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Fundamentals of Project Management For Development Organizations
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PM4DEV | 3 ISBN: 978-0-557-04873-1 Published by: PM4DEV. without the prior written permission of the publishers. stored in a retrieval system. recording or otherwise. .pm4dev. photocopying. Project Management for Development Organizations Email: info@pm4dev. electronic. mechanical.com WEB: www.com © PM4DEV 2009 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. or transmitted in any form or by any means.
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PM4DEV | 5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS A methodology to manage development projects for international assistance and humanitarian relief organizations .
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and in order to deliver the projects on time. to help reduce their risks and increase their chances of success. The second edition builds on the strong points of the first edition and adds even more important information and features. . These organizations need to invest in the education of their project managers who need to develop basic managerial competencies. Project managers need to coordinate project teams that bring together specialists from different fields. This book was well received in its first edition. it will not be a surprise that in the near future this competence is not only required but demanded. they need to use different approaches to solve complex problems. The future of many development organizations depends on their ability to employ the potential of modern project management methods to face their new challenges. and constraints are limiting the ability of project managers to reach the objectives of their project. Our many years of experience managing projects have convinced us of the need for a book on project management for development organizations that provides a deeper understanding of the subject matter from a professional perspective. We direct particular attention to the new role that a project manager needs to play. Donors are requiring better controls and more professional managerial competences in the staff responsible for managing projects. as well as the skills required to successfully run a project within a challenging environment subject to constraints typical of development projects. we cover the fundamental concepts of project management with a quick overview of the project management cycle and its management processes. best practices and a project management methodology proven successful in other industries. In this book. development organizations need to respond quickly to new challenges imposed by a changing environment were more stakeholders. they will need to dramatically change the way in which projects are managed. while at the same time they are being asked to do more with less. Depending on the technical competency of project managers to guarantee the project’s success is not enough. under budget and to meet the level of quality demanded by donors and beneficiaries. Today’s development projects are more complex and require the application of many skills. Today’s development organizations are becoming catalysts of change in the communities they serve. and are urged to use the tools.PM4DEV | 7 Preface More than ever.
com/english/elearn. The book also features updated graphs and additional diagrams to help readers illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book.pm4dev. This book has a companion e/course on CD-ROM that can be purchased from our web site. . Visit our web site at http://www. At the end of each module. a short test is available to practice and review the main topics of the book. At the end of each chapter we have included a review section including questions designed to go through the chapter’s important lessons (answers can be found at the end of the book). The course provides a simple way to learn the basic elements of modern project management concepts that were presented in this book. Each module of the course presents the most important ideas and concepts with the aid of charts and graphics.htm for additional information and instructions on how to obtain a copy of this eCourse.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 8 New to the Second Edition The second edition of “Fundamentals of Project Management" incorporates a new approach to learn the basic elements of project management.
PM4DEV | 9 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS • Chapter 1 Introduction to the Modern Project Management Methodologies and Key Definitions. Chapter 2 The Development Project Environment and the Various Challenges that Limit Project Success. Chapter 6 The Organizational Structures for Project Management. Chapter 4 The Nine Project Management Processes that Facilitate the Delivery of Project Benefits. Chapter 5 The Skills. • • • • • . Chapter 3 The Six Project Management Phases and the Project Management Cycle. Roles and Responsibilities in Project Management.
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PM4DEV | 11 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT Introduction to Project Management Defining a Project Definition of Project Management Project Management Constraints CHAPTER 2 THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT Definition of a Development Project The Challenges of a Development Project The Need for a Project Management Methodology Benefits of a Project Management Methodology CHAPTER 3 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE A Systemic Approach The Project Management Ecosystem Project Management Phases Project Management Cycle CHAPTER 4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Project Management Processes Core Processes Supporting Processes CHAPTER 5 ROLES. RESPONSIBILITIES AND SKILLS Role of the Project Manager Responsibilities of the Project Manager Managerial Skills for Project Managers Interpersonal Skills for Project Managers Influence and Power of the Project Manager Placing Roles. Responsibilities and Skills Together CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT The Project Organization Structure Factors in Designing a Project Structure Types of Project Organizations Structures Management Styles Project Governance GLOSSARY OF TERMS INDEX 13 13 17 19 20 27 27 29 31 32 35 35 36 37 47 51 51 55 63 75 77 85 88 92 95 96 99 99 99 101 102 109 111 117 133 .
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at the same time. or the monitoring and evaluation’s aspects of development. current available literature regarding development project management focuses on donor requirements or monitoring and evaluation rather than in the managerial aspects of the development project. and processes that are commonly used in the project management profession and widely used in the private and government sectors.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 13 CHAPTER 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT Introduction to Project Management Why a book of project management for development organizations? While most books on development projects focus on the design and identification of solutions to reduce poverty. development projects operate in locations surrounded by many challenges from extreme working conditions to volatile environments were human or natural events can put the project at risk of not meeting its goals. project management only deals with the implementation of the activities designed during the development of the project’s proposal for funding and with keeping track of budget expenditures. if any. little effort is devoted to plan the various management processes that make up a project. incorporate the basic tools. and budget. methods. and. timeframe. Project management is more than just implementing the activities identified in a logical framework. . Additionally. but. meeting the expectations of its stakeholders. In fact. few books. For most development organizations. it includes the management of limited resources to ensure that the project meets its objectives within the expected quality.
Management skills are often seen as an unnecessary element. for that reason. Nonetheless. there is not a widely defined standard for managing development projects. line of the organization’s development goals by producing outcomes at higher costs and higher risks. however. many project managers using the log frame. at the same time. predictable. project managers have to deal with numerous requests from numerous stakeholders in addition of being responsible to deliver outcomes in conditions were security risks are high and goods and services are limited. Most organizations run projects relying on the technical skills of their project managers who –not surprisingly. but with an increase in the risks of failing to meet their intended objectives. there is one significant advance in the development sector. it requires that projects take into account the input from different stakeholders while balancing the need to manage project budgets. This problem implies a direct impact to the organization. each organization or project manager defines their own approach to manage a project. only a few can provide evidence that they use formal project management methodologies in a consistent. and evaluate outcomes. are able to accomplish the planned activities. Although many development organizations claim to have good principles of project management. This complex project environment needs appropriate project management skills. In this environment development workers assigned to manage projects are The lack of consistent often not sufficiently equipped with the project management necessary management skills and lack methodology results in access to the tools and methods that will the duplication of efforts help them do their job in an efficient and that affect the bottom effective manner. Currently. monitor schedules. Yet. having a log-frame does not ensure the success of a project. and something that can be achieved just by monitoring the project’s budget and schedule. which creates an environment of distrust from donors and stakeholders. and reliable manner.have little or no formal training in management. and that is the institutionalization of the project’s logical framework or log-frame.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 14 Development projects face constant demands to do more with less. fail to understand the critical managerial components of the project and focus excessively on the technical components while ignoring the processes facilitating the planning and implementation of a project. . in such a way that their projects -at best-. the success of development organizations requires that organizations take a new approach to their understanding of management within the context of a development project. in fact.
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In recent years, most development organizations have seen an increase on accountability requirements from international cooperation and donor agencies, leading to a greater focus on effectiveness and efficiency in the way projects are using the resources and delivering benefits. In this rapidly changing environment, with a diverse range of issues and challenges, project management can support the achievement of project and organizational goals and give greater assurance to stakeholders that resources are managed effectively. Many development projects fail to deliver the expected outcomes or fail to produce the desired impact in the communities they serve. The most common for project failures are: • • • Objectives not properly defined and agreed due to the rush to obtain funding. There is little attention paid to include beneficiaries in the early decisions. Discrepancy by stakeholders in understanding the project’s objectives due to the low participation from stakeholders. Outcomes and benefits are not properly defined in measurable terms, there is too much emphasis in measuring and tracking activities and tangible outputs than the intangible benefits that come as a result of achieving the project’s final goal. Insufficient planning and coordination of resources results in plans that do not meet the actual conditions in the field and project staff have limited skills to modify and adapt the plan in time and under budget. Poor estimation of duration and cost result in activities that take longer than planned and cost more than what was budgeted. Incomplete, unrealistic, and outdated project plans: the team follows blindly the plans that, in many cases, have never been verified or modified to adapt to a changing environment. Lack of communication and stakeholder management leads to high expectations about the project, increases distrust, and results in beneficiaries that are disconnected from the project. Weak project leadership, vague lines of responsibility and authority producing an uncoordinated team that often duplicates efforts. Inadequate definition and acceptance of roles results in project staff that cannot assume their responsibilities and increases the time a project manager needs to work with the team. Poor commitment to the project by the team, the organization, and the beneficiaries that result from inadequate leadership skills. Weak control processes and feedback mechanisms that do not detect problems early enough. Lack of analysis of major risk factors and inadequate risk response strategies results in higher costs to recover from the risk events.
• • • • • • • •
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Lack of good quality controls that impact the ownership of the project by the beneficiaries and other key stakeholders.
All of these causes could be addressed by the application of modern project management tools and techniques. Applying a formalized project management framework, or methodology, to projects can help with clarification and agreement to goals. It helps with the correct identification of the resources needed to ensure accountability for results, performance and foster a focus on the benefits to be achieved. This book, and the other books in the PM4DEV series aim to provide project managers with a guide to help them plan, implement, and monitor projects and to provide international development organizations, with a methodology to initiate, plan, implement, monitor and close projects in a more consistent, reliable and predictable manner. The effective use of a project management methodology ensures a cost effective use of limited resources such as people and funds. A project management methodology can help development organizations meet their strategic goals by standardizing processes, reducing risks, and avoiding duplication of efforts with the purpose of increasing the impact of their interventions. The proposed premise is that organizations that systematically apply modern project management methodologies can ensure that donor, organizational and beneficiary resources are used in the most efficient and effective manner in a way that will increase the chances of meeting the needs of the beneficiaries. This book has been written for three main audiences: • For Project Managers, who have been assigned with the responsibility to manage a project, within a certain time, budget, and scope, for whom the guidance provided in this book should be useful for building the range of skills appropriate for effective project management.
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For Development Organizations, to whom the arguments presented in this book should demonstrate the benefits of a structured methodology in the process of selecting the right projects, in addition to helping them do the projects right. For Project Staff, in charge of implementing the project’s plans, as they need clear guidelines to help them do their job in the most efficient manner.
The objectives of this book are: • To help development organizations understand the need to quickly adapt to new challenges and invest their limited resources in the best way possible in order to achieve recurring successes for which they can use a proven, but flexible, project management methodology. To help development organizations understand that in order to implement projects successfully, project management must become part of the organizational culture; because, the effective utilization of the project management methodology depends upon the integration of project management processes into the day-to-day operations in the field. To provide a common framework and terminology across development organizations, especially Non Governmental Organizations (NGO’s); as it is trough a common methodology, and a common language that project managers in development organizations can increase their knowledge and build their skills.
This book focuses on concepts and practices related to development projects. It is our hope that the ideas and methodologies presented in the course of the following chapters, and in the other books of the PM4DEV series, are proven useful to anyone who is engaged in managing projects in the broader development field. We hope that this experience helps bring sustainable benefits to the communities and beneficiaries who need it the most.
Defining a Project
There are many definitions for what constitutes a project, some of these definitions describe the nature of a project and how it differs from other type of work, the descriptions used to define a project include the following:
directing. constrained by time. A clear set of activities with related inputs and outputs aimed to achieve objectives and goals linked to anticipated (desired) effects and impacts in a target population. organized method to meet its objectives with specific goals of quality and performance. Management is a process of setting and achieving goals through the execution of the four basic functions of management: planning. Management has also been defined as “the art of getting things done through other people”1 This definition 1 J. An undertaking that encompasses a set of tasks or activities having a definable starting point and well defined objectives. For the purpose of this book. by utilizing human. and a budget. that is developed to accomplish a well-defined goal or objective. Management.objectives through people and other resources. and controlling. financial. Definition of Management Management is defined as the achievement of -project or organizational. From all these descriptions. A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. Every project is unique.. A project has constraints and a unique reason. A group of inter-related activities.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 18 • • • • • • A temporary process. one can see that there are some specific attributes that define a project and separate it from most ordinary work: • • • • • A project has a beginning and an end. and scope. which has a clearly defined start and end time. we will use the following definition of a project: A project is a temporary effort made up of a set of related activities undertaken to achieve a unique goal or objective within specified constraints. (Prentice Hall 1989) . Stoner. and material resources. a set of tasks. organizing. 4th Ed. A temporary effort of sequential activities designed to accomplish a unique purpose. cost. A project has limited resources. designed to deliver a unique purpose. A project follows a planned.
Leading involves getting others to perform the tasks by direct influence and by applying communication skills that will build the right atmosphere to help employees do their work. There are four basic functions in management. cost and resources”.org . tools. and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project”. − Planning involves defining organizational goals and proposing ways to reach them. Checking progress against plans and make the necessary modifications to keep the plans in track. In addition to this definition. Managers plan with the objective of achieving a desired future by committing resources and deciding with tasks must be done to reach the intended goals Organizing is the process of creating organizational structures that will enable employees to carry out the manager’s plans.pmi. Third Edition”2. leading and controlling. − − − Definition of Project Management According to “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. a standard for quality in project management defines it as: “Unique process consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates. the UK standard for project management says: “a temporary organization that is needed to produce a unique and predefined outcome or result at a pre-specified time using predetermined resources” • 2 www. other leading organizations in project management offer the following definitions: • The ISO 10006. Controlling is the process by which the organization monitors the performance and takes corrective action.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 19 highlights the fact that managers achieve organizational goals by developing an environment where others can perform the tasks and not themselves. often classified as planning. It is about making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful implementation of plans. organizing. skills. PRINCE2. PMI. “Project management is the application of knowledge. including constraints of time. undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements.
and four constraints if they want to realize cost constraints. budget. Jason Westland.” 3 In other words. achieved by effectively controlling and balancing the constraint of scope. or operations. and budget. and managing in balance. time. Project management is the planning. in producing quality deliverables that meet or exceed the expectations of the project stakeholders. the International Project Management Association.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 20 • IPMA. scope and quality. schedule.ipma. Classical project management usually considers three constrains on a project: scope. and monitoring of project activities to meet project objectives. For development projects it is not enough to deliver a project according to the 3 4 www. 2006. It is not enough for a proresources to deliver all ject to meet the budget targets or to the work required to show to the donor that all activities have been completed on time. the plans and processes to keep them organizing.ch The Project Management Life Cycle. and knowledge to complete a project within established goals of time. time and costs (known as the project triangle)4. budget and quality. scope. Kogan Page Limited. we believe that it is important to place under this category the constraint of quality. For the purposes of this book we will use the following definition: Project management is the process of combining systems. implementing. the full benefits of a project. defines a project as “a time and cost constrained operation to realize a set of defined deliverables up to quality standards and requirements. Project Management Constraints Every project has to manage four basic constraints. techniques. . The temporary nature of projects contrasts with processes. The success of a project depends on the skills and knowledge of a project manager to take into considProject management is eration these constraints and develop the discipline of planning. which are permanent or semi-permanent ongoing functional work to create the same product or service over-and-over again. Develcomplete a project within opment projects need to balance all defined scope. schedule.
on time and under budget. a change in the project plan to shorten the schedule might result in an increase in costs or require a decrease in scope. budget and quality. Depending on those factors. schedule. adjusting any one of these sides. Managing these constrains requires careful analysis and an agreement on the priorities for the organization. The use of a triangle helps understand these relationships. a project may consign more importance to the budget and quality than to the schedule or scope. For example. Failure to do that may result in the use of resources on areas that do not contribute to the ultimate success of the project. The diagram below helps visualize the close relationship amongst these four constraints: Scope Quality Schedule Budget Figure 1. have a fundamental impact on all the project plans that will need to be designed to ensure that the project is able to manage the four constraints. but the project must meet the needs and expectation of the beneficiaries who are the ultimate judges of the project quality. early in the project. the other two are affected. these types of decisions.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 21 scope. The definition of project management implies that projects have specific limits in scope. The Four Constraints of Project Management . the donors and the final beneficiaries. Understanding the combination of these elements allows to make better choices when tradeoffs are needed.
or because there was a lack of scope management which leads to incurring into additional work that was not authorized or budgeted. The schedule is an approximation of the duration of all activities in the project and it is not unusual to find that the original estimates were off target once the project makes progress and there is an increased understanding of its environment. which often leads to higher project costs than planned and an extension of the initial implementation date. it entails all the work involved in delivering the project outcomes and the processes used to produce them. A number of constraints: financial. or the uncontrolled changes in a project's scope. In development projects managers have to balance between not running out of money and not under spending. may dictate the methods by which resources such • • . this is known as scope creep. because many projects receive funds or grants that have contract clauses with a ‘use it or lose it’ approach to project funds. nothing more and nothing less. the sequence in which they are going to be done. Proper control of time requires the careful identification of tasks to be performed. incomplete activities. and late donor reports. is the tendency of a project to include more tasks than originally specified. The schedule also uses critical information from key project stakeholders about their availability to the project. The schedule is often the most frequent project oversight in developing projects which is reflected in missed deadlines. One of the leading causes for project failures is poor management of the project scope. political. and the donors expect from the project. an accurate estimation of their durations. beneficiaries who have limited time to commit to the project although it demands for their participation. it is the reason and the purpose of the project. Budget or the costs approved for the project include all the required expenses needed in order to deliver the project within scope and schedule. The project team should verify any time constrains or requirements for a specific date or period that comes from beneficiaries or other key stakeholders. Poorly executed budget plans can result in a last minute rush to spend the allocated funds. Schedule is defined as the target date to complete the project. it is what the beneficiaries.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 22 • Scope is what the project is trying to achieve. for instance. because. Scope creep. there was no agreement on the scope by stakeholders. and how people and resources are allocated. Scope is the boundary of a project. and organizational. either because the project manager did not spend enough time defining the work.
Quality is all about achieving stakeholder’s satisfaction. therefore. The Project Manager needs to be aware of existing resource acquisition policies. Moreover. a delay in a project has an impact on its cost. services and materials are acquired. Each constrain has a specific goal and a project is deemed successful when it achieves all four.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 23 as personnel. Quality is also defined as the “Conformance to requirements or fitness for use”5. Managing the Project Constraints Managing these constraints is the main responsibility of the project manager. the preferences from the beneficiaries and/or the donor’s representatives may influence purchasing decisions. or by professional standards (such as health). failure in any of the four has an impact in the other three. All projects are implemented using estimates to establish the time and cost to deliver specific objectives of certain level of quality. Duran . • Quality is the fourth constraint defined as: delivering the project outcomes according to the stated or implied needs and expectations of the project beneficiaries and the donor agency. projects 5 Joseph M. local government (such as laws and regulations). For instance. It also means complying with quality standards that are either mandated by the donor. Focusing on successful and suitable applications should be considered for implementation on the current project. Managing the four constraints also involves making trade-offs. and procedures. Information from similar or past projects can be used to gain a better understanding of budgeting strategies. which means that the product or services must meet the intended objectives of the project and that the beneficiaries can use or benefit from the project deliverables as it was originally intended. and an increase in scope has an impact in both time and budget. Quality Control Handbook (1951) . guidelines. equipment.
