot.
there subsists. if well-pleased with every thing which comes from the universal cause. as of one of the operations of nature. So that you may say. see with one light and breathe one air.” 4. at present you see how great the fatigue and toil from the jarring courses of those you are among. and as all of us. have a strong tendency to what is of the same kind with themselves. does a wrong to himself. hastens. such as was not found in plants. Thus. and.* Thus. nurture of their young. and. It becomes a* man of wisdom neither to be inconsiderate. and the aerial also. even in war. Men are often unjust by omissions. He who is injurious. or rather more. All things. we easily observe swarms. The earthy all tend to the earth. tho’ they are placed far asunder. But. a certain kind of union: as PLL v6. to prevent their confluence: What contains the nature of fire tends upwards. because there is then a less mixture of what hinders its kindling. however. 2011) 92 http://oll. 5. your present temper of mind. but* even to have a tender care of them. Among beings. were it given you to live along with men who had attained to the same maxims of life with yourself. as well as by actions. If you want also a popular support. “† Haste.0 (generated September. your present course of action. 8. here is one which goes to the heart: you will be extremely easy with regard to death. nay. but await the season of it. whatever partakes of the common intellectual nature. partake of‡ one intellectual soul: just as there is one earth to all things earthy. again. 7. you ought not to be offended at them. begun civil-societies. does evil to himself. friendships. and herds. also. by making himself evil. now.libertyfund. still more excellent. if certain. and truces. were it so. death! lest I. in like manner. as it were. the watery all naturally flow together. and animated. could pull you back. 9. He who does wrong. to mingle with. As you are now awaiting the season when the foetus shall come out of the womb of your wife. which partake of any common quality. and assemblies. and the manners of that confused croud from which you are to be disengaged: tho’ at the same time. who are indued with sight. 6. should forget myself.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus also to be dissolved. Remember. your removal is not from among men of the same sentiments with yourself: for this alone. again.org/title/2133 . the stronger is its tendency to mix with and adhere to what is a-kin to it. Among the irrationals one animal-soul is distributed. nor in stones. if social. mutual loves: for they have animal-souls. if you consider the objects you are going to leave. along with which all our fewel is so apt to be kindled. Wipe out the fancies of imagination: stop all eager impulses to action: extinguish keen desires. Be satisfyed with your present sentiments of things. thus await the season when your soul shall fall out of these its teguments. or ostentatiously contemptuous about death. among irrational animals. and keep the governing part master of itself. For the more it excels other natures. And then among the rational animals. and detain you in life. and adhere to what is a-kin to it. that any matter pretty dry is easily set on fire. too. or wood. the rational. on account of the elementary fire. treaties. and the mutual attraction is found stronger in the more noble nature. so that there is need of some intercepting partitions and violence. and bear with them mildly. families. impetuous.
and the like. 18.4 11. What declares. by themselves. For they were not without. always to act. but within. corruption: and so is the whole universe. but in action. in my own opinions. too. teach them better. then. and neither know. as social wisdom requires. 19. it is no evil. who hinders you? 12. All things are in a state of change. and mutual tendency to union! Here. Bear toil and pain. both§ social and** private. and the universe. and. but that is nothing. nor declare to us any thing concerning themselves.‡ but in action. glory. concerning them?† The governing part. If you can. 17. to have mounted up. in their matter. To day I have escaped from every dangerous accident: or.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus among the stars. and. all bear fruit. but for a day. customary. as of health. Or. I have thrown out from me every dangerous accident. have now forgot the social concern for each other. in some respect. PLL v6. sordid. For nature always prevails. alone. So gracious are they! You may be so too. If not.* Nay. and each in their own seasons. the social confluence is not seen! Yet are they invironed and held by it. if you observe. To the stone thrown up. or refrain. sooner. All at present. 2011) 93 http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/2133 . Man. rather. to fall down. Thus can that superior excellence produce† a sympathy among these beings so widely distant.—For.‡ Reason has its fruit too. Custom indeed has appropriated the expression to the vine. tho’ they fly off. remember that the virtue of meekness was given you to be exercised on such occasions.§ the good and evil of the rational animal formed for society consists: As neither does the virtue or vice of it consist in passivefeeling. they are. wealth. 14.8 13. Penetrate into their governing part. and pronounces. It is not in passive feeling. alone. such as they were in the times of those we have buried. or admired. 16.0 (generated September. and you will see what kind of judges you fear: and what kind of judges. not as if wretched under it. You will see what I say. about themselves. and you are yourself under continual transmutation. God. say. 10. 20. than a man rent off and separated from all men. But observe what happens [among us:] For intellectual beings. 15. The fault of another you must leave with himself. The things themselves stand with out-doors. All these things are. and even aid them in their pursuits of some things. in their continuance. But will only one thing. And it produces just such other things as reason itself is. nor good. may one find some earthy thing which joins to nothing earthy. nor as wanting to be pitied. in our experience of them. the Gods also exercise meekness and patience toward them.
when it does those things which it is formed for doing. and contemplate it by itself. [of this dissatisfaction]. that you may make it a mind disposed to justice: to that of the whole. 27. can naturally subsist. and in consequence of this.9 24. and hinders it from being uniform. all things go on since in a necessary series. even those PLL v6. make up one regular complete whole. 28. as you find there many other alterations. to your life.0 (generated September.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 21. Yet you ought to have* kind dispositions toward them: for they are by nature your friends: and the Gods. that you may remember of what you are a part: and to that of this man. such as childhood. consider. neither is there. go to their souls: enter in there. a continual rotation. 2011) 94 http://oll. and to that of the whole. This is no evil. youth. The cessation of any action. The course of things in the world is always the same. You have indured innumerable sufferings. old-age. how long. either immediate or distant. Enough. too. and it is seditious. aid them every way. Go to the quality of the§ active principle. Quarrels of children at their play! And poor spirits carrying dead carcases about with them! Hence we may be the more deeply affected with the representations of the‡ shades. and to that of this man [who has offended you. who. is as it were a death to them. then as it was under your mother. manhood. or design. of this particular quality.]§ or atoms and indivisible particles are the origin of all things.org/title/2133 . in order to procure any opinion of theirs concerning you. 22. ask yourself. abstract it from the material. When another reproaches or hates you. at furthest. breaks off his own party from the general harmony and concord. if so. by not being satisfied with your own governing part. the extinction of any keen desire. by dreams. so also let every action of yours be a completing part of a social life. or utters any thing to that purpose. for every change of these is a death. of your whole life. that you may know whether he has acted out of ignorance. if so. this action disorders your life. up and down. accept of what comes immediately from it: or has exerted itself once.] To your own. by oracles. [and all together. and look what kind of men they are. changes. to the common-good as its end. and.† Either the mind of the whole exerts itself in every particular event: and. in the ending.10 25.‡ in which each is connected with the other. Then deter-mine the time. was there any thing in these to alarm me? Thus. any action of yours has not its tendency. If. Turn. at the same time. Have speedy recourse to your own governing part. he is your kinsman. this thing. As you are a completing part of a social system. as a man is in a commonwealth. and change. by pursuing a separate interest. from age to age. or of any opinion. now to your different ages. 26. You will see that you ought not to disturb yourself. and then as it was under† your father: and. and endings.* Is there any thing alarming here? Go.libertyfund. first as it was under your grand-father. then. ceasing. 23. now. then. and even in these things they are most eager after. and that you may.
and imagine they unite in themselves the statesman and the philosopher! mere froth! Do you. to gain the applause and admiration of men. how short the time from its birth to its dissolution. will be in the same condition with him who died early. how many will quickly forget it. while they pretend a willing obedience? Come. In fine. and don’t hope for Plato’s common-wealth:13‡‡ But be satisfied if it have the smallest success. who behold them perishing. for they lye wholly in your own opinion: and by this you will make a great deal of room and ease to yourself. and navigation of all kinds.libertyfund. meek. those who are associating in life. he will despise every thing mortal. and tell me of* Alexander. How very little worth. You can cut off a great many superfluous things which crowd and disturb you. that neither a surviving fame is a thing of value. nor present glory. by comprehending.] 31. nor any thing at all [of that kind. the whole universe. 30. 33. It carries all along with it. how immense the space of time before its birth. the life they will live after you. and consider the event of this very thing as no small matter. all things are right and well: or. if there is only a chance. again.org/title/2133 . if you have the means: and don’t look about you. if they designed only an outward shew. in particular.†† The earth will presently cover us all: and then this earth will itself change into some other forms. and modest. whatever it be. like one wave upon another. in storms.14 and Demetrius Phalereus. those who are leaving life. when any one considers how swiftly those changes.0 (generated September. equally infinite. Consider also the life which others have lived formerly. The business of philosophy is simple. and those. Don’t lead me away after [the smoak and vapour of] a vain glorious stateliness. will themselves also quickly perish: and he who died in extreme old-age. without a change of their opinions. All things you see will quickly perish. But.§ As. who perhaps praise you now. at least you need not act by chance. and calms. how many. will quickly blame you: And. The cause of the whole is a torrent. a bent of will and course of action which rests and is satisfied in its having been exerted for the good of society. and innumerable religious rites. Set about it. O man! that which nature requires of you. no-body has condemned me to imitate them.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus have somehow made up one orderly system of the whole. as being suited to your nature. For who can change the opinions of those men? Now.‡ the different states of those who are coming into life. Now. 32. and transmutations roll on. and train’d themselves accordingly.15 They know best whether they understood what the common nature requir’d of them. PLL v6. by your judgment. what is it else but a slavery they are groaning under. too. Tranquillity as to what happens by external causes: Justice in what proceeds from the active principle within you: that is. as from some height. Phillip. if there is any** God.† Contemplate. and those. 29. and the life the barbarous nations now live: And how many know not even your name. and the time after its dissolution. now. by considering the age you live in. to see if any be taking notice. 2011) 95 http://oll. and by considering the quick changes of each thing. into others: and so on without end. the innumerable herds. are those poor creatures who pretend to understand affairs of state.
and become an abject slave. and preserve your liberty. and turn’d savage. perhaps. [which are not in our own power] nor desire any of them. But. why don’t you chuse to pray to them to enable you. of repining. For. and nauseous excretions. If. how shall I enjoy this woman! Do you. most certainly. Why are you disturbed then? [Your governing part you may still preserve exempt from chance:]* need you say to it thou art dead: thou art rotten: thou art dissembling: thou art joining the herd. is it not better to use the things which are in your own power. and a dissipation again. Again. Enough of this wretched life. I obtest you by the Gods. Why are you disturbed? Are any of these things new? What astonishes you? Is it the† active principle? view it well. Nay. or the not having them. and apish trifling.0 (generated September. there is no sufficient power found out to rectify those things? but the universe is condemned to remain involved in never ceasing evils. the evil is his: and. dust. in a bad state. and that all shall be always. How can you say both that all things were formed. 39. little bones. if they can aid men at all. too. feeding. If he has done wrong. they have no power. nor be grieved about any of them.libertyfund. they can also aid them in this. 2011) 96 http://oll. Or. gold and silver its heavy dregs: Our cloaths but hairs. profit us. The animal spirit too is another such thing. Well. passing always from one change to another. or for three. or their praises. the Gods have put this in my own power. perhaps you will say. Or all is atoms: and nothing else but a jumble of parts. is it the material? View it also well. then. and you will see. it seems. too. to pray about these things.org/title/2133 . how great their self-conceit! 35. Either all events proceed from one intelligent fountain§ [in the whole] as in one body: and then the part ought not to complain of what happens on account of the whole. by which all things are formed well. in the things which are in our own power? Begin. Loss is nothing else but change: and in this delights the nature of the whole. why do you pray? But if they have power. 38. Besides these there is nothing else. All other things are of the same kind. and the purple colour of them. One prays. 40. come at length to‡ more simplicity of heart. And who told you the Gods don’t give us their assistance. How putrid the material substance of every thing! Water. Among so many Gods. Either the Gods have no power at all [to aid men in any thing.] or they have power. What kind of governing parts have these men! And about what things are they earnestly employed! And on what accounts do they love and honour! Imagine their minds naked before you. such like things will be. he has not done wrong. 37. From the beginning of ages they have been managed in the same way: and to all eternity.* blood.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 34. It is the same thing whether you have observed these things for a hundred years. When they fancy their censures hurt. rather than for the having them. therefore. then.17 36. marble is but the concreted humours of the earth. than perplex your self about the things which are not in your own power. neither to fear any of these things. how shall I have no desire to enjoy her! PLL v6. and equity in your sentiments.
pray. if the uninstructed acts like one uninstructed? Look if you ought not rather to blame yourself. But my life continued pleasant and happy. how shall I prevent the loss of my child! Do you. when under a disease. 2011) 97 http://oll. whatever befalls you. enabling him to bear with this fault [in his fellow?]† For. And what is there evil. or ungrateful. Nor did I allow the physicians to make a noise. how the intellectual part. turn to yourself: For the fault was. have done any thing by which the intellectual part of you was like to be the worse. what is impossible: For this is one of those shameless men. or the faulty in any respect. to be wholly intent on what they are doing. if.org/title/2133 . they have their proper perfection. if when you gave a favour. nor run into the silly way of the vulgar. as an antidote: And so. When you are disgusted with the impudence of any one. it is likely this man will be guilty of such a fault. while you remember it is impossible but such kind of men must needs be in the universe. For. my conversations were not about the diseases of this poor body: nor did I speak of any such things to those who came to me. For. might remain undisturbed. and has wandered. when you blame any one as faithless. against another. especially. Epicurus says: “When I was sick. Have the same question also at hand. You are also at full liberty to set right one who has wandered. immediately ask yourself.”19 What he did. and harm. For. and such as are unacquainted with nature. and are surprised that he is guilty of it. and the instrument or means by which they do it. I had before established: And was chiefly intent on this. 42. has all its subsistence there. or the feet for walking. so. either you trusted. Now. against the unreasonable. if you fall into one. turn your prayers this way. when you have done a kind office to a man? Is it not enough to you. manifestly on your side.] when he does any kind office to PLL v6. formed by nature for kind offices [to his fellows. It is highly useful. and preserve its own proper good. what is your [real] evil. also. tho’ it partakes of such violent commotions of the body. for not having laid your account with this man’s being guilty of such faults. she has given meekness. or.libertyfund. as these are form’d for a certain purpose. the faithless. that you have acted in this according to your nature? Do you ask a reward for it? This is as if the eye were to ask a reward for seeing. how shall I not be afraid to lose him! Upon the whole. Don’t demand. what harm. and look what will be the effect. every one who does wrong‡ misses his aim. you did not give it ultimately [without further view] so as to reap all the fruit of it by your very doing it. Now. how shall I be freed from this man! Do you.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Another. already.0 (generated September. you will at the same time have more good-nature toward each of them in particular. or strange. But. none of those. And. too. then. yet have forgot. be without the shameless? It cannot.* It is the common maxim of all sects of philosophy. to have immediately this reflection: What virtue has nature given man. as if doing something of great moment. also. then. For you had the means from reason to have concluded with yourself. and vaunt. can the universe. who must needs be in the universe. when shock’d at the crafty. do you. some other ability. how shall I not need to be freed from him! A third. man. that one of such a disposition would keep his faith. then. But continued to discourse of these principles of natural philosophy. never depart from your philosophy. which when they fulfill according to their proper structure. what wou’d you more. at whom you are exasperated.† 41. or are under any other uneasy circumstances: that is. have you got? for you will find.
PLL v6. 2011) 98 http://oll. has done what he is form’d for. or any thing otherways conducive to the good of society.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus another.org/title/2133 .libertyfund.0 (generated September. and has his proper good and perfection.
the just. as an animal. without longings after any thing. for the enjoyment of pleasure? Or time. Wilt thou. be dissatisfied with nothing appointed me by the whole. nor be disapproved by them. you are by nature form’d able to bear whatever it is in the power of your own opinion to make supportable or tolerable. for lengthening the enjoyment? Or of place. from eternity. Whatever happens to you. 6. 3.libertyfund. which are [all] dissolving for the birth of such others as themselves. won’t be thence rendered the worse. interwoven your subsistence with this contingency. blame yourself. either animate or inanimate. without desires after any thing. 2011) 99 http://oll. the good. it was before preparing for you from eternity. or not able to bear it. won’t be thence rendered the worse. and the concatenation of causes had. and the nature of the whole has this further. or there be [presiding] natures. that being common to all natures. teach him humanely. however. Then do that. that I am a part of the whole. If such as you are by nature form’d able to bear. itself will perish. and the whole must be conducted by its own nature. and approve it. or country. If this be impossible for you. For nothing advantageous to the whole is hurtful to the part.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK X 1. Whether all be atoms. And all shall be right and well for thee which they please to give. the fair. I shall. the surrounder of all things. If he is going wrong. 4. to produce any PLL v6. or your duty. Next you must observe what your nature. Now ’tis plain the rational nature is also social. and simple.org/title/2133 . in any respect. as I am a part. and one. more apparent than the body that surrounds thee? Wilt thou ever taste of the loving and affectionate temper? wilt thou ever be full. So. Whatever happens. Wilt thou ever be able. if your nature. according as you conceive it advantageous. the parent of all things.‡ Observe what your nature demands as far as you are under the government of mere vegetative nature. use these rules. the supporter. For the whole has nothing in it but what is advantageous to itself. † to complain of them. or fine climate? Or of the * social concord of men? But † satisfied with thy present state. Remember. demands. 2. O my soul! be good. And take to yourself every thing of this kind. 5. bear it and fret not: But if such as you are not naturally able to bear. For while I remember this. and naked. or not even yourself. neither. so to live a fellow-citizen of * Gods and men. as a rational-animal. as. the container. and well-pleased with every present circumstance? persuade ‡ thyself thou hast all things: all is § right and well with thee: and comes to thee from the Gods. don’t fret. and without wants. let this be laid down as indisputable. if your nature. and show him his mistake. happens such as you are either formed by nature able to bear it. that it can’t be forc’d by any external cause. and which they are about to give for the safety of ** the perfect animal.0 (generated September. and trouble yourself for none further. ever. for when it has consum’d you. to do so. be that what it will: and that I am in some manner socially connected with the parts which are of the same kind with myself. as an animal.
when covered with wounds and gore. If you take to yourself these names. The parts of the whole. all the parts. Resolutely force yourself into these few cha-racters. 8. For it is either a dissipation of those elements of which it was a mixture. mean only that things are so constituted. And if you happen to lose them at any time. the parts of the whole. I mean. modesty.—And if one. and. I am a part of such a whole. run quickly back to them. I will rather aim at the good of my kind. I shall be well-pleased with every thing which comes from it. and that nothing enter your mind without being carefully examined: By conformity of mind. and the spirituous to the aerial. I will be guilty of nothing unsocial. conformity of mind. by attention of mind you meant to denote. a willing acceptance of every thing appointed by the common nature. without affecting or desiring these appellations from others. to continue such a one as you have been till now. then. be always founded on a thorough unbyassed inquiry into the true nature of the objects. and yet be surpris’d. you will be quite another man. nay. you stedfastly keep to these names. my life must needs run smooth and clear: Just so. this be both evil and necessary to them. how ridiculous! to say. If then. if PLL v6. and enter into quite another life. So that these too are taken into the plan of the whole. and all such things. who was going on in a course of action profitable for his fellow citizens. or fretted. as you would judge a citizen in a happy flow of life. by their very constitution. And don’t think you had all the earthy and the aerial parts from your birth. and remarkably form’d for corrupting. must needs be in a state of corruption. to the little views of fame. which is either to undergo * periodical conflagrations.—For. and the air you breathed. it alters nothing of what I was just now saying. even to be exposed again to the same jaw and fangs. and subject to the distraction and pollution of such a life. in every thing. and not what your mother bore. turn the whole bent of my will to the public advantage.org/title/2133 . And as far as I am in some manner one of the same family with the parts of the same kind with me.libertyfund. elevation of mind. By elevation of mind. and to make them both subject to fall into evil. as the dissolution of every thing is into those very elements of which it is compos’d. and gladly embracing whatever is appointed him by the city. which the universe contains. By remembering. quitting the notion of a [presiding] nature. one of a high sense of honour. or a conversion of them: of the solid to the earthy. They were late accessions of yesterday or the day before. too. to death.0 (generated September. therefore. and who is like one of those half devoured combatants with the wild beasts [in the public shows] who. then. at any thing. a good man. the raising the thinking part superior to any pleasant or painful commotion of the flesh. and such as of necessity have fallen into evil? Or has this happened without her knowledge?—Both these are equally incredible.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus thing hurtful to itself. whether did nature herself take in hand to do evil to the parts of herself. and fond of life. are changed. And remember. or be renewed by perpetual changes. and withdraw it from the contrary. veracity. tend to change. that your knowlege. Let this expression be used for denoting a state of change. 2011) 100 http://oll. as happening contrary to the nature of things: especially. If. the whole cannot possibly be in a right state. These accessions. Grant that this their change † into the peculiar nature of your body makes you cling earnestly to them. one of attention of mind. take care you never change them for others.4 When I accomplish these things in this manner. For. since the parts are prone to change. 7. I say. yet beg to be preserved till to morrow. is the part of * one extremely insensible. by your food.
Apply constantly to this part [of philosophy. resigns himself entirely to † justice. then. in life. it will greatly assist you to keep in mind these names. and inflexibly. another. another. that of a bee. on this he spends not a thought. even. and to ** follow God in the straight way.org/title/2133 . * But if you are not sure. What any one may say or think of him. and who may give it. if he has conquered the Sarmatians. 10. from your right knowledge of things. having at least perform’d this one thing well.libertyfund. another. The public diversions [which you must attend in Rome. Acquire a method of contemplating how all things change into one another. a dignity of deportment. another. then. in every thing else which happens.] the consternation. what it is in its real nature. your contemplative powers may. For there is nothing so proper as this for raising you to an elevation and greatness of mind. and succeed not thoroughly [in your intention to abide in them. go on in the road to it. will wipe out daily. You ought so to think. which performs the business of a fig-tree.] the Wars [abroad. 9. and laid them up in your mind. what it is compos’d of.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus you are able to abide in them. He has thrown off all hurry and bustle. depart out of life altogether. and slavery of those about you. a bee. bears.] but with simplicity. and a man who performs the business of a man. if you examine their sentiments? * 11. Now. stupidity. but not designedly concealed. that you have in this manner departed out of it.] and exercise yourself thoroughly in it. that. an accurate inquiry into every thing which occurs. and that they don’t want ‡ adulation and flatte-ry from their worshippers. and ‡ your confidence in yourself. who may possess it. [if you take not heed. But if you perceive you fall from them. or do against him. and consult the best advisers. accord-ing to the PLL v6. where you may prevail. if he has hunted down wild-boars. what place and rank it has in the universe. and take it away. For. unobserved perhaps. 12. if. [by meeting with less opposition] or. and leave all these things behind him. while you are discharging any external office. has already put off the body. and modesty. how long it is naturally fitted to last. and with loving what is at present appointed for him. but that all beings indued with reason shou’d become * like unto themselves: Keep in mind too that that is a fig-tree. suspend. which performs that of a dog. liberty. then. a dog. proceed with a prudent caution. be preserv’d. The spider exults if it has caught a fly: another.0 (generated September. yet not angry [that you could not prevail. and to the nature of the whole.] retire boldly into some corner. in whatever he does him-self. be exerting themselves. He satisfies himself with these two things: With acting justly in what he is at present doing.11 Are not all these robbers alike. and being sensible how instantly he must depart from among men. if he has caught a little hare. on every occasion. if you keep in mind the Gods. if a little fish in a purse-net. What need of suspicions [about the event?] Since you can consider what ought to be done: and if you understand that surely. unless † you have settled them upon a thorough consideration of nature. If you meet with any obstacles in the way. 2011) 101 http://oll. to ‡ go on in the straight way § according to the law.] those sacred maxims. you will enjoy simplicity. calmly. and act. as one who has removed and settled in the † fortunate Islands. He who does this. abide. at the same time. and has no other will but this.
what they shun. What sort of men are they when eating. and.” Is not our common ** phrase according to fact. as if on a [lonely] mountain. truth. always chearful. To [the presiding] nature. and what pursue? What they steal. as it were. where ever he lives. let them put you to death. Live.libertyfund. 2011) 102 http://oll. but with their most precious part.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus means you have. procure to himself faith. and in a state of change.‡ “Earth loves the rain”.] PLL v6. That is for the advantage of each which the nature of the whole brings to each. § “What thou lovest I love. For ’tis no matter whether there or here. if what is just and good be done by some other person? It will not. what sort of men when † distributing their largesses. and good-will to her. and yet composed. by which one may. Will it be of consequence to you. also. but lately. honour and modesty. For that is the best mark to aim at. Since the failing in that is the only proper miscarriage. and elate with pride. the wellinstructed mind. He who. procreating.—“And the majestic Ether loves [the earth. or angry. and at table? What their actions are. And for his advantage at that time.” [to denote that it is usual or natural. and the whole of substance: And that every individual thing is. 17. says. when we say “such a thing loves to be so. 21. as a grain of millet. and sharply rebuking with a stately insolence! To how many were they. sleeping. in every thing. then to the universe.0 (generated September. what kind of men they are in bed.] 14. if he has the will. with attention.”]14 The universe.” And this he says not with an arrogant ostentation. but in actually being such. Let men see and know you to be a man indeed. and what they rob? Not with feet and hands. and on what accounts! and in what condition will they shortly be? 20. if one. slaves. but with obedience alone. For better so than live as they do. each of the things around you as already dissolving. at which she brings it. which gives and resumes again all things. [which is the supreme felicity or good-fortune. As soon as you awake. as each formed by nature such as to die. easing nature. This remainder you have of life is small. Frequently represent to your imagination a view of the whole of time. and the like! And.org/title/2133 . 13. in substance. Have you forgot. and a good divinity within. or dissipation. or. 16. I say. loves to do that which is going to happen. follows reason [or the law of his nature] is always at leisure. living according to nature. † law. considers the universe as a city. 15. and. in discoursing on what are the qualities of the goodman. Spend your time no longer. keeping close to what appears just. those who assume such airs of importance in their praises and censures of others. 19. and yet ready for any business. Consider. in duration. as a * turn of a wimble. 18. If they cannot bear with you. corruption. “Give what thou willest: take back what thou willest. possessed of a sense of honour and decency. then. immediately ask yourself.
