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MEKELLE UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

In Partial Fulfillment of B.Sc. Degree in Civil
Engineering

Structural Design of A G+4 Commercial Building with Solid &
Pre-cast Slab and Cost Comparison


Prepared by:-
Keralem Adane
Osman Giragn
Samuel Tesfaye
Tewodros Kassa
Tigistu Fisseha






Advisor:- Kibrealem Mebratu June 2008
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Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering Page 1

Table of content
Acknowledgment..3
Introduction...4
Specification..5
1. Roof design...............................................................................................6
1.1. Wind load analysis...6
1.2. Analysis of lattice purlin 14
1.3. Design of truss15
1.4. Design of lattice purloin 21
1.5. Slab roof design 23
1.6. Weld design 25
2. Design of slab...26
2.1 Solid slab design. 26
2.1.1 Depth determination 26
2.1.2 Loading 28
2.1.3 Analysis 29
2.1.4 Reinforcement design 38
2.2 Pre-cast slab design.39
2.2.1 Loading 40
2.2.2 Analysis and design 41
3. Design of stair 48
4. Frame analysis 55
4.1 Vertical load analysis 55.
4.1.1 Solid slab 55
4.1.2 Pre-cast slab 59
4.2 Lateral load analysis 62.
4.2.1 Earth quake analysis 62
4.2.2 Wind load analysis 64
4.3 Distribution of storey shear 67
4.4 Load combination 83
5.Design of beam and column 85
5.1 Beam design85
5.1.1 Solid slab beams86
5.1.2 Pre-cast beams 93
5.1.3 Design of beams for shear and torsion 99
5.2 Column design104
5.2.1 Design procedure. 104
5.2.2 Design of isolated columns 111
5.2.3 Reinforcement design 120
5.2.3.1 Solid slab column 120
5.2.3.2 Pre-cast slab column 121
6. Foundation design 124
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6.1 Footing design 125
6.2 Mat foundation design128
7. Cost estimation135
Conclusion and recommendation 138
References 139






















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Acknowledgment
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our advisor Ato Kibrealem Mebratu for
giving us critical advices throughout the project work. We would also like to thank our friend
Fasil Meles for his material support. At last but not the least, we would like to thank to our
parents for giving their countless material & moral support.



































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Introduction
Now a days it is being practical to choose types of structural members for different criterias
especially economy after assuring safety.
So in this particular project we have determined the cost variation for solid and pre-cast floor
system. To do this we have passed many steps.
This paper is prepared in partial fulfillment for the B.Sc. degree in civil engineering. The project
is a structural design of a G+4 commercial building with solid and pre-cast slab systems with
cost estimation & comparison for each staff. The building is located in Mekelle city. The
structural design consists of the design of roof truss, Slabs, Staircase, Beams, Columns and
foundation. The cost estimation comprises of cost for slabs, beams, columns and footings with
their respective formwork.
As can be seen from the architectural drawing, the floor arrangement is typical for all floors
except some modification on the cantilever parts.
For the solid type we first determine depth for deflection and made analysis for dead and live
load as EBCS recommends. During the design of beams, columns and footings we have grouped
them in reference to the stress they are bearing i.e. each group is taking relatively similar stress.
Limit state design method has been adopted for the whole components. Ethiopian building code
of standard EBCS 1, EBCS 2, EBCS 7 and EBCS 8, are referred for the design of the building.
The roof truss, ribs and frame are analyzed using SAP 2000 V 9 for different combination of
loads. And a combination with a critical effect is taken for sizing members and determination of
rebar.
Working drawings for beams, columns, footings stair case and floor slabs are prepared. And
finally Bill of Quantity for Concrete work, Rebar and Footing are prepared.
Generally in this project we have shown the basic steps for analysis and design of frame
structures and we believe we have done a fabulous work which is almost accurate and we
deserve a big hug.


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Specification
Purpose commercial building
Approach- Limit state design method
Material Concrete 25, class I works
Steel S 300 deformed bars
RHS for roof truss and purlin
EGA- 300 for roof cover is used.
Partial safety factors concrete c=1.5
Steel s=1.15
Unit weight of concrete c=24KN/m
3

Supporting ground condition = sandy gravel with bearing capacity of 560KPa
Design Data and Materials
Concrete
fck = 0.8*25MPa =20MPa
fctk= 0.21*fck
2/3
=1.547MPa
fcd= 0.85*fck =11.33MPa
c
fctd= fctk=1.032MPa
c
Steel
fyk= 300MPa
fcd= 260.87MPa
Design loads
Fd= f*Fk
Where
Fk = characteristics loads
f = partial safety factor for loads
= 1.3 for dead loads
= 1.6 for live loads
Seismic condition
Mekelle Zone 4





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1. Roof Design
Roof layout

1.1 Wind load Analysis
The roof is categorized according to EBCS-1,1995 table 2.1.3 under category-H :- roof not
accessible except normal maintenance, repair, painting and minor repairs.
From table 2.1.4 the roof will be sloping roof with category-H
q
k
=0.25KN/m
2

Q
k
=1.0KN
Characteristics wind load
Wind pressure (EBCS-1, 1995 Art. 3.5)
I. External wind pressure
Wind pressure acting on external surface of the structure will be obtained from
W
e
=q
ref
.C
e
(z
e
) (C
pe
)
Where q
ref
=reference wind pressure
=

/2 V
ref
2


(Art. 3.7.1)
= air density (from site with altitude above sea level) > 2000m (Mekelle)
=0.94 Kg/m
3

V
ref
= reference wind velocity
V
ref =
C
dir .
Ctem .Calt .V
ref

o

= 1*1*1*22m/s
q
ref =
/2 V
ref
2
=0.5* 0.94Kg/m
3
*22
2
=227.48N/m
2

Ce=pressure coefficient that accounts the effect of terrain roughness, topography and
height above the ground on the mean wind speed is defined as
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C
e
(z) =
(

+
) ( * ) (
* 7
1 * ) ( * ) (
2
Z C Z C
K
Z C Z C
t r
T
t r

Where K
T
= terrain factor
- For urban area in which at least 15 of the surface is covered with buildings by their
average height is 15m.
K
T
= 0.24
Cr(ze)= roughness coefficient
= K
T.
ln.(z/z
0
) for Z
min
Z
Cr(ze)=Cr(Z
min
) for Z<Z
min
Z
0
is the roughness length ( from table 3.2 Art. 3.8.3)
Z
min
is the minimum height


Z
min
=16m ,

Z0

=1m ( from table 3.2 Art. 3.8.3)
Z= the height of the building at roof level
Z=16.91m
C
r
(Z
e
)=K
T
*ln
|
|

\
|
o
e
Z
Z
= 0.24*ln(16.91/1)
C
r
(Z
e
= 0.679
Ct(ze)= is the topography coefficient (Art. 3.8.4) and is unity or 1 for not topography unaffected
zone
Ce(ze)= 0.679
2
*1
2
*[ 1+(7* 0.24/(.679 *1))]= 1.602
C
pe
is the external pressure coefficient derived from appendix .A of EBCS-1, 1995 (Art. A.2.5 for
duo pitch roofs)
- the roof should be divided in to zones as shown below
Case -1 when wind direction 0
0

I
J
H
F G F








6.8
0.8m
26m
6.5m
13m
6.5m
2.6m
0.8m
2.6m
Wind =0
0
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Reference height Ze=h=16.91m
e=b=26m
Area F=16.9m
2
H= 20.8m
2
J=67.6m
2

G= 33.8m
2
I=20.8m
2




For duo pitch roof the external pressure coefficient is given on table A.4 EBCS 1, 1995
Wind ward side ( upwind face )
Pitch angle =15
0

Lee ward side = 15
0

Since for A 10m
2
Cpe= Cpe10 (EBCS 1, 1995 Art. A.2.1)












Case-2 when wind direction = 90
0




e/4=1.7m


1.7m




1.7m

=90
0



e/4 =1.7m



Pitch
angle


Zone for wind ward direction =0
0

F G H I J
Cpe,
10
Cpe,
10
Cpe,
10
Cpe,
1
0

Cpe,
1
0

15
o
-0.9 -0.8 -0.3 -0.4 -1.0

0.2 0.2

0.2

_

_


F




H




I





G


G



H




I


F
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e/10=0.68m 2.72m 3.4m

b=6.8m
e= min b=6.8m e=6.8m
2h=33.82m

Area: F = 1.156 m
2

G = 1.156m
2

H = 9.248 m
2

I = 11.56 m
2


External pressure coefficient

Pitch
angle
Zone for wind direction = 90
0

F G H I
Cpe,
10
Cpe,
1
Cpe,
10
Cpe,
1
Cpe,
10
Cpe,
10

15
0
-1.3 -2.0 -1.3 -2.0 -0.6 -0.5


W
e
= q
ref
Ce(z) cpe
= 227.48*1.602 Cpe
= 0.3644Cpe KN/m
2

= 0.3644 cpe K/m
2


Cpe = Cpe
1
,

a <1 m
2

Cpe = Cpe
1
+ ( Cpe
10
Cpe
1
) log
A
10
for 1m
2
< A <10m
2

Cpe = Cpe
10
; a<10 m
2
The calculation for the external pressure for each zones are calculated below

Case1 =0
0

Zone F = 0.3644*-0.9= - 0.328KN/m
2

= 0.3644*0.2 = 0.073 KN/m
2

Zone G = 0.3644*- 0.8 = -0.292 KN/m
2

=0.3644*0.2 = 0.073 KN/m
2

Zone H =0.3644*-0.3 = -0.109 KN/m
2

= 0.3644*0.2 = 0.073 KN/m
2

Zone J = 0.3644*-1.0 = -0.3644 KN/m
2

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Zone I = 0.3644 *-o.4 = -0.146 KN/m
2



Case 2 =90
0

Cpe for F
Cpe = Cpe
1
+ (Cpe
10
Cpe
1
) log
A
10

= -2+ (-1.3+2) log
1.156

= -1.96
For G = -1.96
For H=-0.62

Zone F = 0.3644*-1.96 = -0.714 KN/m
2

Zone G = 0.3644*-1.96 = -0.714KN/m
2

Zone H = 0.3644*-0.62 = -0.226 KN/m
2

Zone I = 0.3644 *-0.5 = -0.184 KN/m
2


II. Internal wind pressure
W
i
= q
ref
Ce(z
i
) Cpi
Where Cpi is the internal pressure coefficient obtained from appendix of EBCS 1-1995 (Art
1.2.9)
-For closed buildings with internal partitions and opening windows the extreme values
Cpi = 0.8 or Cpi = -0.5
- therefore the critical wind load on the roof
Wi =0.3644 *0.8 = 0.292 K/m
2
or
Wi =0.3644 *-0.5 = -0.182 K/m
2


Critical wind load
Critical external wind pressure occurs
On zone For G of case-2 =-0.714K/m
2
(-ve pressure)
On zone F,H or G of case-1=0.073K/m
2
(+ve pressure)
Net -ve wind pressure = -0.714-0.292 =-1.006 K/m
2
Net +ve wind pressure = 0.073+0.182 = 0.255K/m
2







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Cpe calculation for the flat roof
The roof is divided as shown below





e/4=0.675 m


wind


1.35m






e/4 =0.675m
e/10=0.27m 1.08m 5.3m

b=2.7m



e=min{b=2.7, 2h=2(19)=38 }
e=2.7
Areas
F=.675*.27=.182m
2
G=1.35*.27=.364m
2

H=1.08*2.7=2.916 I=2.7*5.3=14.31m
2


External pressure coefficients
F G H I
Sharp
eves
Cpe
10
Cpe
1
Cpe
10
Cpe
1
Cpe
10
Cpe
1
Cpe
10

-1.8 -2.5 -1.2 -2 -0.7 -1.2 0.2

Cr(z) roughness coefficient
Cr(z)=K
t
ln(z/z
0
) for z
min
< Z
Z
o
is the roughness length z
0
=1m (EBCS-1,1995 table 3.2 Art 3.8.3 )
Z
min
is the minimum height =16m
Z= the height of the building at roof level


F






H










I










G





F
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Z=19m
Cr(z)=K
t
ln(z/z
0
)
=0.24*ln(19/1)=0.707
C
t
(z) is topography coefficient (Art 3.8.4)
C
t
(z)=1 for not topography affected zone
C
e
(Z
e
)=0.707
2
*1
2
*(1+(7*0.24)/(0.707*1))
=1.688
W
e
= q
ref
Ce(z) cpe
=227.48N/m
2
(1.688)Cpe
=384Cpe N/m
2

The calculation for the external pressure for each zones are calculated below
Zone F = Cpe1= -2.5
Zone G = Cpe1=-2
Zone H = Cpe = Cpe
1
+ ( Cpe
10
Cpe
1
) log
A
10
for 1m
2
< A <10m
2

= -1.432
Zone F = 0.384*-2.5 = -0.86 KN/m
2

Zone G = 0.384*-o.2 = -0.768 KN/m
2

Zone H = 0.384*-1.432 = -0.55 KN/m
2

Zone I = 0.384*-o.2 = -0.768 KN/m
2

Internal wind pressure
W
i
= 0.384*0.8=0.3072
W
i
= 0.384*-0.5=0.192
Critical wind load
Occurs on zone F=-0.96KN/m
2

Occurs on zone I=0.077 KN/m
2

Net -ve wind pressure =-0.96 0.3072=-1.267 K/m
2

Net +ve wind pressure =0.077 + 0.192= 0.269 K/m
2


Point load calculation and determination of purloin spacing
By looking into the wind pressures and referring MAUAL OF COLD FORMED
WELDED STRUCTURAL AD FURITURE STEEL TUBIG (from kaliti steel
industry) we have selected EGA-300 with thickness of 0.4mm.
The possible loads on purloin
-wind load
- Self weight of EGA-300
- distributed imposed load
Using EGA-300 of thickness 0.4mm from the previous table weight =3.14Kg/m or 0.0314 KN/m
To determine per area load the weight is divided by width of the sheet
=(0.0314KN/m)/0.823
DL=0.0382KN/m
2
(dead load)
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40mm
ST-20
8 deformed bars
The LL=0.25KN/m
2

Case-1 wind load (+ve pressure)
WL=0.255KN/m
2
* cos15=0.246 KN/m
2

Load combination
P
d=
1.3DL + 1.6LL + WL
P
d
=1.3(0.0382) + 1.6(0.25) + 0.246 =0.696 KN/m
2
So from table taking this load and thickness of EGA the purloin spacing is found to be
= 1.75 m
Case-2 Wind load (-ve) (suction)
P
d
=1.3(0.0382) + 1.6(0.25) 1.006 cos 15
= -0.522 KN/m
2

From table for this loading purloin spacing will be 2m
Use purloin spacing of 1.75m.

Total design load on purloin (lattice girder purloin)
To get the total design load three cases are considered and compiled.

Case-1 Dead Load + Live Load (concentrated)









205mm

Assuming a ST-30 from table which is having a weight =0.0203
P
d
= 0.038cos15 *1.25+ 1KNcos15 *1
= 0.045KN/m + 0.966KN
We have only considered for design the vertical perpendicular load to the EGA sheet. We neglect
the effect of the load which is parallel since its effect is counter balance by its weight and the
wind pressure.
Case -2 Dead Load + Live Load (distributed)
P
d
=0.038cos15 + 0.25*1m*cos15 = 0.036KN/m + 0.24KN/m
Case -3 Dead Load + Wind Load
11@410m
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P
d (+ve)
=0.036KN/m

+ 0.255KN/m
2
*1m
=0.036KN/m

+ 0.255KN/m

P
d (-ve)
= 0.036KN/m 1.006KN/m
2
*1m
= 0.036KN/m

1.006KN/m




Reaction determination
For case -1
0.966KN

0.0375KN/m



1.75m

R R

R=0.0394KN and 1KN at center 2R=.0788KN
For case- 2 R=0.249 2R=0.498
For case- 3 R
(+ve)
= 0.218 2R = 0.436
R
(-ve)
= -0.665 2R = -1.33
We have used factor of safety 1- for live load
0.8 for wind load
1.25 for dead load, according to EBCS 1, 2, 3, 1995

1.2 Analysis of lattice purloin
The analysis is done for each case and we include the effect of self weight when we do SAP
analysis by defining the sections. And also we apply the distributed load on the purloin which is
calculated as reaction from the EGA sheet. To apply this to the nodes we concentrate the
distributed load to the center and divide it to the no of nodes, but the concentrated 1KN load is
applied at the middle of the purloin as the code requires.
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Load Combination where:-
COMB 1 = 1(DL) + 1.3(DL
p
) + LL
c
DL
r
= dead load of roof
COMB 2 = 1(DL + LLD) + 1.3DL
P
DL
P
= dead load of purloin
COMB 3 = 1(DL
r
+ WL
+)
+ 1.3DL
P
LL
c
= live load concentrated
COMB 4 = 1(DL
r
+ WL
-
) + 1.3DL
P
WL
+
= wind load +ve
WL
-
= wind load -ve



SAP result(max result)
COMB 1 Top = -7.67
Diag = -1.27
Bott = 8.16
COMB 2 Top =-8.14
Diag = -1.9
Bott = 8.25
COMB 3 Top = -7.31
Diag
tension
= 1.79 Diag
compression
= -1.7
Bott = 7.4
Critical loads
Top = -8.14
Diag
tesion
= 1.99 Diag
compress
= -1.9
Bott

= 8.25





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1.3 Design of truss
The load on truss comprises of reaction from the purloins and the dead load of the truss itself.

Determination of reactions of purloin
Case -1 wind load
i. positive wind
Reaction from purloin R= 0.89 KN R
x
= 0.23KN
R
y
= 0.86KN
2R
x
= 0.46KN
2R
y
= 1.72KN
ii. egative (suction) wind
Reaction from purloin R= -3.51 KN R
x
= -0.91KN
R
y
= -3.39 KN
2R
x
= -1.82KN
2R
y
= -6.78KN
Case-2 Live load (distributed)
R= 1.09 KN 2R= 2.18KN
Case -3 Dead load
*EGA sheet
R= .167KN 2R= 0.334KN
* Purloin
R=0.15KN 2R= 0.3 KN
Total dead load = 0.334 + 0.3 = 0.634KN




Load combinations
COMB -1, 1.25DL + 0.8 WL
+

COMB 2, 1.25DL + LL
COMB 3, 1.25DL + WL
-


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Analysis result
COMB -1 upper chord max. comp.=10.96 KN
Max. tens. = 6.42 KN
Diagonal max. comp.= 3.04 KN
Max. tens. =12.46 KN
Bottom chord max. comp = 10.42KN
Max. tens. = 11.11KN

COMB -2 upper chord max. comp. = 10.22 KN
Max. tens. = 7.3 KN
Diagonal max. comp. = 3.38 KN
Max. tens. = 11.27 KN
Bottom chord max. comp = 11.09KN
Max. Tens. = 10.63KN

COMB -3 upper chord max. comp. = 11.66 KN
Max. tens. = 22.78KN
Diagonal max. comp.= 25.43 KN
Max. tens. = 5.19 KN
Bottom chord max. comp = 22.63KN



Maximum tension upper chord = 22.78 K
Diagonal = 12.46K
Bottom chord = 20.09K
Post = 13.88K

Maximum compression upper chord = 22.78 K
Diagonal = 25.43K
Bottom chord = 20.09K
Post = 6.99K

DESIG OF TRUSS MEMBERS
Material: - Fe 430 F
y
= 275 MPA
F
u
= 430 MPA

Diagonal steel member design
Design actions Nsd =12.46 KN
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Ncd = 25.43 KN
Design is made for the longer member of the diagonal member
i.e



1.13 1.13 1.13
tan 15
0
= y/2.26m y= 0.61m
tan = 0.61/1.13 = 28.36
0
y

l = 1.13 + .61 = 1.28 m
design is done for compression action and checked for tension actions

section selection
N
brd
=
A
f
y


M1
where
A
=1 For class 1-3
is reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode
Assuming the reduction factor to be = 0.4
25.43= 0.4*1*A*275*10
3
/1.1
A= 2.543cm
2

So lets use ST-30 with t = 3mm

SECTIOAL PROPERTIES
H= 30mm
b= 30mm
30mm t = 3mm
A= 3.01 cm
2

I
x
=I
z
=3.5 cm
4

Wplx = wplz=2.34cm
3

30mm r
x
= r
z
=1.08 cm

check class of the x-section
d/t 90 E
2

24/3 = 8 90*0.92
2
= 76.17
So the section is at least class 3
A
=1
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Determination of

1
= 86.4

x
=
z
= l/r =1.28/0.0108 = 118.52

-
x=
-
z= (118.52/86.4) * 1
1/2
=1.372
using curve c, x=0.354
check for N
b,Rd

b,Rd
= 26.64K
sd
= 25.43K OK!
Check for tension Our design tension force N
sd
=12.46KN
since our connection is welding A
eff
=A
gross

Resistance capacity
N
pl,Rd
=Af
y
/
M0
=3.01*10
-4
m
2
*275*10
6
N/m
2
/1.1=75.25KN
N
u,Rd
=0.9Ae
ff
fy/
M2
=0.9*3.01*10
-4
m
2
*275*10
6
N/m
2
/1.25=59.59KN

sd
=25.43K<
u,Rd
=59.59K OK!
Therefore the section is capable to carry both tension and compression forces

Post steel member design
Design actions Nsd =13.88 KN Ncd = 6.99 KN

Check for tension
for rolled section first we calculate the gross area
N
u,Rd
=0.9Ae
ff
fy/
M2
Ae
ff
= N
u,Rd

M1
/0.9fu=13.88*10
3
*1.25/0.9*275
=70mm
2

since our connection is welding A
eff
=A
gross



Lets assume a square section ST-25 with the following sectional properties
A=0.93 cm
2

I
x
=0.88cm
4

25mm S=0.71cm
3

r=0.97cm
w=0.97Kg
25mm t=1mm
In the absence of any information check for slenderness ratio
180 l
e
/r 180
r910mm/180 =5.056mm =.5056 cm
r
min
=0.5056
For r
min
0.5056 take nominal size of 25 * 25
r
y
=0.97
A= 0.93 cm
2

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0.93cm
2
> 0.7cm
2

Therefore no need to check for N
pl,Rd
and N
u,Rd

Check for compression
N
sd
=6.99KN
l= 0.91m taking the above trial section
d/t90E 23/190*0.92 2382.8 OK!
Therefore the class is at least class-3 and has no problem of local buckling thus
A
=1
Determine
-


1
= 86.4

x
=
z
= l/r =910/97 =9.381

-
x=
-
z= (9.381/86.4) * 1
1/2
=0.109
for cold formed RHS we use curve C and the value of the reduction factor
x=2.784 calculate the design buckling resistance
N
brd
=
A
f
y
= 2.784*1*93*275/1.1 = 64.73KN>>6.99KN

M1



Compression design
Member design for upper and lower chords
N
sd
=22.78KN use F
e
430 f
y
=275
Determination of buckling length L=1.17m
Selection of trial section by assuming trial value of reduction factor x=0.8
N
brd
=
A
f
y
22.78=0.8*1*A*275/1.1 A=113.9mm
2


M1

Trial section use ST-30 with cross sectional properties
t=2mm
I=2.72cm
4

30mm r=1.13cm


30mm
Class of x-section
d/t 90 E
2

24.5/2 = 12.25 90*0.92
2
= 76.17
Therefore the class is at least class-3 and has no problem of local buckling thus
A
=1
Determine
-

1
= 86.4

x
=
z
= l/r =1.17*10
2
/1.13 =103.54
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-
x=
-
z= (103.54/86.4) * 1
1/2
=1.2
for cold formed RHS we use curve C and the value of the reduction factor
x=0.4338 calculate the design buckling resistance
N
brd
=
A
f
y
= 0.4338*1*214*275/1.1 = 23.21KN >22.78 OK!

