Client :a single-user computer that provides user interface services and appropriate database and processing services

, and connectivity services to servers (and possibly other clients). Your World Wide Web brower is a client of a World Wide Web server. It runs client network access software which is called the requester or redirector (e.g. Win 95). Server : a multiple-user computer that provides shared database, processing, and interface services, and connectivity to clients and other servers. It will have a NOS(Network Operating System) that provide services such as file and print sharing and user account management(e.g. Win NT). Client/server computing: an information system database, software, and interfaces are distributed across a network of clients and servers that communicate and cooperate to achieve system objectives. (Distributed computing, cooperative computing.) Peer-to Peer: This has no servers and the network is used to share resources among independent peers. Every computer is both a client and a server Client-Server Protocol: A communication protocol between networked computers in which the services of one computer (the server) are requested by the other (the client). Centralized computing: a multi-user computer hosts all the information system components including the data storage, the business logic, and any system interfaces. The user may interact with this host computer via a terminal, but all the work is done on the host computer. Network: A system of connected computers exchanging information with each other. Can be a LAN or WAN Local area network (or LAN): a set of client computers through cable over relatively short distances. Wide area network ( or WAN): an interconnected set of LAN’s or the connection of PC over a longer distance There are two types of servers. File-and-print servers: File Servers provides services that allow network users to share files e.g. Windows NT. These services include things like file transfer, file storage and data migration, file update synchronization (ensuring that each user has the latest version) and file archiving. E.g.Stores the database, but the client computers must execute all database instruction. Such as Access and dBASE. Print Servers manage and control printing on a network, allowing multiple and simultaneous access to printing facilities. The network operating system achieves this by

Application(Database) servers: store the database.Hardware protocol defines how hardware devices operate and work together(e. Cookies: Sweet snacks. binary e. text. OO applications. which are special storage areas where print jobs are stored and then sent to the printer in an organized fashion. 10baseT Ethernet protocol) Software protocol programs communicate with each other via this e. Other Internet protocols. IPX/SXP : Used in Novell Netware (NWLINK is Microsoft’s version). like what sites you .the specification for how an HTTP server should communicate with server gateway applications. Gopher and HTTP sit on top of TCP/IP.using print queues. audio.g.g. The server returns only the result of the database command processing and not entire databases or tables.this protocol is the foundation of the Internet. Directory services Protocols : the agreed upon ways that computers exchange information . the more data (water) can pass over the network (through the pipe). Good for large routed networks NETBIEU (IBM): NETBIOS(Network Basic Input/Output System) Extended User Interface(used for small single server LAN networks) NFS : Unix uses Network File System to share file storage over a TCP/IP network - Bandwidth: A measurement of the volume of information that can be transmitted over a network at a given time. network protocols: TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol .g. workgroup application(e.g. workflow management applications and linked-object documents ). Think of a network as a water pipe . Good for large networks that use routers. networks connected directly to the Internet. an agreed upon set of rules directing computers on how to exchange information with each other. Such as oracle and SQL Server Message servers: Not only files are passed between users. The clients merely send their database commands to the server. Electronic mail. Also the collective name for files stored on your hard drive by your Web browser that hold information about your browsing habits. but the database commands are also executed on those servers. CGI: Common Gateway Interface .the higher the bandwidth (the larger the diameter of the pipe). Data can take form of graphics. such as FTP. video.

Gateway: Computer hardware and software that allow users to connect from one network to another. usually corporate. All network topologies operate according to established .com (business). Domain Name: Allows you to reference Internet sites without knowing the true numerical (government). .mil(military) and others. Host: The name of a specific machine within a larger domain. GIF: Graphics Interchange Format . MSN Messenger ISP: Internet Service Provider . FTP: File Transfer Protocol .the system allowing Internet users to conduct online text based communication with one or more other users. .the company which provides you with a connection to the Internet via either a Dial-up Connection or a Direct Connection.have visited. work group. This permits computers of all types and sizes all over the world to communicate. etc.1. Domain: The Internet is divided into smaller sets known as domains.every computer on the Internet has a unique identifying number. To learn about ways to protect your privacy. HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol . like 191. Most images seen on web pages are GIF files. All the computers connected to Internet are potential clients with access to a world of servers Intranet : a secure network. including . ISDN) IP Address: Internet Protocol Address . Many view 'cookies' as an invasion of privacy. ( (educational). that uses Internet technology to integrate desktop. Internet : Exchange data and information using standard language and protocols.2.a common image format. HTML: HyperText Markup Language .a collection of tags typically used in the development of Web pages. visit this site for software and information. . IRC: Internet Relay Chat .24.a set of instructions for communication between a server and a World Wide Web client. and enterprise computing into a single cohesive framework Network topology: describes how a network provides connectivity between the computers on that network. Eg. which newsgroups you have read.a set of rules for exchanging files between computers via the Internet.g.