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are implemented with many uncertainties and exposed to many risks, which requires revisions to the original plans along with negotiations with the different stakeholders. Changes in the social and natural environment can delay a project, increase its costs, or reduce its scope forcing the project manager to evaluate alternatives and negotiate with the donors and beneficiaries for modifications. Project management is in essence the art, science and craft required to balance the scope, schedule, budget, and quality constraints of the project. The project triangle illustrates the process of balancing constraints because the three sides of the triangle are connected, and changing one side of a triangle affects at least one other side, and all sides affect the center were quality relies. Here are some examples of project constraint balance: • When the schedule of a project needs to decrease, the project might need to increase the budget because more resources are needed to do the same work in less time. If the budget cannot be increased (the donor doesn’t approve the increase), then scope might need to be reduced because the available resources will not be sufficient to do all the planned work in less time. When the budget of the project decreases, the schedule might need to be stretched out because budget is not available to pay for the staff as originally planned. If time cannot be increased, the other alternative is to reduce the project scope because fewer staff will not be able to do all of the planned work in the available timeline. When the project scope increases, there is a need for more time or more resources (budget) to complete the additional work. When the project adds more work than the originally budgeted it is important that before the new work is started, there is an approval from the donor for additional funds, otherwise the project will end up with a budget shortfall that could have an impact on the expectations from the beneficiaries.
Quality is at the center of the project triangle because it affects every side of the triangle, any changes made to any side of the triangle are likely to affect quality. For example, the project may find additional time in the schedule that can allow staff the time to increase the quality of the objectives without necessarily increasing the scope. On the other hand, a need to cut activities to meet the budget might result in a decreased scope, which reduces the
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opportunities to achieve an acceptable level of quality; therefore, lower quality results from the need of cutting costs and reducing planned activities. A project management methodology helps identifying strategies by use of proven methods and best practices that will facilitate the management of these four constraints.
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Chapter 1 - Review Questions Question 1 – Which of the following project characteristics is correct? A) It has a beginning and an end B) It has unlimited resources C) It doesn't need objectives D) It has a beginning but no end Question 2 – What is not a basic function of management? A) Planning B) Delegating C) Leading D) Controlling Question 3 – What are the four project constraints? A) Scope, People, Schedule, Budget B) Quality, Schedule, People, Budget C) Scope, Schedule, Budget, Quality D) Budget, People, Schedule, Resources Question 4 – What is project scope? A) The boundaries of a project B) The strategy for implementing a project C) The activities of a project D) The duration of a project Question 5 – In which project constraint do project beneficiaries have a significant role? A) Project Scope B) Project Schedule C) Project Budget D) Project Quality
A development project nomic and social conditions of a group of deals with many stakepeople. or Government agencies (within the developing countries). . support development activities ranging from community organization. Characteristics of Development Projects Development organizations vary in size and orientation. These organizations include international humanitarian organizations and national NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs).Chapter 2 – The Development Project Environment | 27 CHAPTER 2 THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT Definition of a Development Project Development projects in developing countries are financed by bilateral and multi-lateral government agencies. smallfinancial loans and protection of the environment. Development projects are managed by development organizations that have long term strategies to achieve goals to contribute to the reduction of poverty. or that increases its comcombat HIV/AIDS. Examples of the type of objectives of holders and operates in development projects are: reduction in child difficult a environment mortality. Development organizations. education. malaria and other displexity and risk. non-profit organizations (NGOs). from the most part. A development project is designed to deliver a specific output aiming to improve the eco. welfare support. improvement in maternal health. health. most share the common goal of helping people and benefiting society. private institutions. eases. fund their projects from grants or contracts that come from competitive bidding processes.
they have set limitations. often focused on a specific concern or a specific location. One of the key success factors of development projects is when their planning processes involve people who will benefit or be affected by the project. voluntary.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 28 NGOs typically are private. Development projects may consist of a single. while geared toward promoting active participation of community based organizations to deliver the services that will benefit the poor and other intended beneficiaries more directly. many lack a broader economic and social perspective. This is one of the reasons why development projects are gradually moving away from traditional projects that rely on delivering direct services. transformative project to address a specific problem or series of projects addressing several problems. A larger number of national NGOs are small in both size and scope of operations and their impact sometimes is limited. . development projects make significant contributions to the socioeconomic development of the communities they work with. government assistance and a variety of other sources. Beneficiaries need to play a larger role in the planning and implementation of development efforts that will reshape their lives. Funding for projects comes through private and public donations. The goal of all development projects is to help improve people's lives through skills training and other livelihood programs. some are loosely structured and may have limited accountability and their management and planning methods may be weak or too flexible. poverty relief efforts. NGOs can suffer from financial and technical constraints. Development organizations prepare and implement development projects and work to strengthen the capabilities of local institutional and promote community self-reliance through sustainable strategies. developmental aid and sustainable development. Although. non-profit and service oriented organizations that emphasize on humanitarian issues.
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Involvement of beneficiaries also increases the likelihood that the development efforts will realize their intended benefits and can help avoid implementation problems. The concept of participation is concerned with ensuring that the intended beneficiaries of development projects are involved in the planning and implementation of those projects. This is considered important as it empowers the recipients of development projects to influence and manage their own development and helps remove any type of dependency after the project is completed. Beneficiary participation is widely considered to be one of the most important concepts in modern development theory.
The Challenges of a Development Project
Development projects operate in challenging environments, where uncertainties about the future increase risks around the project. Managers need to deal with extremely complex social, economic, and political factors that affect the delivery of goods and services. Development projects are implemented in some of the most remote and difficult locations in the world; additionally, projects operate in areas of high personal risk and high security threats to project staff. The lack of proper infrastructure, limited resources, and a changing environment put a strain on project managers who are pressed to deliver the project outcomes. The constant changes in the social, economic, political, and natural environment force many projects to change its original plans; in fact, project plans are built on many assumptions that eventually are challenged by the changes in the environment. These changes in the environment are not always reflected in the original design, which causes projects to miss their target objectives; this is why it is not uncommon to find a project that has delivered all its expected outputs but has failed significantly in reaching its outcomes and objectives. From extensive observation and experimentation through working with development agencies for years, we have seen the following weaknesses in development projects:
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• • • • • • •
Poor project planning, in the rush to get the project started managers pay little attention to the effort required to fully develop all the plans needed to manage the project. Under this pressure, the project design is likely to omit a deeper analysis of the project risks and an analysis of project stakeholders. Inadequate management skills as the available staff may be unqualified for the tasks required for managing a project. This challenge is in part due to the lack of training opportunities project managers have to build their management skills. Emphasis in the technical component. Development projects are planned primarily from a technical perspective, rather than a more holistic perspective that includes the project management cycle. Lack of accountability, projects are run with little definition of roles and responsibilities and no clear identification of who is accountable for the project outcomes before the donors and the beneficiaries. Lack of stakeholder involvement, key project stakeholders are not systematically involved in the planning and monitoring of a project, which leads to a lack of ownership while the project is implemented. Unrealistic plans. Because projects are planned on a linear process, this reasoning leaves little or no opportunities to modify and adjust plans as needed. No measure to evaluate quality. Projects fail to define the criteria by which beneficiaries will know if the project was a success or not. Poor, inconsistent project management discipline. There is no consistent use of a proven methodology to help manage, monitor, and adapt the project implementation. Duplication of efforts. Organizations that do not have a standard process and methodology for project management discover that projects are reinventing –over-and-over-again- the same solutions, due to little opportunities to use lessons learned which increases the chances to make the same mistakes again.
A critical challenge is that projects do not have time for learning from the past. Development Projects are learning-intensive, but very little of this gained knowledge remains in the organization at the end of a project. Because a time bound project entails a short term vision while the concept of “an organization” is long term ; it is difficult to integrate the two concepts when time comes for sharing the knowledge gained in the implementation of projects. Experiences from past projects are potential knowledge that new projects could use to increase their chances for success; however, organizations loose the opportunity to capture and use this knowledge due to lack of processes to do so.
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Once a project is completed, most organizations do not have processes in place to capture the lessons learned; therefore, this knowledge is not incorporated in the design of future projects. Unfortunately, too often, the project evaluation report sits in the library along with many others, available to a few adventurous who are willing to discover experiences and practices that can be useful to their needs. A project management methodology can overcome this challenge by providing development organizations with a discipline to integrate a practice of continuous learning process.
The Need for a Project Management Methodology
In this type of environment, organizations great degree of flexibility to accommodate the constantly changing environment of the project. A methodology that promotes optimal standards of performance, and reinforces the organizational capacity to deliver its services in a transparent and effective manner. need a methodology that allows a
Without a project management methodology organizations risk loosing the knowledge and skills they gain from completed projects; knowledge that is also lost due to the high staff turnover in development organizations, which makes it hard to build institutional memory to improve the efficiency of development projects and to implement lessons learned in future projects. Definition of a Project Management Methodology A project management methodology is a method to capture the best practices around project management and disseminate them in the organization. It is a system of principles, practices, and procedures. It’s the collection of practical ideas and proven practices. Development organizations need a project management methodology that they can use and customize to meet its needs, one that provides the right mix of methods, processes and practices that are repeatedly applied to deliver projects in a consistent manner with predictable results. The best methodologies are the ones that are built based on the experience of its practitioners; organizations that build a learning cycle in its methodologies
Defining and implementing a good methodology is essential for development organizations to document a project management approach for performing project activities in a coherent, consistent, accountable, and repeatable manner.
by describing the basic practices. Amongst the main benefits is an increase in the level of collaboration amongst al project stakeholders. Benefits of a Project Management Methodology The use of a systematic project management methodology gives development organizations a strategic tool.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 32 will benefit by incorporating the knowledge of its project managers and thus will have a methodology that reflects its current best practices. The processes that a methodology delivers help organizations keep focus and deliver solutions that project beneficiaries and its communities desperately need them. A Project management methodology can deliver the following benefits: • • • • • • • A methodology provides a common approach and a consistent discipline for how projects are planned and implemented in the organization A methodology incorporates a standard project terminology. Assists the project manager to integrate. gives organizations the means to practice established and time-tested practices of project management to help them achieve successful outcomes. Reduces the impact that risks have on the project Development Organizations can increase the chances of success by implementing a project management methodology that is applicable to their projects. procedures and techniques. the delivery of consistent results of predicable quality with defined roles and responsibilities that ensure proper accountability. With this approach organizations will have a comprehensive knowledge methodology for successful project management. understood by all stakeholders Provides project donors and stakeholders confidence on how projects are done in the organization Permits accurate predictions of project resource requirements and avoids duplication of efforts Stipulates clear procedures for developing project plans that allow better control of the project throughout its life cycle. Only when using a standard methodology of processes and techniques organizations can coordinate resources to achieve predictable results. coordinate and track project activities. .
. A good methodology provides the framework.Chapter 2 – The Development Project Environment | 33 Building and managing according to a project management methodology is partly an art that requires flexibility and creativity. and the project stakeholders. guidelines and techniques to structure the work. and therefore provides value to the organization. A good methodology increases the odds of being successful. processes.
Review Questions Question 1 – What is not a development project? A) One that is funded from grants or contracts B) One that improves the economic and social conditions of a target group C) One that focuses on generating a profit D) One that contributes to the reduction of poverty Question 2 – What is a challenge of development projects? A) Lack of accountability B) Limited Funds C) Deal with extremely complex social. and procedures B) A set of recommendations C) A system of rules and laws D) An approach to manage the log frame Question 4 – Which is a benefit of a project management methodology? A) Provides a common approach B) Avoids duplication of efforts C) Reduces the impact of risks D) All of the above Question 5 – Complete the following phrase: “The best methodologies are the ones that are built based on the experience of its ________” A) Consultants B) Practitioners C) Vendors D) Readers . practices. economic.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 34 Chapter 2 . and political factors D) All of the above Question 3 – What is a project management methodology? A) A system of principles.
tween the different eleject managers are better prepared to ments that compose the understand the external factors that will system.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 35 CHAPTER 3 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE A Systemic Approach Projects by definition are temporary endeavors but they cannot stay insolated from the rest of its environment. project managers need to take a holistic view of as a structured funcunit with a project and understand how it is situ. identifies an optimum solution and a solution action plan. the project is a system that has a set of interdependent and temporally interacting phases. and finally. Using a systemic approach for project management provides a holistic and analytical method to solve the complex problems a project will face. Traditional methods involve a linear cause and ef- . all working within an environment to fulfill a purpose. and project man. Development Projects must operate in a broader environment.tional ated within the larger environment. To be effective at plex whole. opportunities. constraints and needs. if they are run in isolation the projects may face the risk of not serving the needs of those who really need it. impact the project. it continuously examines the plan against any changes in the environment to make the corresponding adjustments to keep the project on track. The analysis then examines the possible solutions for improving the current situation. A project management methodology uses system analysis as a problem solving approach that involves looking at the project as the sum of different phases that facilitate the identification and evaluation of problems. pro. As such. interacting managing complex situations. By information flowing betaking this holistic view of projects.A Project or a "system" agers need to consider projects within is a dynamic and comthis greater context.
the project depends on three basic components: processes. the development activities defined in the policies and procedures and the roles and responsibilities required in managing development projects. meet its objectives and facilitate its contractual obligations. and controls. outputs.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 36 fect relationships. As a system. People. Processes determine the work that needs to be accomplished which defines the requirements for people skills. • • . people and tools. feedback. Tools include the technology available to manage the information the project generates and improve its analysis to allow the project to make decisions. • Process. who follow the processes and procedures geared to control the quality of services provided by the organization. The Project Management Ecosystem Projects don’t exist in isolation they are influenced by two strong factors. projects can see the whole network of bidirectional interrelationships. project managers need to identify all the issues and components of a project and its relationship with the internal and external environment. we look at the whole system of inputs. the set of skills and capabilities of the people in charge of managing the project. and allows the project to see change as a continuous process. Tools. including government and donor regulations which heavily influence the project. For example: techniques to control budgets. Instead of analyzing a problem in terms of input and output. Using a system approach is critical for successful project management. processes. the techniques and devices selected by the organization with the purpose of facilitating the management of the project. the internal and external environment. this is the project ecosystem. This larger picture provides more useful results than traditional methods. all integrated and influenced by the internal environment (the organization) and an external environment (the world). The people component is influenced by the compensation and values of the organization and by the external labor market that sets conditions to find qualified staff for the project. track project progress and evaluate performance. By taking a systems approach.
general practices and standards imposed by international or local regulations. Norms and Rules. The Project Management Ecosystem The external environment is made of the conditions that the project has little or no influence to change. legal regulations. The success of project management depends on the equilibrium of the process. Education Centers TOOLS TOOLS: Local Standards and Infrastructure PEOPLE Figure 2. people and tools components. benefits and other Human Resource practices. the whole system fails. it also helps them see a pro- . the standardization. and limited availability of people with the required skills or a competitive labor market and poor or inadequate training facilities. limitations on the availability and communications technology and local infrastructure. these include: donor and government requirements. of project management tools and methods including the use of communications technology. Project Management Phases Projects operate as part of a system that involves a high degree of uncertainty. The internal environment includes the policies and procedures the organization has already established for all projects including the compensation. or not. when one of them fails or doesn’t receive the adequate funding or support. by using a holistic approach project managers can integrate all the internal and external issues into their planning. TOOLS Organizational Standards PROCESS PROJECT MANAGEMENT PEOPLE: Local Labor Market.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 37 The graphic below shows the tight interdependency amongst these elements in the system: Internal Environment PROCESS: Organizational Policies and Procedures External Environment PROCESS: Donor and Local Government Requirements PEOPLE: Organizational Benefits. Compensation.
. monitoring and close phase. planning. selection. but. redirected or terminated. evaluation and learning. It is a good practice to divide projects into several phases. monitoring. implementation. By doing this. A project must successfully complete each phase before moving onto the next. monitoring. implementation. they help in keeping the project on track and determine if the project should continue. Project Phases Initiate Plan Implement Monitor Adapt Close Figure 3. PM4DEV’s project management methodology consists of six phases. Each phase should not be seen as independent from another phase. a project life cycle is a collection of project phases which vary from one methodology to another. in general they include an initiation. implementation. adapting and closure. this approach to project cycle provides better management control and builds the appropriate links with the internal and external environment. initiation. planning. large projects may need to spend a good amount of time in the initiation and planning phases.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 38 ject as a series of interrelated phases. outputs from one phase are used as input for the next phase. while small projects may not need to spend too much time on planning. project managers have a better job of ensuring project success. but as an interdependent continuous management effort. The Six Project Management Phases The complexity of a project determines the need to spend more time in the initiating or planning phase. The rational behind the use of project management phases is that it supplies for an integrated approach that provides for the continuous identification.
The monitoring phase informs the implementation and the planning phases for changes and modifications until there are no additional changes and all project deliverables have been completed. Project Life-cycle initiate Project Effort plan implement & monitor close adapt Figure 4. as the project moves from the initiation phase effort increases until it reaches a peak during implementation where the phases of monitoring and adapting also occur. These internal project reviews are part of the implementation – monitoring – planning sub-cycle of the project and could occur many times during the life of a project.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 39 A good practice is to use each phase as a gate to review how the project is going before moving to the next phase. the review should occur at the end of each phase to evaluate progress and review initial assumptions about the project objectives. they are not evaluations. or terminated. Project reviews are important for keeping projects on track and determine if they should be continued. Project phases relate to each other not on a linear but on a cyclical manner. reviews act as feedback loops that operate to keep the project on check. By breaking a project into manageable phases the organization can make sure that the projects are still compatible with the needs of the stakeholders and beneficiaries. The Project Management Phases and the Project Lifecycle . but simply “reality checks” that project managers should do to see whether or not the project needs corrections. redirected. The figure below shows a representation of the project phases during the project lifecycle.
