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response time 50 Success Secrets - 50 Most Asked Questions On response time - What You Need To Know

response time 50 Success Secrets - 50 Most Asked Questions On response time - What You Need To Know

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Published by Emereo Publishing
There has never been a response time Guide like this. response time 50 Success Secrets is not about the ins and outs of response time. Instead, it answers the top 50 questions that we are asked and those we come across in our forums, consultancy and education programs.

It tells you exactly how to deal with those questions, with tips that have never before been offered in print. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces everything you want to know to be successful with response time.

A quick look inside of the subjects covered: Risk Management , Some metrics include: , Free Web Hosted Project Document Management, Repositories vs. Registries , Master s List of CCIE Tracks, IT Services Operational Level Agreement Process: Service Level Management, Operational Activities of Capacity Management, Specialist Training, Being A Helpdesk Supervisor, Automation , Telecommunications , IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY , Using Federated Clouds , Service Reporting , Meeting the ISO/IEC Standard , IT Services Underpinning Contracts Processes: Service Level Management Supplier Management, IT Services Multi-Level-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management, Military , Capacity Monitoring and Performance Tuning , Activities of Capacity Management , Multi-tiered , IT Service Management (ITSM) Capability Assessment Service Level Management Questionnaire, Basics of CCIE RS Examination, Operational Activities of Capacity Management , What Can Network Management Inc Do for Me?, Technical Metadata , What are the types of cache redirection that can be configured with NetScaler? - Citrix Netscaler 9.0, Service Catalog, Haptic Torch for the Blind , ITIL Performance Management, The Relationship between Network and Communications in Asia, ITIL Pins, Service Reporting , Enterprise Content Management , Data Mart , The Benefits and Challenges of Knowledge Management, On Having an Improved Drupal Performance, Designing Contracts , Incident Management Metrics, IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management, IT Services Technical Specification Process: Service Level Management, Osiris Serverless Portal System , Siebel Tools: Designed to Support the Needs of the Public, South African Internet Connectivity and Service Level Agreement, What Knowledge Based Management Does For Your Organization?, IT Services Customer-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management, How does an OLA (operation level agreement) function with regards to ITIL? , Design , Service Desk and Incident Management, Web Acceleration , and much more...

There has never been a response time Guide like this. response time 50 Success Secrets is not about the ins and outs of response time. Instead, it answers the top 50 questions that we are asked and those we come across in our forums, consultancy and education programs.

It tells you exactly how to deal with those questions, with tips that have never before been offered in print. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces everything you want to know to be successful with response time.

A quick look inside of the subjects covered: Risk Management , Some metrics include: , Free Web Hosted Project Document Management, Repositories vs. Registries , Master s List of CCIE Tracks, IT Services Operational Level Agreement Process: Service Level Management, Operational Activities of Capacity Management, Specialist Training, Being A Helpdesk Supervisor, Automation , Telecommunications , IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY , Using Federated Clouds , Service Reporting , Meeting the ISO/IEC Standard , IT Services Underpinning Contracts Processes: Service Level Management Supplier Management, IT Services Multi-Level-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management, Military , Capacity Monitoring and Performance Tuning , Activities of Capacity Management , Multi-tiered , IT Service Management (ITSM) Capability Assessment Service Level Management Questionnaire, Basics of CCIE RS Examination, Operational Activities of Capacity Management , What Can Network Management Inc Do for Me?, Technical Metadata , What are the types of cache redirection that can be configured with NetScaler? - Citrix Netscaler 9.0, Service Catalog, Haptic Torch for the Blind , ITIL Performance Management, The Relationship between Network and Communications in Asia, ITIL Pins, Service Reporting , Enterprise Content Management , Data Mart , The Benefits and Challenges of Knowledge Management, On Having an Improved Drupal Performance, Designing Contracts , Incident Management Metrics, IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management, IT Services Technical Specification Process: Service Level Management, Osiris Serverless Portal System , Siebel Tools: Designed to Support the Needs of the Public, South African Internet Connectivity and Service Level Agreement, What Knowledge Based Management Does For Your Organization?, IT Services Customer-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management, How does an OLA (operation level agreement) function with regards to ITIL? , Design , Service Desk and Incident Management, Web Acceleration , and much more...

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Sections

  • Risk Management
  • Some metrics include:
  • Free Web Hosted Project Document Management
  • Repositories vs
  • Master s List of CCIE Tracks
  • Operational Activities of Capacity Management
  • Specialist Training
  • Being A Helpdesk Supervisor
  • Automation
  • Telecommunications
  • IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY
  • Using Federated Clouds
  • Service Reporting
  • Meeting the ISO/IEC Standard
  • Military
  • Capacity Monitoring and Performance Tuning
  • Activities of Capacity Management
  • Multi-tiered
  • Basics of CCIE RS Examination
  • What Can Network Management Inc Do for Me?
  • Technical Metadata
  • Service Catalog
  • Haptic Torch for the Blind
  • ITIL Performance Management
  • The Relationship between Network and Communications in Asia
  • ITIL Pins
  • Enterprise Content Management
  • Data Mart
  • The Benefts and Challenges of Knowledge
  • On Having an Improved Drupal Performance
  • Designing Contracts
  • Incident Management Metrics
  • Osiris Serverless Portal System
  • Siebel Tools: Designed to Support the Needs of the Public
  • South African Internet Connectivity and Service Level Agreement
  • Design
  • Service Desk and Incident Management
  • Web Acceleration

Response time 50 Success Secrets - 50 Most Asked Questions On Response time - What You Need To Know Copyright © by Kimberly

Dunlap

Notice of rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of he book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

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Contents
Risk Management  5 Some metrics include:  6 Free Web Hosted Project Document Management 7 Repositories vs. 10 Master s List of CCIE Tracks 11 IT Services Operational Level Agreement Process: Service Level Management12 Operational Activities of Capacity Management 14 Specialist Training 16 Being A Helpdesk Supervisor 80 Automation  81 Telecommunications  82 IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY  84 Using Federated Clouds  87 Service Reporting  89 Meeting the ISO/IEC Standard  90 IT Services Underpinning Contracts Processes: Service Level Management Supplier Management 92 IT Services Multi-Level-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management94 Military  97 Capacity Monitoring and Performance Tuning  100 Activities of Capacity Management  101 Multi-tiered  102 IT Service Management (ITSM) Capability Assessment Service Level Management Questionnaire 105 Basics of CCIE RS Examination 111 Operational Activities of Capacity Management  112 What Can Network Management Inc Do for Me? 113 Technical Metadata  114 What are the types of cache redirection that can be configured with NetScaler? - Citrix Netscaler 9.0 114 Service Catalog 115 Haptic Torch for the Blind  147 ITIL Performance Management 148 The Relationship between Network and Communications in Asia 148 ITIL Pins 149 Service Reporting  150 Enterprise Content Management  150 Data Mart  157
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The Benefits and Challenges of Knowledge Management 158 On Having an Improved Drupal Performance 159 Designing Contracts  160 Incident Management Metrics 163 IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management 163 IT Services Technical Specification Process: Service Level Management 166 Osiris Serverless Portal System  173 Siebel Tools: Designed to Support the Needs of the Public 178 South African Internet Connectivity and Service Level Agreement 180 What Knowledge Based Management Does For Your Organization? 181 IT Services Customer-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management182 How does an OLA (operation level agreement) function with regards to ITIL? 185 Design  188 Service Desk and Incident Management 189 Web Acceleration  192 4 .

What would happen to the business if a service change occurred? 2. which quantify the impact of the business should a service be lost or not exist. thus preventing any theft or loss of information) • Mitigation of risk (Service provider implement redundant systems to ensure service is available even when a single component is not) Business Impact Business Impact can be assessed from two perspectives: 1. and controlling risks. assessing. Business Impact Analysis is an essential tool for Service Continuity and Availability Management because it will identify the critical services to the business. The assessment will validate whether the planned change will achieve its intended results. Effective risk management will: • Identify risks • Categorize risks • Assess the impact of risks • Prioritize response to risks • Document and communicate risks • Monitor risks • Response to risk to correct or avoid The risks typically facing service providers include: • Technical instability • Loss of operational control • Security breached • Compliance breaches • Financial shortfalls From an availability perspective.Risk Management Risk Management is a process for identifying. as well as the following: • Define the type of damage expected • Degree or scope of damage over time • Required resources to continue operation on minimum levels • Expected response and recovery times • Prioritization of services 5 . risks impact: • Access rights • Response times • Component availability • End-to-end service availability The common responses to risk are (with examples): • Transfer of risk (Service continuity will typically outsource hot/warm sites in the event of a continuity event instead of taking on the financial burden of maintaining a site internally) • Acceptance of risk (Service providers may allow commuting personnel mobile computers despite the risk of theft or loss) • Avoidance of risk (Service providers require access to confidential or sensitive information from workstations located on an isolated network. request for service. Risk Management is not unique to IT Service Management. Risks are a deviation from the intended or expected norm. A risk is defined as the effect of uncertainty. What would happen to the business if a service change did not occur? The first perspective is usually defined through a business case. The second perspective is usually defined by conducting a Business Impact Analysis (BIA). but is a critical component of its effective. or request for change. particularly with regards to service continuity and availability. Risk management is also used in information security management and change management.

and within minutes nearly all of the request routers were overloaded. and we re treating it as such. Tuesday.Some metrics include: Quantity of incidents Percentage of incidents dealt with within agreed response time (incident response-time targets may be specified in SLAs. Thus. This isn t in itself a problem we do this all the time. lasting about 100 minutes. we had slightly underestimated the load that some recent changes (ironically. we re too slow! This transferred the load onto the remaining request routers. I d like to apologize to all of you today s outage was a Big Deal. people couldn t access Gmail via the web interface because their requests couldn t be routed to a Gmail server. The principles of Availability Management that are described earlier in the book can be seen in Google s response to the outage. As a result.2. The outage was quickly picked up by social networking services. as we now know. IMAP/POP access and mail processing continued to work normally because these requests don t use the same routers. and Gmail s web interface runs in many locations and just sends traffic to other locations when one is offline. by impact code) Costper-incident average Total percentage of incidents that were closed without being escalated to other support levels Total percentage of incidents that were resolved remotely 12. We ve already thoroughly investigated what happened. Google experienced a major outage that affected their Gmail service. 6 . with users complaining loudly of the impact the disruption was causing them. and we take it very seriously when there s a problem with the service. 2009. 6:59 PM Posted by Ben Treynor. right up front. However. some designed to improve service availability) placed on the request routers servers that direct web queries to the appropriate Gmail server for response. VP Engineering and Site Reliability Czar Gmail s web interface had a widespread outage earlier today. We know how many people rely on Gmail for personal and professional communications.2 Google Response to Major Incident In 09. such as Twitter. September 01. for example. At about 12:30pm Pacific a few of the request routers became overloaded and in effect told the rest of the system stop sending us traffic. Here s what happened: This morning (Pacific Time) we took a small fraction of Gmail s servers offline to perform routine upgrades. with the following post being made on the official Gmail blog site on the day of the outage. and we re currently compiling a list of things we intend to fix or improve as a result of the investigation. causing a few more of them to also become overloaded.

That will ultimately allow the IT department and other parts of the company to better manage 7 . but the airline had qualms about rolling the product out companywide to 5. One hundred employees in the enterprise program office at Continental had been using Microsoft’s Project Server for the previous 15 months. the team brought a LOT of additional request routers online (flexible capacity is one of the advantages of Google s architecture). such as building a server. managing director of technology for Houston-based Continental. it shouldn t affect servers in another datacenter) and do not degrade gracefully (EG. so the company considered alternative products. Some of the actions are more subtle for example. Continental can now associate an employee.The Gmail engineering team was alerted to the failures within seconds (we take monitoring very seriously). Burke said the scalability was suspect and the response time was slow for remote users connecting via dial-up or VPN. Free Web Hosted Project Document Management Project Document Management improvements to core components of Office System 2003 were the allure that compelled Continental Airlines Inc And Recreational Equipment Inc. with a specific task. and the Gmail web interface came back online. After establishing that the core problem was insufficient available capacity. if there s a problem in one datacenter. distributed the traffic across the request routers.000 employees. What s next: We ve turned our full attention to helping ensure this kind of event doesn t happen again. and we re committed to keeping events like today s notable for their rarity. (REI) to sign up for Microsoft Corp. we have concluded that request routers don t have sufficient failure isolation (IE. if many request routers are overloaded simultaneously. they all should just get slower instead of refusing to accept traffic and shifting their load). according to Blake Burke. But Continental elected to stick with Microsoft once it learned that the software maker was addressing those issues in the new version of Project Server that’s part of Office System 2003) The airline’s IT department has since noted other improvements while testing a beta version of Project Server 2003) Most notably. Burke said.9% available to all users. Some of the actions are straightforward and are already done for example. or a named resource. We ll be hard at work over the next few weeks implementing these and other Gmail reliability improvements Gmail remains more than 99.’s Rapid Adoption Program. increasing request router capacity well beyond peak demand to provide headroom.

email alerts. knowledge management. and markups files.convea. Http://www. suppliers. partners. some of them are free but most of them are paid. but still not very expensive. group scheduling. automated on-line environment. without needing the same software or expertise. tools and business utilities including: email. instant messaging. such as C++ programming skills. Burke noted. For instance.com/ • DocSurfer : Browser-based document management and paper-to-paperless solution that has been thoughtfully designed to enable organizations of all sizes to transition their existing manual filing. but they necessarily may not be free. retrieval. Mostly Free Web Hosted Project Document Management products provide a layer of security and reduce cycle times. Projects go faster. and 3D models. Http://www. Fully customizable. robust and secure. instant conferencing. image and CAD files. xref. provides document management and version control for the entire organization. intranets or web extranet systems.its resources. Employees. content management. There are few Free Web Hosted Project Document Management providers.docsurfer. Features include check-out/in. file management. and document flow requirements into an easy-to-use. history. with a named resource. Free Web Hosted Project Document Management provides integrated viewing components as well as complete specialized solutions to compliment existing networks. Some other Project Document Management software and service providers are given below. Free Web Hosted Project Document Management software enables sharing and collaboration of office documents. rollback. etc. search. Users with little to no training can publish find. and customers can work online with documents and design files securely. group calendaring. workflow and reporting. view. • Convea : Offers over 19 applications. all with less communication error and cost. 8 . the company can associate a specific skill set. but if you are looking for quality then should go for some professional provider. decisions are made quicker. group discussion.com/ • Document@Work : Easy to use.

html • Easy File Sharing Web Server: Allows you to host a secure personal web server without any additional software or services. Http://www. contacts.amadeussolutions. automated routing.sharing-file.html • Document Control Systems : MasterControl.mastercontrol.htm • eReports : Easily communicate the status of construction projects via the web. Your documents.epiware.desertsky. anywhere.Unlimited users only $3. and schedules. It can help you share files with your friends or colleagues. securely shared with clients.cpts. remote collaboration. release. private to your guests or public to the world.com/ • DocumenTree : Your documents. vendors & employees. Visitors can upload/download files easily through a web browser. Http://www. Http://www. check-in/out. definable release tagging.com/ • DucuTrack : Includes versioning. workflow. Http://www.documentree. • metadata.com/docsanywhere.com/docuTrack. Create a secure centralized workspace to share documents. and E-Sigh compliant digital signature technology. web-based document control and change management software. anytime. lock/unlock. 7 days a week. Http://www. 9 . email notices. events.com/english/products/products. Simply post photographs and documents on a secure web page which your team members can access 24 hours a day.com/ • Epiware : Easily share information and effectively collaborate on documents in a browserbased environment. and more.com/ • eQRP : Our business quality management software help you manage all the activities of your company in order to meet the many standards of qualities such as ISO standards. tasks.com/ • Docutouch : Elegant solution for secure online document management. revision control.195) Http://www. Http://www. Your documents. images. searched & viewed through your point-&-click customized website.docutouch. Http://www. browsed.

If there are 100 users they could each define Customer in a hundred different ways and put those definitions into the metadata repository as their own definitions. Http://www. Webster defines a repository as a place. A Registry has the implication of more than just a shared dumping ground. consistent. distinct. They now serve a central process for the creation of shared meaning across the enterprise.No programming required.dataemporium. concise. approved and unencumbered with business rules that prevent reuse across an enterprise. This module attempts to provide a guide to how these terms could be used more precisely to allow organizations to effectively manage metadata processes. Http://www. precise. 10 . Note the word official. One of the definitions from Webster is an official record book. But a Registry is a protected back room where human-centric workflow processes are used to ensure that metadata items are non-duplicated. Registries The term repository and registry have been used interchangeably and inaccurately.ezbinder. or container where something is deposited or stored. room. A Repository is similar to a front-porch of a house with no locks to keep new things from landing on it. Note that this definition doesn t say anything about the quality of the things being stored or the process that checks to see if new incoming items are duplicates of things already in the repository.com/ Repositories vs. Registries have the additional capability to create workflow processes to check that new metadata is not a duplicate (for a given namespace).net/ereports/ • EZ Binder: Robust web-based document organization and knowledge management system geared towards distributed work forces. Registries have the inference of trust behind them.

They are at the core of the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata registry standard. Note that they don t call it a repository standard. portlet registries. whereas a registry provides response times suitable for service virtualization. They have better chances of remaining consistent with industry best-practices and vertical industry standards. Repositories are personal or small departmental definitions of an isolated view of the world. but it must still be specified. The growth of Business Intelligence and Enterprise Data Warehouse terminology and Service Oriented Architectures is a good place to see the rise of repositories and registries. They identified a process for reviewing new submissions to find out if the submission duplicated existing assets. People are just now starting to understand how important Registries are in most enterprise-wide systems. A metadata repository is similar to a metadata registry because they both only store metadata. Master s List of CCIE Tracks 11 . The difference is a metadata repository provides response times suitable for browsing and reporting. model registries and others. enterprise ontologies or conformed dimensions in a OLAP cube. They showed how critical it was to classify items in a registry and search an existing registry for duplicates before new items are added. Remember to use registry or repository correctly and encourage the same. Registries are sources for creating canonical XML schemas. We now see service registries. The source of these differences can be traced way back to the early days of object-oriented systems. Either can be used according to the user s definition which could be in corporate business context or a private definition from their own repository of imprecisely used buzzwords. This was one of the first books on enterprise reuse strategies and they defined the concept enterprise asset reuse and the need for a trust-driven repository as a basis for reusing assets.Definitions in a registry have been examined by an enterprise-level organization that has the responsibility of enterprise data stewardship.

Each CCIE track focuses on specific skills. Here is a brief enumeration of these available tracks which Cisco is offering. There is the Security Track which focuses on configuring complex networks. Each lab track focuses on implementing their respective skills onto students who participate in the track. and understanding various common security threats. increasing the bandwidth allocations. as well as troubleshooting them.Ever wondered what types of tracks which enable mastery of a certain networking field are available for you to choose from? Cisco offers a wide range of laboratory tracks available for people to choose from. Keep in mind that whichever track you select will determine which field of networking you will belong to after finishing your chosen track. skills in packet architecture which is of importance for many service providers. The most popular track is the Routing and Switching Track which mainly focuses on solving connection problems to improve the response times. troubleshooting various integrated environments. IT Services Operational Level Agreement Process: Service Level Management Status: In draft Under Review Sent for Approval Approved Rejected 12 . All operations of this track support various global operations. There is also the Storage Networking Track which focuses extensively on implementing storage area networks. and maximizing the performance of routers. There are also other tracks available. The coverage of each track is wide since Cisco aims to equip its experts with enough skill and information to dominate their respective fields in networking. Another track is the Service Provider Track which mainly focuses on creating infrastructures of various service provider networks which are essential for delivering managed services. These skills vary and are dependent on the main aspect of the specific track.

with only salient details. There is a common misconception that the Service Level Management Process owner must be a member of the IT Department. the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered. For example. However. the best person for the role is someone with no bias toward IT. OLA Target Response priorities (reflected in parent SLA) If the OLA caters for different priorities. This is not the case and. quite often. List them here with a brief description of their involvement. (The following form can be used as the OLA document. The OLA does not have to be in a lengthy written format and in fact it is more likely to be adopted if it is kept concise. a Human Resource Manager would do well in a role that has such a high degree of communication required. the following points should be addressed: Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Link to parent Service Level Agreement Cross-reference to the “parent” SLA Description of Service Brief description (should be taken from SLA) OLA Reference number Unique identifying number for the OLA (for inclusion in the Configuration Management Data Base – CMDB) OLA Owner Functional role description of who is responsible for this OLA (who would participate in a review of this document) (Special tip: Avoid using names as it dates the document quickly. they must be listed here 13 .) With regard to OPERATIONAL LEVEL AGREEMENTS (OLAs). This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization.) OLA Parties involved Within the IT department perhaps there are different functional parties involved.Version: <<your version>> Release Date: Operational Level Agreement (OLA) The document is not to be considered an extensive statement as its topics have to be generic enough to suit any reader for any organization. This document serves as a GUIDE FOR THE CREATION OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT PROCESS OWNER AND THE IT DEPARTMENT.

with a description on the type of service that each priority level should receive. OLA Support Hours (reflected in parent SLA) Consider marginally longer support hours (if less than 24). the following activities are the common operational activities that are performed across the three sub-processes. The major difference between the sub-processes and their use of these activities comes down to the data being collected and the perspective from which it is analyzed.) Operational Activities of Capacity Management Whereas the previously mentioned activities of application sizing and modeling are those primarily executed in the design stages of a service. Version Control Information OLA Creation Date OLA Last Modified Date Notes & Comments (Duplicate the above table for the number of OLAs to be created. 14 . OLA Out of Hours support procedure (reflected in parent SLA) Are the in-hours support staff the same as out of hours? Phone numbers and what information will be required when support is called What does the user do if the nominated person is not available? OLA Charging policy (reflected in parent SLA) Do we require staff to only act if they have a validated cost code for work? Are there any special aspects of the work that has to be recorded for later charging? OLA Metrics for performance (reflected in parent SLA) What will be the performance numbers for the work performed under this OLA? Will the expected performance be higher than negotiated in the SLA to allow a safety margin? OLA Cross references Reference number to other closely coupled OLAs UC Cross references Reference number to any closely coupled agreements with external suppliers OLA Validity period Duration that this OLA is expected to remain in place before it is reviewed OLA Review Procedure The process for reviewing the OLA and who is involved Special Tip: Avoid using people’s names and use role descriptions to avoid dating the document. OLA Target Response time (reflected in parent SLA) Consider quicker response time to allow for delays.

an operating system. baselines. a hardware configuration or application. There may be other issues identified such as: • Bottlenecks within the infrastructure • Inappropriate distribution of workload across the implemented resources • Inefficiencies in application design • Unexpected increase in workloads and input transactions • Scheduled services that need to be reallocated Tuning After analysis of collected data has occurred. Configuration Capacity is concerned with the performance of individual components.For example. Utilization monitoring The monitoring applied should be specific to a particular CI. and conformance or breaches to agreed service levels. 15 . monitoring transaction throughput rates and response times. the transaction response time for services may be monitored and measured by: • Incorporating specific code within client and server applications software • Using ‘robotic scripted systems’ with terminal emulation software • Using distributed agent monitoring software • Using specific passive monitoring systems Analysis The data collected by the various monitoring activities and mechanisms will then be used to identify trends. Some of the typical monitored data collected include: • Processor utilization • Memory utilization • % processor per transaction type • Input/output rates • Queue lengths • Disk utilization • Transaction rates • Response times • Database usage • Index usage • Hit rates • Concurrent user numbers • Network traffic rates When collecting data intended for use by the Service-based Capacity sub-processes. issues. there may be some corrective action that is required in order to better utilize the infrastructure and resources to improve the performance of a particular service. whether it is an IT service. where Service-based Capacity is concerned with the performance of the entire service. It is important that the monitors can collect all the data required by Capacity Management for each of the three sub-processes.

this may be implemented via a normal change model (using all the normal steps of Change Management) or a standard change where there is already change approval and an established procedure for the work required. record. Specialist Training IT Service Management Implementing effective IT Service Management within the organization will support the Help Desk and provide staff with the tools they need to achieve high quality customer service. including IT staff. While there are variations across these different sources of guidance. database. it may be appropriate to consider using one of the ongoing activities to test the validity of the recommendation. Depending on the changes required. EG. and row. page. striping data across many spindles may reduce data collection • Definition of an acceptable locking strategy that specifies when locks are necessary and the appropriate level. Implementation The objective of implementation is to control the introduction of any changes identified into the production environment.Examples of the types of tuning techniques that might be used include: • Balancing workloads—transactions may arrive at the host or server at a particular gateway. balancing the ratio of initiation points to gateways can provide tuning benefits • Balancing disk traffic—storing data on disk efficiently and strategically. delaying the lock until an update is necessary may provide benefits • Efficient use of memory—may include looking to utilize more or less memory depending upon the circumstances Before implementing any of the recommendations arising from the tuning techniques. depending where the transaction was initiated. EG. The term IT Service Management is used in many ways by different management frameworks and the organizations that seek to use them. common elements for defining ITSM include: • Description of the processes required to deliver and support IT Services for customers • A focus on delivering and supporting the technology or products needed by the business to meet key organizational objectives or goals • Definition of roles and responsibilities for the people involved. customers and other stakeholders • The management of external suppliers (partners) involved in the delivery and support of the technology and products being delivered and supported by IT 16 . file.

People Perspective: Concerned with the “soft” side of ITSM. 5. These organizational capabilities are influenced by the needs and requirements of customers. By having clearly established processes (with documentation. knowledge. This requires IT staff. It will help to ensure that suppliers deliver value for money and provide services that are clearly aligned to business requirements. customers. Products/Technology Perspective: Takes into account the quality of IT services themselves and all technology architectures (hardware & software) required to provision them. Formal definitions of ITSM define it as: “a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services”.1 The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM There are four perspectives (the 4Ps) or attributes that are important to consider in order for IT Service Management to be successful. and other stakeholders to understand the purpose of ITSM and how it should be used within the organization. Training and education should be provided to ensure staff members have the correct skills. However. Technology should be leveraged to both support and drive strategic opportunities for the business. IT Service Management comprises of more than just these capabilities alone. experience and skills. the culture that exists within the service organization.The combination of these elements provide the capabilities required for an IT organization to deliver and support quality IT Services that meet specific business needs and requirements. Process Perspective: Relates to the end-to-end delivery of services based on process flows. The ITIL® framework has been developed as a major source of good practice in Service Management and is used by organizations worldwide to establish and improve their ITSM practices. Partners/Suppliers Perspective: Takes into account the importance of Partner and External Supplier relationships and how they contribute to Service Delivery. guidelines. it is complemented by an industry of professional practice and wealth of knowledge.1. and the intangible nature of the output and intermediate products of IT services. and motivation to perform their roles. and other sup- 17 .

and measurable approach to the management of services. 18 . which demonstrates business and IT alignment. some typical benefits include: • Improved quality service provision • Cost-justifiable service quality • Design of services that meet business. and user demands • Integrated and centralized processes • Transparency of the roles and responsibilities for service provision • Continual improvement. customer. they lose sight of the actual purpose and benefit that their efforts deliver to the business and customers.3 Business and IT Alignment A common theme in any IT Service Management framework is to enable and demonstrate business and IT alignment. It is the same when designing new or modified Services in that these four perspectives need to be considered and catered for in order to enable success in its design.porting tools). performance. and efficiency attributes It is also important to consider the range of stakeholders who can benefit from improved ITSM practices.2 Benefits of ITSM While the benefits of applying IT Service Management practices vary depending on the organization’s needs. Quality IT Service Management ensures that all of these four perspectives are taken into account as part of the continual improvement of the IT organization. the benefits provided by enhanced ITSM practices may apply to one or more of the following parties: • Senior management • Business unit managers • Customers • End users • IT staff • Suppliers • Shareholders 5. it will enable a more consistent.1. One way in which to communicate how IT supports the business is to use Figure 3. As perspectives will differ for each stakeholder. When staff members of an IT organization have only an internal focus on the technology being delivered and supported. 5.1. transition and eventual use by customers. incorporating ‘lessons learned’ into future endeavors • Measurable quality. repeatable.B (on the next page).

the organizational objectives defined above would not be supported or achieved. Without these results. As these activities are technology specific (EG configuring application server). Each layer within this structure is utilized to support the layer(s) above. supported by ITSM processes that reduce the risk and impact of disruptions occurring.B divides an organization into a number of supporting layers that work towards meeting a number of organizational goals. managed and controlled processes used by the IT department that enable quality and efficiency in the delivery and support of the IT Services above. ITSM is utilized to ensure that any resources and effort spent performing the technical activities are optimized according to the greatest business need or reward. a business process that is required to be executed at all times without disruptions (EG emergency health services) would result in highly resilient IT services being implemented. Our Business: A fashion store • We want to increase profits by 15% each year 19 .Figure 3. IT Service Organization: Defines the IT Services and supporting infrastructure that is required to enable the effective and efficient execution of the business processes above. including improved efficiency of operations or ensuring accuracy in the records and information being managed. each layer will in some way influence the layer below them. At the same time. These layers are communicated by the following: Organization: What are the key strategic goals and objectives for the organization? These objectives define who we are as an organization and where we want to be in the future. IT Technical Activities: The actual technical activities required as part of the execution of the ITSM processes above. they will not be a focus of this book’s content. CORE Business Processes: These are represented by the repeatable business activities that produce desirable results for the business. IT Service Management: Made up by the repeatable. IT Services are used by the business to facilitate and enhance outcomes. For example.

IT devices etc) • Geographical dispersion • Culture and ethos • Current maturity and capability levels 5. ensuring that all staff actions are working in accordance to agreed business priorities and objectives. HR. Incident Management etc) • Provisioned cost-effectively (Financial Management. we cannot rely on these services to be available when we need them.• We want to have a good image and reputation with a loyal customer base What Business Processes aid in achieving those objectives? • Retail/sales • Marketing • Manufacturing • Procurement. Service Level Management) If we don’t manage the IT Services appropriately. effort. and other resources spent performing technical activities. Used properly. If too many disruptions occur. we cannot adequately support our business processes effectively and efficiently. Any approach used to improve ITSM practices should always be carefully considered to ensure that the plans suit the organization. video conferencing) • Automatic procurement system for buying products • Point of Sale Services We have ITSM in order to make sure the IT Services are: • What we need (Service Level Management. we will ultimately fail to support and achieve our overall organization’s objectives. If the business processes are not operating as they should. finance etc What IT Services do these business processes dependent on? • Websites (internal and external) • Communication services (email. in terms of: • Size (number of staff. Capacity Management etc) • Available when we need it (Availability Management.organizations should seek to cultivate their own proprietary knowledge on top of a 20 . Also note the relationship between IT Service Management processes and the technical activities below.1.4 Good Practices Ignoring public frameworks and standards can needlessly place an organization at a disadvantage. ITSM processes can optimize the time. customers. This is just a simple example used to illustrate the relationship between ITSM and the organization.

ITIL® stands for the Information Technology Infrastructure Library. and practices. CMMI etc): Frameworks are scaled and adapted by the organization when implemented. they are prescriptive in declaring mandatory elements that must be demonstrated. COBIT. The Office of Government Commerce in the UK continues to operate as the trademark owner of ITIL®. Public frameworks (ITIL. ITIL® is the international de facto management framework describing “good practices” for IT Service Management. Examples of standards relating to ITSM are: • ISO/IEC 20000—International Standard for IT Service Management • ISO/IEC 27001—International Standard for Information Security Management Systems Proprietary knowledge of organizations and individuals: Specific expertise developed for internal purposes or developed in order to sell to other organizations (EG Gartner) Generally good practices are defined as those formalized as a result of being successful in wide-industry use. This library was eventually entitled the IT Infrastructure Library. The ITIL® framework evolved from the UK government’s efforts during the 1980s to document how successful organizations approached service management. Examples of public frameworks for ITSM include: • ITIL ® • COBIT—The Control Objectives for Information and related Technology • Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) for IT Services Standards: Usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria. methods. processes. rather than following a prescriptive set of practices (standards). Through these evolutions. ITIL® has gone through several evolutions and was most recently refreshed with the release of version 3 in 2007. By the early 1990s they had produced a large collection of books documenting the “best practices” for IT Service Management.body of knowledge developed from using public frameworks and standards. the scope of practices documented has increased in order to stay 21 . Unlike frameworks.

