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PM592 Week 4 Discussion

PM592 Week 4 Discussion

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Week 4: Advanced Scheduling and Crashing - Discussion

Resource Allocation and Leveling (graded)

This week we discuss the advantages of resource leveling to increase the efficiency of our schedule and our resource utilization. During our discussion we will address several questions, including:

How much detail should be demanded by the project manager in resource assignments? What factors might intervene between the plan and its execution to disrupt the resources assigned to the project? How can the PM reduce the potential effect of these factors and obtain resource commitment as the project is implemented?

Responses Response Getting Resource Com m itm ents Author Professor Orr Date/Time 5/25/2013 2:36:47 PM

One of the topics not addressed too much so far is getting resource commitments. How do you get managers to dedicate scarce resources to the project? What do you do if w ork is not getting done? Regards, Susan

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Nishan Ragoonanan

5/26/2013 6:17:11 PM

The first area or hurdle in getting resource commitment for a project is inter-project visibility. Its extremely difficult for a functional manager to commit a resource w ithout an understanding of that resource's role in several projects or how that resource needs to be allocated in the months to come. So the first step is presenting all projects to the functional manager so they have a top level view of the requirements for a resource w ithin the coming months so they can plan allocation. The next step in achieving a commitment to a resource is prioritization or making a case for prioritization. With resource over-allocation, the project w ith the highest priority needs to have access to the resource and this prioritization needs to come from upper management, so as a project manager, you need to make your case for project prioritization to upper management, perhaps by demonstrating in terms of a dollar amount, w hat w ould happen w ithout that resource and getting upper management to commit to a high priority for your project and hence making a case for getting your resource allocated.

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Esperanca Rosa

5/26/2013 11:57:35 PM

Hi class, Project managers have to deal with scare resources in an efficient manner. They have to overcome this as soon as possible to avoid project failure. According to the “project management guide”, project managers
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Project managers are facing new challenges when dealing with scarce resources and other issues in organizations. They have to be aware of all needs of the employees, do their work in order to achieve project success . Scare resources are considered one of the most difficult times for a project manager. Frequently, the PM endeavors to find people to perform the work packages. Additionally, they have to get enough money in the budget to pay vital supplies. Then it’s vital to be able to explain the benefits of your project, and strive to get the resources you need to succeed. If work is not getting done, I have to ask upper management for additional support in getting enough resources. There’s no easy way to deal with this. The project manager works on is for the benefit of the organization as a whole, and unfortunately that means some people within it may suffer. Understand their feelings, but keep working to make the project a success. Retrieved from: http://www.projectmanagementguide.org/project-management/times-of-scarcity

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Maria Ventura

5/27/2013 6:29:14 PM

Hello class, I agree with you Nishan, when saying that "With resource over-allocation, the project with the highest priority needs to have access to the resource and this prioritization needs to come from upper management", so some of the things a manager could do: resource level the project. This is a method of resolving resource over allocation by delaying the start date of an assignment or an entire task or splitting up the work on a task. In addition to that, one of the ways to identify resource availability is during the project planning phase; you can get a calendar and identify working and non-working days. This includes holidays, vacations, three day weekends, federal holidays, foul weather season and etc. Then include work hours and the rate, so that overtime and the schedule can be calculated. Thank you//

RE: Getting Resource Chukie Okunzua Com m itm ents

5/29/2013 10:09:46 PM

Project managers need to build very good interpersonal relationship with the functional managers and those who work with them. It is easier to get whole hearted commitment from managers one has built close relationship over the years than just through instructions from above. Leadership quality and team building spirit are important when chasing commitment

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Cauretta Bell

6/2/2013 6:18:42 PM

That w as the very first item I thought of, overallocation of resources can be the underlining cause of the w ork on a project no being completed. The project need to be analyzed to see how much w ork has been
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completed and w hat additional w ork is left to be completed. For there, a list of the projects need to be placed in order based on priority. once the priority is in place a plzn needs to be in place for the resources and the amount of time that needs to be spent on the current project in order for it to be w ithin budget.