In this phase the . budget and submission of the proposal to a donor. 4. Usually ideas for a project are started by an organization in the form of a proposal or they are initiated by a donor agency by a competitive bidding process or a cooperative agreement. In either case. usually from a competitive process 5. Project Concept Approval. additionally. and government/donor interest. local needs. It includes some planning and estimating to clarify its objective and scope. the organization has identified that this project is aligned with the organization’s strategies. the organization makes a decision to support the project and assigns resources to work on the proposal. Project Concept. Project funding negotiations and revisions to proposal to meet donor regulations. This decision is based on an organization’s programming principles and/or strategic objectives and takes into consideration available resources. team. 2. it includes the documentation that supports the requirements of the funding agency. the design of the project approach. Project Proposal Approval. were the idea for a project emerges as a result of a diagnostic and analysis of needs in a community.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 40 Initiation Phase This phase is where an idea or a concept is authorized and funded as a project. 3. Major outcomes or decision from this phase is the acceptance of the project concept and approval of the project proposal. 6. were the idea gets support from management to seek for funding (internal or external funding). Project Contract signature and approval to initiate the planning phase. Authorization of the project concept leads to the development of a formal project proposal. schedule. The major steps during Initiation include: 1. Project Proposal. mission and vision. which deals with acceptance of the proposal. During initiation a diagnostic and analysis of the problem are performed including the delineation of the strategies that the project will use to achieve its benefits.
information. which can include participation of beneficiaries 4. budget. • Primary plans include the development of detailed planning documents that were initially produced as part of the project proposal. Project Management Plans. Approval of the proposal opens the project to start the second phase of the project. and quality of the project. in other cases authorization comes from the organization when funds are internal. and contract plans. meeting with the project team to officially start the project. schedule. Organize and develop the project team. these include: team. The approval of the project proposal is done by the donor when the organization responds to an RFP (Request for Proposal) or an RFA (Request For Assistance). • The major steps during planning include: 1. stakeholder. and the plans to manage the implementation of the project or supporting plans. Planning Phase Once the proposal is accepted and funds have been approved the project is finally ready to start. Project Planning. The first step is the development of the project charter. or may require additional analysis or modifications to the proposal. who will participate in the development of all project plans. includes the hiring or assignment of staff to the project team 3. Primary plans must include expected outcomes in terms of the scope. the development of the core and facilitating management plans with the project team and key stake- . a document that gives authorization to the project manager to start work and initiate the organization and development of the project team. it is not unusual that the donor and the organization engage in long negotiations on the final budget of the project. the development of detailed plans that are required as part of the proposal or primary plans. Project Kick off. Project Chapter. risk. This phase includes two planning components. Primary plans are also known as the Detailed Implementation Plans (DIP) Support plans include the development of plans to manage all the other support processes required to manage the project. The project manager’s first task is to further develop detailed project plans including a detailed project budget and schedule.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 41 project may or may not be approved or accepted. a document that gives authorization to the PM to manage the project and states the objectives of the project 2.
It is not unusual to find that a project proposal was designed without incurring the appropriate feedback from the project stakeholders. Communicate and share approved project plans with team members. verifying project scope. 5. acceptance of the project plans. Implementation includes organizing and coordinating people and other resources required to perform the project plans and obtain the desired outcomes of the project or phase. and other goods and services required by the project.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 42 holders. or that budget assumptions were based on old data. developing the project team. Project Plan Approval. which may include participation of local implementing partners. procuring the necessary resources and taking ongoing corrective actions. Outputs from this process include a formal project management plan including authorization to the project staff to implement its activities. Implementation Phase Implementation includes taking all necessary actions to ensure that the activities in the project plan are completed and that the outputs of the plan are delivered. beneficiaries and key stakeholders A detailed plan helps discovering oversights or wrong assumptions made during the initiation phase and the project proposal. assuring quality. . vehicles. usually by the project manager supervisor 6. The development of a detailed plan is the opportunity for the project manager to further understand each component of the project and formulate the plans that will help implement the project. this phase also includes activities such as providing project leadership. The project manager starts by forming a team and starts authorizing the initial expenses required by the project which may include the purchase of office equipment. producing progress reports. Implementation occurs once the final project plans have been approved by the organization and/or the donor agency.
In the areas of scope.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 43 The major steps during Implementation include: 1. looking at deviations from the plan and taking corrective steps to put the project back on track. Each project should be assessed for the appropriate level of control needed and find an equilibrium that can give the benefits without increasing work. initiate the quality assurance process 3. The major steps during Monitoring include: 1. Implement plans and assign tasks to the project team. Project monitoring begins with planning and ends with evaluation with a thorough involvement in each step of the process. Organize and develop the project team. and evaluate project indicators and results 2. Quality Control. Monitoring runs across the planning and implementation project phases of the project life cycle. Communications to key stakeholders Outputs from this phase are the project deliverables. Monitoring Phase Monitoring is about measuring the progress of a project against its objectives. schedule and budget. Evaluate Project Performance. control of quality standards and quality audits . and communications to stakeholders. progress reports. Contract management and initiate the sub grant process (if any). assign the roles and responsibilities to carry the project activities and initiate the team development plans 2. Traditionally the focus is on monitoring the four project constraints. including all procurement processes to purchase goods and services 4. Quality Assurance and implementation of quality standards 5. too much control is time consuming and too little control is too risky. Progress reports and other managerial reports 6.
monitoring risk against original assumptions 4. approaches. Determine need for changes in project plans Monitoring is the constant check on the project to see if it is doing the right things at the right time within the given resource restrictions. it also helps identifying unexpected consequences. additional request to add or delete activities in the project. changes to schedule. develop reports informing about any variance in performance and recommendations for changes 6. and how the initial assumptions of the project have changed. on-time. The major steps while “Adapting” include: 1. Monitoring helps verifying if the intervention is producing the desired effects or benefits. Monitoring also looks for new opportunities that may have risen since the project started and that may improve the chances to achieve the project goals. determine level of performance of team and individuals 5. Project monitoring is an important element of the project that keeps it on-track. strategies and methods planned to deliver the project interventions. and changes to the budget . establishes a discipline that helps monitor how the situation and the context of the project are evolving. Review performance reports and the causes for the variances from the original plans 2. Performance Reports. and within budget. which contributes to regular adjustments geared towards the project’s success. It also refers to the changes that need to be incorporated in the original processes. Risk Monitoring.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 44 3. Review change requests. Team Evaluation. Adapting Phase This phase refers to the process by which the project manager adapts its project management methods and determines what works best for the project.
The Adapting phase Each project is different incorporates a “Lessons learned” ap. Adapting involves the analysis of the changes required and its impact and relevance to the project and its constraints. this phase helps make the necessary changes.and will have different proach throughout the project cycle. that the to ensure that the cycles project can improve its interventions. . There could be instances where a project is closed before all deliverables have been completed. unavailability of funds or security conditions that make project work impossible. This process encourages an increased productivity over time and to economies of scale. the is through a feedback loop of experi. This could be caused by changes in organizational strategies. It uses inputs from the Monitoring phase that informs what needs to be changed or modified. each completion process provides an opportunity to reflect on the why’s of the successes or failures and provides important lessons that need to be incorporated for the next project deliverable. The original assumptions under the project as first planned usually change.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 45 3. Capture lessons learned and communicate changes Adapting is taking corrective actions. The major steps during closing include: are opportunities that give rise to adjustments in the project and contribute to learning. therefore. Adapting also refers to the process by which project members learn from the experience that they gained in the project. Update project plans as per approved changes 6. Modifying the project and making the necessary changes should occur at the end of each major project delivery. learning and practice. Closing Phase The closing phase of the project is when the project has achieved the planned objectives and all deliverables have been completed. because.project manager’s role is ence. Approval of proposed changes by key stakeholders. donors or management 5. it cycles during its life. Development of proposal for changing plans to bring the project back in track 4.
It is an opportunity to recognize the special contributions made by the team members and key stakeholders and give awards and small gifts or certificates as symbols of appreciation for their extraordinary contributions to the success of the project. 2. Administrative close: Archive all documents and project records. Project Evaluation: Participation in the evaluation of the project by either internal or external evaluators and a “Lessons learned” session with the project team. Project Final Reports: To donors and key stakeholders as per contract requirements or expressed needs. which may include audit evaluations. donor evaluation. The closing phase is also a time to celebrate the successful completion of the project. All project documentation is properly archived and made accessible to the organization and the donor. 6. Evaluation by the donor is a significant effort designed to ensure that the project was able to deliver the outputs according to planned and that all project funds were used correctly. 4. A key step in the closure phase is the project evaluation. Closing Contracts: Finalize all contracts with suppliers and consultants.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 46 1. At closure the project ensures that all administrative tasks have been completed including all contracts. Team reassignments: Provide staff performance evaluations and assist in their transfer to new job opportunities. . that staff is reassigned to other projects. 3. Distribute Lessons Learned: share the experience of the project within the organization and with other similar project that may benefit from the knowledge acquired during the project. confirming that the project has met all stakeholder’s requirements and celebration of successful completion of the project with the team members. or internal evaluations conducted by the organization or the project. and that the project’s lessons learned are developed and shared. 5.
The cycle represents a continuous process in which each phase provides the foundation for the next. during the monitoring phase the projects may encounter that the original assumptions about a project activity have changed which leads to propose a readjustment of the plans. As the project makes progress the initial conditions could have changed making it necessary for the project to change course or readjust the original plans. with each phase receiving feedback from the preceding: for example. interactive process by which the project is constantly monitored and any required changes are reflected in the plans. For example. Implement Initiate Plan Monitor Close Adapt Figure 5. The cycle approach allows for opportunities to review the original project assumptions and plans. Project Management Cycle A project is not a linear process. These cyclic nature amongst the design. implement and monitor phases is repeated throughout the life of the project. either in schedule or in scope.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 47 Project Management Cycle A project management methodology follows a cyclical approach throughout the life of the project. Another example may be. during implementation the monitoring phase provides inputs and changes to the original design which then modifies the implementation plans. it is cyclical. The cycle allows for a constant. that some activities are . this repetitive cycle continues until all project activities and objectives have been delivered.
The project management cycle continues in a spiral fashion until the project is completed and closed. each with its own project management cycle. No situation in which a project intervenes is static. the impact there are stages or gates to other project management areas must be determined. budget estimates. Over time. within the planning phase. the infor decision and apteractions should become smaller in proval. phase starts. quality con- . project management is a cycle that is continually repeated to adapt to a changing context. were the closure on the first phase of a project leads to the initiation of the second phase. Once the planning phase has been completed.identified through the monitoring phase . This check points magnitude and more defined as more allow for the donor or detailed information about the project is management to reflect developed. As Between each phase improvements start to occur.ing the initial design and being fed by experience from each implementation tions before the next and evaluation cycle. Evaluation activities. such as oversight. Adjustments are caused by changes in the project environment and information that was not present (or available) at the time of planning.may result in adjustments to the project management plan. For larger projects the phases may be broken down in smaller manageable phase. The application of project management is an interactive process. several interactions of planning may occur as the team develops the best approach and methodologies to implement the project. For example. feedback from the implementing phase . quality requirements and risk plans. Each project’s management and review the progress cycle is a knowledge cycle in itself shapand make recommenda. This process requires additional improvements and refinements to the schedule.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 48 no longer needed or desired by the beneficiaries which require the project to modify some parts of the original plans. Project management is a dynamic effort and requires a continual process of monitoring and evaluation.
no work should be started until all project plans have been completed. It also fosters an environment that discourages the use of creative problem-solving strategies. and management review are ongoing activities and affect every phase of the project.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 49 trol. A third stage approval occurs between the monitoring and closing phase. linear process can lead to project failure. The decision gates between the implementation. a rigid project management approach that hinders the ability of the project team to make the necessary mid-course corrections during project implementation. revised and authorized. the project will review if all activities and objectives have been achieved before staring the close phase and project evaluation. it also helps the organizations to identify early problems and to act accordingly before more resources are used and expenses or costs are committed. Treating project management as a static. This helps the organizations avoid problems of projects starting work when the details have not been properly defined. This is an important quality assurance tool. Another critical characteristic of the project management cycle is that the checkpoints or decision gates allow for opportunities to approve the work on a phase before work on the second phase begins. monitoring and adapting phase are continuous and occur during the life of the project. they help inform the project if the activities are being done according to plan and if any changes are needed before the next round of implementation activities occurs. Authorization on the project proposal and funding allows the organization to initiate the planning phase. the second gate occurs between the planning and implementation phase. . The most important checkpoints occur between the initiation and planning phases.
adapt. implement. monitor. Budget. implement. plan.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 50 Chapter 3 . initiate. close B) Plan. close D) Initiate. monitor.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three basic components of a project? A) People. close Question 5 – In which phase are changes to the project plans approved? A) Planning phase B) Monitoring phase C) Initiation phase D) Adaption phase . implement. Tools and Budget C) Process. monitor. Schedule Question 2 – What are some examples of external influential factors in the environment of the project? A) Donor regulations and government requirements B) Policies and Procedures C) Norms and values of the organization D) Senior management requirements Question 3 – A project has ____ phases A) Three B) Six C) Four D) Nine Question 4 – Which statement contains the correct order of the project phases? A) Initiate. adapt. close C) Plan. implement. initiate. monitor. plan. adapt. People and Tools D) Quality. Process and Policies B) Process. adapt.
Projects are required to do a close monitoring of the budget. or processes. evaluated. A systems approach includes a holistic view of the project environment. Managing a project requires that manager’s take in consideration a system approach to manage the different elements of a project.set of activities that must plexity of development projects that be performed to achieve require a different approach and a new a goal. scope and schedule to deliver the project objectives under the ex. To manage this complexity the project needs to be deconstructed into manageable.A process is defined as a pected quality. Because development projects take on unexplored territory. By separating the project into different management processes the project manager has a better chance to control the outcomes of the project and manage the challenges that can never be fully planned or predicted at its onset. A systems approach requires the identification of the components or processes that make up the entire project management framework. assumptions about the project must be listed. in this case the way at managing the limited resources project goal. interrelated parts. There is also the com. and the increasing demands from all stakeholders. its risks assessed and contingency plans developed.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 51 CHAPTER 4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Project Management Processes Project management is a process of leading a team of capable people in planning and implementing series of related activities that need to be accomplished on a specific date. Because of its coordinating nature all these activities require a “process approach”. These . and an understanding that the project is made of a series of interacting components working to meet an objective or benefit. This framework helps understand the basic structure required to properly manage a project and helps identify the most important elements that need close supervision and careful analysis.
adapting and closing phases of the project. the entire project life cy. The effort and detail required for each process depends entirely on the size. There are nine management processes that are relevant to development projects. Smaller less complex projects may not even need all the nine processes. complexity and risk of a project. These management nine processes occur during processes are all integrative. The project manager uses the nine processes as management tools to help in the initiation. The idea of having nine processes is to define the areas that are the main responsibility of the project manager. areas that he will need to plan. lead and control. highly complex projects will require specialized resources to manage each process making the role of the project manager as the coordination of these processes. organize. the project manager after making an analysis of the project risks and constraints will decide which processes require more effort than others The project management processes are interrelated with the project management phases during the entire project management cycle. In many cases it could result in making trade-offs amongst the different competing expectations from The nine management stakeholders. The nine project management processes are divided into two groups: requires a cyclical approach that consists of planning. doing. One of the most critical roles of the project manager is the integration of these nine management processes to ensure they all are properly coordinated. . Large.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 52 processes are also known as key knowledge areas or management competencies. These are designed to help manage the different elements of a project and different projects may have different needs from each process. for example. implementation. checking and learning as components to ensure process quality. planning. a project that has identified that cost is a critical success factor will spend more time and effort in developing a cost management plan. that is.they need to be managed in a combining and coordinating manner to bring these cle and each one of them diverse elements into a whole. monitoring.
managing the scheduled time created for all project activities. managing the funds from donors according to the contract clauses. Schedule Management. Risk Management. There are other management areas that the project manager is not entirely responsible for but are important that he is involved ad has a good understanding of its policies and procedures. Scope Management. sub-grants and procurement contracts. Strategic Management. managing that all project activities and actions follow a quality standard. area that supports the projects in procurement of goods and services. managing the work required to accomplish the project objectives. Budget Management. 9. Contract Management. which deals with the hiring and general development of the organization’s human resources. Information Management. implementation and operations of all information and communications technologies such as access to the internet. General Administration. managing and developing the project team 6. managing the plans to respond to risk events based on the assumptions set by the projects. 4. which deals with the long term objectives of the organization to achieve its vision and mission. managing the information produced by the project as well as the information needed from the project by the stakeholders. building services. 3. these include: • • • • Financial management. managing the donor contract. which deals with the overall management of the financial resources of the project and the organization. support to users with hardware and software tools selected by the project or the organization. • . managing the relationships with the project stakeholders. security and other general services required by the organization and its projects to achieve their work. Team Management.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 53 Core Processes: 1. 2. fleet management. which deals with the design. 8. Supporting Processes: 5. Stakeholder Management. Technology Management. Quality Management. Human resource management. 7.
non-complex projects.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 54 The graphic below shows the relationship between the project phases and the project management processes: Scope Management Schedule Management Budget Management Quality Management Core Processes Project Phases Initiate Plan Implement Monitor Adapt Close Supporting Processes Team Management Stakeholder Management Information Management Risk Management Contract Management Figure 6. complex projects will require a more rigorous application of project management processes than small. Project Management Processes and Phases Depending on the scope. The Project Management Processes are overlapping activities that occur at varying levels of intensity throughout each phase of the project. large. from initiation to closing. . The Project Manager assesses the project risks and constraints to determine the detail needed for each process in a specific project. The effort is reflected in the Project Management Plan.
define what needs to be done. Scope management involves four distinct steps: 1. which is one of the leading causes for project failures. The scope describes the boundaries of the project. the objectives to be achieved and what will not be part of the project. time management and quality management. This is a critical process that will help project managers with scope creep (also referred as the uncontrolled changes in a project's scope). Adapting the Scope. Assigning Scope Work. under budget. ensuring that the work is done according to plans 4. . consultants and partners 3.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 55 Core Processes Core processes include scope management. these processes deal directly with the project constraints. cost management. which is when a project gets additional requirements added to the project without reconsidering the impact to the schedule or budget. This process also serves to ensure that the project has correctly identified the goals and objectives and that those have been documented and defined in terms of effective set of indicators useful to monitor the progress. Verifying the Scope. Defining the Scope. it defines what the project will and will not deliver. assignment of work to the project team. as requested by the donor and by the quality needed by the beneficiaries. making the necessary changes that occur from changes in the environment and changes in priorities During his process a scope change management plan is created to help manage any changes to the project. They are at the core because they lead to specific objectives of the project and are the basis to define a project success. As mentioned in chapter one. includes the creation of a work breakdown structure 2. Scope Management Includes the processes involved in defining and controlling all the activities that make up the project and that are required to complete the project successfully. on time. These requests may come from various stakeholders causing the project manager to add activities without a corresponding increase in the time and budget.
authorizing. budgeting. illustrating when each activity must begin and end. scheduling and implementing any new activities. and why any new addition to the project is included by defining a process for assessing. . This structure is used as an input to define the time and budget variables of the project. During this process the project manager develops a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) which is a management technique of breaking the project down into a hierarchy of work tasks which represent the work to be done.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 56 To manage scope creep the project will establish a “scope change control plan” that will facilitate how. Another important element of scope management is the definition of what is not included in the project. First level Project Goal Third level Objective Objective Fourth level Activity Activity Activity Activity Fifth level Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Figure 7. by defining what is out of scope. Schedule management includes the development of a “project schedule” listing all project activities. The Work Breakdown Structure The WBS is a tool that will generate information used by the schedule and budget management processes. the project stakeholders can have a better understanding of the project which helps reducing frustrations due to unmet expectations. Schedule Management This process includes the actions required to ensure the timely completion of the project. The project schedule is a communications tool that informs project stakeholders about the status of the project and gives information to project team members in the form of graphs and charts. when.