M1
1.4 Design of members for the lattice purlion

CHECK FOR TESIO
N
u,Rd
=0.9Ae
ff
fy/
M2
=0.9*214*275*/1.25 =42.37K >22.78K OK !
Therefore use ST-30 with thickness 2mm for lower and upper chords

Top members
N
sd
=8.14KN use F
e
430 f
y
=275
Determination of buckling length L=0.41m
Selection of trial section by assuming trial value of reduction factor x=0.45
N
brd
=
A
f
y
8.14=0.45*1*A*275/1.1 A=72.36mm
2


M1

Trial section use ST-20 with thickness t=1mm
A=0.73cm
2

I=0.73 cm
4

20mm r=0.77cm
t=1.2mm
20mm
Class of x-section
d/t 90 E
2

17/1.2 = 14.17 90*0.92
2
= 76.17
Therefore the class is at least class-3 and has no problem of local buckling thus
A
=1
Determine
-

1
= 86.4

x
=
z
= l/r =0.41*10
2
/0.77 =53.25

-
x=
-
z= (53.25/86.4) * 1
1/2
=0.616
for cold formed RHS we use curve C and the value of the reduction factor
x=0.7757 calculate the design buckling resistance
N
brd
=
A
f
y
= 0.7757*1*73*275/1.1 = 14.16K >8.14K OK!

M1

Bottom members
N
sd
=8.25KN(tension) take asection of ST-20 with thickness t=1mm
A=0.73
I=0.73
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r=0.77
N
u,Rd
=0.9Ae
ff
fy/
M2
=0.9*73*275/1.25 =14.45KN>8.25KN OK!


DESIG ACTIOS FOR THE DIAGOAL MEMBERS
N
sd
=1.99KN
N
cd
=1.9KN
Material
8
,S-300 f
y
=260.8
Check is done for both compression and tension actions .
Check for compression resistance


8 deformed bar

buckling length for pin pin support l= 289.91mm
class determination :-the class of the section is taken as
class -2a=1
determination of slenderness ratio ()

1
=93.9=93.9*0.92=86.4

x
=
y
=l/r,r=(I/A), A=D
2
/4=*0.8
2
/4=0.503cm
2

I=r
4
/4=0.02cm
4

r= (0.02/0.503)=0.1990.2cm

x
=
y
=28.91cm/0.2cm=144.55

-
=[144.55/86.4]* a
1/2
=1.673
using curve C , =0.2667
determination of buckling resistance


N
brd
=
A
f
y
=0.2677*0.503*10
-4
m
2
*260.87*10
6
N/m
2


M1
1.1
N
brd=
3.193KN > Ncd=1.9KN OK !

Check for tensile capcity ,Nsd=1.99KN
A
eff
=A
gross

N
pl,rd
=Af
y
=0.503*10
-4
m
2
*260.87*10
6
N/m
2


M1
1.1
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=11.93KN >1.99KN OK!
Nu,rd= 0.9A
eff*
f
y
= 0.9*0.503*10
-4
m
2
*260.87*10
6
N/m
2


M2
1.25
=9.45 KN > 1.99 KN OK!
So the section can carry both tensile and compressive action
1.5 Slab roof Design
For the design purpose we take the max positive pressure. The suction pressure can be easily
counter balanced by the weight of the slab.
Net positive wind pressure = 0.269 KN








Changing into equivalent rectangular section using Bares equation
Equivalent rectangular section
c/a= 3.9/5= 0.78 > 0.25
ar =2/3[(2c +a)*a/(a +c)] = 4.79

4.79 br = b-{a*(a c)}
6*(a + c)
br= 2.5992.6

2.6

Depth determination
[From EBCS 2-1995 Art. 5.2.3] for ps
d= [0.4 + 0.6*f
yk
]le =0.85*2600/24= 108.32 mm
400 a
For pc d= 0.85*1650 =116.87 mm
12
Use for both slabs overall depth, D= d +15 +5= 116.87 + 15 +5=136.87
Use D= 150 mm
Loading :-
From water tank having a capacity of 5000 lit = 5m
3

ps
p
c

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unit wt of water= 9.81KN/ m
3

P= 5*9.81= 49.05 KN
Distributed load =49.05 KN =4.08 KN/ m
2

12.015 m
2

Self weight wt of slab = 0.15* 24KN/ m
3
=3.6 KN/m
2

Live load =0.5KN/ m
2

Wind load =0.269 KN/ m
2

P
d
=1.25DL+ LL + 0.8WL = 1.25*7.68 +0.5 + 0.8*.269
P
d
=10.31 KN/ m
2

Design of slab
For p
s


ly/lx= 1.84
s.c =8

xf
=0.0922

ys
= 0.0584

yf
= 0.045


Mi =
i
*Pd*lx
2

M
ys
=0.0584* 10.31*2.7
2
= 4.36 KN-m
M
yf
=0.044*10.31*2.7
2
=3.31 KN-m
M
xf
= 0.0922*10.31*2.7
2
= 6.85 KN-m
Moment for cantilever slab ps ,pd=5.21KN/m
M= 0.5*wl
2
= 5.21*1.65^2*0.5 =7.099 KN-m
Moment adjustment


Reinforcement calculation

Moment k
m
k
s
As
7.091 20.35 3.96 216

A
s
min =min*b*d= 0.002*1000*130=260mm
2

A
s
min<As use all slab minimum reinforcement =260mm
2

S=1000*50.3 = 193.46mm
260
Use 8 c/c 190mm
Reinforcement detail
See the reinforcement detail in the auto cad file
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Design of roof slab 2 is the same as that of the previous roof slab of spacing 8 c/c
190mm





1.3



1.65 3.9

1.6 Weld design
For the upper chord
Design actions Nsd=22.78KN
Ncom=22.7KN
Arrangement of the weld : section selection to be upper chord
ST-30 with 2mm thickness
Fe=430
s 10mm,Ls available =30mm
so lets take S=10mm
a=0.70750.707*10mm=7.07mm
lets use fy=270Mpa
fu=430Mpa
Fw,
Rd
=fvw,da
fvw,d=0.63fy/gmw 0.65fu/gmw
where Fw,Rd=design strength of the fillet weld per unit 0f length
fvw,d=design shear strength
gmw=1.25
fvw,d =0.63*270Mpa/1.25 =136.08Mpa 0.65fu/gmw
Fw,Rd= 136.08 N/mm2*7.07mm=962.085N/mm
But Nsd/2Fw,Rd =22.78*10^3N/2*962.085N/mm =11.84mm
So the available Ls=30mm >the needed Ls=11.84mm
So use fillet weld with length Ls=30mm and also use connected plate with Fe-430 and thickness
2mm. and also use this conection for all other joints since their design action is less than this.

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2. DESIG OF SLAB
2.1-SOLID SLAB DESIG

Sample floor layout
2.1.1 Depth determination
The effective depth requirement for deflection can be calculated by using the following formula
(EBCS- 2; 1995 Art 5.2.3)

D (0.4+0.6 fyk) Le
400 a
Where fyk = is the characteristics strength of the reinforcement
Le = is the effective span and for two span the shorter span
a = is the appropriate constant from table 5.1













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Fourth floor slab

Panel 1
Ly/Lx = 1
Lx = 5000mm
Ly = 5000 mm
a= 45

d (0.4+0.6*300) 5000 = 94.44mm
400 45
Panel 4
Lx = 5000mm
Ly = 5000 mm
Ly/Lx = 1
a= 40
d (0.4+0.6*300) 5000 = 106.25mm
Panel 8 400 40



Ly/Lx = 5/1.65 = 3.03
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a= 12
d (0.4+0.6*300) 1650 = 116.88mm
400 12
First and second floor

A = D
2
= 0.5**3.8
2
= 5.67m
2
4 4
a= 12

Equivalent rectangle

d (0.4+0.6*300) 1530 = 108.37mm
400 12
Comparing all the above critical panels d 116.88mm
Over all depth D = 116.88 + 10 + 15 = 141.88mm
Use D = 150 mm
Actual depth d =150 10 15 = 125mm



For first and second floor slabs
2.1.2 Loading
Unit weight -pvc 16 KN/m
3

-Cement 23 KN/m
3

-Terrazzo - 23 KN/m
3

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- Concrete - 24 KN/m
3
Dead load -pvc tile = 16 *0.008 = 0.128 KN/m
2

-Cement screed = 23 *0.03 = 0.69 KN/m
2

-terrazzo tile = 23 *0.02 = 0.46 KN/m
2

-slab concrete = 24*0.15 = 3.6 KN/m
2

-plaster = 23*0.03 = 0.69 KN/m
2

-partition load = 1,2 KN/m
2

DL
1
= (PVC floor finish) = (0.128 + 0.69 + 3.6 + 0.69 + 1.2) KN/m
2
= 6.31 KN/m
2
DL
2
= (Terrazzo tile floor finish = (0.46 + 0.69 + 3.6 + 0.69 + 1.2) KN/m
2
= 6.64 KN/m
2

Live load (from EBCS-1-1995 Table 2.9 and 2.10)
Category D
1
(Areas in general retail shops) = 5 KN/m
2

For stairs = 3 KN/m
2

Balconies = 4 KN/m
2
2.1.3 Analysis

Design moment calculation
The support and span moment of simply supported (external edges) or fully fixed (contentious
edges) are calculated as

Mi = i Pd L
X
2

Where; Mi = the design moment per unit width at point of reference
Pd = the uniformly distributed load
i = the coefficient given in table A-1 as function of aspect ratio (Ly/Lx) and
Support condition
Lx = shorter span of the panel
Ly = longer span of the panel

Fig.
Where; s = support
f = field (span)
x = direction of shorter span
y = direction of longer span







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Panel 1


Ly/Lx =1
xs = 0.039 ys = 0.039
xs = 0.029 yf = 0.029
DL
1
= 6.31 KN/m
2

LL = 5 KN/m
2

Pd = ((1.3* DL
1
) + (1.6*LL))
((1.3* 6.31) + (1.6*5)) KN/m
2
= 16.203 KN/m
2


Mi = i Pd L
X
2

Mys = Mxs = 0.039*16.203

KN/m
2
*(5m)
2
= 15.8 KN.m
Myf = Mxf = 0.029*16.203

KN/m
2
*(5m)
2
= 11.75 KN.m

Panel 2,3 and 4


Ly/Lx =1
xs = 0.032 ys = 0.032
xs = 0.024 yf = 0.024
DL
1
= 6.31 KN/m
2

LL = 5 KN/m
2

Pd =16.203KN/m
2
Mys = Mxs = 0.032*16.203

KN/m
2
*(5m)
2
= 12.96 KN.m
Myf = Mxf = 0.024*16.203

KN/m
2
*(5m)
2
= 9.72 KN.m
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Panel 5

Ly/Lx =1
xs = ys = 0.039
xs = yf = 0.03
Pd =16.203KN/m
2
Mys = Mxs = 0.039*16.203

KN/m
2
*(5m)
2
= 15.8 KN.m
Myf = Mxf = 0.03*16.203

KN/m
2
*(5m)
2
= 12.15 KN.m
Panel 6


Equivalent rectangular section


Lets take equivalent rectangular area
Fig
Ly/Lx = 5/0.905 = 5.52m one way slab
Pd =16.203KN/m
2
* 1m = 16.203KN/m


Fig

Mxs = Pd Lx
2

2
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= 16.203KN/m * (0,905m)
2
= 6.64KN.m
2
Panel 7

Equivalent rectangular section
A = D
2
= 0.5**3.8
2
= 5.67m
2
4 4
Equivalent rectangular area
Ly*Lx = 5.67m
2
Lx = 5.67m
2
= 1.49m
3.8m
Ly/Lx = 3.8/1.49 = 2.55 one way slab
Pd = 16 203 KN/m
Fig

Mxs = Pd Lx
2
= 16.203KN/m* (1.49m)
2
= 17.986KN.m

2 2

Panel 8

Equivalent rectangular area using Bales theorem

a
r
=2*((2c + a) * a )
3 (a + c)
b
r
= b a(a c)
b(a + c)
so, a
r
=2*((2* 1.2m + 1.9m) * 1.9 ) = 1.756 m
3 (1.9m + 1.2m)
b
r
= 5 m 1.9m(1.9m 1.2m) = 4.57 m
5(1.9m + 1.2 m)
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Ly/Lx = 4.57/ 1.756 = 2.6 > 2 one way slab
Pd = 16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Lx
2
= 16.203KN/m *(1.756m)
2
= 24.81KN.m
2 2
Panel 9

Equivalent rectangle
a
r
=2*((2c + a) * a )
3 (a + c)
b
r
= b a(a c)
b(a + c)
so, a
r
=2*((2* 0.525m + 1.2m) * 1.2 ) = 1.043 m
3 (1.2m + 0.525m)
b
r
= 3.1 m 1.2m(1.2m 0.525m) = 2.95 m
3.1(1.2m + 0.525 m)
Ly/Lx = 2.95m/ 1.043m = 2.8 > 2 one way slab
Pd = 16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Ly
2
= 16.203KN/m *(1.043m)
2
= 8.8132KN.m
2
Panel 10

Lx/Ly = 3.4m/ 1.35m = 2.52 > 2 one way slab
Pd = 16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Ly
2
= 16.203KN/m *(1.35m)
2
= 14.76KN.m
2 2

Panel 11
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Equvalent rectangular area

Ly/Lx = 3.25m/ 1.4m = 2.62 > 2 one way slab
Pd = 16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Ly
2
= 16.203KN/m *(1.4m)
2
= 15.88 KN.m
2 2
Panel 12 13,14 and 15

Ly/Lx = 5m/ 1.55m = 3.23 > 2 one way slab
Pd
2
= 16.632 KN/m
2
Mys = Pd
2
Ly
2
= 16.632KN/m *(1.55m)
2
= 19.98 KN.m
2 2

Panel 17

Pd
2
= 16.632 KN/m
2


Mys = Pd
2
Ly
2
= 16.632KN/m *(1.55m)
2
= 19.98 KN.m
2 2
Panel 18

Ly/Lx = 4.65m/ 1.1m = 4.23 > 2 one way slab
DL
2
= 6.31 KN/m
2

LL = 5 KN/m
2

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Pd = ((1.3* DL
1
) + (1.6*LL))
((1.3* 6.31) + (1.6*5)) KN/m
2
= 16.203 KN/m
2

For one meter strip Pd

=16.203KN/m

Mys = Pd Lx
2
= 16.203KN/m *(1.1m)
2
= 2.45 KN.m
8 8
Panel 1
Is cantilever slab with length of 1.03m
Pd
2
= 16.632 KN/m
2

Mys = Pd Ly
2
= 16.632KN/m *(1.03m)
2
= 8.82KN.m
2 2


Adjustment of support and span moment

Support adjustment
Between 1&4 and 4&5
M
R
= 15.8 KN.m
M = 12.96 KN.m
M = 15.8 12.96 = 2.84
M = 2.84 *100% = 17.97% < 20% ; Then
M
d
=15.8 +12.86 = 14.38KN/m
2
Between 5&6

M
R
= 6.64 KN.m
M
L
= 15.8 KN.m
M
d
= 15.8 KN. m ; Since it is cantilever

Span moment
Panel 1&5
Mxfd = Mxf + Cx M
= 11.75 + 0.38*(2.84) =12.83 KN.m

Panel 5
Mxfd = Mxf + Cx M
= 12.15 + 0.38*(2.84) = 13.58 KN.m

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After moment adjustment check depth for flexure, taking the maximum moment
M
max
=24.81 KN-m


From material used the design constants
f
cd
=11.33Mpa c
1
=0.0858
f
yd
= 260.87Mpa c
2
=3074
m= 28.78

b
= 0.8E
cu
* f
cd

( E
cu
+ E
yd
) f
yd

b= 1000mm, E
cu
= 0.0035, E
yd
= (260.87/(200*10
3
) = 0.0013

b
=0.8*0.0035*11.33*0.75 =
( 0.0035 + 0.0013) *260.87
Check for effective depth

d=79.89< 125 mm OK!!
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Reinforcement design

















Reinforcement detail


NB: The full reinforcement details are attached with AutoCAD files.
Moment Km Ks As Asmin S calculated S provided
19.98 35.76 4.108 656.62 212.5 119.55 10c/c110
12.83 28.66 4.03 413.64 212.5 189.78 10c/c180
17.986 33.92 4.09 588.50 212.5 133.39 10c/c130
24.81 39.85 4.16 825.68 212.5 95.07 10c/c90
14.38 30.34 4.05 465.91 212.5 168.49 10c/c160
9.72 24.94 4 311.04 212.5 252.38 10c/c250
12.96 28.8 4.04 418.87 212.5 187.41 10c/c180
14.76 30.73 4.06 479.40 212.5 163.74 10c/c160
15.88 31.88 4.07 517.05 212.5 151.82 10c/c150
13.58 29.48 4.05 439.99 212.5 178.41 10c/c170
2.45 12.52 3.87 75.85 212.5 236.71 8c/c220
8.813 23.75 3.982 280.75 212.5 179.16 8c/c170
6.64 20.65 3.961 210.41 212.5 236.71 8c/c220
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2.2Pre-cast slab design
General
Precast beam slab system is a system of slab construction in which reinforced concrete
precast beam elements, with their latticed reinforcement bars projected out, are used.
During construction, these beam elements will be placed at certain intervals, to accommodate
hollow concrete block. These blocks of specified dimensions are placed along these
prefabricated beams and across the span of these elements in a similar fashion as in the case of
ribbed slab construction. Concrete will be casted over the blocks and the beam elements.
The projected reinforcement bars from the beam elements are used as an anchorage for the
concrete, in addition to their main purpose, i.e. shear resistance.
The beam elements, together with the blocks, act as formwork for the concrete casted. In
addition the beam elements will acts as flexural members to carry the loads until the cast in-situ
concrete attains its full strength
The pre-cast beam span is 5m and it is only one type therefore from the GTZ technical manual-
II the section is recommended as follows


And also the cross-sectional dimensions of the HCB is given below



220mm


550mm

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Design constants and assumptions
Material properties
C-25 fcd = 0.85 fck in compression fctd=fck/gc in tension
Therefore fcd=11.33 Mpa fctd=1.0 Mpa steel S-300 fyd=fyk/gs
Hollow concrete block (HCB) g=14KN/m
2


Design of pre-cast beam element
For starting use 10 for top members and 8 for diagonal members
2.2.1Loading
A) Initial condition

Dead load pre-cast beam and Hollow Block
Pre-cast beam = 1.3*0.12*0.08*24=0.299KN/m
Hollow block = 1.3*0.069*14=1.256 KN/m
Live load = 1.6*2*0.625= 2KN/m
q
d
= 0.299+1.256+2= 3.6K/m

B)Final condition

Dead load
hf
625mm
60
220mm
280
625mm
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Pre-cast beam 1.3*.12*.08*24 = .299 KN/m
Hollow Block 1.3*.069*14 = 1.256 KN/m
Cast In situ Concrete
1.3(.625*.06+2(.14*0.06))*24= 1.69KN/m
Concrete Floor finishes and partition wall
Partition load=0.625*1.2*1.3=0.975 KN/m
Plastering = 1.3*23*0.03*0.625=0.561KN/m
PVC floor finish = 1.3*16*0.002*0.625=0.104KN/m
Terrazzo floor finish=1.3*23*0.02*0.625=0.374KN/m
Live load =5*0.625*1.6=5KN/m
q
d1
= 0.299+1.256+1.69+0.975+0.561+0.104+5=9.884K/m (for PVC floor finish)
q
d2
= 0.299+1.256+1.69+0.975+0.561+0.374+5=10.154K/m (for terrazzo floor finish)
2.2.2Analysis and design
Final condition Mmax=wl
2
/8=10.154*5
2
/8=31.73KNm
10.154K/m


The minimum depth required for deflection
d (.4+.6*300/400)5000/20=212.5
Actual d=D-/2 cover
= 280-16/2-15=257>212.5 OK!!!

be bw + le/5=120+5000/5=1120
actual=625
be = 625mm
Determination of neutral axis
= c
1
-(c
1
2
-4M/(c
2
bd
2
))

= 0.00305
m=fyd/fcd*0.8=260.87/0.8*11.33=28.78
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x= md=0.00305*28.78*257=22.56
y=0.8X=0.8*22.56=18.05<60
the section is rectangular with b=be=625
M=31.73 using design table
Km=((m/b))/d = 27.72
Ks=4.024
As=KsM/d=4.024*31.73/0.257=496.81mm
2

Therefore use 220
Check for shear
Acting shear Vsd=pdl/2=10.173*5/2=25.385KN
The shear force V
C
carried by the concrete in members with out significant axial forces shall be
taken as
V
C
= 0.25f
ctd
K
1
K
2
b
w
d
Where K
1
= 1.6-d =1.6-0.257=1.343
K
2
= (1+50)=1.1`
fctd= 1 Mpa
Vc=0.25*1*1.343*1.1*120*257=11.41 KN
For T-section Vc=1.1*11.41=12.55KN
V
RD
=0.25 *fcd *b
w
*d=0.25*11.33*120*257=87.354KN
Vs=Vsd-Vc=25.385-12.55=12.84KN
S=
Assume spacing =150mm
S=2*50.3*260.87*(257-20)(cos72.6+sin72.6)/12.84
S=289.69mm 240mm
Assume s=200mm 67.3
0


= =67.38
0
200mm
S=2*50.3*260.87*(257-20)(cos67.38+sin67.38)/12.84
S=372.66mm
Lets use 8 c/c 200mm

Check for initial condition


3-dimentional truss model analysis
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q=3.6KN/m l=200mm
p=q*l/2 = 3.6KN/m*0.2m/2=0.36KN
p/2 =0.18K

Location of neutral axis
Assume the neutral axis depth x to be above the concrete section (i.e x<180)

Moment about N.A
As1*x= As2*(235-X)
= 628*(235-x)
78.5x = 147.58-628.x
X=208.89mm
So the concrete part that carry the compression load is
(120*(208.89-200)=1066.8mm
2

Force resisted by concrete section is
=11.33Mpa*1066.8mm
2
=12.086KN
To get the compressive force acting on steel members we have modeled the pre-cast beam as 3-D
truss whose members are pin connected and also we reduced the acting compressive force which
is resisted by the concrete section.
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SAP result
(1) Max. Tension =6.13 KN
(2) Max. Compression = 11.91 KN
(3) Max. compression =2.72KN
Max. Tension = 1.99KN
(4) Max. Tension 0.3KN
Capacity check for members
According to EBCS-3,1995
N
t,rd
A*f
y
/
M1

M1 = 1.1


0.9 A
eff
f
U
/
M2

M2 = 1.25

Since the Top reinforcement bar is 10 using Fe430


N
t,rd
78.5*260.87/1.1=18.62 KN
0.9*78.5*300/1.25=16.96 KN


So take Ntrd = 16.96KN
2
1
3
4
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And also the buckling resistance of axial loaded compression members is
Nb,rd= N
brd
=
A
f
y
/
M1

Design axial load Nsd=11.91KN
Buckling length l=0.2m
Determination of

1
= 89.12

x
=
z
= l/r =80
A
=1

-
x=
-
z= (80/89.12) * 1
1/2
=0.898
using curve c, x=0.5998
check for N
b,Rd

N
b,Rd
= 11.16KN is alittle bit less than Nsd=11.91
Since the centroid of the section is below the concrete section the concrete section carrys
alittle bit so the total Nsd doesnt apply on the steel so its safe. But for the safety purpose we
insert the formwork at the mid span.
Case 1 when all the LL at the 1
st
span and to get the maximum span moment.