For you may always meet with that of Plato.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 22. either from your own experience. the law is our master. by himself. or angry. and ask yourself. and that * all things are the same there as on the mountain-top. and so the transgressor of the law is the fugitive: and he. But the bare following is a necessity upon all. dramas. while under the knife. and other things how many and surprising! Contemplate therefore. who is grieved. 2011) 103 http://oll. the whole court of Philip. or formerly happened. What is my governing-part to me? and to what purposes am I now using it? Is it void of understanding? Is it loosened and rent off from society? Is it glewed to.”17 24. yet no less manifestly. life. Frequently reflect. 29. on his couch. too. Such too is he.0 (generated September. the infant lets the food down its throat. only to the rational animal it is given to follow * willingly what happens. appointing to every one what is proper for him. “[The wise man ever enjoys retirement. take courage. of Alexander. who is afraid. all of the same kind. or any where. He who flies from his master is a fugitive-slave. PLL v6. And place before your eyes the whole. and scenes. that. to be like the pig in a sacrifice. and incorporated with the flesh.org/title/2133 . and view the power [which produces them] in the same way as you view the power which makes bodies tend downwards or upwards: not with your eyes. which kicks and screams. who. 28. When one has cast the seed into the womb. so as to turn which way that pleases? 25. in a word. if death be a terror because it deprives you of this. how all things which happened formerly were just such as happen now. tho’ done so very covertly. or grieved. Wonderful production from such a beginning! Again. 27. which you have ever known. is the fugitive-slave. or is happening. Conceive every one. deplores in silence. of Croesus.] he makes the city-wall serve him for a shepherd’s fold on a hill-top. at any thing whatever. that we are all tied to our fate. Either you are living here. also. 23. and. and strength. of these things which are ordered by him who governs all: Who is † the law. 26. and now habituated to it: Or going hence. that such too will those be which are to ensue. because any thing has happened. indeed. or afraid.libertyfund. Look attentively on each particular thing you are doing. Reflect. and finishes the infant.21 For all these were of the same kind [with your own] only composed of other persons. Such as the whole court of Hadrian. motion. or ancient history. He. and transforms it into [organs of] sensation. and have finished your public offices in life. and that was your will: Or you are dying. So. who says. these things. and then another cause receives it. operates. Now. he departs: another cause receives it. or at the wild sea-coast. Let this be always manifest to you: That a country retirement is just like any other place. also. or storms. Now besides these there is nothing else. then. the whole court of Antoninus. or angry. Consider. who is grieved.
by fixing your attention on this. or do him any evil. that he is ‡ forced. you are at liberty to do or say it. Especially if you recollect. But intelligence and reason can pursue the course it is naturally fitted for. Now. 31. immediately turn to yourself. or such as don’t hurt the man. and when you consider Xenophon. or pleasure. in that case. But. when you consider Euphrates. or glory. to the cylinder. or Hymen: and. When you consider § Satyrio the Socratic. For the other stops are.] How fine a * subject of employment to yourself are you shunning? For. whoever has such an opinion of you. when you see any body else. are those? No where? Or who can tell? For thus you will constantly behold all human things as smoke and nothing. unless by opinion. 2011) 104 http://oll. indeed.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 30. and PLL v6. thro’ every obstacle. all this is in your own power. Now.22 And when you look into yourself. require you should. You will never cease from groaning [and repining. till you make all these things familiar to yourself: As the healthy stomach adapts all things to itself: As * the shining fire turns whatever you throw on it. those things which are properly suitable to the frame and constitution of man. then. But let him be mistaken. and seek for nothing further. remove what forces him. too. that you are not a man of simplicity. in every subject of action that is thrown in your way. which you are at liberty to perform according to your own proper nature. the sufferer itself thereby becomes the worse. will your change come? And why is it not sufficient to you to pass this short space gracefully [in this universe. For. think on Eutychio or Silvanus. Place before your eyes this easiness with which reason goes on through all obstacles. what has once changed. 32. such be to you the doing. think on Tropaiophorus. what fault of a like kind you yourself commit.org/title/2133 . either those of the insensible carcase. In all other fabrics. that such as luxury is to the men of pleasure. the man becomes even the better. and so of the rest. And when Alciphron. as if hindered. And so analogously. what is he who hinders you to be good. what can be done or said in the soundest. How soon. if you can. [and most upright] manner? For. and by Reason’s own yielding itself to them. and you have this liberty every where.0 (generated September. For. if I may say so. or falls into it.† When you are offended at a fault of any one. into flame and splendor. that. For. And don’t make pretences. you will quickly forget your anger. will never exist again through all the infinity of time. For. you must conceive to be a delightfull enjoyment. wou’d himself presently have become evil. then. and wills. as the fire upward. and single-hearted? Only do you determine to live no longer if you are not to be such a man. otherways he who suffered by them. taking this along. and stop them. whatever evil happens to them. Let no-body have it in his power to say with truth of you.libertyfund. Where. it is not given to move every where in its proper motion: Nor to the water: Nor to the fire: Nor to any of those other things which are governed by a nature or a soul irrational: For there are many things which restrain. and consider. now. with accuracy. here. as the cylinder on the declivity. what are all things but exercises for that rational power which hath viewed all things that occur in life. Then let this at the same time enter your mind. every thing. In this present matter you are employ’d about. as the stone downward. whatever that be.] till once you be so affected. what else cou’d he do? or. think on Eutyches. think on any one of the Cesars. think on Crito or Severus. 33. and according to their true natures? Stay. candour and goodness. Such as judging money to be good. For neither does ‡ reason.
and continue to them friendly. too. and let all men applaud whatever I do”. To him. Yet are you dreading or courting them. or. and propitious: and. or. when you consider. on the other hand. Some leaves the winds blow down: the fruitful wood Breeds more mean-while. which hurts not the city. in a little. whose heart the true maxims have pierced. 36. these are leaves. In the same manner. is an eye which seeks the green objects. For death. “Let my children be preserved. not reluctant however. “in spring-tide appear. The sound ear. But. then. as a mill for all it is framed to grind. that. nothing hurts him who is by nature a citizen. as from relations. go off less benign toward them. the shortest. what hurts not the law. And him. which in spring-time appear. That mind which says. Nor hurts the city. had so many cares. don’t go off. but that. when he dies. For all these. who declaim with such important airs of assurance. would strive for a longer stay here? Don’t. 35. at his death. remember. which hurts not the law.” Who. multitudes wou’d gladly get rid of me? This you may reflect on. who carries you out to your funeral. for some other satisfaction. and not say. but as. * Your children.0 (generated September. who. my very partners. how many other reasons are there. are little leaves. Upon the whole. and sound forth the praises of others. such also ought your departure from these men to be. ends one race. on this account. “I want the green”: for that is like one who has sore eyes. will say within himself? “I shall at last get breathing from this strict tutor. or teeth. for which. shall another bewail. But preserve your own manners.” Then the wind shall presently throw them down. ’tis likely. put up so many prayers. in my case. when one dies a gentle death. and the sound stomach be equally disposed for all sorts of food. benevolent. you will close your eyes. So. ought to be ready for all the objects of hearing and smelling. is one of the things according to nature. And the forest breed others in their stead. He was not indeed severe to any of us.libertyfund.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the more praise-worthy.25 34. “I am going out of such a life. as torn away. † and depart with the less regret. curse them. who are to preserve your surviving fame. Nay. while one is born. also. some of the by-standers will rejoice at the * evil which befalls him. then. by making a right use of what falls across to him. 2011) 105 http://oll. who privately censure and sneer at them. and these are leaves too. for whose sakes I underwent and struggled with so many labours. hoping from thence. neither hurts the city nor the citizen. Of men. Now none of these things called misfortunes hurt the law. Yet I was sensible he tacitly condemned us. but peaceable. For nature had knit and cemented you to them: But now she parts you. as if they were to be eternal. There is no man of so happy a lot.” Thus will they say of the good man. So also the sound mind ought to be ready for all things which happen. too. The sound eye ought to behold [with ease] all the objects of sight. the soul comes easily out of the body. on the contrary. in it. I part. which seek the tender food.27 PLL v6. thus.org/title/2133 . however. Was he good and wise? Will there not be some-body. Such as. and sense of smelling. The short-lived existence is common to them all. when a-dying. those very men are wishing me to be gone. the most common hint is a sufficient memorial to keep himself free of sorrow and fear.
Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
37. Accustom yourself, as much as possible, in every thing any one is doing, to consider with yourself; What end does he refer this to? But, begin, at home; and examine yourself first. 38. Remember, ’tis * that which lies hid within, which draws and turns you † as the wires do the puppet. ’Tis that, is eloquence: That, life: That, if I may say so, is the man. Never blend with it, in your imagination, this surrounding earthen vessel, and these little organs. They are but like the ax, [any tool of any artizan,] with this only difference, that they are naturally united with us: since, none of these parts are of any more service, without the cause which moves and stops them, than the shuttle is to the weaver; the pen, to the writer; or the whip, to the charioteer.
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1. These are the privileges of the rational soul: It contemplates itself: It forms or fashions itself in all parts: It makes itself such as it desires: * The fruit it bears, itself enjoys; whereas, others enjoy the fruits of vegetables and lower animals: It always obtains its end, whensoever the close of life may overtake it. In the dance, or the dramatic action, if by any thing interrupted, the whole action is made incomplete; but, as to the soul, in whatever part of action, or wheresoever, overtaken by death, the past action † may be a com-plete whole, without any defect. So that, I may say, “I have obtained all which is mine.” Nay, further, it ranges around the whole universe, and the void spaces beyond; views its extent; stretches into the immensity of duration, and considers and comprehends the periodical renovation of the whole. It discerns, also, that those who come after us shall see nothing new; and that our predecessors saw no more than we have seen. Nay, one who has lived but forty years, if of any tolerable understanding, has, because of the uniformity of all things, seen, in a manner, all that is past and future. These, too, are the properties of the rational soul: love to all around us; truth, and modesty; and the respecting nothing more than itself. Which, too, is the property of the * law. Thus, there is no difference between right reason and the † reason of justice. 2. You may be enabled to despise the delightful song, or the dance, or the admired exercises; if you divide the harmonious tune into its several notes, and ask yourself about each of them apart, “Is it this which so charms and conquers me?” For you would blush to own that. Do the like as to the dance, about each posture and motion; and the like about the exercises. In general, as to all things, except virtue, and the offices of virtue, remember to enure yourself to a low estimation of them, by running forthwith to their several parts, and considering them separately. Transfer the like practice to the whole of life. 3. How happy is that soul, which is prepared, either to depart presently from the body, or to be extinguished, or dispersed, or to remain along with it! But, let this preparation arise from its own judgment, and not from mere obstinacy, like that of the ‡ Christians;2 that you may die considerately, with a venerable composure; so as even to persuade others into a like disposition; and without noise, or ostentation.3 4. Have I done any thing social and kind? Is not this itself my advantage § ? Let this thought always occur; and never cease to do such actions. 5. What art do you profess? To be good. And, how else is this to be accomplished, but by the great maxims about the nature of the whole, and about the peculiar ** structure and furniture of human nature? 6. Tragedies were, at first, introduced, as remembrancers of the events which frequently happen, and must happen, according to the course of nature; and to intimate, that, such events, as entertain us on the stage, we should, without repining, bear upon the greater stage of the world. You see that such things must be
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accomplished; and, that those per-sons could not avoid bearing them, who made the most dismal exclamations, “* Alas Cithoeron!” Our dramatic poets have many profitable sayings; such as that, especially, Me and my children, if the Gods neglect, It is for some good reason.—— And again, Vain is all anger at the external things. And, For life is, like the loaden’d ear, cut down. And such like.5 To tragedy succeeded the antient comedy; using a very instructive liberty of speech; and, by open direct censure, humbling the pride of the great. To this end, Diogenes used something of the same nature. Next, consider well, for what purpose the middle comedy, and the new, was introduced;6 which, by degrees, is degenerated, from the moral view, into the mere ingenuity of artifi-cial imitation. ’Tis well known, however, that they, too, contain many useful admonitions. But, consider for what † purpose this whole contrivance of poetry, and dramatical pieces, was intended. 7. How manifest is it, that ‡ no other course of life was more adapted to the practice of philosophy than that you are engaged in? 8. A branch broken off from that branch to which it adhered, must necessarily be broken off from the whole tree. Even thus, a man broken off from any fellow-man, has fallen off from the social community. A branch must always be broke off by the force of something else: But, a man breaks off himself from his neighbour, by hatred or aversion; and is not aware that he thus tears off himself from the whole political union. But, this is the singular gift of Jupiter, who constituted this community, to mankind, that we may again re-unite in this continuity, and grow together, and become natural parts, completing the whole. Yet, such separations, happening often, make the reunion and the restitution more difficult. In general, there is a considerable difference, between a branch which has always grown along, and conspired, with the tree; and one which has been broken off, and ingrafted again. Of these, say the gardeners, they may * make one tree in appearance with the stock, but not make an uniform whole with it.9 9. They who oppose you, in your progress according to right reason; as they cannot force you to quit the sound course of action; so, let them not turn you off from your kind affections toward themselves. Vigilantly persist in both these; not only in the stable judgment and practice, but in all meekness toward those who attempt to hinder you, or otherwise give you trouble. ’Tis a sign of weakness, either to be enraged at them, or desist from the right practice, and give up yourself as defeated. Both are
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Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
deserters from their post, the coward, and he who is alienated in affection from one by nature a-kin to him, and who ought to be beloved. 10. Nature cannot be inferior to art: The arts are but imitations of nature. If so, that nature which is of all others the most complete, and most comprehensive, cannot be inferior to the most artificial contrivance. Now, all arts subject and subordinate the less excellent to that which is more excellent. The universal nature must do the same. Hence the original of * Justice; and from Justice spring the other virtues. Justice cannot be preserved, if we are anxiously sollicitous about indifferent things, or are easily deceived, rash in assent, or inconstant. 11. If those things which occasion you such disturbance in the keen pursuits or dread of them, don’t advance to you, but you advance toward them; restrain your judgments about them, and they will stand motionless; and you will neither pursue nor dread them. 12. The soul is as a polish’d sphere, when it neither † extends itself to any thing external, nor yields inwardly to it, nor is compressed in any part; but shines with that light which discovers both the truth in other things, and that ‡ within itself. 13. Does any one despise me? Let him see to it. I shall endeavour, not to be found acting or speaking any thing worthy of contempt. Does any one hate me? Let him see to it. I shall be kind and good-natured toward all; and even ready to shew to this man his mistakes: not to upbraid him, or make a shew of my patience; but from a genuine goodness; as § that of Phocion,10 if he was truly sincere. Such should be your inward temper; so that the Gods may see you neither angry, nor repining at any thing. For what can be evil to you, if acting what suits your nature? Won’t thou bear whatever is now seasonable to the nature of the universe, O man! Thou, who art formed to will that every thing should happen which is convenient for the whole. 14. Such as despise each other, yet are fawning on each other. Such as strive to surpass each other, are yet * subjecting themselves to each other. 15. How rotten and insincere are these professions: “I resolve to act with you in all simplicity and candor.” What are you doing, man? What need you tell us this? It will appear of itself. This profession should appear written in the fore-head: your temper should sparkle out in your eyes; as the person beloved discerns the affection in the eyes of the lover. The man of simplicity and goodness should, in this, resemble such as have a disagreeable smell in their arm-pits; his disposition should be perceived by all who approach him, whether they will or not. The ostentation of simplicity is like a dagger for insidious designs. Nothing is more odious than the friendship of the † wolf. Shun this above all things. The man of real goodness, simplicity, and kindness, bears them in his eyes, and cannot be unobserved. 16. The power of living well is seated in the soul; if it be indifferent toward things which are ‡ indifferent. It will obtain this indifference, if it examines them well in their parts, as well as in the whole; and remembers that none of them can form opinions in us, nor approach to us; but stand still, without motion. These judgments
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’Tis but for a short time we shall need this vigilance. into what changed. that ’tis not the action of others. or injuriously offensive to all around them? Fourthly. PLL v6. There is either an empire of atoms. that. you must fall into many crimes. if wrong. and the superior for each other. that ** you have many faults of your own.org/title/2133 . you ought not to take it ill. and the bull over the herd. may become a robber. Fifthly. of what compounded. 18. Our opinions alone disturb us. If they are contrary to nature. when your anger and resentment is highest. How shall I remove it? By considering that what befalls you. in another respect. remember human life is but for a moment. than by the things themselves. and as it were inscribe them in ourselves. Seventhly. Where is the great difficulty of keeping these things right? If the opinions are according to nature. or of justice. what worse † evils we suffer by anger and sorrow for such things. covetous. [As to those who offend me. Away with them. that any soul is deprived of truth. rejoice in them. A man must be well informed of many points. A man is always excused. or. Their actions reside in their own souls. if it lurks within. or concern about your character. and are much such another. * the inferior natures are formed for the superior. [Consider] whence each thing arose. and with ‡ what high opinions of their own wisdom they entertain them. Sixthly. yet you have a like strong inclination. has no moral turpitude: And. by erring. 2011) 110 http://oll. if you allow any thing else to be * evil. 17. in bed. insensible. How uneasy is it to them to be reputed unjust.0 (generated September. on some singular occasions. in pursuing his own proper good. unawares. that we were formed for each other. with another intention than you imagine. I was set over them [for their defence. let me consider. by a conduct unsuitable to the object. Eighthly. and that it suffers no evil. how I am related to them. We may prevent this inscription. about which those passions arise. examine what it is that suits your nature. Again. immediately blot it out.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus we form ourselves. and quickly haste after it. remove the notion of some terrible evil befallen you. tho’ attended with no glory. and elsewhere. or one of the worst character. We shall be all presently stretched out dead corpses. they will sit easy.] first. you abstain from them. however from fear. sure ’tis § unwillingly and ignorantly.] as the ram over the flock. though you abstain from some such crimes. that. that. And. which disturbs us. before he can pronounce surely about the actions of others. what the causes of the change. Many things may be done justly. ’Tis unwillingly. and the anger is gone.libertyfund. Ascend yet higher. how necessarily they are influenced by their own maxims. consider † what sort of men they are at table. if they do right. Thirdly. If this latter. †† you are not sure they have done wrong. Our life shall presently cease. or an intelligent nature governing the whole.
by saying thus concerning each of them. But.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Ninthly. rather more venerable than any of the branches of justice toward men. what that end PLL v6. These † four dispositions of the soul you should chiefly watch against. tho’ not their natural situation. yet are raised. mildly admonish and instruct him thus. cannot persist one and the same in the whole of life. wheresoever placed by the superior power. but all according to its nature. the body. and fortitude. they are retained here in the compound. obey the whole. To allow them to injure others. or any view to draw admiration from spectators. all its motions toward injustice. at the very time he is attempting to do you an injury? “Don’t do so. attend this disposition. as well as being angry with them: Both are unsociable. Thus. to speak not according to your own heart. You cannot hurt me. [or. It is formed for holiness and piety toward God. that calm meekness. is madness: ’Tis demanding an impossibility. and with a calm mind. 20. 19. in all anger. Strength.org/title/2133 . debauchery. For. and begin at length to become a man. with a genuine good-will. that wrath is not the manly disposition. to expect bad men should not commit faults. obedient to the order of the whole. and subjects the diviner part to the more dishonourable and mortal.0 (generated September. leader.] of the muses. if discovered. and yet. tho’ they naturally descend. it is more manly. The aerial and etherial parts in your composition. is foolish and * tyrannical. and in general. that meekness is invincible. my son!” and shew him tenderly. without ostentation of your philosophy. If you want a tenth gift from the president. and other tribes of animals. not stung with the in-jury. “This appearance is not certain evidence. as gifts received from the muses. so. the nearer is it also to strength and power. And. upon occasion. and not the wrathful and repining: the nearer this disposition approaches to an immunity from passion. 2011) 111 http://oll. that bees. yet. But. fourthly. but as designed for him alone. sorrows. and nerves. recollect. don’t thus behave to their fellows. these are branches of * social goodness. Is it not grievous. waiting till the signal be given for their dissolution. This disposition tends to dissolve the social community. it is deserting its appointed station. you hurt yourself. The earthy and humid parts. You could not say this from the heart: Now you must repute it the most absurd thing. are so many departures from its nature. the elements. that it is so. yea. for the rest of life. that the intellectual part alone should be disobedient. when the soul frets at any event. it cannot bear them. where it is genuine. [suppress] whatever you are conscious is the part of one who is defeated. my son! Nature formed us for a quite different conduct. As sorrow is a weak passion. and fears. and fret at its situation? Nor is there any thing violent and opposite to its nature imposed upon it. But guard against flattering men. and demand they should not injure you. tho’ they naturally ascend. and stand erect. 21. so is anger: Both have received the wound. And. Nay. and sincere without hypocrisy. and its grosser passions. altho’ others may be present. that is not enough: you must examine this also. as it more becomes the rational nature. and. take this: that. blot them out. this must be done without scorn or reproach.” And. what can the most insolent do to you. and yield to it. no less than for justice. He who has not proposed one constant end of life. but is carried away in a contrary course: For. and. and lead to mischief.libertyfund. if you stedfastly persist in kindness to him. Remember these nine topics.