The framework is used to provide structure. and tools. 5. and strength to service management capabilities with durable principles. and technology architectures. there is also ITIL Complimentary Guidance. This consists of a complimentary set of publications with guidance specific to industry sectors. this complimentary guidance is available by subscription from http://www. methods. The structure of the ITIL framework is that of the service lifecycle. ITIL® is only one of many sources for ITSM good practices and should be used to complement any other set of practices being used by an organization. operating models.bestpracticelive. learning. It ensures organizations are able to leverage capabilities in one area for learning and improvements in others. This chapter documents the important common terminology that is used throughout the majority of IT organizations world-wide. organization types. • Service Strategy • Service Design • Service Transition • Service Operation • Continual Service Improvement Each volume provides the guidance necessary for an integrated approach and addresses the direct impact of capabilities on a service provider’s performance. and other involved stakeholders is critical to a Help Desk Analyst’s ability to deliver and support IT services in a consistent fashion. Five volumes make up the IT Infrastructure Library (Version 3).current with the continued maturity of the IT industry and meet the needs and requirements of the ITSM professional community. This enables service providers to protect investments and provide the necessary basis for measurement.2 Common Terminology The need to speak a common language with other IT staff. customers. and improvement. stability. end-users.com. In addition to the core publications. Terminology Explanations 22 . At present.

It can include things like IT Infrastructure. The ITSM set of organizational capabilities aims to enable the effective and efficient delivery of services to customers. management controls. application. activities. CI or IT service’s abilitiy to carry out an activity. responsibilities. process. and money. Functions Are made up of people and tools. They may define roles. These people (usually a team or group) use the tools to carry out processes and activities. standards. person. people. and they do this without the ownership of specific costs or risks. ITIL® Functions covered include: Help desk Technical Management Application Management IT Operations Management Process Owner The person or role that is responsible for ensuring processes are fit for their desired purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process. and work instructions if they are needed. Service Used as a way of delivering value to customers. These are intangible assets of an organization that cannot be purchased. Resources A generic term that encompasses anything that may help to deliver an IT service. Example: The owner for the Availability Management Process 23 . Functions provide units of organization responsible for specific outcomes. tools. resources are considered to be tangible assets of an organization. Services facilitate the outcomes that customers want to achieve. Process A set of coordinated activities combining and implementing resources and capabilities in order to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders. but must be developed and matured over time. policies.IT Service Management A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services Capabilities An organization. Capabilities can be described as the functions and processes utilized to manage services. guidelines. Processes are strategic assets when they create competitive advantage and market differentiation. spreading them over multiple customers if possible. The role of the Service Provider is to manage these costs and risks appropriately. Unlike capabilities.

options. and possible problems. Business Case A decision support and planning tool that projects the likely consequences of a business action. 24 . which includes information about costs. EG one IT organization to service all businesses in an umbrella organization. This role reports to the Process Owner. but instead support effective and efficient business processes across an organization. External Service Providers Service provider that provides IT services to external customers.1 What are Services? The concept of IT Services as opposed to IT components is central to understanding the Service Lifecycle and IT Service Management principles in general. issues. Example: The owner of the Payroll Service Process Manager The person or role that is responsible for the operational management of a process.Service Owner The person or role accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service. Instead. the mindset requires an alternative outlook to be maintained. Shared Service Providers An internal service provider that provides shared IT service to more than one business unit. benefits. incorporating the ‘endto-end service’ perspective for what the organization actually provides to its customers. EG one IT organization within each of the business units. EG providing internet hosting solutions for multiple customers. A service is “a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs or risks”. IT Services for this provider do not normally provide a source of competitive advantage. It is possible to have several managers who are responsible for the one process. It requires not just a learned set of skills but also a way of thinking that often challenges the traditional instincts of IT workers to focus on the individual components (typically the applications or hardware under their care) that make up the IT infrastructure. The key factor is that the IT Services provide a source of competitive advantage in the market space in which the business exists. risks.2. Significant items of expenditure can be justified using this tool. Internal Service Providers An internal service provider that is embedded within a business unit. 5. They are responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting services under their care.

of course. they also ensure that: • Communication with customers and end users is effectively maintained • Appropriate resolution times are maintained for end user and customer enquiries • Transparency and visibility of the IT organization and where money is being spent is maintained • The IT organization works proactively to identify potential problems that should be rectified or improvement actions that could be made When using these principles. It is not just the quality of the food itself that will influence their perceptions. then ultimately the perceived quality and value delivered to them as a customer is negatively impacted. But if they take a service-oriented perspective. effort and general fuss required if they were to cook it themselves. music. If they focus only on the application or hardware elements provided and forget or ignore the importance of the surrounding elements that make up the end-to-end service. 25 . there are often times when they wish to enjoy quality food without the time and effort required to prepare a meal. take these ingredients home. The alternative is that they can go to a restaurant that delivers a service that provides them with the same outcome (a nice meal) without the time. clean up the kitchen afterwards. every phone call to the Help Desk or email request for a password reset presents an opportunity to demonstrate service excellence and a commitment to our customers. Now. prepare and cook the meal. but also: • The cleanliness of the restaurant • The friendliness and customer service skills of the waiters and other staff • The ambience of the restaurant (lighting. set the table. Now consider how that person would identify the quality and value of that service being provided. they would need to go to a grocery store. the customer experience and perceived quality and value will be negatively impacted. decorations etc) • The time taken to receive the meal (and was it what they asked for?) • Did they offer a choice of beverages? If any one of these factors does not meet the person’s expectations. and. While most people do enjoy cooking. relate this to an IT staff member’s role in provisioning an IT Service. If they were to cook.But what does this actually mean? The following analogy explains some of the key concepts in a way that most (food lovers) will understand. buy the ingredients. just like in the example of the restaurant.

through the activities performed. activities and work instructions. or the same person may be both the process owner and process manager (typically in smaller organizations). communication and learning processes. concerns. and opinions that might influence the way in which processes are designed. which may affect the process design and implementation. standards. policies. and users etc) are appropriately involved in the design of processes so that: • They can communicate their own ideas. they greatly affect and impact the form.2.5. Some principles: • All processes should be measurable and performance-driven (not just in regards to time taken. A process takes one or more inputs and. There may be several managers for the one process. So when defining and designing processes. tools etc). customers. substance. implemented and improved—of particular importance may be current behaviors that have not been previously identified. including cost.2 Processes and Functions Defining Processes Processes can be defined as a structured set of coordinated activities designed to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders. effort and other resources used) • All processes produce specific results that create value • Processes are strategic assets when they create competitive advantage and market differentiation • Processes may define roles. and character of activities and subsequent outputs by shaping how they are carried out. This may be addressed by ensuring that all required stakeholders (EG staff members. there are behavioral components that are. if they are needed A process owner is the person responsible for ensuring that the process is fit for the desired purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process. management controls. responsibilities. tools. turns them into defined outputs. A process manager is the person responsible for the operational management of a process. it is important to consider the physical and behavioral aspects that exist. intangible and are part of an underlying pattern so deeply embedded and recurrent that it is displayed by most members of the organization and includes decision making. • Stakeholder groups are provided adequate training and education regarding how to perform their role within the process and what value the process provides for 26 . In addition to the tangible components of processes (documentation. Behavioral components have no independent existence apart from the work processes in which they appear. guidelines. at the same time. but. for the most part. but measuring overall efficiency.

even if they might not do it themselves. and management of IT Services. IT functions define the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall design. The functions that will be discussed within the Service Operation phase are needed to manage the ‘steady state’ operation IT environment. which can frequently be attributed to misunderstanding between the people involved and a lack of clarity regarding the roles and responsibilities that exist.• Stakeholders generally feel empowered in the change being developed and. Just like in many sporting activities where each player will have a specific role to play in the overall team strategy. an activity. This saying comes from the perceived failure of processes in many organizations. delivery. The RACI Model is a useful tool that can assist with the definition of the roles and responsibilities when designing processes. are more likely to respond positively. therefore. or combination of both. rather than actively or passively resisting the organizational changes occurring Defining Functions Functions refer to the logical grouping of roles and automated measures that execute a defined process.) C—Consult (advice/guidance/information can be gained from this function or position prior to the action taking place) I—Inform (the function or position that is told about the event after it has happened) A RACI Model is used to define the roles and responsibilities of various functions in relation to the activities of Incident Management. RACI Model It is said that processes are perfectuntil people get involved. RACI stands for: R—Responsibility (does the work for that activity but reports to the function or position that has an “A” against it) A—Accountability (is made accountable for ensuring that the action takes place. General rules that exist: 27 . This role implies ownership.

only to find there is no menu available for you to peruse. and. the Service Catalogue provides this mechanism. IT budgets. the principles remain the same. but what mechanisms do we use to make these transactions simple yet effective for all parties? For most IT organizations. and which customers we provide them to. how will you manage the large influx of information in such a small time and be able to choose what you want? While this example may be far removed from the running of an IT organization. Service Level Agreements. How will the staff provide you with information about what options are available to you? How will you know what ingredients and items are included with each meal? What will the price be of those meals? What about drinks or other items? Even if you manage to be served by a very efficient waiter who can recite everything to you flawlessly. 28 . through the use of their menu and the knowledge and skills of staff. 5. and. and things only get worse as time progresses. in many ways. we are in the business of providing IT services to our customers. more than one “A” would confuse this) • At least 1 “R” per row must be defined (shows that actions are taking place) with more than one being appropriate where there is shared responsibility In the example RACI model given.3. what those services provide. and other related items become all the more difficult.3 Service Delivery Principles 5. Imagine walking into a restaurant for lunch.1 IT Service Catalogue The IT Service Catalogue is developed as part of Service Level Management process. As an IT service provider. customers can understand what is available to them and make effective choices in a simple manner. Without some agreed definition of what services we offer. which in this case will be performed by other functional teams. it serves as the foundation for much of the work involved within the scope of Service Offerings and Agreements.• Only 1 “A” per row can be defined (ensures accountability. the development and management of Service Portfolios. the Help Desk is both responsible and accountable for ensuring that incidents are logged and classified but not responsible for the subsequent investigation. A restaurant is in business to provide dining services to customers.

these activities and items may have a little or great deal of reliance on technology to be effective. the size of the customer and end user population. We must also seek to ensure that the Service Catalogue is continually maintained and updated to contain correct. many benefits will be delivered to both customers and the IT organization.But it is not enough to simply have some form of Service Catalogue. there will often be a lack of clarity in this regard. how they are intended to be used. well communicated picture of all IT services. 29 . and relevant information to assist communication and transactions with customers. including: • An accepted. and consistent central source of information • All areas of the business can view an accurate. and what objectives have been defined for the process. appropriate. This requires the service provider to perform such tasks as: • Definition of the service (what is being provided?) • Production and maintenance of accurate Service Catalogue information • Development and maintenance of the interfaces and dependencies between the Service Catalogue and Service Portfolio. business processes they enable. supporting components. and Configuration Items (CIs) within the Service Catalogue and the CMS Depending on the number and complexity of services offered. their details. resulting in confusion and debate about what constitutes a service. and status • Contains a customer-facing view of IT services in use. While it sounds simple enough. ensuring consistency between the two items • Identification and documentation of the interfaces and dependencies between all services (and supporting services) within the Service Catalogue and Configuration Management System (CMS) • Identification and documentation of the interfaces and dependencies between all services. and the quality of service to be expected • Resources required for Service Level Management and other associated processes or staff in managing communication with customers in relation to information already captured by the Service Catalogue is reduced What should the Service Catalogue Represent? The starting point for any Service Catalogue journey is to begin identifying what services are being provided and who are the customers of these services. Benefits By ensuring the development and constant upkeep of an accurate Service Catalogue. Scope of a Service Catalogue The scope of the Service Catalogue is to provide and maintain accurate information on all services that are being transitioned or have been transitioned to the live environment. widely accessible. for an organization with a long history and a large amount of customers.

such as software or applications. as being the service offered to customers. Eventually. This is normally performed by asking customers what they perceive to be the IT services they are utilizing and how they map onto and support their business processes. a clearer picture will emerge. Looking at services from only an IT perspective leads to a dangerous path and is likely to cause more problems in the process. the recommended starting point is to look at things from the customer perspective.From an IT perspective. The top-down approach may lead to the creation of a service hierarchy. Regardless of exactly how this occurs. the service will be seen to be composed of multiple services (which in turn are formed by one or more IT systems). so should the associated definition for inclusion in the Service Catalogue. In other cases. each organization needs to develop a policy defining what constitutes a service and how it is defined and agreed within their own organization. qualifying types of services such as: • Business services—that which is actually used and seen by the customer • Supporting services. As the definition of services begins to occur. providing the beginnings of a Business Service Catalogue. consideration should be made as to who the customers of these services are. many staff will typically identify IT systems. Just like the design of services should be coordinated in a top-down approach. Customers Services Accounts Sales Marketing Legal Production Retail EG Accounts System       EG Email      EG Intranet    EG Internet     Service x Service x Service x 30 . Instead. including further definition as: o Infrastructure services o Application services o Network services o Data Management services • Shared and commodity services • Externally provided services—those provided/managed by a third party organization. through a cycle of discussions with customers.

the Technical Service Catalogue includes records of the relationships that exist with other supporting services.Figure 6. and Configuration Items necessary for the delivery of the service to the business. shared services. it provides the capability for identifying and relating the effect of incidents and problems on services offered. As this becomes more widely adopted throughout more Service Management activities. as time progresses and the maturity of Service Management develops. many organizations will begin to integrate and maintain their Service Catalogues (and Service Portfolios) as part of the Configuration Management Systems. or spreadsheet. After the investigation and definition of services occur and discussions are held with customers. less mature organizations may choose to maintain these separately. not overly technical) to ensure its effectiveness. the information and knowledge gathered will be structured to produce a meaningful Service Catalogue. In effect. However. the need to ensure that modifications to the Service Portfolio and Service Catalogue are controlled by Change Management significantly increases. together with relationships to the business units and the business process they support. table. In many cases. The Technical Service Catalogue should underpin the Business Service Catalogue and is not always visible to customers and users unless specifically requested. and external suppliers. the knowledge and information of the Service Catalogue is logically divided into two aspects: • A Business Service Catalogue: Which contains details of all the IT services defined in the context of customers. 31 . by comparison. When this occurs and services are represented as a Configuration Item (CI). the technical level of detail provided should be appropriately expanded. This information is utilized to form the customer view of the Service Catalogue using appropriate communication (language. the Technical Service Catalogue is formed largely by the information contained within the Configuration Management System. the Service Catalogue will normally be recorded by means of a matrix. components. • A Technical Service Catalogue: Also contains details of all the IT services delivered to the customer. IT staff. use of business terminology. While more extravagant implementations of the Service Catalogue delivered via extensive internet/intranet solutions will maintain both aspects in an integrated fashion. but. In cases where the customer is an IT organization themselves.C—Identifying customers of defined services In the earlier stages of process implementation.

rather than the development of contracts as part of a ‘blame culture’ by both parties. which are also developed during the Service Design Phase.3. 6am to 6pm) • Service availability (EG 99% during agreed service hours) • Reliability (EG no more than 2 disruptions totalling 30 mins in a working week) • Customer support arrangements • Contact points and escalation • Service performance • Batch turnaround times • Security • Costs and charging method used The key criteria for any information contained within an SLA is that it must be measureable with clear and concise language in order to aid understanding. in that SLAs should not be used as a way of holding one side or the other to ransom. 5. otherwise it conflicts with the goal of improving relationships between customers and the IT service provider. it can be used to help with the development of any Service Level Agreements (SLAs). As already discussed.2 Service Level Agreements Once an IT Service Catalogue has been developed. mutually beneficial agreements will be developed. The typical contents for an SLA include: • An introduction to the SLA • Service description • Mutual responsibilities • Scope of SLA • Applicable service hours (EG Monday to Saturday. The key word here is agreement. defining the key service targets and responsibilities of both parties. the key requirement is that the desired information is easily accessible by the authorized parties and communicated in a form that is appropriate for the audience. When SLAs are viewed positively as a way of continually improving the relationship between provider and customers. 32 . the guiding principle is that they are a written agreement between an IT service provider and the IT customer(s). Although SLAs are implemented in a wide variety of fashions. SLAs are not used as legal documents for imposing penalties.Regardless of the implementation method.

To assist in ensuring these guidelines are followed. It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents with different customers and less time spent on worrying about accommodating different requirements amongst users. there is potential for misunderstanding or even for the SLA to go unread. there are potential disadvantages that may arise as a result of a service-based structure. The definition of multiple classes of service (EG Gold. it is useful to have an independent party who has not been involved with the SLA negotiation and development to do a final readthrough. These include: • Difficulties faced when there are varying requirements across the customers involved for a service • Deciding which customers will sign such an agreement as it may not be appropriate or feasible for all to sign In cases where there is a fairly consistent level of service required across all customers (such as e-mail). The service-based SLA is usually preferred by IT as it allows a single document to cover a single service for all customers of that service. it might highlight potential ambiguities and difficulties that can be addressed and clarified. For example. The three common approaches include Service-based.Another mistake made by organizations in implementing SLAs is that they become too long and technically focused. consideration should be made as to which SLA structure will most appropriately meet the organization’s needs. then service-based SLAs may be an efficient structure to use. When this occurs. and business to be addressed by Service Level Management. Service Level Agreement Structures Due to the wide range of services. Silver and Bronze offerings) may also 33 . By doing so. Customer-based and Multi-level SLAs. Service-based SLA This structure involves the documentation of an SLA for each service with the SLA covering all the customers of that service. customers. However. a Point of Sale (POS) service will have an SLA created that covers all the customers who use the POS as part of the retail business processes.

The potential disadvantage in using customer-based SLAs may occur when there are common requirements for services across most customers. an SLA is documented for a specific customer covering all of the services that the IT organization provides to them. This is useful for international organizations where there are varying requirements between the regions that are served. More specific details can then be provided at the customer level 34 . If this is the case. Customer-based SLAs For this structure. a common approach to multi-level SLAs is as follows: • Corporate Level: Covers all generic SLA issues to every customer throughout the organization. • Customer Level: Covers all SLA issues relevant to a particular customer group or business unit. a combination of both of these structures may be appropriate. • Organization: Covering all customers that exist within an organization that is being provided with services. this is the preferred option for customers as it details all their specific requirements in a single document. this means that. then there would be a requirement for the creation of ten SLAs. Multi-level SLAs Some organizations have chosen to adopt a multi-level SLA structure where each layer has a different level of focus. In most cases. This could result in the duplication of effort in defining and documenting SLAs for each customer. These targets should be set at a sufficiently high level to serve as a benchmark for all new services introduced. In effect. regardless of the service being used • Service Level: Covers all SLA issues relevant to the specific service. While the layers chosen should be appropriate to most effectively meet the organization’s needs. if the IT organization is providing services to ten different customers (EG Human Resources. providing all services and customers are covered with no overall duplication. Sales and Marketing. Finance etc).be used within a service-based SLA to enable some flexibility in offerings. in relation to a specific customer group Other feasible options that could be used for multi-level SLAs include: • Geographic region: Covering all customers in that region.

scale.1 Objectives The primary objective of Service Operation is to enable effectiveness and efficiency in delivery and support of IT services. such as shared services. and general staff member of the 35 . and achieving a balance between conflicting sets of priorities. utility computing. adapting to the changing business and technological environments. and Standard: Where customers are defined. do your job” Team motto describing the goal for every player. Successful Service Operation requires coordination and execution of the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers.4. in terms of the level of service being offered This kind of structure allows SLAs to be kept to a manageable size. and tools for use in two major control perspectives: reactive and proactive. and reduces the need for frequent updates. instead. Strategic objectives are ultimately realized through Service Operations. This lifecycle phase provides guidance on: • How to provide stability in Service Operations. 5. One of Service Operation’s key roles is dealing with the conflict between maintaining the status quo. 5. therefore. and service levels • Service Operation process guidelines. 5.2 Service Operation Functions “Know your role. Service Operation is also responsible for ongoing management of the technology that is used to deliver and support services. making it a critical capability. and mobile commerce.4 Service Operation Principles The Service Operation stage will be the primary focus for a Help Desk Analyst with the majority of their role being performed within the live environment. Enhanced. • Supporting operations through new models and architectures. methods.• User group: Covering all services being provided to a particular user group • Premium. scope.4. web services. allowing for changes in design. coach. avoids unnecessary duplication.

and the objectives governing the implementation of the Help Desk. Server). Just like in sports. requests and general communication • To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible in the case of disruption • To improve user awareness of IT issues and to promote appropriate use of IT services and resources • To assist the other IT functions by managing user communication and escalating incidents and requests using defined procedures The Help Desk typically manages its requests via help desk software. which are not necessarily performed by equivalent organizational structure. Note: These are logical functions.4. such as the location.Kansas City Chiefs. where each player will have a specific role to play in the overall team strategy. The functions within Service Operation are needed to manage the ‘steady state’ operation IT environment. diversity in services and technology supported. which are not suggested organizational structures. Technical Management includes activities that are performed by the lower groupings (EG Mainframe. activity. any combination and any number of departments can include aspects of Technical and Application Management. such as an incident tracking system that allows them to track user requests with a unique ticket number. languages and cultures of end users. IT functions define the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall Service Delivery and Support of IT Services. Help desk organizational structures Many factors will influence the way in which a help desk function will be physically structured. 36 . Functions refer to the people (or roles) and automated measures that execute a defined process.3 The Help Desk Goal and objectives The primary goal of the Help Desk (also referred to as a Service Desk) is to support the agreed IT service provision by ensuring the accessibility and availability of the IT organization by performing various supporting activities. or combination of both. Other objectives include: • To act as a single point of contact for all user incidents. 5. Due to this.

C—The local help desk structure Benefits of a local help desk structure Disadvantages of a local help desk structure Local and specific user knowledge Ability to effectively communicate with multiple languages Appropriate cultural knowledge Visible (and physical) presence of the Help Desk Higher costs for replicated infrastructure and more staff involved Less knowledge transfer. A downside to this structure is that it can be inefficient and expensive to have multiple help desks operating. It also includes Help Desks that may not be located in but are physically close to the user community. each Help Desk may spend time rediscovering knowledge Inconsistency in service levels and reporting Help Desks may be focused on local issues.such as improved satisfaction or reduced operating costs. which is a benefit for many Help Desk users. Local Help Desk A local Help Desk structure is where the Help Desk is located within the user community. 37 . Figure 7. The following are some of the main options chosen when implementing a help desk function. The close proximity to users aids communication and allows users to physically see and interact with the Help Desk.

D—The centralized help desk structure Benefits of a centralized help desk structure Disadvantages of a centralized help desk structure Reduced operational costs Improved usage of available resources Consistency of call handling Improved ability for knowledge sharing Simplicity for users (call one number) to contact the Help Desk Potentially higher costs and challenges in handling a 24x7 environment or different timezones Lack of local knowledge Possible gaps in language and culture Higher risk (single point of failure) in case of power loss or other physical threat Virtual Help Desk A Virtual Help Desk gives the appearance of a centralized Help Desk. Technology like the Internet provides the capability for this type of structure.Centralized Help Desk A centralized structure uses a Help Desk in a single location (or smaller number of locations). If necessary. a local presence can be maintained by controlling those staff through the centralized Help Desk. staff can be spread throughout multiple locations. in this structure. however. Figure 7. 38 . This structure can be more efficient as it enables a higher amount of calls to be managed by fewer staff while also enabling greater visibility of repeat incidents and requests.

F—A ‘follow the sun’ help desk structure Benefits of a ‘follow the sun’ help desk structure Disadvantages of a ‘follow the sun’ help desk structure • Support for global organizations 39 . The purpose of this is to provide service 24 hours a day in all locations around the world. requiring diverse and effective voice technology • Lack in the consistency of service and reporting • Less effective for monitoring actions of staff • Staff may feel disconnected from other Help Desk staff. during their usuall operating hours. regardless of location. Follow the sun A Follow the Sun Help Desk is a combination of Help Desks that are located in a number of geographical locations (usually done in global or international organizations).E—A virtual help desk structure Benefits of a virtual help desk structure Disadvantages of a virtual help desk structure • Support for global organizations • 24x7 support in multiple timezones • Reduced operational costs • Improved usage of available resources • Effective matching of appropriate staff for different types of calls • Initial cost of implementation.Figure 7. Figure 7. IE the Help Desk in each location will provide service to all users.

Because of this. Skills Due to the role played by the Help Desk. The technology should. workarounds. Some ways in which this can be done include: • Recognition of staff achievements contributing to service quality • Rotation of staff onto other activities (projects. Help Desk Managers should use a number of methods and incentives to retain quality staff and to avoid disruption and inconsistency in the quality of support offered. therefore. staff members need to have (or have the ability to develop): • Communication Skills • Technical Skills • Business Understanding The most important of these three is communication skills. as the primary role of the Help Desk is to provide a Single Point of Contact between the end-users and the IT organization. support this capability with the web front-end allowing web pages to offer a menu-driven range of self help and service requests with a direct interface into the back-end process-handling software. known errors etc. they will need to be able to deal effectively with a wide range of people and situations. Staff Retention To ensure a balanced mix of experienced and newer staff. second-line support etc) • Team building exercises and celebrations • Promote the Help Desk as a potential stepping stone for staff to move into other more technical or supervisory roles (after defined time periods and skills achieved) Self help Many organizations find it beneficial to offer self-help capabilities to their users.• 24x7 support in multiple timezones • Improved quality of service • Improved customer/user satisfaction • Effective knowledge sharing and high level visibility of distributed infrastructure • Typically higher operating costs • Cost of required technology • Challenges in using single language for multiple regions when recording knowledge. 40 .

Service Managers will consider the following items when developing contracts to reduce these risks: • Use of your own Service Management tool. To enable this. Especially dangerous is the tendency to focus on “average call time” or “number of calls answered” metrics. and other technology components in order to provide effective and efficient support to end-user calls and requests. notification. updates) • Systems that contain linkages to SLAs. not theirs • Retain ownership of data • Ability to maintain required staffing levels 41 . which can mask underlying issues with the quality of support provided.This reduces the amount of calls into the Help Desk and is often used as a source for improvements to efficiency. systems. there are potential risks that can be introduced when outsourcing an organization’s Help Desk. Aside from this. a balanced range of metrics should be established and reviewed at regular intervals. When reviewing the potential for this to occur. the Help Desk will use many different tools. CMDB • Access to availability monitoring tools • Self help for customers using technology Help desk metrics To evaluate the true performance of the Help Desk. Some of the typical metrics reviewed when monitoring the performance of the Help Desk include: • The number of calls to the Help Desk (broken down by type and work period) • First-line resolution rate • Average Help Desk cost of handling any incident or request • Number of knowledgebased articles created • Number or percentage of SLA breaches • Call resolution time • Customer satisfaction (surveys) • Use of self help (where exists) Outsourcing the Help Desk Although fairly common. typical technology components utilized include: • Computerized help desk systems • Voice services (advanced menu systems. An example of this is the ability for a customer to track the status of their parcels online when shipped through a major courier company. SMS) • Web and email (access. voicemail.

Figure 7. Through their technical knowledge. up-to-date training should be provided for those working in technical support teams to ensure that they possess current knowledge of and are able to manage all technology within the organization. Technical Management should review current technology and decide when to invest in updates and new technology for the organization. Technical support teams or departments provide Technical Management for the IT infrastructure. This is achieved through creating cost effective technical architectures. Technical support teams or departments should provide appropriate technical skills and resources that enable the organization to manage IT infrastructure effectively. Quite often.G—Technical Management Roles and Responsibilities The role of the Technical Management function is to understand the value of technology within the organization and manage that technology appropriately. in larger organizations.• Agreements on reporting and monitoring needs • Proven up-to-date procedures • Agreed and understood support needs • Engage contract specialists for assistance 5.4. maintaining this architecture using appropriate technical skills. A single team or department may be sufficient within small organizations. 42 . each type of infrastructure will require a separate team or department.4 Technical Management Goal and objectives The primary goal of the Technical Management function is to create and maintain a set of management disciplines that allow an organization to manage its business processes. and ensuring that these skills are implemented and used effectively to diagnose and resolve technical failures. however. The end result of this is the creation of competitive advantage. these same departments will be given responsibility for the daily operation of a subset of the IT Infrastructure. Appropriate.

Each day. In many cases. However.4. and other capabilities.5 IT Operations Management Goal and objectives The primary goal of IT Operations Management is to manage and maintain the IT infrastructure. In some organizations. as does quality support require involvement from the designers in turn. the IT Operations Management team carry out operational activities on a day-to-day basis. Technical Management staff should develop effective communication channels and meet regularly to discuss issues or potential ideas. Figure 7. Unlike large projects where activities are often completed once and are seen as long-term. this is a single.I—IT Operations Management 43 . centralized department. 5. IT Operations Management involves short-term activities that are usually completed within a day. technology. To achieve this. processes. the priority should be to maintain stability. During reviews. while in others some activities and staff are centralized and some are provided by distributed and specialized departments. these same activities will be repeated in an identical manner. IT Operations Management teams should aim to review these daily activities so that they are constantly revised and updated to be as efficient and effective as possible.Figure 7H—Staff making up the Technical Management Function To enable quality knowledge sharing and continual improvement of services. History demonstrates that quality design requires involvement from those who will be supporting the product/service. the role of IT Operations Management is actually performed by the Technical and Application Management functions where required.

Facilities Management teams should possess knowledge about physical infrastructure and be able to provide advice about suitable premises. Operations Control is responsible for the following: • Monitoring and Control • Console Management • Job Scheduling • Backup and restores • Print and Output Management 5. These normally include buildings such as information processing facilities and server and computer rooms.4. Operations Control is often performed from a Network Operations Centre or Bridge. maintain. Some organizations will use the facilities of external parties. and support quality applications that enhance the organization’s business processes. Operations Control’s primary goal is to monitor and manage activities that support the IT Infrastructure. In addition to this.IT Operations Control One role played by IT Operations Management is that of Operations Control. and technical skills should be used to this end.7 Application Management Goal and objectives Application Management’s primary goal is to develop.4. Availability of applications is paramount. Applications should be implemented in a timely manner to ensure disruptions are handled 44 .6 Facilities Management Facilities Management involves managing the physical components used within IT. which is a central location for the management of operational activities. Facilities Management should maintain all physical components to ensure working environments are safe. and Facilities Management teams will manage the contracts between these parties and the organization. This goal is achieved through ensuring all applications are cost-effective and able to meet the needs of the business. 5.

testing. although in many cases this fails to happen.efficiently. When the development of applications is not integrated with the rest of ITSM. 5. the release of applications that are not optimal in supporting business processes. Application Management is usually divided into departments based on the application portfolio of the organization allowing easier specialization and more focused support. it often leads to a breakdown in communication channels between developers and support staff and. and improvement of applications that form part of IT Services • Support the organization’s business processes by helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for application software • Assisting in the decision whether to build or buy an application • Assist in the design and/or deployment of those applications • Provide ongoing support and improvement of those applications • Identify skills required to support the applications Application Management Lifecycle Application Development processes should be implemented as part of a coordinated approach to IT Service Management.J—Application Management Roles and Responsibilities • Managing Applications throughout their lifecycle • Supports and maintains operational applications and plays an important role in design. The processes that support this goal are: • Event Management • Incident Management • Problem Management • Request Fulfillment • Access Management 45 . ultimately. Figure 7.5 Service Operation Processes The goal of Service Operation is to enable effectiveness and efficiency in delivery and support of IT services.

Event Management should be utilized to detect and communicate operational information. Request Fulfillment.Figure 7.1 Event Management Goal and objectives The goal of Event Management is to provide the capability to detect system events.5. which may impact the way in which events are correlated and provide 46 . 5. for example: • Informational events that signify regular operation (EG a scheduled backup occurred successfully) • Exception events (EG a scheduled backup failed) • Warning events that signify unusual but not exceptional operation. with Event Management and Problem Management as primarily ‘back-of-house’ processes. These are an indication that the situation may require closer monitoring (EG no backup initiated within last 72 hours) Note: In most organizations’ IT infrastructure. It may be used for automating routine activities. warnings and exceptions.K—Where the Service Operation Processes get carried out The figure above demonstrates how much responsibility the Help Desk and the Technical Support Groups (Technical. there would be a significant amount of events occurring everyday. and Access Management are primarily carried out by the Help Desk. so that input can be provided for reporting the service achievements and quality levels provided. understand those events. There are many different types of events. Event Management is the process that triggers many of the activities that are performed by staff working on the IT Help Desk. Incident Management. IT Operations and Application Management functions) have in the Service Operation Processes. such as backups and batch processing or dynamic roles for balancing demand for services across multiple infrastructure items/sources to improve performance. and choose suitable control actions.

the root-cause of any problems. and it does this by looking for relationships between different events and using the information within the events to gain a better understanding and knowledge of each event. Scope Event Management can be applied to any aspect of Service Management that needs to be controlled and that can be automated. which will include monitoring CIs that do not generate events or alerts.triggers indicating if or when a response is needed. and to predict future trends. on the other hand. So when implementing Event Management. has a broader scope. and these should be used when programming the Correlation Engine. During the Service Design and Service Operation phases. Monitoring. including: • Event categorization 47 . specific performance standards and guidelines are created. The rules may have either a technical or business focus. Event Management focuses on the generation and detection of notifications about the status of the IT infrastructure and services. but the underlying reason for correlation is to separate high impact events from low impact events. It uses specific rules and criteria to determine what level of impact an event will have on the business. consider what monitoring activities and techniques should be interfaced to generate alerts and notifications that will provide value to the IT groups and wider organization. A Correlation Engine is utilized to perform this task. Correlation Engines will use a number of factors to make decisions. Event Correlation Event Correlation is the process that categorizes each event. These include: • CIs—to provide visibility of functioning and failing components or to understand when other changes have occurred in the infrastructure • Environmental conditions—such as increases in the temperature of servers and facilities • Software license monitoring—used to maintain optimum licensing utilization • Security—to perform security checks and to detect exceptions or intrusions • Normal activity—such as tracking the activity and performance of an IT service It is important to note the difference between monitoring and Event Management. The Correlation Engine then uses this knowledge to identify unusual situations or events. While the two areas are related.

