MICA R&D Project

Human-Machine Interaction
/ Interazione Uomo-Machina/ ?

by Adam Maria Gadomski
E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it URL: http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/ ENEA, C.R.Casaccia

18 November 1999

On the rights of the web white paper (Intell.Prop.) - © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999.

MICA Project
Human-Machine Interaction from the Systemic and Cognitive Perspective
Contribution to the MICA 2.8.3.3 Task D: Realization of an Integrated Modeling Environment for the Hardware/Software/Human Components of Plant Control Room Systems : Study on a Meta-Modeling Frameworks. http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/

Presentation outline


  

Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions

Conclusions

"Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.” [Albert Einstein]
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it

casaccia.html © ENEA.it/Mika-saf.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Preface This my activity have been focused on a preliminary study of the human mental errors of industrial operators involved in the control and supervisory of high-risk complex technological systems.M.enea. Methodology     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Heuristic application of the TOGA (Top-down Object-based Goaloriented Approach) methodology to the problem identification.it/]. Application of the IPK conceptual framework to the cognitive operator modelling [http://erg4146. It deals with the identification of human mental errors and possibilities of their mitigation through an application of intelligent computer decision support systems. Dec.it .enea.97. Conclusions Results An indication and the preliminary analysis of mental functins and tasks which could be supported or executed by IDSSs (Intelligent Computer Decision Support Systems).enea. http://erg4146.Gadomski. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. A.casaccia. 1999.

1999.M. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.Gadomski.     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions The problem is dedected from the perspectives of : . A. and especially.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Problem Recognition Human-Machine Interaction is a continuously growing domain of interest of researchers and practictioners.economy and sostenibility .safety and reliability of human component in human-machine aggregates.enea.it .efficacy and quality of the production Conclusions . It is a consequence of ever more and more complex technologies and systems controlled and managed by humans. © ENEA. .

A.AltaVista: 2868 doc. ) is also distributed among such domains as: Man-Machine Interface . 39 .AV.M.AV. 985 .     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Human-Computer Interface .Gadomski.AltaVista: 1906 doc. 3015 © ENEA. 734 Human-Computer Cooperation Cognitive Technology Cognitive Engineering . 1999. Stanford: 524 MIT: 897 Human-Computer Communication -AV.enea.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Problem Recognition The research in the field of Human-Machine Interaction (AltaVista: 50 017doc.it . Lycos: 8201doc.AV. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.

...enea. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.. 1999.it .M.htm .is a “Human ignorance is a source of defeates and. classical example of the consequences of a badly designed user interface [Excerpt from the official report to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident] New systemic perspective:” a joint human machine system is performing the task” [E.Gadomski. A.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Problem Recognition Classical engineering paradign:     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions To addopt humans to machine failured in the case of high-risk systems and complex tasks.Hollnagel at al. http://www. 94].erlbaum.com/260. human power” © ENEA.

More difficult is to specify what should be implemented than how to do it.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Problem Recognition Poorly designed user interface causes economical loss: . Badly designed user interface causes catastrofic human errors trough: -> confusion.M. A. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. Alberta Univ.rare using. 1999.Joerg. misleading presentation of information. We need appropriate goal-oriented models Goal: make communication smoothest possible to interfere least possible with thought process.it     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions . -> cause of dangerous actions.rejection . -> misinterpretation.Gadomski. . [W.95] © ENEA.enea.

HCI. [KMC. http://pcd. 1999.96.stanford.in being appropriate and effective for people who live in the world that the software creates.Gadomski.enea.edu/~winograd/bds/introduction.Swanstrom.1997] © ENEA. E.stanford.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Problem Recognition      "The goal is to create software that works --really works --.” [Terry Winograd. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.edu/] and yet: http://hci.M.it . A.html Problem Recognition State of the Art Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions Human-Machine Interaction should be modeled from the human and systemic perspective but not invented by software specialists.

enea. A.M. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.Machine Interactions     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Software + Hardware Systems Conclusions Software Technologies & Engineering Platform © ENEA.it .Gadomski.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Problem Identification approches Sistemic Approach Cognitivistic Approach Human . 1999.