”28 Words of bad omen.”25 32. for not going to Perdiccas upon his invitation: “lest. not into nothing. and terrors only for children. 25. can make all his actions uniform. at their public shows. and were retiring. Nothing is of bad omen. but only concerning some of them.libertyfund. when [fate] allows it not. to view the heavens. and the dryed. your end proposed must be of the social and political kind. to put us in mind of beings which constantly go on executing their proper work. For. and in this manner ever remain the same man. to die to morrow. but into that which is not at present. so it is. or in reading. to say corn must be reaped in harvest? 35. he should say within himself. Remember the † country-mouse. and of order.* “Thou. no freedom hast of speech. to expect to retain a child. frequently to call to our remembrance some of those who were eminently virtuous. “And my heart laugh’d within me—. ’Tis madness to expect figs in winter. “he is. In writing. Socrates made this excuse.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus or purpose ought to be. so. The Spartans. before you pretend to teach others. 30. Observe this much more in life. says he.21 27. who seemed ashamed to see him in that dress. The Pythagoreans recommended to us.27 34.19 24. Socrates called the maxims of the vulgar hob-goblins. since a slave.org/title/2133 . “Virtue herself they blame with harshest words. but sat themselves any where. 22.”24 31. which intimates any of the common works of nature.23 29. Epictetus advises that when a father is fondly kissing his child. The unripe grape. and the consternation and trembling of the latter. For.18 23. and the city-mouse.” says he. Consider what ** Socrates appeared. he alone who directs all his pursuits to such an end.0 (generated September. and purity. “I should perish in the worst manner. 2011) 112 http://oll. be first taught yourself. perhaps. and with what pleasantries he detained his friends. the ripe. appointed the ‡ seats for foreigners in the shade. when Xantippe had gone abroad dressed in his cloaths. say you. no star hath a vail. dressed in a skin.”26 33. as the same opinion is not entertained concerning all those things which to the vulgar appear good. in the morning. There is a precept even in the § writings of Epicurus. for.29 PLL v6. as they happened. 28. receiving kindnesses. All things are changes. Is it of bad omen. for which I cannot make returns. and naked simplicity. such as are of public utility.”20 26.
org/title/2133 . and have no aversion to what depends not on our power. we should restrain them altogether.libertyfund. Why. “None can rob you of your good intentions. when treating of our pursuits. take care they be kind and social. ’Tis no small matter we contend for. and. or brutes? Rational. and at variance?33 PLL v6.30 37. or not. He tells us also. of the virtuous or vicious? Of the virtuous.0 (generated September. 39. don’t you seek after them? Because we have them already. that we must have a power of restraining them: That we may form every purpose with † reservation.32‡ whether we shall be mad-men. What sort of rational.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 36. says one.” says Epictetus. then. What do you desire? Says Socrates. to have the souls of rational creatures. for keen desires. then. 38.31 we must find out the true art of assenting. surely. and proportioned to the worth of the object: That. 2011) 113 http://oll. Why. are you fighting with each other.
be not stopped in this course. or what yourself have formerly done or said. worthy of that orderly universe which produced you. from yourself. and will cease to be as a stranger in your own country. you will become a man. by the wickedness of another. but the not commencing to live according to nature. which the eddy of fortune whirling around you. he touches only what flowed out. that. You consist of three things. you would be free from much distraction and solicitude. For. if you don’t envy yourself [so great an happiness. that you may embrace heartily what is appointed for you. you separate from the governing principle within you those things which are. and all these external events. or any such external furniture or accomodation? 3. according to the rules of holiness and justice. and the times past and future. both astonished. acting what is just. and all those future events. Of holiness. and act according to † the law. as it were. A sphere rejoicing ’midst the circling eddy. pure and free. with freedom. as they are your’s. and stripped of these corporeal vessels. or his opinion or talk. you may speak the truth. since * nature hath produced it for you. bark. Separate. To the two former. Let that which suffers in such cases see to it.0 (generated September. PLL v6. Of justice. with true dignity. and set yourself to regulate well your present conduct. and in anxious suspence about this and t’other thing.1 Be solicitous only to live well for the present. which has grown up around you. from the intellectual part.libertyfund. and you for it. and honour only that governing and divine part within you. appended to it by its vehement passions. now that you are near your exit. and you may go on till death. But the † third alone is properly your’s. can he. carries along. you make yourself like the firm World of Empedocles. and commit what is future to providence. who looks not to the surrounding carcase.] That is to say. God beholds all souls bare. or by any sensation of this poor carcase. therefore. or this animal life. therefore. with what happens every day. and all that may affect this encompassing carcase. this poor flesh. as if unexpected. you may have at once. with tranquillity. you quit thought about other things. may live with itself. which depends not on your power. glory. If. and speaking truth: If. and without artifice or craft.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] BOOK XII 1. be much hurried about dress. if you quit the thoughts of what is past. For. so that your intellectual power. 2. and the merit of the matter. kept disentangled from fate. to spend what remains of life.org/title/2133 . all which others do and say. * some care is due. If you would enure yourself to do the like. the animal breath of life. by his pure intellectual nature. about which you are disturbed. that is. and the intellectual part. 2011) 114 http://oll. and filth. I say. And. to a certain degree. and dread not the ceasing to live. All you desire to obtain by so many windings. satisfied with what happens. houses. and was derived from himself. and complacence with the divinity within you.
but what. and enjoin one to entertain no thought or design. but. if they are so. In the practising of the maxims. You see. To behold the active principle stripped of its bark. in debating this point. have neglected this one point. you are pleading a point of justice with God. than of what we think of our selves. glory. we stand in greater awe of what those around shall think of us. what pain is. and ensuing duration. and. even for one day: Thus. both as to body and soul? Observe the shortness of life. even. we would not thus plead a matter of justice with the Gods. How is it. what. There are none. what. lays by his sword. 2011) 115 http://oll. been. they have left nothing unjustly and unreasonably neglected in their administration. sometimes. to wit. and the infirmity of all these materials. which. and takes it up again. 11. who have. death. what you despair of executing.libertyfund. 6. no man could endure to do so. we should resemble the adventurers in the exercises. as soon as formed. 5. remains idle in many sorts of work. willingly or unwillingly. and yet make less account of his own opinion concerning himself. that. the vast immensity of the preceding. lived with the Gods the great-est part of life. whatever God appoints for him. but such as God is to commend. what. the preventing that some of the very best of men. Consider well the natures of things. Enure yourself to attempt. therefore. that ‡ the Gods. Now.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 4. yet. were they not perfectly good and just. and to embrace kindly. you may be assured it ought not to have been. yet. For. Had it been according to nature. the left hand. should God appear. but be intirely extinguished. If this be truly the case. they would have made it so. who is to each one the cause of all his disturbance and trouble. Consider. As to what happens in the course of nature. The gladiator. 8. as it were. should have no further existence after they die. What a glorious power is granted to man! never to do any action. He needs nothing else for his work but to weild these skillfully. 7. by being enured to it. and not the gladiators. nature would have effected it. For. PLL v6. the references and intentions of actions. had it been proper that the case should have been otherwise. for its inability. pleasure. and their references. if really it is not so. 12. the champion in the exercises carries always his arms and hands along with him. how all is opinion. Had it been just. 9. be well assured. as it were. for they * don’t willingly.org/title/2133 . or even any wise teacher. it would have been practicable. From its not being so. can hold the bridle more firmly than the other.0 (generated September. who have disposed all other things in such comely order. 10. They never do wrong. how no man can be hindered by another. I have often wondered how each man should love himself more than any other. through want of exercise. in what state shall death find you. and with such goodness toward men. dividing them into the material and active principles. than of the opinions of others. by a course of holy and religious services. And. the Gods are not to be blamed. to be quarrelled with. familiar with the Divinity. Nor are men. he would publish to others.
3 without your own approbation? What now is my intellectual part? * Is it fear? Is it suspicion? Is it lust? Is it any such thing? 20. If not becoming. and a still harbour. so. or a horse should not neigh.0 (generated September. If the wave surrounds you. and temperance. 21. Won’t you. suffers no ill by ceasing. spring out of them. and moves you. till it be extinguished. by its thus ceasing. and an unalterably fixed order. as the wires do a puppet. it can carry along the carcase. nor shall any of those things remain. and you shall be no more. which can be appeased.libertyfund. 17. yet compose yourself with this. be extinguished before you are? 16. When a lamp continues to shine. or such other necessary things. as when one has turned the promontory. nor any of those who are now living. If there is an ungoverned confusion. don’t do it. and then.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 13. ending at its proper time. by distinguishing the cause. all is calm. 2011) 116 http://oll. How ridiculous. without a reference. that one has done wrong. 18. and got into a bay. [say thus to yourself:] How are you sure this is wrong? Grant it to be wrong: You know not but he is deeply condemning himself: this is as pityable. why strive against it? If there is a kind providence. as to the whole series of actions. but. which strikes your imagination. make yourself worthy of the divine aids. to turn. if it ends in its season. than that which raises the several passions. nor PLL v6. who has such dispositions? If you are a man of high abilities. the intellectual part it cannot bear along with it. who is surprised at any thing which happens in life! 14. that. In like manner. it suffers no ill by ceasing. and like a stranger is he. which is life. shall your veracity. Consider always what it is. or that infants should not cry. that you have something more excellent and divine within you.† Any one natural operation. What can the man do. at last. one. 15. And then.4 23. your opinion. Yet a little. justice. cure them. who expects vicious men should not do wrong. refer your actions to nothing else than some social kind purpose. therefore. perceive.org/title/2133 . all shall become stable to you. which you now behold. Let these be your fixed principles. or a kind and benign providence. amidst these tempestuous waves. as if he were tearing his own face. ’Tis the nature of all things to change. don’t say it. and loses not its splendor. and unfold it. Remove. is as absurd as one expecting a fig-tree should not produce the natural juice in the figs. let nothing be done at random. There is either a fatal necessity. without a governour. the reference. in their course. All depends on your opinions: These are in your power. If there be an unalterable necessity. When † you are struck with the apprehension. that others may. and to corrupt. Secondly. 22. First. you have a presiding intelligence within yourself. or a blind confusion. If not true. and the animal life. and the time within which it must necessarily cease. nor does the agent suffer any ill. the matter. when you incline. 19.
that opinion is all. but in another. in general. and that by his own inclination. And this. of what materials composed. nor otherwise than justice herself would have acted.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus is the person. till its death. Nay. that † it is the present moment only. you have forgot that all happens according to the nature of the whole. between any man. And this. you would see only the same things. that the universe still remains new. too. to its being quickened. all of short duration. too. no man should quarrel with chance. not by common seed or blood. and that with * simplicity. and this. from its seed.0 (generated September. which is advantageous to the whole. and ask. that is always good and seasonable. proceeded from the same God. were transported with indignation. conscious. nor is there any thing unsociable in it. or. Have these three thoughts always at hand: first. too. The ceasing of life cannot be evil to individuals. an efflux from God. who goes the same way with God. who. or in enmities. and his life. that no man is proprietor of any thing: His dear children. how mean are all the objects of our keen pursuits! How much more becomes it a philosopher. Let every such instance occur.5 and. hinders you to cast them out? 26. And this. or in calamities. 27. Thus. also. but a common intellectual part. nor censure providence. for. that. who thus finishes his series. not even a tale. and. who. For. and all the human race. once. they either happen by chance. and the like now happens every where. that. ‡ Fabius Catullinus in the country. formerly. and will happen. to shew himself.libertyfund. And. and that the fault subsists not in you. or things exactly uniform. The third. also. ’tis good. it has no turpitude in it. The season and the term is limited by nature. those. has happened. then. Who. could you be raised on high. Now. his very body. and contempt of pride. you forget. a man of justice and temperance. and Stertinius at Baiae: Tiberius at Capreae. Can we be proud of such matters? 25. so as from thence to behold all human affairs. And this. Recollect frequently those. and discern their great variety. how great the bond of kindred is. from its quickening. As for external events. Cast out your opinions. and in its bloom. sometimes even by your own. or can lose. 24. and advantageous. at the same time. proceeded to the highest pitch in glory. ’Tis by the changes of its several parts. but. or any other circumstance of fortune. following the Gods. perhaps. When you fret at any thing. as in old age. in the matters subjected to his management. that the * soul of each man is divine.org/title/2133 . of the crouds of aerial and etherial inhabitants who surround us: Were you thus raised on high. The second. and concurring with the order of the whole. in any bad state. Lucius Lupus. you are safe. since it is not in our power. the most intolerable pride is that displayed in an ostentation of humility. You forget. too. 2011) 117 http://oll. and into what it must be resolved. always by the nature of the whole. all eminence attended with the high opinions of men. Then stop. where are they all now? Smoke. and Velius Rufus. that you do nothing inconsiderately. or by providence: now. is he led by God. PLL v6. never so often. to examine what each thing is. and an old tale. since ’tis seasonable to the whole. whatever now happens. and ashes. which one lives.
all depends. whence are you assured they exist. being void of sense. what further remains. it is opposite to the reverence due to them. with peculiar qualities. or not. What is there terrible in this. but to enjoy life. There is but one common substance. The safety of life depends on this. tho’ divided by walls. that. go on to the last that remains. how small. what its form or cause. to speak. so as not to leave any vacant interval? 30. 36. even * those who deemed pleasure the sole good. 29. and. if we repine that we must be deprived of all the former enjoyments by death. presently. † they are visible. are but dead carcases. yet despised it. whether he has opportunity of exerting a greater number of actions. and ‡ one intellectual spirit. yet. to do justice with all our heart. too. it must vanish into eternity: How small a part of the universal matter? And. of the universal spirit? On how narrow a clod of this earth do you creep? When all these things are considered. that you are sent out. and worship them.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 28. that you thus worship them?” First. to think: Are any of these wor-thy of your desire? If all these are despicable. which is † seasonable. To the person who reputes that alone to be good. Other things. and pain the sole evil. with their peculiar limitations. what it is in whole. yet. And the social affection cannot be entirely repressed. or an unjust PLL v6. “Where have you seen these Gods? or. which makes them tend to the same place. and other objects.org/title/2133 . The other parts of these mentioned wholes.0 (generated September. But. not by a tyrant. my own soul I cannot see. or a smaller: whether he beholds this universe for a longer or a shorter space. altho’ it appears to be divided. whether dependent on your choice. nothing will appear great. and bearing contentedly whatever the common nature brings along with it. and. is equal and just to all. How small a part is appointed to each one of the infinite immense duration? For. 31. death cannot appear terrible. as a denizen of ‡ this great state: Of what consequence to you. adding one virtuous office to another. and appetite? To grow. are void of affection to each other: And. 2011) 118 http://oll. and reckons it indifferent. even to the eye: Again. of what materials.libertyfund. And. To those who ask. whether it be only for five years? What is according to the laws. such as the forms and matter. ’tis an intellectual being that preserves them. and a force of gravity. This must rouse you most powerfully to despise death. I reverence it. You have lived. tho’ divided by ten thousand natures. and thus. and smoke. Now. to follow reason and God. What use does the governing part make of itself? On this. 34. to discern each object. There is but one light of the sun. as I experience continually the power of the Gods. 35. There is but one animal soul. according to right reason. and is naturally recommended to it. I both know surely that they are. O man. to speak truth. 32. and to decay again. what is intellectual has a peculiar tendency to its kind. mountains. 33. except acting as your nature leads. What do you desire? merely to be? or also to have sensation. tho’ divided among ten thousand bodies.
PLL v6. I have not finished the five acts. he is propitious and kind. contented. but only three. who. But. † three acts make a complete play. but by that nature.org/title/2133 . who dismisses you.libertyfund. for. say you.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus judge. You say true. which at first introduced you? As if * the praetor who employed the player. Neither of them are chargeable on you: Depart. in life. but. therefore. ’tis he who appoints the end to it. and in good humour. should dismiss him again from the scene. 2011) 119 http://oll.0 (generated September. as he was the cause of the composition. FINIS. is now the cause of the dissolution. For.
I Of GOD.e. to the utmost of our strength and abilities. takes care of human affairs. but.n more advantageous. but let all behold us dedicate ourselves. we ought to receive. As.libertyfund.org/title/2133 . of each single man. and kindly beneficent to all men. that we ought strenuously to keep. From Him whatever comes to us. “Mankind we oughta.r Whatever place. in the prefatory discourse to his excellent edition and commentary onAntoninus.g.h.b. do them all the good we can. whatever it be. and embrace.q without turning our back. By Nature. in general.m nothing more convenient. And* The Love Of GOD.” II Of Man. andg his conduct approved. 2011) 120 http://oll. that being even impiety:f. andb. and to live. with a ready and hearty accord: and thinkl nothing better. not only in those things which are their true good and happiness. “God is. to meet a thousand deaths. have a tender care of. therefore.k.0 (generated September. aids mankind. for the public good. He has assigned us. in single-ness of heart. taken mostly from these Meditations. than that. even. to yield a willing obedience in all we do. which He has willed.o more fortunate. PLL v6. “The Divine Providencea.h. we are born. we thought it proper to translate it here. for all things to be praised. and with all our might maintain. from the heart to love.c above all to be worshipped. for ourselves alone. or murmuring.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] ERRATA* MAXIMS OF THE STOICS As Gataker.d in all undertakings to be invoked. there we ought to follow.e at all times to be remembered.d. f in all things to be acknowledged. abstain from all kind of injury. but in the external conveniencies and supports of life. we ought. and give the references to the places he quotes. has given a very justSummary of the chief maxims of the Stoic philosophy.i To Him alone. and present to our thoughts.i. and bear with their weakness. were we.c. And The Social Duties And Affection To Men. and not believe. or station. Our Kinsmen. by that. and each single matter: Is present in all the affairs of men. and the passages from some others. and not of the universe only.p Wherever He thinks fit to lead us. and celebrated. Providence. or more seasonable. with a few additions.
that. shou’d we allow to draw us away. no desires. of all pursuits. neither of life. if we have been useful to any man:y. thro’ the whole. righteous. that we have served ourselves.o.libertyfund.r.org/title/2133 . without hope of reward.x. there be not found thet. the most excellent. deeming it our own good that we have done good to others. no fears of death.m. are. so closely linked to one another.” a “To love the moral charm.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus k “We ought to live satisfied with acting our part well. much less of loss or harm. b “From that which we are conscious is our duty. among mankind. and all.p But go on from one good deed to another. to make life one uninterrupted series of good actions.0 (generated September. and. andgreatness of soul. or glory.n. nor of any thing whatever. PLL v6. z “The culture of our own heart deserves. the greatest and most reverential care. least break or interval:u.s. esteeming it the true fruit of living.” These (says Gataker. to act the fair. strict.) are themaximsandpreceptsof theStoics. or wishing for any external praise. the lovely. without any view at all of our own advantage. or torture. andmanly:all breathingpiety. c.perfectly agreeable to their principles: allholy. without catching at. the most precious. and never be weary of doing good. and with the inward consciousness of having done so:l without concern for the reputation of it. 2011) 121 http://oll. of all other. to deterr us. the honourable part. humanity. without witnesses. affection.q.
This every attentive reader will perceive. and even an adversary to the Christian faith? When they can be had more readily from the sacred page. then. that I may return to what I at first advertised you of from St.n. are inforced with the higher authority of his command. inserted and interwoven into the history of the gospel. and attended to with a stricter necessity of obedience. in the first place. under whose reign the Christians suffered persecution. tho’ a Christian minister. a.libertyfund.equity. For. established. and even life itself. and accommodated to practice in civil life. We discover the equity of the Christian doctrine. another thing of no small moment is this. just as if he had habitually read them. where they stand published to all. and fashioning it after the image of God:f. concisely digested as a taste or specimen: and those maxims and precepts only summarily proposed. But some may. that a careful perusal and serious reflection on these meditations of Antoninus. inforced and inculcated upon us. of bearing injuries with contentment:h. so many years’ time and labour on these Meditations of a Heathen Emperor. more fully explained. of doing good to men from the most single disinterested view:g. while we show it is approved and praised even by strangers and adversaries. In all this. ’Tis certain.m. than the writings and admonitions of these two. and strict caution. 2011) 122 http://oll. they are every where interspersed through this collection of his thoughts and meditations. and Antoninus. as nothing. And as they come from the mouth of our master himself. when reason and the case demand them: and of undertaking and performing almost all the other duties ofk. says he. says b.e.o. our Emperor particularly excells. and its perfect agreement with reason. Jerom.org/title/2133 . and continually inculcated with a surprising strength and life. and leaves the dart deep fixed in the soul.piety. which come nearer to the doctrine of Christ. in those sermons and conversations of his. of counting all things whatever.l. of leaving off all idle conversation:d. In fine. Epictetus. and. “a.0 (generated September. by a great variety of striking arguments. in our admonitions and reproofs:i. And.Dion Prusaeus. “the encomium of those who PLL v6.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Back to Table of Contents] GATAKER’S APOLOGY To this we shall subjoin the following extract from the same preface: Being Gatakers apology for employing. of abstaining from evil. I think it may be boldly asserted. whatever precepts ourLordhimself has given. every honest one confess.” To this I answer. with the greatest diligence and ardour”: All these same precepts are to be found in Antoninus.” And. “A testimony from enemies is of great weight.humanity. are in Antoninus more extensively applied. of using moderation. there are no remaining monuments of the ancient* strangers. of suppressing vicious affections:c. the sacred writers have given us only the chief heads of ourLord’s discourses. say: “to what purpose take those precepts from a stranger. which pierces to the bottom of the heart. of cultivating the heart with all diligence. are several ways useful. perhaps. illustrated.affection. even in thought:b.
“The image of God in our hearts may be burnt. being plainly m. to wear quite out that o. “Who is not sensible. in these following books. reason. Since i. nay. and the particular benefit of his people. lest men. an author of high character.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus admire tho’ they don’t receive. and by so very forcible arguments. that torch. Bernard. nor understood the reasons of our faith). as perfectly agreeable to equity and e. for the advantage of the human race. and unfavourable to the Christian name. by the assistance of these helps. image. 2011) 123 http://oll. as he did not suffer his own image to be quite worn out and lost in man who had fallen off from him. without education is the most savage of all the creatures which the earth nourishes. should like wild beasts. Partly. But preserved some sparks alive.” Surely. who was a stranger. and improved even to a miracle. “that those have had a good cause who gain’d it before judges who were indifferent?” What shall one say then of that cause which is gained even before the averse and prejudiced against it. kindled from heaven in the human heart. that. which followed the primitive defection. originally stamped on the rational soul. the inscriptions. according to him. that the safety and good order of human society might be provided for: h. partly. know and l.” The Apostle understood this very well.0 (generated September.” It was the will of the divine goodness that this image should. For that saying of St. must be the finest of all praises. n. rush universally on each other’s destruction.” And. “man. turning quite savage. g. without excuse if they either despised or neglected them. when he called in testimonies from c. seek God. (for he neither knew our mysteries. be preserved and cherished amid the ruins and ashes. which he both excited by various methods. the precepts and lessons of ourLord.” says f. “beyond the power of hell-flames. that they might apply themselves to k. PLL v6. is undoubtedly true. the good providence and kindness of God shines forth. has been beyond the power either of the vices of men or the malice of Devils: nay. Further. FINIS. Surely it must conduce not a little. to extinguish intirely p. when its very enemies sit judges.libertyfund.org/title/2133 . writings of the strangers. and d. to vindicate and implant in the breasts of any whatever. shou’d yet recommend and establish them with such vehemence and ardour. for proof of the doctrine he brought and was publishing among them. but not burnt out. a man.
libertyfund. Translated By Francis Hutcheson And James Moor PLL v6.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ENDNOTES Editors’ Notes To Hutcheson And Moor’S Life Of The Emperor Marcus Antoninus Editors’ Notes To Marcus’S Text And To Hutcheson And Moor’S Notes BOOK I BOOK II BOOK III BOOK IV BOOK V BOOK VI BOOK VII BOOK VIII BOOK IX BOOK X BOOK XI BOOK XII Editors’ Notes To Maxims Of The Stoics Editors’ Notes To Gataker’S Apology BIBLIOGRAPHY Editions Of The Meditations Of The Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. 2011) 124 http://oll.org/title/2133 .0 (generated September.
restituti: versione insuper Latina nova. Glasgow: Printed by Robert Foulis.Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes. locisque parallelis. 4th ed. Libri XII. Printers to the University. et de Mad. Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes. locis haud paucis repurgati. suppleti. and an Account of His Life. ad marginem adjectis. in Edinburgh. lectionibus item variis. Paris: Barbin. explicati atque illustrati. PLL v6. suppleti. 1764. Printers to the University. necnon Marci Antonini Vita. locisque parallelis. 2011) 125 http://oll. 1652. 1742. and an Account of His Life. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Huic secundae editioni accessere annotationes selectiores A. Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Dacier.Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes. London. His Meditations Concerning Himselfe: Treating of a Naturall Mans Happiness. Cantabrigiae. 4th ed. Glasgow: Printed by Robert and Andrew Foulis. Wherein It Consisteth. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Clements Church. Hamilton and Balfour. Translated out of the originall Greeke. by Mess. sive de eis quae ad se pertinere censebat. ad marginem adjectis. studio operaque Thomae Gatakeri Londinatis. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros tōn eis heauton biblia 12 = Marci Antonini Imperatoris de rebus suis. 1749. with notes by Meric Casaubon. and an Account of His Life.libertyfund.org/title/2133 . sive de eis quae ad se pertinere censebat. 2nd ed. D’Acerii Latinitate donatae. Printers to the University. ac commentario perpetuo. and an Account of His Life. 1752. 1634. Other Editions Of The Meditations Of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Referred To In The Notes To This Edition Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the Roman Emperor.Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros tōn eis heauton biblia 12 = Marci Antonini Imperatoris de rebus suis. 1752. and by Andrew Millar. London. restituti: versione insuper Latina nova. Réflexions morales de l’Empereur Marc Antonin avec des remarques de Mr. studio operaque Thomae Gatakeri Londinatis. B. and an Account of His Life. lectionibus item variis.0 (generated September. Libri XII. ac commentario perpetuo. over against St. Glasgow: Printed by Robert and Andrew Foulis. 1691. locis haud paucis repurgati. Glasgow: Printed by Robert and Andrew Foulis. and sold by him at the College. and of the Meanes to Attain unto It. Dublin: Printed for Robert Main at Homer’s Head in Dame-Street. and Prebendarie of Christ Church Canterbury. 2 vols. explicati atque illustrati. 3rd ed.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus And Published In Glasgow By Robert And Andrew Foulis And In Dublin For Robert Main The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. of D.