Each record in the file is a row in the table. An example would be "http://www. Relational database: Data are stores as table format. update. PING: Ping . and delete records in the tables.". The program required to implement distributed relational databases is called a distributed relational database management system. Related records between two tables are implemented by intentionally duplicating columns in the two tables. Distributed relational database: distributes or duplicates tables to multiple database servers. but can only be deciphered by the intended recipient via the private key. It is sometimes called a client/server database management system. Distributed relational database management system: is a software program that controls access to and maintenance of the stored data. Page: An HTML document. Each field is a column in the encryption scheme which uses the "public key" approach . When the data reaches its destination.messages are encrypted using the publicly available protocols that permit different types of computers to communicate and interoperate.a program for determining if another computer is presently connected to the Internet. Data architectures for distributed relational databases Client/server computing helps on distributing data without loss of centralized control. Nameserver: A computer running a program that converts domain names into appropriate IP addresses and vice versa Packet: A chunk of data. SNA. TCP/IP. or Web site. the protocol makes sure that all packets have arrived without error. The TCP/IP protocol breaks large data files into smaller "packets" for transmission. Most RDBMSs support two types of distributed data. and security. URL: Uniform Resource Locator . Each file is implemented as a table. It also provides for backup. This control is being accomplished through distributed relational databases. Database engine: is that part of the DBMS that execute database commands to create. the address of the this home page.the method by which Internet sites are addressed. . read. PGP: Pretty Good Privacy .squareone.

colors or models). Data types and field lengths are defined for each attribute. Logical data modeling is a business perspective of a project's data that is independent of how it will be stored in the database. The methods for migrating from a logical to a physical model are as follows: The entities become database tables and the attributes become database columns. DML . Entire tables can be allocated to different servers. Relational Database Concepts (http://bus. .data definition language is used to define the database. Indexes are created and system-enforced referential integrity rules are defined.Data distribution: partitions data to one or more database servers.g. An application data architecture is selected based on the desired client/server model and the database technology needed to support that model. Application Data Model: the data model for a single system or application. The physical model is derived from the logical model. Physical data modeling is a data model that directly represents the logical data as it will be stored in the DBMS. : typically uses a combination of dimensional modeling and ER Data modeling. Data replication : duplicates data on one or more database servers. which are the pre-defined values for particular attributes (e. Data definition language (DDL) is created to define the database and associated tables.. Data architecture must specify the RDBMS and the degree to which data will be distributed or replicated. or subsets of rows in a table can be duplicated to different servers. Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) : typically uses Entity-Relation (ER) Data Modeling Online Analytical Processing (OLAP).tsud. The tables are populated with domain values.database modeling language is used to manipulate the database and retrieve records. Entire tables can be duplicated on different servers. It describes the business data requirements in a format where business users can understand or subsets of rows in a table can be duplicated to different servers.htm) DDL .

Cardinality : defines the minimum and maximum number of occurrences of one entity for a single occurrence of the related entity. cardinality must be defined in both directions for every relationship .A diagram that depicts an entity relationship model’s entities. typically a person. place. The table name appears at the top of the rectangle. The lines start at the side of the rectangle next to the place of the attribute used in the relationship. The type of relationship is indicated by the symbols used next to the rectangles (1:M. . with all attributes listed inside and the primary key is usually in bold print. Also called a record in the old file based system.Object that represents an object in the real world that has one specific objective. Represented by a double-square box in the E-R diagram. Entity relationship diagram . One of two integrity rules for databases. The most common use of composite entities in a relational database is to . It is also called bubble chart. attributes.Independent entity: one that exists regardless of the existence of any other entity.Each record has a Primary key . It contains properties(fields/columns) that describes the entity. It might also be used as a communications tool to help people understand the makeup of the database. Composite entity An entity that stands for the relationship between 2 or more other entities. The entity relationship diagram is created during the design of the database. Because all relationships are bidirectional.Secondary key A key that is used strictly for data retrieval purposes . and M:M) Existence dependent . thing.A property of an entity whose existence depends on one or more other entities. transformation graph. . concept. or event. . and relations. Schema . It also displays connectivity and cardinality. Entities are grouped together to form tables or entity sets.A drawing of a relational database in which each table is represented by a rectangle and the relationships between tables are represented by lines that connect the rectangles. 1:1. and process model Entity : .The absence of null values in a primary key.Domain Integrity all the values an attribute can legitimately take on . Its primary key contains no attributes that would make it dependent on the existence of another entity. It also has relationships with other entities which is expressed in a ER(Entity Relationship) Diagram.An attribute or group of attributes that uniquely identifies a record within a table .Entity integrity . Guarantees that each entity will have a unique identity.Data flow diagram(DFD) is one of very famous tool that pictures the flow of data through a system and the work or processing performed by that system.Something about which you want to store data.