RE: Getting Resource Commitments

Philip Effiong

5/27/2013 6:06:29 AM

According to our text, if the quantity of resources available is limited we have a resource constrained project. If the resources available are less than required it will result in an increased schedule or additional cost to resolve. Two approaches to solve the problem Heuristic methods will produce a solution but not necessarily the best solution. Starting with the PERT/cpm schedule and analyzing resource use period by period, resource by resource; if resource supply is exceeded in a given period, examine tasks and allocate resources to them sequentially, according to some priority rules. Priority rules: (examples) shortest task first most resources first minimum slack first most critical followers most successors If excess resources are left idle, they can be reassigned in the organization or used to accomplish future tasks. If resources are exhausted, tasks must be slowed or delayed. Optimization method will produce the best solution based upon the project requirements and objectives. There are two types of optimization: mathematical (linear) programming and enumeration.

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Varune Ram outar

5/27/2013 9:32:31 AM

Phillip Good post. I think we should also remember the very initial step which is determining if the required resource is available internally or if we need to obtain the resource externally. When undertaking a project the project manager / project management team determines the resources required and when they are required. In the case of functional / week matrix organizations the functional managers are to supply the required resources. If these resources are not available from within the organization then they must be obtained externally from the organization. In the case of personnel this could mean finding and hiring on new personnel, going to an outside company that has the required personnel and contracting that company i.e. subcontracting, or it could mean temporarily hiring the personnel for a period of the project they are required. For equipment it could mean renting or buying the equipment. Risk planning is very important as this will tell the project management team the contingencies they need to allocate in the event resources fail or are lost etc. Contingency planning also involves knowing how to obtain additional resources at
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short notice if things are not getting done.

RE: Getting Resource Nishan Ragoonanan Com m itm ents

5/27/2013 7:03:02 PM

Varune, Your discussion post w ith respect to hiring in resources during resource shortage leads me to reflect on occasions w ithin our organization w hen resources have been scarce for offshore projects and w e have had to hire in resources in the form of contractors. I'd like to point out some of the risks and costs associated w ith these actions that must be considered w hen hiring in outside help. The first is schedule slippage in either direction, either moving forw ard or backw ard that leaves you in a predicament w hen depending on contractors w ho could now be on the payroll and are either unavailable due to the schedule coming forw ard or are left w aiting as w e w ait for that task of the project to start. This fits in nicely w ith your discussion of risk w hich is higher w hen w e employ contractors due to schedule constraints. In the end its the job of the project manager to mitigate these risks, and monitor and control the project in order to have resources available as and w hen needed.

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents Modified:5/28/2013 5:12 PM

Herm inio Dionisio

5/28/2013 5:07:00 PM

When the unplanned happens, w e need to know exactly w ho ow ns the problem and its extent so w e can take the necessary measures available in finding the solution to resolve the problem. If the problem occurs w ithin a noncritical- path activity, it can be resolved by using available slack by rescheduling the activity later in its ES - LF w indow or extend the duration to use some of the available slack. Another approach is to continue using the schedule compression technique, and the last option is to use the resource pool under your control and reassign resources from noncritical -path activities to assist w ith the problem activity. If after you have exhausted all the above option, the final option is to ask help from the resource manager for additional resources or rescheduling of already committed resources. Expect to make a trade off in the form of added staff or funds to acquire contract help.

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Dw ayne Grant

5/28/2013 9:18:08 PM

I know that resource commitments is a topic that is not often addressed, but this is what is going to set average project managers and good project managers apart. A good project manager understands the people process, and can get people to do stuff that does not necessarily work for him or her. The other most important part is follow-up and follow through, and this can be summed up with persistence. You can start by getting the functional managers verbal commitment to allocate resource and keep building on that concept. A follow-up and follow-thru is the tool is to make sure that the work is getting done, and does not fall through the cracks.

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Tanika Thom as

5/28/2013 9:54:54 PM

What do you do if work is not getting done? If work is not getting done, realign the slackers (relocate or let go) and maximize the use of the talents available but not burn them out. (Speaking
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of personnel). Before asking for more resources management must make sure they audit their resources to understand exaclty where the project stands (cost wise) and what resources are available. My fellow classmates make great points in regards to increasing cost, realign work schedule (critical path), know your staff, but most importantly mointoring resources(money, personnel, equipment) and making adjustments in a timely manner instead of waiting until things fall behind or off track.