Translated by H. Edited and translated by C. 2 vols. Apuleius. Recogniti et notis illustrati [R. 1704. Varese: Instituto Editionale Cisalpino. London: Bell & Daldy. Edited and translated by William R. Butler. 1862. L.J. 2011) 126 http://oll.: Princeton University Press. London.D. N. quondam Socio. R. Eng. Haines. London: Macmillan. 1858. London. 1701. Farquharson with introduction and notes by R. Paris: Société d’édition “Les Belles Lettres. L. 1699. Legatio and De resurrectione. M. Translated by A. Aesop. Oxoniae. Translated by Gerald H.D. Aristides. Rutherford. and Supported by the Authorities Collected by Dr. Fables. 1981–86. B.A. The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Edited by Jonathan Barnes. by Jeremy Collier. 2 vols. 1898. The Thoughts of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Antisthenis fragmenta. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stanhope.. J. Leiden: E. D. 1697. Richard. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus. Stanhope. PLL v6. D.: Penguin Books. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros tōn eis heauton biblia 12 = Marci Antonini Imperatoris eorum quae ad seipsum libri XII. Londini. S. The Emperor Marcus Antoninus His Conversation with Himself: Together with the Preliminary Discourse of the Learned Gataker.libertyfund.0 (generated September. 1744. D. Translated into English from the respective originals. The Complete Works. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Oxford: Clarendon Press. apud Cantabr. Antisthenes. S.” 1960. Edited by A. William Robertson.” In Biographical Memoirs of Adam Smith. Bentley. Behr. Together with His Speeches and Sayings. Edinburgh. To Which Is Added the Mythological Picture of Cebes the Theban.L. L.]. 1984. Translated by Charles A.I. 1954. Harmondsworth. 1966. Schoedel. 1990.org/title/2133 . Princeton. Brill. Edited by Emile Chambry. The Apologia and Florida of Apuleius of Madura. Caizzi. Reg.D. 1944. edited by Sir William Hamilton. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros tōn eis heauton biblia 12 = Marci Antonini Imperatoris eorum quae ad seipsum libri XII. Edited by F. A Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris with an Answer to the Objections of the Honourable Charles Boyle. Other Works Referred To In The Text And Notes “Account of the Life and Writings of William Robertson. Handford. As Also. Written by Monsieur Dacier. P. and Thomas Reid. Milano. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus to Himself: An English Translation with Introductory Study on Stoicism and the Last of the Stoics.. 1972. Oxford: Clarendon Press. A. D. Athenagoras. Coll. Glasguae. The Communings with Himself of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Emperor of Rome. 1916. London: Heinemann. E. 1909. Translated by S. Fables of Aesop. Farquharson.D. 2 vols. Translated by George Long. Aristotle. The Complete Works of Aristotle. the Emperor’s Life. Aesop. Aelius.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus passim aucta.. & idoneis scriptorum veterum testimoniis firmata à Geo. Rendall.
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2004. Macleod. D. B. 1864. Falls. Edited by M. Dialog with Trypho. Justin Martyr. May 31. Loeb Classical Library. Ethices et jurisprudentiae continens. Cambridge.org/title/2133 . ——. Editio altera auctior et emendatior. Duff. The Monarchy or The Rule of God. 2 vols. and D. ——. see Philosophiae Moralis Institutio Compendiaria. Trapp. Epicureans. Dublin: A. 1702.libertyfund. The Civil War. ——. Edited and translated by J. 1913–2004. James. Sedley.C. 1747. Paris. (For a modern edition. Washington. 8 vols. no. Thomas Drennan in Belfast. B.: Harvard University Press. 78. 1889. with Consortium Books. B.: Harvard University Press. Edited by Thomas Mautner.Y.: University of Rochester Press. 2006. with A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy. On Human Nature. Letter to the Reverend Mr. Patrologiae Graecae. A System of Moral Philosophy. D. in Three Books. 1745. London: Macmillan. Saint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Libris III. Menander.0 (generated September. Edited by W. Leipzig: Teubner. Translated with introduction and notes by M. Glasgow. A. Menander. Cambridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1979–2000. Crook. Maximus Tyrius Dissertationes. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoics. 3 vols. Mass. ——. edited by Paul Wood. Bentley. Trapp. The First Apology. R. A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy.: Harvard University Press. Sceptics. 1742. The Hellenistic Philosophers. Harmon and M. M. 1997. Justini Martyris Apologiae pro Christianis. In Glasgow University Library MS Gen 1018. Rochester. 2011) 129 http://oll. King. P.” In The Scottish Enlightenment: Essays in Reinterpretation. Maximus Tyrius. New York: Oxford University Press. 1987. An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue. 11. 1974. 2000. vol.) ——. “Hutcheson’s Theodicy: The Arguments and the Contexts of A System of Moral Philosophy. Long. Exhortation to the Greeks. A. Edited by James Moore and Michael Silverthorne. 1994. D. ——. A. Edited and translated by A. Mass. Philosophiae moralis institutio compendiaria. Containing the Elements of Ethicks and the Law of Nature. 1994. C. ——. 1993. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. Logic. Lucian. Moore. Sancti Isidori Pelusiotae Epistolarum libri quinque. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. 1755. Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus). ——. Loeb Classical Library. Migne. Discourse to the Greeks. N. The Second Apology. A. De origine mali. Glasgow. Loeb Classical Library.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ——. London: Duckworth. 1948. Edited by J. Edited and translated by T. Cambridge. Lucian. Jebb. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Edited by Wolfgang Leidhold. The Philosophical Orations. Glasgow and London.. 1928. edited by Luigi Turco. PLL v6. Long. Saint. Edited by Miroslav Marcovich. in Three Books. 2007. Mass. and the Natural Sociability of Mankind.: Catholic University of America in assoc. Geoffrey Arnott. Metaphysics. From Glasgow. Isidore of Pelusium. William.
Lysis. “Hutcheson’s LLD. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth.: Harvard University Press. Euthyphro. Laws. Satires. 2011) 130 http://oll. Translated by Bernadotte Perrin. Timaeus. R.: Harvard University Press. The Histories. Robertson. Symposium. Loeb Classical Library. 2003. Mass. Bury. and Position in the History of Philosophy. 2 vols. R. bks. 1926. Cambridge.: Harvard University Press. Edited and translated by H. Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (Pauly-Wissowa).” EighteenthCentury Scotland 20 (2006): 10–12. 1921. Translated by Betty Radice. 1925. Plato. Loeb Classical Library. Untitled MS translation of The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. More. Henry More’s Abridgment of Morals. Bury. Isabel. Loeb Classical Library. Loeb Classical Library. In Bodleian Library. Loeb Classical Library. MS entry in The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. 1901. Menexenus. Translated as An Account of Virtue: or. Cambridge. Persius. Reason. ——. 1764. edited and translated by Susanna Morton Braund. Mass. 6 vols. 2 vols. Mass. Oxford Vet A4f. ——. Plutarch’s Moralia. Cambridge. Pliny the Younger (Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus). 505 (9).: Harvard University Press.: Harvard University Press. Babbitt et al. PLL v6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crito. William. ——. Critias. Gorgias. Dr. ——.: Harvard University Press. Rivers. Teaching. M.org/title/2133 . Edited and translated by Robert G. Edited and translated by W. Lamb. Henry. Enchiridion ethicum (1666). 1–8. London: Heinemann. Wright. 1922–2004. Apology. Vol. Loeb Classical Library. 3rd ed.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Moore. 1991–2000. London: Heinemann. Loeb Classical Library. 16 vols. Scott. Phaedo. Mass. Republic. Cambridge. vol. Loeb Classical Library. Stuttgart: Druckenmüller. C. and Eunapius. Mass. Theaetetus and Sophist. 1900. 1690. Cambridge. 1929. Grace. Fowler. Cleitophon. Letters and Panegyricus. Edited and translated by W. ——. London: Heinemann. 2 vols. Francis Hutcheson: His Life. In National Library of Scotland MS 3955. In Juvenal and Persius. Edited and translated by Paul Shorey. Loeb Classical Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 4. Paton. rev. 1914–26. Edited and translated by Robert G. Loeb Classical Library. and Cambridge. Plutarch. 1660–1780. Edited and translated by W. James. C. 2: Shaftesbury to Hume. 2004. The Lives of the Sophists. 1922–27. Lucius Flavius. Epistles. Thomas. and Michael Silverthorne.libertyfund. Cambridge. William Robert. Phaedrus. Mass.: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library. 1914. and Sentiment: A Study of the Language of Religion and Ethics in England. Glasgow. Plutarch’s Lives. Mass. Reid. Loeb Classical Library. N. Mass. 1921. F. 1930–35. Cambridge. Philostratus.: Harvard University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Edited and translated by Harold North Fowler. 1969.0 (generated September. London. Put into English. 11 vols. ——. Edited and translated by F. London: Heinemann. London: Heinemann. Polybius.
Edited and translated by Hugh Lloyd-Jones. 1976. (archival) Book design by Louise OFarrell Gainesville. Raphael and A. Sophocles: Ajax. 1982. Stoicorum veterum fragmenta. H.48-1992. 3rd ed. Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. D. London: Heinemann. Stephen. 1994. The Theory of Moral Sentiments.org/title/2133 . Mass. Shaftesbury. Macfie.J.: Harvard University Press. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. L.libertyfund. 1917–25. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press. New York: Cambridge University Press.: Harvard University Press. Edited by D. 1985. Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus). 1971–2004. A. Virgil. Oedipus Tyrannus. Times. F. Seneca. 3 vols. 1990. London: Heinemann. Electra. Apology. Rushton Fairclough. Edited and translated by David Magie. This book is set in Adobe Garamond.” Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 8. Ad Lucilium epistulae morales. De spectaculis. Loeb Classical Library. Adam. Printed on paper that is acid-free and meets the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. A. a modern adaptation by Robert Slimbach of the typeface originally cut around 1540 by the French typographer and printer Claude Garamond. Church and University in the Scottish Enlightenment: The Moderate Literati of Edinburgh.: Harvard University Press. Florida PLL v6. 2011) 131 http://oll. 4 (1984): 213–14. Edited by R. Cambridge. with its small lowercase height and restrained contrast between thick and thin strokes. 1999. Princeton. Loeb Classical Library. Edited and translated by H. Leipzig: Teubner. Mass. ——. B. z39. Smith.0 (generated September. New York: Oxford University Press. Edited and translated by T. Anthony Ashley Cooper. no. Lucius Annaeus. 1966. Cambridge. P. Sher. Glover. Georgics. Goold. is a classic “old-style” face and has long been one of the most influential and widely used typefaces. Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro). 1922–32. Cambridge. Loeb Classical Library. 1905–24. N. “Francis Hutcheson and the Early History of the Foulis Press: Some Overlooked Evidence. Edited by Lawrence Klein. Richard. Sophocles. 1999–2000. Mass. Characteristics of Men. Opinions. Revised by G.: Princeton University Press. James. 5 vols. 3 vols. Manners. Edited and translated by Richard M. Reprinted Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. Loeb Classical Library.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus The Scriptores historiae Augustae [Writers of the History of the Caesars]. Loeb Classical Library. Mynors. R. Von Arnim. third earl of. Edited by Richard Kannicht and Bruno Snell. Gummere. The Garamond face.
In which the Principles of the Stoics are compared with the Peripateticks. [13. Glasgow. ] Letter of Francis Hutcheson to the Reverend Mr. 1752 (3rd ed. 49. [7. 1–30) the title of Gataker’s “Praeloquium” reads: “Gataker’s Preliminary Discourse. [8. Notices and Documents. xlix.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Typography by Apex Publishing.). ]The Meditations were reprinted in Glasgow by Robert and Andrew Foulis in 1749 (2nd ed. 176. Farquharson. In partnership with his brother Andrew. He edited many of the classical texts published by Robert and Andrew Foulis. pp. The editors are grateful to Dr. ] Bodleian Library. ] Duncan. Inc.). Francis Hutcheson. 2011) 132 http://oll. [4. [10. with the Old Academicks.0 (generated September. xlvi. ] Robert Foulis (1707–76) was appointed printer to the University of Glasgow in 1743. [5. MS: Glasgow University Library. MS Gen 1018 no. “Francis Hutcheson and the Early History of the Foulis Press. ]Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros tōn eis heauton biblia 12 (1697). Thomas Drennan in Belfast. 505 (9). ]Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the Roman Emperor.. the Epicurean Sect: The remaining Writings PLL v6. Robert Foulis married Moor’s sister Elizabeth in September 1742. On Human Nature.org/title/2133 . See Stephen.libertyfund. [12. [6. [11. ] Scott. [9. 1746. and more especially. Daniel Carey for bringing this item to their attention. His Meditations Concerning Himselfe. ] James Moor (1712–79) was appointed university librarian of the University of Glasgow in 1742 and professor of Greek in 1746. Another “4th ed. ]The Emperor Marcus Antoninus His Conversation with Himself.). Oxford. 144. May 31. Wisconsin Printed and bound by Edwards Brothers. [3. [2. ] In Jeremy Collier’s English translation (1726 ed. Moor and the Foulis brothers witnessed Hutcheson’s will on June 30. Vet A4 f. Ann Arbor. ]The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus. LLC Madison. he was responsible for the publication of many attractive and accurate editions of classical texts.” 213–14. 1742. ed. Michigan [1. 11. Hutcheson. and 1764 (4th ed.” was printed in Dublin for Robert Main in 1752. ]Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros tōn eis heauton biblia 12 (1652).
] Ibid. ] “On the Natural Sociability of Mankind. 2011) 133 http://oll. [20. Metaphysics. [25. [29. p. An Account of Virtue. and the Natural Sociability of Mankind. 21. [24. Manners. Times. an Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour. I. [27. ] Ibid. p. I. pp. p.3. ] See n11. Henry More’s Abridgment of Morals. art.1. p. 52.” in Characteristics. above. 1. [32. ] Ibid.8. Epictetus. 120. [31.” in Logic. [30. Opinions.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus likewise of the Stoick Philosophers. ed. III. 5. n19. 2. 113.2. ] Shaftesbury. II.” 10–12. [16.libertyfund. p. “Hutcheson’s LLD. Dr. Farquharson. vol.. are briefly examined. ] Ibid. [21. 143. [23.” in Characteristics. ] More’s Enchiridion ethicum (1667) was translated in 1690 as An Account of Virtue: or. ] See Moore and Silverthorne. 44 (1728 ed.VII.” in Characteristics of Men. 48–49. “Miscellany IV. 40 (2002 ed. vol. ] Hadot. [28.. [18.org/title/2133 . ] Ibid. The Inner Citadel. p. [26. discusses the significance of these technical terms in the vocabulary of the Stoics. I. ]Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros tōn eis heauton biblia 12 (1704). 423.. ]An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections.0 (generated September.XII. ]Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros tōn eis heauton biblia 12 (1744). [19. I. II. PLL v6. or Advice to an Author.) or p. [33. p.5. “Sensus Communis.VII. [22.VII. Seneca. ] Ibid.. 52. 182.5. II. sec..” [14.VII. 93–94. ]A System of Moral Philosophy. ] Shaftesbury.). ] More. [17. [15. Chapter I. and particularly those of our Emperour Marcus Antoninus.. “Soliloquy.XVI. 95. 17. vol. 48. ] Shaftesbury. ]The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus.
288–91 (1982 ed. 69) referred to chapter numbers in The Meditations (I. ] Ibid. ]Inquiry. 176ff.. p. also published by the Foulis Press in 1744. IV.” [46. Reason. vol. “Natural History of Religion. “The Stoic. pp.” in The Philosophical Works. ] See Riversa. or elevate mortal man to a resemblance with the divinity. and see Rivers. p. 48) that do not appear in the HutchesonMoor translation. I. all these animate successively his transported bosom. ] Fordyce. 61. 160. art. ]Illustrations on the Moral Sense. sec. although these chapter numbers do appear in Gataker’s Latin translation. III. vol. ] Rivers. What satisfaction. published in 1790. A System I. A philosophy which affords the noblest lessons of magnanimity. II. p. Even the Glasgow translator of Hutcheson’s A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (Glasgow. “The Platonist. ] Smith. 2. 2011) 134 http://oll. ]An Essay (1728). (2004 ed. III. vol. III.libertyfund. [36. Reason.1. [42. secs. 181–84.” [44.). 49–50 (2002). 188–89. and Sentiment. except that they teach us to aim at a PLL v6. p. and to the greater part of whose precepts there can be no other objection. [45. 2004 ed. and Sentiment. when he looks within. ]A System I. I. VII. 1747.0 (generated September. sec. inasmuch as it indicates a connection between the systems of Hutcheson and Marcus that was rarely made explicit by Hutcheson’s followers or by his critics. [40. pp. the most sublime love of virtue. II. ] Hume. Grace. pp. The reason seems clear: Hutcheson and Moor and the Foulises were careful to preserve the anonymity of the translators and editors of the Glasgow edition of The Meditations. 94. [43. [41. and Sentiment. [39. [35. p. published in 1761 to the 5th published in 1784) Smith had concluded his discussion of the Stoics on a more positive note: “Such was the philosophy of the stoics. pp.4. sec. The term badge seems particularly apposite in this connection.V. VII.). Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725. vol. The softest benevolence. 17 and IX. 209: “In the true sage and patriot are united whatever can distinguish human nature. Reason. p. 189.1.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [34. is the best school of heroes and patriots. III. Grace. p. This summary dismissal of The Meditations is taken from the 6th ed. [37. the most undaunted resolution. II. vol. 212. [38. pp. 350: “Marcus Antoninus tells us that he himself had many admonitions from the gods in his sleep.org/title/2133 . See also note 47. IV. vol. ] Hume. vol. p. 2. p. or pp. 8. I.).2.VI. vol. 58–59. Grace. the tenderest sentiments. In earlier editions (from the 2nd ed. ] Hume. The Theory of Moral Sentiments. ] Hutcheson.” The Philosophical Works. 340–41. Dialogues Concerning Education. I. pp. below.” in The Philosophical Works.
Church and University in the Scottish Enlightenment. ] Blair. Rendall.0 (generated September. [* ]ad 167.” [50. [50. and superior to that in spirit” (The Communings with Himself of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. p. I. 1862). translated by George Long.iii. 106. 9–23. Gerald H.3 PLL v6.libertyfund. I. and was made a Senator under Vespasian. B. [§ ] Probably by the mother. viz. [‡ ] Domitia Calvilla Lucilla. [48. A late Victorian translator of Marcus. xviii. that it has the air of being dictated by the heart. 40. his reference is to The Thoughts of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. B. Dugald Stewart reported that Robertson had been preparing his own translation of The Meditations “when he was anticipated by an anonymous publication at Glasgow. [49.” “Account of the Life and Writings of William Robertson.2. who had been thrice Consul. p. The review concludes: “His philosophy tends to inspire generous sentiments and amiable views of human nature. who had been twice Consul.org/title/2133 . declared it to be “certainly the best translation previous to Long’s. 30 and 181. the Loeb translator. for accuracy and diction. in a review of English translations. [† ] Annius Verus. [* ] B. IV. ]Dissertatio philosophica inauguralis de fundamentis et obligatione legis naturae. described it as “the choicest alike in form and contents” (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus to Himself. [* ]ad 177.” pp. who died when Antoninus was a child. 2011) 135 http://oll. Haines.. Sermons. D. ] “Hutcheson’s Moral Philosophy.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus perfection altogether beyond the reach of human nature” (Theory of Moral Sentiments. [† ]ad 168. 60n). and in many other places. ] The Hutcheson-Moor translation of Marcus Aurelius was reprinted a number of times and retained its reputation into the twentieth century. 14. and C. iii). p. IX. [** ] ’Tis not certain whether the negative particle should be here or not. [47. no less than the head.” p. It is particularly calculated to promote the social and friendly affections. ] Untitled manuscripts: National Library of Scotland MSS 3955 and 3979. pp. daughter of Calvisius Tullus. R. 26. Catilius Severus.D. and we cannot but agree with the author of the preface. See also Sher. [* ] Annius Verus.
and ’tis certain Verus had a great esteem for Antoninus. whose vicious passions might rouse this excellent man’s attention to himself. produced air. like the divinities or angels.2 [§ ] The apostle Paul alludes to this notion in praying that we may be sanctified in soul. [* ] See. or some cousin whose memory is not otherways preserved to us. mov’d by others. 2011) 136 http://oll. in the two preceeding ages.4 PLL v6. whom he calls his brother from his strong love to him. water into air.0 (generated September. or perhaps Antoninus did not know his vices for a great part of his life. 16. his father by adoption.14 [* ] This either the philosopher Claudius Severus. B. or incantations. and the contrary the sole evil.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [†† ] The keenness of these contentions among the Romans in that age. 3. and body: many ancients conceived in men two principles distinct from the body. In the former which they supposed to be air. [† ] These two persons are unknown. [* ] For fighting. and these changes were always going on in the universe.org/title/2133 . art. [* ] A metaphor from puppets. [* ] There are no other memorials of these two persons.17 [‡ ] Antoninus Pius.libertyfund.1 [† ] This is the meek sentiment of Socrates. so no man is willingly unjust or wicked in his actions: Since all desire truth and goodness. spirit. [* ] This was a proverbial expression. is abundantly known.16 [† ] These were eminent characters. II. air condensed became water. they placed all the sensations and passions. and air into aether.3 [† ] The Stoics supposed that aether condensed. See B. and water thus too became earth: That earth was rarified into water. as a part of the divinity. [‡ ] The Stoics spoke of the rational soul. III. taken from that infinite intelligent aetherial nature. that virtuous affections and actions are the sole good. which pervades and surrounds all things. and was a man of ability. Such are men when led by their passions against what their higher faculties incline to and recommend. art. [* ] This. that as all error is involuntary. ’tis possible they have been remarkably dangerous to the youth at court. like that in beasts. one the animal soul or life. according to the high style of the Stoics. the other the rational. [* ] Probably Verus.
See. is a noted one among the Stoics. that men. “Reverence or stand in awe of thyself” which is the most remote from any encouraging of pride or vanity. art. [* ] See above.2 It means this. [‡ ] The Stoics made frequent use of these words metaphorically in their moral reasonings about the virtues and vices of their conduct. with a sincere simple view to answer the end for which God created them. vice. with such dignity and such endowments. II. Arrian. III. should continually endeavour to behave suitably to their dignity. [* ] By this country or state is understood the universe governed by God. or estimation. water to air. and course of action which they must approve. to be influenced by views of glory from men.0 (generated September. and that our sole good is PLL v6. Now. 2011) 137 http://oll.6 [† ] It was one of the paradoxes of the Stoics. air to fire. [† ] The first sentiment in this paragraph.8 [* ] Thus the Stoics call all the goods or evils of fortune.libertyfund. [* ] That is. [* ] Thus the Stoics call the rational soul. moral evil. art. all men are recommended to the affectionate good-will of all: which would always appear. and be ashamed to act unsuitably to them. relating to our bodies or estates: Which they allowed to have some value. that we be still aware that all external things depend on fortune. And B. in preserving that temper. for one Instance. See X. 6. and apothecary among the antient Greeks and Romans. or importance. the seat of knowledge and virtue: deeming it a part of the divinity. The end therefore is acting the part God has appointed to us by the constitution of our nature.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [* ] ’Tis one of the most ancient maxims or precepts. See. [† ] Perhaps he intends the universal destruction of this world. often used in Epictetus.9 [† ] The same person was physician. 7. 16 of this book. that by the very constitution of our nature. but would not call them absolutely good or evil. and are not in our power. or. were it not for the interfering of falsely imagined interests. is what Antoninus here reckons among the dishonours or affronts done to ourselves. IV. attracted. 2. ever pervaded. when the lower passions are restrained. that all crimes were equal. B. and Simplicius. and the natural events in the universe. 36. [* ] The Stoics always maintained. and so no occasion for comparisons. and practising such actions. and of that temper of soul. is too subtile and frigid. It means. [* ] Earth to water. and inspired by it to all moral good. and others. [* ] The word here translated reservation. and so backwards. conscious of the dignity of their nature.org/title/2133 . art. B. chirurgeon.
libertyfund.12 [† ] This is designed to abate our desire of esteem from weak injudicious men. [* ] The Stoics seem to have believed a series of great periodical conflagrations. ’Tis applicable to such as either live extempore. the common nature presiding in the universe. we may still retain our own proper good. as the Stoics define virtue to be an agreement or harmony with “nature” in our affections and actions. is unknown. 6. and actions: If therefore we meet with external obstacles to our outward actions. we at once conform to both the common nature and the proper. the common nature.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus in our own affections. See. made up also of an animal soul and a body. [* ] The reading of the text here is uncertain. are involved in great miseries. [* ] The Stoics denyed fame to be desirable. purposes. and by acting the part which the structure of our proper nature requires and recommends. or acting according to the will of God. good-will toward even such as oppose us. that part he has pointed out to be good and suited to the dignity of our nature. which they deemed to be the Deity. and recreated PLL v6. and by persisting in any good offices. and this the Stoics strongly assert against the Pyrrhonists.15 [* ] See above. [* ] That is.5 [* ] The author’s sentiment here is not well known by the critics. which remain in our power.0 (generated September. B. or the deity. l. [† ] This person or proverbial expression. by which the material world and the grosser elements. especially the governing part of it. since our constitution was framed by God. patience under injury.7 [* ] All vice is such a separation. these things are agreeable or contrary to this compound. 4. not. without any fixed view or end in life: or to such as in pursuit of apparent goods. [* ] This simplicity is one constant stable purpose. but they would not call them good or evil. and the individual or proper nature in each one. II. by their want of consideration. 2011) 138 http://oll. and can exert proper affections and actions upon these very obstacles. But when one speaks of the whole animal. or the divine part: nor are they either its good or its evil. except as it gave opportunities of more extensive good offices. from all eternity. 5. were rarified and absorbed again into the pure aether. such things are neither agreeable nor contrary to the nature of the rational soul. They tell us this nature is twofold. Cicero de finib. [* ] συμβαίνειν. by acquiescence in all events of providence. by resignation to God. c. We conform to the common nature.org/title/2133 .2 [* ] A common medicine for tender eyes. 3. Some make the active principle to be meerly the form. to recommend a prying into the business or characters of others.