2.5m 2.5m
Case 2 when all live loads are distributed over the whole span

For case 1 P
1
=1/2*(3.6*0.2)=0.36 KN
P
1
=1/2(1.6*0.2)=0.16KN
For case 2 P
2
=0.36KN
Case 1
The maximum tension for(2)=1.94KN
Compression for (2) =2.37KN
Diagonal (3) comp.= 1.25KN
Tension= 1.15KN
Bott (1) comp.=1.5KN
Tens. =0.57KN
For case 2
For (2) max. tens. 2.57KN
Max.comp. 2.02KN
For bott (1) =1.2KN tension
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For diagonal comp. (3) =1.02 KN
Tens. =0.76KN
For bottom horizontal comp.=0.1KN
Critical actions from the two cases
Tension = 2.57KN
Compression = 2.37KN
Ntrd = 0.9A
eff
*f
yd
/
M2
= 0.9*78.5*300/1.25
= 16.96
Ntsd=2.57< Ntrd=16.96 KN

For compression x=0.5998
Nbrd=

A
f
y
/
M1
=0.5998*78.5*260.87/1.1
Nbrd=11.17 KN
Nsd=2.37<11.17KN OK!
For diagonal members
Maximum tension =1.15
Maximum compression=1.25
Ntrd = 0.9A
eff
*f
yd
/
M2
=0.9*50.3*300/1.25=10.865KN
Ntsd=1.15<Ntrd=10.865KN OK!
For compression
Buckling length =0.26

1
= 89.92

x
=
z
= l/r =130
A
=1

-
x=
-
z= (130/89.92) * 1
1/2
=1.446
using curve c, x=0.332
Nbrd=

A
f
y
/
M1
=0.332*50.3*260.87/1.1
Nbrd=3.96 KN
Nsd=1.25<3.96KN =Ntrd OK!
For bottom longitudinal reinforcement the max. Compression and tension are in significant, thus
no need of checking.
Hence use 10 fo the top members and 8 for the diagonal members.
110


8




2 20

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NB: The irregular solid slabs are already designed in the solid slab design part.

Sample pre-cast slab layout and reinforcement detail

B:- the remaining details are attached with AutoCAD files













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3. Design of stair
DESIG OF STAIR 1
No of risers in one flight =9
Risers height =0.17
Length of thread =0.3
tan = 0.17 =29.5
0

0.3





1.65m 2.4m 2.15m
Depth required for deflection
From survisability limt state(EBCS-2 ,1995-Art 5-2-3)
d = (0.4+0.6 *fyk)/400 (le/a ) fyk=300mpa, a =24 (end span)
le=5400
d=0.85*4550/24=161.1
D =161.1 + 15 +8 =184.1 take D =190 for end slab
Actual d=167mm
Loading (taking 1m strip)
Dead load on the stair
RC slab (inclined) = 0.91*1*24 =5.24KN/m
Cos 29.5
Due to steps per meter width = 0.3*0.17*1*24*1 = 2.04KN/m
2 0.3
Floor Finishing
Terrazzo tile (2cm) = 0.02*23 = 0.46KN/m
2

Cement Screed (2 cm) = 0.03*23 = 0.69 KN/m
2

Plastering =23*0.03=0.69 KN/m
2

On the tread = (0.46+0.69)*1=1.15KN/m
On the riser = 1.15*0.17*1*9/2.4 =0.73KN/m
Dead load on stair = (5.24+2.04+1.15+0.73+0.69/cos29.5)
= 9.95 KN/m
Dead load on the landing portion
Landing Slab = 0.19*1*24 = 4.56KN/m
Plastering = 0.3*1*23 = 0.69KN/m
Cement screed = 0.69*1 = 0.69KN/m
Terrazzo tile =23*0.02*1 = 0.46KN/m
6.4KN/m
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Total load on the landing = 6.4KN/m
Live Load
On stair category A, qt = 3 KN/m
2
(EBCS-2,1995 table 2.10)
Total live load on stair case = 3 KN/m
2
* 1m = 3 KN/m


Design Load
On stair, DL
1
= 1.3*9.95+1.6*3 = 17.735 KN/m

On landing, DL
2
= 1.3*6.4+1.6*3 = 13.12 KN/m


Shear Force Diagram


Bending moment Diagram

Reinforcement Design
Reinforcements are calculated using design table
At support Mdes =17.86KNm
Km = (M/b) = (17.86/1) = 25.3
d 0.167
Ks =3.994
Hence
As = Ks * M = 3.994 * 17.86 = 427.12 mm
2

d 0.167
Asmin=0.002*1000*167=334 mm
2

Spacing
S = as * b = 113 * 1000 = 264.56mm
As 427.12
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Spacing provided
12 c/c 260
Transverse reinforcement
As=0.2As=0.2*427.12=85.424
S = as * b = 50.3 * 1000 = 588.8mm
As 85.424
Smax 2D =380
350

Use 8 c/c 350mm
Span moment
m=31.65KN.m
Km= =33.68 Ks=4.087
As=Ks m/d =4.087*31.63/0.167 =774.05 mm
2

S= = =145.98
use 12 c/c 140
Distribution reinforcement
A=0.2As=154.81
S= = =324.91mm
use 8 c/c 200
Design of Stair 2
No of risers in one flight =14
Risers height =2.3/14=0.165
Length of thread =0.3
tan = 0.165 =28.81
0

0.3









3.9m 2.15
Depth required for deflection
d= (0.4+0.6fyk) le/ba fyk=300mpa, ba=24
400 le=6050
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d=(0.4+0.6*300)*6050 =214.27mm
400 24

D=214.27+15+8 = 237.27mm

Use D=240mm
d=240-15-8=217mm
Loading (taking 1m strip)
Dead load on the stair
RC slab (inclined) = 0.24*1*24 =6.574KN/m
Cos 28.81
Due to steps per meter width = 0.3*0.165*1*24*1 = 1.98KN/m
2 0.3
Floor Finishing
Terrazzo tile (2cm) = 0.02*23 = 0.46KN/m
2

Cement Screed (2 cm) = 0.03*23 = 0.69 KN/m
2

Plastering =23*0.03=0.69 KN/m
2

On the tread = (0.46+0.69)*1=1.15KN/m
On the riser = 1.15*0.165*1*14/3.9 =0.681KN/m
Dead load on stair = (6.574+1.98+0.681+1.15+0.69/cos28.81)
= 11.17 KN/m
Dead load on the landing portion
Landing Slab = 0.24*1*24 = 5.76KN/m
Plastering = 0.3*1*23 = 0.69KN/m
Cement screed = 0.69*1 = 0.69KN/m
Terrazzo tile =23*0.02*1 = 0.46KN/m
7.6KN/m
Total load on the landing = 7.6KN/m
Live Load
On stair category A, qt = 3 KN/m
2
(EBCS-2,1995 table 2.10)
Total live load on stair case = 3 KN/m
2
* 1m = 3 KN/m


Design Load
On stair, DL
1
= 1.3*11.17+1.6*3 = 19.321 KN/m

On landing, DL
2
= 1.3*7.6+1.6*3 = 14.68 KN/m

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Shear Force Diagram

Bending moment Diagram


Reinforcement Design
Reinforcements are calculated using design table
At span Mdes =82.93KNm
Km = (M/b) = (82.93/1) = 41.97
d 0.217
Ks =4.2094
Hence
As = Ks * M = 4.2094 * 82.93 = 1608.69 mm
2

d 0.217
Spacing
S = as * b = 201 * 1000 = 124.95mm
As 1608.69
Spacing provided
16 c/c 120

Transverse reinforcement
Asmin =0.002*1000*217= 434mm
2

Asmin =0.2As=0.2*1608.69=321.738mm
2

Asmin=434 mm
2

S = as * b = 50.3 * 1000 = 156.34mm
As 434
Use 8 c/c 150mm
Check for shear
Vc = 0.25fctdK
1
K
2
bwd
d=240.15-8=217mm
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Where: K1 = (1+50)=1.37 2.0
K2=1.6-d=1.383 1.0 (d in meter)
Fctd=(0.1(25/1.25)^2/3)/1.5=1.032
Vc=0.25*1.032*1.383*1.37*1000*217
Vc=106.07 KN
Vsd=56.67<106.07KN OK!

Staircase for precast and solid slab which is continuous with the slab




2.4m 2.15m

No of risers in one flight =9
Risers height =2.3/14=0.17
Length of thread =0.3
tan = 0.165 =29.81
0

0.3
Depth required for deflection
d= (0.4+0.6fyk) le/ba fyk=300mpa, ba=24
400 le=6050

d=(0.4+0.6*300)*4550 =161.1mm
400 24
D=161.1+15+8=184.1 take D=190mm
Loading on one meter strip from the previous cases
On stair =17.35 KN/m
On landing = 13.12 KN/ m






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Shear force diagram

Bending moment diagram


Reinforcement design
At the support
m=39.63KN.m
d=190-15-8=167mm
Km= =37.69 Ks=4.15
As=Ks m/d =4.15*39.63/0.167 =984.82 mm
2
>Asmin=334mm
2

S= = =114.74
use 12 c/c 110mm
Since the moment on the span is minimum the design is governed by top reinforcement
For span use 12 c/c 110mm
Transverse reinforcement Asmin
Use 8 c/c 350mm










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4. FRAME AALYSIS
4.1Vertical load analysis
The load on the beam includes self weight, load from the wall on it, transferred load from
slab, Live load on the beam.
According to EBCS-2, 1995(Art. 3.4) the load transferred to beams supporting a two way slab
distribution on a supporting beam is shown in figure 4.5 of EBCS-2, 1995
4.1.1Solid slabs
The design loads on beams supporting the solid slabs spanning in two directions right angles
supporting uniformly distributed loads may be assessed by using EBCS-2 1995 Art A.3.8
The equn. Is given by the formula,
V=
v
P
d
L
x


v
is a constant that depends on the support condition of the panel and L
x
is the
shortest span of the panel.
The assumed distribution of the load on the supporting beam is shown. Which assures
that the load is assumed to be transferred only to 75% of the beam length.


To convert such a distribution to uniformly distributed load through out the span, we compared
the fixed end moment equation value with the span moment equation value and we took the
maximum.
From fixed end moment



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Fixed end moment:
M
F
AB
= -M
F
BA
=W*S/24(3L
2
-S
2
)
Span moment:
M
S
=0.75L/2*WL/2-0.076WL
2
+ (0.75L/2)
2
*W/2.
For the equivalent beam having UDL W
,
and length L

W
,




Fixed end moment: M
F
AB
=-M
F
BA
= W
,
L
2
/12
Span moment: M
S
= W
,
L
2
/24
Equating the fixed end moment equation
W*S/24(3L
2
-S
2
) = W
,
L
2
/12 W
,
= 0.914W
Equating the span moment equations:
0.75L/2*WL/2-0.076WL
2
+ (0.75L/2)
2
*W/2 = W
,
L
2
/24
W
,
=0.984W
Taking weighted moment distribution factor
=0.914+0.984/2=0.949
W= 0.949Vs
load transfer to beams
1st and 2nd
vx vy
panel
type of
panel Lx Ly Ly/LX vxc vxD vyc vyD Pd Lx vxc vxD vyc
1&5 3 5 5 1 0.36 0.24 0.36 16.2 5 27.68 18 27.68
2,3,4 1 5 5 1 0.33 0.24 0.33 16.2 5 25.37 25.37
p6 cantilever 16.2 0.9 14.66
p7 cantilever 16.2 1.5 24.14
p8 cantilever 16.2 1.8 28.45
p9 cantilever 16.2 1 16.9
p10 cantilever 16.2 1.4 21.87
p11 cantilever 16.2 1.4 22.68
p12 cantilever 16.63 1.6 25.78
p13,14,15 cantilever 16.63 1.6 25.78
p16 cantilever 13.12 1.7 20.25
p17 cantilever 16.63 1.6 25.78
p18 cantilever 16.2 1.1 17.82
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Vertical load on the frames

AXIS-3



AXIS-4



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AXIS-A
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4.1.2 Pre-cast slab
The total loads on beams include slab load, wall loads and reactions from cantilevers. The load
distribution from slab to beam is a serious of concentrated loads



AXIS-A

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AXIS-E

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AXIS-3














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4.2 Lateral Load Analysis
The lateral loads to be considered are:
a) earthquake analysis and
b) wind load analysis
The analysis for both will be done and the critical load condition will be considered for
the design.
4.2.1 Earthquake Analysis

Determination of base shear
According to EBCS-8, 1995 static method of analysis is used
The seismic base shear force F
b
for each main direction is determined by the equation.
F
b =
S
d
(T) W
T

Where
S
d
(T) = ordinate of the design spectrum at period T and is given by:
=
The parameter is the ratio of the design bed rock acceleration to acceleration of
gravity, g, and given by:
=
o
I

0
= the bed rock acceleration ratio for the site and depends on
the seismic zone as given in table 1.1 of EBCS-8, 1995.
For zone 4, building location in mekelle, o=0.10
I = the importance factor of the building i.e. 1.4 for important
buildings such as hospital and 1.2 for buildings whose seismic resistance is of importance
in view of the consequences associated with a collapse e.g. schools, assembly halls, cultural
institutions etc. (Table 2.4, EBCS-1995)
use I = 1.2
The parameter is the design response factor for the site and is given by:
= 1.2 S 2.5
T
1
2/3

S = site coefficient for soil characteristics, table 1.2
= 1.0 for subsoil class A.(includes rocks, stiff deposits of sand, gravel or over consolidated clay
T
1
= the fundamental period of vibration of the structure
(in sec) for translational motion in the direction of
motion. For buildings with heights up to 80m, the value
of T
1
may be approximated using:
T
1
= C
1
H


H=height of the building= 19.3m
C
1
=0.075 for moment resisting concrete frames
T
1
= 0.075* 19.3

=0.691 sec

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= 1.2 *1.2 =1.84 2.5 ok!
0.691

2/3
The parameter, , is the behavior factor to account energy dissipation capacity given by:
=
o
k
D
k
R
k
W
0.7

o
= basic type of the behavior factor, dependent on
structural type (table 3.2)
for frame system ,
o
=0.20
k
D
= factor reflecting ductility class ,use k
D
=2.0 for DC L

k
R
= factor reflecting the structural regularity in elevation
use

k
R
=1.0

k
W
= factor reflecting the prevailing failure mode in
Structural system with walls.
=1.0 for frame and frame equivalent dual systems.
=0.2*2.0*1.0*1.0=0.4 0.7 ok!
S
d
(T) =
= 0.12*1.84*0.4= 0.0883
W
T
= seismic dead load, obtained as the total permanent load
=11360.26
The base shear will be
F
b
=0.0883*11360.26 = 1003.11 KN
Distribution of base shear over height of a building
The base shear force shall be distributed over the height of a structure, concentrated at
each floor level,

=
n
j
j j
i i t b
i
h W
h W F F
F
0
) (

Where n = number of stories
F
i
= the concentrated lateral force acting at floor i
F
t
= the concentrated extra force at the top of the building
accounting whiplash effect for slender building, which is
given by:
F
t
=0.07*T
1
*F
b
(EBCS- 8,1995 Art. 2.3.3.2.3)
=0.07*0.691*1002KN
=48.47KN
W
i
, W
j
=that portion of total weight W located at or assigned to
level i or j, respectively.
h
i
, h
j
= height above the base to level i or j, respectively.


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4.2.2 Wind Load Analysis
According to EBCS, 1995, the wind pressure acting on external surface, W
e
& internal surface,
W
i
are:
W
e
=q
ref
C
e
(Z
i
)C
pe

W
I=
q
ref
C
e
(Z
i
)C
pi


Reference wind pressure, q
ref

q
ref
= 1/2**V
ref

2

Where V
ref
=C
DIR
C
TEMP
C
ALT
V
ref,O

=1.0*1.0*1.0*22 m/s
= 22 m/s
=air density
= 0.94Kg/m
3

Hence,
q
ref
=0.5*0.94*22
2
=227.48N/m
2


Exposure coefficient
To get the critical wind load we calculate the wind acting on the longest side of the
building.
Long side elevation of the building


level h
i
w
i
h
i
F
i
(K)
Ground floor 1.50 1546.76 13.29
first floor 5.30 12276.74 105.45
second floor 8.35 19082.77 163.90
third floor 11.40 26566.53 228.18
fourth floor 14.45 35161.19 302.00
roof 17.50 12704.15 109.12
head room 20.55 3677.63 31.59
111015.8
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4.3m
16m
27.75m

Ce(Z)=Cr(z)
2
Ct(z)
2
{ 1+7Kt/ Cr(z)Ct(z)}

Where
Z is reference height write wind load analysis
Reference height
Cross wind width, b=28m
h<b, hence the building is considered as one part.
Terrain category: category 4, urban areas in which at least 15% of the surface is covered with
buildings and their average height exceeds 15m. (table 3.1, EBCS-1995)
K
T
=0.24
Z
o
=1m
Z
min
=16m
Roughness coefficient, Cr(z)


K
T
ln(Z/ Z
o
) ; Z Z
min

C
r
(z) =
C
r
(Z
min
) ; Z < Z
min


Case-1
Where
Ze =16m= Z
min
=16m

C
r
(16) = C
r
(16) = 0.24*ln16=0.67
Case-2
Where Ze=20.3m
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C
r
(20.3) = 0.24*ln20.3=0.723

Topography coefficient
Ct = 1, assuming that it is topography unaffected.

The exposure coefficient will be;
Case-1
Ce(16)=Cr(16)
2
Ct(16)
2
{ 1+7Kt/ Cr(16)Ct(16)}
= 0.67
2
*1*{1+7*0.24/(0.67*1) }
= 1.575

Case-2
Ce(20.3)=1.74

External pressure coefficient, C
pe

Wall zonation:
e
min=
b= 27.75 e=27.75, d <e
2h=32
The zonation is according to EBCS-1





Determination of external pressures and internal pressure
Face
Cpe10
upper @
20.3m
lower @
16m
Net
external internal upper lower
D 0.8 0.32 0.29 0.52
E -0.3 -0.12 -0.11 -0.44
D -0.5 -0.2 -0.18 0.47
E 0.8 0.32 0.29 -0.4

We neglect the effect of wind on adjacent faces due to its possession of high moment of inertia.
zone A B D E
d/h=0.425 Cpe10 Cpe10 Cpe10 Cpe10
1 -1 -0.8 0.8 -0.3
4 -1 -0.8 0.6 -0.3
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By looking in to the earth quake and wind pressures the earth quake pressure governs and design
is done for the earth quake forces.

4.3 Distribution of Storey Shear
The horizontal forces at each level, F
i
, determined in the above manner are distributed to
lateral load resistive structural elements in proportion to their rigidities assuming rigid floor
diaphragms.
a) Determination of center of mass
Center of mass is a point on a floor level where the whole mass and its inertial
effects can be replaced using lumped equivalent mass.