2 Incident Management Incident Management has developed over time to become one of the most visible and mature ITSM processes for any organization. allowing the business to maintain service quality and availability. Goal and objectives The goal of Incident Management is to effectively deal with incidents so that normal service can resume as soon as possible. Where thresholds have been set in the design of a service and associated components. such as Information Security.• Frequency of similar events • Number of CIs generating similar events • Indications of an exception • A comparison against defined threshold levels (EG utilization levels) • Whether further information is required to investigate further These factors should also be used to set a priority level for the event. initially. the focus will be on providing the foundation for service operation with input to Incident and Problem Management. where Event Management can enhance the capabilities to safeguard SLAs and reduce the business impact of any failures as soon as possible 5. and Availability Management. While.5. 48 . in order to define the appropriate level of response from the operations group. Capacity. Event Management Interfaces Event Management should be developed over time to any service management process that requires monitoring and control. largely driven by the need to reduce the business impact of disruptions to IT services. Event Management should be utilized to generate events and response actions • Service Level Management. it typically receives more attention and funding than other areas of service management. other possible interfaces that are appropriate include: • Configuration Management with events providing information on the current (real-time) and historical status of CIs • Service Design processes. as Incident Management can be easily demonstrated to have a business benefit. This ensures that business impact is reduced as much as possible. While any effective implementation does balance the efforts towards the various phases of the Service Lifecycle. This section will explain the activities and techniques that represent best practices for Incident Management.

use a hedge-trimmer. a service request does not involve any (potential) disruption to an IT service. focused on addressing the symptoms as quickly as possible. concrete over etc) Incident Management is not concerned with the root cause. Incident Models Incident Models manage previously seen and documented incidents using a pre-defined set of steps and procedures. mow over them. What is the difference between Incident Management and Problem Management? If our garden had weeds. which is then resolved by IT operations staff • An external supplier observes that a portion of the IT infrastructure under their control is experiencing issues and logs an incident ticket via email While the process of Request Fulfillment does typically operate in a similar fashion to Incident Management. Careful distinction needs to be made between the role of Event Management and Incident Management as only events that indicate exception to normal service operation and are determined by the Event Correlation Engine to be significant are escalated to Incident Management. and buy a goat) Problem Management: Use techniques that address the root-cause of the symptoms so that weeds will no longer grow (EG use poison. despite no current impact on the end user community • An end user logging an incident using self help means. This means that incident records may be generated as a result of: • End users calling the Help Desk to notify of a disruption to their normal use of IT services • Events representing an exception that are resolved using automated means. dig roots out.Incident Management (along with Request Fulfilment) provides a defined process that governs the activities in which Help Desk staff will likely spend the majority of their time performing. Scope Incident Management can be utilized to manage any event that disrupts or may disrupt an IT service and associated business processes. re-lawn. how would we address the situation? Incident Management: Use techniques that address the symptoms but still allow the weeds to grow back (EG pull them out. it is. instead. with an associated incident record also being generated for informational purposes • An IT staff member noticing that a component of the IT infrastructure is behaving abnormally. 49 .

Major Incidents For those incidents that result in significant or organization-wide business impact. planning needs to consider how separate procedures should be used to provide appropriate response and resolution. Incident Models should provide the contact details and criteria for escalation. Incident Models should define the necessary steps for dealing with an incident. They should also specify who is responsible for each step and when these steps should be completed. Any service management tools that are used for Event and Incident Management should be utilized with the defined incident models that can automate the process. Specialized incidents include those that need routing to particular groups or other ITSM processes. though the focus is not the resolution of the incident. and it should be given priority over other less significant incidents. An example of this is for capacity related incidents in which the model would define what impact reduction measures could be performed before routing the incident to Capacity Management. It is also paramount that Incident Models detail procedures for preserving evidence. This may require the establishment of a team with the immediate focus of resolving the incident and reducing the associated business impact. The Help Desk maintains responsibility throughout the process so that users are kept fully informed of the incident status and progress for resolution. When dealing with a major incident. as well as the required order of these steps. The first requirement is to define what constitutes a major incident for the organization and customers with reference to the incident prioritization mechanisms that are used. Problem Management will typically be involved when major incidents occur.They are used to help provide efficient resolution to the most frequently occurring (80/20 rule) or specialized incidents. 50 . In the event that an incident needs to be escalated. time should be managed effectively to ensure the incident is resolved as soon as possible. The key role of separate major incident procedures is to establish a fast and coordinated response that can manage and resolve the issues at hand.

This information is important to allow effective escalation.Instead Problem Management seeks to identify the root cause of the incident. and if there are any other areas of the infrastructure where this could occur (EG replicated infrastructure across multiple locations). regardless of source. The general formula to calculate incident priority is: IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY • Impact: Degree to which the user/business is affected by the incident(s) • Urgency: Degree to which the resolution of the incident can be delayed The following factors are usually taken into account for determining the impact of an incident: • The number of users being affected (EG single user. memory board. For example. hardware incident. organization wide) 51 . Incident categorization During the logging procedure. how this can be removed. trend analysis of incidents. It may also be necessary to record more than one incident for any given call/discussion so that a historical record is kept and that time/work tracking can be performed. card failure. Incident prioritization An agreed prioritization matrix should be used to determine the appropriate timescales and effort applied for response and resolution to identified incidents. Multi-level categorization is typically used for Incident Management. While this can be easily managed for automated mechanisms. entire business unit. server. multiple users. Incident logging All incidents. where the service management tool is populated with up to three of four levels of category details. This will enable surveys to be conducted on the various types of incidents that have occurred in a given time and also the frequency with with they have occurred. and future infrastructure improvements. must be recorded with a unique reference number and the date and time of occurrence. a category is assigned. positive behaviors need to be developed for IT staff and end users to ensure the consistent recording of identified incidents.

Figure 7. At this point. For incidents that cannot be resolved at this stage and the user is still on the phone. EG Priority 1 = Critical = 1 hour target resolution time Priority 2 = High = 8 hours Priority 3 = Medium = 24 hours Priority 4 = Low = 48 hours Initial diagnosis For calls forwarded to the Help Desk. the Help Desk analyst can begin to provide some initial support by referencing known errors and simple diagnostic tools. Where possible the incident will be resolved using these sources of information. the incident resolution can be delayed when the disruption to an IT service (EG payroll) has not yet affected business operations (but will if the service is not available in three days time). give the unique incident reference number. in which case the urgency may be high. the business impact is felt immediately. Incident escalation 52 . the staff member will use pre-defined questioning techniques to assist in the collection of useful information for the incident record. In some cases. closing the incident after verifying the resolution was successful.• Possible risk of injury or death • The number of services affected • The level of financial loss • Effect on credibility and reputation of business • Regulatory or legislative breaches Urgency is calculated by assessing when the potential impact of the incident will be felt. and confirm user contact details for follow-ups. the Help Desk analyst should inform the user of the next steps that will be taken.L—Example incident prioritization matrix The prioritization matrix above would be accompanied by agreed timelines for resolution. In other cases.

Hierarchical: • For corrective actions by authorized line management • Also known as “Vertical Escalation” • When resolution of an incident will not be in time or satisfactory Investigation and diagnosis The incident investigation is likely to include such actions as: • Finding the problem • Determining the order in which events occurred • Determining the level of impact • Identifying triggers • Searching for past occurrences of the incident using problems records and known error databases • Employing the help of system developers to find a resolution Resolution and recovery All potential resolutions should be applied and tested in a controlled manner. through level 1.If the Help Desk analyst requires assistance from other groups due to an inability to resolve the incident or because of specialized circumstances (EG VIP user). Escalations can also be combined.M—Escalation diagram Functional: • Based on knowledge or expertise • Also known as “Horizontal Escalation”. escalation will be utilized to transfer the incident to the appropriate party or group. and 3 support. but actions could involve: 53 . The two forms of escalation that are typically used are functional (horizontal) and hierarchical (vertical) escalation. Rules for escalation should be defined when implementing Incident Management and agreed upon by all involved groups and stakeholders. 2. The nature of the incident will determine which actions are required. Figure 7.

• User satisfaction levels. technical. Data can be obtained using email or web-based surveys.• Guiding the user to perform specific actions on their own equipment • Specialist support groups performing specific actions on the infrastructure (such as rebooting a server) • External suppliers performing updates on their infrastructure • The Help Desk or other specialist staff controlling a user’s desktop remotely Incident closure Depending on the nature of the incident (level of impact. the Help Desk may be required to call the affected users and confirm that the users are satisfied that the resolution was successful and that the incident can be closed. should also check for the following: • The closure categorization matches the initial categorization (IE the initial categorization was correct). Closure mechanisms. Roles and Responsibilities Incident Manager: • Drive effectiveness and efficiency of process • Manage incident management team • Ensure SLA targets for incident resolution are met Skills: Analytical. Update if necessary. closure mechanisms may be automated and communicated via email. communication. calm under pressure Help Desk: • Log/record incidents • Incident classification and categorization • Provide initial support • Match to existing incident or problem records • Manage communication with end users 1st. business understanding. • Incident documentation. the incident should be closed via agreed methods. assisting Problem Management in the decision of whether any preventative action is necessary to avoid this in the future When the requirements for incident documentation are complete. For other incidents. 3rd line support groups (including Technical and Application Management): • Incident classification • Investigation and resolution of incidents 54 . whether automated or manual. 2nd. ensuring all required fields are completed satisfactorily • Potential problem identification. users affected etc).

staff may not clearly understand the distinction and. usually through interfaces with Change Management and Release and Deployment Management • Proactive activities that eliminate errors in the infrastructure before they result in incidents and impact on the business and end users 55 . not utilize their efforts in the most effective and efficient manner.5.3 Problem Management Goal and objectives Problem Management is responsible for the management of problems from when they first occur to when they are resolved. and activities of Problem Management and those of Incident Management. by impact code) • Cost-per-incident average • Total perentage of incidents that were closed without being escalated to other support levels. For most implementations of Problem Management. a balanced range of metrics must be used to demonstrate that the Incident Management process is effective and efficient. which may be from disparate support groups • What percentage of “closed on first call” is possible through Incident Management? 5. In many cases. the scope includes: • Any activities that will diagnose the root cause • Any activities that assist in finding a resolution • Any activities that ensure appropriate control procedures are used when implementing resolutions. scope. Some metrics include: • Total number of incidents • Percentage of incidents handled within agreed response time (incident response-time targets may be specified in SLAs. • Total percentage of incidents that were resolved remotely Challenges affecting Incident Management • Are all calls registered? Are they assigned a unique number? • Which priority codes do we use and how is the priority determined? • Organization of the 1st line support group (Help Desk) • Organization of the 2nd line. for example. Problem Management aims to: • Prevent problems • Eliminate recurring incidents • Manage incidents that do occur and ensure impact is minimal Scope Clear distinction should be made between the purpose. as a result.Incident Management Metrics Just like any process or service.

These workarounds are stored in the KEDB (or Service Knowledge Management System). Known Error Known underlying cause. Workaround The pre-defined and documented technique used to restore normal service operation for the user. Terminology Explanations Problem Unknown underlying cause of an incident. This database is owned by Problem Management. A workaround is NOT a permanent (structural) solution and only addresses the symptoms of errors. 56 . where Known Errors and their documented workarounds are maintained. Successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem and workaround or permanent solution has been identified KEDB Known Error Database. The same problem can sometimes be the cause of multiple incidents.Remember the weeding analogy used for Incident Management? Problem Management seeks to identify and remove the root-cause of Incidents in the IT Infrastructure.

and known errors As shown above. Change Management is still required so that the actions being performed to correct and remove the error are done so in a controlled and efficient manner. 57 . The main goal of Proactive Problem Management is to identify errors that might otherwise be missed. For most organizations. problems are identified and corrected in multiple ways.O—The two sub-processes of Problem Management The following are defined as two major processes within Problem Management: • Reactive Problem Management • Proactive Problem Management ** ** Initiated in Service Operation but generally driven as part of Continual Service Improvement The activities of Problem Management are carried out within Proactive and Reactive Problem Management.Figure 7. problems. This enables an IT Service Provider to resolve many incidents in an efficient manner by correcting the underlying root-cause.N—Relationships between incidents. Why do some Problems not get diagnosed? • Because the root cause is not always found Why do some Known Errors not get fixed? • Because we may decide that the costs exceed the benefits of fixing the error • Because it may be fixed in an upcoming patch from development teams or suppliers Two Sub-Processes of Problem Management Figure 7. the primary benefit of Problem Management is demonstrated in the “many-to-one” relationship between incidents and problems. Proactive Problem Management analyzes incident records and uses data collected by other IT Service Management processes and external sources to identify trends or significant problems.

pre-approved and predefined request models should be defined in order to fulfil these requests.4 Request Fulfillment Goal Request Fulfillment is concerned with fulfilling service requests from the end user community using consistent and repeatable methods. 5. with manual activities used where necessary to fulfill the request. As part of continual improvement. controlled. complaints. 58 . categorization. The objectives include: • To provide a channel where users can request and received pre-approved standard services • To inform users about service availability • To fulfil requests for standard services by sourcing and delivering the appropriate components • To assist with general information. and implemented by the IT department. Similar to Incident Management. and classification of problems.5. including: • Users and customers asking questions. such as websites and user applications.Reactive Problem Management The activities of Reactive Problem Management are similar to those of Incident Management for the logging. the scope of Request Fulfillment should grow over time as maturity develops for Service Requests. or comments Scope The scope of Request Fulfillment is influenced heavily by the success of Change Management and what types of pre-approved changes can be effectively managed. and making complaints • Users seeking changes to their access levels (utilizes Access Management) • Users wishing to have common services and applications installed for their use (including Standard Changes) Many elements of Request Fulfillment may be automated through the use of self help. Request Models As many service requests frequently recur. this process is utilized to manage all interactions with users that are not related to a disruption to service or degradation in service quality. The subsequent activities are different as this is where the actual root-cause analysis is performed and the Known Error corrected. providing comments.

or other parties involved in the provision of IT services. and other tools. This might be via a website where they can select common services and provide details.The models should: • Document the required activities • Define roles and responsibilities • Document target timescales and escalation paths • Document other policies or requirements that apply Similar to Change Models. ERP. These approval mechanisms should be built into the request models as appropriate. For others. ‘Other’ Approval Where there may be compliance and regulatory implications for the service request. some mechanism of self help should be utilized so that users can generate service requests using technology that interfaces with existing Service Management tools. and others may be escalated to internal or external specialist groups. Change Management should establish that there are mechanisms in place to check for and safeguard these conditions in order for the standard change to be qualified for preapproval. suppliers. but the cost for other requests must be estimated and supplied to the user for financial approval (who may in turn require their own line management/financial approval). 59 . manual activities will be required to fulfill the request using resources from the IT department. software deployment. this will enable the IT department (and the Help Desk in particular) to have a clear definition of the appropriate types of service requests and repeatable actions describing how requests should be fulfilled. Some requests can be fulfilled using only automated mechanisms. there may be some form of financial approval that is required when there are financial implications (usually those above a defined dollar amount). Financial Approval While the service request may already have approval from Change Management. Menu selection Where practical. Fulfillment The tasks required for fulfillment will vary depending on the characteristics of the service request at hand. The prices for some standard requests may be fixed and pre-approved. others may be fulfilled by the Help Desk at the first-line. wider business approval may be needed. In some instances the fulfillment of the service request can be entirely automated using workflow.

Requesting access Requests for access can be generated from many sources within an organization as well as from any external suppliers and customers that require controlled access to services. It should provide access to those users who have authorization and should prevent access to users who do not. The process is often centrally coordinated by the Help Desk (being the single point of contact with the end user community) but can involve the Technical and Application Management functions.To ensure compatibility.5.5 Access Management Goal and objectives Access Management’s primary objective is to manage access to services. integrity. it helps to protect the confidentiality. and information. EG during the hiring process • A Request for Change (which requires modifications to access rights) 60 . In doing so. interfaces need to be developed to coordinate requests for modifications to access levels. and availability (CIA) of the organization’s services. assets. the Help Desk is required to initiate closure. systems. however. facilities. Access Management is the operational enforcement of the policies defined by Information Security Management. 5. and information. Closure Regardless of where service requests have been fulfilled. This should include some verification that the request has been satisfied using either confirmation with the end user or other automated means. In practice. Typical interfaces that generate requests include: • Human Resources (HR) in the management of new and current staff. the Help Desk should maintain control and visibility of all requests regardless of where they are fulfilled. Request Fulfillment should be interfaced with existing procurement and supplier processes. Where access is controlled by external suppliers. Relationship with other processes Access Management specifically grants users the right to access a service but is not responsible for ensuring availability of that service—Availability Management is the process that is responsible for the availability of services.

or information— depending on the access being requested. particularly in large organizations with dynamic and specialized HR requirements. Access Management then uses defined procedures and mechanisms to provide. the use of roles and groups are an effective way of providing users with multiple access levels appropriate to a type of need (EG teachers. 61 . mechanisms such as RSA keys. interfaces with systems and tools used by any Human Resource department or business process should be developed to allow independent and automated verification of access requests. or biometric scans (EG finger print) may be used. enquiry password. These groups should be defined in such a way that they are neither too narrow nor too broad in their scope. contractors etc). This can include: • HR Notification of changed employment status. They have a legitimate business reason for accessing the service. full name etc. Where possible. system. security certificates. For systems with high security level requirements. administrators. As discussed in Basic Concepts of Access Management. modify. requiring the user to confirm such details as username. date of birth. defined procedures should control how the request is verified to check: 1. Providing rights If the access request has been appropriately verified. or remove the access rights stipulated. swipe cards. IE new or recently promoted employee • Authorization from an appropriate line manager • Approved Request for Change • Policies stating that the user may have access to an optional service if required To improve efficiency. this may involve parties other than the user for verification. students. 2.• A service request submitted to the Service Desk or those submitted via automated and self-help mechanisms • Management requests for special circumstances (Technical specialist needs access to a specific service or system) Verification When a request for access is received. these mechanisms should be automated. The identity of the user—an identification check is typically performed.

records for access events may need to be kept for a defined period of time 62 . the procedures and mechanisms utilized should ensure that the rights associated with the USER group do not override those of the ADMINISTRATOR group. When users are allocated to multiple groups (each with different levels of rights). reviews should be performed to ensure that roles and groups are still appropriate for the end user and staff population with any obsolete or unwanted groups/roles being removed. Most directory services safeguard against Role Conflict. constant monitoring needs to be deployed to ensure consistency between user roles/ status and the access levels being provided. In any organization there will be frequent changes in staffing that need to be identified. interfaces with existing HR processes should be developed so that audits for consistency of access levels can be automated.A potential issue that occurs when providing group and user access rights is that of Role Conflict. however. care needs to be taken that these permissions are applied in the correct order. For example. including: • Transfers • Acting and temporary roles • Job changes • Promotions or demotions • Retirement • Resignation or death • Disciplinary action • Dismissals When implementing Access Management. In some cases. Interfaces with Event Management can also be developed for any access events that are considered significant to the IT organization. Over time. Monitoring identity status To ensure that the confidentiality and integrity of systems and information is continually protected. if a user is a member of both the USER and ADMINISTRATOR groups. This is caused by conflicting rights that have been provided to a user or group of users. there is still potential for these conflicts to be otherwise missed by the tool. Logging and tracking access So that Access Management can ensure responsible use of the provided access levels is occurring. access monitoring and control should be deployed and included in normal monitoring activities performed by Service Operation teams.

Any exceptions that are detected should be raised as incidents. and procedures. using Incident Models designed specifically with security and access rights. which should coordinate changes to processes and any groups and roles defined for Access Management o Configuration Management. dismissal. resignation. Removing or restricting rights Like the work performed for ‘Providing rights’ above. or safety reasons. guidelines. The following definitions describe the major concepts involved with the process: 63 . in the design of security systems and infrastructure • Service Transition o Change Management. and role transfer. which are then executed by Access Management o Availability Management. access can be restricted when an employee is under investigation. Removal of rights normally occurs in the case of death. Also. Confirmation that the modification/removal has occurred should also be communicated to HR for reporting purposes. when needs arise for access rights to be removed or restricted.for compliance. taken by the Help Desk or submitted using automated and self help mechanisms • Requests from Human Resources personnel • Direct requests from department managers • Request for Changes (RFCs) involving modification of access rights • Requests for enabling restricted access to contractors and external suppliers Some of the key interfaces that need to be maintained within the Service Lifecycle are: • Service Design o Information Security Management. Triggers and Interfaces The execution of Access Management activities is normally triggered by: • Service Requests. in the development and renewal of security policies. Restriction of rights can often occur in the case or demotion and prolonged absence from the organization. security. which can be used to record relationships between users and systems they can access Basic concepts of Access Management Access Management should be utilized for providing/modifying and removing access rights to agreed services documented within the Service Catalog. procedures and guidelines provided by Information Security Management should be followed.

Short term: Improvement of working practices within the Service Operations processes. Long term: Over a period of time. the identity of the user is unique to that user. Typical rights. functions. Service Operation is where actual value is seen. reconfiguration of the infrastructure. This is because it is the execution of strategies. EG deployment of new tools. and improvements from the Service Lifecycle phases. performance. change.6 Summary From a user viewpoint. Key benefits delivered as a result of services in live operation are: • Effectiveness and efficiency in IT Service delivery and support • Increased return on investment • More productive and positive users of IT services Other benefits can be defined as: 1. and output are evaluated. or levels of access. Generally they involve smaller improvements that do not mean changes to the fundamental nature of a process or technology. EG tuning. delete. functions. designs and plans. changes to process designs.• Access: Refers to the level and extent of a service’s functionality or data that a user is entitled to use • Identity: Refers to the information about them that distinguishes them as an individual and verifies their status within the organization. it is more efficient to be able to grant each user access to a whole set of services that they are entitled to use at the same time • Directory of services: Refers to a specific type of tool that is used to manage access and rights 5. By definition. and technology itself. • Rights: (Also called privileges) refer to the actual settings whereby a user is provided access to a service or group of services. 2. These reports will be analyzed and decisions made about whether the improvement is needed and how best to implement it through Service Design and Transition. training. • Services or service groups: Instead of providing access to each service for each user separately. write. include read. personnel redeployment etc 64 .5. execute. the Service Operation processes.

this is not meant to be an extensive nor overly detailed source of guidance. a desktop environment commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface (GUI) that is based on the desktop metaphor that can be seen on most modern 65 .Figure 7. hardware.6 Required Technical Knowledge The following section aims to provide a high-level overview of the technical knowledge that is normally required by a Help Desk Analyst in order to perform their role. Please note. 5.1 Desktop Environments In graphical computing. and other vendor specific items used throughout the infrastructure.6.P—Some outputs to other lifecycle phases 5. software. as all staff will still need to ensure that they have the appropriate skills to manage the specific operating systems.

standard applications used within an organization. and desktop widgets. SUSE and CDE. In the modern era. toolbars. and service packs. these graphical interfaces are designed to assist the user in easily accessing and configuring (or modifying) the most important or frequently accessed specific Operating System (OS) features. the SOE will extend to apply to servers. wallpapers. Almost universally adopted in modern computers. Also common is the one included with the Apple Mac OS X.personal computers today.6. software updates. Other common names used are: • MOE—Managed Operating Environment • MDE—Managed Desktop Environment • DMS—Desktop Managed Services • SDE—Standard Desktop Environment • “Standard Image” (Operating System and Applications only) A SOE is typically implemented as a standard disk image that can be mass deployed to more than one computer in an organization. desktops. On the whole. laptops. GNOME. Software that provides a desktop environment might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features that make the desktop metaphor more complete. The most common desktop environment on personal computers is built upon the Microsoft Windows operating system. Other mainstream desktop environments exist for Unix-like operating systems using the X Window System. It can include the base operating system. and mobile devices. a desktop environment is to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts that are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world.2 Standard Operating Environments (SOEs) A Standard Operating Environment (SOE) is an IT industry term used to describe a standard implementation of an operating system and its associated software (and often hardware). such as buttons and windows. folders. thin clients. windows. 66 . including Ubuntu. a custom configuration. 5. A desktop environment typically consists of icons.

the following is an overview of the tasks that a Help Desk Analyst will need to be skilled in: • Perform and troubleshoot an attended installation of the operating system • Perform post installation configuration (user configuration.The major advantage of having an SOE in a business environment is the reduction in the cost and time to deploy. and manage computers. it greatly reduces complexity when responding to calls from users and improves efficiency when carrying out daily operational tasks. Skills needed to manage SOEs While each desktop environment will often require specific knowledge in order to effectively manage a large user population. Linux. apply service packs. maintain. and supportable environment. For the Help Desk Analyst. Whereas deploying a disk image originating from a system with non-identical hardware will often result in boot failure with Windows. and standardization. usually only hardware addons are a concern with respect to drivers. SOEs on Mac OS X. the process is generally achievable on Unix systems with the caveat that the systems must be of the same computer architecture and drivers will need to be installed on the image for all the possible hardware configurations. configure. However. By standardizing the hardware and software platforms used within an organization. While there are many Windows deployment guides and tools available from Microsoft and other vendors. On Linux many hardware devices with kernel support can be auto-detected. repeatability. Since Apple does not have third party computer manufacturers. the IT department or service provider can deploy new computers and correct problems with existing computers quickly. expected. repeatable and automated solution creates a known. larger organizations will endeavor to build their own SOE solutions using the Microsoft Business Desktop Deployment (BDD) solution accelerator or Microsoft Deployment Toolkit (MDT). Boot scripts can also be used for automated post-deployment configuration. and other Unix/Unix-like systems can typically be made simply by creating and deploying disk images. some do not have the capability to build all features in one single SOE and their processes often include documented manual configuration steps. A standardized. support. etc) • Answer end user questions related to upgrading from a previous version of the operating system • Troubleshoot system start-up and user logon problems 67 . A standardized solution ensures known outcomes are maintained with automation providing the key to speed.

It must be connected to the network and have sufficient disk space. manage. The type of installation will determine how the distribution server will be accessed. and troubleshoot access to files and folders • Troubleshoot connecting to local and network print devices • Configure and troubleshoot hardware devices and drivers • Configure and troubleshoot storage devices • Configure and troubleshoot display devices • Troubleshoot network protocols and services • Configure and troubleshoot Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) • Configure and troubleshoot input and output (I/O) devices • Configure support for multiple languages or multiple locations • Troubleshoot security settings and local security policy • Configure and troubleshoot local user and group accounts • Troubleshoot the TCP/IP protocol • Configure and troubleshoot Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) settings • Troubleshoot name resolution issues • Configure and troubleshoot remote connections • Configure and troubleshoot end user systems using remote Desktop and Remote Assistance • Configure and troubleshoot applications • Set application compatibility settings • Troubleshoot application installation problems • Configure and troubleshoot e-mail account configurations • Configure the operating system to support applications • Configure and troubleshoot file system access and file permission • Resolve issues related to usability of applications • Resolve issues related to customizing the operating system • Configure and troubleshooting connectivity for applications • Configure application security Installing the Operating System(s) Network-based Installations Network-based installations can be performed if a distribution server is available. The creation of a distribution server is possible by creating a shared folder and copying the contents of the installation files folder into it. Unattended Installations 68 . A network boot disk allows a computer to connect to the distribution server or be configured to boot from a network device. A distribution server is a computer on the network that hosts the installation files required.• Monitor and analyze system performance • Monitor.

Several options are available to perform unattended installations. Active Directory Active Directory is a technology created by Microsoft that provides a variety of network services that will be utilised by a Help Desk Analyst. Active Directory stores information and settings in a central database. Active Directory was previewed in 1999. Where possible. Active Directory networks can vary from a small installation with a few computers. including: • Directory services • Authentication control • DNS-based naming and other network information • Central location for network administration and delegation of authority • Information security and single sign-on for user access to networked based resources • Central storage location for application data • Synchronization of directory updates among several servers Using the same database. Service packs provide updates to improve the security of the OS. and apply critical updates to an organization (see group policies). released first with Windows 2000 Server edition. make enhancements to applications. and large server farms spanning many geographical locations. and printers to tens of thousands of users. and provide new features. the latest service pack (updates) should be installed as quickly as possible. the administrator should seek to include the installation of service packs during the automated distribution of the operating system to user machines. it is not considered an unattended installation. for use primarily in Windows environments. Post-Installation Configuration After installing the operating system. deploy software. users. including: • Creating an image of the operating system using Sysprep and deploying the image using a third party imaging tool • Specify an answer file that can be used by an installation script An answer file is a text file that contains desired answers to various prompts received during the installation process. This can cause additional problems resulting from incompatibilities with applications or hardware. eliminating the need for user input. Active Directory also allows administrators to assign policies. 69 . many different domains.When the installations of most Windows operating systems are automated. Service pack installation is a significant process as some of the files for the operating system will be replaced.

Group Policy. and so on. to block access to the Task Manager. Group Policy provides the centralized management and configuration of operating systems.and revised to extend functionality and improve administration in Windows Server 2003. the authentication is verified by the 70 . As part of Microsoft’s IntelliMirror technologies. IntelliMirror technologies relate to the management of disconnected machines or roaming users and include roaming user profiles. folder redirection. Group Policy aims to reduce the cost of supporting users. Active Directory was refined further in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 and was renamed Active Directory Domain Services. Additional improvements were made in Windows Server 2003 R2. it is also common in schools. smaller businesses. In other words. and numerous logon and logoff actions. Once an account is created. This name can still be seen in some Active Directory binaries. disable the downloading of executable files. system updates. Group Policy is often used to restrict certain actions that may pose potential security risks. for example. in part. controls what users can and cannot do on a individual or networked computer environment. and other kinds of smaller organizations. Active Directory was called NTDS (NT Directory Service) in older Microsoft documents. and offline files. When a user logs into a computer using a local account. it is stored in the local security database only. Other common activities that can be automated using group policies include software installation. restrict access to certain folders. Using Group Policies to manage users Group Policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems (EG Microsoft Server 2003). Group Policy is a set of rules that control the working environment of user accounts and computer accounts. applications. User and Group Accounts A local user account is specific to a single computer and allows a user to log onto a local computer and access local resources only. Although Group Policy is more often seen in use for enterprise environments. and user settings in an Active Directory environment.

Some of the more prevalent types of virtualization that are used include: • Virtual machines (EG servers) 71 . virtualization is the emulation of hardware within a software platform. When logging onto a domain. allowing one physical computer to share its resources across a multitude of environments. Put simply.6. Some user accounts are built-in. By having a domain user account. when Windows XP is installed. access to the computer • HelpAssistant—provided to enable a Remote Assistance session In many SOEs. each for varying purposes. including: • Administrator—to provide rights to administer the computer • Guest—for users who need occasional. several user accounts are automatically created. A domain user account is stored as objects within the Active Directory and provides a user the ability to log onto a domain and access resources where the account has been given access. There are many different types of virtualization. the user has a single sign-on ability to access the resources. An access token is a temporary form of identification that is presented by the user to allow computers to recognize the user when they attempt to access resources. is the emulation of one of more workstations/servers within a single physical computer. the user provides a valid username and password. virtualization is not limited to the simulation of entire machines. However. This allows a single computer to take on the role of multiple computers. A domain controlled within the domain uses the information already provided through replication to authenticate the user and generate an access token. This type of virtualization is often referred to as full virtualization.local computer accessing the local security database.3 Virtualization Virtualization. but not permanent. in its broadest sense. This is enabled by the Active Directory being replicated between domain controllers in the same domain. the Guest and HelpAssistant account are disabled by default. For example. 5.

the data storage requirements can be considerable. In the modern era of computing. and manipulated. and de-duplication. removable media disc etc) There are also many different ways in which these devices can be arranged to provide geographic redundancy. the virtual servers do not have to be running the same operating systems. data security. there are many different types of data storage devices that are useful for making backups (EG tapes. Before data is sent to its storage location.4 Backup Routines In information technology.• Platform virtualization • Application virtualization • Storage virtualization • Desktop virtualization In the case of virtual machines. especially in Intel-based Apple platforms.organizing this storage space and managing the backup process is a complicated undertaking. These additional copies are typically called backups. making it possible to run different systems on the same computer (EG Microsoft Windows and Linux or older versions of an OS in order to support software that has not yet been ported to the latest version). among others. Backups are useful primarily for two purposes.6. Since a backup system contains at least one copy of all data worth saving. it is selected. 72 . These include optimizations for dealing with open files and live data sources (EG databases) as well as compression. extracted. It is also important to recognize the limitations and human factors involved in any backup scheme. Many different techniques have been developed to optimize the backup procedure. The second is to restore small numbers of files after they have been accidentally deleted or corrupted. encryption. and portability. Network Attached Storage. so effective planning is extremely important. The first is to restore a state following a disaster (called disaster recovery). 5. a backup or the process of backing up refers to making copies of data and configurations so that these may be restored after a data loss or system corruption event. The use of virtual machines to support different guest operating systems is also becoming popular in desktop and laptop systems. such as the need for specialist staff in the case of a disaster.

if you perform the differential backup too many times. the hacker or thief would then have access to an entire copy of your data. Each full backup contains an entire copy of the data. Remember that when you choose other backup types. Restoring a differential backup is a faster process than restoring an incremental backup because only two backup container files are needed: the latest full backup and the latest differential. a single backup can provide the ability to completely restore all backed-up files. the amount of time it takes to run full backups often prevents us from using this backup type. Differential Backups Differential backup contains all files that have changed since the last FULL backup. However. Because the full backup stores all files and folders. However. However. restore jobs may take longer. Use differential backup if you have a reasonable amount of time to perform backups. Full backups. if you have the time to perform them. Full backups are often restricted to a weekly or monthly schedule. the size of the differential backup might grow to be larger than the baseline full backup. offer the best solution in data protection. you should be aware of a significant security issue. The advantage of a differential backup is that it shortens restore time compared to a full backup or an incremental backup.Full Backups Full backup is the starting point for all other backups and contains all the required data in the folders and files that are selected to be backed up. If the backup media were to be illegally accessed or stolen. although the increasing speed and capacity of backup media is making overnight full backups a more realistic proposition. frequent full backups result simpler (but longer) restore operations. 73 . It would be ideal to make full backups regularly because they are the most comprehensive and are self-contained. In effect.