beatific offices. which befall them. seem to conceive the rational soul. [‡ ] See. or imprisonment in them. some less perfect. of this book. was the great philosophic year. if they heartily inclined to do so. A mind entirely conformed and resigned to God. and goodness. [† ] And thence you’ll see how just and merciful it may be. to be a being or substance distinct both from the gross body. and the animal soul. and when it is united in will with God. [* ] This is an impossible supposition. Such thoughts must repress ill-will and all anger against the vicious. 1. were from eternity: and from the one to the other. it must acquiesce in all that happens. is the man. IV. the occasion. seeing it to be necessary.0 (generated September. [† ] Viz. of this book. see the note on art. as they are occasions of exerting the noblest virtues. and persuaded of his wisdom. [* ] The Stoics. and confused imaginations: all which they have fallen into according to that plan. in which. lovely. but the sentiment just. habits.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus again out of this eternal original substance: and that these alternate creations and conflagrations. independent of these lower parts. As also the note upon the preceeding section in this book.libertyfund. 19. according to the Stoic opinion. dispositions. opinions. of its most excellent beatific exercises. that there should be very different orders of being. IV. which is fittest for the whole. of making the adverse accidents. during these their present opinions. in which are the sensations. and calm purposes of action subsist. to subject your little transitory interests. acting according to our nature. nay. that these imperfections and evils are prerequisite to the exercise of the most divine virtues. [‡ ] This city is the universe. and setting them upon the pursuit of their truest happiness. our judgments. art. and of a durable nature. which infinite wisdom originally concerted for the most excellent purposes. of misery.org/title/2133 . and to that plan of providence. but don’t hinder our discerning the misery and deformity of vice. which must be the ground of their eternal joy: and that many evils are even requisite means of reclaiming the less perfect beings from their vices. the great governour of this city. PLL v6. to those of the great universe. natural. and can make all events good to itself. or matter. which are its supreme good. say they. the seat of true perfection and happiness. be the external event what it will. The rational soul. 37. lower appetites and passions. or. during this union with them. capable of performing its proper. 17. See. and of commanding all their motions. [† ] See. power. 2011) 139 http://oll. B. after Plato. [* ] That is. in the more perfect orders of beings. And a Stoic allows the vicious could refrain from their vices. that many particular evils must be connected with the necessary means of incomparably superior good. capable of subsisting separated from the other two parts. B. some more. cannot imagine any event to be hurtful to the universe.
and B.Praemia posse rear solvi? pulcherrima primumDi. painting. 13. V.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [* ] The Stoics conceived the divine substance.12 [* ] See above.16 [‡ ] The Stoics called all external advantages or disadvantages. 2. IV. things indifferent. viros. to 746. and the note upon it. PLL v6. is the true wisdom. there were four original immutable elements. Deum namque ire per omnesTerrasque tractusque maris. B. 220. dixere.Et mens sibi conscia recti.Horace. B. & haustusAetherios. coelumque profundum:Hinc pecudes. 253. moresque dabunt vestri. B. 91. V. 724. neither good. II. 607. that some were according to nature. but the returning good for evil. [* ] See above. [** ] Hesiod.Praemia digna ferent. [* ] Homer Iliad.libertyfund.10 [* ] Observe here the same divine sentiment with the Apostle. others contrary to nature. more immersed and entangled in the grosser elements. acting. 13.Aeneid. that whatever we do in word or deed. IX. to be an infinitely diffused and allpervading aether. but they allowed this difference among them. 1. I.0 (generated September. [‡ ] See. B.15Di tibi. Geor. IV. and preferable. V. sculpture. respecting the body or fortune. I.Aeneid. 19. 7. [† ] Slaves were chiefly valued. deinde.org/title/2133 . Others of the antients believed. power and goodness: and that our souls were small particles of this aether: and that even those of brutes were particles of the same. armenta.Aeneid.8 Esse apibus partem divinae mentis. music. viri.9 See also. according as they had Genius for. statuary.Quemque sibi tenues nascentem arcessere vitas:Scilicet huc reddi. Quae vobis. genus omne ferarum. [ † ] Here he is recommending not only forgiveness.3 [* ] This saying is not known. quae digna. &c. [§ ] This comedy is not known. and to be rejected. we should do it as to God. and even medicine. [§ ] See above. & resoluta referriOmnia —Virg. the seat of all wisdom. and into which they were resolved. 195. and were instructed in the more elegant arts. [‡ ] The knowledge of God and his providence. Divinae particulam aurae. pro talibus ausis. out of which all compound bodies were formed. VI. nor evil. 2011) 140 http://oll.
&c.3 [* ] See. 1. and are no preservatives against death. aut metu commoti sunt. [* ] Here again the divine sentiment of returning good for evil. abstracting from these their incertain tenets about futurity. B. [† ] See. B.0 (generated September. 19. [* ] The Stoics spoke doubtfully about a future state. and 19. 14. [‡ ] B.7 [* ] IX.libertyfund. in which the safety and prosperity of each member depends on that of the whole. IX. 12. which we would call that of angels. 37. and the notes. L. V.6 whether the rational souls subsisted as separate intelligences.13 [* ] See.2 [‡ ] See the like sentiment in Cicero de offic. 6. B. V. 19. or such as injure us. aut voluptate nimia gestiunt. aut eorum qui libidine aliqua. IV. to shew that.17 [† ] See above. or were absorbed in the divinity. XXIII. V. from the very feelings of the heart. II. since they are of short duration. and the note upon it. [* ] Thus a stone may be called a part of a rude heap. c. [* ] Here the divine precept of loving our enemies. B. II. 19. 2011) 141 http://oll. V. 1. 1.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [* ] See. Licet ora ipsa cernere iratorum. for eternity. 29. there is no evil in death. at the very worst. 34. an organised body. imitating Socrates’s manner.org/title/2133 . [† ] B. and of the eminently virtuous. B. that all external things are but mean. and the happiness of the whole requires that of each member. and the note upon it. 1. and the Platonists too. Many believed a separate existence of good souls for a thousand years. [† ] The intention here is very doubtful. [† ] Luke. A member refers to a regular whole. 42. [† ] This later branch. [* ] See. and B. IV. generally propose this alternative. is the Epicurean doctrine. And they endeavoured to make virtue eligible. [† ] IX. which the Stoics opposed. with delegated powers of governing certain parts of the universe. in the dignity of Gods.4 PLL v6. But they.
under some colours of virtue. or in exile. and a total conformity to the image of God. and goodness. stupify the nobler powers. Cloath me in what dress thou willest. Paul. and. can never be disappointed. remain in my own country. I am equally ready for whatever thou orderest. in Antoninus. every event ordered by him. II. a man who desires only what God destines him. [† ] Republic. 6. [§ ] The author of this advice.19 [† ] B. but. be poor. II. 2. V. which every good man feels in his own breast: ’Tis conforming our selves to the law of God written in the heart: ’Tis endeavouring a compleat victory over the passions. Vice first enters the soul. are in our own power. thy will is my will. is taken in a very high sense: ’Tis living up to that standard of purity and perfection.0 (generated September. so often mentioned by Antoninus. when the will is not suffer’d to give its consent to any of the propositions of fancy. would produce the most perfect tranquillity of mind: For. V. as he loves all his works. The dissipating pursuits of external things. and exert themselves in all worthy social affections of piety and humanity. of meekness and goodness toward these very men. 19. and the soul has an inexpressible delight in them. who are the causes of such external misfortunes. who confounds this with the natural man’s life. under the disguise of some apparent good. nay. the life according to nature. [* ] It may be remembered here once for all. since infinite power.20 [† ] The practice of this great maxim. must be the best foundation for the practice of the maxim here recommended.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [‡ ] He means probably these which the Stoics say. and considered according to their own real value.org/title/2133 . is the following divine sentiment of Epictetus. Is it thy will I should be a magistrate. in the note at 46. and submission to God. B.12 [‡ ] Of the same kind. and thus preserve innocence and integrity. and B. must be really best for the whole. [* ] B. By recollection we find the dignity of our nature: the diviner powers are disentangled. or rich? In all these will I vindicate thee before men. I plead not against any thing which thou thinkest proper. See the citation from Epictet. 16. 19. by all their efforts. until they are stript of all disguise. wisdom. must always accomplish its designs. had the best opportunities of trying all the happiness which can arise from external things. 2011) 142 http://oll.13 “For the future. and for the individuals to which it happens: An intimate and permanent conviction of this. or a private man. Arrian. the moral turpitude of bad actions must determine us to reject them. is one of the most excellent means for preserving purity of mind. condemned by St.” [* ] This examination of the images of fancy. of manly fortitude and patience.22 PLL v6. escaped them.libertyfund. Lead me whithersoever thou willest. A man must read Antoninus with little attention.21 [‡ ] Viz. Those who storm’d and fretted at such accidents have not. O God! Use me as thou pleasest. of filial love.
1 [* ] See IX. IX. 17. V. IX.0 (generated September. This Plato mentions in the apology. the vulgar. [§ ] See. [* ] The most powerful motive to forgiveness and to return good for evil. [‡ ] See. Cambray’s dialogue of Socrates. all intelligent beings are. IV. [† ] See. the stars. but with very great natural excellencies. 2011) 143 http://oll. are called fools and mad-men.org/title/2133 . 17. by their nature. and planets.27 [* ] See the note at X. flows essentially from his nature: in created beings. who intended to put Leo the Salaminian to death. [* ] See. it is a gift from him. B. 48. B. 11. residing in the sun. under the same immutable eternal law of promoting the good and perfection of the whole.13 PLL v6. as it had occasioned much superstitious and idolatrous worship in the heathen world.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [* ] He had received these orders from the thirty tyrants. VII. the note on B. 19. [† ] See. See. near the end. 58. Many Christians believed the same general tenet. [§ ] See. and all who are not completely wise and virtuous. or the rational soul. This the Christians justly denied. and invested with great powers of government. V.libertyfund. The heathens called those superior beings Gods. in the supreme Being. and the note. and seize his estate. V. and Christians called them Angels. 45. created indeed. Alcibiades. 47. 27. 46. in the height of their power. Matth. 29. [* ] As. 19. IX. IV. The heathens imagined these inferior Gods or Angels. This. B. IX. See. [* ] See.7 [* ] These two are Antoninus Pius10 and his wife Annia Faustina. VI. and Timon. 1. 3. 28. Socrates at all hazards disobeyed them. and in one of his letters. 42. V.29 [‡ ] See. in certain parts of the universe. [* ] Tho’ one supreme original deity was acknowledged by almost all the better sects of the heathen philosophers. 42. and keenly opposed. [‡ ] That is.28 [† ] In the high language of the Stoics. the intellectual part. yet they conceived great numbers of superior natures. [§ ] See.
II. B. Probably this nature of the whole. which is also in many others of these meditations.libertyfund. in the character of Antoninus Pius. V.Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari. II. and in forming in it all holy affections. [† ] As a quotation probably from some poet. See. 2011) 144 http://oll. VI. and kind affections to our fellows. 30. V.org/title/2133 .7 PLL v6. 1.6 [‡ ] The law of our nature. not only intimating that our dispositions to piety are the effects of the diffusive and gracious power of God. The thought in this section is very obscure.Hor. Cicero gives many ridiculous instances when he is imitating their manner. 8. —— in seipse totus teres atque rotundus. [* ] Here is the precept of loving our enemies. [* ] In this paragraph. [† ] See this explained. of one more natural than this.3 [‡ ] See. to all minds which by earnest desires are seeking after him. and an intire harmony of will with him by resignation: and also its present degenerate state. 27. We had an instance. XI. and reasoned right. he at once acknowledges the original fabric of the soul to be destined for the knowledge and love of God. 1. but that such is the divine goodness that he is ever ready to communicate his goodness and mercy. and just apprehensions of himself. 13. is always to be understood of God. till he has examined thoroughly. in the renovation of the heart.16 [* ] This is a very remarkable passage. [† ] The original is obscure here. B. as it is often counteracting its original destination. as might make them memorial hints of some useful reflection.1 [* ] The Greek word is a term for one who never acts. IV.0 (generated September. VI.14 [* ] See. B. and VII. on what he is going to do. or the mind presiding in the whole. sat.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [† ] See.17 [† ] The Stoics studied to find out such etymologys of words. B. See Matth. entire resignation to the will of God in all events.5 [† ] See. 19. 1. IV. 39. 37.18 [* ] This is a clear acknowledgement of the one supreme God. 43. with perfect benevolence toward all. and governing it for the universal good. tho’ very different from the true critical etymologys. XXII. 7.
[†† ] See this more fully in VI. 2011) 145 http://oll. accept of what it intends: or has once primarily intended some things. [† ] Antoninus Pius.11 [§ ] VII. PLL v6. 9. VI. and VII. and. [‡ ] Either of pleasure or pain. 36. 44. [‡‡ ] V. goodness. Galat. [† ] IV. 48. [† ] Or the words of the original may bear this meaning. 49. and deaths.” [‡ ] See. 3. joy. where births. and temperance. 45. gentleness. faith.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [§ ] Kind offices and good-nature to our fellows. the youth in the man.org/title/2133 . are expressed. The turn given it in the translation is founded on. VII. meekness. “Now the fruits of the spirit are love. art. [* ] That is. [§ ] Part of the original is wanting. [† ] VII. 3. 48. 29. and the rest are unavoidable necessary consequences of those. See. 22. and what remains is corrupted. and V. and submission to the universal providence. [** ] Governing mind. selfcommand. 42. marriages.12 [* ] Here again the precept of loving our enemies. [§ ] The exertion of our active powers. We may supply the enumeration of its fruits from the apostle. at the beginning. peace. [** ] Chearful tranquillity under whatever happens. IV. [‡ ] Gataker seems to have mistaken this:16 See. IV. 27. if so. the child dies in the youth. [‡ ] A spectacle so called: as Gataker takes it. V.libertyfund. “Either the mind of the whole intends and designs each particular event. 75.0 (generated September. 19. and so on. [* ] VIII. long-suffering.” [* ] To enable you to bear mildly the imperfections of others.
Does it go by you? Don’t stop it. but overlook them. The combat is great. 1. [† ] See Epictet. of your wife. Is it not come yet? Don’t long after it. 10. 17. As to the sense here attempted. and you shall be at length a worthy companion of the Gods. is of the same kind. 28. as if at an entertainment. Invoke him to be your assistant and supporter: As men at sea invoke Castor and Pollux in a storm. [* ] Philip. and extremely beautiful. VI.—Comprehend &c.”1 Epictetus.20 and the Apostle to Titus. Sect. [* ] Of a shell-fish. is in heaven. Corinth. IV. even when set before you.org/title/2133 . v. IV. and should begin thus.” PLL v6. VIII. and the commentators all at a loss how to restore it. but wait till it come to you. It is for sovereignty. but a fellow-governor with them. “Having nothing. 40.18 “Stay. behave with &” [§ ] See. and unruffled. too. 28 of this book. 9. yet possessing all things. ch.” But the whole passage from verse 3 to 11. of power. and take it gracefully. The attempt God-like. “I have learned. 20.3 [§ ] Rom. Do thus in the case of your children. 3. for a current of life ever gentle. 15. (or as it may be rather translated. Call to mind the Deity. it is the same as sect. [‡ ] II. near the end. [‡ ] Others thus read the text: “Nay towards the Gods. 27. VI. “Our conversation. [* ] The Greek is corrupted and manque here. therewith to be content. to you? stretch out your hand. VIII.21 [‡ ] As all pursue what appears to them at that time. [† ] Of the same kind is that beautiful passage quoted by Gataker from Arrian II.libertyfund. 11. in whatever state I am. and 3.” [** ] The universe: See. in the Enchirid. 23. Enchirid. mortal! Be not rash. 1. you don’t take. XI. 18. their proper good and happiness. clear. 2011) 146 http://oll. for liberty. IV.” [* ] The Greek is corrupted here. [† ] See.2 “Remember.0 (generated September. And if. the city we belong to). “All things work together for good to them who love God. Does any thing come. in course. of riches. and especially V. 14. [† ] Philippians. and the note. you shall then be not only a companion of the Gods. [* ] His leisure was perpetually broke by wars.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [§ ] This is perhaps a new meditation. III. you ought to behave yourself in life. See.
[‡ ] See the note at V. (b) To be conformed to the image of his Son. selves. or a stiff and self-willed temper.6Compositum jus fasque animo. and the note. that he found the same doctrine in Plato: See Gataker on this place.7 [* ] This is the same with the grand Christian doctrine of the divine life.8 Read numbers for these references by the small letters. of Isaiah. Is there. [† ] This passage is extremely obscure.Are offerings that the Gods delight to take. they expect from men:Or. (1) II. (c) Ye shall be holy as I the Lord your God am holy. 8. (f ) Be ye therefore perfect even as your father which is in heaven is perfect. 48. 12.libertyfund. Cor.Which were not food even for a hungry dog. 2. (4) I. et farre litabo. (d) Pure as God your father is pure. John 3. who. 2. which is no way aggravated in the translation. [* ] See V. Strom. 16. 29. critics only guess at some sort of meaning to it.Haec cedo ut admoveam templis.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [† ] Rom. 36. 18. et incoctum generoso pectus honesto. from too modest a diffidence of themselves.See Clem. on earth. (2) Rom. nay tho’ tyrants beThe offerers. Peter 1. and allow themselves to be guided and led wrong. more than once.0 (generated September. “(a) To be transformed into the same image with God. 3. pyrates. 2011) 147 http://oll. 7. (6) Matth.” See XII.5 [† ] The poetical representations of the tranquillity and happiness of these islands of the blessed are well known. It is a virtue highly necessary in some of the sweetest characters. a man. Alex. who thinksThat fleshless bones and the fry’d bile of beasts. 7. 18. (3) Levit. and 24. particularly in the 50th psalm.Persius sat. [‡ ] This sentiment. as appears by the following fragment of a dramatic poet. occurs often in the scriptures. “Acceptable to God and approved of men. whose low views their own candour makes them not suspect. and seems not to have been uncommon among the heathens themselves. and I. 36. The translation is according to a conjecture of Gataker’s. Righteous even as he is righteous. 3. (e) Merciful as your father also is merciful.org/title/2133 . testifies too. XIV. on account of these. will favour shew. by men of far less genius and worth than themselves. and 1st chap.And these the honours. often. so much a fool. (5) Luke 6.9 [† ] The text is corrupt here.” Clemens Alex.Tho’ robbers.10 [‡ ] This is the farthest that can be from what we commonly call self-sufficiency.So silly in credulity. 19. 13. [* ] Propter vitam vivendi perdere causas. sanctosque recessusMentis. submit their own finer sentiments. PLL v6. 5.
obedience to which is the supreme happiness.16 [* ] “To what place soever I go. 7. [† ] Justice is taken here in the extensive platonic sense. pursues the straight way. VII.” Thus also Seneca in his antithetical way. incapable of amendment or PLL v6. my sentiments concur with thee. See. with whom the Romans were then at war. II.12 [‡ ] See. in whose hand is the beginning. is mine also. His purpose. and follows God along with her. and in a word. V. there I can enjoy the sun. The man who is about to live happy. after this.” So that resignation to the will of God. 25.15 [** ] Thus Epictetus. going about every where. [* ] This a proverbial simile for things that pass in a moment. and all the kindest social virtues. end. “I don’t [barely] obey God.19 Thus also. at the end. in the highest sense.18 [† ] This passage clears up many others where the same word occurs obscurely. at the end. upon seizing parties of the Sarmatians. XII. “Have the courage to lift up your eyes to God.” Epictet. I plead against nothing which seems proper to thee.” And IV. 23. [§ ] See. [‡ ] From Euripides. according to nature. [** ] According to Gataker. and X. “I adhere to him as a servant and attendant. “For our law. who punishes those who come short in their observance of the divine law. I follow him from inclination. 3. but [cordially] assent to him. chap.0 (generated September. See.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [* ] This has probably been occasioned by the behavior of some of his officers. which goes under Aristotle’s name. appears to have been a maxim universal among the Stoics. 16. [† ] The grand law of promoting the perfection of the whole. is God. the author of the book de Mundo. 1. [§ ] φιλει in Greek as amat in Latin for solet. B. keeps close by her. and designed to repress the vanity of conquerors. 96. and. [† ] This word is uncertain in the original.”13 [* ] The reading in the original here is uncertain.org/title/2133 . and middle of all things. exactly impartial to all. 20. and say: Use me. regarding not only what are called the rights of mankind. II. &c. 2. 2011) 148 http://oll. 16. “God. 6. his will. and not necessity. for what purposes thou willest. his desire. Arrian II. but comprehending resignation to God. VIII. Epist. Antoninus has here before his eye the following passage of Plato in the 4th book of the laws. 31.libertyfund. XI.—and there the society of the Gods. He is always attended by justice.
desire. [‡ ] See IX. I think. his design here is. those which are most conformable to nature: Such as resignation to the will of PLL v6. [* ] See VII. it is impossible for you to throw off. giving yourself up to him. [My next inquiry is] how shall I get free of them? If I also was subject formerly to the same weakness. according to the Stoics. than those written on the tables of Solon. [† ] As the supreme excellence of the rational soul is. II. 10. And that no man is of such importance. and IX. 2. otherways than by looking up to God. [† ] This is one of those he calls popular supports. 29. 2011) 149 http://oll. whether a long or a short one. or laughing at them. “I attend to what men say. 16. afford new occasions of the best actions. has attained to the greatest happiness and perfection of his nature. IV. [† ] See this term explained. effeminacy. [* ] Iliad VI. In Epictetus too the following divine passage is of the same kind. yet with all your wailing and groaning. 4. “All these. 42. Brevity is chiefly studied in the translation of these three lines of the Iliad.org/title/2133 . IV. and how they act. at II. and stable.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus change. which yet strike the heart: See IX. an entire conformity to the will of the presiding mind.” All obstacles to our designs about external things. in the note.”20 [* ] Epictetus. sorrow. in general. 3. or that I may have matter of blaming. envy. that. 27. [§ ] Of these names which follow.0 (generated September. piously embracing all he orders. more excellent. that he will be much missed in the universe. not with any bad intention.”24 [‡ ] See VI. but it is plain. the sight of remarkable men should make one call to mind others like them in former ages. 1. too. fear. intemperance.”23 [† ] It is recorded of Plato. Nay tho’ your will be otherways.26 [* ] Death being in their opinion an evil. you must still follow him. who are now gone. as the stronger. [* ] See IX. as designed for a short hint. ’tis to God I give the praise.libertyfund. others as great are arising. few are known. 148. 68. [* ] See the same simile beautifully apply’d. and this is their supreme and only happiness: He who acts well the part appointed to him. that he practiced habitually this maxim. but I turn into myself to see if I. Hence their paradox that “length of time is of no importance to happiness. and am not now. commit the same faults. [* ] Passions and opinions in the mind. or agreement with nature.
11 PLL v6. And thus our part may always be complete. that many calamities. which must have supported this ardour. rather than one rectified and amended. unlucky accidents. and gives the strongest confirmation of the divine power accompanying the Gospel. and the stable persuasion of a future state. that it did not quite extirpate all sort of human frailty. It is well known that their ardour for the glory of martyrdom was frequently immoderate. book. or to an early death. and to make them so familiar to us. good-will toward those who oppose us. crimes.libertyfund. [† ] See X. This is no dishonour to christianity. and. that we shall not be much surprised. which infinite wisdom foresaw were fittest for his solid improvement in virtue. and resignation to infinite wisdom. that it has ordered for every good man that station of life. frauds. [§ ] See the end of the IX.org/title/2133 . next to this. And there is something so noble in the stedfast lively faith.” [* ] The grand point of justice is the highest love to the supreme goodness and excellence. as it was often mentioned already. and the note. and was censured even by some of the primitive fathers. wishing he had perished in his childhood when he was exposed on that mountain.0 (generated September. 12. and apprehending well what is intended by the terms of gardening alluded to. ’tis the author’s intention to shew how much a continued innocence of manners is preferable to even the most thorough repentance after gross vices. To this refer many thoughts in the former books. submission to any distresses. [‡ ] This is an amiable notion of providence. In general. happening by the divine providence.8 [* ] There is great difficulty in ascertaining the text here.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus God. is such as both recommends to us all pious veneration and submission to God.4 [‡ ] It is no wonder an heathen emperor should thus speak of the Christians. when they happen. are to be expected in the world.7 [† ] I suppose. See X. [** ] This. and uniform satisfaction. and proper self-command and recollection. and cunning artifices. 25. to make us see. 2011) 150 http://oll. a steddy obedience to his will. and those circumstances. according to that original disposition of nature which God had given him. oppressions.1 [* ] See X. 12. [* ] This relates to the celebrated tragedy of Sophocles. about the advantage of “being always straight and upright. and all social affections. and makes such dispositions our chief satisfaction and happiness. that it makes a sufficient apology for this weakness. as to the inward tranquillity. being the exclamation of Oedipus in his distress. of the soul with itself. in all acts of beneficence and goodness to our fellows. or lose presence of mind.