Reliability and Safety can be seen as a two complex properties of HMI and characterized by integrated generalized indicators: Reliability Indicator .R     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Safety Indicator .it . 1999.enea.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Systemic Perspective on Reliability and Safety of Human-Machine Interactions (HMI) HMI can be seen as a process.Sf The carrier of the HMI process is the coupled system: Human-Machine. © ENEA. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.M. A.Gadomski.

it . 1999.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Problem Identification     Modeling Technological Perspective Systemic Perspective Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions Cognitivistic Perspective Design Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Technological Perspective Soft-Tools develop. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.Gadomski.enea.M. A. © ENEA.

99] H .Gadomski.Human Organization CSS .Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Top-down identification H Systemic Perspective Systemic Perspective Cognitivistic Perspective Technological Perspective HO and decomposition rules ENV CSS     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Elementary heterogenious unit in the modern systemic approach [Gad.enea.Environment © ENEA.Computer Support Systems (Web) AD . A.M.Human.it . 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.Domain of Activity AD ENV . HO .

Gadomski. Activities and their attributes [Heuristic Appication of SPG. 1980) MICA Project Given: Objectives. (Maturana & Varela.Gadomski.Human-Machine Interaction Systemic Perspective Everything said is said by an observer'.M.99] Search expressions (models) of the type: indicators (attributes) Search attributes which min or max of indicators     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Modification/design of Processes and Systems according to selected attributes Software engineer © ENEA. 1999. Functions and their indicators  Identification of Systems involved  Identification of Processes.enea. A.since 86. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.it .

M.Gadomski. A.it .enea. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Systemic Perspective Key Factor: RISK Risk Analysis  Risk Sources  Human Errors Application Domains: # HOME WORKS # PUBLIC SERVICIES # ADMINISTRATION # CULTURE # INDUSTRY # HEALTH High Risk Domains     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible Solutions Conclusions # MILITARY # INSTRUCTION & SCIENCE ? © ENEA. 1999.

E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Systemic Perspective Causes of Human Errors Physical environment Organization Machine (controlled system/proc esses)     Control and Measurement System MIND Computer Console Human operator Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Hardware & Software Psycho-social environment © ENEA. A.M.it .Gadomski.enea. 1999.

Univ. A.Slomans .Olivetti-Belardinelli Mental Architectures.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Bases of the Cognitivistic Perspective "the study of intelligence and intelligent systems. 1989 John Locke's (1690). M.N. Distributed Cognition and Human Computer Interaction Laboratory..enea.Emotional Agents.83.uwa. A. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. A. the first chair of the UCSD Department of Cognitive Science.May 99. Essay Concerning Human Understanding and the nature of human consciousness -First model.Gadomski.M. originated the Cognitive Engineering course. http://iris. Kaplan. A. H. of California.. Professor Norman.it .html P. 1999. & C.cogsci.edu.     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions “Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary approach to the study of the human mind. with particular reference to intelligent behaviour as computation" (Simon. in Posner. "Foundations of cognitive science". M.” Kalish.I.Johnson-Lard-Mental Models.98. © ENEA.au/cogsci.T.

M. HCI has progressively integrated scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computers. Over the past two decades. gestures and sketching). HCI researchers analyze and design interaction technologies (e. established a body of technical knowledge and methodology.g.enea. on the other. on the one hand.ucsd. cognitive ethnography).Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Cognitive Engineering Perspective the principles of cognitive engineering refers to: user-centered design ( its practices have wide applicability) and human-computer interaction in particular. It is base on cognitive models. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. usability evaluation. and contributed broadly to the development of new computer technologies and applications.. © ENEA. A.g.. They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.Gadomski.     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions http://hci. 1999.html See also: MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. displays and pointing devices.edu/132/nsyllabus. Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the intersection between the social and cognitive sciences. and computer science and technology. software toolkits.it .

Nanni (87).Riso National Lab. The First International Conference on Cognitive Technology (Hong Kong. A. Andeson . especially on the human mind. Ph. 1975.it . Pulitzer Prize.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Cognitive Technology Perspective Douglas Hofstadter is College Professor of cognitive science and computer science.ENEA . Our main aim at that time was a consideration of these effects with respect to rendering the interface between people and computers more humane.Hollnagel . Balducelli (93). Cognitive technologies in Europe:     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions . DiCostanzo . .enea. University of Oregon. © ENEA.Gadomski. 1995) stressed the need for a radically new way of thinking about the impact computer technology has on humans. in physics.Halden Project (from about 18 years) -Gadomski (since 86).M.D.Rasmunssen. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. 1999. director of the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition.