Incremental Backups Incremental backup stores all files changed since the last Full.The upside is that only two backup container files are needed to perform a complete restore. if you run multiple differential backups after your full backup. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data. each incremental backup is processed. Differential or Incremental backup. 74 . which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard. creation of the the Internet and LANs (Local Area Networks). The TCP/IP model consists of four layers. which could result in a lengthy restore job. 5. The advantage of an incremental backup is that it takes the least time to complete partial restore. which emerged in the mid. The Internet Protocol Suite. starting from developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s. It is named from two of the most important protocols within it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). A long history precedes the current state of TCP/IP networks.to late-1980s. like most protocol suites.6. relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted. should be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. Incremental backup provides a faster method of backing up data than repeatedly running full backups.5 TCP/IP Networks The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. together with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s. you’re probably including duplication of some files that were already included in earlier differential backups. The downside is. During a full restore operation.

(example private IPv4 address = 192. called dot-decimal notation. ICMP. for human readability written in a form consisting of four octets separated by full stops (dots). an application (the highest level of the model) uses a set of protocols to send its data down the layers. This divides a network into smaller subnets. An IPv4 address consists of 32 bits. HTTP. Application Layer Application Layer Protocols: DHCP. The primary reason for subnetting in IPv4 is to improve efficiency in the utilization of the relatively small address space available. POP3. but its successor. particularly to enterprises. and the Application Layer. DNS. 75 . DCCP. MAC.1. The most common network addressing scheme is Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). NDP. It allows a device to communicate with other devices connected to the network. IGMP. SCTP. SSL etc.168. each have a logical address so that it can be discovered. IPv6.From lowest to highest. InARP. This may be illustrated by an example network scenario in which two Internet host computers communicate across local network boundaries constituted by their internetworking gateways (routers). these are the Link Layer. Transport Layer Transport Layer Protocols: TCP. Internet Layer Network Layer Protocols: IP (IPv4. In general. such as the Internet.1) Subnetting is the process of designating bits from the host portion and grouping them with the network portion. being further encapsulated at each level. is in early deployment stages. the Transport Layer. IMAP. An address fulfills the functions of identifying the host and locating it on the network. FTP. IPv6). SMTP. An IPv6 address consists of 128 bits. These layers enable encapsulation of different functionality required to transmit data or information from one destination to another. PPP. LCP etc. Usually this address is unique to each device and can either be dynamically (from a network server) or statically (by an administrator) configured. Network Addressing Computers and devices that are participating in a network. the Internet Layer. UDP. IPSec etc. L2TP. Link Layer Link Layer Protocols: ARP.

DHCP uses a client-server architecture. This is like dynamic allocation. services.No such limitations exist in IPv6 as the address space available even to end-users is large. there is the same number of IPv6 addresses per person as the number of atoms in a metric ton of carbon (or more addresses than there are grains of sand on earth). DHCP The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a computer networking protocol used by hosts (DHCP clients) to retrieve IP address assignments and other configuration information. • Automatic allocation: The DHCP server permanently assigns a free IP address to a requesting client from the range defined by the administrator. Only requesting clients with a MAC address listed in this table will be allocated an IP address. allowing the DHCP server to reclaim (and then reallocate) IP addresses that are not renewed (dynamic re-use of IP addresses). • Static allocation: The DHCP server allocates an IP address based on a table with MAC address/IP address pairs. which are manually filled in (perhaps by a network administrator). The DHCP server receives the request and responds with configuration information from its configuration database. The client sends a broadcast request for configuration information. all hosts on a network must be manually configured individually—a time-consuming and error-prone undertaking. The request-and-grant process uses a lease concept with a controllable time period. Depending on implementation. but the DHCP server keeps a table of past IP address assignments so that it can preferentially assign to a client the same IP address that the client previously had. DNS The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system for computers. the DHCP server may have three methods of allocating IPaddresses: • Dynamic allocation: A network administrator assigns a range of IP addresses to DHCP and each client computer on the LAN has its IP software configured to request an IP address from the DHCP server during network initialization. As a rough approximation. or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. In the absence of DHCP. 76 .

The term VPN can be used to describe many different network configurations and protocols. 77 . For example.google. The private nature of a VPN means that the data travelling over the VPN is not generally visible to or encapsulated from the underlying network traffic. This improves the performance (speed) experienced by users when accessing internet and intranet based sites.example. www.32. the link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the underlying transport network. which uses the client-server model. Each domain has at least one authoritative DNS server that publishes information about that domain and the name servers of any domains subordinate to it. System administrators can also block various domains (EG pornographic sites) in accordance with the security policy. Most server environments that a Help Desk Analyst will assist in managing will have capabilities for assisting the resolution of domain names in an efficient manner. An often used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the “phone book” for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses.com could translate to 192. Most importantly. Virtual Private Networks A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network that is layered on top of an underlying computer network.10. Similarly. the servers to query when looking up (resolving) a top-level domain name (TLD). com independently. the IP address for the site can be stored on a local server.0. The Domain Name System is maintained by a distributed database system. it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical (binary) identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide. The top of the hierarchy is served by the root nameservers.It associates relevant information with domain names assigned to each of the participants. In more technical terms. the traffic within the VPN appears to the underlying network as just another traffic stream to be passed. The nodes of this database are the name servers. rather than any client (EG desktop computer) needing to resolve www. For example.

combining features of PPTP with those of Cisco’s proprietary Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) protocol. It is sometimes referred to as “dial-up VPN” because of the software’s interface that prompts for the user’s credentials. the overhead involved in providing this extra security can result in slightly slower performance than PPTP. SonicWall. CheckPoint.As such. Enterprise level software firewalls. IPSec operates at a higher level of the OSI model: the network layer (Layer 3). • L2TP: The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) was developed in cooperation between Cisco and Microsoft. and then “replay” it to “trick” the server). authentication of origin (confirmation that the user who claims to have sent the data really did). By using the existing Internet connection. On the other hand. However. • IPSec: Most administrators know IPSec as the protocol used for encryption in conjunction with the L2TP tunneling protocol. and Symantec Enterprise Firewall also support IPSec VPNs. and WatchGuard appliances. as do NetScreen. a secure “tunnel” is created between two points allowing a remote user to connect to a remote network. especially for gateway-to-gateway (site-to-site) VPNs that connect two LANs. • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A major advantage of this connection is that you do not need special VPN client software on the VPN clients because the SSL VPN uses the Web browser as the client application. such as the sending of credentials. 78 . Common variants of VPNs used today include: • PPTP: This is a software based VPN system that uses any existing Internet connection. IPSec can itself be used as a tunneling protocol and is in fact considered by many to be the standard VPN solution. it can become complex when trying to generalize about the characteristics of a VPN. L2TP has several advantages over PPTP: PPTP gives you data confidentiality but L2TP goes further and also provides data integrity (protection against modification of the data between the time it left the sender and the time it reached the recipient). such as ISA Server. Many hardware VPN appliances use an implementation of IPSec. You can setup this type of connection with various types of software or hardware. Cisco’s VPN Concentrators and PIX firewalls support IPSec. and replay protection (which keeps a hacker from being able to capture data that is sent. For example.

you can cut the internet connection and read your email at your leisure without incurring further communication costs. not to receive them. such as a mobile data connection. standardized way for users to access mailboxes and download messages to their computers. One advantage of POP3 is that. as with IPSec. the POP3 protocol will direct all your email messages to be downloaded from the mail server to your local computer. You can choose to leave copies of your emails on the server as well. Often called web-based email. This also means the protocols that can be handled by an SSL VPN are more limited. SSL VPNs are known as clientless solutions.Thus. You can also create and manipulate folders or mailboxes on the server (EG delete messages). Depending on the network/ISP settings. this protocol can be used to compose or retrieve emails from 79 . Unlike IMAP. • POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3): POP3 is a mail protocol that provides a simple. The SMTP protocol can only be used to send emails. you may only be able to use the SMTP protocol under certain conditions (EG secure connections only). With SSL VPNs. this can also work well even over a slow connection. once your messages are downloaded. IMAP is suitable for users that use email on multiple machines as it allows all mail to be synchronized across different devices and machines. but it can be used for accessing your mailbox. Email Protocols In order to send email. As this requires only a small data transfer. you can restrict them to specific applications.common protocols used for email include: • IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol): IMAP is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server. Only if you request to read a specific email message will it be downloaded from the server. However. instead of giving VPN clients access to the whole network or subnet. your chosen email client needs to access a mail server via an application layer protocol. • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): SMTP is a protocol used by the Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) to deliver your email to the recipient’s mail server. • HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol): HTTP is not a protocol typically used for web-browsing. this can be a security advantage.

Helpdesk supervisors help in training. quality of service. Being A Helpdesk Supervisor ll companies want to properly manage their relationships with customers to keep them loyal to their product or service. A helpdesk supervisor is there whenever there are questions of if his team needs assistance. 80 . He is a trainer and an administrative officer responsible for the smooth operation of his CRM team at the same time.an your account. work accuracy and prioritization among other things. response times and customer satisfaction. A clear understanding on the operational procedures of call centers is a requirement in every helpdesk supervisor so he may be able to manage his team’s speed. mentoring and coaching team members.Whatever the CRM may be. A good helpdesk supervisor is able to select and train his agents and keep them updated on the different processes and systems of customer relationship management. A helpdesk supervisor will always strive to achieve the targets in terms of turn around times.Of course there are goals and targets that need to be achieved in every team. Hotmail is a good example of using HTTP as an email protocol. Whether it’s storing or gathering data. properly managing helpdesks is very important. He should have a close professional relationship with his team in and he must be able to inspire his team to work in an atmosphere of camaraderie and professionalism. helpdesk supervisors need to be on top of things by regularly submitting reports and keeping management informed of any developments or issues within his team and the company. A team of CRMs will naturally need a supervisor to properly handle them. He should be available if there are difficult cases that need to be escalated. customer support or after sales service. A helpdesk supervisor should be able to evaluate and offer feedback on good performance as well as those that need improvement. A good helpdesk supervisor can assist the management in a number of ways.

81 .Automation The costs of running IT for a business can be generally separated into two domains: technical and personnel. but to control the unpredictability associated with using human resources: unpredictability which is present because of lack of consistency. This simple task of transference can be unduly delayed or influenced such that the entire process fails. activities within a process are reactionary the task cannot be started until the output of the task is completed and the receiving agent acknowledged that the output has been received. Consider the process where every step must be manually performed and some steps require the coordination of several persons for its effective completion. implemented. the greater the need for automation. Each of these values can be influenced by automating the tasks within the step. software. and managed. Each step can be assigned several values related to priority. Many of these activities require the skills. In most cases. The more important the step. exists. developed. and the time and effort required to complete a task. cost. effort. errors in judgment. but the use of personnel can also be the most unpredictable. and cost associated to the work being performed. typically by reducing the effort or mitigating the possibility of failure. Automation takes a proactive approach to performing tasks by defining at each step what enters. A fully automated process will reduce the time. knowledge and experience of personnel assigned to the task. and who receives the output. A goal of automation is not to remove the human element from managing IT. Under the technical domain. effort. At the same time. time. and risks associated with each step as well as raise the level of consistency and success rate of completing the process as designed. IT components such as the physical hardware. and potential for error can be calculated. and processes are purchased. Attempts at automation are made to support the business. response times become a critical aspect of all activities. inconsistencies. In a manual process. potential risks.

either a manager or high executive. Automation requires value to be produced for the business or users of the automated system over long periods of time. that is. this value can be virtually guaranteed. frequent. then using the information once he’s accessed it. and storage resources can occur rapidly and without warning. including in multiple operating systems. A goal of automation is to be flexible and enable the systems to accommodate changes in the business. compute. Usually he doesn’t have unlimited time for retrieving the data. automation provides the foundation for addressing capacity concerns quickly. Dependence on human intervention to react to the change can result in slow performance and potential failure of the system. however automating the decisions and tasks related to demand changes will improve the overall performance of the system. and in large or small volumes. Telecommunications Information can be stored in a variety of ways in the telecommunications industry. needs access to the stored information. in a myriad of platforms and structures. Unfortunately in modern computing. change is inevitable and. the routing of outputs can be defined such that specific characteristics of the output can go to different recipients who also improve response times and promote the reliability of the system. For large systems like a cloud. the ability to be flexible requires that a single change can quickly propagate across the entire system without having to touch each component individually. If the requirements for the business and user are consistent and unchanged. oftentimes. He also needs the information gathered from multiple systems screens and compiled in a 82 . Response times can be a critical function for high-performance applications or time-sensitive activities. Within a virtualized environment.The result is a significant reduction in response times. reliably. and consistent to the standards used to develop the system. The problem comes up when a user. Based on the rules established for the tasks. as long as he can find what he is looking for. Changes in demand for network.

the industry’s main product was long-distance service. user demand and deregulation. the data is huge and traditional methods have poor response time and data storage capacity . The challenge comes with data storage and analytical requirements which can push the limits of current technology. The basic identity of this market has undergone major changes. Some of the hottest products--and in fact. the data must be accurate.report format on a monthly basis. Many businesses want to know how to make data a resource and not a burden. Secondly. Factors that propelled telecommunications into one of the most competitive business arenas in today’s market are technology development. There is a big demand for data warehousing in the telecom industry because it has huge amounts of data. Telecommunications technologies are developing so quickly. if a manager wants to know how much profit each customer brings in for a certain period of time. the hottest companies--did not even exist a year ago. At present. 83 . For instance. What if the decision maker of the company wants a point and click application that gives him instant results on a real time basis? This would require a well-thought-out business solution that creates a customized information system tailored to his specific needs. existing data support analysis in the telecomm industry cannot meet the actual work requirements. telecom billing rules are very complex and change frequently. it would be difficult to get the answer quickly for three reasons: Firstly. better planning is needed to design a system that extracts and organizes the relevant data on a regular basis. Because there is so much data to be accessed some industries have trouble getting precise information when analyzing data. The telecommunications industry offers a wealth of opportunity to those who take on the challenge of providing it with data warehousing capabilities. Ten years ago. Thirdly. In this case.

the incident resolution can be delayed when the disruption to an IT service (EG payroll) has not yet affected business operations (but will if the service is not available in three days time). in which case the urgency may be high.Now new services ranging from paging to cell phones to wireless internet are technically feasible. The prioritization matrix above would be accompanied by agreed timelines for resolution. Worse yet. EG Priority 1 = Critical = 1 hour target resolution time Priority 2 = High = 8 hours Priority 3 = Medium = 24 hours Priority 4 = Low = 48 hours Initial diagnosis For calls forwarded to the Help Desk. but face limitations in resources. smaller firms have a simpler integration task. the task must be achieved or the company will not survive. 84 . IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY Impact: Degree to which the user/business is affected by the incident(s) Urgency: Degree to which the resolution of the incident can be delayed The following factors are usually taken into account for determining the impact of an incident: The number of users being affected (EG single user. long-established firms have legacy data on mainframes that may need to be integrated with data stored somewhere else on a series of new products. Deregulation has allowed competition to open up even in such traditional areas as local phone and cable service. All that leads to one bottom line: a data management nightmare. Users have signed on demanding ever-increasing quality. the staff member will use pre-defined questioning techniques to assist in the collection of useful information for the incident record. Big. data from a small company bought to provide a new product may need to be combined with that legacy data. entire business unit. organization wide) Possible risk of injury or death The number of services affected The level of financial loss Effect on credibility and reputation of business Regulatory or legislative breaches Urgency is calculated by assessing when the potential impact of the incident will be felt. In some cases. Newer. It has also prompted a series of mergers and acquisitions among both small firms and the industry giants. multiple users. Yet the mandate to “know the customer” means that no matter how challenging. the business impact is felt immediately. In other cases.

Rules for escalation should be defined when implementing Incident Management and agreed upon by all involved groups and stakeholders. The two forms of escalation that are typically used are functional (horizontal) and hierarchical (vertical) escalation. Where possible the incident will be resolved using these sources of information. Hierarchical: For corrective actions by authorized line management Also known as Vertical Escalation When resolution of an incident will not be in time or satisfactory Investigation and diagnosis The incident investigation is likely to include such actions as: Finding the problem Determining the order in which events occurred Determining the level of impact Identifying triggers Searching for past occurrences of the incident using problems records and known error databases Employing the help of system developers to find a resolution Resolution and recovery All potential resolutions should be applied and tested in a controlled manner. For incidents that cannot be resolved at this stage and the user is still on the phone. escalation will be utilized to transfer the incident to the appropriate party or group. and confirm user contact details for follow-ups. through level 1. the Help Desk analyst should inform the user of the next steps that will be taken. and 3 support. users affected etc). The nature of the incident will determine which actions are required. the Help Desk analyst can begin to provide some initial support by referencing known errors and simple diagnostic tools. the Help Desk may be required to call the affected users and confirm that the users are satisfied that the resolution was successful and that the incident can be closed. but actions could involve: Guiding the user to perform specific actions on their own equipment Specialist support groups performing specific actions on the infrastructure (such as rebooting a server) External suppliers performing updates on their infrastructure The Help Desk or other specialist staff controlling a user s desktop remotely Incident closure Depending on the nature of the incident (level of impact. closure mechanisms may be automated and communicated via email. should also check for the following: The closure categorization matches the initial categorization (IE the initial categorization was correct). 85 . For other incidents.At this point. Functional: Based on knowledge or expertise Also known as Horizontal Escalation . closing the incident after verifying the resolution was successful. give the unique incident reference number. Incident escalation If the Help Desk analyst requires assistance from other groups due to an inability to resolve the incident or because of specialized circumstances (EG VIP user). Closure mechanisms. Escalations can also be combined. whether automated or manual. 2.

by impact code) Cost-per-incident average Total perentage of incidents that were closed without being escalated to other support levels. for example. as a result. User satisfaction levels. Terminology Explanations Problem Unknown underlying cause of an incident. business understanding. and activities of Problem Management and those of Incident Management. In many cases. Incident documentation. 86 . Roles and Responsibilities Incident Manager: Drive effectiveness and efficiency of process Manage incident management team Ensure SLA targets for incident resolution are met Skills: Analytical. Some metrics include: Total number of incidents Percentage of incidents handled within agreed response time (incident response-time targets may be specified in SLAs. ensuring all required fields are completed satisfactorily Potential problem identification.Update if necessary. Data can be obtained using email or web-based surveys. assisting Problem Management in the decision of whether any preventative action is necessary to avoid this in the future When the requirements for incident documentation are complete. Problem Management aims to: Prevent problems Eliminate recurring incidents Manage incidents that do occur and ensure impact is minimal Scope Clear distinction should be made between the purpose. communication. not utilize their efforts in the most effective and efficient manner. For most implementations of Problem Management. staff may not clearly understand the distinction and. the scope includes: Any activities that will diagnose the root cause Any activities that assist in finding a resolution Any activities that ensure appropriate control procedures are used when implementing resolutions. 2nd. usually through interfaces with Change Management and Release and Deployment Management Proactive activities that eliminate errors in the infrastructure before they result in incidents and impact on the business and end users Remember the weeding analogy used for Incident Management? Problem Management seeks to identify and remove the root-cause of Incidents in the IT Infrastructure. technical. scope. Total percentage of incidents that were resolved remotely Challenges affecting Incident Management Are all calls registered? Are they assigned a unique number? Which priority codes do we use and how is the priority determined? Organization of the 1st line support group (Help Desk) Organization of the 2nd line. 3rd line support groups (including Technical and Application Management): Incident classification Investigation and resolution of incidents Incident Management Metrics Just like any process or service. a balanced range of metrics must be used to demonstrate that the Incident Management process is effective and efficient. calm under pressure Help Desk: Log/record incidents Incident classification and categorization Provide initial support Match to existing incident or problem records Manage communication with end users 1st. which may be from disparate support groups What percentage of closed on first call is possible through Incident Management? Problem Management Goal and objectives Problem Management is responsible for the management of problems from when they first occur to when they are resolved. the incident should be closed via agreed methods.

Known Error Known underlying cause. some are relatively new. some approaches using cloud computing have their roots in traditional solutions. Successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem and workaround or permanent solution has been identified KEDB Known Error Database. the primary benefit of Problem Management is demonstrated in the many-to-one relationship between incidents and problems. where Known Errors and their documented workarounds are maintained. Workaround The pre-defined and documented technique used to restore normal service operation for the user. This database is owned by Problem Management. problems are identified and corrected in multiple ways. but when demand on resources reaches a defined threshold. As shown above. 87 . This enables an IT Service Provider to resolve many incidents in an efficient manner by correcting the underlying root-cause. However. A workaround is NOT a permanent (structural) solution and only addresses the symptoms of errors. The basic concept is simple. One new approach is Cloud Bursting an attempt to marry the traditional computing model with the cloud computing model.The same problem can sometimes be the cause of multiple incidents. Why do some Problems not get diagnosed? Because the root cause is not always found Why do some Known Errors not get fixed? Because we may decide that the costs exceed the benefits of fixing the error Because it may be fixed in an upcoming patch from development teams or suppliers Using Federated Clouds As mentioned before. support the business using the current internal IT infrastructure. reroute the increased workload to a public cloud solution. Nearly all require some application of federated cloud computing. Change Management is still required so that the actions being performed to correct and remove the error are done so in a controlled and efficient manner. Cloud Bursting does one thing it greatly reduces the cost of IT by managing the utilization of the current infrastructure more effectively. These workarounds are stored in the KEDB (or Service Knowledge Management System). For most organizations.

When a capacity threshold is reached. capacity was managed to support the peaks in demand. the primary criteria for making routing decisions is typically focused on application response times or the capacity of the data center. the recommendation for use should focus on noncritical application with high performance requirements and will not be handling sensitive data. Because the customer is using multiple clouds. location of the data center. In a GSLB solution. As with any public cloud implementation. capacity for the core infrastructure can be managed to the highest levels of demand on an average. Cloud balancing can add to this criterion other aspects such as cost to execute transactions. or the application is moved into the public cloud during peak periods to free up internal resources for mission-critical applications. There are two common methods for supporting the application: the application is deployed locally and bursts into cloud for additional resources. not the peaks. With the Cloud Bursting approach. Where load balancing focuses on the content of a request. or current performance of a data center. cloud balancing focuses on context of the request. they are either using clouds from different 88 . Since the costs of cloud resources occur only when they are used. In cloud balancing. In cloud bursting. The best use of multiple clouds is for global organizations where specific clouds support a defined region. the use of the cloud correlates to peak periods of activity.In the traditional computing model. the cloud resources are requested. Cloud bursting is usually attributed to hybrid cloud deployments where the core IT infrastructure is supported by a private cloud and the additional on-demand capacity is provided by a public cloud. However. cloud balancing is more than simple load balancing. multiple clouds are used simultaneously to manage workload and are active even when activity levels on the cloud are low. Cloud balancing can be used as an extension of global service load balancing (GSLB) to support high availability and high performance requirements. the overall budget for IT can be reduced.

To effectively use cloud balancing. invocation of the service continuity plan. 89 . ISO/IEC 20000 does not make this distinction. including major incidents. although customer reports may also be used as management reports. and the requirements it has on service reporting will apply to both sets. It is important that service reports are sufficiently accurate to be used as a decision support tool among all processes. EG availability and downtime. and accurate reports for informed decisionmaking and effective communication The success of all Service Management processes is dependent on the use of the information provided in service reports. The requirements from the standard demand that service reporting demonstrate are: Service performance against service reporting Report and status of significant events. or multiple location-specific clouds from a single provider. A single service report represents a defined period of operation for the service. customer and management. This information is used to demonstrate service performance and to aid in any decision making process relevant to the service. or new and changed service deployments Characteristics of demand and workloads Nonconformities found relative to IEC/ IEC 20000.service providers. and details of the data source must be clearly outlined for each service report. or service requirements Trends or unexpected variances in service performance Customer satisfaction Reports to customers (service reports) are used to compare the agreed service levels with the actual service levels measured. number of users. audience. timely. The identity. Cloud implementations are inherently highly automated. Cloud balancing is performed to route application requests to each cloud based on the criteria configured and maintained at the application. SMS requirements. reliable. purpose. Service Reporting meets the needs and requirements of both internal management and the customer. Reports can be divided into two sets. transaction rates. etc. average response time. the same level of automation must be present in the application design to ensure resources are properly engaged. This description must be documented and should be associated with each service found in the service catalog. frequency. Service Reporting OBJECTIVE: To produce agreed.

customer satisfaction. etc. Meeting the ISO/IEC Standard Fulfilling the requirements of the ISO/IEC 20000 standard in the area of service continuity and availability can be summarized in three focus areas: 1. suppliers. at a minimum: Access rights Service response times End-to-end availability The requirements must take into account any applicable plans from the business. must be accessible before. Creating appropriate plans for service continuity and availability 3. They can also be used to manage the relationship between the service provider and the customer. Agreement on these requirements must be obtained from the customer and any additional interested parties. As part of change management. service level agreements. Reports to management (management reports) are not provided to the customer. Understanding and agreeing to the risks and requirements 2. and after an event. availability plans must include the requirements and targets relevant to availability of services.They should be provided at the intervals agreed within the SLA. but plans must be maintained and controlled by the change management process. All plans and relevant information. but for the purpose of controlling or managing internal processes. They will contain metrics about actual service levels supported and trends such as the number of SLAs concluded. during. There is no requirement for a single service continuity and availability plan. Demonstrating proper testing and monitoring The standard requires agreement to be reached between service provider and customer in the following service areas. and risks. the impact of a request for change on service continuity and availability must be assessed. cost of measuring and monitoring. such as contact lists and configuration items (CMDB). service requirements. progress of improvement. and other internal groups. A complete overview of the requirements of Service Continuity and Availability Management 90 . A service continuity plan must contain: Procedures or reference to procedures to be executed in the event of a major loss of service Availability targets after the service continuity plan is invoked Requirements for recovery Approach(es) used to restore normal working conditions At the minimum.

ITSCM is also known as Disaster Recovery . The monitoring and management of activities within Service Continuity and Availability management must be executed separately. True or False: VBF stands for Vital Business Functions. Fast recovery options will restore normal operations how many hours after a continuity event? 1 hour 24 hours 3 days 1 week 8.can be found in Chapter 6. What is the common name for a gradual recovery of assets after a continuity event? Cold Standby Warm Standby Hot Standby Primary option 7. True or False: Service levels for availability are defined using the availability management 91 . T F 10. What does performing a BIA identify? Possible escalations caused by damage or loss Critical business processes and Vital Business Functions Necessary resources required to enable continuity of critical business processes All of the above 2. Part 1 of the ISO/IEC 20000 standard.5 Service Continuity and Availability Management Review Questions 1. Risk assessment does not involve which of the following activities? Gathering information on assets Considering threats Day-to-day availability incidents Vulnerabilities 5. What role does access management play in Service Continuity and Availability Management? Performing a Business Impact Analysis Execution of policies and actions defined in Service Continuity Management Reporting on service level targets to Service Level Management Execution of policies and actions defined in Availability Management 4. Service Continuity and Availability Management are two separate processes.3. awareness. Which of the following is NOT true about the Service Continuity and Availability Management process? Service continuity management supports overall Business Relationship Management.2. The Service Continuity Policy should define guidelines for which of the following activities? Education. More guidance on best practices can be found in Chapter 6.3. 5. Service Continuity and Availability Management requirements should be identified on the basis of which of the following? Customer s business priorities Service level agreements Assessed risks All of the above 6. and training Testing of continuity solution Invocation of continuity plan All of the above 9.3. Part 2 of the ISO/IEC 20000 standard.

However. This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization. This document serves as a GUIDE FOR THE CREATION OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT PROCESS OWNER AND AN EXTERNAL PROVIDER (THIRD PARTY) OF IT SERVICES. a Human Resource Manager would do well in a role that has such a high degree of communication required. This is not the case and quite often the best person for the role is someone with no bias towards IT. For example. TF IT Services Underpinning Contracts Processes: Service Level Management Supplier Management Status: In draft Under Review Sent for Approval Approved Rejected Version: <<your version>> Release Date: Underpinning Contract (UC) The document is not to be considered an extensive statement as its topics have to be generic enough to suit any reader for any organization. There is a common misconception that the Service Level Management Process owner must be a member of the IT Department.process. the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered. 92 .

(The following form can be used as the UC document.) With regard to UNDERPINNING CONTRACTS (UCs) the following points should be addressed: Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Link to parent Service Level Agreement Cross-reference to the “parent” SLA Description of Service Brief description (should be taken from SLA) UC Reference number Unique identifying number for the UC (for inclusion in the Configuration Management Data Base – CMDB) UC Owner Functional role description of who is responsible for this UC (Who would participate in a review of this document?) (Special tip: Avoid using names as it dates the document quickly.) UC Parties involved Within the external provider. they must be listed here with a description of the type of service that each priority level should receive. UC Support Hours (reflected in parent SLA) Consider marginally longer support hours (if less than 24). UC Out of Hours support procedure (reflected in parent SLA) Are the in-hours support staff the same as out of hours? Phone numbers and what information will be required when support is called What does the user do if the nominated person is not available? UC Charging policy (reflected in parent SLA) Do we require external staff to only act if they have a validated cost code for work? Are there any special aspects of the work that has to be recorded for later charging? UC Metrics for performance (reflected in parent SLA) What will be the performance numbers for the work performed under this UC? Will the expected performance be higher than negotiated in the SLA to allow a safety margin? UC Cross references Reference number to other closely coupled UCs OLA Cross references Reference number to any closely coupled agreements with internal IT department UC Validity period Duration that this UC is expected to remain in place before it is reviewed 93 . UC Target Response time (reflected in parent SLA) Consider quicker response time to allow for delays. with only salient details. UC Target Response priorities (reflected in parent SLA) If the UC accommodates different priorities. The UC does not have to be in a lengthy written format and in fact it is more likely to be adopted if it is kept concise. List them here with a brief description of their involvement. there may be different functional parties involved.

The multi-level-based SLA is usually preferred by IT as it allows a single document to cover a single service for all end users of that service. Version Control Information UC Creation Date UC Last Modified Date Notes & Comments (Duplicate the above table for the number of UCs to be created. Disadvantage It requires more time to negotiate and obtain agreement than other structures.UC Review Procedure The process for reviewing the UC and who is involved Special Tip: Avoid using people’s names and use role descriptions to avoid dating the document. Multi-Level-based SLA Advantage This structure allows SLAs to be kept to a manageable size.) IT Services Multi-Level-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management Status: In draft Under Review Sent for Approval Approved Rejected Version: <<your version>> Release Date: Multi-Level-Based Service Level Agreement (SLA) The document is not to be considered an extensive statement. However. as its topics have to be generic enough to suit any reader for any organization. avoids unnecessary duplication. This document serves as a GUIDE FOR THE CREATION OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT PROCESS OWNER AND THE CUSTOMER OF IT SERVICES. the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered. It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents with different customers and less time spent on worrying about accommodating different requirements among users. This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization. FOR MULTIPLE SERVICES. and reduces the need for frequent updates. 94 .