Monitoring the Schedule: Monitor events that will impact the schedule and come up with alternative solutions 4. A network diagram is a tool used to graphically display the activity sequence and dependencies. the relationships amongst the activities and the sequence in which they will occur. during the planning phase. The schedule management plan should include instructions on how to proceed when schedule variance occurs. there is some oversight about unexpected events that will affect the beneficiaries’s involvement in the project. Defining the Schedule: Based on information from the WBS a schedule is developed with help from key stakeholders. the project staff must determine the best options to bring the project back to schedule using methods such as making trade-offs to compress the schedule or fast tracking which in either case involves incurring into more parallel activities. Updating the Schedule: Update the schedule to reflect decisions potentially affecting the time variable and the implementation of activities The first step in schedule management is estimating the time that each one of the activities identified in the WBS would take to be completed. social events or agricultural activities. Often. A common method to diagram and present a schedule is by using a GANTT diagram listing all project activities from the WBS. Publishing the Schedule: Distributing the schedule to key stakeholders 3.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 57 The key steps of the schedule management process are: 1. The project schedule is also used to assign project staff with their tasks. and will determine the total project duration 2. Schedule management includes reporting techniques to compare the project baseline with the actual dates and uses variance analysis to determine project progress. and also unpredictable events such as weather or political events that can disrupt any project schedule. including the length of . the project managers must review the progress made against the scheduled baseline and determine any schedule variances. Another element of schedule management is the procedure to control schedule changes and define who can authorize the changes. such as festivities. Monitoring the schedule is an ongoing task: As each activity is performed. If the project is behind schedule.
Controlling the Budget. the chart portrays the dependencies amongst activities. This is the area that receives great scrutiny during and after the project is completed. The steps for budget management are: 1. The chart below shows a schedule in a Gantt diagram were activity durations are shown as bars and the arrows show the dependencies Figure 8. The project’s ability to manage the financial resources obtained by the organization will be a measure of the organizations probity. making necessary changes to the budget following clauses set by the contract or grant . monitoring budget performance according to plans 4. Additionally.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 58 duration of each activity represented with a bar. and to the beneficiaries. GANTT Diagram Budget Management Budget management processes are required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. the organization. Inadequate budget management can lead to misappropriations of funds. improper assignment of expenses. the development of all the costs that the project will incur and the approach to manage the budget 2. Defining the Budget. not only in compliance with donor’s requirements but also as a measure of its efficiency. Risks in this area have the highest impact to the project. Executing the Budget. and financial losses that the organization may have to cover using their limited unrestricted funds. authorizing expenditures 3. Updating the Budget.
which is a closer approximation to the project’s real needs and uses the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to estimate the value of each task or activity and then adds up the values until a total budget is developed. communicates objective progress to stakeholders. The value of EVA provides an early warning of performance problems when corrective actions are less impactful.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 59 The “Budget management process” includes the activities to develop a budget proposal to meet the requirements from the Request for Proposal (RFP) (in case of a donor funded project). and keeps the project team focused on achieving progress. With this technique. EVA measures project progress objectively. A leading cause for project failure is a poor estimation of the project budget. EVA improves the definition of project scope. and a project budget to meet the monitoring and accounting needs of the organization. the project can determine the cost of each objective and the total project budget. the chart below shows an example of a project budget monitoring chart in which the planned budget is shown as a dotted . within a single integrated methodology. and cost performance.tried to short cut the “budget creation process”. An important technique in budget management is the use of Earned Value Analysis (EVA) which is basically a tracking metric method that measures the actual amount of work the project has accomplished. combines measurements of scope performance. The method used to monitor the performance of the budget depends on the accounting system used by the organization to track costs expenses. Budget performance is the activity to evaluate whether the project’s expenses are being executed according to the budget plan and it helps identify deviations and develop corrective actions. schedule performance. regardless of the effort expended or the time elapsed. This can lead to estimates that during the project implementation do not reflect the actual needs of the project. One of the tools used during this process is the activity based budget. it is not unusual that during the RFP process the organization -in its rush to meet the deadlines. prevents scope creep. Monitoring the budget is a critical activity of the project manager.
000 $1. and equipment by getting a cost estimate of each resource including human resources and develop a budget baseline that will be used to track and report budget expenditures.000 $800. . and budget updates.200.Curve $1. and a budget control plan that defines the process for revision to the budget. Estimates should be revised once the project starts to plan for deviations.000 $1 2 3 4 5 6 Time in Months 7 8 9 Plan Actual Budget 10 11 12 Figure 9.000 $1.400. Budget management is an important responsibility of the project manager that should not be completely delegated.000 $400.000 $200.000. Monitoring the Project Budget Other steps of budget management include determining all the resource requirements for consultants.000 $600. Outputs from this process include: a project budget. Budget S.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 60 line and the actual budget is shown as a solid line. a budget management plan that defines the levels of authority for charging items to the budget. material.600. This is a useful chart to monitor the deviation from plans that will allow corrective actions be made on time.000 $1. Failure to revise can lead to working and spending that do not benefit the project.
such as health or education. During the quality management process the project manager develops a “quality management plan” which identifies the quality standards that are relevant to the project. This cycle for quality assurance consists of four steps: Plan. There are four steps in quality management: 1. Quality Assurance. needs to act on the plan. ensuring that the project outputs are relevant to the needs of the beneficiaries. it’s about delivering according to the commitments made the project initiation.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 61 Quality Management Quality management is the process to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs of the beneficiaries. Quality Control. determining the quality standards for the project 2. making improvements to the project that will increase quality levels The most popular tool used to determine quality assurance is the Shewh6art Cycle. Economic Control of Quality. The PDCA Cycle is used in every activity of the project and in every management process. check the results of the actions and act based on the new learning or changes needed to improve the next cycle. Quality Improvements. These steps are commonly abbreviated as PDCA. but rather. ensuring that quality is built into every element of the project 3. For every activity or process the projects needs a plan. 6 Walter Andrew Shewhart. American Society for Quality. some of which may be initially set by the organization. Quality is defined as a commitment to deliver the project outputs and meet the expectations from the beneficiaries (which means that quality is ultimately defined by the beneficiary). 1980 . and Act. Do. It is not necessarily doing additional work if it does not add value or benefit to the beneficiaries. and are adequate to the conditions in which they have to be used. Check. that they are delivered in a timely manner. or are part of the technical competence area the project is focusing. the donor. monitoring and auditing quality 4. and it’s doing what the project said it was going to do. Quality is not about delivering the most expensive materials or services. Quality Definition.
The third process in quality management is quality control. and quality improvement records. The Shewart/Deming Cycle The second process in quality management includes quality assurance. The final process is quality improvements. meeting quality standards could mean meeting legal and regulatory standards set by the local government or the donor agency. making changes to the quality plan and identifying ways to improve quality an eliminate causes of unsatisfactory quality discovered during quality control.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 62 Plan Do Act Check Figure 10. Quality management outputs include a quality management plan. made in the quality plan. This process includes quality audits performed by the project team during every project deliverable and reevaluating the quality standards. Quality assurance focuses on prevention measures during the project implementation phase and checks to see that the project team. implementing the project by delivering all that the projects was designed to deliver in the time allotted and under the approved budget. As such. quality is also maintaining the project constraints in balance. this is where the project measures the results of the deliverables or outputs and checks to see if they meet the quality standards. consultants or project partners are following the quality standards. In certain conditions. which implies the execution of the quality plan. and any assumptions. . quality audit reports.
Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 63 Supporting Processes The supporting process areas are team. stakeholder. responsibilities and reporting relationships. Team improvement. 4. The second step is getting the people that will be assigned to the project. they are supporting areas because they assist and make possible for the project to achieve its objectives. These can come from within the organization or hired through the Human Resource function of the organization. and using motivational techniques. . assigning roles and responsibilities. 2. the success of the project will depend on the quality and commitment of the team. The project team is after all the team responsible for the project and the project manager needs to be clear in acquiring the skills when needed. Team evaluation. and contract management. Steps during the team management process: 1. This is where the project manager needs to be heavily involved and participate in all interviews with possible candidates. risk. 3. Team management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. the process of identifying the skills and competencies required for carrying out the project activities and the sources were those skills can be located. evaluating the performance of the team and dealing with conflict and people issues. The first step is identifying the roles. Team identification. improving team performance. Team Management During the definition of the project activities a list is created that identifies the skills needed by the project. information. organizing the team and building their capacity to perform in the project. These range from highly technical to administrative and support functions. Team building.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 64 Once people have been assigned to the team the next step is to develop the team. and other internal processes for new hires. norms. communications. and soft skills include time management. Most projects do not have the luxury of time to fully develop a team. can help the project manager build the right team and helps the team to start implementing the project activities with the right level of skills. The chart also helps identify the reporting relationships amongst the project team members and how the project integrates with the organization. Part of team management also includes team evaluation. another good method to help them is a formal mentorship. . Hard skills includes technical training to learn new methodologies or practices. it rather involves careful planning to ensure that the project has the right people at the right time doing the right things. Some organizations also include an induction process fully describing the mission. that defines the development strategies and goals. This process helps new staff to navigate through the organizations policies and procedures. Once the team has been identified. guidelines. the project manager develops the “project organization chart” illustrating the structure that the project will use to manage the project team. Team development includes hard and soft skills. were a project member is assigned to guide a new staff member to help navigate and understand the organizational culture and procedures. culture. Team management is not limited to the hiring and reassigning staff at the end of the project. but the creation of a development plan. which should not be done once a year or at the end of the project but on an ongoing basis where the feedback opportunities should allow staff to be aware about their performance as it compares with expectations and identify ways to improve it. facilitating and negotiation skills.
The Project Organization Chart Stakeholder Management Stakeholder management is one of the areas typically capturing the least amount of thought and planning in development projects due to limited or no understanding and agreement on who are the stakeholders and their role in the project. all defined by the scope of work. local government. local institutions and even watchdog organizations. Each project has a different list of stakeholders. beneficiaries. the geographic location and the external environment in which the project will take place. whose satisfaction is the most critical element to define the success of a project. partner organizations and anyone who will be impacted by the project. Stakeholders are all the people who have an interest in the project.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 65 Project Manager Level 1 Support Level 2 Level 2 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Figure 11. the type of project. A project objective could be to improve the way in which the relationships between the project . Managing stakeholders is not an easy task. Stakeholders include donors. including participants such as the local press.
Stakeholder Analysis is the technique used to identify who are the project stakeholders. There are four steps in stakeholder management process: 1. Below is an example of the stakeholder map: High A Keep Committed Keep Satisfied B Influence Keep Informed Low Keep Engaged D Low Interest Figure 12. 2. 4. the process of mapping and analysis of stakeholders and develop stakeholder management strategies. Stakeholder evaluation. and communication. Stakeholder Mapping. the next step is to understand their needs. Stakeholder management includes the processes of stakeholder analysis.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 66 and the stakeholders are managed by taking a proactive approach geared towards building trust. evaluating the results of stakeholder management strategies. implementing the strategies through communications and relationship building. An important tool on identifying stakeholders is the creation of a stakeholder map that places each stakeholder on a matrix of influence and interest. Stakeholder relationship building. and specially identify their fears and concerns about the project. improving stakeholder management strategies to increase support to the project. planning. The final step is to develop a good understanding of the most important stakeholders and develop a communication strategy that will help manage the relationship. Stakeholder management improvement. 3. The Stakeholder Map C High . their level of interest and influence in the project.
as well as add or remove stakeholders from the list. A group that was initially recognized as having low influence and low interest can change to have a large influence and interest in the project. Stakeholder analyses are techniques that can help project team members understand the variety of stakeholders that have influence and an interest in the project. Increasing information to maintain the level of engagement on the project is a good strategy. The project team needs to monitor these groups. When beneficiaries are not involved in the planning or consulted on their needs and expectations about the project they can easily turn . there is little the project can do to increase the influence. but.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 67 • Quadrant A– This group is made of stakeholders that have high influence but low interest in the project. Each stakeholder has a different idea or expectation of what the project is. Failure to do this can cause that stakeholders loose interest or change their positive interest into negative interest and which case and due to their high level of influence these effects can be significant to the project. this is usual at the start of the project when limited information about the project has been distributed. The best approach is to keep this group informed. Quadrant C – This group’s level of impact to the project is medium and needs occasional monitoring. Quadrant D – Stakeholders with low influence and low interest belong to this group to whom the project should pay little attention. Stakeholders with low influence and high interest belong to this group. This analysis provides information for additional plans that could prove to be valuable for the project team such as a “communication management plan” and a “risk management plan”. • • • The level of influence and interest on the project can change during the life of the project. Quadrant B – Stakeholders that belong to this group need to be kept satisfied so that their interest is sustained and the organization can take advantage of their influence. The goal is to work on building more positive interest in the project by keeping them committed. This is a relationship that needs to be managed closely to avoid changes in perceptions aboutthe project. Stakeholder analysis provides the team with views and some basic measures that can help uncover and remove barriers. especially when stakeholders could have a significant impact on the project. Stakeholder management also helps manage expectations.
80% of a project managers’ time is spent communicating via reports. By identifying the Stakeholders have dif. Information Management This important process includes the steps required to ensure timely and appropriate generation. improving information management processes the project stakeholders and identify their level of interest and influence. storage. Information Evaluation. telephone. Failure to do this can increase the risks to the project. evaluating the results of information management plans 4. fluence on the project Insufficient involvement and infrequent also varies. the ferent levels of interest project has developed a knowledge that on a project and their in. The steps in information management include: 1. Information Planning. meetings or presentations. or assume that they will support the project unconditionally. and ultimate disposition of project information. that is why it communication with stakeholders is is important to know all another leading cause of project failure. the process of defining the information needs and plans to manage project information 2. a good stakeholder management plan helps manage the politics that can often arise with development projects. Information Management. not project managers. Failing to identify stakeholders can lead to difficult situations.needs. the process of collecting. dissemination. concerns and issues of the stakeholders early in the process. collection. analyzing and reporting project information 3. . Information Improvement.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 68 their back to the project and without beneficiaries the project doesn’t have a reason to continue. it helps win support and eliminates a major source of project stress. The success or failure of the project is ultimately judged by stakeholders.can be used to its advantage. especially when the project has to deal with a key stakeholder who has the power to disrupt the project. A project should never try to take stakeholders for granted. email.
It is a good practice that the project defines the communications principles guiding all communication efforts. Communication is not just about sending information. it goes beyond the act of sending information and includes steps to ensure that the information was received and understood by the intended recipients. and the frequency of communications is also different. it identifies who will be responsible for collecting.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 69 The information management plan is influenced by the type and needs of the project stakeholders. The information management plan contains a list or description of all the types of information that needs to be communicated by the project. Donors have specific information needs from the project and provide formats that describe the content and timing of the information required. One type of report cannot be used to inform all stakeholders because each of them has a different interest on the project. communities and local NGOs. different needs for information. Information management also includes an analysis or evaluation of the effectiveness and relevance of the information distributed. determine when they need it. editing and distributing the information. this is important specially when developing donor reports or reports to comply with local laws or regulations. The first step of the plan is to define the type of information that the stakeholders need from the project. Principles are the values and norms that govern the behavior of the people in charge of developing the communication messages. The goal of commu- . they require information in different formats and channels. Distributing information is another element of information management. Having a successful information management plan depends on developing a sound communication strategy and to the ability of the project manager to listen. but learning to listen first and then define what information is needed. this step is useful when communication is used as a tool to build stakeholder support and build relationships with beneficiaries. how the information will be distributed and how to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of the information.
it involves identifying potential project risks and documenting their characteristics. a way of numerically estimating the probability that a project will meet its cost and time objectives. involves the evaluation of the risk management plan and response to actions taken by the project. the actions to improve the risk plan and response mechanisms as well as an update on the risk levels. There are four stages to risk management planning: risk identification. 3. Qualitative risk analysis. involves the identification and quantification of all risks and the development of a response plan. The team assesses each identified risk for its probability of occurring and its impact on project objectives. The four steps in risk management are: 1. But if the receiver responds to the message by taking the appropriate action. The project team members identify the potential risks using their own knowledge of the project. analyzing. There are two types of risk analysis: • • Quantitative risk analysis. The next step is the analysis of the project risks. Risk Management Risk Management includes the processes concerned with identifying. Risk Planning. but fails to act. and responding to risks. will have an adverse impact on the project. Part of risk management includes the revision of risk analysis during the project’s lifecycle. Risk Evaluation. . The level of risk in projects is defined as something that may happen and if it does. based on a simultaneous evaluation of the impact of all identified and quantified risks. The project risk list is a project deliverable. risk analysis and quantification. Risks Monitoring and Response. and similar projects done in the past. its environment. risk response.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 70 nication is the acceptance of the project’s message by the receiving audience. Risk analysis assesses the importance of the identified risks and develops prioritized lists of these risks for further analysis or direct mitigation. 2. 4. the goal of communications is not achieved. the goal of the communication has been achieved. Risk identification deals with identifying all possible risks that may impact the project. includes the activities to monitor risks and respond to risk events. risk monitoring and control. Risk Plan Improvement. If the receiver understands the meaning of the message which asks for action.
The project manager and the team identify which strategy is best for each risk. As the project makes progress the probability for risks to occur changes. The project risks during project lifetime . this has implications on the budget and other contingency plans developed by the team. The list of project risks changes as the project matures. and evaluates their effectiveness. but the potential impact increases. and then design specific actions to implement that strategy. It identifies and assigns staff to take responsibility for each risk response. It also ensures the execution of risk response plans. and new risks. or anticipated risks disappear. new risks develop. residual risks.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 71 Risk response planning focuses on the high risk items evaluated in the qualitative and/or quantitative risk analysis. Risk monitoring and control continues for the life of the project. Risk Probability High Probability Low Probability Project Timeline High Impact Risk Impact Low Impact Project Timeline Figure 13. Risk monitoring and control keeps track of the identified risks.
award and monitor the funds that other organizations will receive from the project to carry work on behalf of the project. and/or selectign sub-grant recipients. includes: identifying the steps for approval and negotiation of the donor contract or grant. Sub-Grant contract management deals with the processes the project will establish to select. Procurement contract management deals with the provision of goods and services that the project will hire from local or international vendors and consultants. done in conjunction with the organizations’ procurement . Because of this probabilistic and speculative nature of risk management. sub-grants and procurement contracts.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 72 Risks management is the management of events that may or may not occur. and includes the preparation of plans to reduce the impact to the project. − Contract management consists of four steps: 1. Contract award. Review performance and monitor application of clauses and obligations under the contracts. The procurement contract management is a key element during the project implementation. It also identifies potential sources and the strategies that the project will use to procure goods and services. − − Grant contract management deals with the processes to ensure that the project follows the conditions. and/or sending a request for proposal for sub-grants. 2. Contract Management Contract Management includes the processes required to manage the three types of contracts: Grants. selecting the vendors. 3. the plan identifies the what. sending a request for procurement of goods and services needed by the project. regulations. Update the contract as needed to reflect authorized changes or modifications. many project managers feel it’s is not necessary and prefer to deal risks only when it occurs. when and how many of the goods and services are needed within the budgeted limits. which includes: sending a proposal to the donor. specifications and clauses that the donor has established. grants and sub-grants 4. Develop the proposals. Different projects have different needs relating to contract management.
what to procure and how much should be procured. when to procure. ensuring reports and payments are made on time and goods and services are delivered under specifications. if required by the donor. In this scenario the project and the organization is responsible for ensuring that the funds are utilized in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. When all contract obligations have been achieved (or when they have not) the project will close the contract. it also involves the process to solicit the goods and services. Monitoring the plan involves managing the relationship with the donor. a contract audit. how to procure. This process has the objective to ensure that the project gets what it needs without creating risk to the pro- . developing the selection criteria and contract terms. identifying risks and issues related to the proposed transaction. This is a process of systematically evaluating vendor information. Closing a contract includes the completion and settlement of the contract. resolution of open issues. final verification. Implementing the procurement plan is the process of developing the procurement documents such as the Request for Proposal (RFPs). but it also identifies the organizations procedures. therefore. bids. Contract management will not only identify all the activities that the subgrantee will perform and all the goods and services that the project needs. Most of the time in this process is spent in contract management. This process involves deciding how to award sub-grants. which consists of following the due diligence process required to ensure that the project obtains the goods and services under the required specifications. donor restrictions and the applicable host country government regulations. Selecting the vendor or source involves choosing from the potential suppliers. proposals or offers. and negotiating and awarding the contract. formal acceptance and. Sub-Grant contract management occurs in many large projects were the donor requires that a substantial amount of the project funds are directed to local organizations to carry the activities with beneficiaries. subgrantee and suppliers. monitoring contract performance.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 73 function. the project must develop processes to monitor the sub-grants. and selecting the vendors that meet the requirements of the project. verifying their qualifications and capacity. obtaining quotes.