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Mary Hart

5/29/2013 7:40:48 PM

If work is not getting done then the project schedule and cost should be analyzed. One method to do so is project schedule crashing, and the decision to crash should only take place after carefully analyzing all of the possible alternatives. The key is to attain maximum decrease in schedule time with minimum cost. Crashing a project schedule costs money. It should only be done when the benefit/cost has have been analyzed and it is determined to be of value to the business. Ref: Lecture.

RE: Getting Resource Com m itm ents

Bruce Foley

5/29/2013 10:24:12 PM

In the ideal w orld w hatever resources are needed are readily available and the Functional Manager readily allow s them to do so. If the resources or personnel are not being allotted as needed, it is the job of the General Project manger to call a meeting w ith the relevant stakeholders and functional managers and approach the problem in a manner that is non-confrontational. There should be contingencies in the Risk Plan also to address just such an issue.

Strategies for Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

Professor Orr

5/27/2013 12:17:10 PM

Good points. What are some strategies for dealing w ith staff turnover during the project? Regards, Susan

RE: Strategies for Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

Serge Ndongo

5/27/2013 1:13:42 PM

Some strategies to dealing with staff turnover during the project would be to: * Determine the Cause of Turnover As employees quit their jobs, ask for honest reasons why they're leaving. If you can determine the cause for high turnover, you may be able to prevent job loss. If former employees aren't forthcoming with you since you were their boss, consider enlisting human resources to conduct an exit interview. Ask what about their job made them want to leave. For instance, if it the deciding factor was long workdays, consider reducing the amount of hours for employees on the project or hiring an extra hand.
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* Listen to Current Employee Complaints Ask current employees how they feel about the turnover on the project. Many may feel like the project is getting muddled or slowed down since so many employees are leaving. Since new hires don't have experience with the project, there could be stress on current employees who feel they have to keep training new people. Listening to employees and understanding their problems is one of the best ways to reduce employee conflict. Listen to their opinions on how the project could be improved in terms of staff turnover. * Reorganize Project Employees Project managers run the project as a whole and delegate tasks to employees working to complete the assignment. If you hire new employees when there's turnover for the project manager role, this can cause a lot of conflict and may lead to delays. If the turnover is presenting a problem, promote a temporary replacement from within. Choose someone to take over the project manager position who already knows the project, timeline, milestones and what is at stake. This is especially essential as the project nears completion. * Create a Project Overview Build a comprehensive overview of the project to give to all new hires. List the expected timeline for all milestones so everyone knows when certain aspects are due. Also list the duties of each member of the team and what is expected of them. Have new hires study the guide so they can jump in with coworkers in the middle of the project. This should waylay any concerns current employees may have with the effectiveness of newcomers. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/strategies-dealing-staff-turnover-during-project-10061.html

RE: Strategies for Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

Philip Effiong

5/28/2013 7:25:28 AM

Staff turnover can slow or even halt the progress or completion of a project due to a variety of factors. Often, turnover results when there is no clear direction on the goals and objectives of a project, or team members feel unqualified to complete the tasks requested of them. Educate all team members on key elements of the project. Clearly define goals and objectives, as well as a time line and step-by-step direction on the individual roles and responsibilities of each team member Place well-established, knowledgeable team members in key project roles. If turnover does occur, the project's chance for successful completion increases if seasoned and experienced employees are in lead roles. Develop a policy whereby team members are required to keep daily journals charting the specifics of their individual involvement in a project
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/deal-turnover-during-projects-20217.html

RE: Strategies for Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

Varune Ram outar

5/28/2013 11:55:50 AM

One key strategy used to keep staff and avoid Turn Over is offering a completion bonus. This usually works by staff being paid a percentage of what they earned throughout the entire period while on the project. Once they stay till the end then they are paid their bonus e.g. if a person earned $120,000 for the entire time they
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were assigned to a project and they have a completion bonus of 10% then if they stay till the end they are paid a bonus of 10% of $120,000 = $12,000. So they are offered an incentive to stay till the end.

RE: Strategies for Nishan Ragoonanan Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

5/28/2013 12:55:34 PM

Another strategy / incentive to reduce employee turnover is education. Providing opportunities for training and education w ithin one's profession is a key retention point for many employees and the company gets a direct benefit through the increased skill base and know ledge pow er of their employees, w hich leads to increased productivity and performance. Employers typically w orry that providing training w ill increase the employees ability to leave and find another job, how ever keeping an employee stifled w ith no opportunity for grow th also leads to employee departure.