Instead of “NT Server. Service Name Preferably use a name that is common language in the organization (not a technical name). Use language that is business user friendly. 95 . The SLA does not have to be in a lengthy written format and in fact it is more likely to be adopted if it is kept concise.) SLA Information Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Description of the “agreement” Brief description of the contents of this SLA Note: The SLA will cover only ONE IT Service. Use this section simply as an Executive summary. with 2GB RAM and 500GB of disk storage” – we would say “large central server designed for all customers to use and share information”) Service Expectation Level This is a unique concept to this SLA design template. A unique reference number for this service.) Briefly describe the primary function of the service. Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Service Identification Code (This code can be cross-referenced in the Customer information table). Service Description (Business) (Refer to Technical Considerations later in this table. (eg. Reference number Unique identifying number for the SLA (for inclusion in the Configuration Management Data Base – CMDB) Owner Functional role description of who is responsible for this SLA. but end users from many areas. (Who would participate in a review of this document?) Representatives from customer and IT (Special tip: Avoid using names as it dates the document quickly. we write descriptions of IT Services in a clinical fashion. These clinical descriptions set an expectation for the customer/end user about the IT Service.(The following form can be used as the Multi-Level-Based SLA document. with only salient details. Far too often.) Specific Service Information (Duplicate the following table for as many services to be covered).

Quite often. then it is necessary to invoke a continuity option for this service. The definition of when this invocation should occur will be listed here. Maximum number of accepted outages Minimum percentage availability Maximum number of errors or reruns Service Out of Hours support procedure Are the in-hours support staff the same as out of hours? Phone numbers and what information will be required when support is called. Use this section to set the expectations of the reader.) Service Target Response priorities If the SLA accommodates different priorities. What does the user do if the nominated person is not available? Service Charging policy Do we require external staff to only act if they have a validated cost code for work? Are there any special aspects of the work that has to be recorded for later charging? Service Metrics for performance What will be the performance numbers for the work performed under this UC? Will the expected performance be higher than negotiated in the SLA to allow a safety margin? Service Breach Clause Perhaps your organizational culture is built upon imposing penalties for poor performance. Service Target Response time Here we document the agreed response time for the different priority levels set. Cross-referencing to the IT Service Continuity Plan is also required. However. Continuity Considerations (Should be linked to the IT Service Continuity Plan) If the agreed support hours cannot be met. then the penalties for failing to meet the stated metrics must be listed here. If this is the case. 96 . If the SLA is not to have a penalty focus. Service Security Considerations Briefly list any considerations regarding security considerations for this service. If you feel that there could be some interruptions to service delivery because the service is relatively new. Service Support Hours (Availability) Consider marginally longer support hours (if less than 24). SLA Validity period Duration that this SLA is expected to remain in place before it is reviewed. then document that here. they must be listed here. the description is interpreted by the reader in a way not intended by the writer. Are there any differences in the level of accessibility for different people/roles for this service? (Try to use role descriptions. remember that using the reason “new service” has only a limited life-span. then simply remove this line. with a description on the type of service that each priority level should receive. instead of names.

Version Control Information SLA Creation Date SLA Last Modified Date UC Cross references Reference number to related and closely coupled UCs OLA Cross references Reference number to any closely coupled agreements with internal IT department Technical considerations In this section. and it provokes thought about other areas that could be included based on individual needs. does prompt the reader to consider the most critical areas of an SLA. The use of haptics has the potential to enhance the feeling of immersion in training whether the training is performed in virtual reality simulators or real-life 97 . however. However.SLA Review Procedure The process for reviewing the SLA and who is involved. however. Military Haptic applications are used diversely in the military field. there is also a need in military field to research and introduce new technologies. It is most likely that the customers will be all end users of IT services in the organization. haptics are used to enhance the soldiers experience. It is more likely. Special Tip: Avoid using people’s names and use role descriptions to avoid dating the document. the SLA for this service may be only for particular function holders that are spread throughout the organization). Applicable Services Description of Service and/or Service identification code/s NOTE: there can be no single correct definition of an SLA that will cover all situations for all organizations. The use of new technologies can bring along advantages that can lead to improved performance and reduced risks. From enhancing the users immersive feeling when performing training in virtual reality environments to communicating or navigating in different surroundings. that you will include here a link to the Service Catalog or Technical Specification. which could help in training and operating in different military areas. As technical and electronic products and applications are developing. This template. Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Customer definition List and/or describe the customers that are included in this SLA. Notes & Comments Customer Information (Duplicate the following table for as many customers to be covered). you can describe any technical considerations that are essential to document.

sequentially. which are attached to a belt that is worn around the waist of a soldier. engaging. hand and arm signals from a leader in front of the soldier and hand and arm signals from a leader behind the soldier. Using haptics can perform more operations of a similar type with less fatigue. and their response times and accuracy of signal interpretation were documented. The use of haptic feedback can improve performance and sense of presence. The tactile systems in this study consist of tactile displays and receiver units. Haptic interfaces are also used in rehabilitation robotics. enhancing clinical proficiency and product usability. as well as performing remote surgery may prove very useful for training. A particular advantage of this type of work is that surgeons who perform more procedures of a given kind will have statistically better outcomes for their patients. two of which hold an artificial lens within the lens capsule after the surgical removal of cataracts. and multisensory learning experience. In ophthalmology. or in groups to create sensations to replace standard army hand and arm signals. Medical TouchSense haptic technology has revolutionized medical education. The study was conducted with infantry soldiers while they were carrying out a combat patrol simulation on an obstacle course. Haptics adds tactile realism to medical products such as surgical robotics. providing a realistic. Tactile signals and visual hand signals were sent to the soldiers. A study was conducted in which soldiers abilities to interpret and respond to tactile commands were evaluated. The objective of the study was to find out if soldiers are able to interpret and response to tactile commands as efficiently as they can to hand signals in a dynamic environment. The tactors can be activated individually. The display consists of eight tactile actuators. The soldiers were given commands while completing an obstacle course.training situations in an obstacle course. 98 . Minimally invasive procedures such as laparoscopy and interventional radiology. haptics refers to supporting springs. The commands were tactile signals. They also wanted to find out if the use of a tactile system hinders the ability of soldiers to complete an obstacle course.

and elements of management information systems. Remote surgery combines elements of robotics. One important function for training purposes is that computer-based simulators can save the data and thus measure the performance of the training person. While the field of robotic surgery is fairly well established. because visual action is not possible. Different patient types can be simulated. cutting-edge communication technology such as high-speed data connections. Haptic actions are often used in open surgery. it is possible to give more accurate feedback about a person s learning. A robot surgical system generally consists of one or more arms controlled by the surgeon. cadavers do not respond physiologically correctly. a master controller. cadavers. simulating rectal palpation. The surgeon depends on haptic feedback when identifying blood vessels under other tissues. and dummies lack the full range of anatomical variations. also known as telesurgery. and a sensory system giving feedback to the user. There are problems with these methods. Those could be such as if humans are entitled to use animals as test subjects or if corpses should be buried instead of being operated on. In medical situations. When the performance can be monitored. It is a form of telepresence. such as that animals do not have the correct anatomy. The student receives touch feedback from a haptic device while palpating virtual objects. The teacher can visualize the student s actions on a screen and give training and guidance. most of these robots are con- 99 . There can also be ethical questions with using of animals and cadavers. and dummies that are made of plastic. realistic practicing and training are often difficult. Current practice methods are using animals. It is possible to provide precise representations of human physiology. Remote surgery.A computer-based teaching tool has been developed using haptic technology to train veterinary students to examine the bovine reproductive tract. is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location.

The Shadow Hand uses the sense of touch. and push their way to recovery. or planned. Stroke patients who face months of tedious rehabilitation to regain the use of impaired limbs may benefit from new haptic systems interfaces that add the sense of touch to virtual computer environments in development at the University of Southern California s Integrated Media Systems Center (IMSC). and complexity of the human grip. Remote surgery is essentially advanced telecommuting for surgeons. delicacy. and position to reproduce the strength. Data collected through capacity monitoring will include: • Processor utilization • Memory utilization • Per cent processor per transaction type • Input/output rates • Queue lengths • Disk utilization • Transaction rates • Response times • Database usage • Index usage • Hit rates • Concurrent user numbers • Network traffic rates. are challenging stroke patients to grasp. where the physical distance between the surgeon and the patient is immaterial. pressure. The Shadow Hand has haptic sensors embedded in every joint and finger pad. An early prototype can be seen in NASA s collection of humanoid robots or robonauts. an ongoing research and development program whose goal is to complete the first convincing artificial humanoid. squeeze. Effective analysis will compare monitoring data against a reliable baseline for capacity and 100 . which relay information to a central computer for processing and analysis. • Response time – the speed and reaction of the service’s capacity when engaged by a user: response times are common measures used to determine SLA fulfillment. Capacity Monitoring and Performance Tuning Monitoring of capacity focuses on the actual use of capacity by users against the expected. It promises to allow the expertise of specialized surgeons to be available to patients worldwide. use of capacity and correcting any conflicts. The new systems. without the need for patients to travel beyond their local hospital. being designed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers from the Viterbi School of Engineering and the Annenberg School for Communication. now known as the Shadow Robot Company. This type of monitoring must be performed in real-time as changes in demand can occur dramatically. Analysis performed on monitoring data may identify trends not apparent when monitoring.trolled by surgeons at the location of the surgery. The SDRH was developed by a team of engineers in London as part of The Shadow Project. throw. pinch. Different types of monitoring are possible: • Threshold management – the actual use of capacity exceeds expectations. which raises alerts and warnings to invoke a response.

Some of the typical monitored data collected include: Processor utilization Memory utilization Percent processor per transaction type Input/output rates Queue lengths Disk utilization Transaction rates Response times Database usage Index usage Hit rates Concurrent user numbers Network traffic rates 3. 101 . but also typically provides less accurate results. 5. monitoring. Some areas of concern are: Bottlenecks within the infrastructure Inappropriate distribution of workload across the implemented resources Inefficiencies in application design Unexpected increase in workloads and input transactions Scheduled services that need to be reallocated 2. Performance Monitoring . consists of these main activities: 1. This will often involve simulation transactions across the service and infrastructure.Aims to influence the demand and utilization on capacity. will yield more accurate results. analyzing. Simulation modeling Where a set of discrete events are modeled and compared against a defined hardware configuration. Tuning This activity is the process of making modifications to better utilize identified areas of the current infrastructure. Activities of Capacity Management Capacity Management. The main techniques utilized for modeling include: Baselining Where a baseline of current performance and capacity levels is identified and documented Trend analysis Where services and components are monitored over time for their utilization to assist in the identification of trends and the potential forecasting of future utilization and performance levels Analytical modeling Where mathematical techniques are used to predict the performance levels that might be achieved under certain conditions or after making modifications to the infrastructure. or component. as a whole. Modeling A proactive activity that can be used to forecast the behavior of the infrastructure and identify areas that could be better utilized.Measuring. system. Analytical modeling is usually quicker and cheaper to perform than Simulation Modeling. Demand Management . Performance tuning is any activity designed to improve the performance of a service or increase the utilization of a service. Application Sizing . and as a result. and implementing the performance of IT Infrastructure components.performance.Determining the hardware or network capacity to support new or modified applications and the predicted workload 4.

Examples of the types of tuning techniques that might be used include: Balancing workloads Transactions may arrive at the host or server at a particular gateway, depending on where the transaction was initiated. Balancing the ratio of initiation points to gateways can provide tuning benefits. Balancing disk traffic Storing data on disk efficiently and strategically, EG striping data across many spindles may reduce data collection Definition of an acceptable locking strategy that specifies when locks are necessary and the appropriate level, EG database, page, file, record, and row delaying the lock until an update is necessary may provide benefits Efficient use of memory May include looking to utilize more or less memory depending on the circumstances 6. Storage of Capacity Management Data This activity is often done automatically from monitoring system, which identifies the current demand on any system at a given time. The data is generated based on the measurement requirement of all three areas of capacity management and is used to support capacity planning and reporting. 7. Capacity Planning The aforementioned activities all feed into continued planning for capacity to provide information about the current state of the service capacity and future expectations on the demands of that capacity. 8. Reporting Focuses on the current achievement of capacity and performance objectives relative to the capacity plans, the customer, and the service5.1.3 Interfaces with Other Processes Capacity Management plays a significant role in communicating with other processes of the service management system (as illustrated in the following figure). It is important for the service provider to clearly understand and document these interfaces for the benefit of all interacting processes.

Multi-tiered
Technical support is often subdivided into tiers or levels in order to better serve a business or customer base. The number of levels a business uses to organize their technical support group is dependent on a business need, want, or desire as it revolves around their ability to sufficiently serve their customers or users. The reason for providing a multi-tiered support system instead of one general support group is to provide the best possible service in the most efficient possible manner. Success of the organizational structure is dependent on the technicians understanding of their level of responsibility and commitments, their customer response time commitments, and when to appropriately escalate an issue and to which level.
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A common support structure revolves around a three-tiered technical support system. Tier/Level 1 (T1/L1) This is the initial support level responsible for basic customer issues. It is synonymous with first-line support, level 1 support, front-end support, support line 1, and various other headings denoting basic level technical support functions. The first job of a Tier I specialist is to gather the customer s information and to determine the customer s issue by analyzing the symptoms and figuring out the underlying problem. When analyzing the symptoms, it is important for the technician to identify what the customer is trying to accomplish so that time is not wasted on attempting to solve a symptom instead of a problem. Once identification of the underlying problem is established, the specialist can begin sorting through the possible solutions available. Technical support specialists in this group typically handle straightforward and simple problems while possibly using some kind of knowledge management tool. This includes troubleshooting methods such as verifying physical layer issues, resolving username and password problems, uninstalling/reinstalling basic software applications, verification of proper hardware and software set up, and assistance with navigating around application menus. Personnel at this level have a basic to general understanding of the product or service and may not always contain the competency required for solving complex issues. Nevertheless, the goal for this group is to handle 70%-80% of the user problems before finding it necessary to escalate the issue to a higher level. In other industries (such as banking, credit cards, mobile telephony, etc.), level 1 support is carried by a call center that operates extensive hours (or 24/7) acting as initial sink for user requests and, if required, creating an incident to notify other business teams/units to satisfy user request (provide new pin, block stolen credit cards/mobile phones/SIMMs). In some industries, first-line support requires knowledge of the products, terms and conditions offered by the business rather than technical information itself (Retail/Wholesale). Most ISPs only offer tier 1 support. Tier/Level 2 (T2/L2) This is a more in-depth technical support level than Tier I and therefore costs more as the techs are more experienced and knowledgeable on a particular product or service. It is synonymous with level 2 support, support line 2, administrative level support, and vari-

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ous other headings denoting advanced technical troubleshooting and analysis methods. Technicians in this realm of knowledge are responsible for assisting Tier I personnel in solving basic technical problems and for investigating elevated issues by confirming the validity of the problem and seeking for known solutions related to these more complex issues. However, prior to the troubleshooting process, it is important that the technician reviews the work order to see what has already been accomplished by the Tier I technician and how long the technician has been working with the particular customer. This is a key element in meeting both the customer and business needs as it allows the technician to prioritize the troubleshooting process and properly manage his or her time. If a problem is new and/or personnel from this group cannot determine a solution, they are responsible for raising this issue to the Tier III technical support group. In addition, many companies may specify that certain troubleshooting solutions be performed by this group to help ensure that the intricacies of a challenging issue are solved by providing experienced and knowledgeable technicians. This may include, but is not limited to, onsite installations or replacements of various hardware components, software repair, diagnostic testing, and the utilization of remote control tools used to take over the user s machine for the sole purpose of troubleshooting and finding a solution to the problem. Tier/Level 3 (T3/L3) This is the highest level of support in a three-tiered technical support model responsible for handling the most difficult or advanced problems. It is synonymous with level 3 support, back-end support, support line 3, high-end support, and various other headings denoting expert level troubleshooting and analysis methods. These individuals are experts in their fields and are responsible for not only assisting both Tier I and Tier II personnel, but with the research and development of solutions to new or unknown issues. Note that Tier III technicians have the same responsibility as Tier II technicians in reviewing the work order and assessing the time already spent with the customer so that the work is prioritized and time management is sufficiently utilized. If it is at all possible, the technician will work to solve the problem with the customer as it may become apparent that the Tier I and/or Tier II technicians simply failed to discover the proper solution. Upon encountering new problems, however, Tier III personnel must first determine whether or not to solve the problem and may require the customer s contact information so that the technician can have adequate time to troubleshoot the issue and find a solution.

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.. Facilitator: .............. and implementing the best solution to the problem... an issue may be so problematic to the point where the product cannot be salvaged and must be replaced........................................................... Role / Position: .................... it is delivered to the customer and made available for future troubleshooting and analysis....... If it is determined that a problem can be solved.. INTRODUCTION 3 SCORING MODEL FOR ASSESSING PROCESS CAPABILITY 4 DIRECTIONS FOR CONDUCTING ASSESSMENT 5 SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT (SLM) 6 Introduction 105 .......... Tier/Level 4 (T4/L4) While not universally used...In some instances......... this group is responsible for designing and developing one or more courses of action............... Date: .... Within a corporate incident management system.............................................. evaluating each of these courses in a test case environment............ and the Service Level Agreement (SLA) may have specific provision for this....... Such extreme problems are also sent to the original developers for in-depth analysis............... it is important to continue to track incidents even when they are being acted upon by a vendor.................................. a fourth level often represents an escalation point beyond the organization....... IT Service Management (ITSM) Capability Assessment Service Level Management Questionnaire Interviewee Name: ...... This is generally a hardware or software vendor.... Once the solution is verified..

including people. define standard services. processes. and operate services • Make sure they have the resources needed to deliver services and that services are available when needed—at an appropriate cost • Handle what goes wrong—and prevent it from going wrong in the first place if possible • Ensure they are ready to recover from potential disasters and get back to delivering services if the disaster occurs Although it is conceptually feasible to improve all processes. The assessment is based on the generic capability levels defined by the Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) framework. The assessment is used to establish a baseline of current practices in the organisation and to assist in the development of improvement initiatives for processes that can be used when they: • Decide what services they should be providing. a variable number of questions should be answered. To establish where a particular organisation stands in relation to the process capability framework. retire obsolete systems. which recognises that there are a number of characteristics which need to be in place for effective process management. as predictability. effectiveness and control of an organisation’s processes are believed to improve as the organisation moves up these five levels. The questions are weighted. take care of service requests. The assessment scheme is composed of a simple questionnaire which enables you to ascertain which areas should be addressed next in order to improve the overall quality and performance of this process. and let people know about them • Make sure they have everything they need to deliver a service. These questions are denoted by an ‘M’ symbol in the ‘No’ column. and equipment • Get new systems in place. all while making sure disruption to existing services and customers is minimised • Set up agreements. effective improvement across multiple process disciplines in an organisation. Scoring model for assessing process capability There are five levels defined within the CMMI framework. it is not economical to improve all processes to level 5) Therefore the results of the capability assessment should be analysed in conjunction with the defined business objectives and stakeholders’ priorities for improvement.This document provides an assessment model that will enable you to establish the extent to which your organisation has adopted good practices and measures with regards to the Service Level Management process. (indicating that a ‘Yes’ answer is required if the level is to be achieved). consumables. IE Those which are deemed as having a slightly higher significance are considered mandatory for a ‘Yes’ answer at each level of capability. In general. change existing systems. 106 . CMMI provides guidance for efficient.

and is evaluated for adherence to its process description.Capability Level General characteristics Level 0 – Non-existent Investigation shows no existing process goals and an effective lacking of process activities being employed. the standards. There may be a high reliance on individual skill level due to inconsistent documentation or training made available. It is planned and executed in accordance with policy. employs skilled people who have adequate resources to produce controlled outputs. At capability level 3. The process discipline reflected by capability level 2 helps to ensure that existing practices are retained during times of stress. Level 1 – Performed (Ad-hoc) Processes at this level are typically undocumented and in a state of dynamic change. Quantitative objectives for quality and process performance are established and used as criteria in managing the process. controlled. Level 3 – Defined A defined process is a managed (capability level 2) process that is tailored to be effective under various environmental conditions and with a range of appropriate inputs. tending to be driven in an ad hoc. and procedures for a project are tailored from the organisation’s set of standard processes to suit a particular project or organisational unit and therefore are more consistent. At capability level 3. uncontrolled and reactive manner by users or events. Level 4 . In general. This provides a chaotic or unstable environment for the processes. but improvements may be lost over time. the process supports and enables the work needed to provide Services. processes are managed more proactively using an understanding of the interrelationships of the process activities and detailed measures of the process and its work products. is monitored. process descriptions.Managed A managed process is a performed (capability level 1) process that has the basic infrastructure in place to support the process. 107 . except for the differences allowed by the tailoring guidelines. involves relevant stakeholders. Level 2 . and reviewed.Quantitatively Managed A quantitatively managed process is a defined (capability level 3) process that is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques.

Quality and process performance is understood in statistical terms and is managed throughout the life of the process. Level 5 – Optimising An optimising process is a quantitatively managed (capability level 4) Process that is improved based on an understanding of the common causes of variation inherent in the process. 3. developing agreements. • Continue up the levels until the criteria for the current level are not entirely met. Directions for conducting assessment Follow these steps to ascertain the organisational capability level for a specific ITSM process: • Start at Level 1 and answer each question. 2. and that future services are delivered to agreed achievable targets. Service Level Management (SLM) The goal of SLM is to ensure that an agreed level of IT service is provided for all current IT services. For example. By acting as the liaison between the IT Service Provider and the customers. If the criteria for Level 1 are satisfied. should the criteria be satisfied for Levels 1. but are not quite met for Level 4. 108 . monitoring and reporting • A Dedicated Service Level Management Process Owner • A Holistic management over IT services versus independent technical silos • An IT Service Catalogue • Service Level Agreements for customers of IT services • Operational Level Agreements and Underpinning Contracts with IT suppliers • Reports on the quality of IT services on a regular basis • Proactive actions to seek service improvements where needed • And Proactive actions to eradicate unacceptable levels of service. Service Level Management (SLM) is utilized to ensure that the actions required for gathering requirements. This is basically achieved by implementing: • Business-aligned IT services through a constant cycle of agreeing. and measuring and reporting performance are performed in a consistent manner in line with the needs of the business and customers. move on to the next level. The focus of an optimising process is on continually improving the range of process performance through both incremental and innovative improvements. ticking ‘Y’ or ‘N’ column as appropriate. • Check the level criteria given at the foot of the table of Level 1 questions. then no further questions need be attempted and the organisation’s capability level is deemed to be 3.

M Training or awareness sessions have been conducted or made available electronically for staff. Attributes of service quality have been identified. SLAs maintained by regular reviews by the parties to ensure that they are up-to-date and remain effective over time. There is a documented and agreed Service Catalogue. Regular communication exists between customers and the provider. reporting service levels etc. SLA targets are integrated within one or more ITSM tools. such as Service Hours. Minimum score to achieve this level: ‘Y’ for all mandatory (‘M’) questions + 1 other ‘Y’ answer Level 2 – Managed YN There are formal policies or guidelines defined for Service Level Management to be used in the organisation. M The customers of the IT service provider have been formally defined. including negotiating SLAs. M A Service Level Management process owner with accountability for the process across the organisation has been appointed. providing awareness. Minimum score to achieve this level: ‘Y’ for all mandatory (‘M’) questions + 2 other ‘Y’ answers Level 3 – Defined YN Service Level Management is involved in defining and agreeing requirements for new servic- 109 . guidelines and instructions for the Service Level Management process. M There is an agreed SLA structure (EG Customer based. Availability. service based or multi-level) that is consistently applied by the IT service provider. Response Times etc.Level 1 – Performed (Ad-hoc) YN There are at least some repeatable Service Level Management activities established in the organisation. agreed and documented in one or more SLAs. seeking to improve the relationship between the two parties. showing all current IT services being provided to customers and the relevant service attributes or relationships. There are methods to ensure SLAs are adequately supported by internal and external (supplier) groups. EG Negotiating and documenting Service Level Agreements (SLAs). M An agreed list of IT services and their definitions (high-level) is maintained. M There are a number of roles and responsibilities defined for the Service Level Management processes. M Service levels are monitored and reported against on a regular basis. enabling processes such as Incident Management to perform according to SLA requirements. Each service provided to customers is defined. reporting service levels or holding service review meetings.

Standard reports are produced on a regular basis showing the customer satisfaction of IT services. documented and appointed for Service Level Management process... Common services and arrangements are documented in a corporate level SLA. M Clear roles and responsibilities have been identified.. or a time-out error is displayed. services and Configuration Items (CIs). M Service Level Managers and Service Owners maintain accountability for services under their care. Incidents or Service Requests). The process owner will sample random SLAs and service reports to determine process compliance.) when negotiating and agreeing SLAs.). 110 . performance targets. job descriptions or other similar items clearly support documented SLAs. Service Level Management utilises input from a number of other ITSM processes (EG Financial Management. M Operational Level Agreements (OLAs). M The organisation will set and review targets or objectives for Service Level Management on a regular basis. M Services are prioritised in the service catalogue.. SLAs are under formal Change Control. breached and approached (threatened). Service Level Management maintains a complaints & compliments register. M The Configuration Management System is to show relationships between SLAs.es or modifications to existing services. Service Improvement Plans (SIPs) are regularly produced and followed-up to identify and implement improvements to service levels. M Regular reviews are held to determine shortfalls in customer satisfaction or service quality that should be improved. SLAs document acceptable service performance levels that are used to determine normal service operation or exceptions (EG If a response time delay of more than x seconds is experienced for at least 15 minutes. Service reporting does include when SLA targets are achieved. (EG Email and other standard services being used by all customers). Minimum score to achieve this level: ‘Y’ for all mandatory (‘M’) questions + 3 other ‘Y’ answers Level 4 – Quantitatively Managed YN There is a defined and documented process for handling disputes regarding SLAs with customers. Reports are regularly produced showing how trends in service levels and customer satisfaction. M SLAs are used to evaluate the priority of various ITSM activities (EG Changes. Change Management etc. Ownership is assigned and maintained for all SLAs. defined.

and challenges of end-to-end networking.The candidates are also expected to have an in-depth knowledge of the intricacies. configure and to maintain WAN. Minimum score to achieve this level: ‘Y’ for all mandatory (‘M’) questions + 2 other ‘Y’ answers Level 5 – Optimising YN The cost and value of Service Level Management is quantified: this is used to assist in calculating and validating the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of services. OLAs and Service Reports being produced. LAN. They apply technology antidotes to heighten the bandwidth. 111 . to maximize the performance. Regular reviews identify services and arrangements that can be incorporated into the corporate level SLA. The service provider remains aware of business needs and major changes in order to prepare to respond to these needs. subtleties. Regular reviews identify alignment between Service Level Management and other ITSM processes. and the dial access services. The CCIE RS certified are expected to be able to install. Request For Changes (RFCs) trigger the use of Service Level Management where appropriate. M There are feedback mechanisms used to identify improvements that can be made to SLAs. (EG Different priorities). M Service Level Management identifies areas where quality can be improved AND costs/resources be reduced. SLAs are reviewed for how they contribute to the appropriate and efficient consumption of IT services and resources. Minimum score to achieve this level: ‘Y’ for all mandatory (‘M’) questions + 1 other ‘Y’ answer Basics of CCIE RS Examination The certification of CCIE in Routing and Switching depicts the level knowledge of expert in networking in different interfaces of wide area network (WAN) and local area network (LAN).Trends in the workload of Service Level Management is reported on and utilised to identify the ratio of planned and unplanned work actions being performed. so that customer engagement is facilitated or supported by Service Level Management. to support global applications and to improve security. and also a variety of switches and routers. to improve the response times. addressing gaps or conflicts that may have developed. There is clear integration with work conducted within Projects.The complex problems in connectivity are being solved by the experts in RS.

issues. Utilization monitoring The monitoring applied should be specific to a particular CI.The CCIE RS written qualification exam is for two hours and covers concepts of networking and some commands in equipment. Configuration Capacity is concerned with the performance of individual components. a hardware configuration or application. 112 . monitoring transaction throughput rates and response times. CIT. Operational Activities of Capacity Management Whereas the previously mentioned activities of application sizing and modeling are those primarily executed in the design stages of a service. the CCIE RS lab exam is an eight hours lab exam. The candidates must be able to configure the actual equipment and make the network run in a timed test plight. an operating system. IPV6. Some of the typical monitored data collected include: Processor utilization Memory utilization % processor per transaction type Input/output rates Queue lengths Disk utilization Transaction rates Response times Database usage Index usage Hit rates Concurrent user numbers Network traffic rates When collecting data intended for use by the Servicebased Capacity sub-processes. the transaction response time for services may be monitored and measured by: Incorporating specific code within client and server applications software Using robotic scripted systems with terminal emulation software Using distributed agent monitoring software Using specific passive monitoring systems Analysis The data collected by the various monitoring activities and mechanisms will then be used to identify trends. and BCMSN. baselines. ARCH. whether it is an IT service. Candidates must pass the written exam before becoming eligible in taking the lab examination. and conformance or breaches to agreed service levels.Candidates are highly encouraged to have 3-5 years of experience in routing and switching field before attempting to get CCIE RS certification. This is important since the CCIE RS examination is comprised of RS-related topics like BSCI. where Service-based Capacity is concerned with the performance of the entire service. Every candidate is given three years to pass the lab exam but they can do the first CCIE RS lab exam within 18 years after passing the written exam. For example. It is important that the monitors can collect all the data required by Capacity Management for each of the three sub-processes. QoS. The major difference between the sub-processes and their use of these activities comes down to the data being collected and the perspective from which it is analyzed. CCNA. the following activities are the common operational activities that are performed across the three sub-processes.Meanwhile.

and initiate IT Asset Management along with Change Tracking. The company aims to supply solutions that are both flexible and specially geared for the particular needs of the client companies.There may be other issues identified such as: Bottlenecks within the infrastructure Inappropriate distribution of workload across the implemented resources Inefficiencies in application design Unexpected increase in workloads and input transactions Scheduled services that need to be reallocated Tuning After analysis of collected data has occurred. implement anti-spam solutions. EG. eliminate malicious software (malware) and spyware. there may be some corrective action that is required in order to better utilize the infrastructure and resources to improve the performance of a particular service. and row. It can troubleshoot computers and networks alike. install anti-virus software protection. conduct data backups. What Can Network Management Inc Do for Me? Network Management Inc Is a company based within Washington. create appropriate Disaster Recovery programs along with High Availability Solutions. monitor server applications. depending where the transaction was initiated. perform a Security Audit and Management. striping data across many spindles may reduce data collection Definition of an acceptable locking strategy that specifies when locks are necessary and the appropriate level. record. balancing the ratio of initiation points to gateways can provide tuning benefits Balancing disk traffic storing data on disk efficiently and strategically. which serves mostly small. Depending on the changes required.to medium-sized companies by providing customized networking solutions and appropriate support systems to them. this may be implemented via a normal change model (using all the normal steps of Change Management) or a standard change where there is already change approval and an established procedure for the work required. EG. it may be appropriate to consider using one of the ongoing activities to test the validity of the recommendation. page. file. DC . and takes pride in its quick response time for this type of service.Network Management Inc Creates administrative and support systems for both networking and systems needs of its customers. Implementation The objective of implementation is to control the introduction of any changes identified into the production environment. 113 . Examples of the types of tuning techniques that might be used include: Balancing workloads transactions may arrive at the host or server at a particular gateway. database. delaying the lock until an update is necessary may provide benefits Efficient use of memory may include looking to utilize more or less memory depending upon the circumstances Before implementing any of the recommendations arising from the tuning techniques.The company can monitor your Server Health. implement remote connectivity for all mobile users (whether they are in branch locations or are remote users).

. EG.Hardware and software documentation . encryption keys. Reverse Proxy .Plus.0 The following types of cache redirection can be configured: Transparent .Tracking of system response times . Sometimes technical metadata can also be locally defined. compression ratios. formats.Authentication and security data. it is forwarded to a cache server.Fortunately. non-stop. passwords What are the types of cache redirection that can be configured with NetScaler? . This information also defines how resources are stored and where they are located. scaling routines . Network Management Inc Can monitor your systems round-the-clock. its customers usually refer their own social contacts to the company because they themselves are satisfied with the services they got from Network Management Inc In the past. 365 days a year. Real Estate Development Companies. If no policy can be matched with the request.Citrix Netscaler 9. Professionals. A reverse proxy cache is assigned to a specific origin server with its own IP address and the NetScaler acts as the reverse proxy to redirect request to a reverse proxy cache or transparent proxy cache. Some client companies that Network Management Inc Has been able to work for before are Property Management Firms.caches are found in front of the origin servers and requests are sent to either the load balancing virtual server for the origin or for the cache. There are a number of national technical metadata standards.Digitization information. the old-timer customers still come back because they like the services that Network Management Inc Provided in the past and expect the same level of the service for their present needs. for Network Management Inc. Medical Practices. Examples . 114 . Technical Metadata How resources were created and information on their format and other technical characteristics are what make up Technical Metadata. and Lobbyists.caches are found at various points along the network backbone to reduce the traffic along the delivery route. EG. At the same time. The request is evaluated against a policy and forwarded accordingly.