. Especially. and ultimately the needs of the beneficiaries. Risks can occur in the form of improper or inadequate controls to manage the contract relationships. and to ensure that the goods and services meet the needs of the project.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 74 ject and the organization/s. the management of risks related to the appropriate use of donor funds to purchase the goods and services within the donor requirements.
Information. verify and assign D) Define. Risk and Scope D) Team. Risk and Contract C) Contract. Schedule.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 75 Chapter 4 . Information. Stakeholder. Schedule. Budget and Quality B) Schedule. Budget.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the four core project management processes? A) Scope. Budget and Quality Question 2 – What is the correct order of the fours steps in Scope Management? A) Assign. Risk and Contract B) Team. Budget. assign and adapt Question 3 – What step in Schedule Management requires input from the WBS? A) Define the Schedule B) Monitor the Schedule C) Publish the Schedule D) Update the Schedule Question 4 – What is a GANTT chart? A) A diagram that shows the roles in a project B) A diagram to represent the cost of each activity C) A diagram that list all project activities from the WBS D) A diagram used to monitor the project quality Question 5 – What are the five supporting processes? A) Scope. Scope. verify and adapt C) Adapt. Stakeholder. Schedule. adapt and verify B) Define. Stakeholder. verify. Risk and Contract. Budget and Scope D) People. Risk and Quality C) Risk. define. assign. Information. define. .
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 76 .
While it is true that a good understanding of the technical aspects of the project is useful. negotiating. Responsibilities and Skills | 77 CHAPTER 5 ROLES. These skills are often overlooked at the time of hiring or appointing a project manager. It is not unusual to find a good engineer being promoted to project manager just for his or her technical competence. project managers are also required to have good management skills such as communicating. planning. -all at the same time-. communicate with stakeholders and manage the project constraints. coordinate the use of resources. and leadership. coaching. The job description for a project manager needs to be more explicit on the managerial skills and competencies required for the job. decisionmaking. Organizations need to build a better understanding of the role of a project manager starting from the premise that this role is not the same as a technical manager/director. communicator and facilitator.Chapter 5 – Roles. The project manager role entails to be a good integrator. this role is of equal or more importance than the role of a technical manager. Organizations usually assign a project manager with the idea that all that is required is expertise in a technical area and often forget the need to have a project manager with the skills to lead a project team. . RESPONSIBILITIES AND SKILLS Role of the Project Manager Development organizations appoint a project manager according to the depth of his or her technical skills.
beneficiaries and the key stakeholders. There are three critical roles of the project manager: 1. Communicator role: Most of the work should be spent on this role by communicating with all stakeholders and building the right support and relationships. and to the beneficiaries. Leader role: Motivating and inspiring a team to deliver the project work by providing a vision and direction. communicate properly with stakeholders. The Project Manager has the delegated authority to commit the organization on matters regarding performance according to the scope of the project and the contract with the donor. Organizations need to reevaluate the roles. she is the one whose job it is to make sure the project gets done and would be the principal contact person for the donor. responsibilities and skills required from project managers.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 78 For example to manage an agriculture project the organization will hire an agronomist and sustain this decision mostly on the depth of the technical skills and experience but not on the managerial skills needed to supervise a team. 3. monitor the schedule effectively and ensure the donor funds are utilized in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. for delivering the project as planned. the sole responsibility and authority for project direction and control. not on their technical skills. A Project Manager is also accountable to the Program Manager or Organization Director (depending on the size of the organization). therefore. the organization’s senior management needs to assign the project manager. Most project failures point to the lack of managerial skills from project managers. The project manager is the ultimate person accountable for the project. Integrator A key role of the project manager is to ensure the proper integration of the project management processes and coordinate the project phases through . the project manager needs to make key decisions regarding the management of the resources available to the project. 2. strategies and approaches are part of an integrated effort. Integrator role: Ensures that all the project activities. As the person responsible for the project.
which involves measuring the results against the intended objectives and coordinating all changes to the plans. and so are the project plans. the plans are in- .Chapter 5 – Roles. which consists of the development of all project planning documents into a consistent. Responsibilities and Skills | 79 the project management cycle. A project plan is a tool that the project The project manager taimanager uses to lead the project team lors the project plan to and asses the status of the project. a small project that involves a few people over a couple of months might have a project plan a few pages long. not the art of integration. The main role of the project manager is not related to the technical responsibilities of the project. especially because most of the information to hinder it with too derelative to the project plans come from tailed instructions. Development projects are unique. usually from subject matter experts and project stakeholders. fit the needs of the proIn order to create a good project plan tended to guide the prothe project manager needs to practice ject implementation. which in most cases are managed by the project staff. coherent project plan document Implementing the project plan. A large project involving many people over many years would require a detailed project plan with complete and in depth information covering many pages. Project Plan Development A project plan is the document used to coordinate all the project activities and used as a guide to implement and monitor the project. ject. which involves the execution of the project plan and ensuring that all activities are performed by all the people involved Monitor and control the plan. many sources. Plans should be dynamic and the project manager role is to ensure that the plans have a level of flexibility to allow changes as the project makes progress or when the project environment changes. This role is designed to ensure that all areas of the project come together to bring the project to a successful conclusion. on the other hand. The effort of coordinating all these information gives the project manager the opportunity to build a good understanding of the overall project and use it as guide to conduct its implementation. The role of integrator involves three specific areas of responsibility: • • • Developing the project management plans.
Although project managers are responsible for developing the overall project management plan. Since the main objective of developing a project plan is to guide the project implementation. . they must solicit inputs from the project team members and key project stakeholders. The team that implements the plan has a better chance at succeeding when they are part of the plan’s design. Project Plan Monitoring and Control early activities needs to be documented to benefit future activities and facilitate improvements to the project plan. Project Plan Implementation Project plan implementation includes all the efforts necessary to achieve the activity outputs.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 80 The project manager or the development organization can decide the minimum content of the project plan. Implementing the plan is essentially a proactive role accomplished constantly relying on the project plan. facilitating and negotiating skills. Project planning and implementation are closely related and intertwined activities. Project managers must provide leadership to communicate the project plans. in addition to effectively communicate with the project stakeholders and facilitate negotiations as needed to help implement the project plans. management and other key stakeholders. A good approach to help the coordination between project planning and the project implementation is to have the same people who plan the activities be the people who will implement them. beneficiaries. especially because this document will be used as a communication tool with the donor. a good plan should help produce good outputs which ultimately lead to good outcomes. This is the effort where the project will spend most of its During implementation resources and it requires that the manager monitors the the best practices and project performance of the project activities as good results from the described in the project plan. Project managers and their staff must posses the required expertise for successful project implementation. communication. Project implementation requires a different set of skills: leadership. It is a good practice if the organization develops basic guidelines or standard forms to help with the creation of the project plan.
often overlooked and not properly taken into consideration when assigning a project manager to a new project. The communication or informational role is the most critical role for the success of the project because the organization.Chapter 5 – Roles. • • Performance reports provide information to measure the status of the project against the baseline indicators from the original plans. evaluating and managing changes throughout the project management cycle. budget and quality. which is achieved by influencing the factors that create changes and by making trade-offs amongst the project constraints such as scope. donors. Communicator This is one of the main roles of the project manager. The purpose of the report is to identify any discrepancies or issues identified by the project team who is responsible to determine the best corrective actions as needed. beneficiaries and key stakeholders need to make critical decisions about the project. the role of the project managers in this area involves achieving the following objectives: • Ensure that changes are beneficial and contribute to the project success. and the information they receive must be accurate. relevant. Changes are common in projects but they must be managed and properly documented because changes are the most significant subject for project audits and because it helps keep the project evaluators informed. Part of this role is to ensure that the lessons learned are captured and shared with the organization to provide guidance to current or future projects. and timely. specially the changes that will impact the projects constraints. Project managers in the role of communicators assume three functions: gathering information from project staff and other people involved with the project. analyzing the information and . schedule. Communicate significant changes to management to beneficiaries and donors. project staff. Update project plans and record the changes. Responsibilities and Skills | 81 Monitoring and controlling the project involves identifying.
coordinate. risks. Project managers spend most of their time communicating. beneficiaries. telephone calls. beneficiaries or project partners. Project managers primarily use two forms of communication: • • Leader A project manager should be a leader beyond any other competency. and distributing the information to the internal and external environments. develop reports (written and spoken) to the donors. assumptions and constraints. to influence. here is where the leadership role is needed and the project manager needs to communicate and motivate the team to achieve the ultimate goal. such as the donor.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 82 make sense of its implications. direct.which includes the ability to facilitate. The focus of this role is to ensure that the project team and stakeholders have a clear vision of the objectives of the project. or the beneficiaries. it involves working with and through others to achieve the objectives of the project. start shifting their attention from the final objective. Communication is used Formal communications like progress reports and presentations to management or to the beneficiaries Informal communications like email messages. solve problems. and motivate determines the effectiveness of the project manager. The project team needs direction for the whole life of the project and the project manager is responsible for leading the team to achieve the vision that the project has created by facilitating. . inspire. timely achieve the project goals. and team meetings to inform and educate the project stakeholders about the project objectives. The central information to the right role of the project manager is its ability people about the project. The project manager’s ability to lead . they listen to issues. provide direction and constantly negotiate for resources. Leading is a central role. The success of project managers depends greatly on their ability to communicate effectively. They host meetings. During the course of the project is not unusual that the team. Communication is procoordinating and motivating the team to viding relevant. and communicate. and the general public to gain support for the project.
these groups will loose sight of their role within the project and may pursue their own interest at the cost of the project. Responsibilities and Skills | 83 The leadership role implies the roles of: • • • Facilitator: To ease and assist the project team to do their work Coordinator: To organize. the beneficiaries. These groups include the functional units in the organizations. which is a shared responsibility with the project team. human resources and procurement. The project manager is not responsible for all the tasks of the project. All participants need their activities be coordinated in away that benefits the project. Without coordination.Chapter 5 – Roles. The facilitator role is mostly used when dealing with beneficiaries. Since the project manager doesn’t have any form of authority over this group he must provide an environment where beneficiaries feel comfortable with contributing ideas and provide input to the project including the discovery of different approaches that can help achieve the projects objectives. The goal of this role is to support the project team and their interactions with beneficiaries and other stakeholders so that they can achieve exceptional performance. or the partners involved with the projects. This role is needed to ensure that all these groups are working towards the same goal. . The project manager also contributes by providing the framework to facilitate the interactions amongst the different groups so that they are able to function effectively. The project manager has to inform each group about what is expected from them and how their activities will be coordinated. direct and synchronize the efforts of all involved in the project Motivator: To inspire. stimulate and encourage the team to achieve the project objectives Facilitator Under this role the project manager supports the project team to work more effectively and helps them collaborate more efficiently to achieve a stage of synergy. Coordinator Coordination means integrating the goals and activities of the people and groups involved with the project. the project manager role is to create the right conditions that enable the project team to carry their duties. such as finance.
limited accommodations and other factors generate a need to have a highly motivated team. The project team is an integral part of the project. The nature of development projects involving difficult locations. the greater the need for information. A high degree of coordination is needed when factors in the project environment are changing and a high level of interdependence exists amongt the activities performed by the different groups. high security risks. and it depends on the degree of interdependence and the nature of communication requirements. The project manager needs to evaluate the best approach to coordination which has to match the project’s capacity. lack of motivation can lead to a high turnover and low morale which results in poor performance. this is the reason why the project manager has to act as a motivator to the team in times of difficulty. when one group requires an output produced by another group in order to complete an activity. Communication is the best tool to achieve an effective coordination. The project manager’s role is to ensure that information is received by all groups at the right time. Motivator Development projects are highly complex and demanding on the project staff. extensive travel.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 84 The need for coordination depends on the need for integration of the activities from different groups. The project manager’s role as a motivator is to identify the factors that would motivate the project team to take the necessary actions to complete a task given the project constraints. promotes mutual understanding with the beneficiaries and cultivates shared responsibility among all project stakeholders. Working with people who are motivated by different reasons is not easy. The greater the level of complexity and uncertainty about the project objectives. Even if the project is able to develop the best plans and has all the resources needed. . if people are not motivated the project will fail. for instance. The project manager encourages full participation from the project team.
Responsibilities of the Project Manager Responsibility is an agreement between two or more people for the intention of achieving a desired result. Responsibility means that the organization appoints a manager who will be in charge of the project and its objectives. and specific assignments to foster self-motivation. the project manager will connect each member to their objectives. The accountability must be consistent with the responsibility assigned. results or activities. quality and risk. the organization must hold that person accountable for achieving the desired result and state the consequences of poor performance. From this premise. Responsibilities and Skills | 85 In the process of motivating the team the project manager must also understand the importance of individual motivations.Chapter 5 – Roles. reassignment. The project manager must ensure that the assigned responsibility is clearly stated and the expected results are mutually understood and accepted by all stakeholders. however. the organization is always held ultimately accountable for the final results. When an organization dispenses full responsibility to one person. Projects vary in duration. On a large or complex project. scope. The appointed responsible manager has to select his team members and assign the activities in accordance to his planning and has the responsibility to undertake the project. Accountability comes as a result of the assigned responsibility. the project manager must understand what motivates them individually and as a team. the project manager may elect to appoint one or more assistant project managers and he may delegate single or multiple responsibilities to the assistant project managers to control different processes of the project including monitoring budgets. Along with the overall responsibility the project manager is also given the authority over the project which implies appropriate access to resources to . probation. such as a negative employee performance rating. responsibilities. To foster motivation for each team member. and complexity. or termination.
when it will be completed. The organization must determine and explicitly define the level of authority that the project manager has to hire and terminate team members. and who will do it. The project manager is responsible for three areas of the project: responsibility to the donor to provide timely and accurate information. including the level of purchase authority over equipment and materials or the level of signature authority over other project expenditures. Authority must be commensurate with the responsibility assigned and appropriate to the accountability. Planning The responsibility for planning involves defining what the project will accomplish. It is important to define in writing the specific responsibilities and authority the project manager will have in terms of personnel. accountability. equipment. such as personnel or budget. and monitor progress against plans: Which may need modifications based on results from evaluations These responsibilities are part of the project manager’s main role as project integrator. objectives. The project plans are the operational instructions under which the . Successful organizations have written policies and procedures that define how responsibility. materials. Directing: Leading and motivating the team and other key stakeholders Controlling. how it will be implemented and monitored. and funds.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 86 complete the project. and responsibility to the organization for managing the project and following policies and uphold its values. responsibility to the beneficiaries for delivering the project outcomes. The project manager is responsible for creating the project plans and defining the goals. In general terms the project manager responsibilities in the project are: • • • • Planning: Developing the project plans that will guide the actions to implement the project Organizing: Coordinate the work to make optimum use of resources. and authority work in the project management environment. activities and resources needed.
the team members may have not worked together in the past and they may come in and out of the project at different times. the responsibility of the project manager is to direct. An important element of organization is to staff the project with qualified people who can take the responsibility for specific elements of the project. mandates. . the project manager assumes the responsibility that the project team will follow the vision of the project and all instructions. and environment of the project. The project team may have people with different skill sets and project experience. The project manager will need to communicate the objectives meet the project goals. By directing. donors. Under this responsibility the project manager may nor. Directing Once the plans are made and the organization has been determined and the project staffed. The project manager is also responsible for updating the plans as new changes or modifications are approved. and management. Responsibilities and Skills | 87 entire project will be implemented and will serve as a map to guide the project team. development projects bring together different expertise from socials sciences to engineering. dowithin the project. The focus of this all project participants. stage is on coordination. lead and motivate the members of the project to perform in a unified and consistent manner.Chapter 5 – Roles. ganization to work and The project manager must have the ability to determine the type of project organization that will fit the needs. once the plans have been approved and distributed. has the responsibility to build and staff the Project Managers must project organization that will be capable foster teamwork among to carry out the plans. she is responsible for communicating all stakeholders on the changes and to ensure that the changes are being incorporated in the activities and tasks of the project team. and work orders. The project manager. beneficiaries. control of the PM act as catalyst to activities and the flow of information get the beneficiaries. constraints. Organizing The responsibility of the project manager is to establish a structure that will maximize the efficiency (doing the things right) and effectiveness (doing the right things) of the project. project team and distribute and delegate some authority management of the orto the project team.