RE: Strategies for Cauretta Bell Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

5/29/2013 8:10:11 PM

Projects can be alot of fun. Employees leave their employment w hen they are frustrated w ith their job. People leave w hen they do not feel appreciated. The first w ay to reduce turnover is proper training in the job. The next w ay to reduce turnover is having team building exercises to help build team cohesivenes. next, giving an incentive package for the employees for meeting the goals and starting on budget upon the completion of the project.

RE: Strategies for Esperanca Rosa Dealing w ith Staff Turnover Modified:5/28/2013 1:48 PM

5/28/2013 1:42:35 PM

Hi class, Great comments! Varune, I totally agree with your comments regarding to the bonus that certain companies offer to the team members in order to avoid team turnover. This happens in my company too. While we are involved in a project, our upper management offers us a bonus, great amount of money ($15,000), for the results and success of the project. Sometimes, our company makes agreements with the team members and asks for their opinion regarding to the benefits. They offer many option. For instance, upper managers don't offer just money but cars too. Thus this tactic helps to get everyone involved in the project, and endeavor to get the best results. Therefore, managers can avoid turnover during the project and get every employee motivated to be involved in
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the project. Thanks, Esperanca

RE: Strategies for Chukie Okunzua Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

5/30/2013 11:20:45 PM

Monetary reward have short term effect on employee retention. Major causes of employees wanting to leave are 1. Lack of Job satisfaction 2. Lack of job security 3. Lack of opportunity for profession development. 4.Lack of opportunity for advancement and the least is inadequate compensation. For an organization to retain it workforce is must take a look at motivational factors such as recognition, advancement, achievement and the nature of work. The organization and the project manager must find a way of creating a sense of pride and joy in members of the project team and the organization's workforce in general. Workers that find satisfaction, joy and pride in what they do tend to stay. Recognizing employee contribution and creating opportunity for growth and development are far more important than bonus and pay rise. Work conditions and job must be made to create a sense of pride and joy. Quality management demand that workforce must be engaged to get the best out of them. It is important that employee feel that their job is secured as insecurity cause employee to look for job where they feel secured. Project managers must work at having a closer work tie with their team members through creating an enviroment of trust, respect , satisfaction and loyalty.

RE: Strategies for Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

Joel Khan

5/29/2013 3:23:39 AM

As a Project Manager, you know you should avoid and deal w ith turnover in your project team – the problem is, sometimes it isn’t alw ays so clear-cut how to do that. That’s w here this article comes into play. We’ll discuss some of the top techniques you can implement w ithin your project team to avoid and deal w ith turnover. Is History Repeating Itself? Let’s begin by examining the first step: comparing the project context w ith similar previous projects. Before getting your project into gear, take a close look at the project scope and compare it to other projects in your organization that w ere similar in background and duration. If this project is unique to your company, consider taking a look at case studies of organizations that are similar to your ow n. Determine if these projects encountered high turnover rates of critical staff members such as engineers, project accountants, programmers, etc. If the turnover rate w as high in the previous project, chances are that history may repeat itself in your current one. Establish Trusting Relationships High turnover rates in project teams are often reflective of the relationship betw een employees and their job
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satisfaction on the project. Be sure to establish trusting relationships w ith your employees. This not only encourages open communications about motivations and aspirations, but it also makes your employees feel that they can be honest about their anxieties and frustrations. Keep An Eye Out For The Signs Project leaders w ill w ant to keep an eye out for the signs that employee turnover is about to become a problem. These signs may include a lack of motivation, unexplained absences, job hunting signs such as resume updates, delays in responsiveness, and poor performance. If these signs materialize w ithin your project team, be sure to take the team member(s) aside to discuss their behavior. You may often discover that these efforts at honest and productive communication can be enough to dissuade employees from leaving the project team. Prepare Yourself For The Turnover Of course, there are some instances w here turnover w ithin your project team may be inevitable. If an employee is determined to leave, you should prepare yourself by creating a “transition” strategy. You may w ant to consider having the employee give you more than tw o w eeks’ notice if they plan on leaving the company. Oftentimes, tw o w eeks is not enough notification to train new employees and gain access to necessary files and documents. Speaking of w hich, it’s vital for you and the employee’s manager to identify all the critical documents that the team member has on his or her w ork computer. This is an especially vital step to take if the employee hasn’t given you enough notification regarding his or her leaving date. By gathering these critical documents, you can maintain the integrity and security of critical organizational processes and projects.