Third normal form 3NF – Third of the database design forms that requires that the data is in 2NF. Normalization Normalization . however.Stages in the normalization process. all the attributes in the table should be functionally dependent on A.provide a way to express a many-to-many relationship as 2 one-to-many relationships. most business databases are designed using only the first three normal forms. See also 1NF.there are no repeating groups . This situation is eliminated when the table is in second normal form Normal forms .Second of the database design forms that require that the data is in 1NF.all attributes are dependent on the primary key. no attribute is dependent on only a portion of the primary key. and the data includes no partial dependencies. Functional dependence .Within a relation R.An attribute in a table is dependent on a portion of the primary key. Partial dependency . an attribute B is functionally dependent on an attribute A if and only if a given value of the attribute A determines exactly one value of the attribute B. The relationship "B is dependent on A" is equivalent to "A determines B". and the data includes no transitive dependencies(An attribute in a table is dependent on another non primary key attribute rather than the primary key. There are seven normal forms.all the key attributes are defined .First or lowest or the database design forms that require: . This situation is eliminated when the table is in third normal form) . if A is the primary key of a table. First normal form 1NF . Second normal form 2NF .A process for assigning attributes to entities using principles that will greatly reduce or eliminate data redundancies. In a properly designed table. that is. 2NF. and 3NF. rather than the entire key.


each attribute or column occurs only once for each instance of the primary key.Figure 4-10. the data for each citizen is stored only once and multiple vehicles owned by a citizen can exist without citizen data repeated. the vehicle data moves to a new entity called Vehicle. Normalization example . Characteristics of first normal form are as follows: .denormalized data model. The first step is to take the model to the first normal form (1NF).) This way. (See Figure 4-11. Since a citizen can own multiple vehicles. In the first normal form.

First Normal Form (1NF).Figure 4-11. . In the example. the insurance company is not dependent on the composite primary key. so it is put into a separate entity. Second normal form starts with the first normal form model. The next step is to take the model to second normal form (2NF). a model is already in second normal form if it only has a single attribute primary key. (See Figure 4-12. then any partial dependencies are removed so all the non-key attributes are fully dependent on the composite primary key. Normalization example .) By definition.

Normalization example . As well.Figure 4-12. there are no attributes calculated from other attributes. the county seat is dependent on the county.Second Normal Form (2NF).) . (See Figure 4-13. In the example. so a separate county entity is added. all attributes are dependent on the primary key and only the primary key. The final step is to take the model to third normal form (3NF). In third normal form. Third normal form starts with the second normal form model and then modifies it so that no attributes depend on any other non-key attributes.

See Hierarchical database model (e. Recursive relationship A relationship that is expressed about multiple records within one table.Third Normal Form (3NF). Example: A recursive relationship might be expressed within a university’s class table if one course is a prerequisite of another course. Queries against an ER model typically require the joining of two or more tables together. The more joins required for a query. That same table might have a field for the employee's manager which would contain the EMP-NUM of the manager of that employee. Example: A table of employees might have as its primary key EMP-NUM. Unary relationship . See also recursive relationship. Once a model has reached third normal form. Normalization example . any variation from that form is called denormalization. Each segment has a 1:M .g. Denormalization is sometimes necessary in a data model to increase the performance of data access. The top record is the root segment.Figure 4-13.A relationship that exists within a single table. IMS) A database model based on an upside-down tree structure in which each record is called a segment. the more chance of performance degradation.