Not long ago. It’s a science . In today’s projects. the behavioral skills are becoming equally important as technical skills. The project manager must establish standards for performance. and make the necessary corrections. with the purpose to ensure that the goals be achieved within the project constraints. performance measurement. a good understanding of general management. detect the variations from the standards. logics. Starting in the late 90’s. and sequence of the project activities. organizing. Development projects now use multi-dimensional methods that include different approaches including rights based. Project management is both a science and an art. the emphasis was placed on technical skills and project managers were hired based on their experience and proficiency in the project’s technical areas.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 88 and goals of the project in a consistent manner to ensure that all work done by the team is supporting the achievement of those goals. Project managers need to spend more of their time planning. and partnership strategies. projects are not just onedimensional approach focused on a single solution. the nature of development projects has changed considerably. Projects are becoming more complex in their nature and it is no longer possible for the project manager to remain a technical expert. To be an effective project manager today requires more and more. This responsibility ensures that the project is on track. directing. Controlling Controlling is a responsibility to ensure that the actions of the project team contribute toward the project goals. Managerial Skills for Project Managers The evolution of development projects has changed the skills required from project managers. gender. This revision may cause changes in the approach. Controlling also includes a revision of the original project assumptions and test if they are still valid. and monitoring the project.
letting the project team members perform the technical work and limit the technical in- . These skills are necessary to communicate concepts and ideas effectively with the project team. schedule. Furthermore. to reach agreements with stakeholders Conceptual skills. There are four managerial skills essential to successful management: • • • • Procedural skills. project managers must be skilled in both the science and the art of project management. time and quality issues. Responsibilities and Skills | 89 because it requires the analysis of charts. and an art. to develop and use management processes and techniques Problem solving skills. know how to read a statistical analysis of a project baseline data. In order to perform the functions of management and to assume multiple roles. the project manager is expected to effectively use information and communication technologies to be more effective in his/her work. to identify root causes and develop solutions Negotiating skills. conflict resolution. procedures and tools. to assess risks.Chapter 5 – Roles. graphs. to interpret abstract information Procedural Skills The project manager must have the skills to use management techniques. because it deals with negotiations. interpersonal. He/she must know how to interpret a budget report. and to make tradeoffs between cost. he/she must concentrate on managing the project. The project manager must maintain a general perspective and avoid micromanaging. and organizational factors. and understand the correct application of the different management methodologies. Procedural skills are related to working with processes and tools relative to using specialized knowledge and experience related to project management and the specific methodologies for implementing project activities. financial data.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 90 volvement to evaluating the work of the team. and if they do not have strong negotiating skills. Negotiation is the process of obtaining mutually acceptable agreements with individuals or groups. A project manager must also be able to see patterns and derive meaningful conclusions from distinct pieces of data. weaknesses. and make decisions to correct deviations from plans. that were not identified in early stages. analytical skills consist of breaking a whole into component parts. develop alternatives. Problem solving Skills offer different techniques that the project team can use to address problems which might otherwise overwhelming or excessively complex. evaluate project progress. the project team can start developing systematic solutions. Problems must be understood before the team jumps into solutions. opportunities & threats. the structure and the level . A large part of negotiation takes place within the organization to get the resources that the project needs. Resources in most cases are being requested by other project managers. Negotiation Skills Project managers spend a large portion of their time negotiating for resources. failure to make this distinction may lead to the implementation of a solution that will not solve the problem at its root cause. synthesis and analysis thinking skills. Only then. much like decomposing work into a WBS. In many cases the original problem is a symptom or a larger problem. equipment or support. their chances of being successful are greatly reduced. Moreover. analyzing strengths. Additionally. Problem Solving Skills All projects are prone to encounter problems. Techniques such as breaking problems down into manageable parts. Depending on the project. identifying root causes of problems. allow a project manager to synthesize and collect disperse information and turning it into a meaningful whole. are excellent strategies to solve problems.
ferent set of skills to be . the beneficiaries and its environment. Responsibilities and Skills | 91 of authorization. they may not be highly motivated to participate in the project activities. This skill helps the project manager to keep a clear vision of the ultimate goal of the project and understand its relationships and dependencies with the project’s environment. They understand relationships between projects. the development organization. The project manager needs the ability to understand how all the parts make a whole and how they all relate and depend on one another. Conceptual Skills Conceptual skills deal with the ability to coordinate and integrate all project’s efforts. Conceptual skills are necessary to appropriately deal with project politics and to acquire adequate support from top management. therefore. and the ability to anticipate how a change in one part of the project will affect the entire project. Negotiation skills are also useful when successful they need to dealing with project beneficiaries and be able to lead. The bigger and more complex is the project. it requires that the project manager sees the project as a whole and not just the sum of its parts. and motivate the team. the project manager has to negotiate on behalf of the organization. When dealing with vendors or consultants who are bidding for a specific good or service.Chapter 5 – Roles. project managers need a new and difrequired. the larger is the need for this type of skill. Project managers with good conceptual skills are well aware of how various elements of the project environment or ecosystem interrelate and influence one another. Beneficiaries may have other priorities. manage building agreements that will benefit both the project and the beneficiaries. the donor organization. Negotiation usually includes making trade-offs when stakeholders request changes or modifications to the project and its resources. and how changes in one part of the environment affect the project. the assistance of specialized staff such Technical skills are not as representatives from legal or the procurement department may also be enough. The project manager must be able to find the best approach to persuade the group by building a common understanding of its benefits and align the interest of the beneficiaries with those of the project.
motivating. team building. Major interpersonal skills include: communication. . their attitudes. delegating. and human dynamics. Every organization has a unique culture and the units within an organization often have their own personalities. understanding these cultures and personalities can help a project manager be more successful. directing and supporting those involved in the project. and desires are a key element for successfully managing teams. The more a project manager knows about the organization. and politics. project managers are appointed based on their technical expertise more than their management experience. Project managers work under an organization structure built upon people from different backgrounds. which builds the foundation to be an effective project team leader and to fabricate a cooperative environment amongst the project members and all other groups interacting with them. policies. The reason is that technical experts tend to be very narrow in their views. The results of projects led by a manager with a wider set of skills tend to yield much better deliverables than a comparable project led only by technical experts.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 92 Interpersonal Skills for Project Managers Traditionally. Undersanding of the teams’ personalities needs. coaching. training. The tendency is for experts to believe their solution is the right one. Unfortunately there are very little training and efforts are directed towards management and team building. leadership. The project manager needs to have a good understanding of the organization’s culture. These skills are most critical for effective performance in a challenging project environment. Experts leading a project are less likely to consider any other view than their own. and therefore the only choice. values. A project manager whose only competency is a technical expertise will has difficulties when dealing with a team that has a diverse technical background. A project manager needs to be open to the views and suggestions of the team members. Having interpersonal skills allows for a better understanding of people. the better equipped he/she is to navigate around difficult situations and make appropriate decisions.
Leadership can be learned and it can improve with practice. Leadership is a critical management skill. This is particularly true for international projects composed of the people from different backgrounds and cultures. Responsibilities and Skills | 93 The project manager also needs to be sensitive to the cultural differences when dealing with diverse people and their opinions. Important interpersonal skills and abilities required to handle projects are: • • • Leadership skills to guide and inspire the team to accomplish the project goals Communication skills to build support and understanding of the project Behavioral skills to help and motivate the team Leadership Skills Leadership skills are essential for project managers because project managers must influence the behavior of others. Leadership is not a gift that some people have and others don't. values. This skill gives the project manager the ability to articulate a clear vision and provide direction. it is the ability to motivate a group of people towards a common goal. Leadership implies the ability to influence. . motivate. Leadership is not giving orders and telling others what to do. committed and willing to follow the project plan. The use of good interpersonal abilities helps building trust and confidence between members of the project team and helps creating good relations and a good working environment.Chapter 5 – Roles. In small projects. it is not a job title either. Leadership is an essential quality in any manager and it is the way to get the team energized. good leadership can lead to success and even overcome unskilled management. just because the organization appoints a project manager that doesn’t make him or her a leader. and attitudes. Project managers require leadership skills for the simple reason that they accomplish their work through individuals who have faces and names. Leadership is the predominant contributor to the success of the project manager.
These skills involve team building. facilitate the motivational process. and the message may not reflect what is intended. understanding perceptions and attitudes. and with other people within the organization. influencing. A key element of effective communication skill is having good listening skills. By successfully carrying a message. Communication Skills This is the second most important skill which project managers will spend most of their time during the life of the project. Behavioral skills include dealing .Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 94 and enable the project team and even key stakeholders. and the project organization. This skill is absolutely crucial in project management. the project manager is able to convey the information and ideas more effectively. to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the project. an active listener makes the communication flow more effective. Good communication skills include verbal and non-verbal enabling a project manager to convey project information in a way that it is assimilated and understood by all project stakeholders. the beneficiaries. the information and ideas do not reach its destination. the donors. It has been estimated that project managers spend 80 percent of their time just communicating with the project team. causing a communications breakdown and creating roadblocks that stand in the way of the project goals. Behavioral or people skills. other project stakeholders. Good communication skills allow both the transmitter and the receiver understand the same message. make possible to build cooperation between the project team. which help improve the morale of the project team and build commitment and support from stakeholders. When communication is not successful. Behavioral Skills Behavioral skills also known as people skills. These skills are needed in development projects due to the large number of people interfacing with the project . key stakeholders.
Zander (eds.. 607-623). (1960). Expert power is the use of personal expertise to influence the team to follow directions. it uses some form of punishment or penalty threat to persuade people to do things. Jr. Power is the ability to influence the behavior of the project team to do the things they will not normally do. changes to the schedule. it also means having good interpersonal skills and knowing how to be articulate and how to adapt to different situations.Chapter 5 – Roles. The authority provides a level of influence on the project and its members and the project manager can use it to establish his or her power. A project manager can use five different types of power7: • Coercive power. promotions. and Raven. In D.). this authority may include decisions for assigning staff to the project. these are used as a reward to get some desired behavior or accomplish a difficult assignment. Responsibilities and Skills | 95 with how a person relates to others. . R. official recognition or special work assignments. Cartwright and A. The project manager can use these type of incentives based on the resources available to the project and following the Human Resource polices of the organization. Reward power involves the use of incentives such as money. J. status. If the team recognizes the project manager has a relevant expertise and has demonstrated this knowledge. A project manager can threaten to fire a team member if they don’t follow a specific assignment or change a behavior. then they will be more likely follow the project manager’s directions or suggestions on how the work must be done. • • 7 French. New York: Harper and Row. make changes to the approach and other levels of decision-making. B. Influence and Power of the Project Manager Project managers are vested with authority on the project by the organization. is a negative approach to power. This approach is usually used as a last resort when all other forms of influence have failed and should be done in coordination with the organizations management and never used as the only influence factor due to its negative impact on the team’s motivation. P. The bases of social power. Group dynamics (pp.
This is a type of power that must be earned before it is used and it’s the best type of power to positively influence the team. • Placing Roles.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 96 • Legitimate power is based on authority. successful project managers are expected to play a combination of these roles. Project managers should place relatively more emphasis on their role as leaders during the initiation phase. it should be recognized that although these roles have some of their own distinct characteristics. . and leader) and skills (management and interpersonal) to manage the project. and environment of the project. cultural diversity of the people and overall organizational culture. and practical experience. Responsibilities and Skills Together Project managers are expected to accomplish project objectives by using their knowledge. However. they should be integrators during the planning phase and managers during the implementation and monitoring phase. During the project management process. communicator. at the same time of overlapping. depending upon the situation and the phase of the project life cycle. The role and position plus the support given by management to the project manager are part of this part of type of power. Excessive use of this type of power can lead to negative results. complexity. skills. it is based on the leadership qualities of the project manager and his or her ability to build a good level of trust with the team. Referent power is based on the personal charisma of the project manager. and uses the power vested on the project manager by the organization to make decisions and assign work to the project team. they have to use a combination of their roles (integrator. Effective project managers should be able to tailor their roles to the size. Roles and skills are equally important in managing a project. and the special circumstances surrounding the project.
Facilitator Question 2 – Why is the Role of Integrator Important? A) To ensure proper integration of the project management processes B) To ensure project stakeholders are aware of the project objectives C) To ensure project plans are done on time and under budget D) To ensure beneficiaries receive the communications on time Question 3 – Who is the ultimate person accountable for the project results? A) The Donor B) The Finance Manager C) The Community Leader D) The Project Manager Question 4 – Which interpersonal skill is used to help and motivate the team? A) Leadership skills B) Behavioral skills C) Communication skills D) Conceptual skills Question 5 – What type of power is based on the project manager's formal authority? A) Coercive power B) Referent power C) Legitimate power D) Reward power . Integrator. Communicator.Chapter 5 – Roles. Facilitator D) Communicator. Manager B) Integrator.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three roles of a Project Manager? A) Integrator. Leader. Communicator. Leader C) Leader. Responsibilities and Skills | 97 Chapter 5 .
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 98 .
A project structure can adopt various forms varying on advantages and disadvantages. The structure defines the relationships amongst members of the project and the relationships with the stakeholders. the project constraints. Each project has its unique characteristics and the design of an organizational structure should consider the organizational environment. A properly designed project organization is essential to project success. A project organization chart shows where each person is placed in the project structure. overlaps and conflict. The chart is drawn in pyramid form where individuals located . Its main reason is to create an environment that fosters interactions amongst the team members with a minimum amount of disruptions.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 99 CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT The Project Organization Structure A project organization is a structure that facilitates the coordination and implementation of project activities. The structure defines the authority by means of a graphical illustration called a project organization chart. and the level of authority given to the project manager. One of the main objectives of the structure is to reduce uncertainty and confusion that typically occurs at the project initiation phase. One of the important decisions in project management is what type of organizational structure will be used for the project.
The structure cannot be designed too rigid or too loose. and the lines connecting the boxes designate formal supervision and lines of communication between the team members. Project Manager Project Coordinator Nutrition Manager Accountant Administrator Health Manager M&E Coordinator Staff Assistant Staff Staff Staff Driver Staff Staff Figure 14. The project organization establishes the formal relationships amongst the project manager. Project Organization Chart Creating the project structure is only one portion of organizing the project. The structure needs to be designed to help develop collaboration . it is the actual implementation and application that takes the most effort. the project team members. the project. It is the relative locations of the individuals on the organization chart that specifies the working relationships. The objective in designing a project structure is to provide a formal environment that supports team members to do their best in completing their assignment and duties.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 100 closer to the top of the pyramid have more authority and responsibility than members located toward the bottom. since the project organization's purpose is to facilitate the interaction of people to achieve the project ultimate goals within the specified constraints of scope. budget and quality. the development organization. The project manager must create a project structure that will meet the various project needs at different phases of the project. This organization must facilitate an effective interaction and integration amongst all the major project participants and achieve open and effective communications amongst them. the beneficiaries and other project stakeholders. time.
Factors in Designing a Project Structure There are two design factors that significantly influence the process of developing a project management structure. A project with a reconstruction and education component will need to manage different approaches based on specialization. implying a rigid. whereas the time horizon is longer. For large projects that have multiple specializations or technical areas. Specialization Specialization affects the project structure by the degree of specialty required in technical areas or development focus. The organization chart only shows the hierarchical relationship amongst the team members. It does not show how the project organization will work. The project manager should consider these factors at the moment of designing the project organization to help maximize the effectiveness of the structure. with defined time horizons with little sharing of ideas. it is for that reason that the design should consider other factors that will facilitate the operation of the structure. While specialization allows each project component to maximize their productivity to attain their . each area may have a different need. requires an open and informal structure. Projects can be highly specialized and focused in specific areas of development. These are the level of specialization. hierarchical structure. and the need for coordination. or have different broad specializations in many areas of development. A reconstruction component. with more emphasis on sharing and generation of new ideas in order to achieve innovation and creativity. requires specific goals.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 101 amongst individual team members in a cost effective way with a minimum of duplication of effort and overlaps. Differences in goals. approaches and methodologies influence the way in which the project will implement its activities. The education component.
In general. . The goal ing required among the of the project structure is to achieve a level of harmony amongst the individual various project compoefforts leading to the accomplishment of nents to achieve project the project goals. integrated whole. the dissimilarities may lead to conflict amongst the members or leads for each component. Types of Project Organizations Structures There are several factors considered when selecting the design of the project’s organizational structure. creating the need for integration to meet the project Project integration is the objectives. Coordination Coordination is required to bring unity to the various elements that make up a project. and units fit together as a functioning. subsystems.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 102 goals. main responsibility is to develop integrating strategies ensuring that a particular component or activity is organized in a way that all of the components. especially within an existing organization. An important function of the organizations’ top management is to design an organization that fully supports project management. Most projects are characterized by the division of labor and task interdependencies. the more problems project managers have in integrating the components. This need is greatest when degree of collaboration there are many project components that and mutual understandhave different specializations. the greater the differences. one of the most significant ones is the extent of authority and responsibility that the organization is prepared to delegate to the project manager. The project manager must design an organizational structure ensuring that all the components are integrated so that their efforts contribute to the overall project goal. This is done by redesigning the organization to emphasize on the nature of the projects and adapting how roles and responsibilities are assigned and how resources are used. parts. The project manager's goals. The project work is organized around a work breakdown structure (WBS) that divides the overall project goals into specific objectives for each project area or component.
Project based.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 103 The organization needs to define the project manager’s degree of authority and autonomy. In this environment. methods of conflict resolution between the project and the rest of the organization. All the resources needed for the project team come from the same unit. all of which are defined by the level of organizational authority given to the project manager: • Programmatic based. It is only suitable for projects within one program sector. Matrix based. • • Programmatic Focus Based The program focus refers to a traditional structure in which program sector managers have formal authority over most resources. the project resources come from the health unit. For instance. a project has three organization structures available to dictate the design. Organization management is also about specifying communication channels. in which project managers have total authority over project actions. since all the staff needed for the project will come from the same programmatic unit. and the level of relationships to the organization. in which the project manager shares responsibility with other programmatic unit managers. Another advantage from this type of organization is that team members are usually familiar with each other. other projects and other units in the organization. if the project is related to the health area. in which project managers have authority only within a programmatic focus area. However. a project team is staffed with people from the same area. this focus is not suitable for projects that require a diverse mix of people with different expertise from various program sectors. since they all work in the same area. in large projects the project managers tend to also be the program unit manager. Development organizations are usually organized around programmatic focus areas such as health or education. There is no need to negotiate with other program units for resources. such as health or education. The most obvious advantage of program-based projects is that there are clear lines of authority. which are usually called program units and are centered on a specific development field. . In a program focus organization.
For instance. may have difficulty acquiring internal resources such as trainers.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 104 A major disadvantage of the programmatic focus organization is that the program area may not have all of the specialists needed to implement the project. for instance. Director Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Project Manager Health Project Project Manager Education Project Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Figure 15. but may be assigned to a project in another program unit that needs health expertise. Another disadvantage is that current programmatic members may have other responsibilities in the unit. Programmatic Focus Organization Chart Matrix Based Matrix organizations allow program units to focus on their specific technical competencies and allow projects to be staffed with specialists from across the organization. they may be assigned to other projects at the same time in addition to having other pending tasks that could impact their ability to meet project deadlines. while working for one or two project managers from other units. nutrition specialists may report to one program unit but may be allocated out to work on various projects. A health specialist might report to the health unit. It is common for people to report to one person in the functional organization. since the only people available will work in their own programmatic unit. An Emergency Project with an education component. .