If we dread pain. and has frequently occurred before. 1. lib. who created and still pervades all things.14 [* ] This consideration should have great power in restraining all anger. with the places referred to there. in which. some high degrees of these natural evils impending may overpower our virtuous resolutions. poverty.org/title/2133 . is. Phocion was of the sweetest and calmest temper.libertyfund. are the illumination of God. or desert our duty to our friends or our country. as great evils. because of their ignorance. every thing beside virtue and vice. [* ] This reasoning is frequent among the Stoics. or death. 38.0 (generated September. and influencing the conduct. [† ] Alluding to the fable of the treaty.13 [‡ ] All external things or events.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [† ] That is. as occasions a great deal of pain when another succeeds in his designs. malice.12 [§ ] The story alluded to. Temploque tacente. 34. II. the sheep gave up their dogs as hostages to the wolf. stretching into length by desires. and that way of life he requires. and a divine attraction toward himself. [†† ] This explains IX. See B. [‡ ] As the most important practical truths are found out by attending to the inward calm sentiments or feelings of the heart: And this constitution of heart or soul is certainly the work of God. [** ] See X. intimated in the very constitution of nature. upon his kind professions of friendship.15 [† ] This thought leads us to pity the mistakes and errors of others. IX. 41.Nil facimus non sponte Dei: nec vocibus ullisNumen eget: dixitque semel nascentibus auctorQuidquid scire licet. See VIII. and VIII. PLL v6. to break our faith. that all intelligent beings should love and do good to each other. [§ ] See above. 11. or admitting other things to stick to it by too eager and passionate fondness or anxiety. 2011) 151 http://oll. is uncertain. II. [‡ ] See IX. we may be tempted to acts of injustice. say they. If other things are reputed evils beside vices. in order to avoid them. 30. it is just and natural to conceive all divine and social dispositions as the work of God: all the great moral maxims deeply affecting the soul. 14. or fretting when disappointed: or by such passionate emulation or envy. or envy: As no event happens but by the permission of sovereign goodness: and as the great command of this supreme goodness. or yielding and sinking under the pressure of external evils. Ille Deo plenus—Haeremus cuncti superis. [* ] By desiring to obtain their applause. as it were.Lucan.
and endeavoured to give strong motives to virtue independent upon future rewards. tho’ all know how firmly the PLL v6. that all who are not perfectly wise and virtuous are mad-men. 14. as a great society or state made up of Gods and men. 1. sensuality.35 [* ] That is the providence of the author of nature. anger. [† ] X. XII. II. as they had not full certainty. to make us easy under reproach. But we wrong them exceedingly. They thought this highly probable. [* ] The design of these citations is uncertain. It was customary among the best philosophers. [† ] The fable is well known. [** ] This story is not preserved to us. the Greek text is suspected. representing the safety and tranquillity of a retired life. to speak upon this subject with such alternatives. [‡ ] This is plainly the objection of some others. contrary to the laws of the state where they live.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [† ] That is moral evils. [* ] The Stoics speak of the universe.16 [* ] Denying the jus aequum in populo libero. even when they were persuaded that there would be a future existence. and a low station.22 [‡ ] This shews how manly it is to be enured to hardships. 2. and B. 27. insincerity. 22. 13. [§ ] Or.2 Where even the doctrine of a Deity and providence is proposed with such alternatives. murmurings against providence. [† ] Rashness of assent. V. 11. in the Ephesian commentaries. they suggested proper supports and consolations even upon the contrary supposition. not the author’s own settled opinion against a future state. The third. to place our joy in virtue. II. unkind affections. or is designed as an instance of courtesy. [* ] X. B. See B.17 and raising yourself above the common lot of mankind. 19. and the dangers of ambition. B. The second.34 [‡ ] The Stoics had this paradox.libertyfund. [† ] See above. V. 2011) 152 http://oll. The first may serve as an admonition to submit to providence. 11. 25. if we imagine that they were doubtful of such points as they often propose in such alternatives. as tyrants and usurpers do.0 (generated September.org/title/2133 . and therefore obedience and resignation is a piece of justice to the governours of this state. See B. and to bear heat or cold. [† ] See B. and IV. in imitation of Socrates. IV. and yet. and not in external things.
This simplicity is opposite to the more subtile and refined sorts of selfishness. 1.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Stoics were persuaded of both. [† ] See above. II. at the 5th precept. [‡ ] Some of the persons here named as eminent. perhaps. and XI. or pleasure. [* ] IX. are not well known. [* ] See B. 39. but only specifical. [† ] The peculiar meaning of this seasonableness is best explained in Cicero de finib. or whole of that kind. A single view to act well the part apointed us by God. B. and for this purpose employed the actors. Instances of this kind occur in every book of our author. but from love to God and moral goodness. and 13. 18. [* ] The great magistrates at their own charge exhibited shows to the people. or immortal angels. and strongly recommended by the Stoics: See B. XI. Such expressions are frequent in the New Testament. 21. or singular in their fortunes.7 [‡ ] The universe. c. that all individual natures are parts taken from some great mass. 38. that heroic souls were raised to the dignity of Gods. II. what this simplicity is. or any selfish advantage. [† ] See B. [* ] These errata to the 1742 edition have been incorporated into the Liberty Fund text— Eds. 1. [* ] B. and among others gave plays. 14. that individuals cease to be distinct persons from the Deity and from each other. [† ] IX.0 (generated September.libertyfund. II. III.org/title/2133 . since it was the known tenet of the Stoics. without aiming at glory. 34. 1. PLL v6. [* ] Epicurus. [‡ ] It is manifest he does not here intend proper numerical unity. l. 14. 2011) 153 http://oll. and they mean no more than an entire moral union by resignation and complete conformity of will. VIII. Nor can we conclude from their speaking of the re-union after death. Some degree of this union is attainable in this life. [† ] See IX. at the end. or similitude: And this further.6 [† ] This may relate to the heavenly bodies whom the Stoics deemed inferior deities. viz. [* ] ’Tis plain from the reason subjoined.
’tis to God I give the praise. 33. the double-daggered note].” Epictetus cited at X. III. line 17]. 14. ought there not to be some one to perform this duty in your place. [d ] VI. a grateful heart. See also the Dissert: of Epictet. [c ] V. [e ] VI. line ult. [h. 115. “Nay toward the Gods. But.org/title/2133 . but sing a hymn to God? Were I a nightingale. 18. “What words are sufficient to praise or declare these works of God as they deserve? Had we understanding. and the note. [this edition: p. 11. 30. and organs for swallowing and digesting: That he makes us grow up insensibly. 27. or feeding. for expressing our pious affections to God. and bless him. 114. others thus read the Text. 14. 40. and IX. for his giving us the power of attaining the knowledge of these things. read who. 13. [* ] Tho’ the Stoics have not used the term Love. 16. 23. a lame old man. 12. ploughing. I would do that PLL v6. what else ought we to do. if one has these two things within him: a power to comprehend and understand what happens to every one. [221. the multitude. then? Since you. They seem to have abstained from this term. perhaps. What. to sing this hymn to God: great is God! that he has given us hands. 44. with them. as used since with regard to the Deity. 123. “In every event which happens in the universe. ’tis plain. “In all these things will I vindicate Thee before men. 13] [this edition: p.libertyfund.0 (generated September. but sing hymns to God. ] I. and VI. 13. 6. ] “If I was subject formerly to the same weakness. and pay this hymn to God for you all? For. it is an easy thing to praise providence. See also IX. 27. 3. line 8] [this edition: p. 6 lines from bottom of page]. and am not now. of all to sing the greatest and most divine hymn. 2011) 154 http://oll. ] II. [a. Were I a swan. for perhaps. and. are blind.” Epictetus cited at VII. I. behave with &”  [this edition: p. and breathe even while asleep.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [Page 51. and the method of using them. they meant all that can be implied in that word. yet.” Epictetus I. and Φιλια. too. note. and pour out our thanks before him? Ought we not. line 22]. [f ] III. For each of these things we ought thus to bless him. read numbers for these references by the small letters. I would do the business of a nightingale. [b. 45. what else can I do. both in public and private. carry a notion of equality. out of reverence: Φιλειν. [g ] VI. for confirming read arguing. while either digging. 7.
and attendant. ] VIII. And you I will exhort to join with me in this my song.” Epictetus IV. 27.org/title/2133 . O Jove! and thou. This is my business: this I perform. [b. What he wills not. as a servant. 16.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus of a swan.1 [q ] “From God come all things. and it is best to follow him. will nothing but that which God wills. ] V. 2011) 155 http://oll. 26. What he wills. “To God I have subjected all my desires. 34. after Socrates. I will die ten thousand deaths sooner than abandon it. [m ] VII. in a word. that I am a rational creature. ibid. 27. 107. [l ] “For I deem that better which God wills than that which I will.” Epictetus as cited at X. [p ] XII. 24.2 [r ] “Whatever station or rank thou shalt assign me. “I adhere to him. added God’s gift of Christ to mankind. IV. and others of the same kind in Epictetus. 13. He is a bad soldier who sighs while he follows his general. ] IX. 25. [o ] X. is mine also. 34.” Epictetus II. says Gataker. 21. [c. 4.] lead me onWhere e’er you have appointed me. IX. 27. 20. These sentiments. ] IV.” Epictetus I. [k.—The prayer of Cleanthes frequently quoted by Epictetus. to the subject of his hymn. 20. 33. 33. [i ] “—I know to whom I owe subjection and obedience: it is to God. O destiny! [by himEstablish’d thorough nature. [d. and IWill follow unreluctant. This is my post: while I am allowed I will never leave it.” Epictetus. and.0 (generated September.” Seneca. I ought to hymn the Deity. only. 17.3 [a. his will. [n ] X.” Epictetus III. 3. his desire. in Plato’s apology. I will also.libertyfund. His purpose. Now. III.” Epictetus III. 57. without murmuring. are not unworthy of the best Christian: had he but. ] V. “In fine. neither do I will. PLL v6. Epist.
II.org/title/2133 . 21. 23. 2011) 156 http://oll. 13. 16. VI. [* ] So he calls the heathens after St.” Seneca de Beneficiis II. [q.7 [o.libertyfund. 15. [i. II. ] IX. [g. ] V. at the end. 29. 74. at the end.” Cicero de finibus. ] VIII. ] V. 22. ] VII. 7. [a. ] VI. XV. ] VII. [u. 44. 28. be the deed itself. ] IX. of the love of our offspring. 73. Paul. ] V. 5. & VII. ] III. 6. ] XII. 7. [b. 5. [p. in all actions. [k.6 [n. 19. “Non sibi. 1. ] III.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [e. [x.” Lucan. [s. [f. B. [l. VII. 55. “Even while giving. [c. ] “ ’Tis Epicurus who says men love each other from hope of reward. [r. 16.4 [h. ] Matth. ] VI. 4. ] XII. ] III.0 (generated September. ] VII. toti genitum se credere mundo. 33. [a. V.5 [m. ] VII.” Plutarch. 6. 6. 29. ] IX. ] IX. 74. [y. 6. forgetting that he gives. PLL v6. “Let the motive. VIII. [z. and not the observers of it. ] VII. ] IX. sed. [t.
When they knew God. 12. VI. ] Isidor. ] Acts XVII. ] — VII. [k. [m. 48. 26. [f. [g. ] Luke XIV.2 [c. 22. To follow God and reason: Antoninus.libertyfund. ] — VI. [f. 39. ]Plato. 170. [l. PLL v6. VI. and III. 45. Pelus. ] — V. and Embass. 19.4 [i. [a. 122. 28. 20. ] Matth. 335. verse 21. [c. [o. ] — 28. 37. ] — V. Rom. ] There is nothing more impious. ] — V. 33. [h. XXXII. II. 2011) 157 http://oll. [n. 31. ] Our reasonable service. ] — XII. Epist. in the laws. 1. [d. 36. 23.0 (generated September. XII. 3. XII. ] — V. 31. ] — XXII.1 [b. [i. and Luke X.3 [g. XXII.org/title/2133 . 20. ]Deut. 16. 1. [e. Epist. Epist. And. [e. ] — V. [h. ]Romans I. than man once turned savage. 33. 1.5 [k. 37. ] — XVIII. ]Aug. ] Oration 51. [d. Polybius Hist. B. 228. 15. B.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [b. 44. ] — V. more barbarous. 39. That which may be known of God. 19.
in annum Serm. [11.2). See the editors’ introduction. See bibliography. The Emperor Marcus Antoninus His Conversation with Himself. ] That they should see the Lord. 171nn13. & IX..] Casaubon. [2. “Life of Marcus” 3.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [l. 25. noted for his piety.org/title/2133 .] The emperor Hadrian (r. and Brill’s New Pauly. ]Prov.” which is the ultimate source of the biographical material in Hutcheson and Moor’s introduction. Acts XVII.libertyfund. 2011) 158 http://oll.] There is no paragraph corresponding to this in Dacier’s “Life.] Hutcheson and Moor normally refer to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (emperor 161–80) as Antoninus rather than Marcus Aurelius. [7. Roman History. Marcus Aurelius.] Collier. & de Mad. Verus. [3. 1. LXXI–LXXII. p. 11. as he is commonly called today.] Gataker. 15. bk. see The Oxford Classical Dictionary. [p. [n.] Lucius Volusius Maecianus. [m. xii–xiii. art.] For Marcus’s own account of his family. [10. I. 117–38).] For these persons. pp. I. ]Bern. p. II. [8. Rom. A full-length biography is Birley. [6. [1. 15. I. His Meditations Concerning Himselfe (1634). 171n9. [5.] Dacier.” PLL v6. 3rd ed. 27. see the endnotes. 156–86. See bibliography. if haply they might feel after him and find him.] Sextus was a nephew of Plutarch (Scriptores historiae Augustae. [12. 20. 27. p. bk. See bibliography. XX. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the Roman Emperor.] The chief literary sources for the life of Marcus Aurelius are Dio Cassius. The Daciers added a prefatory “Life of Marcus. 27. See the endnotes. ]Genesis I. 1. [13. and a short account of the reign by Birley may be found in the Cambridge Ancient History.6 [o. For further information on persons and places. p. 6. [9. Reflexions morales de l’Empereur Marc Antonin avec des remarques de Mr.] The second king of Rome. pp. see bk. Dacier.0 (generated September. eminent lawyer and imperial administrator under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. and the “Lives” of Marcus. 170n6. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros (1652/1697). 1. vol. and Avidius Cassius in the Historia Augusta (or Scriptores historiae Augustae). ] Rom. [4.
] Athenagoras. Legatio and De resurrectione. [26. pp. vol.] After the assassination of Commodus. IV.. in Dio’s Roman History (Loeb ed. and. was executed in 165.] Legio XII Fulminata was descended from Julius Caesar’s twelfth legion.] Eusebius. 1948. vol. is a defense of Christians from the charges of immorality frequently leveled against them. his Presbeia peri Christianōn (A Plea for Christians).3.] Valesius produced an edition of Eusebius’s Ecclesiastical History in 1659. 168–69n45). IX... where there were PLL v6. 192–93) describes thunderbolts hurled against the enemy by Jupiter in response to Marcus’s prayer.] In 171 occurred the Moorish inroads into Spain and the revolt of the Bucoli (Herdsmen) in Egypt. pp.13. who gives Tertullian as his source (see the endnotes. History of the Church V.] Dio Cassius LXXII.] Justin Martyr. “The Life of the Emperor.” [21. and trans.8–10. 2011) 159 http://oll. vol. [15. ed. It is generally regarded by historians as spurious.] Normally now spelled “Calpurnius.] The incident is related by Dio Cassius LXXII. which Hutcheson mentions here. this legion was recruited in the regions of Melitene.] This appears to be a paraphrase of Eusebius. [16. Ecclesiastical History 4.” pp.] Normally now called “Chatti. in Dio’s Roman History (Loeb ed.0 (generated September. 11. 11. 170. Christian apologist. 12–13). [22. Marcovich. Falls. The First Apology. but that if any should recant they should be let go.” [17. Dio ascribes the miracle to an Egyptian “magician” invoking Hermes Aetios. 26–33).org/title/2133 . See Athenagoras. below. I. See the account in the Cambridge Ancient History. [23.libertyfund.” [18.4 in The Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. IX. [25. Pertinax was emperor for three months until he was himself assassinated in March 193. [27. [19.] The Christian interpretation is preserved in Eusebius.1.3. chap. Eusebius refers briefly to Justin Martyr’s two “apologies” for the Christian religion. already had the name Fulminata in the first century. as Hutcheson and Moor say. History of the Church V.] The “Marcomannic Wars” continued for much of the 170s. addressed to Marcus Aurelius and his son Commodus. In Marcus’s time. At bk.1–7 ascribes this letter to the emperor Antoninus Pius. The “Life of Marcus” 24.47: “For Caesar had written that they should be tortured to death. ed. 1994. see note 21. The Greek text of the Apologies is found in Justini Martyris Apologiae. author of two Apologies for the Christian religion addressed to Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius jointly. p. [20. and a translation in Justin.5. vol. [24.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [14. pp.
] “Life of Avidius Cassius” 8. and Marcus’s reply to it. 59–71). p. The incident and the letter are also referred to by Tertullian.] A forgery in “Life of Avidius Cassius” 12.] Dio Cassius LXXII. II. in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed.. but he is the subject of five letters between Marcus and Fronto (Fronto. [35. according to Bury (Gibbon.35. ed. vol. He is not mentioned in The Meditations. Apology.23. vol. This speech may contain the gist of what Marcus actually said (Cambridge Ancient History. in Dio’s Roman History (Loeb ed.2.] This letter purporting to be by Marcus. a prominent sophist. 256–59)....] “Life of Avidius Cassius” 14. one of the assassins of Julius Caesar. 165–68. 157n52). The Lives of the Sophists. 116n107).4.10. are found in the “Life of Avidius Cassius” 1. IX.1. pp. in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed.1 (563) (Loeb ed. pp. I.7–9 and 2. 234–37). 2011) 160 http://oll.] A forged letter from “Life of Avidius Cassius” 11.org/title/2133 . 31).. IX. vol. vol. [32. Loeb ed. 248–51). [40. 177). p. pp. [36. Loeb ed.. vol. I.3–26. the friend and teacher of Marcus Aurelius and of Lucius Verus (Dio Cassius LXXII.2–5. ed. pp. Loeb ed. [28. to whom Marcus gave an audience at Smyrna in 176.] The letter of Verus about Cassius. See Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. [30. 52–53).8. is appended to Justin Martyr’s First Apology (Greek text in Marcovich. vol. pp.3–8. 110–11).] The sophist Herodes Atticus. [33. I. [34. Apology V.libertyfund. p. pp. [31. 262–63). [38. in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. Decline and Fall. 39–45). I. Lives of the Sophists II. pp. [29. Lives of the Sophists II.] This purported correspondence between Marcus Aurelius and Faustina.] Philostratus. but certainly spurious. I. pp. [39. I. 139–83). vol. pp. 64–65). pp..] Aelius Aristides. pp. 11. vol. Indeed the whole of this “Life of Avidius Cassius” has been described as “mainly fictional. in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. 175–77). vol. IX.. 252–55). De spectaculis (Loeb ed. Among his many surviving speeches is a panegyric of the Roman PLL v6.30..0 (generated September..6. pp. pp.1–8 in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. except for a few passages dealing with the revolt in 175” (Cambridge Ancient History.. pp.1–10.1 (Philostratus and Eunapius. For his life see Philostratus. 254–57). found in the “Life of Avidius Cassius” 9. in Tertullian..Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus many Christians. English translation in Falls. p. vol.5–10. Correspondence. vol. Bury . vol. 11.] Dio Cassius LXXII. These letters are forgeries. in Dio’s Roman History. in Dio’s Roman History (Loeb ed. is spurious..] Gaius Cassius Longinus.. [37.
an account of the revelations made by Asclepius.10. the conception of God articulated in Oration 11 “Plato on God” was particularly influential. [42. and it would not be astonishing if he simply assumed without examination that the measures taken by his predecessors against sectaries who spurned the ancestral cults were correct” (Brunt. The emperor Hadrian had also been initiated. 14–21).” who was popular among humanists of the Renaissance and later. trans. a “middle Platonist. including Gataker’s. [1. though it actually occurred in 156. god of healing.] Hutcheson and Moor are paraphrasing here. [2. History of the Church.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus empire (“To Rome”).” 499). expresses the widely accepted view that Marcus simply followed the policy of his predecessors since Trajan of permitting prosecution of Christians if initiated by private citizens: “Marcus’s own conduct appears to me at all points traditionalist. pp.14. He gives an account of the execution of the Christian apologist Justin Martyr and of many other Christians in Asia. beginning: “In this period Asia was thrown into confusion by the most savage persecutions.4.] The source of this purported deathbed speech of Marcus is Herodian I. “Marcus Aurelius and the Christians. however. art. bk. art. 22. V. summarizing as follows (V.1): “Such were the experiences of the Christian churches [in Gaul] under Marcus Aurelius: from them one can easily guess what happened in the other provinces of the Empire.” (The quotations in this note are from Eusebius.. Williamson. 93–106. they omit the names of “the contending parties.] Marcus was initiated into this ancient cult of Demeter at Eleusis near Athens in 176. the great governour of this city”..9–V. p. and bk. Philosophical Orations. [44.] See also bk. See Maximus Tyrius. [43. pp. art.2.) A recent historian. he also composed Sacred Teachings.” [45. who first established the numbering for Marcus.” Eusebius assigns the celebrated martyrdom of Polycarp to Marcus’s reign. not least in the scrupulous respect for Roman religious ceremonial.” PLL v6. 65n: “God. Eusebius left to succeeding centuries the impression that persecution was general throughout the empire in the reign of Marcus. 98n: where the inferior gods of “the heathen philosophers” are compared with the angels believed in by “many Christians”. IX. 203. in Herodian (Loeb ed. 2011) 161 http://oll. 19. 1.] Maximus of Tyre. with regard to his medical problems.0 (generated September. the asterisked note: “This is a clear acknowledgement of the one supreme God.3) to the persecutions of the reign. p.] Hutcheson and Moor’s first paragraph contains the first three paragraphs of all other editions. The highly influential History of the Church by Eusebius (composed early in the fourth century at a time of widespread persecution) devotes most of its account of the Church in the reign of Marcus (IV.libertyfund.] Marcus was regarded by Christians as one of the major persecutors.org/title/2133 . He also describes the martyrdoms in Gaul in graphic detail. [41. 168. Hence all their numbers in the first book from paragraph 2 onward are three lower than in other editions and translations. VIII.
the others are unknown. 143). to which Marcus refers here. who also taught Fronto. [9. p. 97–98. 2011) 162 http://oll. nephew of Plutarch. discusses a proposal to delete it in his annotation to this passage (p. 37–38.] Stoic philosopher.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [3. I. Marcus’s Greek secretary. repeats the story found in the “Life of Marcus” in the Historia Augusta that even when Marcus had been adopted into the imperial family.] Baccheios was “a Platonic philosopher of the day” (The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Correspondence. 3).” chap.17 as one of the three men whom he is most grateful to the gods to have known (the others being Apollonius [endnote 8. who taught Marcus literature.] This Diognetus was Marcus’s painting instructor. 146).libertyfund. Marcus’s tutor in rhetoric and correspondent (Birley. Marcus Aurelius.] Philosopher and orator. [11. This was not discovered until the early nineteenth century and would not have been known to Hutcheson and Moor. reports from the “Life of Marcus. [14. II. 9. Gataker. 135). He was descended from the Rusticus who was executed by Domitian in 93 ad as a member of a group of aristocratic Stoics who opposed tyranny.” chap.0 (generated September. as Gataker. vol. [5. and omits it from his Latin translation. for example. vol. PLL v6. 118–19. a freed slave. All references to Gataker are to the 1697 edition. 5. trans. p. [7. Farquharson. 171]). who taught Stoic philosophy.. I. Rivers.] Apollonius of Chalcedon was invited to Rome by the emperor Antoninus to instruct the young Marcus in philosophy. Some of the correspondence between Marcus and Fronto survived in a manuscript that had been overwritten with another text (a palimpsest). pp. [10. [8.] Epictetus (ca.] Cinna Catulus. See also Birley. below] and Maximus [endnote 15. he used to visit the house of Apollonius for philosophical instruction (“Life of Marcus. 91–92. [4. [6.14). sec.] Quintus Junius Rusticus (cos. p. a pupil of the famous Musonius Rufus. He and Marcus are bracketed together in the revival of interest in Stoicism in the early eighteenth century (see. His lectures and discussions were written up by Arrian in the Discourses. p. Grace. reported to have been a Stoic.] Alexander was a sophist and grammarian from Cotiaeon. 12. [12.org/title/2133 . Marcus Aurelius. The correspondence is translated in Fronto. 4.] Marcus Cornelius Fronto taught Marcus rhetoric.] Gataker prints the negative particle in his Greek text. Marcus mentions him in I. 3 in Scriptores historiae Augustae. a great authority on Homer.] Athenodotus was a Stoic. 162) was the man primarily responsible for arousing Marcus’s devotion to philosophy (see I. [13. 184–86). Reason. and an outline of his principles is given in his Manual (Encheiridion). 105). in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. pp. p. and Sentiment. 137). II. vol. pp. 55–ca.