X
m
= W
i
X
i
; Ym = W
i
Y
i

W
i
W
i


X
m
Y
m
= the coordinate of the point of application of Fi when the seismic action is parallel to
the Y- directin and X direction respectively.
GROUND FLOOR
BLDNG PART TOTAL WT TOTAL MOMENT
WX WY
wall 659.27 9487.16 2830.32
beam 209.09 2890.80 638.25
column 162.82 2362.87 761.16
TOTAL 1031.17 14740.83 4229.73
Xm,Ym 14.30 4.10


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FIRST FLOOR
BLDNG PART TOTAL WT TOTAL MOMENT
WX WY
wall 709.69 9876.74 2798.11
beam 294.42 3934.78 1001.36
column 218.40 3244.09 1045.84
slab 734.59 8986.83 2005.45
inclined slab 56.52 1198.14 415.39
landing 19.44 464.62 117.13
pvc finishing 33.19 407.79 170.40
screed finishing 250.13 3090.75 677.47
Total 2316.37 31203.74 8231.15
Xm,Ym 13.47 3.55
SECOND FLOOR
BLDNG PART TOTAL WT TOTAL MOMENT
WX WY
wall 709.69 9876.74 2798.11
beam 294.42 3934.78 1001.36
column 187.39 2719.53 876.06
slab 734.59 8986.83 2005.45
inclined slab 56.52 1198.14 415.39
landing 19.44 464.62 117.13
pvc finishing 33.19 407.79 170.40
screed finishing 250.13 3090.75 677.47
Total 2285.36 30679.17 8061.37
Xm,Ym 13.42 3.53
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THIRD FLOOR
BLDNG PART TOTAL WT TOTAL MOMENT
Wx Wy
wall 732.78 9664.66 2992.85
beam 294.42 3934.78 1001.36
column 187.39 2719.53 876.06
slab 744.23 8981.63 2053.64
inclined slab 56.52 1198.14 415.39
landing 19.44 464.62 117.13
pvc finishing 40.31 422.13 157.06
screed finishing 255.30 3139.18 695.70
Total 2330.40 30524.65 8309.19
Xm,Ym 13.10 3.57

FOURTH FLOOR
BLDNG PART TOTAL WT TOTAL MOMENT
Wx Wy
wall 845.74 10937.92 3060.36
beam 294.42 3934.78 1001.36
column 187.39 2719.53 876.06
slab 745.32 9053.85 2084.45
inclined slab 56.52 1198.14 415.39
landing 19.44 464.62 117.13
pvc finishing 40.04 414.53 156.94
screed finishing 244.43 2839.08 690.89
Total 2433.30 31562.45 8402.57
Xm,Ym 12.97 3.45

ROOF LEVEL
BLDNG PART TOTAL WT TOTAL MOMENT
Wx Wy
wall 237.21 4578.80 1170.83
beam 212.25 3017.76 713.01
column 117.12 1904.78 520.01
slab 39.37 793.86 297.03
inclined slab 56.52 1198.14 415.39
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landing 19.44 464.62 117.13
TRUSS+EGA+CHIPWOOD 44.05 577.53 149.76
Total 725.95 12535.49 3383.17
Xm,Ym 17.27 4.66

HEAD ROOM LEVEL
BLDNG PART TOTAL WT TOTAL MOMENT
Wx Wy
beam 52.92 1138.04 330.90
column 23.42 518.84 148.74
slab 64.64 1379.37 407.03
inclined slab 28.26 599.07 207.70
landing 9.72 232.31 58.56
Total 178.96 3867.64 1152.92
Xm,Ym 21.61 6.44

Determination of center of stiffness
Center of stiffness is a point where the stiffness or strength of the floor is concentrated.
Xs = DiyXi ; Ys = DixYi
Diy Dix
Where
Xi, Yi = coordinates of the shear center of the frame element
Dix, Diy = lateral stiffness of a particular element along X and Y axes, respectively.
The rigidity, D of a column has a relation with:
- stiffness of the column itself
- stiffness of upper and lower beams
- heights of upper and lower columns
- upper and lower shear forces
- location of storey
D = a Kc
Kc = column stiffness
a = factor depending on boundary conditions
Computation of a
If K represents the total sum of stiffness ratios of beams above and below the column
divided by 2Kc, the approximate formula to obtain a for general cases is:
a = K / (2+K)

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k1 k2
k3 k4
Kc
k =0.5*k1+k2+k3+k4
Kc
k2
k4
Kc
k =0.5*k2+k4
Kc
k = I/ L

The above expressions of a for cases of fixed column base is

a = (0.5+K) and K = Ktop
(2+k) Kc

and for pin supported columns


Calculation of shear center
LEVEL Axis Dy Xi DyXi Axis Dx Yi DxYi
GROUND A 0.000894 0 0 4 0.00299 0 0
B 0.000894 5 0.00447 3 0.003182 5 0.01590825
C 0.000894 10 0.00894 2 0.001377 7.7 0.01060269
D 0.000894 15 0.01341 1 0.001198 9 0.01078116
E 0.002393 20 0.04785 0.008746 0.0372921
F 0.000576 23.54 0.01356 Ys 4.26372227
G 0.000103 24.02 0.00247
H 0.000913 25 0.02281
0.00756 0.11352
xS 15.0157
FIRST Axis Dy Xi DyXi Axis Dx Yi DxYi
A 0.00038 0 0 4 0.012172 0 0
B 0.00038 5 0.0019 3 0.012976 5 0.06488222
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C 0.00038 10 0.0038 2 0.004799 7.7 0.03695594
D 0.00038 15 0.00571 1 0.004908 9 0.0441748
E 0.009963 20 0.19925 0.034857 0.14601295
F 0.002886 23.54 0.06794 Ys 4.18896113
G 0.003373 24.02 0.08101
H 0.002142 25 0.05355
0.019885 0.41317
Xs 20.7777
1
ST
-4
th
Axis Dy Xi DyXi Axis Dx Yi DxYi
A 0.00038 0 0 4 0.001574 0 0
B 0.00038 5 0.0019 3 0.001678 5 0.00838865
C 0.00038 10 0.0038 2 0.00062 7.7 0.0047703
D 0.00038 15 0.00569 1 0.000634 9 0.00570805
E 0.001437 20 0.02875 0.004505 0.018867
F 0.000369 23.54 0.00869 Ys 4.18777854
G 0.000429 24.02 0.0103
H 0.000442 25 0.01105
0.004196 0.07018
Xs 16.7262
ROOF Axis Dy Xi DyXi Axis Dx Yi DxYi
A 0.00028 0 0 4 0.001212 0 0
B 0.00028 5 0.0014 3 0.001293 5 0.00646251
C 0.00028 10 0.0028 2 0.000484 7.7 0.00372346
D 0.00028 15 0.0042 1 0.000491 9 0.00441705
E 0.001185 20 0.0237 0.003479 0.01460303
F 0.000305 23.54 0.00718 Ys 4.19713009
G 0.000368 24.02 0.00885
H 0.000334 25 0.00836
0.003312 0.05648
Xs 17.0533
H.ROOM Axis Dy Xi DyXi Axis Dx Yi DxYi
E 0.000268 20 0.00535 3 0.000206 5 0.00103186
G 0.000116 24.02 0.0028 2 0.00024 7.7 0.00184569
H 0.000116 25 0.00291 0.000446 0.00287755
0.0005 0.01106 Ys 6.45086338
Xs 22.0981





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Direct shear force distribution
For a given storey shear
Q
ix
= D
ix
* Q, Q
ix
= D
iy
* Q
D
ix
D
iy

Axes in x-dxn

FLOOR GROUND FIRST SECOND THIRD
FORCE 13.29 105.78 164.42 228.27
AXIS
D-
VALUE Qi
D-
VALUE Qi
D-
VALUE Qi
D-
VALUE Qi
4 0.003 4.543171 0.012 36.9382 0.002 57.44 0.001574 79.74
3 0.0032 4.83463 0.013 39.3783 0.002 61.23 0.001678 85.007
2 0.0014 2.092359 0.005 14.5645 6E-04 22.61 0.00062 31.39
1 0.0012 1.820261 0.005 14.8947 6E-04 23.15 0.000634 32.135
0.0087 0.035 0.005 0.004505


FOURTH ROOF HEADROOM FLOOR
302.12 109.16 31.60 FORCE
D-VALUE Qi
D-
VALUE Qi D-VALUE Qi AXIS
0.00157377 105.5368 0.001212 38.03917 4
0.00167773 112.508 0.001293 40.55121 0.000206372 14.61945 3
0.00061952 41.54477 0.000484 15.17151 0.0002397 16.98038 2
0.00063423 42.53109 0.000491 15.39791 1
0.00450525 0.003479 0.000446072

Axes in y-dxn
FLOOR GROUND FIRST SECOND THIRD
FORCE 13.29042136 105.7757269 164.4221758 228.2715446

D-
VALUE Qi
D-
VALUE Qi
D-
VALUE Qi
D-
VALUE Qi
A 0.0009 1.57154 4E-04 2.02353 0.00038 14.87 0.00038 20.65
B 0.0009 1.57154 4E-04 2.02353 0.00038 14.87 0.00038 20.65
C 0.0009 1.57154 4E-04 2.02353 0.00038 14.87 0.00038 20.65
D 0.0009 1.57154 4E-04 2.02353 0.00038 14.87 0.00038 20.65
E 0.0024 4.206323 0.01 52.9951 0.00144 56.32 0.001437 78.197
F 0.0006 1.012809 0.003 15.3529 0.00037 14.47 0.000369 20.084
G 0.0001 0.180896 0.003 17.9401 0.00043 16.81 0.000429 23.338
H 0.0009 1.604234 0.002 11.3935 0.00044 17.33 0.000442 24.053
0.0076 0.02 0.0042 0.004196
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FOURTH ROOF HEADROOM FLOOR
302.1207209 109.1597995 31.59983145 FORCE
D-VALUE Qi
D-
VALUE Qi D-VALUE Qi AXIS
0.00037955 27.33061 0.00028 9.22275 4
0.00037955 27.33061 0.00028 9.22275 3
0.00037955 27.33061 0.00028 9.22275 2
0.00037955 27.33061 0.00028 9.22275 1
0.00143729 103.4949 0.001185 39.05695 0.00026757 16.89932 0
0.00036915 26.58108 0.000305 10.05581 0
0.00042895 30.88771 0.000368 12.13888 0.000116378 7.350258 0
0.0004421 31.8346 0.000334 11.01716 0.000116378 7.350258
0.00419571 0.003312 0.000500326

Calculation of eccentricities
Eccentricity is the difference between the center of mass and center of stiffness of the floor.
Actual eccentricities
e
x
= Xm Xs
e
y
= Ys Ym
Accidental eccentricities
For various sources of eccentricities in locating the masses and spatial
variation of seismic motion, an additional accidental eccentricity, eli is considered in
addition to the actual eccentricity.
It is given by:
e
li
= 0.05 li
Where e
li
is the floor dimension perpendicular to the direction of seismic action.
Design eccentricities
e
d,x
= e
x
+ e
lx
and
e
d,y
= e
y
+ e
ly










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eccentrities ground first second third fourth roof
head
room
actual
ex 0.72 7.22 3.21 3.63 3.76 -0.21 0.49
ey 0.16 0.62 0.64 0.62 0.73 -0.46 0.01
accidental ex 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 0.25
ey 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.135


DESIGN
ECCENTRICITIES

LEVEL ground first second third fourth roof
head
room
edx1 1.97 8.47 4.46 4.88 5.01 1.04 1.74
edx2 -0.53 5.97 1.96 2.38 2.51 -1.46 -0.76
edy1 0.61 1.07 1.09 1.07 1.18 -0.01 0.46
edy2 -0.29 0.17 0.19 0.17 0.28 -0.91 -0.44


Calculation of shear correction factor

When the shear center and mass center do not coincide, torsion will be developed due to the
lateral forces. This is also somehow amplified by the inherent existence of accidental
eccentricities. As a result the direct shear forces obtained above need to be corrected to take this
effect. The shear correction factors are calculated using


ix
= 1+(D
ix
)e
dy
*y
i

J
r


iy
= 1+(D
iy
)e
dx
*x
i

J
r


J
r
= Jx + J
y
where J
x
= (D
ix
y
i
2
)
J
y
= (D
iy
x
i
2
)
x
i
= X
i
X
s

y
i
=Y
s
Y
i








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Ground floor

DI
R
AXI
S
Ys-
Yi
Xs-
Xi DX DY
DX(Y
s-Yi)
2

DY(X
i-Xs)
2
x1 x2 y1 y2

x,m
ax

y,m
ax
X
4
4.2
6 0.003
0.054
4
1.01
3
0.99
4 1.013
3
-
0.7
4
0.003
2
0.001
7
0.99
8
1.00
1 1.001
2
-
3.4
4
0.001
4
0.016
3
0.99
5
1.00
2 1.002
1
-
4.7
4
0.001
2
0.026
9
0.99
4
1.00
3 1.003
Y
A
15.01
6
9E-
04 0.2
1.043
1
0.98
8 1.043
B
10.01
6
9E-
04 0.09
1.028
8
0.99
2 1.029
C
5.015
7
9E-
04 0.02
1.014
4
0.99
6 1.014
D
0.015
7
9E-
04 0 1 1 1
E
-
4.984
0.00
2 0.06
0.961
7 1.01 1.01
F
-
8.524
6E-
04 0.04
0.984
2
1.00
4 1.004
G
-
9.004
1E-
04 0.01 0.997
1.00
1 1.001
H
-
9.984
9E-
04 0.09
0.970
7
1.00
8 1.008

0.099
2 0.51
Jx Jy







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First floor

X
4
4.1
9
0.012
2
0.213
6
1.06
7
1.01
1
1.06
7
3
-
0.8
1 0.013
0.008
5
0.98
6
0.99
8
0.99
8
2
-
3.5
1
0.004
8
0.059
2
0.97
8
0.99
6
0.99
6
1
-
4.8
1
0.004
9
0.113
6
0.96
9
0.99
5
0.99
5
Y
A
20.77
8
4E-
04
0.1
6
1.082
4
1.05
8
1.08
2
B
15.77
8
4E-
04
0.0
9
1.062
5
1.04
4
1.06
3
C
10.77
8
4E-
04
0.0
4
1.042
7 1.03
1.04
3
D
5.777
7
4E-
04
0.0
1
1.022
9
1.01
6
1.02
3
E
0.777
7 0.01
0.0
1
1.080
7
1.05
7
1.08
1
F -2.762
0.00
3
0.0
2
0.916
9
0.94
1
0.94
1
G -3.242
0.00
3
0.0
4
0.886
1 0.92 0.92
H -4.222
0.00
2
0.0
4
0.905
8
0.93
4
0.93
4

0.394
9
0.4
2
Jx Jy

Second floor
X
4 4.19 0.0016 0.0276 1.023 1.004 1.023
3
-
0.81 0.0017 0.0011 0.995 0.999 0.999
2
-
3.51 0.0006 0.0076 0.992 0.999 0.999
1
-
4.81 0.0006 0.0147 0.989 0.998 0.998
Y
A 16.726 4E-04 0.11 1.0904 1.04 1.09
B 11.726 4E-04 0.05 1.0633 1.028 1.063
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C 6.7262 4E-04 0.02 1.0363 1.016 1.036
D 1.7262 4E-04 0 1.0093 1.004 1.009
E -3.274 0.001 0.02 0.933 0.971 0.971
F -6.814 4E-04 0.02 0.9642 0.984 0.984
G -7.294 4E-04 0.02 0.9555 0.98 0.98
H -8.274 4E-04 0.03 0.9479 0.977 0.977
0.051 0.26
Jx Jy

Third floor
X
4.00 4.19 0.00 0.03 1.02 1.00 1.02
3.00 -0.81 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
2.00 -3.51 0.00 0.01 0.99 1.00 1.00
1.00 -4.81 0.00 0.01 0.99 1.00 1.00
Y
A 16.73 0.00 0.11 1.10 1.05 1.10
B 11.73 0.00 0.05 1.07 1.03 1.07
C 6.73 0.00 0.02 1.04 1.02 1.04
D 1.73 0.00 0.00 1.01 1.00 1.01
E -3.27 0.00 0.02 0.93 0.96 0.96
F -6.81 0.00 0.02 0.96 0.98 0.98
G -7.29 0.00 0.02 0.95 0.98 0.98
H -8.27 0.00 0.03 0.94 0.97 0.97
0.05 0.26
Jx Jy

















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Fourth floor
X
4.00 4.26 0.00 0.03 1.03 1.01 1.03
3.00 -0.81 0.00 0.00 0.99 1.00 1.00
2.00 -3.51 0.00 0.01 0.99 1.00 1.00
1.00 -4.81 0.00 0.01 0.99 1.00 1.00
Y
A 16.73 0.00 0.11 1.10 1.05 1.10
B 11.73 0.00 0.05 1.07 1.04 1.07
C 6.73 0.00 0.02 1.04 1.02 1.04
D 1.73 0.00 0.00 1.01 1.01 1.01
E -3.27 0.00 0.02 0.93 0.96 0.96
F -6.81 0.00 0.02 0.96 0.98 0.98
G -7.29 0.00 0.02 0.95 0.98 0.98
H -8.27 0.00 0.03 0.94 0.97 0.97
0.05 0.26
Jx Jy



Roof

X
4 4.2 0.0012 0.0214 1 0.981 1
3 -0.8 0.0013 0.0008 1 1.004 1.004
2 -3.5 0.0005 0.0059 1 1.006 1.006
1 -4.8 0.0005 0.0113 1 1.009 1.009
Y
A 17.053 3E-04 0.08 1.0207 0.971 1.021
B 12.053 3E-04 0.04 1.0146 0.979 1.015
C 7.0533 3E-04 0.01 1.0086 0.988 1.009
D 2.0533 3E-04 0 1.0025 0.996 1.002
E -2.947 0.001 0.01 0.9848 1.021 1.021
F -6.487 3E-04 0.01 0.9914 1.012 1.012
G -6.967 4E-04 0.02 0.9889 1.016 1.016
H -7.947 3E-04 0.02 0.9885 1.016 1.016
0.0394 0.2
Jx Jy







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Head room

X
3
1.4
5
0.000
2 0.0004
1.0
4
0.96
1 1.04
2
-
1.2
5
0.000
2 0.0004
0.9
6
1.03
9
1.03
9
Y
E
2.098
1
3E-
04 0 1.287
0.87
4
1.28
7
G -1.922
1E-
04 0
0.885
6 1.05 1.05
H -2.902
1E-
04 0
0.827
3
1.07
6
1.07
6
0.0008 0
Jx Jy






Corrected shear forces for torsion
Corrected shear forces are given by =
max
* Q

LEVEL GROUND FIRST SECOND THIRD
Axis max*Qi max

max*Qi

max

max*Qi max

max*Qi
4 4.60 1.07 39.42 1.02 58.76 1.02 81.54
3 4.84 1.00 39.29 1.00 61.18 1.00 84.94
2 2.10 1.00 14.51 1.00 22.58 1.00 31.35
1 1.83 1.00 14.82 1.00 23.10 1.00 32.08
A 1.64 1.08 2.19 1.09 16.22 1.10 22.69
B 1.62 1.06 2.15 1.06 15.82 1.07 22.08
C 1.59 1.04 2.11 1.04 15.41 1.04 21.47
D 1.57 1.02 2.07 1.01 15.01 1.01 20.86
E 4.25 1.08 57.27 0.97 54.67 0.96 75.40
F 1.02 0.94 14.45 0.98 14.24 0.98 19.70
G 0.18 0.92 16.50 0.98 16.48 0.98 22.78
H 1.62 0.93 10.64 0.98 16.93 0.97 23.39

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FOURTH ROOF HEAD ROOM LEVEL

max

max*Qi Qi

max

max*Qi Qi

max

max*Qi Axis
1.03 108.20 1.00 38.03 4
1.00 112.37 1.00 40.71 1.04 15.21 3
1.00 41.46 1.01 15.27 1.04 17.64 2
1.00 42.41 1.01 15.54 1
1.10 30.09 1.02 9.41 A
1.07 29.27 1.01 9.36 B
1.04 28.44 1.01 9.30 C
1.01 27.62 1.00 9.25 D
0.96 99.61 1.02 39.89 1.29 21.75 E
0.98 26.05 1.01 10.18 F
0.98 30.12 1.02 12.33 1.05 7.72 G
0.97 30.91 1.02 11.20 1.08 7.91 H
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Earth quake loading on frames

AXIS-A
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AXIS-E

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AXIS-3

4.4 Load combination

The final critical design bending moments, shear forces and axial forces will be obtained
from whichever the following five combinations of loading that produces the critical effect.
Case 1. Consider vertical load only
Case 2. Consider 75% of vertical load with earthquake effect from positive X direction
Case 3. Consider 75% of vertical load with earthquake effect from negative X direction
Case 4. Consider 75% of vertical load with earthquake effect from positive Y direction
Case 5. Consider 75% of vertical load with earthquake effect from negative Y direction
The frame is analyzed using sap2000 version 9




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NB:- The same procedure is performed for the pre-cast slab system.




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5. DESIG OF BEAMS AD COLUMS
5.1 Beam design
Beams are flexural members which are used to transfer the loads from slab to columns.
Basically beams should be designed for flexure (moment). Furthermore it is essential to check
and design the beam sections for torsion and shear. Beams may be designed for flexural moment
depending on the magnitude of the moment and the X- sectional dimensions. on the other hand
the beam can be singly reinforced, doubly reinforced T or section.
Style of beam reinforcement
Singly reinforced cross section
The moment capacity of a given singly reinforced beam is given by
M=bd
2
fyd (1-0.4m)
is taken to be 0.75
b
to re assure ductility of the material. Afterward for the given sectional
dimensions and material data, the total area of reinforcement required for the applied moment M
is given by
As=bd
Where:
=1/2(c
1 + ) / 4 (
2
2
2
1
bd C M C
M=moment
m=f
yd
/ (0.8f
cd
)
d=effective depth
Doubly reinforced cross section
Incase when the dimension of the section is limited, the concrete may be subjected to higher
compression stress. Thus additional steel bars are placed in the compression zone of the section.
Hence the design moment, M
d
is obtained by
M
d
= M
1
+M
2

Where;
M
1
=the moment resisted by concrete and partial steel A
s

M
2
= The moment resisted by steel in compression, A
s
, and the left over steel As
2

M
1
can be computed via in the manner of singly reinforced section
M
1
=0.8bd
2
f
cd
*m(1-0.4m), is stated above.