A recursive hierarchical relationship is where the entity is both the parent and the child and the relationship is non-identifying. hierarchical databases do not permit user-friendly ad hoc queries 4. Child A segment located below another segment in a hierarchical tree.relationship to the segment directly below it. mature technology it handles sequential records processing efficiently . the hierarchical model cannot directly model m:m relationships 5. Segment . Disadvantages of the hierarchical model include: 1. the designer of a hierarchical database must be conscious of the manner in which data are accessed 3.part of a parent child relationship. A twin pointer points to a record that shares the same parent as the current record and resides at the same level as the current record) Parent .The segment located above another segment in a hierarchical tree. An example of a recursive relationship is where a product can be constructed of multiple products stored in the same table. Each segment (except the root segment) has one parent segment and may have one or more child segments. each segment is a parent of the segments below it. each lower segment is a child of the directly connected segment above it. See also child Root . the designer of a hierarchical database must be concerned with physical storage considerations 2.The first or top segment in a hierarchical database model. (The basic data model of a hierarchical model is a hierarchy or tree relationship where each segment of the tree has one parent and can have many children). there is no standard 6. (A child pointer is one that points to a record that is one level down from the current record. programming is difficult Advantages of the hierarchical model • • • it is optimized for 1:m relationships stable.A record in a hierarchical database model .

for example. Worse. yet. one problem with this system is that the user must know how the tree is structured in order to find anything! However. there may be a higher level that includes multiple course. you cannot add a record to a child table until it has already been incorporated into the parent table.Hierarchical path . Redundancy would occur because hierarchical databases handle one-to-many relationships well but do not handle many-to-many relationships well. Not only can a student take many subjects but a subject may also be taken by many students. you wanted to add a student who had not yet signed up for any courses. This might be troublesome if. you start at the root and work your way down through the tree until you reach your target. How would you model this relationship simply and efficiently using a hierarchical database? . the relationship between student and class is a "many-to-many". In this case. the hierarchical database model has some serious problems. For instance. as you can imagine. This is because a child may only have one parent. You might imagine that in the database system shown above. Of course.The ordered sequence of segments that must be accessed by the hierarchical DBMS in order to retrieve a given segment This child/parent rule assures that data is systematically accessible. the hierarchical database model still creates repetition of data within the database. For one. as you might imagine. in many cases you will want to have the child be related to more than one parent. To get to a low-level table. However. there could be redundancy because students would be enrolled in several courses and thus each "course tree" would have redundant student information.

the Network Database model was designed to solve some of the more serious problems with the Hierarchical Database Model. However. a Network Database looks like a hierarchcal Database in that you can see it as a type of tree. instead of using a singleparent tree hierarchy. Owner . However. the network model uses set theory to provide a tree-like hierarchy with the exception that child tables were allowed to have more than one parent. the hierarchical model is a subset of the network model.member. Thus.g. IDMS) A database model that expresses a collection of records in M:M relationships known as owner/member relationships. the Network model solves the problem of data redundancy by representing relationships in terms of sets rather than hierarchy. The relationship is owner . In many ways. in the case of a Network Database. The network model was far from perfect. Most implementations of the network model were used by computer programmers rather than real users. the look is more like several trees which share branches.Network database model (e. and multiple owners may own each member.The record on the one side of a one to many relationship expressed in a network database model. Specifically. Enter the Relational Database Model . the model was difficult to implement and maintain. Most profoundly. the computer brains of the world got together and came up with the network model. Faced with these serious problems. children can have multiple parents and parents can have multiple children. In fact. Each owner may own multiple members. This allowed the network model to support many-to-many relationships Visually. The network model is very similar to the hierarchical model actually.

Distributed computing. 2. Logical network models depict the perspective of the system owners and system users on information system’s geography. It is also called distribution modeling and geographic modeling. 3. process and interface building blocks with those of the network models is needed. which allocates specific information system elements to different computers that cooperate and inter-operate across a computer network. Synchronization of data. The distributed computers are: • • • Desktop and laptop computers Shared network computers. Records more flexible and independent.Advantages of the network model 1. clients Legacy mainframe computers and minicomputers . 4. can be accessed directly Records have multiple access paths Records of the same type can be linked together with a loop Physical pointers are the method of establishing relationships Disadvantages of the network model 1. drives the network modeling. Update and delete very complex Recursive Network Relationship Network modeling: Technique used to document the geographic structure of a system. High skill level required to implement and maintain 2.

1 shows an example of incomplete location activity diagram. Figure 7.Network modeling: diagrammatic technique used to document the shape of a business or information system in terms of its business locations. .

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