Unit 1

Introducing SL assessment ―Key issues and terms

Washback Multiplechoice test Reliability Cloze Quiz Validity Assessment


Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. Lourdes Cerezo


Assessment, evaluation, testing/1
I. Term correspondence
Assess, assessment Evaluate, evaluation Testing, test

Evaluar, evaluación

Examinar, examen

Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. Lourdes Cerezo


Assessment, evaluation, testing/2
EXAMINAR: Students do an exam on all or part of the contents of a given subject.

During the period of instruction

After the period of instruction EXAMEN FINAL

Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación... Dra. Lourdes Cerezo


. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación.. E. E.5”. etc. Dra.3”.. during or at the end of the instructional period.Assessment. etc. “Notable”. “3. 5. “Aprobado.g. “9”. “Apto”. Lourdes Cerezo 5 . testing/3 EVALUAR: (more general term) Awarding student work with a grade/mark Label mark/grade Label + number mark/grade Number mark/grade E. etc. evaluation.g.g. whatever the instruments used...

quizzes. etc. 6 Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. evaluation.Assessment.) on completion of the instructional period. the students do an exam and the teacher awards a grade based on only that final exam/paper. Lourdes Cerezo . testing/4 EVALUACIÓN CONTINUA EVALUACIÓN FINAL student learning is measured along the course of instruction (with exams. papers.

Assessment. testing/5 What about the PEOPLE assessment process? involved in the ALUMNO/ESTUDIANTE/CANDIDATO (??): person PROFESOR/EVALUADOR (??): person who prepares / who takes the exam (pupil or student)  candidate / test-taker / testee / examinee gives / corrects the exam (teacher. unless the person who creates / administers / marks the exam is NOT the course teacher. Lourdes Cerezo 7 .) Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. instructor)  test-developer / test administrator / examiner (EXAMINADOR: not commonly used in academic contexts. evaluation.

b) a specific type of exam ―one in which the questions are of the multiple-choice kind or one which doesn’t require elaborated responses.. evaluation. Lourdes Cerezo 8 .. • usu. • usu. • usu. exact contents and wording of tasks is not known beforehand. TEST a) = “examen”. students cannot consult each other nor the teacher. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. testing/6 EXAMEN • a number of tasks by which student learning of the subject/module is measured.Assessment. no materials can be used for exam task completion..

 Testing & assessment sometimes used interchangeably. However. ASSESSMENT = umbrella term (it comprises TESTING – i. Lourdes Cerezo 9 . evaluation. testing/7  Assessment = a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner’s language ability / proficiency / level. lg learning can be assessed with a test). Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.Assessment.  Evaluation is usually concerned with overall language programs and not just with what individual students have learned.e. progress. or achievement.

on the basis of feedback. Lourdes Cerezo 10 . writes …. devising hypothesis about how lg works and. make judgements and decisions.)  teachers test in every contact with learners: as a learner speaks. is done by learners and teachers alike in their learning/ teaching roles. evaluation.  (learners test newly acquired lg when they speak/write. testing/8  Testing. Thus.Assessment. teacher makes judgement about performance and from judgement teacher infers learner’s competence. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. in a non-technical sense.

Assessment. quizzes. This type of classroom-oriented informal testing is an everyday and very common activity in which teachers engage almost intuitively. possibly informal in nature.g. e. thru informal pieces of assessment –i. (Quiz = a short measure of class material. a quiz may just check for ability to use 10 target-language words in a sentence).e. sometimes. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. testing/9  This informal testing can be done by observing students or. Lourdes Cerezo 11 . evaluation.

refers to a rather formal method of assessing / measuring student ability / level / proficiency or progress / achievement in FL/SL. Lourdes Cerezo 12 .  It is announced in advance and requires a substantial amount of time to complete (usually no less than 1 hour) Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. testing/10  Testing. in a more technical sense. evaluation.Assessment.

Assessment-related concepts/1  Formative assessment = . Main purpose? To “form”. to “enhance conclude) a process”. Lourdes Cerezo (not FOR 13 .carried out by teachers (usu.directed at specific bits of learner-produced L2 .to bring about improvement.during the learning process .) . Thus.ongoing measurement of L2 learning . Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. assessment learning.