As
1=
bd but since M
2
=M-M
1
=Asfs(d-d
c
)=As
2
fyd(d-d
c
)
At yielding the compression steel both area of steel becomes equal
As=As
2
= (M-M1)/ ( fyd(d-d
c

) = (M-M1)/( fs(d-d
c

).i.e. f
yd
= f
s

f
s
=(x-d
c
)Es*
c
/x ,x= mb



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Longitudinal reinforcement design

In this specific project we have used design tables for the calculation of reinforcement area as
per the provision of EBCS 2, 1995.
5.1.1 Solid slab beams
AXIS-A
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
22.42 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 30.85 4.06 296.499 212
12.4 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 22.94 3.98 Asmin 212
44.97 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 43.69 4.252 622.8418 412+116
173.14 1st &2nd 0.25 0.446 59.01 2410.72 424+316
102.74 1st &2nd 0.25 0.446 45.45 4.296 989.6212 516
174.08 1st &2nd 0.25 0.455 58.00 2410.72 424+316
128.5 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 50.83 4.425 1274.916 420
71.05 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 37.05 4.12 643.3538 316+220
14.31 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 16.63 3.963 124.6385 212
141.28 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 52.25 4.47 1387.96 420+114
96.44 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 55.33 1285.81 420
102.44 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 57.02 1275.096 420
66.6 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 45.98 4.306 807.8299 416


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AXIS-B
moment LOCATION b d Km KS As1 (As1 )
17.17 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 26.99 4.015 224.5523 212
5.16 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 14.80 min 153.5 212
19.68 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 28.90 4.039 258.917 214
179.28 1st &2nd 0.25 0.445 60.18 4.27 1720.282 424
140.87 1st &2nd 0.25 0.445 53.34 4.3 1361.216 324
205.44 1st &2nd 0.25 0.445 64.42 2707.4 624
157.05 3rd&4th 0.25 0.445 56.32 4.52 1595.204 324&120
90.16 3rd&4th 0.25 0.445 42.68 4.22 855.0004 220 +212
158.5 3rd&4th 0.25 0.445 56.58 1595.204 324&120
100.71 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 56.22 4.52 1275.096 420
102.03 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 56.59 1275.096 420
69.23 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 46.61 4.32 837.7412 220 +212

AXIS -C
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
22.15 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 30.66 3.994 288.1664 312
9.89 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 20.49 3.97 127.8935 212
16.01 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 26.07 4 208.5993 212
177.98 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 59.82 2416.4 524+116
114.32 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 47.95 4.36 1117.568 420
35.44 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 26.17 4.01 312.3393 216
182.2 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 59.33 2241 424+316
166.48 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 57.86 1941.5 324+316
95.32 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 43.78 4.26 910.4556 220+214
150.1 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 53.85 4.53 1494.402 224+316
115.1 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 60.44 1550 324+120
111.28 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 59.43 1550 324+120
61.8 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 44.29 4.19 729.4141 416

AXIS-D
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
24.86 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 32.48 4.07 329.5772 314
12.74 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 23.25 3.98 165.1635 212
14.44 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 24.76 3.988 187.5789 212
166.42 4th&3rd 0.25 0.446 57.85 1941.5 324+316
96.08 4th&3rd 0.25 0.446 43.96 4.26 917.7148 220+214
157.49 4th&3rd 0.25 0.455 55.16 1595.204 324&120
165.87 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 57.75 1941.5 324+316
105.43 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 46.04 4.31 1018.841 420
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80.93 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 39.54 4.16 739.9314 216+220
145.5 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 53.02 4.51 1442.209 420+116
103.85 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 57.41 1398.54 324
99.45 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 56.18 1398.54 324
74.01 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 48.47 4.37 911.0527 214+220

AXIS-E
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
32.22 HEAD ROOM 0.25 0.307 36.98 4.12 432.3987 314
6.42 HEAD ROOM 0.25 0.307 16.51 Asmin 212
31.25 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 36.42 4.11 418.3632 412
21.98 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 30.54 4.06 290.6801 214
13.42 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 23.87 Asmin 212
10.41 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 21.02 Asmin 212
12.46 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 23.00 3.97 161.1277 212
3.9 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 12.87 Asmin 212
157.15 4th&3rd 0.25 0.446 56.22 1744.84 424
112.47 4th&3rd 0.25 0.446 47.56 4.349 1096.709 224+116
121.7 4th&3rd 0.25 0.446 49.47 4.396 1199.536 224+214
47.81 4th&3rd 0.25 0.455 30.39 4.04 424.5108 314
130.59 4th&3rd 0.25 0.455 50.23 4.415 1267.154 224+216
81.82 4th&3rd 0.25 0.455 39.76 4.166 749.1475 220+112
52.57 4th&3rd 0.25 0.455 31.87 4.054 468.3929 214+116
179.08 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 60.01 1754.68 424
120.73 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 49.27 4.392 1188.893 224+214
156.16 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 56.04 1744.84 424
101.81 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 45.25 4.29 979.2935 220+216
146.86 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 54.34 1442.209 420+116
149.72 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 54.87 1717.45 424
150.8 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 55.07 1717.45 424
100.84 Gbeam 0.25 0.335 59.95 4.275 1286.839 320
59.44 Gbeam 0.25 0.335 46.03 4.09 725.7003 220
97.73 Gbeam 0.25 0.335 59.02 4.28 1248.61 320
85.69 Gbeam 0.25 0.335 55.27 4.2 1074.322 320
119.53 Gbeam 0.25 0.335 65.27 4.386 1564.951 224+214
106.97 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 58.27 4.32 1301.719 220+314
130.62 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 64.39 4.43 1629.99 320+124




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AXIS-H
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
36.14 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 39.16 4.159 489.5969 316
12.3 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 22.85 Asmin 212
27.97 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 34.45 4.092 372.8119 216
151.31 4th&3rd 0.25 0.446 55.16 1717.45 424
117.03 4th&3rd 0.25 0.446 48.51 4.373 1147.471 320+212
83.215 4th&3rd 0.25 0.446 40.91 4.18 779.9074 220+114
173.14 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 59.01 2412.33 424+220
154.14 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 55.67 1744.84 424
96.66 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 44.09 4.265 924.3383 320
100 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 56.34 1394.7 324
86.56 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 52.42 4.481 1092.607 224+116
83.43 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 51.46 4.435 1042.287 220+314

AXIS-4
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
186.912 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 61.31 4.51 2341 424+316
184.18 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 60.86 2341 424+316
150.25 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 53.88 4.53 1495.896 324+114
174 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 59.15 4.51 1759.507 424
176.859 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 58.46 4.51 1753.042 424
180.71 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 59.09 1754.68 424
92.19 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 42.20 4.25 861.1154 224
81.38 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 39.65 4.2 751.2 416
71.86 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 37.26 4.15 655.4264 314+116
85.69 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 40.69 4.22 794.7512 416
104.94 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 45.03 4.31 994.047 516
155.98 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 56.01 4.52 1580.784 324+214
148.96 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 54.73 1717.45 424
132.93 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 50.68 4.427 1293.365 224+216
134.47 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 50.97 4.44 1312.191 320+216
132.34 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 50.57 4.42 1285.589 420
137.81 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 51.60 4.45 1347.812 224+314
82.511 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 39.93 4.21 763.4534 416
70.31 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 36.86 4.14 639.7437 116+314
48.76 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 30.69 4.01 429.731 314
67.357 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 36.08 4.13 611.3943 216+212
73.61 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 37.71 4.16 673.0057 212+314
42.44 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 42.44 4.25 587.5244 312+214
37.65 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 39.97 4.19 513.855 316
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33.94 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 37.95 4.15 458.798 316
25.63 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 32.98 4.13 344.7945 216
17.05 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 26.90 4.014 222.9274 212
25.89 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 33.15 4.082 344.2442 212+114
17.73 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 27.43 min 212
13.94 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 24.32 min 212
9.27 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 19.83 min 212
8.61 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 19.12 min 212
5.69 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 15.54 min 212
97.3 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 55.26 4.598 1253.18 420
78.96 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 49.78 4.405 974.2824 220+216
81.53 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 50.58 4.425 1010.561 220+216
83.34 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 51.14 4.43 1034.163 220+216
81.92 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 50.71 4.425 1015.395 220+216
22.74 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 26.72 4 254.7899 214
75.44 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 48.66 4.37 923.4532 320
66.48 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 45.68 4.29 798.8773 416
68.82 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 46.47 4.33 834.7076 220+212
69.32 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 46.64 4.34 842.7137 220+212
73.37 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 47.99 4.34 891.949 224

AXIS-1
moment LOCATION b d Km KS As1 (As1 )
21.36 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 30.11 3.97 276.2189 214
11.92 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 22.49 3.96 153.7564 212
158.02 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 55.26 4.52 1748 424
177.72 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 58.60 1857 520+216
164.47 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 56.37 4.52 1895 520+216
117.51 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 47.65 4.39 1133.778 320+212
104.24 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 44.88 4.282 981.0015 224+112
71.82 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 37.25 4.14 653.4831 314+212
122.93 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 62.46 4.63 1817 424
122.06 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 62.24 1817 424
95.75 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 55.13 4.57 1232.613 420
AXIS-2
moment LOCATION b d Km KS As1 (As1 )
30.11 Head Room 0.25 0.307 35.75 4.11 403.1013 216
14.5 Head Room 0.25 0.307 24.81 3.97 187.5081 212
11.27 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 21.87 3.96 145.372 212
28.93 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 35.04 4.1 386.3616 216
32.82 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 37.32 4.15 443.658 412
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177.03 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 58.48 4.7 1857 520+216
171.09 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 57.50 2412.33 424+220
121.87 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 48.53 4.41 1181.202 224+214
115.06 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 47.15 4.38 1107.611 224+212
103.82 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 44.79 4.28 976.5925 220+216
57.36 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 33.29 4.05 510.567 216+112
118.84 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 61.42 4.65 1712 324+216
116.89 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 60.91 1550 324+120
87.01 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 52.55 4.51 1105.395 224+212

AXIS-3
moment LOCATION b d Km KS As1 (As1 )
15.34 Head Room 0.25 0.307 25.52 3.99 199.37 212
42.74 Head Room 0.25 0.307 42.59 4.23 588.8932 220
14.28 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 24.62 4.09 190.245 212
22.64 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 31.00 4.434 326.9894 312
16.53 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 26.49 4.02 216.4515 212
17.64 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 27.36 4.03 231.5609 214
27.43 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 34.12 4.09 365.4355 216
38.55 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 40.45 4.19 526.1384 212 +214
199.64 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 63.36 4.51 2569 524+216
178.245 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 59.87 4.51 2170 424+216
182.77 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 60.62 2241 424+316
182.33 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 60.55 4.51 2241 424+316
148.37 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 53.54 4.53 1477.178 324+114
193.54 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 61.15 2415.64 424+220
117.14 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 47.57 4.35 1119.91 320+212
87.28 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 41.07 4.2 805.6615 220+212
75.44 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 38.18 4.14 686.4211 314+212
94.43 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 42.71 4.23 877.8877 416+112
72.55 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 37.44 4.15 661.7198 314+212
144.86 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 53.97 4.53 1471.336 224+216
154.125 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 55.67 4.5 1555.073 324+212
154.971 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 55.82 4.51 1567.083 324+212
142.89 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 53.60 4.53 1451.327 420+116
145.66 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 54.12 4.47 1459.866 324+112
107.87 3rd&4th 0.25 0.446 46.57 4.28 1035.165 220+216
76.46 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 38.44 4.18 702.4237 216+214
77.375 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 38.67 4.18 710.8297 216+214
77.025 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 38.58 4.18 707.6143 216+214
75.474 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 38.19 4.17 691.7068 216+214
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48.39 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 30.58 4.01 426.4701 314
95.54 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 55.07 4.52 1253 420
93.45 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 54.46 4.52 1239 420
92.83 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 54.28 4.52 1230 420
114.01 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 60.16 1550 324+120
94.49 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 54.76 4.52 1252 420
100.71 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 56.54 4.52 1416 324+112
68.65 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 46.68 4.37 845.0718 220+212
56.89 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 42.49 4.27 684.2825 314+212
57.4 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 42.68 4.27 690.4169 214+216
55.78 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 42.08 4.26 669.36 314+212
61.71 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 44.26 4.31 749.2115 316+114

Inclined beam
LOCATION AS (AS) landing beams
Gbeam 1332.63 320+216 LOCATION AS (AS)
Gbeam 1171.31 320+212 G-floor 2179.44 424+216
Gbeam 964.61 220+216 G-floor 1898.36 324+316
Gbeam 1240.9 420 G-floor 2221.63 424+314
Gbeam 924.75 220+214 1st&2nd 1560.77 324+212
1st&2nd 1645.39 324+214 1st&2nd 1357.31 324
1st&2nd 1194.29 224+214 1st&2nd 1728.52 324+216
1st&2nd 1201.26 224+214 3rd&4th 790.18 416
1st&2nd 1409.64 420+114 3rd&4th 615.56 414
1st&2nd 972.08 224+114 3rd&4th 915.1 316+214
3rd&4th 796.81 314+312 roof 356.15 216
3rd&4th 668.66 314+212 roof 225 212
3rd&4th 639.49 314+212 roof 225 212
3rd&4th 696.39 214+216


3rd&4th 525.17 214+212
TTBeam 157.5 212
TTBeam 187.61 212
TTBeam 159.75 212
TTBeam 157.5 212
Head Room 157.5 212
Head Room 157.5 212
Head Room 157.5 212



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5.1.2 Pre-cast slab beams
AXIS-A
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
15.41 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 25.57 4.007 201.1331 212
49.82 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 45.98 4.31 699.4274 216+214
170.54 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 52.40 1829.2 324+220
66.22 1st &2nd 0.3 0.455 32.65 4.0765 593.2875 316
156.53 1st &2nd 0.3 0.455 50.20 1599.4 520
197.12 1st &2nd 0.3 0.455 56.34 2396.13 424+220
129.72 3rd&4th 0.3 0.455 45.70
130.95 3rd&4th 0.3 0.455 45.92 4.308 1239.852 420
177.07 3rd&4th 0.3 0.455 53.39 2014.8 216+324+214
88.64 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 48.42 4.36 1088.649 314+220
93.91 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 49.84 1168.59 320+212
85.39 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 47.52

AXIS-B
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
10.83 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 21.44 3.966 139.9081 212
23.12 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 31.32 4.067 306.2835 214
194.49 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 55.96 424+220
168.55 1st &2nd 0.3 0.455 52.09 1829.2 324+220
245.89 1st &2nd 0.3 0.455 62.92 3260.34 524+516
178.456 3rd &4th 0.3 0.455 53.60 2086.4 324+216+314
198.58 3rd&4th 0.3 0.455 56.55 2396.13 424+220
154.49 3rd&4th 0.3 0.455 49.87 1654.94 324+214
84.374 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 47.24 4.341 1031.74 314+220
92.296 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 49.41 1158.51 320+212
89.94 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 48.77


AXIS -C
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
6.52 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 16.63 min ####### 212
18.94 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 28.35 4.032 248.7494 114+112
196.44 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 56.24 2371.5 424+220
174.54 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 53.01 1958.3 324+220
228.84 1st&2nd 0.3 0.446 61.93 3060.63 424+420
161.03 3rd&4th 0.3 0.455 50.92 1744.8 324+314
146.9 3rd&4th 0.3 0.455 48.63 1427.68 420+212
189.22 3rd&4th 0.3 0.455 55.20 2222.2 424+314
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83.01 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 46.86 4.324 1011.085 220+216
91.4 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 49.17 1180.58 316+220
92.33 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 49.42 1195.44 316+220

AXIS-D
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
4.67 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 14.08 min 153 212
17.43 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 27.20 4.018 228.1229 212
165.37 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 51.60 1791.79 324+314
143.17 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 48.01 4.36 1371.915 224+314
179.26 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 53.72 2086.4 324+216+314
196.46 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 56.24 2371.5 424+220
171.23 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 52.51 1901.71 424+112
218.24 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 59.28 2765.05 424+320
81.81 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 46.52 4.323 996.2384 220+314
91.12 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 49.09 1180.58 316+220
94.02 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 49.87 1205.57 316+220

AXIS-E
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
30.99 HEAD ROOM 0.25 0.307 36.27 4.113 415.1852 214+112
27.88 HEAD ROOM 0.25 0.307 34.40 4.094 371.7939 216
28.95 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 35.05 4.101 386.723 216
18.28 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 27.85 4.026 239.724 112+114
1.22 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 7.20 min 153.5 212
8.45 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 18.94 min 153.5 212
14.04 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 24.41 3.986 182.2913 212
2.71 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 10.72 min 153 212
10.07 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 20.67 3.961 129.926 212
158.53 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 50.52 1654.94 324+214
123.65 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 44.62 4.276 1162.038 320+212
96.97 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 39.51 4.162 887.0091 316+214
83.29 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 36.62 4.114 753.088 514
139.69 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 47.43 4.346 1334.27 320+216
36.74 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 24.32 3.986 321.8585 312
87.24 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 37.48 4.141 793.9799 416
181.92 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 54.12 2086.4 324+216+314
135.14 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 46.65 4.326 1284.87 324
166.35 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 51.75 4.463 1631.692 324+214
111.05 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 42.29 4.217 1029.226 220+216
110.87 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 42.25 4.216 1027.314 220+216
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173.46 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 52.85 4.498 1714.776 424
112.42 Gbeam 0.3 0.455 42.55 4.224 1043.653 220+216
47.2 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 35.33 4.103 545.5256 216+114
98.49 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 51.04 4.436 1230.709 420
107.95 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 53.43 4.5315 1377.959 420+114
108.6 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 53.60 4.54 1388.856 420+114
136.06 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 59.99 1926.9 424+112

AXIS-H
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
35.57 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 38.85 4.151 480.9481 216+112
26.93 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 33.81 4.088 358.5988 216
123.6 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 44.61 4.275 1161.297 320+212
107.526 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 41.61 4.202 993.0203 516
144.544 4th&3rd 0.3 0.455 48.24 4.36 1385.081 420+114
156.45 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 50.19 1599.4 520
122.3 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 44.38 1161.297 320+212
164.56 1st&2nd 0.3 0.455 51.47 1631.692 324+214
100.8 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 51.63 4.45 1263.549 224+216
83.79 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 47.08 4.334 1022.946 220+216
89.25 Gbeam 0.3 0.355 48.59 4.375 1099.912 220+314

AXIS-4
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
144.44 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 52.83 1604.53 420+216
104.14 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 44.86 4.304 985.0957 516
60.13 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 34.09 4.091 540.6414 216+114
118.76 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 47.90 4.353 1136.181 320+212
100.73 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 44.12 4.263 943.7626 320
120.93 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 48.34 4.36 1158.802 320+212
97.79 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 43.47 4.248 912.9932 320
124.1 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 48.97 1206.11 420
93.55 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 42.51 4.223 868.2674 316+214
125.01 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 49.15 1214.93 420
131.28 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 50.36 1340 324
140.096 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 52.03 1516.28 324+212
116.75 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 47.49 4.35 1116.181 224+212
81.84 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 39.77 4.16 748.2514 220+114
91.44 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 42.03 4.211 846.2722 220+212
62.82 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 34.84 4.098 565.7942 316
30.14 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 24.13 3.984 263.9072 214
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83.27 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 40.11 4.172 763.5218 220+114
59.01 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 33.77 4.088 530.1822 216+114
93.14 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 42.42 4.22 863.8479 220+212
33.75 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 25.54 3.994 296.2582 214
64.06 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 35.18 4.101 577.3847 316
66.05 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 35.72 4.107 596.192 316
91.94 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 42.15 4.214 851.5058 220+212
95.02 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 42.85 4.231 883.5816 316+214
39.71 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 41.05 4.19 541.9704 216+114
17.62 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 27.35 4.019 230.667 212
39.53 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 40.96 4.189 539.3849 216+114
14.15 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 24.51 3.987 183.7656 212
35.45 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 38.79 4.15 479.2101 214+116
9.23 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 19.79 3.955 118.9077 212
24.97 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 32.55 4.078 331.6862 116+114
18.67 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 28.15 4.032 245.2034 214
8.32 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 18.79 min 153 212
22.34 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 30.79 4.058 295.2955 214
4.23 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 13.40 min 153 212
96.69 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 55.09 4.593 1243.97 420
75.31 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 48.62 4.379 923.7605 320
81.12 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 50.46 4.434 1007.524 220+216
68.79 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 46.46 4.32 832.4168 220+212
83.48 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 51.19 4.456 1041.98 220+314
70.06 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 46.89 4.332 850.1398 220+212
83.07 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 51.06 4.452 1035.932 220+216
76.76 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 49.08 4.392 944.3415 320
80.23 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 50.18 4.455 1001.189 220+216
99.24 Gbeam 0.25 0.357 55.81 4.614 1282.614 224+216

AXIS-1
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
2.74 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 10.78 min 154 212
13.23 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 23.70 3.981 171.5591 212
22.64 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 31.00 4.06 299.4085 214
175.83 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 58.29 4.481 1853 424
142.2 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 52.42 4.483 1401.061 116+420
185.74 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 61.12 2126.2 424+216
79.896 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 39.29 4.158 730.1265 220+112
87.07 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 41.02 4.19 801.8095 416
108.94 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 45.88 4.307 1031.219 220+216
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123.09 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 62.50 2003.4 424+212
97.46 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 55.62 4.609 1265.333 324
124.68 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 62.91 2003.4 424+212