Smooth Over The Transition Throughout the transition period, you’ll w ant to maintain a positive relationship w ith the employee w ho’s leaving. This can help ensure that the new employee has access to the training and materials he or she needs to integrate into the project team. The replacement w ill need time to absorb everything and ask the right questions, so find out if you can motivate the leaving employee (using an incentive) to stay a bit late during the next few w eeks or even come back for a day or tw o after leaving the organization. This can make the transition much smoother for the replacement, w hich can minimize or even eliminate project disruption altogether. Track The Transition To Closure After the employee leaves the organization, you w ant to track the transition to closure. This means paying attention to how the replacement is handling his or her new role on the project team. Be sure to pay extra attention to the new employee and ask questions about how he or she feels about the project. Encourage other employees to mentor the replacement. By fostering a positive and productive project team, you can ensure that the replacement becomes a successful fit, as w ell as minimize any future employee turnover. In conclusion, by developing a turnover strategy before the beginning of major projects, you can help ensure that employee turnovers don’t prevent you from achieving major project milestones.

Reference: https://w w w .pmchampion.com/blog/pmp-benefits/turn-over-on-project-teams/

RE: Strategies for Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

Dw ayne Grant

5/29/2013 8:40:07 PM

There are several strategies for dealing with staff turnover, and no strategy is going to work for every situation. However, do the little things can prevent the big things later, and one of the major factor is communications. Some project managers just want to deliver the good news to their staff, but you need to be prepared to deliver the good, the bad, and the ugly. Another strategy that is often overlooked is taking care of your people, and look out for their best interest. It a cliché used in education, but it actually works. I goes student don’t care how much you know, until they know how much you care. It a proven fact workers work harder for people they like, and the same concept can be all to independent contractors.
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RE: Strategies for Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

Herm inio Dionisio

5/30/2013 2:39:11 PM

One of the major concern an organization may encounter especially w hile the project is on going is the inability to retain competence and core skills w ithin their organization. Unplanned staff turnover is problematic and expensive. Addressing the issue w ill mean an acknow ledgement of problems by senior management , and a commitment to invest time, support, and funding in understanding the causes, developing solutions and implementing them. As a normal approach, one must identify those reasons behind this turnover and to name some are the follow ing in order of priorities: 1. Better pay/terms and conditions elsew here 2. poor leadership/values/culture 3. Lack of career opportunities and grow th 4. Burnout/ disillusionment/ frustration 5. Impact on personal life and w ork - life balance 6. poor systems/bureaucracy. Maintaining motivational levels among the entire w orkforce is one retention strategy an organization should target on, and the follow ing are recommended suggestion to correct the problem: 1. Introduce or improve career paths and professional development 2. Better pay/terms and conditions including rew ards and recognition 3. Better w ork - life balance/ family-friendly policies 4. Better leadership. People are motivated if they feel they are valued in the organization.

RE: Strategies for Dealing w ith Staff Turnover

Bruce Foley

6/1/2013 10:31:43 PM

You should rew ard top performers w ith bonuses. Have a meeting about expectations in the beginning of the project and announce the rew ards. Have periodic individual meetings w ith functional managers to see if they are having meetings w ith their groups to check their morale and also to keep them in the loop, w hich goes to help w ith morale.