71. consul 146. 73–74 and note. p. 19. bk. esteem.] An error for Lanuvium. and bk. and especially bk. [7. and bk. II. art. 105n. 142. [17. Brutus is the assassin of Julius Caesar who killed himself after being defeated by Octavian at Philippi. p.] See bk. 75. art. 47n. 13. 1. IV. the asterisked note. p. XII. it is spelled correctly in Gataker’s Greek text and in his Latin translation (1697. 4. 75. the asterisked note. and popular applause. X. p. p. p. bk. [3.org/title/2133 . say they.libertyfund. art. 24. p. bk. art. art. p. 56. 109–11 (Liberty Fund ed. p. 178n1. and bk. 24. 17. bk. art. 54. 13. Apology. p. In these passages Hutcheson reminds the reader of the limitations that the Stoics placed upon the desire for fame. IV. V. 96–97). 2011) 163 http://oll. 19. VI. p. art. by Domitian. pp.] Theophrastus succeeded Aristotle as head of the Peripatetic school in 322 bc The passage is from a lost work. 38. See Birley. 12. pp. 46. bk. 148. 38. bk.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [15. 78–79). pp. wealth. Marcus Aurelius. IX. art. 132. bk. art. p. pp. art. IV. 65n. pp. Hutcheson expressed similar reservations concerning desires for honor. [5. 145–46n. 5. 12. VI. art. [2. art. also Helvidius.] See also bk. Marcus had his winter quarters here during his campaign against the Quadi. consul ca. [1. 7. Marcus Aurelius. VI. sec. 138. [6. bk. described as “a man of austere principles and long military service” (Apuleius. Porcius Cato committed suicide after the battle of Thapsus rather than submit to Julius Caesar. p.] See also bk.0 (generated September. IV. p. the double-daggered note. art. the asterisked note. Most of them were Stoics. Thrasea Paetus was forced to commit suicide by Nero. In An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections (1728). 37n. XI. on the rational soul as a being or substance distinct from the body and the animal soul: “The rational soul. Stoic senator. VI. p. art. p. XI. bk.] See bk. p. art. art. 63. pp. provincial governor. Dio is probably the disciple of Plato who deposed the tyrant Dionysius II of Syracuse. 111. art. 6). on the identification of the soul and the heart. 54n. VIII. bk. 50n. p. he is usually now called Dion. the seat of true perfection and happiness”. XII. V. and power. 14. 30. and the endnotes. art. art. II. [16. 19). 39. 19. M. his son married one of Marcus’s daughters (Birley. a tributary of the Danube in Slovakia. art. [19.] See also bk. is the man. VI. [18. p. IV.] A Cynic philosopher of the fourth century bc PLL v6.] The river Gran or Hron. [4. art. bk. on the soul and the possibility of a future state. bk.] Claudius Maximus. a Germanic tribe. his son. p.] Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus.. 150n. 16. on the rational soul as the seat of knowledge and virtue.] These were all men who won fame by opposing tyranny. Helvidius Priscus was executed by Vespasian. 137. XII. 96–97.
see Diogenes Laertius.. art. set but the weakest moral Species. V. [5. is beautiful if one considers the nature of things as a whole. and in pointing out beauties even in those parts of it where vulgar observers are not apt to see any. p. 2011) 164 http://oll. the great physician and author of some of the medical treatises in the Hippocratic Corpus. art. [1. ii. and bk. generosity. p. 54.libertyfund. sec. 91.] It was one of the dominant themes of Hutcheson’s moral philosophy that all mankind would be naturally sociable if it were not for misleading associations of ideas and “falsely imagined interests. where obstacles encountered in the PLL v6. 59.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [8. p. p. p. from whom the Stoics derived their doctrine of the periodic conflagration of the universe. p. Lives of the Philosophers.] Hutcheson referred to this section of The Meditations and to others in the third edition of An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections (1742). 1. the daggered note. 137 (Liberty Fund ed. art. like Shaftesbury and Hutcheson.III. linked the beautiful and the moral. p. the daggered note. 6. [8. 410–11).org/title/2133 . [3. 118 [Loeb ed.0 (generated September.” Hutcheson returns to the moral significance of separating images in the imagination in bk. 50–51. sec. p. where Marcus had his winter quarters for three successive years while on campaign against the Marcomanni.] Heraclitus of Ephesus. p. 135. 1. Theory of Moral Sentiments. pp. VII.] Gaius Julius Caesar. 133. See bk. however rugged or aging or deformed. notes that this death story is told of Pherecydes of Syros rather than of Democritus (from Diogenes Laertius. 124–25]).] Democritus of Abdera. 93. 288: “The good-natured Emperor … delights in expressing contentment with the ordinary course of things. [2. as Gataker suggests (Gataker 1697. where Hutcheson writes: “the dissipating pursuits of external things. 93).] The Babylonians (or Chaldeans) were the source of the astrology that was very popular in Rome in the imperial period. [4. 11. See also Adam Smith. pp. Lives. bk. 20. and public spirit: “consider things barely and apart from each other: and in opposition to these Desires. VII. XI. in the early 170s. stupify the nobler powers”. 93). bk. IX. It may be added that Marcus.] East of Vienna. chap. Greek philosopher of the sixth century bc. and the Natural Sociability of Mankind (2006). For his death. 3 (Loeb ed. a Germanic tribe. 90n. XI. Hutcheson’s use of this section in An Essay had a strictly moral application. art. It was that we must separate ideas of wealth and other external things from ideas of friendship... and bk. VII. pp.] See also bk. I. Logic.] The reference to “vermi’ here seems to be to the accusers of Socrates.” See especially his inaugural lecture as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow (1730) in Francis Hutcheson. and see if they can prevail against it. chap. art.” Marcus’s point in this section appears rather to have been an aesthetic observation: he was reminding himself and his readers that everything in nature. [9. 1. atomist philosopher of the fifth century bc Gataker. IV. [7. [6.] Hippocrates of Cos. Metaphysics.
119). following Xylander’s emendation kata ton Agathona. including Gataker (1697. and Charles Boyle. The supposed Letters of Phalaris had given rise to a celebrated controversy between Richard Bentley. p. who had edited the Letters and was inclined to accept their authenticity. Gataker quotes Ephesians 5:12. Others. V. and the officia. art. 65. which they counted the sole good. where Marcus cites Epictetus: “That we may form every purpose with reservation. Hutcheson was expressing a reservation about the subject matter of Cicero’s De officiis and explaining why it should not be mistaken for a complete system of morals. p. See also the editors’ introduction. art.” in Hutcheson. translated by Hutcheson as “reservation. p. See also bk. 1699). tyrant of Acragas (Agrigento) in Sicily in the sixth century bc and a byword for cruelty and sensuality. p. 20. Metaphysics. see Hadot. and bk. 29. p.0 (generated September. take care they be kind and social.] Gataker’s Greek text differs from his Latin translation here (1697. art. In his dedication “to the students in universities. and some commentators have seen here a derogatory reference to the Christians. 137) Gataker says that he approves of Xylander’s emendation. 199n25.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus pursuit of external things or things indifferent are taken to be opportunities for actions which may be more properly denominated virtuous or good. neither good nor evil. and proportioned to the worth of objects. VIII.” [1. and in his annotation to the text (1697.org/title/2133 . IV.] Phalaris. Logic. as “the governing part. see also bk. apply it to evil men generally. 26). whereas his Latin translation. On Marcus’s employment of this technical language and its significance for his thought. PLL v6. 52. 122–23.” prefaced to A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy.] The Greek terms hypexairesis. II. and 193. 111. 143. Bentley. [10. His Greek text has to agathon (“the good”). 6. [2. [5.libertyfund. p. [4. which is itself mutilated: “and those who … when they have closed their doors. who were believed to commit all kinds of depravity behind closed doors.] The translation here omits a clause in the Greek text. art. xxi. See Jebb. The Inner Citadel. who first definitively proved that they were spurious (A Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris. 2011) 165 http://oll.” were technical terms in the vocabulary of the Stoics. Hutcheson summarizes the Stoic position on this matter: “Now ’tis well known that the Stoicks made such difference between virtue. p. 57.” On Hutcheson’s use of the term hegemonikon. 105n. p.] See also note to bk. [11. and Natural Sociability (2006). pp. and other references noted there.” Some phrase like “commit all sorts of depravity” seems to be missing from the Greek. 40–85. 37. 35. see also “On the Natural Sociability of Mankind. art. p. takes Agathon as a personal name.” and hegemonikon. 52. [3.” In this assertion. that they counted the duties among the things indifferent. XI.] On the Stoic citizenship of the world.] See also bk. p. or external duties of life. “For it is a shame even to speak of the things that they do in secret.
] Helice. 16–22 (Loeb ed. the first Roman emperor. secs. and bk. 13. bk. bk. p. II.] Trajan. An Account of Virtue. pp. 5 and 6. pp. p. XX. [8. p. to be one of the three primitive virtues. Cato defends the Stoic theory that all creatures must first preserve themselves. p. [11.” chap. in Characteristics. chap. 14.v. sec. V. p.. [16. fragment 28 (Loeb ed. and bk.] Vespasian.] This section was quoted in part by Henry More. Discourses (Loeb ed. [10. p. Pompeii and Herculaneum (as it is usually now spelled) were destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in ad 79. pp. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [6. De finibus. VI. [13. VIII. VII. 27. 17. 167–68. II. but they must then proceed to live in conformity with nature: “It is only at this final stage that the Good first emerges and comes to be understood in its true nature. 1. properly understood.” [14.] Shaftesbury took this article to be an expostulation directed against Lucretius: “Miscellany II. p. sec. art.. chap. heroes of the Republic.] The sentences placed within square brackets have also been attributed to Epictetus. 145. together with prudence and patience. On the Ends of Good and Evil. [17. and ends with Hadrian and Antoninus Pius.1. art.] This article is attributed to Epictetus on the authority of Marcus and reproduced among the otherwise unauthorized fragments in Epictetus. art. sec. 74n. xxvii. [19. bk.] See also bk. emperor 69–79.libertyfund. p.” See the editors’ introduction to this edition. 6. III.org/title/2133 . took the simplicity or sincerity of the soul. s. ii. 63n. pt. emperor 98–117. [15. his immediate predecessors. Diels. 470–71). 251. XII.0 (generated September.] In Cicero. The same section was quoted in full by Adam Smith. Klein. p. 232–41). fragments B76.] Heraclitus. III. III. pp. a town in the district of Achaea in Greece. 16–22 (Loeb ed. in support of a theory of liberty. An Account of Virtue (1690). bk.v–vi. p. 470–73).] Marcus proceeds from some mostly obscure figures of early Roman history through Scipio and Cato. to Augustus. See Epictetus. V. art. p.. 233–41). 2011) 166 http://oll. X. 71–74 (Diels-Kranz). [9..] See also bk.] Cicero. I. PLL v6. sec. where the will is resigned to Divine Providence. vol. III. “Helice”). bk. 9. II. pp. [12. vol. art. 353n. 70. chaps. 289. Henry More. 63. p. 150n. chap. 119. was overwhelmed by the sea in 373 bc (Brill’s New Pauly. [7. as illustrative of a moral system “too absurd to deserve any serious consideration. II.] These cannot be identified. xviii. as represented by Marcus Aurelius. ed. Theory of Moral Sentiments. II. 105. [18. 1. vol. Discourses. vol.
” p. as it is often counteracting its original destination. / those who had grown up with him and they who had been born to / these in sacred Pylos. present opinions. art. and bk. De origine mali (1702). The Ghost 17: “You’re so well off you don’t / Have anywhere to shit.] The legendarily long-lived king of Homer’s Iliad. in The Scottish Enlightenment: Essays in Reinterpretation.org/title/2133 . the present degenerate state of the soul has been brought about by confused imaginations. although one can still recognize vice in all its ugliness. art. 2011) 167 http://oll.] Menander. the sophist Aelius Aristides.] See bk. And one no longer feels anger or ill will toward the vicious. was Marcus’s contemporary. Hutcheson had alluded to a similar theodicy outlined in the comments of Simplicius on the morals of Epictetus in An Essay (1728).Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [20. art.] Aesculapius. [5.] See note to bk.: “In his time two generations of mortal men had perished. 9. and he was king in the third age” (trans.0 (generated September. 1. pp. II. dispositions. 43–44). 379). II. I’d have you know. pp. See Iliad I. one also understands why the more imperfect orders behave badly. 110. See the endnotes. Loeb ed. 239–66. and habits.” (In Menander.” pp. 171–72n2. p.” [3. the god of healing. art.libertyfund. “Hutcheson’s Theodicy. also known as Asclepius. 27. [2. see Moore. Hutcheson also refers on the same pages to the theodicy of William King. PLL v6. 91n. [4. IV.” This is consistent with the assertion made in bk. Many evils are necessary to reclaim the less perfect from their vices. 3. VII. IX. Lattimore). But this lapse of the soul into degeneracy has happened in accordance with the divine plan.” When one understands that imperfection is part of the divine plan or system. A noted recipient of Asclepius’s medical advice. sec. vol. art. 56. 50–51 (Liberty Fund ed.] See also bk. pp. [1.” There is a law of nature but it is known by the immediate promptings of the heart.” As Hutcheson explains it. in which it was foreseen that there must be different orders of beings. if they heartily inclined to do so..” [6. the asterisked note. art. The unavoidability of imperfection in the divine plan was elaborated most fully by Hutcheson in A System of Moral Philosophy (1755): for discussion. 21. on the divine ether. p. 168n40. in the more perfect orders of beings..250ff. usually given in dreams. p. p. And other evils are necessary for the exercise of “the most divine virtues. 67n. that: “the law of God [is] written in the heart. V. And even those imperfect degenerate natures who have been misled by confused imaginations or present opinions might behave otherwise “if they heartily wished to do so. p.] “happen. on “the present degenerate state [of the soul]. “Life of the Emperor. 51. 6. where the relevant passage from Simplicius is reproduced. some of them less perfect than others. It is also interesting that Hutcheson should conclude this note with the sentence: “And the Stoic allows the vicious could refrain from their vices.
27. 2011) 168 http://oll. Georgics IV.. Aeneid I. which the Greek does not necessarily imply.libertyfund. pp.] Virgil. vol. for God. men. shall I deem worthy to be paid you for deeds so glorious? The first and fairest the gods and your own hearts shall give. pp. vol. 455). IV. fragment 10. men and beasts of every sort draw. Aeneid V[hm1u]I. then. [15. 4.] Virgil. I. The universe. vol.220–26. Klein. 304–5): “The gods … and the consciousness of right will bring you worthy rewards!” [1. and a draught of heavenly ether.724–46 (Loeb ed.6 (Epictetus.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [7.” [2. [12. Works and Days.] The modern reference is Hesiod. they saw. art. ed.690. the slender stream of life. 234–35): “… some have taught that the bees received a share of the divine intelligence. each at birth. See also bk.. p.252–54 (Loeb ed. II. pp.. XI.” [10. p. in going on constantly from one social action to another with remembrance of the Deity.] Horace.org/title/2133 . 6. 197–200 (Loeb ed.] The sentences from here to the end of this article were cited by Shaftesbury to reinforce his view that wit is sometimes needed to explode pomposity: “Soliloquy or Advice to an Author. [11. but that human beings need to be purged of the sinful elements they have acquired in life before they can rejoin the heavenly spirit after death. IV. must be that city. pp.] The comedy is not known. if indeed this is a reference to a comedy. pp. 132–33): “What reward.. to Olympus. 113n38. art. including human beings. ?ν?χου κα? ?π?χου. A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (1747). PLL v6.] This sentence was cited by Hutcheson (in the original Greek) as one of the epigraphs prefaced to Philosophiae moralis (1745). Loeb ed. I. in Virgil (Loeb ed.] Virgil. I. pp.” [9. 582–85). vol. earth and sea’s expanse and heaven’s depth.0 (generated September.] Marcus is here paraphrasing Homer. this adage is rendered: “In this one thing delight and rest yourself. Satires II. 234–35): “Then indeed will Reverence and Indignation cover their beautiful skin with white mantles. p. to him all beings thereafter return..] Virgil. from him the flocks and herds.. 142–43): “a portion of the divine spirit. vol. pp.79 (Loeb ed.2. In the translation of that work.” [13. Odyssey IV. for of what other common city are all men citizens?” [8. 52.. we have a common city. explains that an “inner spirit” pervades all things.” in Characteristics (1999). Aeneid IX.] See bk. [14.” [16. 135n.603–5 (Loeb ed.] Marcus’s language here is an adaptation of the famous phrase of Epictetus. art. leave human beings behind and go from the broad-pathed earth to the race of the Immortals. pervades all things. Discourses. 48–49: “We are all fellow-citizens: and if so. and when unmade. I. p. and bk. are restored.
] These three figures are unknown. p. [5. p. art. art. 70. 28– 30. [12. V. II. 34n.] Influential Cynic writer of the third century bc. mathematician (third century bc).99 in modern editions. For Nestor. and bk. vol. p.. art. I. PLL v6. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. [11. 138–161. art. art. 64n. 109. [15. 176n20. art. Iliad 7. 27. Diels. Ceres. p.” See Inquiry.] Fragment B75 (Diels-Kranz). Hipparchus. a mountain headland at the end of the Chalcidic peninsula. [4. vol. 38. VII.] Homer. bk.] Here and elsewhere Hutcheson inserts into his translation a number of phrases in square brackets. V. p. 5. 94. Marcus’s adoptive father. [7. p. see the endnotes. p. art. XII. 148. art. and bk. 145–46. They seem to be interpretative additions. bk. bk. art. X. 2. sec. Moralia 1065e). pp. [9. astronomer (second century bc). p. 168. 68. 98n.] Like the Stoics. in Logic. VIII. II. Stoicorum veterum fragmenta. 147–49. V. IX. VII. 27. p. bk. [8. p. Archimedes. 31. II. 19. I. art. fragment 1181 (from Plutarch. 3. 96 and 108–10). 132. 97. I. 22. chap. IX. bk. [16. 4. art. II.] Eudoxus. p. mathematician and astronomer (fourth century bc). which correspond to nothing in the Greek text. pp. 5.” pt.0 (generated September. art. 8. 108. pp. goddess of the corn. author of satirical works thought to have been imitated by Lucian (born about ad 120). 86. Hutcheson’s strongest arguments for a future state of the soul are found in “A Synopsis of Metaphysics. art. See bk. god of healing (see the endnotes.] See also bk. pp. 3. IX. through which Xerxes notoriously cut a canal in preparation for his invasion of Greece in 480 bc [10. pp. Metaphysics.] Aesculapius (Asclepius).] Von Arnim. p. 2011) 169 http://oll. and bk. art. 112–13. art. Hutcheson thought that one may have ideas of virtue and moral goodness and be motivated to act virtuously without “any Thoughts of future Rewards. [17. [6. bk. See also bk. and Natural Sociability. 17. 19. bk. 7 (Liberty Fund ed. art. [13.] See also bk. VIII.org/title/2133 . XII.] Athos. pp. and sec. bk. sec. IX. [14. 176n1).Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [3. art.libertyfund. 14. p. p. Chrysippus was head of the Stoic school in the third century bc and was recognized as the “second founder” of Stoicism.] See bk. 13.] This sentiment and the parallel theme in the New Testament are a repeated refrain in the notes provided by Hutcheson and Moor.] Emperor. 112–13.
66–67). II. ll. p. pp. Discourses. art.] Plato.0 (generated September. vol. See the endnotes. chap. p. vol. bk. p.] Plato. fragment 208.] This quotation was used as an epigram prefaced to Philosophiae moralis (1745). pt. 5.. vol. 5.] Euripides. A close approximation to this passage is found in Plato’s Sophist 216c (Loeb ed. II. ed. pp. II. 357). 65). 924). 178n11.] Epictetus. [8. I. 777). Antisthenis fragmenta. bk. pp. are excluded from modern editions. fragment 20b. pp. 87. 266–67). ll. p. vol. vol. [12. p. For Epictetus see the endnotes.” and it is attributed to “An unknown poet in Antonin. [5. Kannicht.. 29 (Loeb ed. chap. [11.] Hutcheson’s remark may indicate that he found Marcus’s writing obscure in this article. chap. p. PLL v6. [13. 2. Caizzi. bk. however. 1. for they know not what they do. p. fragment 757.] Plato. pp. ll. fragment 918. p.] Euripides. [4. 3–4 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta.] “Father. 5.” [3. [2. vol. 8–11)..] Cicero. bk. Antiope. Apology 28b (Loeb ed.] Antisthenes. forgive them. 104–5): “We need only to look at the faces of men in a rage or under the influence of some passion or fear or beside themselves with extravagant joy: …” Hutcheson had cited the same observation from Cicero in A System of Moral Philosophy. or he may have been suggesting that Marcus was proposing a doubt on this subject in the same dialectical spirit that Hutcheson perceived in bk. ll. [6.. V. printed them (1697. [9. ed.] Plato. p.] Euripides. bk.. 5.” which are found in some manuscripts. Hypsipyle. [16. 177n16. 42 (Loeb ed. 170n7. vol. fragment 287. 145–46. 484–85). Gataker. I.. I. sec. V.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [1. bk.. pp. [14. p. I. 104–5). pt.] The words “This is beautiful in Plato. 299). 1. pp. vol. De officiis. [10. 1–2 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta.] Euripides.” The source remains unknown. V.libertyfund. sec.. [15. [7. 2. 2011) 170 http://oll. XII. 16. 1–2 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. I. pt. VI. Bellerophon. similar sentiments appear in Plato’s Republic 500b–c (Loeb ed. pp. In A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (1747) it is translated as “Give joy to the immortal gods and those that love you.org/title/2133 . 102–5). Gorgias 512d–e (Loeb ed.] For Chrysippus see the endnotes. pt. 335). 5. Republic 486a–b (Loeb ed. Apology 28d (Loeb ed. 925–26 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta.
95).. art. In this passage of Marcus. It is an understandable mistranslation since in earlier Greek. “in the Areopagus. for instance. ll. [25. [26. pp. pt. fragment 303 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. p. in which case the meaning of the sentence is.” but modern editions treat “Tēlaugēs” as the proper name of an obscure contemporary of Socrates and add a negative. sec. [28. I. p. VIII. fragment 839. vol. 296–97).libertyfund. pp.] See the endnotes. III. 232–35) of how Socrates slept in the open through the frosty nights during the campaign against Potidaea.] Euripides. fragment 447. VIII. The “thirty tyrants” conducted a reign of terror at Athens in 404–403 bc The charge mentioned in the text that Socrates assumed “stately airs or gate” seems to be a reference to Aristophanes.” is a mistranslation of “en tōi pagōi” (in Gataker’s text. I. vol. [18. bk. p.] See the endnotes. 9–11 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta.] Hutcheson’s translation is consistent with Gataker’s text (p. 116–19). p. “How do we know that Telauges was not in character superior to Socrates?” See The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. [23. bless those that curse them. [27. Chrysippus. The reference to “Cambray’s dialogue of Socrates.org/title/2133 . Epistle VII.. p. VI.] See the editors’ introduction. vol. vol. 68). there is no note at bk.. pp. 222ff. p. bk. Also see bk. 2.] Hutcheson was referring to the citation from Epictetus at art. chap. pp. pp.. [22. however. ed. 324c–325a (Loeb ed. II. 68). 2011) 171 http://oll. 173n9. 749–50. bk. Alcibiades and Timon” is to François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon (1651–1715). I. [24. vol. 478–81).] The reference to Matthew 5:45–47 is to the Sermon on the Mount where Christ urges his followers not to follow the example of the Roman tax collectors (“the publicans”) who love only those who love the Romans. 124–25). [19. pp. p. 924). xx. 5. I. at Republic 412e–13a (Loeb ed.” and alludes to the story Plato tells at Symposium 220b–d (Loeb ed. and bk. Archbishop of Cambrai PLL v6.” and does have this meaning in “Areopagos. [20. and so on.0 (generated September.] Hutcheson’s translation.] Plato. p. 88– 89. 447. 143. Clouds.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [17. 28. 45. Farquharson. I. “en tōi pagōi” means “in the frosty cold. at least.] Epicurus. ed. 54. p. pp. 46. and a quotation of unknown authorship..] Euripides. He exhorts his followers to love their enemies.. Usener. Epicurea.] A characteristic doctrine of Plato’s found. 178– 79). “ei tēlaugēs Sōkratēs. vol. [21. Suppliants 1110–11 (Loeb ed. 172–73n1. 105n. art. Apology 32c–d (Loeb ed. “pagos” could mean “rock” or “hill. III. art. but Marcus’s version closely follows Epictetus’s paraphrase at Discourses. 4 (Loeb ed. pp.” “the hill of Ares” in Athens. 76n. pp. 24.