AXIS-2
moment LOCATION b d Km KS AS1 (As1 )
5.87 Head Room 0.25 0.307 15.78 min 153 212
14.54 Head Room 0.25 0.307 24.84 3.989 188.9253 212
30.95 Head Room 0.25 0.307 36.24 4.112 414.5485 214+112
11.59 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 22.18 3.971 149.915 212
33.42 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 37.66 4.131 449.7004 314
133.38 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 50.76 1340 324
117.64 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 47.68 4.352 1125.207 224+212
176.79 1st&2nd 0.25 0.446 59.62 1853 424
77.46 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 38.69 4.148 706.1628 216+214
81.29 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 39.63 4.164 743.9375 220+112
91.79 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 42.11 4.213 849.9149 220+212
100.9 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 56.59 1429.3 116+420
94.9 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 54.88 1220.01 420
108.26 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 58.62 1345.67 420+112

AXIS-3
moment LOCATION b d Km KS As1 (As1 )
16.27 Head Room 0.25 0.307 26.28 4.006 212.305 212
20.93 Head Room 0.25 0.307 29.80 4.048 275.976 214
41.28 Head Room 0.25 0.307 41.86 4.207 565.6839 316
18.53 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 28.04 4.028 243.1233 214
9.5 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 20.08 3.957 122.4479 212
11.38 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 21.98 3.97 147.1616 212
8.83 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 19.36 3.952 113.6683 212
16.86 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 26.75 4.012 220.3333 212
17.25 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 27.06 4.016 225.6547 212
9.25 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 19.81 3.955 119.1653 212
29.58 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 35.43 4.104 395.4278 216
35.82 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 38.99 4.153 484.5618 214+116
11.77 TTBeam 0.25 0.307 22.35 3.972 152.2816 212
126.82 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 49.50 1214.93 420
110 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 46.10 4.312 1042.462 224+114
110.44 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 46.19 4.315 1047.36 224+114
107.01 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 45.47 4.297 1010.598 224+112
98.47 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 43.62 4.25 919.7747 214+220
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106.94 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 45.46 4.3 1010.642 224+112
101.23 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 44.23 4.267 949.3372 320
109.9 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 46.08 4.312 1214.45 420
103.44 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 44.71 4.278 972.5633 312+220
119.22 1st&2nd 0.25 0.455 47.99 4.36 1142.416 320+212
82.61 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 39.95 4.17 757.107 220+114
88.42 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 41.33 4.198 815.796 220+116
58.23 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 33.54 4.085 522.7902 216+114
33.26 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 25.35 4.001 292.4687 214
76.67 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 38.49 4.147 698.7923 216+214
56.91 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 33.16 4.082 510.564 216+112
38.72 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 27.35 4.019 342.0125 216
76.07 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 38.34 4.142 692.4878 216+214
60.62 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 34.22 4.092 545.1803 216+114
81.59 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 39.70 4.165 746.8623 220+114
51.57 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 31.57 4.066 460.8431 314
99.4 3rd&4th 0.25 0.455 43.82 4.256 929.7723 320
89.94 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 53.43 1317.8 320+216
87.35 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 52.65 1246.82 420
86.16 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 52.29 1246.82 420
83.54 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 51.49 1160.19 320+212
85.72 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 52.16 1246.82 420
89.12 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 53.19 1317.8 320+216
71.8 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 47.74 4.354 880.6118 316+214
70.2 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 47.20 4.34 858.2197 220+212
68.24 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 46.54 4.324 831.1824 216+214
73.15 Gbeam 0.25 0.355 48.18 4.36 898.4056 316+214

Inclined beam(SAP) landing beams
LOCATION AS (AS) LOCATION AS (AS)
Gbeam 1377.25 420+114 G-floor 2172.62 424+216
Gbeam 1235.31 420 G-floor 2002.28 424+212
Gbeam 1176.7 224+120 G-floor 2291.24 424+220
Gbeam 961.86 516 1st&2nd 1500.52 420+214
Gbeam 966.54 516 1st&2nd 1475.75 420+212
1st&2nd 1723.22 424 1st&2nd 1839 320+224
1st&2nd 1426.32 420+116 3rd&4th 729.35 416
1st&2nd 1183.39 224+120 3rd&4th 697.65 216+214
1st&2nd 991.29 516 3rd&4th 984.77 516
1st&2nd 1269.18 324 roof 343.9 216
3rd&4th 847.42 220+212 roof 225 212
3rd&4th 745 416 roof 225 212
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3rd&4th 692.88 216+214 roof 225 212
3rd&4th 520.69 214+212
3rd&4th 678.21 216+214
TTBeam 159.65 212
TTBeam 162.19 212
TTBeam 204.96 212
TTBeam 157.5 212
Head Room 157.5 212
Head Room 157.5 212
Head Room 157.5 212

corridor beams added for prec
2.4 0.25 0.455 6.81 min 227 212
6.15 0.25 0.455 10.90 min 227 212
3.21 0.25 0.455 7.88 min 227 212
3.9 0.25 0.455 8.68 min 227 212
5.65 0.25 0.455 10.45 min 227 212
16.36 0.25 0.455 17.78 min 227 212
6.62 0.25 0.455 11.31 min 227 212

5.1.3 Design of beams for shear and torsion
Shear reinforcement design
Beam sections are subjected to shear forces in addition to flexural actions.
Shear is resisted by the combined actions of the following
Shear resistance of concrete in compression zone
Shear reinforcements or stirrups
Dowel action in tension bars across crack
Aggregate interlocking across the inclined crack in tension zone
ominal reinforcement
The shear force V
C
carried by the concrete in members with out significant axial forces shall
be taken as
V
C
= 0.25f
ctd
K
1
K
2
b
w
d
Where K
1
= (1+50) < 2.0
K
2
= 1.6-d > 1.0 (d in meters). For members where more than 50%of the
bottom reinforcement is curtailed, K
2
= 1.

max
=0.04


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A
s
is the area of tensile reinforcement
The ultimate limit state in shear is characterized by either diagonal compression failure of
concrete or failure of shear reinforcement due to diagonal tension.
Diagonal compression failure of concrete
To avoid compression failure of concrete the shear resistance of the section , V
RD
shall not be
less than the applied shear force V
d
.
Where:
V
RD
=0.25 *fcd *b
w
*d
If V
RD
< V
d
.increase the concrete section
Diagonal Tension failure of web reinforcement
If the applied shear force V
d
< V
RD
> the shear resistance of the section Vc Shear
reinforcement need be provided. The spacing in this case is given by
S=(d-d)Asv*fyk/(Vd-Vc) ( section 4.5 EBCS-2,1995)
The shear between the critical section which is at a distance d from the face of the support, and
the point beyond which maximum spacing is used is reinforced by the difference of shear
capacity of concrete. The region beyond this is reinforced with maximum spacing.( section 4.5-
6,EBCS-2,1995,page 43-46)
The maximum spacing S
max
between stirrups, in the longitudinal direction should be

= 800
= d
Shear design sample
Axis D
1
st
&
2nd
floor level
As, actual =1941.5 mm
2
, d=446mm ,b= 250 mm
=As/bd=0.0174
V
C
= 0.25f
ctd
K
1
K
2
b
w
d
K1 =1+50=1.87 k2=1.6-d=1.154
Then Vc=62.1KN
V
RD
=0.25 *fcd *b
w
*d=0.25*11.33*250*446=311.1 KN

Taking the design shear at d distance from the face of the column Vd=112.6KN
S=(d-d)Asv*fyk/(Vd-Vc) = 2*50.3*260.87*(446-43)/(112.6-62.1)=209.7 mm
But Vd< 2/3Vrd as per EBCS 2-1995 Smax= 0.5d=220mm
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Use 8 c/c 200mm.Since the minimum reinforcement &the design result are all most similar
, so use 8 c/c 200mm through out the length
The reimaing shear designs are displayed in the reinforcement detail

Torsional reinforcement
Torsion results from the monolithic character of construction; and any assymetric in the loading of
the floor slab produces torsion to the supporting beams.
Torsion shear stresses create diagonal tension resulting in diagonal crack. Thus, we need to
provide both closed stirrups and longitudinal steel to avoid brittle fracture.
Torsional resistance of concrete
Torsional effect may be disregarded whenever the design torque T
SD
is less than T
C
given by (
section 4.6.4 EBCS-2, 1995,page 48)
T
C
= 1.2f
ctd
A
ef
h
ef
however, minimum reinforcement may be provided in such away that

min
= 0.4 /f
yk
, and the spacing of stirrups shall not exceed U
ef
/8

More ever, at least one longitudinal bar shall be placed at each corner of the closed stirrup with
spacing not exceeding 350mm.
Limiting value of ultimate shear
In order to prevent diagonal compression failure in the concrete the torsional resistance, T
RD
, of a
section shall not be less than the applied torque T
Sd
.
Where T
RD
= 0.8f
cd
A
ef
h
ef
> T
sd
.
Design for torsional reinforcement
When T
sd
>T
c
..high torsional moment. Hence ,both longituidinal bars Asl & closed stirrups A
str

must be provided.
Combined actions
a) Torsion and bending or torsion and axial forces
Simple super position by separately determining area of reinforcements may be applied.
b) Torsion and shear
limiting values for torsion and shear are
T
Rd, com
=
t
T
Rd
and V
Rd,com
=
v
V
Rd
in which
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Further the torsional and shear resistance of the concrete shall be
T
C, com
=
tc
T
C
and V
C,com
=
vc
V
C
in which



(section 4.6.6 EBCS-2,1995,page 49-50.)
AXIS-4 (TORSIOAL DESIG)
Applied shear actions , Tsd=6.01kn.m
Vsd=32.19kn
350 Equivalent hallow section
250 A=250*350=87.5*10
3
mm
2

U=2(250+350)=1200mm
Hef=def/5=(350-43)/5=61.4<A/U=72.92
250
Aef=[350-61.4]8[250-61.4]=54429.96mm
2

Uef={[350-61.4]+[250-61.4]}*2=954.4mm
Check shear capacity
V
C
= 0.25f
ctd
K
1
K
2
b
w
d
=As/bd=[3*201]/[250*307]=0.00689
K
1
=1+50=1.3446
K
2
=1.6-d=1.291
Vc=0.25*1.032*1.291*1.3446*250*309=34.6kn
V
RD
=0.25 *fcd *b
w
*d=218.81kn
Torsion
T
C
= 1.2f
ctd
A
ef
h
ef
=4.14kn.m
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T
RD
= 0.8f
cd
A
ef
h
ef
=30.29kn.m
Using combined action
Factor for combined action
Using the above formula t=0.8033 tc=0.842
v=0.5956 vc=0.540
Combined section capacity
Vc=vc*Vc=0.540*34.6=18.63kn
Vrd,com=Vrd*v=0.5956*218.81=130.41kn
Tc,com=Tc*tc=0.842*4.41=3.48kn.m
Trd,com=Trd*t=0.8033*30.29=24.32kn.m
Check Vsd with VC,com
Vsd=32.19>Vc,com=18.63
It requires shear reinforcement
S=(d-d)Asv*fyk/(Vd-Vc) = [2*50.3*260.87*(309-41)]/[13.56*10
3
] =518.67mm
2/3Vrd=86.94
Smax=0.5d=0.5*309=154.5
Use8c/c 150mm
Tc=3.486kn.m<Tsd=6.01kn.m needs torsional reinforcement
Tef=Tsd-Tc=2.614kn.m
Longitudinal reinforcement

Al= =87.85mm
2

Al/2=43.93mm
2

Top reinforcement=602.1+43.93=646.03mm
2

So use 220
Bottom reinforcement=235.5+43.93=279.43
So use 214
Spacing S= =546.455mm
Smax=0.5d hence use 8c/c 150mm
The same procedure is applied for the reimaing torsional action.








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Sample reinforcement detail



AXIS-4

5.2 Column design
Columns are axially loaded vertical members, which carry their load primarily in compression.
The majority of compression or tension members carry a portion of the load in bending which
may arise due to the unbalanced moments in the members connected to their ends. The result
of such bending moments in axially loaded members into reduces the range of axial force that the
member can carry. For this reason, it is essential to note that the effect of bending in axially
loaded members should be considered in designing these columns.
5.2.1 Design Procedure
1. To design a column in a particular frame first the frame is classified wheather it is sway
or non sway.
2. To determine the nature of the frame we substitute the beams and columns by one
substitute frame
3. The value of the axial force on each substitute frame column is obtained by adding the
axial load each column for the story including self weight.
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4. the values of the stiffness coefficients of the substitute frame is given by
For beams=2*Kbi
For column =Kci
Where: Kbi stiffness coefficient of beam
Where: Kci stiffness coefficient of column
5. The effective length of the substitute frame is computed for each storey assuming as sway
frame as shown below.
The effective length buckling Le of a column in a given plane is obtained from the
following approximate equation provided that certain restriction is complied with.
a) Non sway mode
Le/L= (m+0.4)/ (m+0.8) 0.8
b) Sway mode:
Conservatively:
Le/L= (1+0.8 m) 1.15
Where: m is a stiffness coefficient which will be discussed
Using the following theoretical model.

K
12
K
c
K
11
K
21
K
22
K
c1
K
c2
1 =Kc1+Kc
K11+K12
2 =Kc2+Kc
K21+K22
1 = 1 + 2
2

Kc1 and Kc2 are column stiffness coefficients (EI/l)
Kc is the stiffness coefficient of the column being designed
=1.0 if opposite end elastically or rigidly restrained
= 0.5 if opposite ends are free to rotate
= 0 for cantilever beam
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The above approximate equation for effective length calculation is applicable for values
of 1 and 2 not exceeding 10.
If a base is designed to resist the column moment may be taken as 1.0.

6. the dimension of the substitute column is computed to find the moment of inertia of the
section (Ic)
7. The amount of reinforcement required by the substitute column is computed and the
moment of inertia of the reinforcement with respect to the centroid of the concrete section
is determined.
In lieu of more accurate determination, the first order moment, Mdl, at critical section of the
substitute may be determined using:
Mdl =
2
+3 HL

1
+
2
+6
Where: H= the total horizontal reaction at the bottom of the story.
L= the story shear
8. The buckling load of a story may be assumed to be equal to that of the substitute
Beam-column frame, and may be determined as
Ncr=
2
EIe
Le
2

Where: EIe is the effective stiffness of the substitute column designed
Le is the effective length.
In lieu of more accurate determination, the effective stiffness of a column may be taken as:
EIe= 0.2Ec Ic + Es Is
Where Ec= 1100fcd
Es is the modulus of elasticity of steel
Ic, Is are the moment of inertia of the concrete
and reinforcement sections, respectively
of the substitute column, with respect to
the centroid of the concrete section.
Computation of moment of inertia of reinforced concrete section with respect to the centroid
of the concrete.

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Is = (n ( * r
4
)/4 + * r
2
*d
2
)
Where
n = number of bars
As/2
As/2
S
S
d

Reinforcing the substitute column using the biaxial chart using the following formulas:
= N
sd
* 10
3

A
c
*f
cd

= M
dl
* 10
6

A
c
* f
cd
*S
w = A
s
,
tot
*f
yd

A
c
*f
cd


We have designed five columns for solid and six columns for the pre-cast slab systems.
Substitute column
Determination of substitute column for each axis. Sample substitute frame is shown below.

AXIS -4
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The result of the substitute frames are tabulated as follows
AXIS-
4
LEVE
L 1 2 H L Le Nsd HL Md1 v w
Found 8.92 1.00 301.09 1.50 3.34 1975.36 451.64 113.48 0.04
0.4
4
mi
n
Groun
d 2.9 8.92 224.05 3.80 9.10 1903.78 851.39 569.50 0.20
0.4
3 0.2
1 3.22 2.90 158.88 3.05 5.66 1446.68 484.58 235.89 0.08
0.3
3
mi
n
2 3.22 3.22 98.67 3.05 5.77 999.10 300.94 150.47 0.05
0.2
3
mi
n
3 3.22 3.22 50.43 3.05 5.77 502.31 153.81 76.91 0.03
0.1
1
mi
n
4 4.69 3.22 15.67 3.05 6.23 101.84 47.79 21.37 0.01
0.0
2
mi
n

As Is Ic EIe Ncr
Nsd/Nc
r condition
3135.008 1020 196957002
1.28E+1
0 7.129E+13
63007705.1
8 0.03 non-sway
3403.96 824 226854001
1.28E+1
0 7.727E+13
9210012.38
4 0.21 ''sway''
3135.008 1020 196957002
1.28E+1
0 7.129E+13
21917624.0
2 0.07 non-sway
3135.008 1020 196957002
1.28E+1
0 7.129E+13
21126915.3
7 0.05 non-sway
3135.008 1020 196957002
1.28E+1
0 7.129E+13
21126915.3
7 0.02 non-sway
3135.008 1020 196957002
1.28E+1
0 7.129E+13
18127122.2
9 0.01 non-sway

AXIS-2
LEVEL 1 2 H L Le Nsd HL Md1 v w
Found 11.9 1.00 253.85 1.50 3.73 833.87 380.78 80.42 0.07 0.32 min
Ground 4.02 11.94 197.14 3.80 10.33 778.22 749.13 509.75 0.42 0.30 0.79
1 4.46 4.02 140.73 3.05 6.39 627.80 429.23 208.06 0.17 0.24 0.2
2 4.46 4.46 91.53 3.05 6.52 471.96 279.17 139.58 0.11 0.18 0.1
3 4.46 4.46 51.78 3.05 6.52 315.78 157.93 78.96 0.06 0.12 0.02
4 12.6 4.46 23.18 3.05 8.53 166.29 70.70 22.86 0.02 0.06 min
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5 6.31 12.61 17.49 3.05 8.93 72.19 53.34 33.42 0.03 0.03 min

As Is Ic EIe Ncr Nsd/Ncr condition
1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 17262278.72 0.05 non-sway
7774.04 1032 291981824 4.278E+09 6.906E+13 6385878.969 0.12 ''sway''
1968.111 426 77089269 4.278E+09 2.608E+13 6293839.196 0.10 non-sway
1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 5647044.625 0.08 non-sway
1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 5647044.625 0.06 non-sway
1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 3294931.883 0.05 non-sway
1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 3009827.243 0.02 non-sway

AXIS-3
LEVEL 1 2 H L Le Nsd HL Md1 v w
Found 8.91 1 324.3 1.5 3.34 2061.48 486.41 122.29 0.04 0.46 min
Ground 2.9 8.91 270.6 3.8 9.09 1915.2 1028.2 687.59 0.25 0.43 0.33
1 3.22 2.9 200.7 3.05 5.66 1452.15 612.14 297.99 0.11 0.33 min
2 3.22 3.22 123.1 3.05 5.77 1014.74 375.46 187.73 0.07 0.23 min
3 3.22 3.22 59.96 3.05 5.77 583.79 182.88 91.44 0.03 0.13 min
4 6.26 3.22 12.6 3.05 6.68 155.85 38.43 15.44 0.01 0.04 min
5 7.82 6.26 5.44 3.05 7.85 59.35 16.592 7.65 0.00 0.01 min
As Is Ic EIe Ncr Nsd/Ncr condition
3135.008 1020 196957002 1.28E+10 7.129E+13 63007705.18 0.00 non-sway
5531.435 830 354950030 1.28E+10 1.029E+14 12277159.55 0.00 non-sway
3135.008 1020 196957002 1.28E+10 7.129E+13 21940864.41 0.00 non-sway
3135.008 1020 196957002 1.28E+10 7.129E+13 21112271.86 0.00 non-sway
3135.008 1020 196957002 1.28E+10 7.129E+13 21112271.86 0.00 non-sway
3135.008 1020 196957002 1.28E+10 7.129E+13 15751926.29 0.01 non-sway
3135.008 1020 196957002 1.28E+10 7.129E+13 11406365.47 0.03 non-sway


AXIS-
B
LEVEL 1 2 H L Le Nsd HL Md1 v w
Found 14.9 1 319.3 1.5 4.07 2252.2 478.92 87.63 0.07 0.88 0.08
Ground 4.84 14.86 269 3.8 11.32 2108.1 1022.2 710.34 0.26 0.47 0.35
1 5.37 4.84 209.9 3.05 6.88 1566.1 640.1 309.51 0.25 0.61 0.4
2 5.37 5.374 134.4 3.05 7.02 1032.92 409.8 204.90 0.17 0.40 0.13
3 5.37 5.374 72.69 3.05 7.02 540.28 221.7 110.85 0.09 0.21 0.02
4 7.82 5.374 18.75 3.05 7.64 44.99 57.188 24.95 0.02 0.02 0.03
As Is Ic EIe Ncr Nsd/Ncr condition
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1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 14518736.79 0.00 non-sway
3444.195 824 226854001 1.28E+10 7.727E+13 5945286.218 0.00 non-sway
3936.223 826 154178539 4.278E+09 4.15E+13 8644145.467 0.00 non-sway
1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 4868281.781 0.00 non-sway
1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 4868281.781 0.00 non-sway
1812.608 620 68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13 4110202.46 0.02 non-sway


AXIS-E
LEVEL 1 2 H L Le Nsd HL Md1 v w
Found 4.44 1 473 1.5 2.67 2061.48 709.43 248.05 0.12 0.57 min
Ground 1.45 4.44 368.2 3.8 6.96 1915.2 1399 875.39 0.31 0.43 0.47
1 1.61 1.45 290.6 3.05 4.55 1452.15 886.36 435.35 0.21 0.40 0.23
2 1.61 1.61 195.9 3.05 4.61 1014.74 597.62 298.81 0.15 0.28 0.13
3 1.61 1.61 113.7 3.05 4.61 583.79 346.82 173.41 0.08 0.16 0.04
4 1.33 1.61 44.02 3.05 4.5 155.88 134.26 69.23 0.03 0.04 0.03
5 4.23 1.33 14.49 3.05 5.48 59.35 44.195 16.55 0.01 0.02 min
As Is Ic EIe Ncr Nsd/Ncr condition
2562.848 624 139106542 8.552E+09 4.914E+13 67961309.81 0.00 non-sway
7999.306 1032 504623744 1.28E+10 1.328E+14 27034263.05 0.00 non-sway
3200.122 626 163439197 8.552E+09 5.401E+13 25720151.2 0.00 non-sway
2562.848 624 139106542 8.552E+09 4.914E+13 22797247.4 0.00 non-sway
2562.848 624 139106542 8.552E+09 4.914E+13 22797247.4 0.00 non-sway
2562.848 624 139106542 8.552E+09 4.914E+13 23925401.56 0.01 non-sway
2562.848 624 139106542 8.552E+09 4.914E+13 16133297.64 0.05 non-sway
