Application Database Administration Services 3 Services for Disaster Recovery 3 115 .the cache resides on the edge of an enterprise LAN facing the WAN. Caching at the edge of the network reduces the bandwidth cost and improves response time for the user.System Database Administration Services 3 Server .System Database Administration Services 3 MF . Service Catalog Table of Contents SECTION 1: Introduction 3 Document Purpose 3 Document History 3 Document Revision Log 3 Common Considerations 3 SECTION 2: Services Catalog 3 Services for Networks 3 Network Operations 3 Network Administration 3 Network Engineering 3 Video Services (Optional) 3 Video/Audio Operations 3 Video/Audio Engineering 3 Services for Servers and Mainframes 3 System Administration 3 System Operations 3 Production Control 3 Storage Management 3 Microfiche (Optional) 3 Backup/ Restore Services 3 Email and Directory Services (Optional) 3 CICS 3 Services for Database Administration (DBA) 3 MF .Caching at the origin server reduces the processing load on the origin server. The forward proxy acts as a single point of content for a client or group of clients. Forward Proxy . The NetScaler is configured as the forward proxy and users must configure their browsers to send request to the NetScaler instead of the destination servers.The reverse proxy cache can substitute destination domains and URLS in a non-cacheable request.Application Database Administration Services 3 Server .

which consisted of representatives of each of the participating agencies. It is expected that this document will be changed over time to reflect new services and more accurate service levels as the ACME IT gains experience in managing the consolidated workload. the workgroup. the billing units have not yet been determined. All services will be performed so that agreed upon security policies and rules are main- 116 . Common Considerations The delivery of all services will be subject to some common constraints. surveyed their respective agencies current services. The results of this survey were summarized and reconciled with the scope definitions produced by the ACME steering committee to produce the items found in this services catalog. It is anticipated that all services will be delivered in accordance with the services management framework that will be formulated by the Service Management workgroup. The services catalog should document the basis for ACME IT charges. At the time of the first draft of this services catalog. In order to accomplish this. Document History During Phase 2 of the ACME’s Computer and Network Infrastructure Consolidation (ACME). however. service metrics and service levels. the ACME Accounting Work Group is in the process of determining the means by which the ACME IT will charge for ACME IT services.Disaster Recovery Services 3 Disaster Recovery Agency Responsibility 3 Service Desk 3 Security Services 3 Consulting Services 3 Project Management Services 3 Service Metrics 3 Glossary of Terms 3 SECTION 1: Introduction Document Purpose This document is intended to document the IT infrastructure services. service metrics and service levels to be provided by the ACME IT (ACME IT). both to suggest some obvious candidates as well as to have placeholders for the actual billing units when they become available. the Service Management Workgroup was chartered to determine the services to be offered by the ACME IT. We have included some potential billing units for the services in this catalog.

The key processes that will be developed are defined in the charter of Service Management workgroup. If additional notice is required by particular agencies. Similarly. 117 . Customer Relationship Management c. these requirements are to be documented in the service level agreement (SLA). In this regard. The workgroup recognizes that these processes are important for the efficiency of the ACME IT. Configuration Management d.tained. Additional ITIL-based processes were identified that were not part of the original Service Management Workgroup scope and therefore were not all developed as part of this effort. They are: a. Release Management The definition and framework for development of these processes will be the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL®). such as change management. the change management process will provide for 48 hour advanced notification of scheduled down time for elements of the IT infrastructure that are managed by the ACME IT. will be adhered to. Change Management f. Request Management b. Problem Management e. key processes required for the delivery of these services. The processes are listed below with comment on where they have been or will be addressed.

f. It supports the organization in planning and executing its business objectives and requires consistent application throughout the organization to achieve maximum efficiency and minimum conflict. Capacity Management – Capacity Management is the process of planning. Incident Management – Incident Management is the process of restoring normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimizing the adverse impact on business operations. e. b. This planning is being done within the Logistics Workgroup please reference their documents for more detail. Financial Management – The process which is responsible for the sound stewardship of the monetary resources of the organization. c. It is anticipated that this function will be performed by the SLM Group within the ACME IT. and controlling IT capacity to satisfy user demand at a reasonable cost within the performance levels agreed to in the service level agreement (SLA) or internal to IT as a operating level agreement (OLA). sizing. This will ensure the best possible levels of service quality and availability are maintained. ‘Normal service operation’ is defined as service operation within Service Level Agreements (SLA) limits. IT Service Continuity – IT Service Continuity Management process ensures that any IT service can provide value to the customer in the event that normal availability solutions fail. The Accounting Workgroup has the responsibility for defining this process. It been delivered as part of the High-level process flows presented to the ACME Steering Committee.The processes are: a. Availability Management – The Availability Management process is to monitor IT components to ensure that IT consistently and cost-effectively delivers the level of availability required by the customer. 118 . The Service Desk function and therefore Request Management and Customer Relationship Management are a part of this process. d.

Review ACME IT billings to the agencies in order to identify cost saving opportunities b. it is expected that on an ongoing basis the ACME IT will: a.Service Level Management – Service Level Management (SLM) is the process of maintaining and improving IT Service quality through a constant cycle of defining. Review vendor bills to the ACME IT in order to identify cost saving opportunities c. These processes will be documented in the SLAs. documenting. ACME IT services will be established and modified as needed in order to meet the critical business needs of the agencies and the State. This process operation is the primary function being performed by the SLM Group within the ACME IT. and reporting the levels of customer IT service. Processes for reporting these metrics are to be developed and documented by the ACME IT and participating agencies. agreeing. This will include ordering assets using approved State procurement procedures as well as tracking. and required system performance. essential data. Service levels documented in the Service Catalog represent requirements for minimum service levels. SECTION 2: Services Catalog 119 . Provide asset management for the physical elements of the ACME agencies’ infrastructure that are in the scope of the ACME project. monitoring. that are required and cost justified. It is anticipated and expected that services should be better than the minimum when possible. The establishment of ACME IT services and service levels will be guided by each agency’s critical hours of operation. These levels were identified by participating ACME agencies. As matter of principle. Once the ACME IT is operational and a chargeback method is implemented. installing and decommissioning ACME IT assets.

e. Management of vendor relationships. Agency User Local Connectivity (Local Area Networks – LANs) b. Monitoring of network performance in order to: 120 . switches and cabling including configuration and maintenance tasks and replacement b.Services for Networks Network services provide the ACME IT agencies with the ability to send and receive data in a secure and reliable manner between systems. Agency User Remote Connectivity (EG Dial up and Internet Access) d. routers. Agency Facility Connectivity (Wide Area Network – WAN) c. Implementation and maintenance of security rules (but not the setting of security policy) Network Administration Network administration is responsible for: a. firewalls. Management of logical network components. locations and personnel. working with vendors and ACME IT agencies to resolve the issues. Management of physical network elements such as circuits. Network Operations Network Operations is responsible for the routine running of the network infrastructure required for the data communication needs of the ACME IT agencies. This includes: a.network services include: a. Troubleshooting communication disruptions. d. Agency VPN Delivery of LAN and WAN network services falls into the three categories below. such as network protocols and their configurations c. where network services are provided externally.

such as traffic congestion or network corruption where it impacts the ACME IT agencies users c.completion of preventative. agency staff and ACME IT schedules to be coordinated. such as equipment rooms III. scheduled and warranty required hardware maintenance d. Provide regular reports on actual network performance against any metrics set in Service Level Agreements II. application rollouts. Planning and execution of technology upgrades as requested by the ACME IT agencies including the advanced notification to agencies in order to allow: I. Management of physical cabling in all locations where either the ACME IT agencies servers or client workstations are installed. training sessions or live service) are not affected by changes 121 . Resolution of network faults b. Correction of traffic problems in the network environment. including condition monitoring and replacements including wireless infrastructure II. Investigate network faults that impact the ACME IT agencies business users III.I. Prevention of network faults IV. II. such that important agency activities (EG. An analysis to be carried out to assess the impact of such changes on ACME IT agencies’ applications. Implementation and maintenance of security rules as directed by ACME IT agencies e. Management of network infrastructure: I. application upgrades. Vendor. Ensuring the physical security of network access points.

Scheduling (Audio and Video) 122 . agency staff and ACME IT schedules to be coordinated. Gateway Services (Audio and Video) c. An analysis to be carried out to assess the impact of such changes on ACME IT agencies’ applications II. application rollouts. locations and personnel. application upgrades. Capacity planning based on historical usage patterns and agency needs projections b. New network equipment installation. training sessions or live service) are not affected by changes Video Services (Optional) Video services provide the ACME IT agencies with the ability to conduct audio and video conferences between systems. network related facility support. Vendor. Bridging (Audio and Video) b. including advanced notification to agencies in order to allow: I. Planning for upgrades. such as: a.Network Engineering Network Engineering is responsible for project-based and operational enhancements to the network infrastructure. Planning and execution of network enhancement projects f.network equipment upgrades. where existing components are replaced with additional. such that important agency activities (EG. where for instance an expansion of the ACME IT agencies application server environment requires the introduction of a new high-capacity serverto-data storage link d. Cabling upgrades. Video and Audio services include: a. higher-performance components c. and wireless infrastructure installation and support e.

working with ACME IT agencies to resolve the issues. d. Help Desk support (Audio and Video) e. Video/Audio Engineering Services The Delivery of Video and Audio services fall into the two categories below. Video/Audio Operations Video and Audio Operations is responsible for the routine running of the video and audio infrastructure required for the needs of the ACME IT agencies. Video core and endpoint equipment upgrades. and conference operations. This includes: a. Video/Audio Engineering Video and Audio Engineering is responsible for: a. e. Provide helpdesk support for scheduling. d. Maintain user contact database f. and monitor real-time video and audio conferences.d. Manage web-based scheduling resources that are used to schedule video and audio conferences. b. c. Provide user training for scheduling services and video endpoints.network traffic analysis and network redesign to accommodate additional video streams. c. 123 . Schedule. New video and audio equipment installation. b. Training (Audio and Video) f. Provide Tier One technical support. video endpoints. build.

g. Novell. UNIX. System Administration This area is responsible for the management of the computing platforms on which the ACME IT agencies applications are based (Linux. hardware and operating system refresh. additions/ changes. and retirement. New Product Evaluation and developing approved list of video systems for ACME IT customers. The services outlines in the server and mainframe sections are meant to apply to all ACME IT supported platforms. 124 . Migration of software into production environments and post-migration support e. Implementation and managing access authorities d. configuration. Services for Servers and Mainframes Server hosting services are provided both remotely as well as in the data center. f. iSeries). e. Perform all software and hardware upgrades for core video. Windows. Installation of the operating systems. Server installations and decommissioning b. configuration and hardening c. moves.Planning and execution of video and audio enhancement projects. hardware troubleshooting and repair. Perform interoperability testing. installation. These services address the complete server lifecycle including procurement. including: a. audio. The key elements for server services delivery are detailed below. Perform advanced beta testing with video equipment manufacturers. zSeries. h. and scheduling systems. Service levels are to be applied to all supported platforms as appropriate.

Installation and support of agency specified middleware f. System software upgrades, to ensure compatibility with the overall environment and to take advantage of technological and security advances, including software patches g. Condition of system hardware, EG Enterprise servers supporting the applications and databases h.completion of preventative, scheduled and warranty required hardware maintenance. This includes: I. Monitoring equipment conditions to ensure early recognition of likely faults II. Plan and execute maintenance in conjunction with the application maintenance, ACME IT agency approved time frames and support service line III. Coordinate urgent maintenance activities after communicating with the ACME IT agencies. i. System performance monitoring, tuning and monthly reporting, to ensure continued compliance with service level agreements and in order to provide notification of pending capacity constraints j. Planning for agency requested upgrades and ACME IT upgrades, including the notification to agencies in order to allow: I. An analysis to be carried out to assess the impact of such changes on ACME IT agencies’ applications II. Provide environments for application testing of software and middleware with operating system upgrades and patches prior to going to production III. Vendor, agency staff and ACME IT schedules to be coordinated, such that important agency activities (EG, application rollouts, application upgrades, training sessions or live service) are not affected by the changes System Operations This area is responsible for the runtime support of ACME IT agencies applications.

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This includes: a. Monitoring the execution of production jobs in order to assist in identifying and reporting unexpected behavior including job failures b. Following documented procedures supplied by the ACME IT agencies in reporting problems with production applications. It is expected that application procedures will include provisions for notification and job restarts to be performed by the ACME IT operations staff. c. Following documented processes created by the ACME IT in reporting problems with systems software d. Response to system/console messages including tape mounts e.computer startups, shutdowns and recycling in accordance with the change management process and documented procedures f. Preparation and coordination of mainframe print services for distribution of batch output through existing state agency delivery channels g. Monitor backup operations and reporting failures Production Control This includes: a. Setting up the schedule for production and ad hoc jobs b. Monitoring the execution of production jobs to ensure the schedule is being maintained c. Reporting scheduling problems and issues to the appropriate agency staff and working with them to understand and resolve the problems d. Agency IT staff and other appropriate staff will be able to submit jobs to the ACME IT service desk. Storage Management For enterprise storage, including tape and storage area networks (SANs), and storage on distributed file and print servers, this service includes:

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a. For disk storage, responding to agency storage requests by: I. Allocating raw storage II. Defining logical volumes III. Configuring logical volumes IV. Making the newly defined storage available for use V. Establishing security on new volumes as requested b. Capacity planning including: I. Monitoring of utilization and identifying the need for more capacity II. Notification to agencies of pending capacity constraints c. Ordering storage devices and media d. Maintenance of storage device related software and micro-code e. Monitoring and maintenance of the scratch tape pool f. Registering tapes into automated tape handling devices g. Providing and maintaining a tape library h. Rotation of tapes to offsite facilities i.

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Performing complete and/ or incremental backups b. Restoring single or multiple objects from the backup media g. Maintaining backup library e. Backup/ Restore Services This area is responsible for the management of backup facilities. This includes: a. including the mechanics of tape backup and off-site storage. Defining media rotation requirements and/ or follow standard procedure c. “pigeon holing” and preparation for distribution of microfiche through existing state agency delivery channels. Labeling backup media appropriately d. Restoring complete or incremental backup as needed after system failures h. tape collection for off-site storage and tape retrieval in the event that restoration of historical data is required.Destruction of media coming out of service in accordance with agreed upon ACME IT agency requirements j. This includes the following: Email Application Administration a. labeling and tracking of tapes in accordance with agreed upon ACME IT agency requirements Microfiche (Optional) This area is responsible for the handling bursting. 128 . Updating user that restoration has been completed Email and Directory Services (Optional) This is an Optional service for email and directory services. Periodically verifying backup media integrity f. Maintenance of appropriate documentation. such as storage system management.

Perform directory synchronization with state email hub Directory Services Administration a. This support is inclusive of all requirements to create. 129 . Monitor e-mail backups g. implement in production and maintain CICS applications with the exception of writing and compiling the application code. Distribution lists d. Limit access control for users depending upon manager/Personnel requests CICS ACME IT will provide CICS support to ACME IT agencies that have applications which run on mainframe computers under CICS. Mailbox restores e. Setting up user accounts. directories and security groups c. This service includes: a. directories. Controlling security privileges as it relates to the user accounts. email boxes and public folders h. Storage groups f. Public folders c. and security groups b. Controlling security privileges as it relates to the user accounts.Setting up user accounts b.

Oracle and Informix. Providing assistance on coding CICS commands d. Installing. Examples of DBMS’s include DB2. MF . These services are divided into two categories. tablespaces) c.System Database Administration Services System DBA services include a. Application DBAs are generally responsible for the database facets of specific applications. Implementing and executing database and system backup and recovery in shared environments on schedules provided by either the agency or Application DBA e. Setting data storage parameters for storage associated with the physical elements of the database d. Application DBA service will be offered as an agency requested service. maintaining (EG Patches and upgrades) and monitoring the health and performance of DBMSs b. Providing assistance on creating screen maps Services for Database Administration (DBA) Database administration provides the services required to store. Defining the physical database design (log files. access and update production data that is managed in a database management system (DBMS). Executing the CICS functions necessary to create or update a new CICS transaction in a CICS environment c. 130 . rollback segments. System DBAs are generally responsible for maintaining the DBMS computing environment and this service is entirely in ACME’s scope.Creating the CICS table entries necessary to put a CICS transaction into a CICS environment b. IMS/DB.

Import/export) using database tools within the space allocated by the System DBA g.k. tables. Define how to implement the required security within the DBMS e. program specification blocks and define their relationships b. Estimating storage requirements (in consultation with physical DBA) d.Setting up and implementing database reorganizations on schedules provided by either the agency or Application DBA f. Constructively collaborate with Application database administrators MF .a. Assistance in troubleshooting performance problems h. Define backup and reorganization schedules and communicate these schedules to the System DBA f.Application Database Administration Services Application DBA services will be provided on an “opt-in” basis to ACME IT agencies. views. Create the data definition statements needed to create logical structures c. Testing and implementation of patches and upgrades of DBMS’ in consultation with application DBA i. indexes. Create definitions of logical data structures. These services include working with application development staff to: a. Recommending naming conventions for database objects g. Implementing and executing database and system backup and recovery in dedicated environments (opt-out) h. Execute database back-ups and restores (a. 131 .

databases. database descriptors). Perform data loads l. Server . Creating physical structures (tablespaces. Update and maintain a data dictionary supplied by the agency n. Develop data definition statements o. DL/I) to optimize performance j. 132 . Installing. Assist in creating stored procedures k. Additional Information Application database administration services will be provided on an optional basis. Defining the physical database design (log files. Create data models using agency provided tools m. ACME IT personnel who provide this service will function as part of a development team and will be expected to provide work products as required by the development project and to complete their work as required by the project schedule. maintaining (EG Patches and upgrades) and monitoring the health and performance of DBMSs b. tablespaces) c. This will be done within the space allocated to the agency.System Database Administration Services System DBA services include a. Setting data storage parameters for storage associated with the physical elements of the database d. rollback segments. Assist in DBMS specific command selection (EG SQL.Implementing security rules and access authority i.

Application Database Administration Services Application DBA services will be provided on an “opt-in” basis to ACME IT agencies. Define backup and reorganization schedules and communicate these schedules to the System DBA f.Implementing and executing database and system backup and recovery in shared environments on schedules provided by either the agency or Application DBA e. Import/export) using database tools within the space allocated by the System DBA g. Recommending naming conventions for database objects g. Testing and implementation of patches and upgrades of DBMS’ in consultation with application DBA i. Create the data definition statements needed to create logical structures c.k. tables. These services include working with application development staff to: a. Create definitions of logical data structures. Constructively collaborate with Application database administrators Server . 133 . views. Define how to implement the required security within the DBMS e. indexes. Setting up and implementing database reorganizations on schedules provided by either the agency or Application DBA f. program specification blocks and define their relationships b. Estimating storage requirements (in consultation with physical DBA) d. Assistance in troubleshooting performance problems h. Execute database back-ups and restores (a.a.

databases. testing and recovery and continued operation of system components designated in the Agencies’ Disaster Recovery Plan. Assist in DBMS specific command selection (EG SQL. Perform data loads l. 134 . Develop data definition statements o. Services for Disaster Recovery The scope of the ACME IT Disaster Recovery Services focuses on the pricing. Update and maintain a data dictionary supplied by the agency n. DL/I) to optimize performance j. Creating physical structures (tablespaces. database descriptors). The ACME IT Disaster Recovery Services do not address agency business resumption or continuity of operations. This will be done within the space allocated to the agency. Additional Information Application database administration services will be provided on an optional basis. Implementing security rules and access authority i. and data communications services for the designated critical applications in the agencies DR plans. Assist in creating stored procedures k. Create data models using agency provided tools m. The ACME IT will offer adequate computational. data storage.Implementing and executing database and system backup and recovery in dedicated environments (opt-out) h. ACME IT personnel who provide this service will function as part of a development team and will be expected to provide work products as required by the development project and to complete their work as required by the project schedule.

The ACME IT will provide a designated Disaster Recovery Technical Support Coordinator. ACME IT will: a. Assess the damage to the Data Center to determine if a disaster should be declared at the ACME IT. Make the decision to formally declare a disaster at the ACME IT. reporting communications problems to the agencies disaster recovery teams. and answering disaster recovery testing questions in general) 135 . The coordinators are responsible for: a. and managing the alternate site contracts for the designated computing services c. c. Serving as liaisons for the agencies during the disaster recovery tests (by assisting agencies in resolving errors in jobs. Disaster Recovery Services In the event of a disaster.Disaster recovery services will be provided on an “opt-in” basis to ACME IT agencies. b. Assisting the agencies in preparing for the disaster recovery test events d. Preparing. Conduct preparations to resume operations at the Data Center. and e. Notify the alternate facilities. Work with the alternate site staff to restore the designated operating systems and applications at the alternate site and establish the communications link to the site in preparation for operating at the site for the duration of the emergency. Customers are responsible for disaster recovery preparedness for their applications in the event of a disaster. and the critical application sponsors of the disaster declaration. d. executing. designated key agency contacts. Pricing the computing and network services components of the agencies disaster recovery plan b.

resolving reported problems. Confirming with the contracted vendor that their computing and data communications configurations will meet the agencies needs. Assisting the agencies in preparing their critical applications to run successfully at another location in the event of a disaster f. organizing. and serving as the liaison between the agency team and the ACME IT Team k. on-call support during the duration of the test. Assisting the agency application owners/participants in successfully running their applications at the alternate site.e. The Disaster Recovery Coordinator is responsible for: a. Periodically surveying agency program managers from the customer community to determine which applications require disaster recovery services and/or resources b. Formulating a test schedule. setting the objectives for the test. general test notes and reports report describing results achieved for each completed test Disaster Recovery Agency Responsibility The agencies will assign a Disaster Recovery Coordinator to oversee the agencies Disaster Recovery Program. Determining how often. The assistance includes help with test preparations. Maintaining and updating the Agency’s Disaster Recovery Plan based on changes in cus- 136 . and that they will be ready for the test g. Recording all problem reports. and requesting regularly-scheduled periodic tests of the disaster recovery procedures c. Sending the backup tapes and tape lists to the vendor site j. Disseminating information to the agency regarding the test i. and establishing action items for the ACME IT and agency team in preparation for the test h.

data requirements and in response to events such as office moves. These services include: a. Receive requests and trouble reports. Provide a central point of contact for ACME IT agency help desks and authorized agency personnel b. telephone number changes. Security services will be performed in response to agency requirements and performed on those components that are part of the ACME IT infrastructure. 137 . and change in personnel and duty changes d. Provide status of pending requests to agency help desk d. Notify agency contact when request is completed e. critical application. Orchestrating from the agency chosen location the execution of their Disaster Recovery Plan when a disaster has been declared Service Desk The service desk is the ACME IT’s 24 X 7 point of contact for authorized staff within the ACME IT agencies that require technical support. Develop the experience and processes that are required in order to solve as many problems as possible on the first contact Security Services The ACME IT will provide centralized technical security support. Secured Virtual Private Network (VPN) b. assign priority based on agreed upon definitions and route the request to the appropriate ACME IT resource c. This service includes performing the following tasks: a.tomer requirements. Document the completion of the request f. Some services are new to the infrastructure and will be implemented after the initial migration and stabilization period. log them.

138 . Physical security of ACME IT assets i. In order to maximize the value of those technical skills to the state. security notifications / alerts to ACME IT agencies as appropriate and applicable to agency uses or applications e. including. Secure wireless networking In addition. Encrypted traffic between the ACME IT and agency/field offices b. the following secured services will be provided on an “opt in” basis by the ACME agencies: a. Anti-virus services for ACME IT managed resources d. agencies can consult with ACME IT personnel for technical expertise for any of the offerings in this catalog. Host intrusion prevention services and monitoring g.network intrusion detection services and monitoring f. Encrypted transmittal of agency data Consulting Services The ACME IT will be staffed with personnel who have deep skills in the technical disciplines required to successfully manage IT infrastructure. Incident response for ACME IT managed resources. Encrypted storage for agency data c.Firewall management c.network firewall services j. Privacy and compliance assurance services including assisting agencies with audits h. Consulting services provided by ACME IT include but are not limited to the following: a.

ACME IT personnel who provide this service will function as part of a development team and will be expected to provide work products as required by the development project and to complete their work as required by the project schedule. Arranging for “Transfer of Information” sessions.Assisting agency representatives with application analysis and design in order to meet requirements b. The service offered to agencies will include. Providing general technical advice in order to optimize the cost effectiveness of those elements of the IT infrastructure managed by the ACME IT h. and overall technology refresh meetings to confirm that appropriate equipment and support techniques to maintain inventory equipment are applied g. Project Management Services The ACME IT will have project management capability. Prototyping application configurations d. learning sessions. Assisting with systems integration c. 139 . This is required both to manage projects that are primarily internal to the ACME IT as well as to interface with agencies in managing the execution of the ACME IT component of agency projects. Assisting with the installation of software for which agencies are primarily responsible f. Technical debugging and performance assistance for applications e. Researching and completing “proofs of concept” for technologies that provide potential benefits to agencies Additional Information Consulting services will be provided on an optional basis. but is not limited to: a.

This includes risk identification. Providing status reports of the ACME IT components of projects in an agreed upon format and frequency h. Managing issues relating to the ACME IT component of the project. Managing risks relating to the ACME IT component of the project. logging into an agreed upon tracking system. documenting mitigation steps. tracking of risk triggers. Service Metrics Service Hours of Support Operations & On Call Support Availability Time to Respond Time 140 . tracking progress. cost and ACME IT personnel utilization to the agreed upon project plan d. Attendance and participation in project management meetings Additional Information Project management services will be provided on an optional basis. Working with agency personnel to integrate the project plan for the ACME IT component of a project into the master project plan e. adherence to agreed upon escalation processes and documentation of the resolution f.Managing the assignment of ACME IT personnel to the project and the ongoing ACME IT staffing requirement for the project b. ACME IT personnel who provide this service will function as part of a development team and will be expected to provide work products as required by the development project and to complete their work as required by the project schedule. and adherence to agreed upon escalation processes g. logging into an agreed upon issue tracking system. This includes issue identification. Tracking schedule. Development of project plans that guide the execution of ACME IT personnel in approved projects c.

Availability Ability of a component or service to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time.System DBA 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 N/A < 2 hrs N/A Time Application Servers 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99.9 % < 30 min < 2 hrs Bandwidth Dial Up 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99.9 % < 30 min < 2 hrs # of Connections WAN 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99. paper records. It is usually expressed as the availability ratio.9 % < 1 hr < 2 hrs Bandwidth Video Services (optional) 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99.9 % < 30 min < 2 hrs CRU Glossary of Terms Term Definition Asset Component of a business process. In the Service Catalog the availability percentages are derived using the following formula: [(AST – DT) / AST] X 100 = Service or Component Availability (%) AST = Agreed Service Time DT = Actual downtime or time that service did not meet SLA requirements (EG System response times) during agreed service time 141 .9 % < 15 min <30 min CRU MF – Batch 7am-6pm M-F 24 x 7 >99.9 % < 4 hrs < 8 hrs Per Account Internet Access 7am-6pm M-F 24 x 7 >99.9 % <15 min < 2 hrs CRU MF.9 % < 30 min < 2 hrs CRU Email and Directory Servers 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99. etc.9 % < 30 min < 2 hrs CRU Email and Directory Services(optional) 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99.9 % < 30 min < 2 hrs CRU Server – System DBA 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 N/A < 2 hrs N/A Time Security Services 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99. IE The proportion of time that the service is actually available for use by the Customers within the agreed service hours.9 % < 1 hr < 4 hrs Bandwidth MF – Online 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99. networks.to Restore Potential Bill Unit LAN 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99. Assets can include people. fax machines. accommodation.9 % < 30 min < 2 hrs CRU Utility Servers 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99.9 % < 30 min < 2 hrs CRU Database Servers 7am-6pm M-F 24 X 7 >99. computer systems.

Business Process A group of business activities undertaken by an organization in pursuit of a common goal. or baselined hardware. and raising the relevant invoices for recovery from customers. personnel. A business process rarely operates in isolation. Charging / Chargeback The process of establishing charges in respect of business units. environment. Change Management The process that ensures that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all changes. Availability Management will fall under the Service Level Management team within the ACME IT. software. Although the position may be updated later. network. the baseline remains unchanged and available as a reference of the original state and as a comparison against the current position. application. and accommodation. Definition of this process to be assigned to either the Logistics team or ACME IT Management Team. which captures 142 . Change(s) The addition. A business process usually depends upon several business functions for support. Capacity Management The process of planning.Availability Management The process to monitor IT components to ensure that IT consistently and cost-effectively delivers the level of availability and performance levels (EG System response time) required by the customer. IE Other business processes will depend on it and it will depend on other processes. in order to minimize the impact of Change-related Incidents upon service quality. supported. system. Baseline A snapshot or a position which is recorded. modification or removal of approved. EG IT. and controlling IT capacity to satisfy user demand at a reasonable cost within the performance levels agreed to in the service level agreement (SLA) or internal to IT as a operating level agreement (OLA). Configuration Baseline (see also Baseline) Configuration of a product or system established at a specific point in time. sizing. desktop build or associated documentation.

are used in the IT environment. and enables that product or system to be rebuilt at a later date. The goal of Configuration Management is to ensure that only authorized components. Delta Release A partial release that includes only those CIs within the release unit that has actually changed or are new since the last full or delta release. associated with an infrastructure . maintaining. Configuration Items (CIs) Component of an infrastructure .which is (or is to be) under the control of Configuration Management. 143 . Financial Management The process which is responsible for the sound stewardship of the monetary resources of the organization. such as a Request for Change. including their versions. Customer Owner of the service. size and type . known as configuration items. controlling. These configuration items should be monitored and tracked through out their component lifecycle. and verifying of configuration items (CIs). Configuration Management The process that covers the identifying. This process will be defined and determined by the Accounting Workgroup. The will provide for mechanisms on SLA negotiations as well as incidents and change requests. software and documentation) to a single module or a minor hardware component. usually the Customer has responsibility for the cost of the service. constituent components and relationships. Customer Relationship Management This function will be performed by a combination of Service Level Management and the Service Desk for ACME IT customer facing activities. It supports the organization in planning and executing its business objectives and requires consistent application throughout the organization to achieve maximum efficiency and minimum conflict. CIs may vary widely in complexity.from an entire system (including all hardware.both the structure and details of the product or system. either directly through charging or indirectly in terms of demonstrable business need. It is the Customer who will define the service requirements.or an item.

phone. pager. distributed. This is separate from On-Site support where the resource is physically located on the ACME IT premises to provide support. Off hours are supported by operations. signal flare. tested. text messaging. IT Service Continuity The process ensuring that any IT service can provide value to the customer in the event that normal availability solutions fail. Off hours are supported as “On Call Support” Incident(s) Any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes. or may cause. Normal Service Operation Service operation parameters within agreed Service Level Agreements (SLA) limits. and implemented together.regular business hours. or a reduction in. mega-phone. In some cases hours of support is dependent on agency field support hours which may be more limited then the ACME IT hours of support. other) based on the agreed SLA. an interruption to. Incident Management The process of restoring normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimizing the adverse impact on business operations. Hours of Support The number of hours per day and the number and which days of the week that support will be provided . Metric Measurable element of a service process or function. Operational Level Agreements (OLA) 144 . On Call Support The number of hours per day and the number of days per week support will to be provided via an On-Call communication mechanism (cell. This will ensure the best possible levels of service quality and availability are maintained. the quality of that service. Monitor / Monitoring The activity of watching a particular function in order to ascertain its status.Full Release All components of the release unit that are built.

migration control. Problem(s) Unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents. The process includes planning.An internal agreement covering the delivery of services which support the IT organization in their delivery of services. Release Management The process of coordinating and managing releases to a live environment. Problem Management differs from Incident Management in that it seeks to investigate the root cause of an incident and find the solution. analyzing. software and data distribution. seeking the root cause of incidents. and hardware and software installation. The reactive aspect is concerned with solving problems in response to one or more incidents. some systems will require support outside the ACME IT normal business hours. Problem Management The process of proactively and reactively identifying trends. 145 . On the other hand Incident Management seeks to find the quickest way of restoring service. and deploying a bundled release of hardware and software to multiple customers and locations. potentially through a workaround rather than a solution. Release A collection of new and/or changed Configuration Items (CIs) which are tested and introduced into the live environment together. and preventing similar incidents in the future. building. designing. centralized and distributed software storage and version control. Performed by agents with intent of satisfying a goal. release preparation and acceptance. initiating actions to implement a work-around or resolution. changes etc. Proactive Problem Management is concerned with identifying and solving problems and known errors before incidents occur in the first place. Process A connected series of actions. Includes release package assembly. testing. Operations Hours of Support Depending on business requirement. These requirements for additional support will be part of the service level agreement.