Detail in Resource Assignments

Professor Orr

5/28/2013 11:35:40 AM

Good points. Class, how do you know how much detail is enough in resource assignments? Regards, Susan

RE: Detail in Resource Assignments

Nishan Ragoonanan

5/29/2013 6:52:32 AM

You require enough detail to allow the project manager to make decisions, and monitor and control the project. Items that a project manager requires for resource assignments are: Task duration using the required resource Task duration w ith an alternative resource Resource type e.g. assembly technician, database administrator Skill level required e.g. technician 3 or senior database administrator

RE: Detail in Resource Assignments

Cauretta Bell

5/31/2013 8:20:10 PM

You bring up a great point. As a PM you never w ant to give too much detail in the assignment. You do not people to feel overw helmed w ith the amount of w ork and the amount of time it takes to complete the project. As a manager, I w ant to give my staff enough information to get the project done. I w oyld like for them to have the opportunity to make decision to improve the task

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RE: Detail in Resource Assignments

Philip Effiong

5/29/2013 7:26:58 AM

According to our text, resource needs vary as the project progresses which means the amount of resources required will fluctuate, making the task even more difficult. It is beneficial to the project not only that the right resources be available when needed but also that, to the best of our ability, we schedule the resources on an even basis to reduce the changes in the team's work schedule.

RE: Detail in Resource Assignm ents

Varune Ram outar

5/29/2013 9:49:06 PM

Philipe I agree with you. Resources vary depending on the task and project. Typical resource assignments in oil and gas projects consist of materials, manpower and equipment e.g. 100lbs welding rod, 3 - welders, 3- diesel powered welding plants, 1 -fitter, 1-Welding inspector.

RE: Detail in Resource Assignm ents

Esperanca Rosa

5/30/2013 12:14:21 AM

Hi class, The amount of resources depends on the type of the project like my classmates said before. Adding to their comments I would say that, in the oil industry, whether we drill Offshore, the type of resources or material, and costs will be different comparing to drilling Onshore. The offshore expenses will be higher in terms of amount of money, cost, and time consuming. For instance, to make a core analyses in a laboratory, we’ll need a specialist to cut the samples, another to prepare the samples for microlaboratorial analyses, then a specialist to analyze them and make a report. All these processes require several tasks to be completed and consequently resources such as human and material. The PM have to make sure that all tasks will be completed on time and that they’ll have personnel to perform and complete them on time. Thanks, Esperanca

RE: Detail in Resource Assignments

Herminio Dionisio

5/30/2013 3:36:54 PM

Resource requirements contains information on specific needs such as people, equipment, and location.The amount of detail and the level of specificity of the resource requirement description can vary by application area, like for example, w hich types of resources are needed, their availability, and in w hat quantities. It is of utmost importance to anticipate and plan ahead for resources needs, the further in advance the better to be able to manage effectively the natural flow of activities w ith no dow ntime. The key challenge is to assign the right amount of resources to the right activities at the right time.

RE: Detail in Resource Assignments

Huyen Bui

6/2/2013 3:10:42 PM

In my opinion, the best way is understanding the scale and scope of the project first. If project
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managers then push their resource allocation beyond obtainable limits in order to meet constrained schedules and budgets. Overallocation puts unreasonable pressure on resources and can be costly not only in overtime monies but in resource burnout. But you don't want to touch too much into details that will make PM overwhelm with workload. Just like the WBS, in resource assignments can be details to the level that the PM comfortable with managing

Advance Schedule Techniques

Professor Orr

5/29/2013 1:27:43 PM

Please add any suggestions you might have w hen one of the methods for Advance Schedule Techniques w ould be effective. Regards, Susan

RE: Advance Schedule Techniques

Serge Ndongo

5/29/2013 11:48:23 PM

When one of the methods of advanced Schedule Techniques would be effective, some important practical problems would be addressed such as, scheduling in the face of uncertain estimates on activity durations, Integrated planning of scheduling and resource allocation, and scheduling in unstructured or poorly formulated circumstances.

RE: Advance Schedule Techniques

Varune Ram outar

5/30/2013 8:58:36 AM

To expand on Serge's post, we can use an advanced leveling technique like Crashing when we want to decrease the schedule of a project but we are not sure which task to decrease or what the cost of decreasing the task would be. Also we when we are constrained by particular resources that are used on several tasks on the project we can employ resource leveling technique to see the impact of resource leveling on the schedule i.e. how far the schedule will be pushed out and thus how much it will cost the project.