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5.2.2Design of isolated columns


For buildings, a design method may be used which assumes the compression members to
be isolated and adopts a simplified shape for the deformed axis of the column.
Total eccentricity
The total eccentricity to be used for the design of columns of constant cross section at the
critical section is given by:
e
tot
= e
e
+e
a
+e
2

Where
e
e
is equivalent constant first-order eccentricity of the design axial load
- for first-order eccentricity e
o
is equal at both ends of a
column e
e
= e
o
for first-order moment varying linearly along the length, the equivalent eccentricity is the
higher of the following two values
e
e
=0.6e
o2
+ 0.4 e
o1

e
e
=0.4 e
o2

e
o1
and e
o2
are first-order eccentricities at the ends e
o2
being
positive and greater in magnitude than e
o1.

e
a
is the additional eccentricity to account for geometric imperfection, introduced by
increasing the eccentricity of the longitudinal force acting in the most unfavorable
direction.
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e
a
= Le/ 300 20mm
Le is the effective length of isolated column.
e
2
is the second order eccentricity
According to EBCS-2, 1995 Art. 4.4.6(2) second order effects in compressive members
need not be taken into account in the following cases
a) for sway frames the greater of
25 ; which ever is maximum
15/
d

d
= N
sd
/A
c
f
cd


b) for non sway frames
50 25 (M
1
/M
2
)
Where
M
1
and M
2
are the 1
st
order (calculated moments at
the ends, M
2
being always positive and greater
than M
1
, and M
1
being positive if member is bent
in single curvature and negative if bent in double curvature.
For sway frames in the absence of rigorous method the amplified sway moments
method can be employed to obtain the sway contribution by multiplying the 1
st
order moment by
magnification factor given by:

s
= 1/(1 Nsd/Ncr) provided; Nsd/Ncr 0.25
Determination of first order moment
col A-3 Mdy
level M1 M2 P eo1 e02 0.6eo2+0.4eo1 0.4eo2 eo M
found -10.62 11.17 1368.42
-
0.0077608 0.00816 0.0017933 0.003265 0.003265 4.468
ground
-
115.16 118.57 1076.01 -0.107025 0.11019 0.0233065 0.044078 0.044078 47.428
first -99.46 111.08 806.45
-
0.1233306 0.13774 0.0333114 0.055096 0.055096 44.432
second -37.56 42.01 557.52
-
0.0673698 0.07535 0.018263 0.030141 0.030141 16.804
third -41.94 44.65 314.86
-
0.1332021 0.14181 0.0318046 0.056724 0.056724 17.86
fourth -16.04 43.3 113.28 -0.141596 0.38224 0.1727048 0.152895 0.172705 19.564
Mdx
found -10.87 17.56 1368.42
-
0.0079435 0.01283 0.004522 0.005133 0.005133 7.024
ground -13.75 15.94 1076.01
-
0.0127787 0.01481 0.0037769 0.005926 0.005926 6.376
first -18.35 21.51 806.45 -0.022754 0.02667 0.0069019 0.010669 0.010669 8.604
second -70.31 91.01 557.52 - 0.16324 0.0474996 0.065296 0.065296 36.404
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0.1261121
third -62.69 80.18 314.86
-
0.1991044 0.25465 0.07315 0.101861 0.101861 32.072
fourth -10.99 35.68 113.28
-
0.0970162 0.31497 0.1501766 0.125989 0.150177 17.012

column
B-3 Mdy
level M1 M2 P eo1 e02 0.6eo2+0.4eo1 0.4eo2 eo M
found 0.42 0.89 2252.23 0.0001865 0.0004 0.0003117 0.000158 0.000312 0.702
ground
-
120.88 131.3 1602.82
-
0.0754171 0.08192 0.018984 0.032767 0.032767 52.52
first -11.14 12.12 1278.28
-
0.0087148 0.00948 0.002203 0.003793 0.003793 4.848
second -2.3 5.93 1032.91
-
0.0022267 0.00574 0.0025539 0.002296 0.002554 2.638
third -1.48 2.82 429.55
-
0.0034455 0.00657 0.0025608 0.002626 0.002626 1.128
fourth -6.08 7.08 44.99
-
0.1351411 0.15737 0.0403645 0.062947 0.062947 2.832
Mdx
found -5.96 9.68 2252.23
-
0.0026463 0.0043 0.0015203 0.001719 0.001719 3.872
ground -24.34 36.7 1602.82
-
0.0151857 0.0229 0.007664 0.009159 0.009159 14.68
first
-
113.43 116.88 1278.28
-
0.0887364 0.09144 0.0193666 0.036574 0.036574 46.752
second -56.35 56.89 1032.91
-
0.0545546 0.05508 0.0112246 0.022031 0.022031 22.756
third -71.73 92.79 429.55
-
0.1669887 0.21602 0.0628146 0.086407 0.086407 37.116
fourth -6.39 44.02 44.99
-
0.1420316 0.97844 0.5302512 0.391376 0.530251 23.856










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column
E-3 Mdy
level M1 M2 P eo1 e02 0.6eo2+0.4eo1 0.4eo2 eo M
found -0.67 4.15 1790.15
-
0.0003743 0.00232 0.0012412 0.000927 0.001241 2.222
ground -0.75 5.18 1633.3
-
0.0004592 0.00317 0.0017192 0.001269 0.001719 2.808
first -36.87 37.55 949.05
-
0.0388494 0.03957 0.0081998 0.015826 0.015826 15.02
second -32.36 33.38 671.98
-
0.0481562 0.04967 0.010542 0.01987 0.01987 13.352
third -30.2 32.22 387.46
-
0.0779435 0.08316 0.0187168 0.033263 0.033263 12.888
fourth -16.38 23.42 90.38
-
0.1812348 0.25913 0.082983 0.103651 0.103651 9.368
H.room -13.77 25.07 28.97
-
0.4753193 0.86538 0.3290991 0.346151 0.346151 10.028
Mdx
found -32.76 97.68 1790.15
-
0.0183001 0.05457 0.0254191 0.021826 0.025419 45.504
ground
-
101.76 119.28 1633.3
-
0.0623033 0.07303 0.0188967 0.029212 0.029212 47.712
first -141.7 147.18 949.05
-
0.1493072 0.15508 0.033326 0.062033 0.062033 58.872
second
-
120.83 129.96 671.98
-
0.1798119 0.1934 0.0441144 0.077359 0.077359 51.984
third
-
100.46 112.08 387.46
-
0.2592784 0.28927 0.0698498 0.115707 0.115707 44.832
fourth -34.9 55.16 90.38
-
0.3861474 0.61031 0.2117283 0.244125 0.244125 22.064
H.room -14.95 29.25 28.97
-
0.5160511 1.00967 0.3993787 0.403866 0.403866 11.7


column
E-2 Mdy
level M1 M2 P eo1 e02 0.6eo2+0.4eo1 0.4eo2 eo M
found 1.28 8.38 833.97 0.0015348 0.01005 0.0066429 0.004019 0.006643 5.54
ground 1.7 4.34 456.7 0.0037224 0.0095 0.0071907 0.003801 0.007191 3.284
first -1.24 1.47 461.38
-
0.0026876 0.00319 0.0008366 0.001274 0.001274 0.588
second -3.93 5.69 401.311
-
0.0097929 0.01418 0.00459 0.005671 0.005671 2.276
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third -9.19 9.78 297.53
-
0.0308876 0.03287 0.0073673 0.013148 0.013148 3.912
fourth -5.13 9.34 157.38
-
0.0325963 0.05935 0.0225696 0.023739 0.023739 3.736
H.room -9.89 17.57 68.19
-
0.1450359 0.25766 0.0965831 0.103065 0.103065 7.028
Mdx
found -62.05 105.98 833.97
-
0.0744032 0.12708 0.0464861 0.050832 0.050832 42.392
ground
-
140.04 144.6 456.7
-
0.3066346 0.31662 0.0673177 0.126648 0.126648 57.84
first
-
122.54 126.93 461.38
-
0.2655945 0.27511 0.0588279 0.110044 0.110044 50.772
second -97.43 104.25 401.311
-
0.2427793 0.25977 0.0587524 0.103909 0.103909 41.7
third -68.94 76.62 297.53
-
0.2317077 0.25752 0.0618291 0.103008 0.103008 30.648
fourth -33.02 33.98 157.38
-
0.2098106 0.21591 0.0456221 0.086364 0.086364 13.592
H.room -24.69 32.2 68.19
-
0.3620766 0.47221 0.1384954 0.188884 0.188884 12.88
column
H-3 Mdy
level M1 M2 P eo1 e02 0.6eo2+0.4eo1 0.4eo2 eo M
found -4.61 19.84 1557.47
-
0.0029599 0.01274 0.0064592 0.005095 0.006459 10.06
ground -1.89 29.48 560.41
-
0.0033725 0.0526 0.0302136 0.021042 0.030214 16.932
first -16.62 22.94 514.99
-
0.0322725 0.04454 0.0138177 0.017818 0.017818 9.176
second 16.68 18.59 434.68 0.0383731 0.04277 0.0410095 0.017107 0.041009
third 9.17 23.29 321.27 0.028543 0.07249 0.0549133 0.028997 0.054913 17.642
fourth -2.9 23.43 240.88
-
0.0120392 0.09727 0.0535453 0.038907 0.053545 12.898
H.room -13.21 16.42 124.59
-
0.1060278 0.13179 0.0366643 0.052717 0.052717 6.568
Mdx
found -15.38 92.96 1557.47 -0.009875 0.05969 0.0318619 0.023875 0.031862 49.624
ground
-
116.33 165.83 560.41
-
0.2075802 0.29591 0.0945129 0.118363 0.118363 66.332
first -68.08 123.76 514.99
-
0.1321967 0.24032 0.0913105 0.096126 0.096126 49.504
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Moment due to imperfection
column E-
2 x-dxn
level Le eacalc 20 ea Nsd Ma
foundation 1.39253 0.004642 0.02 0.02 833.97 16.6794
ground 10.2917 0.034306 0.02 0.0343056 456.7 15.667383
first 2.80135 0.009338 0.02 0.02 461.38 9.2276
second 2.81176 0.009373 0.02 0.02 401.311 8.02622
third 2.81176 0.009373 0.02 0.02 297.53 5.9506
fourth 2.91835 0.009728 0.02 0.02 157.38 3.1476
H.room 2.93109 0.00977 0.02 0.02 68.19 1.3638
y-dxn
level Le eacalc 20 ea Nsd Ma
foundation 1.23737 0.004125 0.02 0.02 833.97 16.6794
ground 5.36735 0.017891 0.02 0.02 456.7 9.134
first 2.22377 0.007413 0.02 0.02 461.38 9.2276
second 2.24308 0.007477 0.02 0.02 401.311 8.02622
third 2.24308 0.007477 0.02 0.02 297.53 5.9506
fourth 2.49388 0.008313 0.02 0.02 157.38 3.1476
H.room 2.74134 0.009138 0.02 0.02 68.19 1.3638

column E-
3 x-dxn 0
level Le eacalc 20 ea Nsd Ma
foundation 1.34109 0.00447 0.02 0.02 1790.15 35.803
ground 3.42767 0.011426 0.02 0.02 1633.3 32.666
first 2.56249 0.008542 0.02 0.02 949.05 18.981
second 2.57922 0.008597 0.02 0.02 671.98 13.4396
third 2.57922 0.008597 0.02 0.02 387.46 7.7492
fourth 2.76646 0.009222 0.02 0.02 90.38 1.8076
H.room 2.88328 0.009611 0.02 0.02 28.97 0.5794
y-dxn
level Le eacalc 20 ea Nsd Ma
second -54 97.89 434.68
-
0.1242293 0.2252 0.0854284 0.09008 0.09008 39.156
third -37.45 74.51 321.27
-
0.1165686 0.23192 0.0925265 0.092769 0.092769 29.804
fourth -12.36 25.33 240.88
-
0.0513119 0.10516 0.0425689 0.042062 0.042569 10.254
H.room -17.28 17.41 124.59 -0.138694 0.13974 0.028365 0.055895 0.055895 6.964
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foundation 1.29167 0.004306 0.02 0.02 1790.15 35.803
ground 3.27488 0.010916 0.02 0.02 1633.3 32.666
first 2.40302 0.00801 0.02 0.02 949.05 18.981
second 2.42191 0.008073 0.02 0.02 671.98 13.4396
third 2.42191 0.008073 0.02 0.02 387.46 7.7492
fourth 2.64814 0.008827 0.02 0.02 90.38 1.8076
H.room 2.78359 0.009279 0.02 0.02 28.97 0.5794


column A-
3 x-dxn
level Le eacalc 20 ea Nsd Ma
foundation 1.38032 0.004601 0.02 0.02 1368.42 27.3684
ground 3.53444 0.011781 0.02 0.02 1076.01 21.5202
first 2.68623 0.008954 0.02 0.02 806.45 16.129
second 2.70014 0.009 0.02 0.02 557.52 11.1504
third 2.70014 0.009 0.02 0.02 314.86 6.2972
fourth 2.75236 0.009175 0.02 0.02 113.28 2.2656
H.room 0 0 0 0
y-dxn 0
level Le eacalc 20 ea Nsd Ma
foundation 1.43125 0.004771 0.02 0.02 1368.42 27.3684
ground 3.65724 0.012191 0.02 0.02 1076.01 21.5202
first 2.84348 0.009478 0.02 0.02 806.45 16.129
second 2.85241 0.009508 0.02 0.02 557.52 11.1504
third 2.85241 0.009508 0.02 0.02 314.86 6.2972
fourth 2.88509 0.009617 0.02 0.02 113.28 2.2656
H.room 0 0 0.02 0.02 0 0

column B-
3 x-dxn 0
level Le eacalc 20 ea Nsd Ma
foundation 1.34109 0.00447 0.02 0.02 2252.23 45.0446
ground 3.42767 0.011426 0.02 0.02 1602.82 32.0564
first 2.56249 0.008542 0.02 0.02 1278.28 25.5656
second 2.57922 0.008597 0.02 0.02 1032.91 20.6582
third 2.57922 0.008597 0.02 0.02 429.55 8.591
fourth 2.64323 0.008811 0.02 0.02 44.99 0.8998
H.room 0 0 0.02 0.02 0 0
y-dxn 0
level Le eacalc 20 ea Nsd Ma
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foundation 1.43125 0.004771 0.02 0.02 2252.23 45.0446
ground 3.65724 0.012191 0.02 0.02 1602.82 32.0564
first 2.84348 0.009478 0.02 0.02 1278.28 25.5656
second 2.85241 0.009508 0.02 0.02 1032.91 20.6582
third 2.85241 0.009508 0.02 0.02 429.55 8.591
fourth 2.88509 0.009617 0.02 0.02 44.99 0.8998


column H-
3
level ea Nsd Ma
foundation 0.02 1557.47 31.1494
ground 0.02 560.41 11.2082
first 0.02 514.99 10.2998
second 0.02 434.68 8.6936
third 0.02 321.27 6.4254
fourth 0.02 240.88 4.8176
H.room 0.02 124.59 2.4918

Design moment
column E-
2
level Mdx Ma Mdxtot Mdy Ma Mdytot
foundation 42.392 16.6794 59.07 5.54 16.6794 22.22
ground 62.2952 9.134 71.43 3.53695 15.667383 19.20
first 50.772 9.2276 60.00 0.588 9.2276 9.82
second 41.7 8.02622 49.73 2.276 8.02622 10.30
third 30.648 5.9506 36.60 3.912 5.9506 9.86
fourth 13.592 3.1476 16.74 3.736 3.1476 6.88
H.room 12.88 1.3638 14.24 7.028 1.3638 8.39

colmnE-3
level Mdx Ma Mdxtot 0 Mdy Ma Mdytot
foundation 45.504 35.803 81.31 2.222 35.803 38.03
ground 47.712 32.666 80.38 2.808 32.666 35.47
first 58.872 18.981 77.85 15.02 18.981 34.00
second 51.984 13.4396 65.42 13.352 13.4396 26.79
third 44.832 7.7492 52.58 12.888 7.7492 20.64
fourth 22.064 1.8076 23.87 9.368 1.8076 11.18
H.room 11.7 0.5794 12.28 10.028 0.5794 10.61

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Column
A-3
level Mdx Ma Mdxtot 0 Mdy Ma Mdytot
foundation 7.024 27.3684 34.39 4.468 27.3684 31.84
ground 6.376 21.5202 27.90 47.428 21.5202 68.95
first 8.604 16.129 24.73 44.432 16.129 60.56
second 36.404 11.1504 47.55 16.804 11.1504 27.95
third 32.072 6.2972 38.37 17.86 6.2972 24.16
fourth 17.012 2.2656 19.28 19.564 2.2656 21.83

colmn B-3
level Mdx Ma Mdxtot 0 Mdy Ma Mdytot
foundation 3.872 45.0446 48.92 0.702 45.0446 45.75
ground 14.68 32.0564 46.74 52.52 32.0564 84.58
first 46.752 25.5656 72.32 4.848 25.5656 30.41
second 22.756 20.6582 43.41 2.638 20.6582 23.30
third 37.116 8.591 45.71 1.128 8.591 9.72
fourth 23.856 0.8998 24.76 2.832 0.8998 3.73




column H-
3
level Mdx Ma Mdxtot 0 Mdy Ma Mdytot
foundation 49.624 31.1494 80.77 10.06 31.1494 41.21
ground 66.332 11.2082 77.54 16.932 11.2082 28.14
first 49.504 10.2998 59.80 9.176 10.2998 19.48
second 39.156 8.6936 47.85 17.826 8.6936 26.52
third 29.804 6.4254 36.23 17.642 6.4254 24.07
fourth 10.254 4.8176 15.07 12.898 4.8176 17.72
H.room 6.964 2.4918 9.46 6.568 2.4918 9.06








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5.2.3 Reinforcement Design
5.2.3.1 solid slab columns
Longitudinal Reinforcement
As min = 0.008Ac
As max = 0.08Ac
Colmn
A-3
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundn 1368.42 34.39 31.84 1.0 0.07 0.07 0.28 1489.704 980 1489.70 816
ground 1076.01 27.90 68.95 0.8 0.06 0.14 0.29 1542.907 980 1542.91 816
first 806.45 24.73 60.56 0.6 0.05 0.12 0.1 532.037 980 980 412&414
second 557.52 47.55 27.95 0.4 0.10 0.06 0.06 319.2222 980 980 412&414
third 314.86 38.37 24.16 0.2 0.08 0.05 0.045 239.4167 980 980 412&414
fourth 113.28 19.28 21.83 0.1 0.06 0.07 0.12 469.0612 720 720 416


colmn
B-3
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundn 2252.23 48.92 45.75 1.2 0.07 0.06 0.46 3196.565 1280 3196.6 824
ground 1602.82 46.74 84.58 0.9 0.06 0.12 0.325 2258.443 1280 2258.4 424&414
first 1278.28 72.32 30.41 0.9 0.15 0.06 0.32 1702.518 980 1702.5
420&
412
second 1032.91 43.41 23.30 0.7 0.09 0.05 0.055 292.6204 980 980 414&412
third 429.55 45.71 9.72 0.4 0.15 0.02 0.12 469.0612 720 720 416
fourth 44.99 24.76 3.73 0.0 0.08 0.01 0.2 781.7687 720 781.77 416




colmn
E-3
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundn 1790.15 81.31 38.03 1.0 0.11 0.05 0.36 2501.66 1280 2501.7 424&812
ground 1633.3 80.38 35.47 0.9 0.11 0.05 0.275 1910.99 1280 1911 420&416
first 949.05 77.85 34.00 0.7 0.16 0.07 0.35 1862.13 980 1862.1 420&414
second 671.98 65.42 26.79 0.5 0.13 0.06 0.115 611.8426 980 980 412&414
third 387.46 52.58 20.64 0.3 0.11 0.04 0.06 319.2222 980 980 412&414
fourth 90.38 23.87 11.18 0.1 0.08 0.04 0.115 449.517 720 720 416
H.room 28.97 12.28 10.61 0.0 0.04 0.03 0.1 390.8843 720 720 416
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5.2.3.2 pre-cast slab columns
Following the same procedure the final out put for the pre-cast slab columns is tabulated below

colum A-3
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundation 1422.5 33.11 36.90 1.0 0.07 0.08 0.3 1596 980 1596.11 816
ground 1141.5 70.57 26.12 0.8 0.15 0.05 0.32 1703 980 1702.52 420+416
first 850.75 61.16 21.39 0.6 0.13 0.04 0.11 585.2 980 980.00 412+414
second 626.26 51.90 17.72 0.5 0.11 0.04 0.02 106.4 980 980.00 412+414
third 340.59 40.05 13.36 0.3 0.13 0.04 0.18 703.6 720 720.00 416
fourth 89.96 13.92 7.08 0.1 0.03 0.01 0.035 136.8 720 720.00 416