Release Package A group of releases (can include both full and delta releases) packaged together and implemented concurrently. agreeing. Service Level Management (SLM) The process of maintaining and improving IT Service quality through a constant cycle of defining. It is usually expressed as the availability ratio. Request Management The process to ensure that requests submitted to the ACME IT are handled appropriately. that are required and cost justified. This function will be handled by the Service Desk and the Change Management process. Support Hours (see Hours of Support) The number of hours per day and the number and which days of the week that support will 146 . Service Availability (see also Availability) Ability of a component or service to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time. Service Response Time Target timeframe set for a service to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time. Contains one or more IT systems working together to enable a business process. Service(s) The deliverables of the IT organization as perceived by the Customers. It is usually expressed as seconds or sub seconds but can be whatever time or unit measurement that is appropriate for a given platform. Service Level Agreement (SLA) Written agreement between a service provider (EG The ACME IT) and the Customer(s) (EG An Agency). Service Desk The point of contact within the IT organization for consumers of IT services. and reporting the levels of customer IT service. IE The proportion of time that the service is actually available for use by the Customers at the agreed upon performance level (EG System response time) within the agreed service hours. This process will be defined and administered by the Service Level Management team within the ACME IT. monitoring. that document s agreed Service Levels for one or more Services. documenting.

hardware replacement contracts. Haptic Torch for the Blind The device housed in a torch detects the distance to objects. It is designed to help a vision impaired person to navigate complex environments. This is the time for triage on the Incident to begin at a minimum. software. facilities and people. that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective. Time to Restore The amount of time that is taken to return a given service to normal levels of performance from the onset of an Incident to the point where adequate checks have taken place to ensure that the service has been restored. and physical constraints that are beyond the control of the ACME IT.5m). the force feedback means it doesn t interfere with other assistance devices that mount elsewhere and use audio feedback cues. Time to Respond The amount of time available for a response to an incident from the appropriate ACME IT support personnel. Mounted to the back of the hand. mounted and senses objects from about 1 inch (2 cm) to 10 feet (3. platform. System Response Time Target timeframe set for a system (OS. hardware. while a turning dial on which the user puts his/her thumb indicates the changing distance to an object. It measures the distance to things and translates that into pressure on the wrist. etc) component to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time. It is usually expressed as seconds or sub seconds but can be whatever time or unit measurement that is appropriate for a given platform. In some cases time to restore is dependent on agency field support availability. printer.be provided for a given Service Level. Its wrist It has generally fast response time (fractions of a second) to quickly navigate complex environments. System An integrated composite that consists of one or more of the processes. 147 .

This is especially true for networks like the Internet (which can be said to be the largest network around at present. This department is responsible for measuring and checking the level of performance in terms of productivity and cost reduction. The aim of the ITIL framework is to provide cost effective IT services to the companies.Thus many people who need this network and communications in Asia found themselves at a loss as to how to proceed with their occupations. Feedback is taken from different sources and data collected to keep a record. 148 .The learning curve is measured in seconds. everyone who has worn it has figured it out immediately. ITIL Performance Management ITIL Performance Management The concept of ITIL performance management is very simple as the name suggests. This is a separate department that will determine how the practices including it are performing. Examples of ITIL performance management monitors are: Online response times Workloads Turnaround of batch timings The use of the hardware and the software in the company The Relationship between Network and Communications in Asia Many Asians (especially the educated and professionals in Asian countries) pride themselves on being tech-savvy.) But what happens when this gigantic network and communications in Asia break down? How do Asians cope then?In 06. This is an effective policy because the nature of ITIL framework is that it requires constant check and changes according to the need of the clients and the company. The international cable systems of many telecom providers and use of the Internet were both affected so that it became hard for communication to proceed as Asians needed. both telecommunications and the Internet were severely affected when a major earthquake hit Asia.The depth of the location of the ruptured cables was said to have dictated how long undersea repairs would take. with the epicenter located at southern Taiwan. To fix the ruptured international cables. the service providers had to deploy cable ships to look for the areas in the system affected by the major earthquake.

Infrastructure Management and IT Management.Fortunately. and crisis response time.The problem was so significant. service delivery. This is an effective policy because the nature of ITIL framework is that it requires constant check and changes according to the need of the clients and the company. This is a separate department that will determine how the practices including it are performing. Examples of ITIL performance management monitors are: Online response times Workloads Turnaround of batch timings The use of the hardware and the software in the company ITIL Pins When you pass an ITIL examination. The meaning and the shape of the diamond depicts coherence in the IT industry (infrastructure as well). This logo exists in three colors: Green color is for the Foundation Certificate Blue color is for Practitioner’s Certificate. and Red color is for Manager’s Certificate You will get the ITIL logo over almost every ITIL book or related items. The ITIL pins consist of small diamond like structure that is accepted worldwide. Feedback is taken from different sources and data collected to keep a record. In a region where missing out on one day of work can cause thousands of dollars in losses for each organization. crisis recovery is very important. ITIL pins are a kind of distinguishing badges in the form of internationally recognized ITIL logo. 149 . the damage was eventually repaired and the experience has made service providers more vigilant about their crisis response efforts. crisis response resources. ITIL Pins ITIL Performance Management The concept of ITIL performance management is very simple as the name suggests. This department is responsible for measuring and checking the level of performance in terms of productivity and cost reduction. The aim of the ITIL framework is to provide cost effective IT services to the companies. you will not only be provided a certificate but it will be accompanied by the presentation of ITIL pins. even countries on the other side of the world (like the USA) were also hit hard by the effects of the Taiwan earthquake. The four corners of the pin symbolizes service support.

average response time. The purpose of these reports is to compare the agreed service levels with the actual service levels measured. reliable. audience. etc. availability and downtime. that relate to the organization s processes. Reports to customers should be provided at the intervals agreed within the SLA. It is a formalized means of organizing and storing an organization s documents. etc. email and video. ECM is a general term that covers document management. The aim of Service Level Management. The success of all Service Management processes is dependent on the use of the information provided in service reports. cost of measuring and monitoring. manage. with regards to service reporting. purpose. ECM content may include graphics. and other content. Enterprise Content Management Introduction Enterprise content management (ECM) describes the technologies and procedures used to capture. and accurate reports for informed decision-making and effective communication for the customer and the service provider. number of users. It is important that service reports are sufficiently accurate to be used as a decision support tool among all processes. progress of improvement. transaction rates. web content management. customer satisfaction. store. timely. is to produce agreed. and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. The identity. and details of the data source must be clearly outlined for each service report. preserve. They will contain metrics about actual service levels supported and trends such as the number of SLAs concluded. 150 . Reports created for service provider management are not provided to the customer but for the purpose of controlling or managing internal processes. Service Reporting meets the needs and requirements of both internal management and the customer.Service Reporting The level and frequency of service reporting will be decided and documented as part of the SLA. EG.

new components emerge. automatically. which can be used in business decisions. This category includes most former document-management groupware and workflow solu- 151 . including paper and microfilm. document management and workflow. AIIM is a community of information professionals that provide research. The Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) International defined ECM in 2000. It specifically includes the difficulties involved when using and preserving a company s internal. business-to-government (B2G). when content is checked in and out. ECM applications are delivered in three ways: On-premise software (installed on the organization s own network) Software as a service (SaaS) (web access to information that is stored on the software manufacturer s system) A hybrid solution composed of both onpremise and SaaS components. records management. It also includes the conversion of data between various digital and traditional forms. and retention-rule decisions from information about how and when the content was used. For example. ECM can provide access to data about these communications. Solutions can deliver intranet services to employees (B2E). capture and scanning. new metadata about the content is generated to a certain point. ECM s main goal is to manage the life-cycle of information from initial publication or creation all the way through archival and eventual disposal. and best practices in managing and sharing information. The latest definition includes areas that have traditionally been addressed by records management and document management systems. work-flow management. AIIM refined the abbreviation ECM several times to reflect the increasing range and importance of information management. routing and search pathways. corporate taxonomies and semantic networks. This is why most ECM solutions focus on business-to-employee (B2E) systems. Email and instant messaging are increasingly used in decision-making processes. education. History Enterprise content management combines the capture. As ECM solutions evolve. and can also include enterprise portals for business-to-business (B2B). digital asset management (DAM). government-to-business (G2B). often unstructured information.search. in all of its forms. The system can acquire new filtering. search and networking of documents with digital archiving. or other business relationships. collaboration.

thus reducing the incidence of lost documentation and allowing faster access to information. In the 90s for instance word processing. Through the late 1990s. to improve a paper-intensive process and migrate towards the mythical paperless office. The technologies employed in ECM today are based on the ECM of the late 1980s and early 1990s electronic document management systems (EDMS). organizations increasingly wanted to leverage multiple EDMS products. The audit trail created by EDMS made documents more secure. making it clear that the various EDMS product categories were complementary. providing functionality in one of four areas: Imaging workflow document management ERM The typical early EDMS adopter deployed a small-scale imaging and workflow system. EDMS streamlined time-consuming business practices by imposing better control over documents and document-oriented processes. As organizations established an Internet presence. possibly to just a single department. As it grew and more organizations accomplished pockets of productivity using these technologies. The first stand-alone EDMS technologies were designed to save time and/or improve information access. The move toward integrated EDMS solutions simply reflect a common trend in the software industry which is the integration of point solutions into more comprehensive solutions.companies could visualize a customer service department that uses imaging document management. EDMS technology started to attract organizations that needed targeted. which required managing web content. and provided metrics to help measure productivity and identify efficiency. Not long after. The original EDMS products were stand-alone products. and presentation software products were stand-alone products.organizations that had automated individual departments now began to envision wider benefits from broader deployment. the market shifted toward integration. It would lessen paper handling and paper storage. and workflow to allow agents to better resolve customer inquiries. tactical solutions to address clearly defined problems. Digital asset management is a form of ECM concerned with content stored using digital technology. but provide a web interface. spreadsheet. or microfiche. microfilm. EDMS could provide online access to information that used to be available only on paper. 152 . they wanted to present information via the web.tions that have not yet fully converted their architecture to ECM. the EDMS industry gradually developed.

with little or no functional integration. accounting. Nuxeo. including HIPAA.0. Open source ECM products are also available. packaged suite. KnowledgeTree. SAS 70. Jumper 2. ECM vs. including Alfresco. preserve. Microsoft and Oracle Corporation joined established leaders such as EMC Documentum. it s a software system (or systems) for a specific use (managing and publishing content). Sense/Net. flexible ECM system to manage information in all functional departments. you should know that there is a huge difference between having an enterprise content management (ECM) strategy and implementing a CMS. CMS The world seems full of endless jargon. and Plone. One obvious difference is that the CMS definition explicitly mentions software. Definitions Enterprise Content Management (ECM) The technologies used to capture. Regardless of what your web content management system (CMS) vendor may tell you about their enterprise capabilities. human resources. wherever that information exists. Two TLAs that are confusing in the industry are CMS and ECM.Early EDMS technologies offered multiple systems as a single. ECM tools and strategies allow the management of an organization s unstructured information. 153 . There are similarities between the two but there are critical differences that should be clearly defined. manage. eZ Publish. In 2001 the industry began to use the term enterprise content management to refer to these integrated solutions. integration increased. are aspects that affect developing and deploying ECM. Standards compliance may make outsourcing to certified service providers a workable alternative to an internal ECM deployment. store. LogicalDOC. BS 7799 and ISO/IEC 27001. Laserfiche & OpenText and entered the entry-level value market segment of ECM. In 2006. and none more so than in the IT industry for its love of the Three Letter Acronym (TLA). including customer service. etc. and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. Throughout the 1990s. Government standards. organizations can deploy a single. Today.

on the Web 2.On the other hand. Similarities and differences CMS Built in editors and integration with MS Office Library services and metadata management. these are just meant to help categorize content and are interchangeable to one extent or another. these restrictions can be overcome based on the applications and architecture of the systems. When ECM is used as integrative middleware. etc. Many users are not fully aware of this ECM capability which limits them from further using the its features. Generally software systems have restrictions and limitations.0/social media front. staging and live environments may all hold copies of same version Snapshots of websites and content To the web including mobile devices One of the main differences between a CMS and an ECMS is in Business Process Management (or BPM) or workflow. PDF.0/enterprise 2. Content or documents? Most experts suggest that within the overall heading of information the term content usually applies to any form of unstructured information.) Records (IE as in official documents) Digital assets (IE audio. approval or editorial workflows Work in progress. video files) Remember. the ECM definition mentions both strategies and tools. The following can be seen as sub-types of content: Web content (IE HTML/XHTML/DHTML/ Flash files) XML (IE of various flavors. a CMS might offer the ability to build such features into a site. Characteristics Enterprise Content Management is one of the many distinct elements that cover content management apart from web content management and content syndication and digital and media asset management. including its pre-cursor SGML) Documents (IE MS Office. For example MS Office can save files in an XML format which can be published on a web site or in print. ECM and its components can be used as an independent service. An ECMS is likely to have a full visual workflow design tool and a much heavier weight feature set for designing whole business process. The following characteristics of Enterprise Content Management make it a little distinct from the rest of the content management facets: The ECM is used as middleware to integrate protocols. 154 . A web-focused CMS may have workflow from simple to complex based on editorial processes and authorization of what reaches the live web site. however an ECM system usually offers web or fat clients to allow users to collaborate around the content in the ECM repository. Finally.

standardized data storage (repositories) and value-based storage of information within the information lifecycle.The pieces of information that can be collected and stored using the ECM concept can still be used even when the source or the origin of the information obtained is not considered. Savings through process optimization and automation Strategic reasons for introducing 155 . efficient access to information Traditional methods of supplying and searching for information can cause significant losses in profitability and efficiency. Storage costs can be cut significantly with digitization (switching from paper-based to electronic archiving). it is vital to get the right information at the right time. Today ECM has other uses such as legal requirements traceability for digital audits. in the right context and at the right price. the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and digital signatures. Basel II. The automation of workflow and the integrated provision of information in existing systems greatly increase productivity. This data is what ECM handles allowing all information to be used efficiently throughout the organization. economic and technical benefits of ECM: Direct. Storing and backing up data. To increase productivity. principles of orderly electronic bookkeeping systems. 30 per cent of working time is spent looking for information. ECM must be able to integrate information into the organization s business processes as required. Organizational. Using workflow to automate routine leaves more time and resources for high-value tasks. which impact competitiveness. information and documents ECM used to be just for back up and managing information and making it available more quickly. Benefits Experts estimate up to 80 percent of data in companies is unstructured. Quick and easy access to information can save up to 30 percent of valuable working time. ECM can be used as a universal device to store and deposit all the information obtained. Incorporating different information sources is important in preventing inconsistencies in the stored data and ensuring that information is available across different systems. Enterprise Content Management can also be used to deposit all the information that was obtained. ECM is capable of being used as a general warehouse for all collected information regardless of the information type and origin. Automated processes safeguard quality and help companies comply with standards and with legal regulatory requirements.

Consolidating data management Consolidating the base data into standard formats and repositories can reduce costs. One of the most obvious examples of this is inbound document processing. 156 . minimizing the need for training in the use of new functions. managing and maintaining technical interfaces and applications from different vendors. Other potential benefits of an ECM solution: Storing only what is absolutely required and getting rid of everything else reduces storage costs. Savings through absence of interfaces requiring complex programming The DOXiS4 iECM Suite has connectors that ensure optimum functional. CRM and other productive systems. Reduced operating costs reduce e-discovery costs Having the right information in the right hands at the right time. Reducing operating costs through consolidation The consolidation of information management aims to realize an infrastructure core that optimizes resources and costs. preventing over-capacity and reducing overhead and process costs. increases staff productivity and lowers process costs. Increases productivity. The continuity of the components of the DOXiS4 iECM Suite in particular. ensure data consistency. This reduces marketing time. and optimize information availability within business processes.workflow and business process management (BPM) include shorter information flow and response times and increased business flexibility. as well as applications costs. Consolidating business applications Consolidating applications reduces administrative costs. and electronic business processes that are not continuous. They can impact server and storage costs. This should be compared to costs and integration work involved in implementing. and the possibility of integrating their functions into existing ERP. organizational and economic collaboration between the individual components of the suite. Reduced storage costs can indirectly reduce operations costs. Business process conformity and continuity There still are gaps in business processes such as missing information. One can save costs and increase productivity by closing gaps in the process and automating the organizational interfaces between process steps and departments within the company s workflow structure. increases efficiency by making it easier for the staff to understand.

157 . In some deployments. Best of all. In other deployments where certain dimensions mean only one thing throughout the database. software and data. manipulate and develop their data any way they see fit without changing information inside other data marts or the data warehouse. Increased customer satisfaction is a result of customers getting the answers they need (not want) when they want it. each department or business unit is considered the owner of its data mart including all the hardware. Business continuity is served by making certain the content you need to run your business is available. properly-implemented ECM solutions are cumulative. Each department can then use. Better decisions are made faster when organizations take advantage of opportunities and avoid unnecessary costs. always. When the spreadsheets grow too big and becomes too complicated it will become unmanageable.Employees have better work-life balance because they have good tools to work with and spend less time working overtime and more time with their families. product. Data Marts are primarily used for business intelligence (BI) applications. Consequently users create data marts for just one product line or one unit of the business. That means you re getting more value for the same amount of effort Data Mart The data mart is a subset of the data warehouse that is usually assigned to a specific function or department. Shared dimensions like customer. this business unit ownership will not work. Might cause errors. etc. The related term spreadmart describes the situation that comes up when business analysts develop a system of linked spreadsheets to perform a business analysis. A data mart is the access layer (interface to the databases) of the data warehouse environment used to get data out to the users. Data warehouses can become enormous with hundreds of gigabytes of transactions.

making it easier to get support for a data mart project than a corporate data warehouse project. It is a branch of management that aims to improve business performance by enhancing an organization’s capacity to learn from problems. One can look at it as a scaled-down version of the data warehouse designed to support a small group of users rather than a whole organization. Reasons for Creating a Data Mart Provides easy access for frequent analysis of data Provides a collective view of data for a group of users in a department or one business line. develop new processes and at the same time. It can be scaled up to a full Data Warehouse environment in the long run. provide solutions as well. access and analyze data. the low cost and quick set up of the data mart make it a suitable method for storing data.Business intelligence is used to collect. More easily understood and navigated. Improves end-user response time Provides a suitable data structure recommended for the needs of the end-user access tools. Effective use of an organization’s knowledge resources creates a more competitive advantage and drives lot of benefits that include one or more of the following:(a)Promotes 158 . The Benefits and Challenges of Knowledge Management Knowledge management (KM) is an integral part of any organization to achieve strategic objectives. It is also more economical than implementing a data warehouse. It is much simpler to create a data mart than to implement a data warehouse Data Marts are cost effective It is clear who potential users will be. Data Mart targets the appropriate and less costly method that still uses the features of data warehousing. Data Marts are less expensive and work better for small businesses so they can use data they’ve accumulated. Characteristics of a Data Mart: Focuses on the requirements of one department or business function Do not normally contain detailed operational data unlike data warehouses. Since most small businesses use only a few business intelligence applications. store. It can be set up in less than 90 days.

amending and deleting the contents of a KM program regularly. You can actually read this as why slow. (d)Increases revenue by seeing to it that products and services get to the market as quick as possible. you might find that your site is not performing well because of one thing. Some would say that the slowness could be cause because it’s just an open source software. But then again. there is a need to keep on updating.Behind these great advantages of KM are challenges that should be taken into consideration to ensure continual business growth and development. Some time of this response time is being used to retrieve your HTML document. This is the same case especially if you are using Drupal. Taking a more creative approach on understanding KM processes can definitely yield favorable results on any practically any business function. (c)Enhances employee retention rates by giving more value to people resources. (b)KM is a constantly evolving business practice and therefore. It just does not load easily and that your readers are waiting so long just to see a page of it. reduces production costs as brought about by the elimination of unnecessary or redundant processes. On Having an Improved Drupal Performance Sometimes even if you try to make sure that your web site is the best among the rest. and at the same time. With an excellent KM program in place. That is why if you want to optimize your Drupal page loading performance. Making a plan to address this situation is indeed very critical. absolutely nothing could go wrong. What really happens is that most of the response time for your web site is being used to process what is on your HTML file which includes your photos. you need to optimize these things to cut off on that response time for uploading your page. 159 . Another thing that could help you improve your loading performance is using some tools like YSlow. (e)Streamlines business operations. video streaming or CSS. Some of these include the following:(a)It is clearly emphasized that employee knowledge is valued and rewarded in a KM environment. it would take some time before a culture of dependability that fosters information sharing is established. (b)Improves customer service as it streamlines response time.innovation acquired through the free flowing of ideas.

such as hours of service. and support details etc. 160 .. which encompasses the business perspective. An Operational Level Agreement (OLA) defines the interdependent relationships among the internal support groups of an organization working to support an SLA. The objective of the OLA is to present a clear. you would not have to worry anymore of a slow web site. including the process and timeframe for delivery of their services. The agreement describes the responsibilities of each internal support group toward other support groups. as opposed to an external agreement that will also detail the compensation to be received in the case of a default. The purpose of the OLA is to help ensure that the supporting activities that are performed by a number of support team components are clearly aligned to provide the intended SLA.This tool would help you determine why your page is loading so slowly. Their interdependencies are very different to those outlined in the SLA. Now. and measurable description of the service provider s internal support relationships. It can contain the same requirements. An internal agreement between departments within the IT Service Provider is more likely to be used to measure the performance of a department. concise. responsibilities. OLA is sometimes expanded to other phrases but they all have the same meaning: Organizational Level Agreement Operating Level Agreement Operations Level Agreement OLA(s) are not a substitute for an SLA. the focus is on the internal support groups. Good thing about YSlow is that it does not only analyze your page why it is slow but it gives recommendations on how you would be able to resolve a Drupal performance on your web site. however. An Operational Level Agreement (OLA) follows a very similar (if not identical) structure to an SLA. This means the focus and language used in OLAs will usually be more technical than in SLAs. Designing Contracts Operational Level Agreements Internal The priorities as defined in SLAs will be supported by staff based both internally and externally. You just need though to install Firebug and Firefox to have this tool work.

The Underpinning Contract is a supporting document for Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and is the external equivalent of an internal Operating Level Agreement (OLA). 10. potentially duplicate. OLAs that would be unmanageable and impossible to measure. In any company where there are interdependent departments. there would be an OLA for the Service Desk with regards to support hours. etc. 161 .It is acceptable to have OLAs that do not focus on typical SLA items such as Availability and Service Hours but are merely a set of statements agreed between IT areas because there is no specific service to measure. This would result in departments having multiple.2 Underpinning Contracts Outsourcing An Underpinning Contract (UC) is an agreement created between the IT Service Provider and an external supplier of services. Once agreed upon. This document is different from an OLA and an SLA because it is contractual. there will be an Operational Level Agreement (OLA) governing the relationships between those departments. This is a fine balance and one that is the responsibility of the Service Level Manager and their team to manage accurately. An example OLA template has been provided in the Appendix section of this book for your review. these targets MUST be met and failure to do so may well result in compensation and/or legal action. UCs can often be full of legal jargon and be lengthy and more complex to read than an SLA or OLA. but the IT request has to be purchased in time to support SLAs somewhere else in the business. A common misconception is that every SLA has a specific set of OLAs in place. For example. For example. A good example is between an IT department and IT procurement where there is no IT service. during the night). the contractor may charge more for their services. time to resolve incidents. there may be OLAs between the Service Desk and the various Technical Support teams. An important consideration when writing and agreeing an Underpinning Contract is to ensure objectives and targets are aimed at the correct level. Therefore. if the normal service hours are outside of the contractor s usual timeframes (EG. It is vital that these contracts are kept up-to-date and well managed to ensure that the third party will provide the required levels of support as necessary. similarly.

especially in the call centre industry. application maintenance. either technical. it may become necessary to look towards expansion. Example criteria might include: Percentage of systems that successfully completed the upgrade policy without fail Number of problems and known errors Upgrade duration Notification times Availability hours Quality of service provided Feedback from internal teams with regards to communications etc Outsourcing is becoming increasingly common. termination clauses. internet service providers can hire an outsourcer. a third party company to manage customer support to their members or subscribers. and litigation approaches Non-disclosure requirements and agreements Audit rights Other protection requirements as mandated by corporate legal departments (indemnification clauses. and specific metrics to determine the performance of the site all in support of the overall SLA with the customer. and penalties Contractual obligations. the number of operating hours. There are many different reasons why a service provider may take the decision/have the need to hire an external party to fulfil some of the requirements detailed in the SLA. For example. help desk operations. penalties for non-performance. As an organization grows. document. billing or accounts support. the first party or the service provider may have detailed in the contract that they are able to terminate the contract at any given time or it may even involve financial penalties as specified. etc. resources. In the case that some conditions were not met or goals were constantly missed. resources. and so on) An important component of a UC (as with an SLA or OLA) is a definition of success and how to measure it. and closure Expectations on partner participation in problem management meetings and CAB meetings Statement of work or project charter expectations Release and testing procedures Project management methodology expectations Tool requirements or restrictions IT service continuity and security Charging Service reporting and reviewing Performance incentives. what is the escalation path? Who needs to be involved in defining the following elements that are key to the UCs? Examples of elements that should form part of the UC: Introduction Service description Service hours Availability and reliability Support routes Transaction response times Change management expectations Incident management: record. 162 . For example.Other considerations with regards to choosing a third party supplier and underpinning contract include: Does the organization have legal representation and governance guidelines to define and finalize the UCs? How can the representation be involved early so that legal requirements are part of initial conversations with the partner? Are there other departments (such as production or finance) that have similar contracts with partners? How can IT benefit from their experience? How will contract performance be measured and reported? What are the communication expectations between the partner and the organization? Who are the primary contacts for the partner and for the organization? In the event of an incident. and closure Problem management: record. the type of service to be rendered. track. rates. The Underpinning Contract could then include the number of employees to be hired.

including: * Total number of incidents * Percentage of Incidents handled within agreed response time (Incident response-time targets may be specified in SLAs. for example. Outsourcing is an invaluable asset for controlling these challenges. the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered. a balanced range of metrics must be used to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the Incident Management process. This document serves as a GUIDE FOR THE CREATION OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT PROCESS OWNER AND THE CUSTOMER OF IT 163 . An example OLA template has been provided in the Appendix section of this book for your review. However. allowing the business and IT to focus on more pressing matters.This will give rise to more challenges. by impact code) * Average cost per Incident * Percentage of Incidents closed by the Service Desk without reference to other levels of support * Number and percentage of Incidents resolved remotely. IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management Status: In draft Under Review Sent for Approval Approved Rejected Version: <<your version>> Release Date: Service-Based Service Level Agreement (SLA) The document is not to be considered an extensive statement as its topics have to be generic enough to suit any reader for any organization. which will require new ideas for improvement of products or services.3 Service Level Management KPIs Exercise Incident Management Metrics Just like any other ITIL process. without the need for a physical visit. 10.

The service-based SLA is usually preferred by IT as it allows a single document to cover a single service for all end users of that service. This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization. Reference number Unique identifying number for the SLA (for inclusion in the Configuration Management Data Base – CMDB) Owner Functional role description of who is responsible for this SLA (Who would participate in a review of this document?) Representatives from customer and IT (Special tip: Avoid using names as it dates the document quickly.) Service Name Preferably use a name that is common language in the organization (not a technical name). Use language that is business user friendly. Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Description of the “agreement” Brief description of the contents of this SLA Note: The SLA will cover only ONE IT Service. Use this section simply as an executive summary. 164 . Disadvantage Inability to satisfy the customers that have differing requirements of the service being addressed. but end users from many areas. Service-based SLA Advantage Just one SLA document could be agreed for all customers/ end users of a single service. Service Description (Business) (refer to Technical Considerations later in this table) Briefly describe the primary function of the service. With regard to Service-Based SLA the following points should be addressed: Specific Service Information (Duplicate the following table for as many services to be covered in this SLA). The SLA does not have to be in a lengthy written format and in fact it is more likely to be adopted if it is kept concise.SERVICES. The following form can be used as the Service-Based SLA document. FOR A SINGLE SERVICE. It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents with different customers and less time spent on worrying about accommodating different requirements amongst users. with only salient details.

Service Target Response time Here. they must be listed here with a description on the type of service that each priority level should receive. Use this section to set the expectations of the reader. 165 . Maximum number of accepted outages Minimum percentage availability Maximum number of errors or reruns Service Out of Hours support procedure Are the in-hours support staff the same as out of hours? Phone numbers and what information will be required when support is called What does the user do if the nominated person is not available? Service Charging policy Do we require external staff to only act if they have a validated cost code for work? Are there any special aspects of the work that has to be recorded for later charging? Service Metrics for performance What will be the performance numbers for the work performed under this UC? Will the expected performance be higher than negotiated in the SLA to allow a safety margin? Service Breach Clause Perhaps your organizational culture is built upon imposing penalties for poor performance. These clinical descriptions set an expectation for the customer/end user about the IT Service. remember that using the reason “new service” has only a limited life-span. Are there any differences in the level of accessibility for different people/roles for this service? (Try to use role descriptions. However. Quite often. Service Support Hours (Availability) Consider marginally longer support hours (if less than 24). Service Security Considerations Briefly list any considerations regarding security for this service. then the penalties for failing to meet the stated metrics must be listed here. Instead of “NT Server. then document that here.(eg. instead of names. If this is the case. Far too often. the description is interpreted by the reader in a way not intended by the writer. we write descriptions of IT Services in a clinical fashion.) Service Target Response priorities If the SLA accommodates different priorities. with 2GB RAM and 500GB of disk storage” – we would say “large central server designed for all customers to use and share information”) Service Expectation Level This is a unique concept to this SLA design template. If you feel that there could be some interruptions to service delivery because the service is relatively new. we document the agreed response time for the different priority levels set.

It is most likely that the customers will be all end users of IT services in the organization. IT Services Technical Specification Process: Service Level Management Service: <service name> 166 . that you will include here a link to the Service Catalog or Technical Specification. However. Notes & Comments Customer Information (Duplicate the following table for each customer to be covered in this SLA). however. does prompt the reader to consider the most critical areas of an SLA and it provokes thought about other areas that could be included based on individual needs. Version Control Information SLA Creation Date SLA Last Modified Date UC Cross references Reference number to related and closely coupled UCs OLA Cross references Reference number to any closely coupled agreements with internal IT department Technical considerations In this section. It is more likely.If the SLA is not to have a penalty focus. then it is necessary to invoke a continuity option for this service. then simply remove this line. SLA Validity period Duration that this SLA is expected to remain in place before it is reviewed SLA Review Procedure The process for reviewing the SLA and who is involved Special Tip: Avoid using people’s names and use role descriptions to avoid dating the document. Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Customer definition List and/or describe the customers that are included in this SLA. however. This template. Continuity Considerations (should be linked to the IT Service Continuity Plan) If the agreed support hours cannot be met. the SLA for this service may be only for particular function holders that are spread throughout the organization). NOTE: There can be no single correct definition of an SLA that will cover all situations for all organizations. The definition of when this invocation should occur will be listed here. you can describe any technical considerations that are essential to document. Cross-referencing to the IT Service Continuity Plan is also required.

IT Service Delivery Manager • <first name.Status: In draft Under Review Sent for Approval Approved Rejected Version: <<your version>> Release Date: Document Control Author Prepared by <name and / or department> Document Source This document is located on the LAN under the path: I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Technical Specifications Document Approval This document has been approved for use by the following: • <first name. IT Services Manager • <first name. the following copyholders must be advised through email that an updated copy is available on the intranet site: <<Organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders IT Table of Contents DOCUMENT CONTROL 2 AUTHOR 2 DOCUMENT SOURCE 2 DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2 AMENDMENT HISTORY 2 DISTRIBUTION LIST 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 INTRODUCTION 5 PURPOSE 5 SCOPE 5 AUDIENCE 5 OWNERSHIP 5 167 . last name>. National IT Help Desk Manager Amendment History Issue Date Amendments Completed By Distribution List When this procedure is updated. last name>. last name>.

EXTERNAL INTERFACES 8 4.3. DESCRIPTION 7 3. SERVICE OVERVIEW 6 2.1.6. ASSUMPTIONS 7 2.4. OTHER SERVICES 7 3. SERVICE FUNCTIONAL CAPABILITIES 6 2. EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 6 2. SPECIFIC FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS 7 3.4. USER CHARACTERISTICS 6 2.2. GENERAL CONSTRAINTS 7 2.3.2.7.RELATED DOCUMENTATION 5 1.5. OUTPUTS 7 4. USER OPERATIONS AND PRACTICES 6 2. 168 . SERVICE DESCRIPTION 6 2.1. PROCESSING 7 3. INPUTS 7 3.1.