It becomes more . Additional advantages to matrix management are: it allows team members to share information more readily across the unit boundaries. while actually working for one or more project managers. but can be fully leveraged by working on multiple projects. monitoring and evaluation specialists may not be utilized full-time on a project.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 105 The main advantage of the matrix organization is the efficient allocation of resources. For instance. It is therefore easier to accomplish work objectives in an environment when task loads are shifting rapidly between programmatic units. The main disadvantage is that the reporting relationships are complex. and is easier for a programmatic unit manager to loan an employee to another manager without having to make a permanent change. Some people might report to program unit managers for whom little work is done. Director Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Staff Project Manager Health Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Education Project Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Figure 16 Project Matrix Organization Chart The matrix-based organization is also the most flexible when dealing with changing program needs and priorities. especially scarce specialty skills that cannot be fully utilized by one project only. allows for specialization that can increase depth of knowledge and allow professional development and career progression to be managed.
regardless of which the job will have to get done timely and systematically. best practices. The PMO strives to standardize and introduce economies of scale in the implementation of projects. guidance and metrics on the practice of . The program managers may have different goals. An approach to help solve this situation is a variation of the matrix structure which includes a coordinating role that either supervises or provides support to the project managers. objectives. Project Matrix Organization Chart and the PMO The PMO unit also defines and maintains the standards of process related to project management within the organization. The PMO is the source of documentation.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 106 important for staff members to develop strong time management skills to ensure that they fulfill work expectations from multiple managers. This type of structure also requires good communication and cooperation between multiple programmatic unit managers and project managers. known within some organizations as the Project Management Office (PMO). Matrix management can add some difficulty to project managers because they must work closely with other managers and other project staff in order to complete the project. and priorities than the project managers. Director PMO Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Staff Project Manager Health Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Education Project Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Figure 17. The PMO is dedicated to provide expertise. methodologies and guidance to project managers. training.
is the costly and inefficient use of . or goals. The project manager in this structure has total authority over the project and can acquire resources needed to accomplish project objectives from within or outside the parent organization. Moreover. These large projects can better absorb the cost of maintaining an organizational structure that has some level of duplications. In the project based organizational structure. Project Based In this type of organization project managers have a high level of authority to manage and control the project resources. schedule. subject only to the scope. budget. Director Project Manager Health Project Project Manager Education Project Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Figure 18. A team environment incubates a strong sense of project identification and ownership and it inspires loyalty efforts as there is a good understanding of the nature of project’s activities. This leads to rapid reaction time and improved responsiveness. One major disadvantage of the -pure project organization. The project manager is responsible for the performance appraisal and career development of all project team members while on the project.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 107 project management and execution. This leads to increased project loyalty. Complete line authority over project efforts affords the project manager strong project controls and centralized lines of communication. personnel are specifically assigned to the project and report directly to the project manager. and quality constraints identified as project targets. project personnel are retained on an exclusive rather than shared or part-time basis. mission. The PMO can also help in the prioritization of human resources assigned to projects. Project Based Organization Chart Project based organizations more commonly host large and complicated projects.
Project team members are generally dedicated to one project at a time. and a large water project organized as a fully project-based were all staff report to . Project managers may tend to retain their best personnel long after the work is completed. project personnel may experience a great deal of uncertainty. even though they may rarely be needed on a full-time basis over the life cycle of the project. There are also concerns about how to reallocate people and resources when projects are completed. In this type or organization limited opportunities exist for knowledge sharing between projects. In a program focus organization. and that is a frequent complaint amongst team members concerning the lack of career continuity and opportunities for professional growth. In some cases. this mix reflects the need for more flexibility in a development organization to accommodate different requirements. which creates another logistical and administrative burden due to the need to managing short term contracts. This organization consists of a project team pulled together temporarily from their program unit and led by a project manager that does not report to a program unit. Another design is based on a mixed structure that includes a matrix. A variety of this pure project approach is temporarily projectbased organizations.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 108 personnel. An education project may be organized on a matrix using resources part-time from other units. preventing their contribution to other projects and their professional development. or the end of the project seems imminent and there are no opportunities beyond the project. since scarce resources must be duplicated on different projects. Another disadvantage of the project based organization is the duplication of resources. The project manager has the full authority and supervision of the project team. as the organization or the donor priorities shift. For example a health program may have a couple of projects short term and long term all reporting to the program manager. the team members still have jobs within the program unit while in a project-based organization there is lack of clarity about how and when everyone may be reassigned once the project ends. program focus and project based.
There are four distinct organizational management styles that have a strong influence on how projects are managed: • • • • Autocratic Paternalistic Democratic Laissez-faire Autocratic In this type of management style the manager makes all the decisions. . It is not unusual to find this type of mixed project structures on a development organization. The local culture. customs and social dynamics also influence the management style. Management Styles Organizational culture is a strong influence on the type of management style that will be used on a project.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 109 the project manager. team members may become highly dependent upon the project manager decisions. therefore. and the decisions will all be similar which generates a sense of confidence. Objectives and tasks are set and the workforce is expected to do exactly as required. this method can lead to a decrease in motivation from the team’s point of view. the nature of the team and the personality and skills of the project managers. a constant supervision may be required. from the leader to the subordinate. The communication involved with this method is mainly downward. along with the nature of the project. keeping the information and decision making amongst the senior management. On the other hand. The main advantage of this style is that the direction of the project will remain constant.
whereas if the wrong decisions are made. the manager allows the employees to take part in decision-making.however. Laissez-faire Under this style the manager's role is marginal and the team members manage their own areas within the project. The manager explains most decisions to the employees and ensures that their needs are always met. This style can be particularly useful when there are complex decisions requiring a wide range of specialist skills. thanks to the emphasis on social needs. Democratic Under the democratic style. . the decision-making process is severely slowed down. This leads to a lack of staff focus and sense of direction. which means that it is equal in both directions. and can engender loyalty from the team members and a lower staff turnover. The communication under this style is horizontal. if the manager evades the duties of management. however. balancing out the lack of team motivation caused by an autocratic management style. this may cause uncoordinated delegation. everything is agreed by the majority. the team members may become dissatisfied with the project manager. in many cases it is not deliberate and is simply a result of poor management. This style can be highly advantageous. and a poor project image. From the overall project’s point of view. This style shares disadvantages with the authoritarian style because team members become highly dependent on the leader.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 110 Paternalistic It is a style where the manager makes decisions in the best interests of the employees rather than the project. This style brings out the best in highly professional and creative groups of team members. job satisfaction and quality of work will improve. very little communication occurs in comparison with other styles. however. and the need of a consensus may not necessarily conduct to making the best decisions. which in turn leads to much dissatisfaction.
strategy. roles and responsibilities for each key stakeholder. The objective of project governance is to establish clear levels or authority and decision making. this may include the creation of a project committee with its operating rules. approvals. This is achieved by defining and identifying the roles. budgeting processes. responsibilities. Who is ultimately responsible and accountable for the project must be clearly defined and acknowledged at an appropriate hierarchical level within the organization. A good project governance helps projects define the procedures to follow. values. including their interaction and level of coordination including internal and external dependencies. The appropriate level is the managerial level that has discretionary control over the resources that will be used in the project. accountability. Development organizations have some form of project governance. it is important to establish the management structure for the project laying out the specific roles. The level of governance for the project must be defined clearly and accepted at a high-level within the organization. Organizations with effective governance have actively designed a set of project governance mechanisms (committees.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 111 Project Governance Project governance can be defined as an organization’s overall process for sharing decision rights about projects and monitoring the performance of project interventions. it defines the decision making structure. etc. and culture. policies and processes that provide the framework within which project managers make decisions and take actions to optimize outcomes related to their areas of responsibility. The organization’s management team is responsible for setting up and supporting the governance structure before the project initiates its activities to ensure that all key decisions are made at the right time. The management team defines the project governance in a document that outlays the roles and responsibilities for decision making in the project. It involves the people. the escalation of issues. norms.) that encourage behavior consistent with the organization's mission. responsibilities and accountability of all people involved in a project. and the interaction amongst these elements for the life of the project. and the owner- . Additionally.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 112 ship management for different processes in the project. project management methodologies and criteria to define project success. from communications to budget change authorizations. Some development organizations may choose to have a standing project governance committee that oversees all projects and defines the decision making structure for each project. In this case the committee may include decisions about project proposal approvals and supervision of the organizations’ project portfolio in general including the selection or appointment of project managers. .
Specialization Question 2 – What is one advantage of a programmatic based structure? A) Clear lines of authority B) Efficient allocation of resources C) Information is shared across unit boundaries D) Personnel report directly to the project manager Question 3 – Which is not a management style? A) Autocratic B) Paternalistic C) Democratic D) Federalist Question 4 – What is one disadvantage of a project based structure? A) Complex reporting relationships B) Complete line of authority C) Duplication of resources D) Requires good communications Question 5 – Which management style requires a consensus for decision making? A) Autocratic B) Paternalistic C) Democratic D) Laissez-Faire .Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 113 Chapter 6 . Project B) Functional. Matrix. Matrix D) Project. Program C) Program. Specialization.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three basic forms of project structure design? A) Programmatic. Matrix. Matrix.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 114 .
adapt and close. there are six phases in a development project. Answer C. people and tools are the three basic components of a project ecosystem. Answer A. . Chapter 3 – Correct Answers 1. Answer B. project scope is also defined as the boundaries of a project. All are challenges for development projects. Answer A. 5. A development project does not generates a profit. 4. Answer D. all are benefits of a project management methodology. Answer D.PM4DEV | 115 Answers to Review Questions Chapter 1 – Correct Answers 1. 2. monitor. Answer C. 2. the four project constraints are scope. A project has a beginning and an end. 3. budget and quality. 2. 4. 5. external factors that influence the project includes donor regulations and government requirements. Answer A. implement. Chapter 2 – Correct Answers 1. changes to project plan are approved during the Adapt phase. Process. Answer A. Answer D. 4. A project is system of principles. the best methodologies are built based on the experience of its practitioners. Answer B. Answer C. practices and procedures. Answer D. plan. planning. leading and controlling are the four basic management functions. 5. Answer B. It is in the project quality that beneficiaries have a larger role. Answer D. 3. organizing. 3. the correct order is initiate. schedule.
3. a disadvantage of the project structure is the duplication of resources. the core project management processes are scope. Answer A. the three roles of a project manager are: integrator. 3. 2. Answer C. Answer B. Answer C. 3. legitimate power use formal authority vested on the project manager by the organization. behavioral skills are used to help and motivate the team. verify and adapt. the ultimate person accountable for the project is the project manager. leader and manager. 5. Answer C. 4. . Chapter 6 – Correct Answers 1. 5. the three basic forms of project structure design are programmatic. a democratic management styles requires a consensus for decision making. 5. Answer A. a GANTT chart lists all the project activities from the WBS. risk and contract management. the five supporting processes are team. schedule budget and quality management. 2. Answer B. Answer D.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 116 Chapter 4 – Correct Answers 1. the WBS provides input to the definition step of Schedule Management. Answer D. clear lines of authority is one advantage of a program structure. information. 4. Answer A. Answer A. stakeholder. Answer D. Answer A. matrix and project. Answer C. the role of integrator is important to ensure proper integration of the project management processes. 2. federalist is not a management style. Answer B. the correct order of the four steps in scope management is define. Chapter 5 – Correct Answers 1. 4. assign.
the date’s tasks have been started or completed and the date’s milestones have been reached. Usually used in Top-down Estimating. The combination of these is referred to as the performance measurement baseline. A high-level description of how the project will accomplish its goals and objectives. complexity. The plan used as the comparison point for project control reporting. technical assistance and other types of resources are mobilized to produce specific outputs. cost baseline and product (scope) baseline. Also. A point of reference. assumptions regarding staffing. cost and/or duration of a current one. Estimating using similar projects or activities as a basis for determining the effort. A management and measurement system that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy. and translate them into action. such as funds. These provide the basis for estimating. Generally the beneficiary has a significant authority regarding the acceptance of the project outputs Authority Balanced Scorecard Baseline Beneficiary . A number of different solutions and approaches that must be evaluated and chosen to attain the objectives of a project.PM4DEV | 117 Glossary of Terms Acceptance Acceptance Criteria Accountability Activity Actuals Alternatives Analogous Estimating Approach Statement Assumption The formal process of accepting delivery of a product or service by the project beneficiaries or donor. It provides feedback for both the internal organizational processes and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results. The obligation to report on one's actions. assumptions are not facts. Actions taken or work performed through which inputs. The ability to get other people to act based on a decision. The cost or effort incurred in the performance of tasks. Performance requirements and essential conditions that have to be achieved before project deliverables are accepted. Something taken as true without proof. The person or organization that is the principle beneficiary of the project. learning curves and many other factors are made to create plan scenarios. In planning. Authority is generally based on the perception that a person has been officially empowered to issue binding orders. There are three baselines in a project—schedule baseline.
consciously or unconsciously. schedule and budget. duration and cost of each and rolling them up to determine the full estimate. During this phase the need. A formal document providing authority to a project manager to conduct a project within scope.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 118 Benefits Management Bottom-Up Estimating Budget Budgeting And Cost Management Calendar Date Change Change Control Change Request Charter Closing Communication Concept Conflict Management Benefits management is the identification of the benefits at an organizational level and the monitoring and realization of those benefits. A specific date shown on the calendar (e. availability of resources. rejected or deferred. The process of gaining formal acceptance for the results of a project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end. approved. schedule.g. The amount allotted for the project that represents the estimate of planned expenditures and income. .. Change control is the process that ensures that all changes made to a project’s baseline scope. the overall feasibility of the project is considered and a preferred solution identified. and budget resource constraints as laid down in the document. The business case for the project will be produced in this phase. The budget may be expressed in terms of money or resource units (effort). actively. estimating the effort. processing and interpretation of information. schedule. opportunity or problem is confirmed. evaluated. informally. budget and quality objectives or agreed benefits are identified. receiving. non-verbally. 1962) as opposed to a relative date. June 22. Budgeting and cost management is the estimating of costs and the setting of an agreed budget. A documented request for a change in scope or other aspects of the plan. quality. including the archiving of project information and post-project evaluation. Concept is part of the first phase in the project life cycle. Approximating the size (duration and cost) and risk of a project (or phase) by breaking it down into activities. Determining duration through a bottom-up approach requires sequencing and resource leveling to be done as part of the scheduling process. See Relative Date. Communication is the giving. formally. and the management of actual and forecast costs against that budget. passively. Conflict management is the process of identifying and addressing differences that if unmanaged would affect project objectives. Difference in an expected value or event. The most significant changes in project management are related to scope definition. Information can be conveyed verbally. Effective conflict management prevents differences becoming destructive elements in a project. tasks and sub-tasks.
The earliest time a task can begin. etc. It facilitates the integration of project scope. The path(s) in a project network that has the longest duration. It is done either by year or for the life of the project and only after the project proposal is approved and funded. deadlines and milestones. A deliverable must be tangible and verifiable. schedule and budget objectives and the establishment of a baseline plan for performance measurement. There may be more than one critical path and the critical path(s) may change during the project. months. The time at which all the tasks' predecessors have been completed and its resources are planned to be available. A condition or occurrence that might restrict. cost collection and performance measurement. Planned actions for minimizing the damage caused by a problem. person days. or regulate the project. performance goals. A dependency may be logical (see Logical Relationship) or resource based (see Resource dependency). Every element of the WBS (activity or task) must have one or more deliverables. A relationship between two or more tasks. schedules. The length of time required or planned for the execution of a project activity. A discussion in which the participants share their thoughts and gain a better understanding of the subject and. The amount of human resource time required to perform an activity. A detailed implementation plan shows the implementation methods.PM4DEV | 119 Consensus Constraint Contingencies Contingency Reserve Critical Path Deliverable Dependency Detailed Implementation Plan (DIP) Dialogue Duration Early Start Earned Value Management Effort Unanimous agreement amongst the decision-makers that everyone can at least live with the decision (or solution). For example. limit. Generally constraints are outside the control of the project team. . A schedule may be constrained by resource limitations. Measured in terms of person hours. A designated amount of time and/or budget to account for parts of the project that cannot be fully predicted. a target date may be a constraint on scheduling. This represents the series of activities that determines the earliest completion of the project. Any item produced as the outcome of a project or any part of a project. Earned value management (EVM) is a project control process based on a structured approach to planning. weeks. reach consensus. possibly. Measured in calendar time units—days. in the event that problem should occur. and interim evaluation points. The project deliverable is differentiated from interim deliverables that result from activities within the project.
Should reference the project's benefits in terms of improved social or economical conditions. roles and responsibilities for governing the progress and direction of a project. its purpose. Estimating uses a range of tools and techniques to produce estimates.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 120 Estimate Estimate To Completion Estimating Evaluation Executing Feasibility Study Fiscal Year Float Gantt Chart Goal Goal Statement Governance Governance Model Governance Of Project Management An assessment of the required duration. The 12-month period of July 1 to June 30 used for financial planning and reporting purposes. effort and/or cost to complete a task or project. The higher-order objective to which a development intervention is intended to contribute. The amount of time available for a task to slip before it results in a delay of the project end date. and viewpoint. It is the difference between the task's early and late start dates. It may be made at any point in the project's life. effectiveness and efficiency of the project interventions and its impact (both expected and unexpected) in relation to stated objectives. influencing and conducting of the policy and affairs of the project. The planning. Evaluation is an analysis of the relevance. A high-level statement of the project's object of study. An estimate is an approximation of project schedule and budget targets that is refined throughout the project life cycle. Effective governance of project management ensures that an organization’s project portfolio is aligned to the organization’s objectives. Governance of project management (GoPM) concerns those areas of corporate governance that are specifically related to project activities. A bar chart that depicts a schedule of activities and milestones. The expected effort. Since estimates are not actuals. Gantt Charts may be annotated with dependency relationships and other schedule-related information. project activities. Generally activities (which may be projects. . The agreed upon processes. its quality focus. operational activities. The activities are shown as horizontal bars of a length equivalent to the duration of the activity. etc. is delivered efficiently and is sustainable.) are listed along the left side of the chart and the time line along the top or bottom. A study to examine the viability of taking on a project. tasks. The process of coordinating the people and other resources in the performance of the project or the actual performance of the project. they should always be expressed with some indication of the degree of accuracy. budget and/or duration to complete a project or any part of a project.
governments. effort and money for those that are initiated. Implementation is the third phase of the project life cycle. dissemination. monitored and controlled. Human resource management (HRM) is the understanding and application of the policy and procedures that directly affect the people working within the project team and working group. or product versions. Most grants are made to fund a specific project and require some level of reporting. and to begin the team-building and bonding process. environmental. corporations. Information management is the collection. archiving and appropriate destruction of project information. institutional. directly or indirectly. socio-cultural.PM4DEV | 121 Grant Human Resource Management Impact Implementation Incremental Delivery Information Management And Reporting Initiating Inputs Issue Management Kick-Off Meeting Late Start Grants are funds given to tax-exempt nonprofit organizations or local governments by foundations. training and career development. These effects can be economic. storage. A project life cycle strategy used to reduce risk of project failure by dividing projects into more manageable pieces. The financial. procedures and plans. In this phase the design is finalized and used to build the deliverables. . Information reporting takes information and presents it in an appropriate format which includes the formal communication of project information to stakeholders. The latest time a task can start before it causes a delay in the project end date. Positive or negative long-term effects on identifiable population groups produced by a development intervention. material. technological or of other types. small business and individuals. The process involves an applicant submitting a proposal to a potential funder. A meeting at the beginning of the project or at the beginning of a major phase of the project to align peoples' understanding of project objectives. The process of describing and deciding to begin a project (or phase) and authorizing the Project Manager to expend resources. retention. reward. These will be enhanced to increase functionality or improve product quality in subsequent subprojects. The resulting sub-projects may deliver parts of the full product. during which the project management plan (PMP) is executed. personal development. technological and information resources used for the development intervention. These policies include recruitment. either on the applicant's own initiative or in response to a Request for Proposals from the funder. human. Issue management is the process by which concerns that threaten the project objectives and cannot be resolved by the project manager are identified and addressed to remove the threats they pose. intended or unintended.