1999.Gadomski.it .Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project General Cognitivistic Perspective Systemic + Psychology + Physics Mindware applied to the identification of mental processes of humans and living systems Development of the Universal Theory of Cognition Applied to living systems Applied to autonomous H/Software systems     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions Applied to Human-Machine Interaction Software Engineering Platform © ENEA. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.M. A.

M.Human-Machine Interaction “The web is constructed for the communication between humans not computers” MICA Project Cognitivistic Perspective Risk  Human Errors  Human Models Levels of a Human Functional Model:  Sensorial & Manipulation  Perception      Reasoning Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions  Decision-Making  Communication Cognitive Modeling © ENEA. 1999.Gadomski.enea.it . E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. A.

Event-driven .it . E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. A.post-accident improvement .Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Possible Solutions Existing Strategies for improving of HMI . based on available know-how . improv. 1999.M.Command-driven .enea.Means-driven .     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions © ENEA.improving what is requested .research based eng.Gadomski.Goal-driven (Model-driven) .improv.

it .Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Possible Solutions Searching Assumptions: 1.Gadomski. 1999. Every human interaction with complex machine is through computer then a Human-Computer Cooperation is needed. Every human interaction with complex machine is decomposable on decision-making mental events.enea. A. Mental processes     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions ? . Machine + Computer processes © ENEA.. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia..M. 2.

. Machine + Computer processes Computer substitutes or supports goal-dependent tasks of human user/operator.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Possible Solutions Mental processes ? ..M. A..it Critical points (recognizable events) which need to be identified by the cognitive modeling.Gadomski.enea.     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions © ENEA. 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.

idea ? We need intelligent agents. ESPECIALLY FOR NOT ROUTINE. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. we need to shift mental functions from human to computer.     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions © ENEA. A. MULTI-DATA TASKS UNDER TIME CONSTRAINS.it .enea.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Possible Solutions Solution: In order to increase human reliability and safety in high-risk complex human-machine systems.Gadomski. to construct computer Is it my ever more intelligent. 1999.M.

[TOGA. user model -. Intelligent .Gadomski]. A.M.     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions © ENEA.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Possible Solutions: an Abstract Intelligent Agent.enea. 1999. AIA Two roles of AIA: 1.an agent with capability to the modification of own preferences.Modeling of emotions.Gadomski.it Emotional agent .cognitive intelligent agent 2. emotional behaviour [Web] . kernel of a computer intelligent assisstant. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. capability of learning and meta-reasoning.

it preferences and information acquisition in HumanMachine Interactions [Gadomski at al.. .98. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.Ericsson.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Possible Solutions: Project 1.Simon] applied to the IPK cognitive architecture [A.99] and SPG conceptualization [Gadomski.Gadomski. A. 1999.M.A.enea.90.M.99] to the goal-oriented knowledge ordering in meta-system engineering applied to the analysis of HMI attributes. H. Recognized utility of the TOGA meta-theory [Gadomski.     Problem Recognition Problem Identification Possible solutions Conclusions © ENEA.A.Gadomski.86.99]. 3. Results 2.99]. Formal conceptual separation of knowledge. Recognized plausibility of the identification of human mental states by the Protocol Analysis [K. has been applied to the IDA-MICA Project.

The obtained resualts are also the base for the proposal of a research project for the FET * Open (5th Program EU) with Univ.M. in frame of The ECONA’s Meeting on “ Research Activities on Cognitive Modeling.99 [Web](Bora per Tesi di L.M.enea.Gadomski.) A.Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project Conclusions The work has been supported by the Scientific Cooperaton (ortogonal no profits activity) with The Interuniversity Center for the Research on Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems ( ECONA). Gadomski. 99[Web].Future and Emerging Technologies © ENEA.Gadomski.M. 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia. SET. ECONA (under preparation).S. Ansaldo.Gadomski: TOWARDS SYSTEM ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGIES. Perugia. *FET . A.it . May . A. of Brussel. Ceccacci:Seminar ”Contesto TOGA per la Progettazione di un Agente Intelligente Astratto ed il suo Decision-Making” .99 [Web]. Pestilli :INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: TOGA COGNITIVE AGENT.Poland. transparent-sheet. ENEA.

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