column B-
3
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundation 1751.2 83.70 38.10 1.0 0.12 0.05 0.37 2571 1280 2571.15 424+416
ground 1606.5 79.52 36.57 0.9 0.11 0.05 0.27 1876 1280 1876.24 420+414
first 1195.3 68.90 28.16 0.7 0.10 0.04 0.065 451.7 1280 1280.00 416+414
second 797.91 54.77 18.70 0.4 0.08 0.03 0.01 39.09 1280 1280.00 416+414
colmn
E-2
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundn 833.97 59.07 22.22 0.6 0.12 0.05 0.09 478.8333 980 980 412&414
ground 456.7 71.43 19.20 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.16 851.2592 980 980 412&414
first 461.38 60.00 9.82 0.3 0.12 0.02 0.06 319.2222 980 980 412&414
second 401.311 49.73 10.30 0.3 0.10 0.02 0.03 159.6111 980 980 412&414
third 297.53 36.60 9.86 0.3 0.12 0.03 0.07 273.619 720 720 416
fourth 157.38 16.74 6.88 0.2 0.05 0.02 0 0 720 720 416
H.room 68.19 14.24 8.39 0.1 0.05 0.03 0.06 234.5306 720 720 416
colmn
H-3
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundn 1557.47 80.77 41.21 0.9 0.11 0.06 0.28 1945.735 1280 1945.7 420&416
ground 560.41 77.54 28.14 0.4 0.16 0.06 0.23 1223.685 980 1223.7 420
first 514.99 59.80 19.48 0.4 0.12 0.04 0.05 266.0185 980 980 420
second 434.68 47.85 26.52 0.4 0.16 0.09 0.3 1172.653 720 1172.7 420
third 321.27 36.23 24.07 0.3 0.12 0.08 0.13 508.1497 720 720 416
fourth 240.88 15.07 17.72 0.2 0.05 0.06 0 0 720 720 416
H.room 124.59 9.46 9.06 0.1 0.03 0.03 0.04 156.3537 720 720 416
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third 413 45.04 9.70 0.4 0.15 0.03 0.13 508.1 720 720.00 416
fourth 48.43 20.25 1.66 0.0 0.07 0.01 0.18 703.6 720 720.00 416

column E-
3
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundation 1526 75.72 33.08 0.8 0.10 0.05 0.16 1112 1280 1280.00 416+414
ground 968.71 83.51 25.31 0.5 0.12 0.03 0.045 175.9 1280 1280.00 416+414
first 751.83 81.73 23.87 0.4 0.11 0.03 0 0 1280 1280.00 416+414
second 545.71 69.51 19.15 0.3 0.10 0.03 0.035 136.8 1280 1280.00 416+414
third 331.26 59.24 13.59 0.3 0.19 0.04 0.315 1231 720 1231.29 416+412
fourth 96.61 28.24 7.54 0.1 0.09 0.02 0.14 547.2 720 720.00 416
H.room 30.85 11.95 11.54 0.0 0.04 0.04 0.11 430 720 720.00 416

column E-
2
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundation 334.26 50.00 12.67 0.2 0.10 0.03 0.08 425.6 980 980.00 414+412
ground 413.92 71.97 17.44 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.19 1011 980 1010.87 414+412
first 428.13 60.28 10.68 0.3 0.12 0.02 0.075 399 980 980.00 414+412
second 377.7 49.76 8.38 0.4 0.16 0.03 0.17 664.5 720 720.00 416
third 283.8 36.44 7.40 0.3 0.12 0.02 0.075 293.2 720 720.00 416
fourth 154.59 15.53 5.71 0.2 0.05 0.02 0 0 720 720.00 416
H.room 66.65 13.81 8.08 0.1 0.05 0.03 0.06 234.5 720 720.00 416






columnH-3
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundation 1521.23 80.19 40.40 0.8 0.11 0.06 0.2 1390 1280 1389.81 416+414
ground 1437.09 94.95 46.87 0.8 0.13 0.06 0.27 1876 1280 1876.24 420+414
first 471.89 64.01 11.33 0.5 0.21 0.04 0.375 1466 720 1465.82 416+414
second 448.71 61.02 17.51 0.4 0.20 0.06 0.36 1407 720 1407.18 416+414
third 321.21 53.96 22.38 0.3 0.18 0.07 0.345 1349 720 1348.55 416+414
fourth 146.81 15.39 10.26 0.1 0.05 0.03 0.06 234.5 720 720.00 416
H.room 63.26 14.99 25.21 0.1 0.05 0.08 0.13 508.1 720 720.00 416



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column E-
1
level Nsd Mdx Mdy h b As Asmin Asprvd
foundation 237.74 51.4 6.267 0.2 0.17 0.02 0.26 1016 720 1016.30 414+412
ground 239.7 51.31 12.35 0.2 0.17 0.04 0.3 1173 720 1172.65 416+412
first 208.25 27.51 9.225 0.2 0.09 0.03 0.05 195.4 720 720.00 416
second 161.85 9.725 27.44 0.2 0.03 0.09 0.05 195.4 720 720.00 416
third 103.27 8.393 18.76 0.1 0.03 0.06 0.075 293.2 720 720.00 416
fourth 28.77 4.683 6.647 0.0 0.02 0.02 0.05 195.4 720 720.00 416































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6. Foundation design













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6.1 Footing Design
A) Interior column footing design (column at (b3))
Y
a b
Using comb-1
My
Given
L
Mx = 5.96 kN.m L Mx X
My =-0.42 kN.m
-Pd =2252.23 kN
Assume L = B c d


And an allowable bearing capacity for the soil as
all =560 KPa C-25 and S-300

Proportioning
Using unfactored load; Pd = 73 . 1608
4 . 1
23 . 2252
=
m
P
M
e
m
P
M
e
d
x
y
d
y
x
00026 . 0
73 . 1608
96 . 5
0037 . 0
73 . 1608
42 . 0
= = =
=

= =
0.89m 1.5m
Since a surface footing, B = L 0.61m

)
0037 . 0
* 6
00026 . 0
* 6 1 ( *
73 . 1608
560
) * 6 * 6 1 ( *
2
B B B
B
e
B
e
A
p
y
x d
all
=
=


Solving the equation by trial and error, we get B =1.7m
We use B = L = 1.7m
47 . 562 ) 00094 . 0 013 . 0 1 ( *
7 . 1
73 . 1608
2
= + + = a
ult
kn/m
2

42 . 561 ) 00094 . 0 013 . 0 1 ( *
7 . 1
73 . 1608
2
= + = b
ult
kn/m
2
) 00094 . 0 013 . 0 1 ( *
7 . 1
73 . 1608
2
+ = c
ult
=548.00 kn/m
2

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) 00094 . 0 013 . 0 1 ( *
7 . 1
73 . 1608
2
= d
ult
=546.96 kn/m
2




562.47 561.43




1.7m


1.7m



548
546.96




ult
avg = 554.7 Kpa

I . Punching shear
According to EBCS-2, 1995 article 4.7.6 the resistance of footing without punching shear
reinforcement is give by:
Vrd = 0.25 * fctd * k1 * k2 * u * d
Where: K1 = 1+50 2.0
K2 = 1.6 d 1.0 (d in meter)
Assume = 0.002, k1 = 1.0 + 50 * 0.002 = 1.1 0.4+d L
U = 4* ( 0.4 + d) = 1.6 + 4d
Vrd = 0.25*1043*1.1*1.0*(1.6 + 4*d)*d B
Vacating = (1.7*1.7 (0.4 + d)
2
)*554.7 0 .4+d
Then Vrd > Vacting (for safe condition) B
Hence solving for d d 0.545
Therefore , D = 549 + 50 + 10 =605mm
So use over all depth of 610mm

II.wide beam shear

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According to EBCS-2, 1995, article 4.5.3, the shear force Vc carried by the concrete is given by :
Vc = 0.3*fctd*k1*k2*bw*d
Using 50mm clear cover and 16 longitudinal reinforcement bar
d= 610 50 8 = 560 mm
Vc = 0.3*1043*1.1*1*1.7*0.552 =327.6 kN
Vacting = (B/2 - B/2 - d)*qu*B
= 0.09 *561.42*1.7=85.89kN
Since Vc > Vacting ..... the section is safe !!
So punching governs and the overall depth is found to be 610 mm
III.Reinforcement
M = 364.18*1*1.05*1.05/2 = 200.75 kN.m
Using table No.1
For design

d
b
M
K
m
= = 19.46
Ks = 3.96 As = Ks *
d
M
= 3.96*
2
22 . 2428
56 . 0
99 . 201
mm =
Amin = min * b*d = .002*1700*560 = 1904
2
mm

s
s
A
b a
s
*
= taking 16 mm s 140
22 . 2428
1700 * 201
= =
Take
16
c/c 140 mm (both direction)
No of reinforcement = 12
140
) 100 1700
( 1 =

+
Hence provide 12 16 c/c 140 mm
Similarly the remaining footing and the precast slab footing is done as that of the above
procedure. The result is found in the auto cad detail for both cases.












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6.2 Mat foundation design
The purpose of designing this mat foundation is due to irregularity of our building and
occurrence of small amount of tension at the edge columns. For a building of G+4 with bearing
capacity of 560 it is not recommended to use mat foundation but we do it to be safer. And also it
is recommended to use cantilever structures to balance the tension by discussing with the
architect. since we dont have this chance we opted to design mat foundation to the local areas in
which tension was developed.
The design procedure for the precast floor system is presented as follows and for the solid case
the results are found in the reinforcement detail and are also tabulated in table.

E G F G
0.5 1


1.3


2

2.7




0.5 m
3
1.5

0.5m 3.54m 0.48m 0.98m 0.53


Case 1 when E-1& F-1 are in tension
Column P Factored p mx My
E-1 -143.77 -102.7 -95.52 3.15
F-1 -279.59 -199.71 -93.38 -10.64
E-2 803.13 573.7 -108.53 5.47
G-2 599.8 428.43 -99.51 -12.49
E-3 1525.96 1089.97 -99.8 2.91
H-3 1521.23 1086.6 -94.01 -4.65

R=-102.7-199.71+573.7+428.43+1086.6+1089.97=2876.3 KN
Taking moment about axis E
-
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ex =3.15-10.64+5.47-12.49+2.91-4.65-199.71*3.54+428.43*4.02+1086.6*5
2876.3
=2.24
ex=0.5+2.24= 2.74m
similarly taking moment about axis 3
ey=1.81m
centroid of the area is found to be
x= 2.797 m y=2.82m
Eccentricities
Ex= x-ex= 2.797-2.74 =0.057m
Ey =2.82-1.81= 1.01m
Then M
x
= R*ey= 2876.3*1.01=2905.1 KN-m
My =R*ex= 2876.3*0.057= 164.01KN-m
Second moment of inertia of the area
Ix= 130.76 m
4
Iy=52.76 m
4

d= =105.6 3.142x 22.22y

B C


A
A


A D

da=105.6 +3.142*2.797+ 22.22*2.82 =177.05 KN/m
2

db= 105.6+3.142*2.797-22.22*3.18 =43.73 KN/ m
2

dc= 105.6-3.142*1.743-22.22*3.18 =29.5 KN/ m
2

dd= 105.6-3.142*3.733+22.22*2.82 =156.53 KN/ m
2

Case 2 When E-1&F-1 are in compression
The same procedure is followed to calculate eccentricities & moment
Column P Factored p mx My
E-1 1064.74 760.53 93.85 -5.91
F-1 1087.33 776.7 91.5 3.55
E-2 803.13 573.7 -108.53 5.47
G-2 857.76 612.7 -5.87 -86.22
E-3 1525.96 1089.97 -99.8 2.91
H-3 1521.23 1086.6 -94.01 -4.65
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d=

co-ordinates
B G C F (-2.797,2.03) ,J (-0.527,-2.83)
F H E (-2.797,0.03)
H (2.16,2.03)
E I I (2.449,0.03)
J G (-0.527,3.18)


A D

ey=0.56m Mx=Rey=2744.11KN.m
ex=0.137 m My=Rex=671.33KN.m
p/A=179.9KN/m
2

Mx/Ix=20.99KN/m
2

My/Ix=12.86KN/m
2

d
A=
179.9+12.86*2.797-20.99*2.82=156 KN/m
2

d
B=
179.9+12.86*2.797+20.99*3.18=282.62 KN/m
2

d
C=
179.9-12.86*1.743+20.99*3.18=224.23 KN/m
2

d
D=
179.9-12.86*3.73-20.99*2.82=72.7 KN/m
2

d
F=
179.9+12.86*2.797+20.99*2.03=258.48 KN/m
2

d
E=
179.9+12.86*2.797+20.99*0.03=216.5 KN/m
2

d
H=
179.9-12.86*2.16+20.99*2.03=194.73 KN/m
2
d
I=
179.9-12.86*2.449+20.99*0.33=194.04 KN/m
2


d
G=
179.9+12.86*0.527+20.99*3.18=253.43 KN/m
2

d
C=
179.9+12.86*0.527-20.99*2.82=127.5 KN/m
2

Since the stress in case 2 greater than that of case 1 so the mat is designed for the compression
case

X-direction
Strip 1
Pu=760.53+776.7=1537.23 KN
A=5.46m
2
Q
avg
=240.015 KN/m
2

Q=240.015 KN/m
2
*5.46m
2
=1310.48 KN
Average load =1310.48 KN+1537.23KN/2=1423.86 KN
Modified soil rxn =Q*( )
STRIP 2
STRIP 3

STRIP 1
S
T
R
I
P

5

S
T
R
I
P

4

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= 240.02KN/m
2
*[ ]= 260.79 KN/m
2

Load correction factor = =1423.86/1537.23= 0.93
Corrected load for
E-1,p= 707.3 KN F-1,P=722.33KN
The same procedure is followed for the next strips and the results are tabulated as follows.
Strip pu Average soil
rxn
Average
load
Modified soil
rxn
Load correction
factor
2 1186.4 204.7 1637.41 160.5 1.38
3 2176.57 148.73 2336.11 139.22 1.07
4 2424.2 205.1 2608.85 191.54 1.08
5 2476 169.5 2897.9 147.96 1.17
.B. strip 4&5 are spanning in the y- direction
Analysis of individual strips
SAP result for the solid case is presented for sample
STRIP 1


SFD

BMD
Strip 2
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SFD

STRIP 3
Depth determination (precast case)
Case 1 when one of the edge has no resistance
Punching check for the column E-3 which is located at the edge with maximum axial load


Vac=p-d(0.4+d)(0.7+0.5d)
0.4+d =1166.3-139.22(0.4+d)(0.7+0.5d)
=1127.32-125.3d-69.61d
2

0.4m Vres=0.5 f
ctd
(1+50)*(1.8+d)d
=1021.68d+1135.2 *d
2

0.5 0.2+0.5d equating v
act
v
res

0.7+0.5d then d = 0.602m

0.7+d
0.5 0.2+d

For strip 4 case d=191.54KN/m
2

Vact=1166.3-191.54(0.4+d)*(0.7+0.5d)
Vact= 112.67-172.4d-95.77d
2

Vres ==1021.68d+1135.2 *d
2
Equating v
act
v
res
then d= 0.6m

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Case when the edge has resistance



0.4+d

0.4+d
Check for the wide beam shear
Maximum wide beam shear =306 KN for strip -1
Vres = 0.3fctd (1+50) bw *d
=0.3*1.043*10^3*1.1*1.15*0.788=312 KN
Vres < vact ok
So use 0ver all depth of 850mm
d=850-50-12=78
Reinforcement design
moment b d km ks As spacing s.provided
Strip-1
364.06 1.15 0.788 22.58 3.974 1835.70 196.71 20c/c190
65.72 1.15 0.788 9.59 min 1812.4 199.24
Strip-2
255.71 2.00 0.788 14.35 min 3152 199.24 20c/c190
113.22 2.00 0.788 9.55 min 3152 199.24 20c/c190
Strip-3 Strip-3
417.34 2.85 0.788 15.36 min 4491.6 199.24 20c/c190
20.31 2.85 0.788 3.39 min 4491.6 199.24 20c/c190
Strip-4
215.48 2.27 0.788 12.36 min 3577.52 199.24 20c/c190
51.95 2.27 0.788 9.585 min 3577.52 199.24 20c/c190
129.49 2.27 0.788 9.585 min 3577.52 199.24 20c/c190
75.58 2.27 0.788 7.323 min 3577.52 199.24 20c/c190
Strip-5
166.46 3.265 0.788 9.06 min 5145.64 199.24 20c/c190
71.22 3.265 0.788 5.93 min 5145.64 199.24 20c/c190
89.81 3.265 0.788 6.66 min 5145.64 199.24 20c/c190
70.72 3.265 0.788 4.91 min 5145.64 199.24 20c/c190
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Reinforcement design for solid case
moment b d Km Ks As spacing s.provided
Strip-1
436.78 1.15 0.788 24.73 3.988 2210.62 163 20c/c160
79.06 1.15 0.788 10.52 Min 1812.4 199.24 20c/c190
Strip-2
596.5 2.00 0.788 21.92 3.9695 3004.302 209 20c/c190
142.75 2.00 .788 8.02 Min 3152 199.24 20c/c190
Strip-3
1296.38 2.85 0.788 27.066 4.0158 6606.64 135.45 20c/c130
113.62 2.85 0.788 8.01 Min 4491.6 199.24 20c/c190
Strip-4
590.95 2.27 0.788 20.48 3.96 2969.65 240 20c/c190
91.57 2.27 0.788 8.66 Min 3577.52 199.24 20c/c190
96.62 2.27 0.788 8.28 Min 3577.52 199.24 20c/c190
Strip-5
494.10 3.265 0.788 15.61 Min 5145.64 199.24 20c/c190
169.26 3.265 0.788 9.17 Min 5145.64 199.24 20c/c190

The reinforcement detail is attached with AutoCAD


















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7. Cost estimation

Solid slab




A-SUB STRUCTURE

1. COCRETE WORK
1.10 Reinforced concrete quality C-25, 360
kg of cement/m3, filled into formwork
and vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork and reinforcement
measured separately)
a) Footing , Grade beam &footing
columen m
2
53.74 1300.00 69,856.80
1.20 Provide, cut and fix in position sawn
zigba wood or steel formwork which
ever appropriate.
a) Footing , Grade beam &footing
columen m
2
384.26 75.00 28,819.50
1.30 Mild steel reinforcement according to
structural drawings. Price includes
cutting, bending, placing in position
and tying wire and required spacers.

a) 8-24 mm deformed bar kg 110.20 26.00 2,865.20

b) 6 mm plain bar kg 812.44 25.00 20,311.05


TOTAL CARRIED TO
SUMMARY .................... 121,852.55



B-SUPER STRUCTURE

1. COCRETE WORK
1.10 Reinforced concrete quality C-25, 360
kg of cement/m3, filled into formwork
and vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork and reinforcement
measured separately)

a) floor slabs m
3
121.97 1250.00 152,462.50

b) beams . m
3
62.19 1250.00 77,742.75
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c) columns . m
3
26.61 1250.00 33,262.50
1.20 Provide, cut and fix in position sawn
zigba wood or steel formwork which
ever appropriate.
a) Elevation column, beams & floor
slabs m
2
1250.40 70.00 87,528.00
1.30 Mild steel reinforcement according to
structural drawings. Price includes
cutting, bending, placing in position
and tying wire and required spacers.

a) 8-24 mm deformed bar kg 28873.64 25.00 721,841.00

b) 6 mm plain bar kg 357.56 26.00 9,296.56

TOTAL CARRIED TO
SUMMARY .................... 1,082,133.31

Grand total of solid
1,203,989.96

pre-cast ribbed slab


A. super structure


1. COCRETE WORK
1.10 Reinforced concrete quality C-25, 360
kg of cement/m3, filled into formwork
and vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork and reinforcement
measured separately)

a) floor slabs

a1)solid part m3 17.51 1250.00 21,891.25

a2)cast in situ m3 51.36 1250.00 64,193.75

a3)beam element m3 7.76 1250.00 9,700.75

b) beams . m
3
76.17 1250.00 95,212.50

c) columns . m
3
26.29 1250.00 32,862.50
1.20 Class C 200mm thick HCB wall
which can satisfy the designed
strength , bedded in cement mortar
(1:3).Price shall include mortar bed. pcs 4992.00 9.60 47,923.20
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1.30 Provide, cut and fix in position sawn
zigba wood or steel formwork which
ever appropriate.
a) Elevation column, beams & floor
slabs m
2
681.86 70.00 47,730.20
1.40 Mild steel reinforcement according to
structural drawings. Price includes
cutting, bending, placing in position
and tying wire and required spacers.

a) 8-24 mm deformed bar kg 26465.95 25.00 661,648.75

b) 6 mm plain bar kg 1429.20 26.00 37,159.20

TOTAL CARRIED TO SUMMARY 1,018,322.10

B.sub structure

1. COCRETE WORK
1.10 Reinforced concrete quality C-25, 360
kg of cement/m3, filled into formwork
and vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork and reinforcement
measured separately)
a) Footing , Grade beam &footing
columen m
2
52.78 1300.00 68,608.02
1.20 Provide, cut and fix in position sawn
zigba wood or steel formwork which
ever appropriate.
a) Footing , Grade beam &footing
columen m
2
338.65 75.00 25,398.75
1.30 Mild steel reinforcement according to
structural drawings. Price includes
cutting, bending, placing in position
and tying wire and required spacers.

a) 8-24 mm deformed bar kg 800.69 25.00 20,017.25

b) 6 mm plain bar kg 110.70 26.00 2,878.20

TOTAL CARRIED TO SUMMARY 116,902.22

Grand total of pre-cast 1,135,224.32


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Conclusion and recommendation
Conclusion
The main aim of the project is to compare the total cost variation of pre-cast and solid slab
systems. To attain this we have done a detail analysis and design for each case. And finally we
have come out with the total cost of each system as shown below.
Total cost(birr)
pre-cast solid difference
concrete
work 340,391.97 333,333.95 -7,058.02

reinforcement 721,703.40 754,308.51 32,605.11
form-work 73128.95 116347.5 43,218.55
total 1,135,224.32 1,203,989.96 68,765.64

Total difference = (1,203,989.96-1,135,224.32)*100/(1,203,989.96)=5.7115%
As the above data shows the pre-cast slab type is less-costier than that of solid floor type. And
also it is clear that the major difference is caused by the cost of form-work and reinforcement
instead of concrete cost.
Generally using pre-cast slabs is advantageous by minimizing the construction time, work man-
ship, construction equipment and attaining quality of materials.
Recommendation
The overall works of the building should be inspected and supervised throughout the
entire construction time in order to achieve the design strength.
Care should be taken when handling, casting and placing the precast beam element.
Especially the support condition on construction time must be the same as that of
previously determined arrangement on the design part.
And also it is better to remove application of concentrated force for the precast floor
system, which can cause falling out of the hallow block concrete.
The quality of materials should fulfill the design strength.







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References
Ethiopian Building Code Standard 1, 2, 3, 7, & 8 1995.
Gtz technical manual
Kality steel industry manual of cold framed welded structural & furniture steel tubing