AVAILABILITY. SERVICE DESIGN CONSTRAINTS 9 7. USABILITY 10 8.1.4.3. HARDWARE INTERFACES 8 4.2. 169 . MAINTAINABILITY 9 7. SECURITY 9 7. RELIABILITY.1.4. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS 10 8.2.USER INTERFACES 8 4. APPENDICES 11 10. ADMINISTRATION 10 9. ATTRIBUTES 9 7. SOFTWARE INTERFACES 8 4. PERFORMANCE 9 6. TERMINOLOGY 12 Introduction Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide relevant IT Units with the technical specifications for the range of services provided by IT Services to the <<Organization name>> community.3.comMUNICATION INTERFACES 9 5. INSTALLATION AND DISTRIBUTION 9 7.

2. and organization of the Technical Specification document. 2. Also include the service’s relationship to the business processes. Where the service comprises technical aspects.2. scope. and list the most important features and capabilities. Audience This document is relevant to IT staff in <<Organization name>> Ownership IT Services has ownership of this document. Service Description Describe briefly the reason for the service. User characteristics 170 . a table may be developed to illustrate these relationships.1.Scope This document describes the following: ➢ Details of each service provided by IT Services including: ➢ Description of service ➢ Functional capabilities of the service ➢ User characteristics ➢ User operations and practices ➢ Software and hardware interfaces ➢ Service contacts ➢ Details of procedures for the service Note: It is assumed for each service described in this document that the supporting functional awareness of the service is already known. Service Overview 2. Service technical capabilities This section presents a list of the technical aspects that the service will be required to perform. Executive Overview Describe the purpose. 2.3. Related Documentation Include in this section any related Service Level Agreement reference numbers and other associated documentation: ➢ Relevant SLA and procedural documents ➢ Relevant IT Services Catalog ➢ Relevant Technical Specification documentation ➢ Relevant User Guides and Procedures 1.

Other services How does the service technically interact with other services? 3. 3.5. specialized knowledge. 2. This may also be derived from the Service Level Requirements.This section describes the intended users of the service in terms of job function. For example. Backup. Some examples of technical aspects are: Processing. 3. 3. or automated timed activities are examples of inputs. backup.2. equipment operators. with regard to backups. Also cover how users might use the service on an occasional basis. 2. Inputs Describe the inputs to the aspect.1. Data feeds from other systems. This section should consider various user classes or profiles such as managers. and network or database administrators. Restore. and database restart activities. or skill levels required. engineers. Consider using a formal “Use Case” to specify the end users’ expected use of the service. User operations and practices Describe how persons will normally use the service and the tasks they will most frequently perform. Processing Describe what is done. Assumptions This section lists any assumptions that were made in specifying the technical requirements of this service. 171 . Specific Technical Descriptions This section is repeated for each technical aspect of the service.6. 2. Archive. we would describe the database close.4. IT support staff. human input.3. Description The description describes the technical aspect and its role in the service.

IP telephony.4. virus protection details. maximum data file size or problem complexity. 6. including items such as networking. and limitations arising from hardware. and any relevant agreements that may impact the service. and peak load requirements (for web-based applications). Software details Describe the technical aspects of the software used to provide the service (eg. and also other output or input devices such as printers or handheld devices. units of measure. 4. Reports generated are also defined. Client server details). For example. Outputs This section describes the outputs.1. backup software used. if we are describing the archive activity. maximum number of concurrent uses. ranges. 4. Other technical considerations The interfaces in this section are specified by documenting: the name and description of each item. 4. and importing/exporting data. 172 . Include expected response times for entering information. Performance Discuss items such as response time. or communications standards. other supporting services and applications that contribute to the service availability. Technical Design Constraints Examples of technical constraints that affect service design choices are items such as memory constraints involving minimum and maximum RAM and hard disk space. availability and capacity requirements. 7. operating system levels. software. 4. etc.3. accuracy and tolerance.communication details Describe how the service will communicate with itself (for multi-platform applications) or other software applications or hardware. PABX. destination or output. throughput requirements. performing calculations of various complexities. source or input.3. querying data files and databases. intranet. we would expect to end up with a media storage device that would be stored in a secure location. 5. data volume requirements. Hardware details Describe the technical components needed to provide the service. timing.2. display formats and organization. email. and Internet communications.

1. or needing special technical knowledge. a field where there are few and difficult-to-use alternatives. Administration is based on the reputations system. Osiris Serverless Portal System Osiris Serverless Portal System is a freeware program to create web portals Key Features Osiris has many features that make it a unique product at present. • Other requirements: Describes any other requirements not yet covered above that need to be considered during the design of the service. 173 . Administration Include any periodic updating or data management needed for the service. with the increase of users in a portal there is a reduction of the workload on single nodes. hence you cannot trace the person who created a content. 2048-bit digital keys guarantee the authenticity of content. including both hard copy and online requirements. • User documentation: Describes the user documentation to be delivered in conjunction with the service. which is a new way to manage users in a distributed system without using central servers. Uses P2P infrastructure (based on Kademlia) for the portals distribution.Additional Requirements Describe other characteristics that the service must have that were not covered in the prior sections. as work is distributed among all network nodes. Even with physical access to an Osiris installation it is impossible to trace the actual user without knowing his or her password. It allows anyone to create a web portal for free without depending on anyone. Allows the user to create content anonymously. Osiris offers a full-text search engine that allows searching across all portals content. It s not possible to make an association between a user and his or her IP address. It is the result of a union between peer-to-peer (P2P) technology and web portals. Security The system is anonymous. allowing you to contribute to the freedom of expression and speech. Low resource utilization. 7.

If the page doesn t exist. Many people can read a file even while it is being written. The version control system then takes care of distributing and merging the changes. This forbids write locks on files designed to maintain file consistency during contention for writing. edit the former submission. Wikipedia itself solves this problem by letting one editor (the latest). Peer-to-Peer Wiki Peer-to-peer wiki is a serverless system that allows wiki sites to be shared between peers. Version Control System A P2P wiki site is shared with peers using a P2P version control system.To prevent the ISP from intercepting traffic. a P2P wiki site is stored directly on each user s computer as a collection of wiki files. connections and data transfer to a portal (called alignment). 174 . transmitting updates. The viewer also takes care of resolving wiki links. a new page is created and the user may start editing it with the use of a text editor. which takes care of sharing. When the user clicks on a wiki link. Viewer A special viewer is used to display local wiki files in the form of web pages. The peers collaborate on the development of the site by modifying wiki files and checking them into the version controlled project. Such system can replicate the wiki site on multiple computers. if more than one person can write a file at any given time and they are working from different versions. Osiris uses random ports which are cloaked during handshake and encrypted point-to-point via 256-bit AES. They may be reading different versions of the same file. The data being written can only have one length. However. the wiki page to which the link points to is loaded into the viewer and then displayed. The first P2P wiki system was designed and implemented by Reliable Software as part of their P2P version control system. Rather than using an internet server. It is based on a peer-to-peer version control system. and storing the history of pages. then a wiki file stored on many servers can be structurally inconsistent. Code Co-op.

Yacy Software is written in A) Java B) C# C) C++ D) Python 5........ Yacy is built on principles of A) Peer-to-Peer Network B) Client .............. Is a service that accelerates the delivery of content from web sites to a computer user.... the content is cached in ... maximizing B) maximizing.... Search & Administrative interface and data storage D) None of the above 6.... 175 . A) Fault-tolerant B) Elasticity C) Tunable consistency D) All of the above 9.. Yacy is based on A) Server and Client only B) Chunk Server...... Which is optimized for speed and better performance A) ROM B) RAM C) Flash Memory D) All of the above 4..It also keeps a history of each file and allows the restoration of earlier versions.............. Questions 1.......... maximizing D) minimizing.... The response time while also........ Indexer...........Server Network C) Both (a) and (b) D) Neither (a) nor (b) 7.. A) Web acceleration B) CoDeen C) Aquiles D) Yacy 2. . A) Apache Hive B) Apache Hadoop C) Apache Cassandra D) None of the above 8.. In most CDNs....... Storage & Clients C) Crawler.. minimizing C) maximizing........... Is an Apache Software Foundation top-level project designed to handle very large amounts of data spread out across many commodity servers while providing a highly available service with no single point of failure....... It is a feature of the Apache Cassandra which is ............ with no downtime or interruption to applications..... A successful CDN optimizes performance by... minimizing 3.................. A) minimizing....... Features of Apache Cassandra are...... Read and write throughput both increase linearly as new machines are added. The number of simultaneous HTTP requests per second.... . A) Fault-tolerant B) Elasticity C) Flash Memory D) Tunable 10................

....NET to access Apache Cassandra............ Aquiles is written in A) C# B) Python C) C++ D) Java 12... Apache Hive is written in .. A) Cloudera B) BogCouch C) Orsis D) None of the above 21..... Operating System of Hadoop is........ 176 .... A) Apache Hive B) Apache Hadoop C) Apache Cassandra D) None of the above 17......... A) Linux B) Debian C) Windows D) Cross Platform 14........... ..... There are three file formats supported in Hive in the following EXCEPT .......... RPC D) None of the above 15.....Is a client for ... A) Java B) C# C) C++ D) Python 19... A) BigCouch B) Cloudera s Distributionincluding Apache Hadoop C) Cloudera Company D) Cloudera Enterprise 20............... Is a Palo Alto-based enterprise software company which provides Apache Hadoop-based software and services. File System supported by Hadoop : A) FTP Filesystem B) Amazon S3 filesystem C) CloudStore D) All of the above 16....... Is a package which includes Cloudera s Distribution including Apache Hadoop...... To communicate between each other. Layer for communication.. Is a data warehouse infrastructure built on top of Hadoop....... It is an open source volunteer project under the Apache Software Foundation..... A) UDP.............. A) CDN B) Aquiles C) CAN D) Wuala 11...... .. ..... A) TEXTFILE B) SOUNDFILE C) SEQUENCEFILE D) RCFILE 18.. clients use ............ production support and tools designed to make it easier to run Hadoop in a produc tion environment.................. RPC B) RPC..... TCP/IP C) TCP/IP.. Aquiles is licensed by A) Microsoft B) Sun C) Apache D) IBM 13......... The filesystem of Hadoop uses the.......

...... ........ Open-source software package.......... BigCouch is made available under ....... To build the sources A) Maven B) Hive C) Flash Memory D) Cassandra 28... Named after Hector. So.... A) Apache Hadoop B) Hector C) Apache Hive D) None of the above 26..0 license D) IBM 2... A) Orsis B) CiuchDB C) BigCouch D) CoDeen 29... Features of BigCouch are A) Fault-tolerant and Tunable consistency B) Decentralized and Elasticity C) Highly available. Is a high-level client API for Apache Cassandra..... or Thrift. t hat is encapsulated by Hector.... if it operates fast enough... Hector provides connection pooling and a nice framework that manages the details...........0 license 24..... ......... Is a proxy server system created at Princeton University in 2003 and deployed for general use on PlanetLab... It is too expensive for clients to open new connections with each request.... This is called...Cloudera offers enterprises a powerful new data platform built on the popular ............. the builder of Troy in Greek mythology.. All the following Platforms are provided by BigCouch EXCEPT A) Ubuntu B) Debian C) Windows D) RedHat / CentOS 23...... A) Failover support B) Connection pooling C) JMX support D) None of the above 27....... 177 ..... Hector uses .... Large number of reads/writes... it is a substitute for the Cassandra Java Client.. A) Sun license B) Windows license C) Apache 2.. A) Apache Hadoop B) Apache Cassandra C) Apache Hive D) None of the above 22...... Fault-tolerant and Clustered & AI-compliant version of Apache CouchDB D) All of the above 25..... a client may easily run out of available sockets.

These requirements will be developed through collaboration with European and national initiatives.. Objective of P2P Next To move forward.. A) C# B) C++ C) Python D) Java 30.. Siebel Tools: Designed to Support the Needs of the Public Among the already growing number of foundations is the Siebel Foundation. A platform approach allows modular development and modular applications.. and for the support for the homeless. the client browser or plug-in can start displaying the data before the entire file has been transmitted. The name refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than to the medium itself.. the technical enablers facilitate new business scenarios for the complete value chain in the content domain from a linear unidirectional push mode to a user centric time and place independent platform paradigm. and facilitates technology integration and code..and skill re-use...Faroo is written in . who is the chairman of First Virtual Group.. health and drug prevention.... and future proof iterative integration as key design principles. P2P-Next P2P-Next is a European Union Framework 7 supported project... Or at least it would appear to be the foundation with one of the most diverse advocacies and 178 . It is intended to produce a new platform architecture for peer-to-peer digital media distribution of video on demand. its conservation. via streaming media based on BitTorrent technology that is capable of supporting multiple business Models.It is also notably very helpful towards the causes of wildlife and habitat preservation. which was founded on the year of 1996 by Thomas Siebel. enables knowledge sharing... which when compared to other foundations it would seem to be the most generous of the lot.. Therefore ensuring industrial relevance and worldwide application reach... P2P Next Platform P2P-Next will develop a platform that takes open source development.. With streaming... as well as some of the largest and most sophisticated actors in the media and telecommunications sector. The foundation is the very active on taking aid and support to the plight of the sectors in education.. Jigdo is a A) Search Engine B) Distributed File System C) Download Utility D) None of the above Chapter 5: Audio Video Streaming Introduction Audio Video Streaming: Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a streaming provider.. open standards.

as well as the Siebel applications themselves. which has been modified and created to be an integrated environment for the configuring of all aspects of applications that are found and serviced by Siebel. because of these partnerships. This is because of the design of the Siebel Tools. Second. Siebel of course will release only Tools that is capable-enough to be object-oriented and be able to support Web application development. Aside from this. and the Dearborn Scholars Fund also created it as well. which usually have only two to three aid sectors to help. These. even surpassing the other billionaire-philanthropists. 179 . Thomas Siebel is also the founder of the Meth Project Foundation. For one.For the upgrades. among the many other reasons form a part of why Siebel is the fastest growing company in its industry. who have been shown to have excellent academic achievements in the past and leadership abilities. well. the Siebel Scholars Foundation. Now for maintenance purposes. and be deployed to the HTML clients. these solutions will also permit the consumers to use Siebel Tools at relative ease. Siebel is able to provide many vital application management solutions that are capable of providing visibility for actual response times for the consumers. Siebel itself will provide this. And achieving the goals of supporting Web application development must be in the likes of supporting the customization needs of sales and marketing with ample due given to the requirements of good customer service. which most probably explains why there is a very large and diversified number of aid sectors it helps. Many would say that Siebel Systems became as prestigious and powerful as it is today because of its unparalleled partnership with other companies. the Siebel Scholars Foundation was a foundation that granted educational scholarships to graduate students.aid sectors. there is also a third member and that is the Meth Project Foundation. In this integration. many say that Siebel Tools are very easy to maintain and can be expected to move automatically upwards in the Siebel Tools’ ladder through the upgrades. Aside from these two.Originally. a Thomas Siebel creationm. which is so unlike many of the foundations. can be utilized as a single configuration. released to the public for use. any Siebel application. and with the merging of the three foundations he became one of the most generous philanthropist today.Now even though Thomas Siebel founded the Siebel Foundation. It can also be used to support languages in the nature of Siebel’s applications.

-Possible relationships the ideal candidate has prior to being hired or would eventually develop in the course of performing on the job. A service level agreement used for recruitment is actually a formal description of what the business expects from any candidates that will be interviewed by the personnel or hiring manager for a position within the business. -A commitment from the hiring manager to submit a thorough evaluation of the ideal candidates they are eyeing for the job within 24 hours from being interviewed.Since areas of South Africa have yet to be connected. and fiber optics. -An agreement within the hiring team to limit the number of candidates to interview to just three or four at the most. A service level agreement for recruiting is important because it: -Establishes standards for professionalism that must be observed by the candidates and the recruitment staff -Helps assure that only the best candidates will be selected for the positions that are open for hiring. it is important to know first of all what a service level agreement when used for recruitment actually is. Service level agreements in South Africa have been a major target of most internet service providers. This would ensure African companies that they have continuous connectivity no matter what type of weather it is. -Creating a schedule for recruitment that will help keep the hiring team on track when sourcing. With companies nowadays going global. Many service providers today are competing with each other in terms of connectivity in South Africa. -A commitment to exploring the potential of ideal candidates in a more in-depth manner. interviewing and hiring ideal candidates for the positions. -A policy of presenting and interviewing only those who are truly qualified for the position.South African Internet Connectivity and Service Level Agreement Before we present a service level agreement recruiting sample. ISP) and a customer (or an organization) that would contain the specific details of the committed service the ISP is going to provide. -A comprehensive candidate profile that indicates the background sought in the ideal candidate. cell phone. South Africa has been struggling to compete. -A plan for going about advertising the position and contacting likely candidates for the position called a sourcing plan. ISPs have been harnessing the combination of some or all of the power of satellite. -A commitment to use a formal standardized process to interview and recruit candidates. 180 . A service level agreement is an agreement between an IT provider (or an internet service provider. The components of a thorough service level agreement recruiting sample are: -A clear description of what exactly the candidate will be doing in that job position when successfully hired. so that candidates know exactly what the job will require from them.

you still cannot claim that you know everything of what is going on. you may have a hard time as well of recalling how things were two or three years ago or longer.To provide this information is to have a Knowledge Based Management within an organization. In 2006. The customers are expected to also provide the service provider with the information related to the service they are requiring. response time of customer service. you would like to know more of the performance and achievements that a company is to offer. how such knowledge supports business and goals of the 181 .5% web connection in 2000) This is a sure sign that service level agreements in South Africa will continue to be sweeter and sweeter as the market grows.Some companies even offer premiums such as additional free hours for every service interruptions in their service level agreements for South Africa. repair and upgrade of the network. It is about people’s knowledge. But this is still a significant increase because they only had a 5. You may have knowledge of what they are but not how things were done. web security. Of the so many things that transpire during the day. Knowledge Based Management is an organization’s compilation of techniques used as to methodical compilation. What Knowledge Based Management Does For Your Organization? No one holds a complete knowledge of everything except God. creation and procurement of the proper equipment needed for the service. payment updates and the like. even as owners or managers of a particular firm. As prospective or current customers. It is the service providers who make the agreements more tempting so that customers will sign up for their service. South Africa’s 49 million population only had a 10% internet connection. transfer.Service level agreements in South Africa are basically just the same as any other SLAs. Therefore. Not all information can be classified as knowledge nor it can be considered as valuable. web hosting. This is not to say that customers (or organizations) no longer have obligations to the service provider. security and management of information.Most service level agreements for South Africa involve the performance.

However. It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents and generally 182 . It seeks to improve customer service as response time is streamlined. intuition. the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered. ideas and competence. IT Services Customer-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management Status: In draft Under Review Sent for Approval Approved Rejected Version: <<your version>> Release Date: Customer-Based Service Level Agreement (SLA) The document is not to be considered an extensive statement as its topics have to be generic enough to suit any reader for any organization. With Knowledge Based Management. innovation. It values employee’s knowledge and rewards them in return. The customer-based SLA is usually preferred by customers as it allows a single document to cover all the IT Services that they use. A Knowledge Based Management is considered as a tool that can be used for distribution or use for creation of new knowledge. This document serves as a GUIDE FOR THE CREATION OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT PROCESS OWNER AND THE CUSTOMER OF IT SERVICES (Covering all the IT Services they use). Knowledge Based management is more on the organizations capabilities of bringing human creativity. This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization. motivation. an organization is assured that valuable information towards its continued growth is in placed.organization. It streamlines operations and reduces costs through the elimination of redundant or unnecessary processes.

the Finance System. say. The SLA does not have to be in a lengthy written format and in fact it is more likely to be adopted if it is kept concise. Disadvantage An inability to deal with differing requirements among users in the same customer group The following form can be used as the Customer-Based SLA document. the Accounting System.) Customer definition List and/or describe the customers that are considered in this SLA. the Billing System. with only salient details. With regard to Customer-Based SLA the following points should be addressed: Overall SLA Information Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Description of the “agreement” Brief description of the contents of this SLA Note: The SLA may cover several IT Services. For example. Special Tip: Avoid using people’s names and use role descriptions to avoid dating the document. It is an agreement with an individual customer group. 183 . Reference number Unique identifying number for the SLA (for inclusion in the Configuration Management Data Base – CMDB) Owner Functional role description of who is responsible for this SLA (Who would participate in a review of this document?) Representatives from customer and IT (Special tip: Avoid using names as it dates the document quickly.) Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who Service Name Preferably use a name that is common language in the organization (not a technical name). Do not try to describe each service here. covering all the services they use. the Payroll System. agreements may be reached with an organization’s Finance Department covering.only requires a single representative to participate on behalf of the business. Customer-based SLA Advantage An agreement with an individual customer groups could cover all of the services they use. SLA Validity period Duration that this SLA is expected to remain in place before it is reviewed. the Procurement System and any other IT systems that they use. Version Control Information SLA Creation Date SLA Last Modified Date Specific Service Information (Duplicate the following table for each service to be covered in this SLA. SLA Review Procedure The process for reviewing the SLA and who is involved. Use this section simply as an executive summary.

they must be listed here with a description on the type of service that each priority level should receive. Quite often. Instead of “NT Server. Use language that is business user friendly. then document that here. Far too often. we document the agreed response time for the different priority levels. instead of names. remember that using the reason “new service” has only a limited life-span. 184 . However. the description is interpreted by the reader in a way not intended by the writer.) Briefly describe the primary function of the service. Are there any differences in the level of accessibility for different people/roles for this service? (Try to use role descriptions. (eg. Service Security Considerations Briefly list any considerations regarding security for this service. These clinical descriptions set an expectation for the customer /end user about the IT Service. Maximum number of accepted outages Minimum percentage availability Maximum number of errors or reruns Service Out of Hours support procedure Are the in-hours support staff the same as out of hours? Phone numbers and what information will be required when support is called What does the user do if the nominated person is not available? Service Charging policy Do we require external staff to only act if they have a validated cost code for work? Are there any special aspects of the work that has to be recorded for later charging? Service Metrics for performance What will be the performance numbers for the work performed under this UC? Will the expected performance be higher than negotiated in the SLA to allow a safety margin? Service Breach Clause Perhaps your organizational culture is built upon imposing penalties for poor performance.) Service Target Response priorities If the SLA accommodates different priorities. Use this section to set the expectations of the reader.Service Description (Business) (Refer to end of table for technical considerations. we write descriptions of IT Services in a clinical fashion. If you feel that there could be some interruptions to service delivery because the service is relatively new. with 2GB RAM and 500GB of disk storage” – we would say “large central server designed for all customers to use and share information”) Service Expectation Level This is a unique concept to this SLA design template. Service Support Hours (Availability) Consider marginally longer support hours (if less than 24). Service Target Response time Here.

however. even greater. It is through the application of some form of infrastructure that deadlines are able to be met and products / services delivered. If the SLA is not to have a penalty focus. This template. levels of service is possible. UC Cross references Reference number to related and closely coupled UCs OLA Cross references Reference number to any closely coupled agreements with internal IT department Technical considerations In this section. This is why an OLA. then simply remove this line. that you will include here a link to the Service Catalog or Technical Specification. then it is necessary to invoke a continuity option for this service. How does an OLA (operation level agreement) function with regards to ITIL? When you think about business it’s hard not to factor in the importance of efficiently designed systems and schedules. without some form of controlling mechanism in place.If this is the case. The definition of when this invocation should occur will be listed here. you can describe any technical considerations that are essential to document. The point is. however. Through the use of an OLA. and it provokes thought about other areas that could be included based on individual needs. or operation level agreement. Cross-referencing to the IT Service Continuity Plan is also required. regulations and objectives for all team members. Notes & Comments NOTE: There can be no single correct definition of an SLA that will cover all situations for all organizations. organizations are able to clearly define roles. does prompt the reader to consider the most critical areas of an SLA. missed opportunities and chaos will likely ensue (not to mention lost profits). is often times a necessity. an operation level agreement is not always an easy thing to institute. once one (an OLA) is established. not to mention more predictable. However. It is more likely. and instituting its practices / methodologies. then the penalties for failing to meet the stated metrics must be listed here. When it comes to ITIL. 185 . Continuity Considerations (Should be linked to the IT Service Continuity Plan) If the agreed support hours cannot be met.

Designing an operation level agreement requires the use of an IT service catalog. if there are grey areas surrounding the level(s) of service provided (on a case by case basis). Primary priorities 2. you should construct outlines for each service described / delivered. fine tuning. Next. This is why the best approach for designing an OLA for an IT group is probably going to be via the formation of a joint committee (comprising members of the IT group itself). Once you have that on hand. an overseer or manager must be assigned the job of instating and monitoring some form of OLA tracking system. OLA design Since your organization is already utilizing ITIL. the first step is going to be to outline how the entire IT group will handle the services listed (in the IT service catalog). The fact is. detailing what is required for smooth delivery and operation of each. here are the areas to consider: 1. It is this tracking system that will provide real time feedback which will allow for the resolution of issues and of course. use of it should be factored into the various stages of the OLA design phase. it may be unclear who’s not carrying out their duties. Afterwards. for defining management of services as well as what entails each independent service.One of the main hindrances of instituting an OLA policy in tandem with an IT department utilizing ITIL is designing the agreement itself. The roles and duties inherent in IT are multifaceted to say the least. The next step is arguably the most complex because it entails actually drafting the OLA document itself. or the speed in which services are delivered. Likewise. Crisis management 186 . no one wants to own up to falling short in their duties.

If there are any discrepancies they should be addressed during this time as well. Detailed listing and examination of all involved parties 4. Glossary and additional clarifications (as needed) 7. Crisis / issue response scheduling 6. Signatures and authorization(s) 9. agree to the terms and subsequently sign the document. The final step in the OLA process is to test the system for effectiveness.3. Primary goals and range of operation(s) 10. Services which are to be delivered 5. responsibilities and functions Creating an OLA draft is going to be the most time-consuming aspect of the entire process. not to foster competition among the IT department itself. Duties. slowing down general production. However. or conversely. and it should not be lightly undertaken. you should send an additional memo detailing when the OLA is going to take effect. Once a suitable draft has been created by the committee it’s time to officially publish it for your entire department. You might find it beneficial to institute some type of game-based environment whereby opposite team silos propose scenarios aimed at disrupting services. keep in mind that the purpose of this exercise is to improve upon the system / infrastructure. 187 . Ongoing collection and review of performance data 8. After everyone has had time to look it over.

Most early designs of haptic feedback use electromagnetic technologies such as vibratory motors. company. Team members who understand and use the practices contained in the ITIL are much better equipped to work inside of an operation level agreement. but also offer discounted rates for bulk-purchased licenses. Design Haptics are enabled by actuators that apply forces to the skin for touch feedback and controllers. If you are an IT manager and your team has yet to become ITIL certified. where a central mass is moved by an applied magnetic field. not to create additional strife and needless opposition. offering a wider range of effects due to more rapid response times. These electromagnetic motors typically operate at resonance and provide strong feedback. as well as the total number of potential mishaps/missteps in general. These are just a few of the many reasons why it is extremely important for IT organizations seeking to institute an OLA policy to be well-versed in ITIL practices. As previously mentioned. but produce a limited range of sensations. those IT departments who are already ITIL methods as part of their daily operations are going to find it somewhat easier to institute OLA policies.The ultimate purpose of an OLA is to establish a more cohesive and functional IT group. not to mention. This is because ITIL is nothing more than a collection of the best solutions available for addressing service-related issues as they correspond with specific elements of IT infrastructure. There are some excellent ITIL e-learning packages out there which are not only of a very high quality. 188 . When you consider that the base prices for most of these ITIL e-learning certification courses are already fairly low. The actuator provides mechanical motion in response to an electrical stimulus. like a vibrating alert in a cell phone or a voice coil in a speaker. service delivery. you’re in luck. Next-generation actuator technologies are beginning to emerge. ITIL is also useful as an inter-office organizational tool in that it has the ability to significantly cut down on response times for crisis management. you’re talking about a truly great investment for your entire department.

Second-generation haptic control algorithms and chips have been developed to enable location-specific responses to be created. training materials and equipment updates is no small affair. The Helpdesk ITIL is Unparalleled: In the world of service management systems there can only be a few stand out offerings. Dutch companies have long understood the benefits that a structured IT management framework like ITIL can deliver to the bottom line. For various reasons. frequency. and early haptic response systems typically vibrated the whole device. you cannot be too particular. each industry leader is a favorite of its customers. piezoelectric. When it comes to IT service management. 189 . You have to choose your direction wisely. electrostatic. Service Desk and Incident Management If you only have time to look into one business enhancement this year. The oscillating electric field around the skin on their fingertips creates a variable sensation of friction depending on the shape. A weak current is sent from a device on the user through the object they are touching to the ground. and subsonic audio wave surface actuation.Next generation of haptic actuator technologies include electroactive polymers. and amplitude of the signal. Paying for new software. The Helpdesk ITIL definition sought by Dutch CV companies is a classic example of businesses that may have or need a Help Desk/Service Desk in place that is pre-defined. It is always a bit costly to shift gears in operations. Make a thorough comparison of all the appropriate applications to uncover the top contender. A new technique that does not require actuators is called reverse-electrovibration. The actuators require control. the future depends on it. make it the Help Desk ITIL. In business you find yourself faced with options and decisions that have long-term affects.

190 . The provision of a high quality Helpdesk ITIL (service desk) allows these organizations to ensure it can respond to customers and business needs quickly and efficiently. and escalate calls to more experienced and trained staff. The Service/Help Desk plays an important part in the provision of IT Services. a smooth transition is made possible. Look for software that is simple to use so that you can reduce training time at Helpdesk ITIL to a bare minimum. The aura of excellence that surrounds Helpdesk ITIL tools is undeniable.The Service Desk function within the ITIL framework provides Dutch CV businesses with clear guideline and thought provoking ideas regarding the structure of the Help Desk. There are different types of Help Desk. Others provide a high degree of business and technical knowledge with the ability to solve most incidents at the time that the business user reports them. Without this. When something is designed right with the user in mind. When you put all the elements in place for good things to happen you will be surprised to find that they do. The Service/Help Desk is a single point of contact for end users who need help. You cannot build your business on anything but the surest foundation. The two main focuses of the Service Desk are Incident Control and Communication. so does the need to expand your customer service department. The delivery of leading class service is now a differentiator used by Dutch CV’s looking for the competitive edge. the selection of which is dependant upon what the business requires. an organization could certainly face losses due to inefficiencies. Don’t let your expanded revenue based get consumed by out of control support costs. Some Help Desks provide a simple call logging function. It is very often the first contact the business users have in their use of IT Services when something does not work as expected. Helpdesk ITIL Software: As your customer base grows.

Helpdesk ITIL software can keep costs down and improve trouble ticket response times. Some people assume that transitioning to new help desk tracking systems involves a lot of down time for services and employees. Establish a good reputation for stellar service and loyalty will build in the habits of your customer base. you need to make some changes before it is too late. The truth is that you can opt for in house training or train the trainer sessions in order to minimize any confusion. Streamline with Helpdesk ITIL Software: Minimizing response times is important if you want customers to feel good about the level of service they get. IT Help Desk Software: IT help desk software can take your business to the next level. Arming your team with Helpdesk ITIL software is the best way to properly arm them for the task set before them. Another mental hurdle is in understanding that the initial investment in Helpdesk ITIL components saves money in the long run. You cannot ignore the pressing need for automated services. Unless you are willing to let increased volume overwhelm your current system of inquiry handling. There are many excuses that pop up when you feel reluctant to make a change. You can’t afford to lose customers and potential accounts. ITIL software or Helpdesk ITIL software may not seem apparently connected with customers. An individual business plan that explains how you should use service management software and Helpdesk ITIL software can serve as your personal roadmap. Lax response times send a message that you cannot effectively accept more business. 191 . Set you and your employees up for success and better customer response figures than ever before. but it does heavily influence their experience with you. Part of keeping your business on track and in a growth mode is to modernize operations in a timely manner. You need to dream big and help desk software is one way to plan for an expansive future.

They fear that employees are too reluctant to give new software a chance. Web Acceleration Web acceleration means websites can be loaded faster. There are lots of reasons to put off updating your equipment. Number of simultaneous HTTP requests that a CDN can handle. The good news it that the latest slew of IT help desk software reflects a level of simplicity and user friendly processes that actually make using it simpler than the system you currently employ. 192 . both for large file downloads and small images. Currently most pages on the internet have a Content Delivery Network (CDN) supporting their website. but it is cash that you see in returns like higher process volume and satisfaction levels. A third concern raised by sceptics’ concerns usability. One of the functions of a CDN is to accelerate the content. Performance OF CDN Web Acceleration Response Time is the most important criteria.Utilities that reduce the amount of time that employees need to spend per inquiry help streamline the entire flow of the office. Help desk remedies do cost money. but you have to acknowledge that you are choosing to stall your business’ progress with procrastination.

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