RE: Advance Maria Ventura Schedule Techniques Modified:5/30/2013 6:03 PM

5/30/2013 5:52:32 PM

Hello class, According to my research, Critical Chain is often seen as the first major development in project management since CPM and PERT. For the last half century Critical Path Method (CPM) and PERT have helped improve project
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performance. They've been applied to all types of projects from construction to product, development to IT development and to shutdowns and turnarounds. However, business needs are now demanding improvements that are beyond what the critical path method is capable of delivering. Critical Chain is as more of an approach and mind set that it is just a “scheduling technique”. Project teams using Critical Chain to develop networks by questioning traditional assumptions behind. Like, how work is performed and are willing to sub optimize tasks and resources in order to optimize the project. Source: http://paradigm-360.com/services/projectproduction-qualitymanagement-solutions Thank you//

RE: Advance Tanika Thomas Schedule Techniques

5/30/2013 6:43:24 PM

These techniques address some important practical problems, such as: scheduling in the face of uncertain estimates on activity durations, integrated planning of scheduling and resource allocation, scheduling in unstructured or poorly formulated circumstances. (http://pmbook.ce.cmu.edu/11_Advanced_Scheduling_Techniques.html) In a recent conversation I had with another teacher who operated/own rental space (hall), I think the "what if" would have been beneficial to him because he described the scenario as he worked the front door and handle the money, there were no other employees. However the first event went well with no problem, but has business picked up, his problems began to increase; there was only one restroom, no crowd control, security, extra exits and over crowdedness. If he talked to his parents who ran successful operations he could have been better prepared for the issues that arise. In speaking with him today he was able to reflect on how project management could have been of a benefit to him in trying to handle multiple ideas of running his own business. I think this example is good one because if talking over his ideas with a couple of people and brainstorming he could have had better results financially by increasing his business and managing the operation of the business to handle other issues that could/would have arise.

RE: Advance Maria Ventura Schedule Techniques

5/31/2013 12:51:42 PM

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Hello class, Scheduling tasks in your project plan to reflect the reality of your situation, as well as your customer requirements, can be a challenge. The six key factors that drive the calculation of time (dates and duration ) in Project are: - Project start date - Task durations - Task dependencies - Project calendars - Task constraints and deadlines - Resource assignments and task types When you understand how these six aspects of scheduling affect your project plan, you will have the necessary framework to develop and maintain your project plans. You will also know how to troubleshoot and eliminate any problems that occur when you optimize your plan for time, which is one side of the project triangle ( interrelationship of time, money, and scope.) Source: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/project-help/6factors-that-affect-how-project-calculates-timeHA001207485.aspx Thank you//

RE: Advance Chukie Okunzua Schedule Techniques

5/31/2013 10:03:11 PM

Critical Chaim Method incorporate resource requirement into network analysis and help over come the problems of delay that may arise on over reliance on the critical path method. The Critical chain concentrates on the link that is the weakest along the chain and proceed to optimize the weakest link prior to increasing its strength. If the constraint posed by the weakest link is not addressed the project will be delayed.

RE: Advance Schedule Techniques Modified:6/1/2013 10:44 PM

Mary Hart

6/1/2013 12:02:29 AM

Please add any suggestions you might have w hen one of the methods for Advance Schedule Techniques w ould be effective. A CCM (Critical Chain Method) w ould be effective in a project that has a few or one element identified that can prevent the system from achieving a goal or goals. The constraint of the individual project is its duration or due date, and the aim of the method is to reduce the duration. CCM acknow ledges the stochastic nature of activity duration taking into account the impact of human behavior on project scheduling and execution.
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Ref. PM. Nicholas- Steyn, 3rd edition, 2008.

RE: Advance Schedule Techniques

Herm inio Dionisio

6/1/2013 9:27:23 AM

In developing our schedule, there are different tools and techniques that w e can employ under schedule netw ork analysis. It is a technique that generates the project schedule w hich employs various analytical techniques such as the critical path method, critical chain method, w hat if analysis and resource leveling to calculate the early start and late finish dates for the uncompleted portions of the project activities. Some netw ork paths may have points of path convergence or path divergence that can be identified and used in schedule compression analysis. Most projects encounter but one serious problem w hich is the limited resources, and all these netw ork analysis can be used depending on w hat the current problem is and how you w ant to solve it. With the exception of Critical Path Method w hich is w ithout any regard for any resource limitation, the rest are the best tool that a PM can use w hen shared or critical required resources are available in limited quantities.