Summative assessment is of little instructional value (contributes little to ongoing teaching/learning process). how much a student has progressed during a particular course. assessment OF learning. Lourdes Cerezo 14 .teacher evaluates overall aspect of learner’s knowledge to find out how proficient student is at certain point in time. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. .Assessment-related concepts/1  Summative assessment = . Thus.done after period of instruction (end of term / school year) . etc.

achievement. one-way correctness  tests that test  focus on communication  student-centeredness  integrated skills  emphasis on process of lg learning  open-ended. It also reflects a change of paradigm in FL/SL teaching. motivation & attitudes on instructionallyrelevant classroom activities. multiple solutions  tests that also teach 15 Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.Assessment-related concepts/2  Authentic /alternative assessment (a.a) refers to multiple forms of assessment that reflect student learning. from… …to  focus on lg  teacher-centeredness  isolated skills  emphasis on product of lg learning  one answer. Lourdes Cerezo .

e. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. Lourdes Cerezo 16 .a has 2 main advantages which mark the difference with traditional assessment methods:  It is student-centered –i. it includes measuring instruments which facilitate student involvement and provide a better sense of control over their own learning.  It provides teachers with useful information that can form the basis for improving their instructional plans and practices.Alternative assessment/1 A.

Which one? Formative assessment Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.a is closely related to another concept that has already been discussed.? In the latter sense. it could be said that a. Lourdes Cerezo 17 .

questionnaires. Lourdes Cerezo 18 . and interviews  Project work … Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.a include  Performance assessment  Portfolios  Student self-assessment  Peer assessment  Classroom observation  Interviews/conferences (teacher-student.Alternative assessment/2 Different modes of a. teacher-group)  Journals.

while bringing to bear prior knowledge / recent learning /relevant skills to solve realistic or authentic problems.a. = any form of assessment in which the student constructs a response orally or in writing. a. (Response elicited by teacher in formal/informal contexts.  Examples: oral reports. writing samples. requires student to accomplish complex and significant tasks. or observed in class). Lourdes Cerezo 19 . projects (individual/group).  P. … Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.Alternative assessment/3 What is performance assessment?  P.

Alternative assessment/4 Features of p. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. mirroring good teaching or real-world contexts where the student is expected to perform. for problem-solving).  Authenticity: tasks are meaningful. or create a product.:  Constructed response: students construct or provide an expanded response.  Higher-order thinking: students need to apply higher levels of thinking to construct responses to open-ended questions (e.a.g. Lourdes Cerezo 20 . challenging. engaging.. engage in a performance.

Lourdes Cerezo 21 . Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.Alternative assessment/5  Integrative: tasks call for integration of lg skills (even for integration of skills & knowledge across content areas).  Depth vs breadth: performance assessments provide info in depth about a student’s skills or mastery as contrasted with the breadth of coverage that is more typical of m-c tests.  Process & product: procedures and strategies for deriving correct answers or for exploring multiple solutions to complex tasks are often assessed as well as the product or the “correct” answer itself.

 To help making judgement reliable. Lourdes Cerezo 22 . 3= Advanced).Alternative assessment/6 P. These are known as rubrics.. 2= Proficient.e. such as 1= Basic.  The criteria are usually made public and known in advance. scoring scales are used (i. numerical values are associated with performance levels. requires teacher to judge student responses.a. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.  The criteria for each level must be clearly defined in terms of what the student actually does to demonstrate skill or proficiency at that level.

Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.  Examples of portfolio entries are writing samples. reading logs. teacher / student / peer comments on progress made by student. drawings.  Key to p. is student involvement in selecting samples of their own work to show growth or learning over time. Lourdes Cerezo 23 .Alternative assessment/7 What is portfolio assessment?  A systematic collection of student work analyzed to show progress over time with regard to instructional objectives. etc. audio or videotapes.a.

a and in selfregulated learning given that it promotes a) direct involvement in learning on the part of the student and b) integration of cognitive abilities with motivation and attitude towards learning. is a key element in a.Alternative assessment/8 What is self-assessment? S-a. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. Lourdes Cerezo 24 .

Lourdes Cerezo 25 .What does it mean to be a selfregulated learner? Self-regulated learners  make choices about their own learning & progress  select learning activities that suit their particular learning style  know how to make a good use of their time & resources (in & outside the classroom)  collaborate with other students in exchanging ideas. eliciting assistance when needed. & providing support to their peers Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.

Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. In short: self-regulated learners have a wide variety of metacognitive skills and put them to work as and whenever appropriate/necessary. revise understandings.What does it mean to be a selfregulated learner?  Construct meaning. and share meaning with others during the learning process.  Monitor own performance and evaluate own progress and accomplishments.  Take pride in efforts and new meanings constructed when perceiving the connection btw their efforts and their learning success. Lourdes Cerezo 26 .