] These persons are unknown. [8. and bk. 125n. bk. [13. The wiser Heathens had a different Polytheism. endeavour to do ’em good. p. art. V. 187–201. the daggered note. general and minister to Augustus. Hutcheson deplored “the vanity of Polytheism.” [29. p. At p. 91n.] Diogenes of Sinope. [10.. art. vol. vol. 117–38. bk. 1. 56. 13. p. except as it gave opportunities of more extensive good offices. p. [9. 19. 9. 11.” pp. VII. XV. 10. Dialogue XVII: “Socrates. [12. vol.org/title/2133 . 45. [4.] See bk.] For Heraclitus see the endnotes. founder of the Cynic sect in the fourth century bc. 17. a Stoic who was a confidant of Augustus (Brill’s New Pauly. vol.] Insofar as these persons are identifiable. art. III.] Gaius Julius Caesar. [3. On Not Listening to Slander 16 (Loeb ed. III. See bk. p.] Emperor from 138 to 161. art. art. Socrates declares “we must love Mankind. I.” Marcus was clearly one of those “wiser Heathens. the asterisked note. 206. column 1158). Areios. p. I. 127. Alcibiades and Timon: A Just Medium between the Man-Hating Character of Timon. XI.” Hutcheson and Moor typically find in the text evidence of Marcus’s belief in one God. p. 379). Fables and Dialogues of the Dead. Hutcheson had remarked that “the Stoics denyed fame to be desirable. sec. ad 14). art. 173n5. p.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (1696–1715). and Propertius. art. X.] Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. if any ever believed a plurality of original beings. column 2844. p. [11. X. 194.] At bk. they are members of the imperial family and court. s.v.] The first Roman emperor (d. XII. we must serve ’em without any view of interest. IV. [7. bk. p. 67n. I.] In A System of Moral Philosophy. 27. V. p. [5. 25. IX. [6.] See bk.] Emperor.” It is also notable that whereas Marcus usually refers in the text to “the Gods. appropriated by the Stoics as one of the intellectual precursors of Zeno. chap. except that Demetrius the Platonist may be the person mentioned by Lucian. I. who came to power at Alexandria in 80 bc (Real-Encyclopädie. the founder of Stoicism. Horace. bk. as a victim of slander at the court of Ptolemy XII. friend and minister of Augustus and the patron of Virgil. [2. 50n. 2011) 172 http://oll. art. and bk. in spite of their Defects. [1.] See bk. Maecenas. bk. “Demetrios 92”).libertyfund.0 (generated September. IX. p. 107. art. art. 144. 64n. bk.” PLL v6. 133–34. pp. 4. 1. p. and the Corrupt Character of Alcibiades. art. 1. 110.
IV (Loeb ed. [17. p. I. art. art..7. chap. 174–75. notably with the work of the Cambridge Platonists and with the Eclectics of the early Christian centuries. IV.86–87 (from Horace’s description of the wise man): “who in himself is a whole. See Long. III. p. 20. and by Carmichael in his notes and supplements to Pufendorf’s De officio. I. who was a mistress of Marcus’s co-emperor. Hellenistic Philosophy. 32) to be another use of the Stoic concept of reservation explained above at bk. p. chaps. 37. Smith identified this theory with the Platonists. VIII. 1. sec. 9. Epistles.] See also bk.org/title/2133 . so that nothing from outside can rest on the polished surface. This was a characteristic of Hutcheson’s moral philosophy that made a particular impression upon Adam Smith. vol. XI. 2 and 3.] Source not known. 300–301. 5. V. bk. V. pp.0 (generated September. and 6. 131. V. pp. I. and 297ff. III. art.” Satires. X. Hutcheson had described the communicable attributes in “A Synopsis of Metaphysics. and Natural Sociability (2006). 47n. 105–7. Hutcheson’s note makes it clear that he considered this article (bk.” in Lucian. bk. Hutcheson had insisted elsewhere that the Stoics made provision for rational longing or desires of the soul. 1. 143. sec. ed. in A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (1747). sec.). [15. art. bk.] See A System of Moral Philosophy. albeit a Stoic who incorporated Platonic insights in his thought. chap. art. 15. PLL v6. [1. Harmon. 65.] This footnote does not appear in later editions. IV. I. bk. smoothed and rounded. 10. 131–39. III. Satires II. p. II. 255ff. and Ars Poetica (Loeb ed. vol. 4.] The three notes appended to this article summarize succinctly the three duties distinguished by Hutcheson in A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy. VII. 2011) 173 http://oll. I.” pt. and trans. 36. bk. 210–11. [14. [16. I. Verus. and bk. pp. pp. except for Panthea. pt. chap. [4. 62ff. 3. bk. [3.] See bk. 174n1. art.] These persons are not certainly known. p. Hutcheson appears to find in Marcus’s thinking intimations of the scholastic notion that certain of God’s attributes are communicable or may be shared with human beings.libertyfund. See A System of Moral Philosophy. 231–33).] In this note. pp. Metaphysics. The Stoics’ interest in etymology derives from their view that the meanings of words are in some sense natural rather than conventional. p. vol. Cicero criticizes the Stoics’ etymologies of the gods’ names in On the Nature of the Gods. under the heading “The Original Mind is benevolent or good. sec. Also see the endnotes.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Hutcheson was observing that desires for fame and other external goods were rational and good only if such desires were directed to the good of others and the whole. bk. chap. 45n. I. 162. in Logic.” [2.. [18. sec. 7.. 174–80. pp.] Horace. p. and is celebrated by the contemporary satirist Lucian in “Essays in portraiture” and “Essays in portraiture defended. III. chaps. It is interesting that Hutcheson should have found this theory in the thinking of a philosopher whom he took to be a Stoic. 8. pp. and again at bk. see The Theory of Moral Sentiments. and in A System of Moral Philosophy. chap.
chaps. II. VII. 114. pp.” pt. and the endnotes. 1.org/title/2133 . Metaphysics. [5.] “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart.0 (generated September. and things that are passing away. the passions. to tēs Nekuias. I.] See bk. art. 204) and A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy. p.. and with all your soul. 54–76. 63. king of Macedon. You shall love your neighbour as yourself” (Matthew 22:37– 39).] While Marcus warned against Plato’s idealism. and so forth. the imagination. others have taken Marcus’s style of governing to have been the opposite of Machiavellian realism: “Let Caesar Borgia be the Pattern of Machiavelli’s Hero. [8. p.” [17. III. art. bk. Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment. p.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus See Carmichael.libertyfund. things present. father of Alexander. [10. VI. 6. V. 104–16. 64n. 51. pp. 7. Klein.] See bk. and bk.] Philip II. 64n. [13. V. and A System of Moral Philosophy. a Peripatetic philosopher by training. 7. xiv–xv. p. the divine fire within things themselves. Odyssey XI. 17. [11. art. vol.. And the second is like it.] See also bk. which refer to the account of the Underworld in Homer. and how transient are the things comprehended in the material principle: external things.] See “On the Natural Sociability of Mankind” in Logic.] See the previous endnote (10). p. p. art. and assemblies in “Sensus Communis. and with all your mind. 84–85.” Shaftesbury provides an account similar to Marcus’s of the sympathy that brings together families. 13. 59n. the abode of the “shades” of the dead. 2. p.] See also bk. decedentium differentias”: “the differences of things past. [14.] “Representations of the shades” interprets Marcus’s words. sec. V. and Natural Sociability (Liberty Fund ed. 2011) 174 http://oll. art. 71.] Demetrius of Phalerum. The active principle is the soul. bk. [7. art. sec.] See bk. 14 (Liberty Fund ed. This is the first and great commandment. that of all virtuous Princes will be Marcus Aurelius”: Anti-Machiavel (1741). Marcus invites us to consider how long this active principle will last. and 8. praesentium. 9. [12. See also the editors’ introduction. 33): “that sympathy or fellow-feeling by which the state and fortunes of others affect us exceedingly. II. p. [15. PLL v6. [9. chap. friends. pp. IX. [6. p. 16. 31. in Characteristics. chap. [16. on the necessity of evil in the best-formed systems. p. ed.] Gataker translates as “rerum praeteritarum. bk. 13. VI. 17. pp. was ruler of Athens from 317 to 307 bc on behalf of Macedonia. 178n1. p.
] Clement of Alexandria.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [18. [11.0 (generated September.. I. vol. bk. Usener..] Epistle of Paul to Titus 3:1 and 3. PLL v6. [7. 495). 715e–716a (Loeb ed. ed.] Gataker. Epicurus.” appended here.. Let me bring these to the temples.] Epistle of Paul to the Philippians 4:11. art.libertyfund. I. pp. 10. Discourses. pp.] Moor is translating the conjecture ?Φυσιολογ?τως. respectively.] Persius. p. Discourses (Loeb ed. Stromateis. chap.] See also bk. Romans. p. [10. II. the First Epistle of Peter. pp.] Epictetus.] “For the sake of life. 2011) 175 http://oll. 26–27. and with a handful of grits I shall make acceptable sacrifice. [19.73–75 (Loeb ed. [9. [5. [13. II.” [8. IX.] See the endnotes. secs. 155–58. 136–37n. pp. Laws. pp. 18. This conjecture is generally accepted by modern editors. Marcus was engaged in warfare against the Sarmatians. Manual (Encheiridion).. Romans again. XI. 3. p. It will be evident that the two principles of justice defined in these two notes correspond with the two parts of Thomas Gataker’s “Maxims of the Stoics. 1697. vol.org/title/2133 . [20. [4. 357). a nomadic people who had advanced to the river Danube. 292–95). 1697. 70–71): “[Let us offer to the gods] justice and right blended in the spirit. VII. pp. sec. II. the mind pure in its inner depths and a breast imbued with noble honour. Leviticus. [2. p. which Gataker proposes in his annotation on p. bk. [12. [3. 361 (1697). 359–60. 491). 184n9. the First Epistle of John. vol. to lose the reasons for living. 28–29 (Loeb ed. [21.” [6. Manual (Encheiridion).. Discourses (Loeb ed. p.] Epictetus. p.] During the final years of his life. 158. 34.] Epictetus. vol.] The quotations on this and the next page are all from the Epistles of Paul: Second Corinthians. Romans. [1.] The biblical books in this note are. Epicurea. the Second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians. IV. Philippians. 15. Satires II. chap.] Gataker. Plato. bk. 10. and the Gospels of Luke and Matthew. in Epictetus. 363. bk.] Fragment 191 (Usener). in Epictetus.
IX. who attempted to persuade Socrates to escape from prison (see Plato’s Crito). 137).] Hadrian.] This is Marcus’s only explicit reference to Christians in the Meditations (if it is not a later interpolation). 335) and bk. [24. I. I. 1. 30–35). 133–34. XI. XII. bk. As Gataker recognized (1697. vol. 367). II. the daggered note. 2011) 176 http://oll. [26. 337).” in Logic. Discourses III. legendarily wealthy king of Lydia ca. 386). pp. p. I. 16. vol. emperor ad 117–38. 4. [16. Letters and Panegyricus.] Epictetus.] The Stoic theory of liberty of acting in accordance with reason and the law that governs all things was reviewed by Hutcheson in “A Synopsis of Metaphysics. chap. 129–30. 7 (Loeb ed. p. pp. 108–9. vol. p. vol. Iliad VI. Discourses. and 171 and in the editors’ introduction.] See the editors’ introduction. p. 97–98. p. vol. pp. pt.] Plato. IV. Alexander. sec. 157). letter 10. xxv). 908).. 122–23).0 (generated September. 5. art. [21. Discourses. Metaphysics.] See also bk. which seemed to be tantamount at times to voluntary martyrdom. fragment 898. “is accustomed to”).] The known persons here are Xenophon.] [Aristotle]. [25. p.e. 147–49 (Lattimore trans. 104–7). p. king 336–323 bc. [20. II. and Natural Sociability (Liberty Fund ed. Croesus.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [14. 96. bk. Barnes. king of Macedon 359–336 bc.] Euripides. p. II. [18. IV. II. [27. 1.22 (Loeb ed. PLL v6. vol. p. chap.. Seneca. chap. in Pliny. chap. pp.. Philip II.] Epictetus. sec. [2. Loeb ed. pp. vol. [23. emperor ad 138–61.2 (Loeb ed.] There is a play on words in the text.. [1.. pp. 42 (Loeb ed.] Epictetus. p. II.. art. 144.. xxi–xxii. Marcus is referring to the stubbornness with which Christians refused to sacrifice to the emperor. a sophist for whom Pliny the Younger wrote a letter of recommendation (Letters bk.] Epictetus.. 1. 16. Discourses. the Athenian general and author (born about 430 bc). vol. p. Antoninus. Both Φιλ?ι (philei) and amat normally mean “loves” but are also used to mean the same as solet (i. Crito. 20 (Loeb ed. Discourses (Loeb ed. art. vol. bk. [19. 2. 3. 7. secs.. On the Universe 6 (400b27–30). [17. II.. Epistulae morales. sec..] See also bk. 560–546 bc [22. Theaetetus 174e (Loeb ed.org/title/2133 . 46–47. 315). ed. 639. his son. and bk. lines 7–9 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. in The Complete Works of Aristotle. and Euphrates. I.libertyfund.] Homer. in Epictetus. [15.
and to be ready to do good to others. without presence of mind. 91n. never to seem in a hurry. I. pp. Hutcheson’s understanding of this article was different and more Stoical. XI. Klein. see the endnotes. pp. p. nor yet to be dilatory. [5. X.] The correct reference is bk. wisdom.] See bk.. 57. the daggered note on p.] Sophocles. [7. VII. XI. xxiv. and the editors’ introduction pp. [11. I. 135. art. and goodness. as he [God] loves all his works. not to be easily astonished or confounded with any thing. vol. or perplexed. Loeb ed. just before he drank the hemlock.] See bk.] The major surviving figure of Old Comedy is Aristophanes. 36. to forgive. the writers of comedy served “as a sort of counter-pedagogue against the pomp and formality of the more solemn writers”: Ibid. Moreover.0 (generated September. 28: “He [Claudius Maximus] taught me. art. to his son. art. It was that poetry and drama make us familiar with calamities so that we will not lose self-command when they happen.” pp. where Hutcheson writes: “For. than ever rectified or redressed. 3). p..” in Characteristics. art. Middle Comedy is almost entirely lost.] See also “The Life of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus. 19–23. 11. [6. every event ordered by him. angry.” [10. fretful. p. must be best for the whole.” Hutcheson had not replaced fate (or predestination) with benevolence: he thought rather that acting in a manner consistent with predestination or the divine plan was the most effective way to promote benevolence or the universal happiness. 21. Marcus may be referring to his injunction. VII. [8. and for the individuals to which it happens. pp.] The relevant note is found at bk. art. 11. p. arts.” fourth-century Athenian general and politician. 179–80nn6–9. VIII. 228–31. 2011) 177 http://oll. and to speak truth. can never be disappointed. 6. 124. art.. 18.org/title/2133 . 113n. noted for his uprightness. and. 38–41.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [3. sec. p. p. VIII.” in “Soliloquy or Advice to an Author.libertyfund. must always accomplish its designs. Phocion. PLL v6. since infinite power. [9. 124–25. or suspicious. Oedipus Tyrannus 1391 (Loeb ed. which Marcus also quotes in bk. to appear rather like one who had always been straight and right. for further considerations by Hutcheson in mitigation of the charge made against Marcus Aurelius that he was guilty of persecuting Christians. See also the editors’ introduction. X.] For the sources of these quotations.] Phocion “the good. 181n3). bk. xxi–xxii. [4. New Comedy is represented by Menander. condemned to death by the Athenians in 318 bc From the many anecdotes about Phocion’s forbearance. p. 12. Plutarch’s Lives. pp. that he should “cherish no resentment against the Athenians” (Plutarch. or dejected. 468–69). Diogenes is the Cynic philosopher of the fourth century (see the endnotes. Shaftesbury juxtaposed the first sentence of this article with the three sentences preceding this note to illustrate the “natural and gradual refinement of styles and manners among the ancients. See bk. chap. and in all this. a man who desires only what God destines him. 139. p. ed. See also bk. vol.
43). bk. sec. An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (2004). p. Aristotle. he was himself the model of virtue and honor that Labienus hoped the oracle would describe. bk. 15 (Loeb ed. Epicurea. rather than to Perdiccas himself. II. II. 163. see Hutcheson. p. pp. [14. 11. vol. sec. Fables. 409. I. below. 2228. PLL v6. IX. even if the oracle be dumb. trans. n22. The Complete Works of Aristotle.libertyfund.. 546–49): “Cato. pp. the above lines contain the Stoical response of Cato to a request put to him by his lieutenant. II. vol. III.] The correct reference is bk.] Aristotle. Satire 6.77–117 (Loeb ed. David Hume had quoted Labienus’s request to Cato in an epigraph prefaced to book III of A Treatise of Human Nature (1740). there is a classic treatment of the story in Horace. The Civil War.] On the distinction between natural and moral evil. Chambry. Hutcheson in turn found it apposite to quote Cato’s response to that question in this context and identify Cato’s response with Marcus’s moral philosophy and with his own. 96–97). [16.] It is Epicurus. Rhetoric..] Lucan. Discourses.564 and 573–76 (Loeb ed.” no. Gataker discusses the passage on p. 44–45. [17. chap.] Aesop. 113). (ed. 23. [15. 1. [21. [19.0 (generated September. but Aristotle makes Socrates’ remark refer to Perdiccas’s son. 135. (Fables of Aesop. [13. chap. a narrative epic of the civil war between the legions of Pompey and of Julius Caesar.” no. “The Country Mouse and the City Mouse. pp. fragment 210.” In Lucan’s Pharsalia. 216–19).] See bk. Archelaus. Satires. XI.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [12. Both were kings of Macedon contemporary with Socrates. 107–8.” [18. who had urged Cato to consult an oracle to learn what virtue is and to obtain from the oracle a description of an honorable man. 217 in the Budé ed.] See bk.] Aesop. p. Hutcheson and Moor write “Perdiccas” following Gataker’s text (1697.] “Equal law among a free people. pp. Cato was offended by the request. Fables. 8 (1398a24).. inspired by the god whom he bore hidden in his heart” [said] “We men are all inseparable from the gods.org/title/2133 . p. in Epicurus. all our actions are predetermined by Heaven. art. art. XI. The gods have no need to speak: for the Creator told us once for all at our birth whatever we are permitted to know. 1. I. no. pp. 90–91.] Similar to Epictetus. Labienus. 2011) 178 http://oll. 41 in the Penguin Classics trans. art. [20. p. Handford. sec. and.. bk. “The Wolves and the Sheep. [22. 243 in the Budé ed. 7. II. 216–17).
.0 (generated September. in An Account of Virtue (1690).] See Empedocles. bk. [24.] Ibid. 88–91 (Loeb ed.] Hesiod. pp. chap.. [31.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [23.413 (Loeb ed. fragments B27–28. ed. vol. and Horace. xiii. p. 120. secs. p.. IX.. secs. …” [4. pp. chap. p. That text.] Epictetus. vol. 102–3). II. in the context of a Stoical reflection. p. integrity. 167).. II.] See bk. [26. 215). [27. to the effect that we should withdraw our admiration and desire from the merely pleasurable and direct them to “objects.] Homer. whatever they are.] Little is known of these persons. Diels. reputedly shrewish. 471). in corroboration of his theory that “there is so much of Divinity interwoven in a virtuous Mind.] This article was cited by Henry More. bk.] Ibid. Hutcheson and Moor translate Gataker’s Greek text (though ignoring the future tense of the verb). 213). vol. honor). fragment 28 (Loeb ed. 22. [1. [32. 105 (Loeb ed. 323–24. in Characteristics. is corrupt and quotes Hesiod inaccurately (aretēn instead of ara tous).] See also the endnotes. art.. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. p. p. faith. 213). VI. [25.] This article was cited by Shaftesbury in Miscellany IV. chap.” [5. [33.. 2011) 179 http://oll... III. 114). pp. II. fragment 27 (Loeb ed. [30. p. of inward worth and beauty (such as honesty. 1. Gataker’s Latin translation quotes Hesiod correctly (1697. II.] Epictetus. 178n7. vol. Klein. Epictetus. sec. p. 91–93 (Loeb ed.] Marcus does not seem to be referring to any specific passage of Plato or Xenophon. 346–47).. [34. I. vol.. [2. [35. [28.] Xanthippe was Socrates’ wife. vol. secs. II. [29. were supposed to have reached unexampled depths of depravity. 471). however. 73. II. 86–87 (Loeb ed.] Epictetus. p. p. spent in retirement on the island of Capri. Works and Days 186 (Loeb ed. VII. vol. friendship. whose final years. Odyssey bk. except that Tiberius is the emperor of that name (ad 14–37).] See also the editors’ introduction.] Ibid.org/title/2133 . PLL v6. 94. p. 24. 423.] Source unknown. Discourses.libertyfund. [3. supported by sayings of Marcus. p.
] Cf. pp.] “to believe that he was born to serve the whole world and not himself” (of Cato). pp. 1.0 (generated September.] See also bk. art. S.” [1.] Gataker seems to be referring to Polybius. Lucan. [3. 15. I.. pp. trans. 84– 85).. ed. 218–21): “No beast becomes at the end more wicked or cruel than man”. vol. Epistle 170. De finibus. Epistulae morales. p. pp. Hutcheson quoted “the Stoick in Cicero de fin. and the endnotes.] Dio of Prusa (Dio Chrysostom). in Lucan. 136– 39. 216–19). 622–31. 53–54. Goldbacher. I. 175n12. 74–77). pp. pp. Humbold (Loeb ed. 178–1646. 44. [4.libertyfund. Long and Sedley. Oration 51 “Against Diodorus. [5.] Seneca. [4. vol. which Cicero translated opportunitas. bk. I. 766a.” chap. 342–43). iii c. 3. vol.. 4. 236–37): “There is nothing more terrible in body and soul than a man once he has become absolutely like a beast. l. sec. 2011) 180 http://oll. The Civil War (Loeb ed.] Cleanthes (331–232 bc) was the second head of the Stoic school. [1.] Augustine. vol. line 383.] The Epistles of Isidore of Pelusium can be found in Migne. Laws..81. in Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum. Apology.org/title/2133 . 9. [2. Hutcheson’s term “seasonableness” is a translation of eukairia. II. 10” to reinforce his claim that moral good cannot be estimated by degrees: “nor can such matters of immediate feeling be otherways proved but by appeals to our hearts. I. pp. in Plato. pp.” The latter passage is preserved in the Excerpta de legationibus. vol. 45–48 (Loeb ed. 226–29).. secs. sec. 54.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [6. IV. In A System of Moral Philosophy. Aureli Augustini Hipponensis episcopi Epistulae. vol.] In Cicero’s On the Ends of Good and Evil. vol. pt. vol. Laws. VI. Bury (Loeb ed.3. 6. PLL v6.] Plutarch.. p.] Plato. trans. 78. bk. such actions are seasonable or opportune or they are not. vol.. VI. the asterisked note. xiv. Cicero. chap. bk. and other references cited there. IV. Patrologiae Graecae. III. XXXII.] This does not appear to be a correct reference.. VI. [7. [7. 438–39). pp. 37. bk. pp. Cato defended the Stoic theory that actions inspired by goodness and virtue are not enhanced by prolongation or duration. bk. which consists of passages about Embassies culled from Polybius on the orders of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and which was printed as a separate text in the early modern period.5–11 (Loeb ed. III. Histories. p. bk. I. pp. chap. 28d–e (Loeb ed..” in Plutarch’s Moralia. 49–50 in Loeb ed. letter 107. 61. [5. ed.] Plato. II. “On Affection for Offspring. [3. and Histories.7 (Loeb ed. [6. pp. 9 (Loeb ed. [2. A translation of his Hymn to Zeus may be found in The Hellenistic Philosophers.
PLL v6. 2011) 181 http://oll. 161ff.Online Library of Liberty: The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus [6.org/title/2133 . p.” in vol.0 (generated September. 4 of Sancti Bernardi Opera. “Sermones per annum.libertyfund.] Bernard of Clairvaux.
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