Preventing Conservative Estimating

Professor Orr

5/31/2013 2:33:33 PM

Conservative estimating is a problem in both time and resource estimates. How can it be prevented? Regards, Susan

RE: Preventing Conservative Estimating

Huyen Bui

5/31/2013 3:47:50 PM

In order to prevent the conservative estimate, I think we need to understand the situation that happen that lead to the issue. There are several reasons for bad estimate such as: _Estimate need interpretation: An estimate may be optimistic, pessimistic or realistic, whatever this may mean. An estimate may be communicated to achieve a target. An estimate may be made according to a lot of experience or be just a ballpark number assigned to something yet unknown. An estimate may be fairly reliable or extremely uncertain. And after all—it will always remain an estimate, a kind of assumption. Unless we have the actual numbers. Do we always know what somebody really means when we are given an estimate? _Estimates get implicitly convert to commitment: when the PM based solely on the estimate from the team member to input estimate to the project, the estimate may not be accurate due to lack of necessary information for both timing and resources. _Estimates are too often subject to politics that will affect to the estimation. Avoid discussing estimating during any political conversation _Estimates can not be better than the requirements against which they have been made: Before you can estimate costs, effort or duration of an activity, you must really understand it. There must be a joint understanding by all stakeholders what the requirements are.

RE: Preventing Conservative Estim ating

Dw ayne Grant

6/1/2013 7:41:31 AM

We already learned from previous discussions that you can have different estimates for quantities and costs, but this week open up the discussion about time estimates. The same foundational concepts of estimating are used, and each estimate is going to have three variables. The three estimating variables are optimistic, most likely and pessimistic, and from these variable you will
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derive you actual time estimate. It applies to time because as a project manager one of you tasks is estimating how long it will take to complete a task on your work breakdown structure. The same concept will be applied to the resources, but estimating resources is more complex.

RE: Preventing Conservative Estim ating

Herm inio Dionisio

6/2/2013 1:53:13 PM

Conservativeness is a close cousin of the precautionary principle. In a very simple explanation, w e intentionally overestimate in order to be confident w e are not underestimating. This can be avoided if w e have a great and w ide idea w hat the product or service is all about. The more information and details w e can get, the more w e can define w hat our client really w ant w ith the assurance that w e w ill give them the right cost, and time for the product they exactly w ant. It is all about complexity, risks and technical issues that are so important to consider in estimating and most of all, nothing is w rong if w e w ill ask the opinion and judgement of those w ho are experts in their field or trade.

Lessons Learned for Week 4

Professor Orr

6/1/2013 9:39:01 AM

What are your most important/valuable lessons learned from Week 4? Regards, Susan

RE: Lessons Learned for Week 4

Herminio Dionisio

6/2/2013 1:28:34 PM

Lessons learned for this Week 4, is not to w ait for the last moment to w ork on my course project assignment w hich w as discussed since day one, rushing to finish it and resulting to frustrations and disappointments. Being one of those w ho procrastinate, I w ill never let this w ill happen again, and w ill use and manage my time efficiently. I w ill start to w ork on the assigned Course Project 2 this w eek, for me to have enough time to prepare, review and submit a much, much better presentation of assignment.

RE: Lessons Learned for Week 4

Mary Hart

6/2/2013 10:51:15 PM

Modified:6/2/2013 10:51 PM I agree w ith you Herminio, the lesson learned this w eek is planning ahead to complete on time w ith our course project dead line. Priceless! I w ill also try my best of the course project 2.

RE: Lessons Learned for Week 4

Huyen Bui

6/2/2013 3:02:16 PM

In this w eek, I learn to leverage several tools for planning and scheduling. Just looking at the critical path is not enough due to its optimism, I also need to calculate the earned value for a better estimate on not only timing but resource. And again, this has to depend on the scope and scale of project. The critical chain also a great tool to level resource to prevent from running out of or over resources for certain tasks.

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RE: Lessons Learned for Week 4

Tanika Thom as

6/2/2013 3:14:35 PM

Modified:6/2/2013 3:18 PM

Lesson learned in week 4 includes both of my previous colleagues comments time management and utilizing all tools available. Understanding critical path and how to manually level it to acquire the best result with all resources (money, time and personnel). Combing tasks and readjusting critical task to maximize results such as the example given in class by Mary with what's more important and less important with regards to time (painting or installing material). Last but not least balancing married life, school and teaching.

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