Alternative assessment/9 What about observation as an a.  while students work individually at their desks. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. where the teacher can observe the student on a one-to-one basis. etc.  when using instructional materials. Lourdes Cerezo 27 .a method? Informal observation of student use of the FL/SL is part of everyday teaching  during formal instruction.  in conferences.  when interacting with others in group activities.

 Assess effectiveness of particular teaching strategies. … Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. Lourdes Cerezo materials 28 .  Infer what learning strategies students are using that facilitate or impede learning.Alternative assessment/10 What do teachers do with observation results?  Assess what students have or have not learned.  Determine which instructional and activities students enjoy.

Lourdes Cerezo 29 . Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.it provides a basis for understanding what’s going on in class and for making decisions about what should be done.Alternative assessment/11 Information derived from the teacher’s observations of student L2 use is fundamental to the day-to-day functioning of the classroom since… .

but the others haven’t. the teacher realizes that… a) one student has not learned what has been taught during the week. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. but the others have. b) only one student has learned what has been taught during the week.Alternative assessment/11 E. Lourdes Cerezo 30 .g. Based on one week’s observations.

? Will the teacher make the same kind of decisions in case a) and in case b)? What kind of decisions will the teacher make in either case? Decisions made in case a) will be different from those made in case b) … Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. Lourdes Cerezo 31 .

Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. strategies. Lourdes Cerezo 32 . and outcomes (or results).Alternative assessment/12 What three major aspects of student L2 learning can be observed by the teacher? a) Language learning processes b) Language learning strategies c) Language learning outcomes Teachers use observations to make inferences about instructional or learning processes.

or about lg learning outcomes? Inferences about lg learning outcomes are much easier to make bc these are made on the basis of observations of concrete instances of student L2 use Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. Lourdes Cerezo 33 . inferences about lg learning processes & strategies.? What inferences do you think are easier to make for the teacher.

Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.Alternative assessment/13 On the other hand. it is the observation of categories of events (such as errors) or fairly complex interrelationships among events (such as the linguistic or communicative contexts within which errors tend to occur more frequently) that are the basis for inferences about learning processes. Lourdes Cerezo 34 . it is NOT the observation of discrete instances of L2 use that provides evidence about L2 learning processes. rather.

g.) Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. strategies. eliminating it. modifying it.? Why do you think is important that the teacher makes observations of student lg learning processes. These inferences affect and outcomes? the way teachers respond to their students Also. etc. observations about how a given unit worked with one group of students can affect the planning of instruction of that unit with other students (e. Lourdes Cerezo 35 .

a. between curriculum objectives and the objectives being assessed.  Content validity is the match bt the content of the assessment and the content of instruction −i. namely reliability and validity.Alternative assessment/14 Finally.  Consequential validity refers to the uses of assessment for instructional planning and improvement. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. Lourdes Cerezo 36 .e.  Reliability is the consistency of the assessment in producing the same score on different testing occasions or with different raters.a must also meet the requirements of traditional assessment methods.

Washback can be positive (or “beneficial”) or negative (or “harmful”). Lourdes Cerezo 37 . Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra.Washback (Backwash)/1 Washback: the effect or impact of testing on the teaching and learning processes.

then we have harmful backwash (i.g. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. to prepare them to actually be able to follow courses in English).Washback (Backwash)/1 Harmful backwash Situation: Say that an L2 test is very important for a given group of students –e.e. the impact of the test on the learning of the students is negative). Lourdes Cerezo 38 . If all lg teaching focuses on the parts of this test and the strategies the students need to apply to pass this test but all this is at variance with their L2 course objectives (e. They are required to take the TOEFL..g. students whose L1 ≠ English but want to study at an English medium university.

taking notes in lectures. Dra. Exam was based on needs analysis of 1st year students (reading textbook materials.). Exam purpose: to determine who would be able to go on to courses taught in English at university and who would have to leave the university. writing essays. Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… etc. Lourdes Cerezo 39 .Washback/2 Beneficial washback Situation: An exam given at the end of an intensive English course at a university in a non-English-speaking country.

Técnicas y Procedimientos de Evaluación… Dra. had an immediate effect: the syllabus for the intensive English course. validity. changed. etc.Washback/3 The introduction of this exam instead of the previous one. entirely m-c test. Lourdes Cerezo 40 . and washback in Unit 3. practicality. this is an instance of beneficial washback. its materials. Thus. More about reliability. classes were conducted differently.

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