Legal awareness provides project management professionals with an understanding of the relevant legal duties. accidents. These are sometimes called "unknown unknowns. outputs. A relationship between two or more tasks. The statements describe in a neutral way what did or did not work well. A business structure in which people are assigned to both a functional group (departments. A set of statements captured after completion of a project or a portion of a project. and to empower and inspire people to achieve project success. Learning and development involves the continual improvement of competencies in the organization. etc. It involves identifying strategic elements (inputs. It enables the project to proceed in an environment of change and uncertainty.) and to projects or processes which cut across the organization and require resources from multiple functional groups. indicators. A designated amount of time and/or budget to account for parts of the project that cannot be predicted. rights and processes that should be applied to projects. along with a statement regarding the risk of ignoring the lesson. Methods provide a consistent framework within which project management is performed." For example. See Contingency Reserve. A dependency relationship between two or more tasks or between tasks and milestones. Management tool used to improve the design of interventions. disciplines. The identification and application of learning within projects develops the organization’s capability to undertake current and future projects. Capturing and sharing the lessons learned is an important part of process improvement. Methods and procedures detail the standard practices to be used for managing projects throughout a life cycle. etc. It thus facilitates planning. outcomes and impact) and their causal relationships. to influence and align others towards a common purpose. major disruptions in the project caused by serious weather conditions. and the assumptions and risks that may influence success and failure. most often at the project level. Procedures cover individual aspects of project management practice and form an integral part of a method. execution and evaluation of a development intervention. Use of the management reserve generally requires a baseline change. . such that one cannot start or finish before another has started or finished.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 122 Leadership Learning And Development Legal Awareness Lessons Learned Link Log Frame Logical Relationship Management Reserve Matrix Organization Methods And Procedures Leadership is the ability to establish vision and direction.
A milestone is an event. and between signatories to a contract. analyzing and reporting project information used to make decisions for project management. An objective is something to be achieved.PM4DEV | 123 Metrics Milestone Mitigation Mitigation Strategies Monitoring Monitoring And Evaluation System Negotiation Network Diagram Ngo Objective Organization Structure Metrics are quantitative measures such as the number of on time projects. more crops. They are used in improvement programs to determine if improvement has taken place or to determine if goals and objectives are met. keep project schedule and measure progress towards the expected goals An integrated set of mutually supporting tools. Identification of the steps that can be taken to lessen risk by lowering the probability of a risk event's occurrence. It must be preceded by one or more tasks. Applied in a consistent way to support the decision making and information needs of the project and its stakeholders. improved service. Precedence Diagram are all forms of network diagrams. . Critical Path Diagram. A non-governmental organization is a non-profit organization that often conducts humanitarian and development work around the world. Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact of occurrence. processes and methods for managing project information. seeking acceptance. A graphic tool for depicting the sequence and relationships between tasks in a project. both in terms of concrete deliverables and behavioral outcomes (e. In project management.. Arrow Diagram. PERT Diagram. Monitoring provides project management and project stakeholders the information needed to evaluate the progress of the project. consensus and alignment of views. improved health. it has no duration or effort. Generally used to denote a significant event such as the completion of a phase of the project or of a set of critical activities. etc. A point in time when a deliverable or set of deliverables is available. identify trends.). or to reduce its effect should the risk event occur. Negotiation in a project can take place on an informal basis throughout the project life cycle or on a formal basis such as during procurement. The organization structure is the organizational environment within which the project takes place.g. storing. The organization structure defines the reporting and decision making hierarchy of an organization and how project management operates within it. the objectives are the desired outcomes of the project or any part of the project. Negotiation is a search for agreement. Monitoring is the process of routinely collecting. patterns or deviations.
the way the project will be performed (procedures and tasks). The process of establishing and maintaining the definition of the scope of a project. such as a requirements definition or product design document. The phase is usually the highest level of breakdown of a project in the WBS. roles and responsibilities and the time and cost estimates. A scheduling technique that makes use of dependency analysis and critical path to determine the duration of a project and slack to determine priorities of tasks. cost. Outcomes represent changes in development conditions which occur between the completion of outputs and the achievement of impact. and/or duration. In PERT. Parametric estimating is usually used in top-down Estimating. which determines if the expectations established for the project outcome were met. Both roles and responsibilities within projects must be defined to address the transient and unique nature of projects and to ensure that clear accountabilities can be assigned. It documents the comparison between actual results of a project and the objectives and deliverables specified in the project's Charter. A project is broken down into a set of phases for control purposes. A type of network diagram deriving its name from the PERT technique. Results or consequences of the efforts enacted during the project's planning and execution. Analyzing the gaps between current performance levels and performance targets helps projects identify priority areas needing improvement and develop strategies that will close the gap.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 124 Organizational Roles Outcome Outputs Parametric Estimating Performance Measures Performance Outcomes PERT PERT Diagram Phase PIR (Post Implementation Review) Planning Organizational roles are the roles performed by individuals or groups in a project. The term is often used as a synonym for network diagram. The products and services which result from the completion of activities within a development intervention. Performance measures describe how success in achieving the project goals will be measured and tracked. . This is a report compiled upon completion of every project. usually requiring the collective effort of partners. The intended or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs. A grouping of activities in a project that is required to meet a major milestone by providing a significant deliverable. Estimating using an algorithm in which parameters that represent different attributes of the project are used to calculate project effort. task durations are computed as (Optimistic + 4x Most likely + Pessimistic estimates) / 6). Also known as Close Out Report. Program Evaluation and Review Technique.
An effort to provide a product or service within finite time and cost constraints. A natural series of changes or occurrences. Portfolio management is the selection and management of all of an organization’s projects. and management of the contracts. Portfolios can be managed at an organizational. It describes the problem or issue that will be resolved by the project as well as any background information necessary to understand the problem. subject matter expertise. preparation of contracts. Power may come from formal delegation of authority. An activity to assess and evaluate the way a project was performed. project planning may require different approaches. or different approaches may be considered as a way of reducing project risks. An explanation of why the project is needed and why it is being recommended at this time. which may include related organizational activities that together achieve a beneficial change of a strategic nature for an organization. Usually expressed as a probability percentage or a relative scale such as low. as well as other sources. The likelihood of a risk occurring. A statement of the way the project will do things. medium or high. A series of steps or actions to accomplish something. which help to clarify scope. It includes development of the procurement strategy. reference power. objectives and other relevant factors that can- . Power is the ability to influence the actions of others.PM4DEV | 125 Portfolio Portfolio Management Post-Project Evaluation Power Predecessor Task Probability Process Procurement Program Program Management Program Manager Programmatic Drivers/Background Statement Project Project Approach Statement Project Assumptions A portfolio is a group of projects and programs carried out under the sponsorship of an organization. For example. A task (or activity) that must be started or finished before another task or milestone can be performed. program or functional level. Written statements relative to the project. The person who directs the planning and execution of a program and is held personally accountable for the success of the program. programs and related organizational activities taking into account resource constraints. so as to learn from the experience and continuously improve project performance. selection and acquisition of suppliers. A suite of related projects and ongoing operational activities managed as a whole. Program management is the coordinated management of related projects. the ability to influence rewards and penalties. Procurement is the process by which the resources (goods and services) required by a project are acquired.
Project management is the process by which projects are defined. both individual and collective. which are determined based on the major parts of project performance." or any number of other synonyms. Monitoring. The full set of activities from the beginning to the end of a project. The purpose of the project management plan (PMP) is to document the outcomes of the planning process and to provide the reference document for managing the project. Adapting. Descriptions of the project's intended results. controlled and delivered such that the agreed benefits are realized. Project context refers to the environment within which a project is undertaken. The sequential major time periods through which any project passes. Projects do not exist in a vacuum and an appreciation of the context within which the project is being performed will assist those involved in project management to deliver a project. Generally associated with a set of phases. Project Charter A document that describes the project at a high level of detail and is used to authorize the Project Manager to begin work. Projects may be financed externally. Project funding is the means by which the capital to undertake a project is initially secured and then made available at the appropriate time. A project office serves the organization’s project management needs. monitored. Each period may be identified as a phase and further broken down into stages. Closure.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 126 not be known at a given point in time. Projects are unique. It may also be called a "Project Brief. namely: Initiation. Planning. The project management plan brings together all the plans for a project. Projects bring about change and project management is recognized as the most efficient way of managing such change. transient endeavors undertaken to achieve a desired outcome. which assist or restrict the attainment of the project objectives. Implementation. planned. The combined internal and external forces. funded internally or a combination of both. The funding agency that provides funds to the project. A project office can range from simple support functions for the project manager to being responsible for Project Context Project Donor Project Environment Project Funding Project Life Cycle Project Management Project Management Life Cycle Project Management Plan Project Manager Project Objectives Project Office . The project management plan is owned by the project manager. The single point of accountability for a project. The person responsible and accountable for managing a project's planning and performance.
Making sure deliverables comply with acceptance criteria. Project Outcomes Project Outputs Project Quality Management A result or consequence of the project activity or project outputs.PM4DEV | 127 linking corporate strategy to project execution. A concise statement that clearly identifies the project's purpose. Includes testing and reviews. Also includes work and products that are not included in the project. The sponsor ensures the project remains a viable proposition and that benefits are realized. responsible for identifying the business need. work package. optimizing project success by minimizing threats and maximizing opportunities. or whole project. Members of the core project team and those that are assigned to development and/or support the project deliverables. resolving any issues outside the control of the project manager. Making sure standards and procedures are effective and that they are complied with. Additional reviews will take place following handover and closeout to ensure that the benefits are being realized. Written reports given to both the project team and to a responsible person on a regular basis. A concise and accurate description of the expected work. products and deliverables. stating the position of an activity. Project risk management is a structured process that allows individual risk events and overall project risk to be understood and managed proactively. Project sponsorship is an active senior management role. The deliverables of a project activity or phase Project quality management is the discipline that is applied to ensure that both the outputs of the project and the processes by which the outputs are delivered meet the required needs of stakeholders. problem or opportunity. It generally includes three components: cost. Project reviews take place throughout the project life cycle to check the likely or actual achievement of the objectives specified in the project management plan (PMP) and the benefits detailed in the project proposal. Status reports control the project and keep management informed of project status. Project success is the satisfaction of stakeholder needs and is measured by the success criteria as identified and agreed at the start of the project. or desired outcome. Quality is broadly defined as fitness for purpose or more narrowly as the degree of conformance of the outputs and process. Project Reviews Project Risk Management Project Scope Statement Project Sponsorship Project Statement Project Status Reports Project Success Project Team Members Quality Assurance (Qa) Quality Control (Qc) . time and performance.
. facilities and equipment) to a project.. Resource dependent tasks can be scheduled at the same time but are limited by the availability of the shared resources. For example. Resource Leveling Resource Loading Resource Management Responsibility Responsibility Assignment Matrix (Ram) . Any tangible support such as. Amongst the scheduling objectives. days. usually with the liability to be accountable for loss or failure. A tool used to relate each project activity in the WBS with a responsible organization unit or individual. A request for proposals is often issued when proposals for a specific research project are being sought. Human resources are people. a person. leveling and scheduling are techniques used to determine and manage appropriate levels of resources. Required sign offs. Request for Applications.g. Resource leveling is the part of the scheduling process in which the start and end dates of tasks are driven by resource limitations (e. often by the government agency. two months after the project start date. An RFP is an announcement. or months) from a reference point. Resource management identifies and assigns resources to activities so that the project is undertaken using appropriate levels of resources and within an acceptable duration. Its purpose is to ensure that every activity is assigned to one or more individuals (only one with primary responsibility) and that the individuals are aware of their responsibilities. The process of assigning resources (people. is to ensure that resources are not overburdened and that there are not significant peaks and valleys in the resource schedule. usually by higher authority. of a willingness to consider proposals for the performance of a specified project or program component. Responsibility may be delegated to others but the delegation does not eliminate the responsibility. This is a document sent out to the development community to inform them that funding will be made available in the form of grants to development organizations interested in conducting development work in a specific area.g. limited availability of resources or difficult-to-manage resource levels). weeks.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 128 Relative Date Request For Applications (RFA) Request For Proposal (RFP) Required Approvals Resource Resource Dependency A date expressed as a number of periods (e. The obligation to perform or take care of something. A dependency between tasks in which the tasks share the same resources and therefore cannot be worked on simultaneously. usually activity by activity. supply item or facility used in the performance of a project. smoothing. tool. Resource allocation.
Usually expressed on a relative scale such as low. products and services contribute to the achievement of desired results (outputs. An examination of risk areas or events to assess the probable consequences for each event. the event is a negative one like project failure. usually in terms of their symptoms. but may also be a positive event. The project timeline. . RBM rests on clearly defined accountability for results.effect relationship. medium or high. Scheduling is the process used to determine the overall project duration and when activities and events are planned to happen. A process to assess potential problems (risks). like the early completion of a task. The likelihood of the occurrence of an event. Action that can be taken to address the occurrence of a risk event. medium or high. Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact of occurrence. There are three types of such changes (intended or unintended. probability of occurrence and potential impact. A management strategy by which an organization ensures that its processes. Events or thresholds for indicators that specify when an action such as implementing a contingency plan needs to be taken. and estimation of activity durations. positive and/or negative) which can be set in motion by a development intervention – its output. Usually expressed as a probability percentage or a relative scale such as low. determine which risks are important to deal with.PM4DEV | 129 Results Results Based Management (RBM) Risk Risk Analysis Risk Assessment Risk Impact Risk Management Risk Mitigation Risk Probability Risk Response Risk Trigger Schedule Scheduling Results are changes in a state or condition which derive from a cause-and. and implement strategies to reduce the likelihood or consequences (impact) of those problems. taking into account requirements and availability of resources. identifying the dates (absolute or relative to a start date) that project tasks will be started and completed. The harm or consequences to a project of a risk if it occurs. Generally. resources will be required and upon which milestones will be reached. outcomes and impacts). Contingency plans are collections of risk responses. and determine possible options for avoidance. causes. The likelihood of a risk occurring. or combination of events in the analysis. outcome and impact. Part of risk management in which planners identify potential risks and describe them. and reporting on performance. and requires monitoring and self-assessment of progress towards results. This includes identification of activities and their logical dependencies.
Stakeholder management is the systematic identification. Development of a statement of the principle deliverables of a project along with the project's justification and objectives.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 130 Scope Scope Change Scope Change Control Scope Creep Scope Definition Scope Management Scope Planning Scope Verification Sequencing Tasks Smart Specifications Stakeholder Stakeholder Management Statement Of Work Project scope is the work that has to be done to deliver the outputs by means of the planned activities of the project. analysis and planning of actions to communicate with. Also called scope change management. Time Bound. A description of the scope of a project centered on the major deliverables and constraints. negotiate with and influence stakeholders. partners. what is in and out of scope. operational constraints and quality attributes. It is associated with acceptance of the product by beneficiaries and donors. A part of the scheduling process in which the tasks are positioned serially or parallel to one another based on dependencies between them. Scope management is the process by which the deliverables and work to produce them are identified and defined. Breaking down the project's major deliverables into small. Detailed statements of project deliverables that result from requirements definition and design. Measurable. Sequencing results in a task network. The unconscious growth of the project scope resulting from uncontrolled changes to requirements. Specifications are the basis for acceptance criteria used in scope verification and quality control. The people who have a vested interest in the outcome of the project or are impacted by the project. i. The process of making sure that all changes to the project scope are consciously evaluated and their implications to the project plan are considered in making a decision to make the change. Any change in the definition of the project scope. Scope change can result from changes in beneficiary or donor needs. postpone it or reject it. The five elements for a well-worded objective. etc. This may be part of requirements definition and/or design. more manageable components to make verification. Realistic.e. the general public and local organizations can be considered stakeholders. Anybody and everybody with a stake in the project . .beneficiaries. namely Specific. regulatory changes. Identification and definition of the scope must describe what the project will include and what it will not include. Achievable. development and project control easier. donors. The process to ensure that all project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily. Specifications generally describe the deliverables in terms of appearance. discovery of defects or omissions.
In addition." through an algorithm as in "parametric estimating". resolutions to issues and/or review of project results. planning. A legal entity to which a sub-grant is awarded and which is accountable to the grantee for the use of the funds provided A group or individual providing products or services to the project. can be the difference between the initial or baseline product scope and the actual product delivered.PM4DEV | 131 Steering Committee Strategic Plan Sub Grant Sub Grantee Sub-Contractor Subject Matter Expert (SME) Sub-Task Successor Task Task Dependency Teamwork Top-Down Estimating Variance Vendor A group of people who monitor the project and give guidance to the program manager or project manager. An expert in some aspect of the project's content expected to provide input to the project team regarding social. A breakdown of a task into the work elements that make it up.. The term is also used to denote a piece of work at a particular level in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) hierarchy e. or property in lieu of money. duration or effort and the actual result of performance. engineering or other subjects. sub-contractors are considered to be vendors. activity is synonymous with task. A task or milestone that is logically linked to one or more predecessor tasks. Approximating the size (duration and cost) and risk of a project (or phase) by looking at the project as a whole and comparing it to previously performed similar projects.g. or from the memory of estimating experts. The difference between estimated cost. Except for this hierarchical usage. Also . An organization or individuals providing products or services under contract to the project or to the beneficiaries. An award of financial assistance in the form of money. and depends heavily on highlevel coordination and influences management to achieve their goals. Commonly. A task must be broken down into at least two sub-tasks for a meaningful decomposition. a phase is broken into a set of activities. scientific. Teamwork is when people work collaboratively towards a common goal as distinct from other ways that individuals can work within a group. resources and having a concrete outcome or deliverable. Also referred to as a logical relationship. A piece of work requiring effort. The comparison may be made directly using "analogous estimating. and an activity into a set of tasks. Input may be in the form of requirements. A plan that is tightly tied to the organization's mission. vision. A relationship in which a task or milestone relies on other tasks to be performed (completely or partially) before it can be performed. values and objectives. made under a grant by a grantee to an eligible sub-grantee.
A hierarchical task list created by decomposing the project based on the breakdown of the product into components and the breakdown of the project process into increasingly detailed tasks. The WBS is depicted as a tree diagram (or hierarchy chart) or as a list in outline form with detailed items subordinated to higher-level items. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Work Package . A task at a low level of the Work Breakdown Structure at which project accounting is performed.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 132 called sub-contractors. Vision Statement A statement that captures the long-term picture of what the organization wants to become. Usually a week or so in duration and performed by an individual or small work group. memorable and reflect the desires of those with vested interests. A vision statement must be inspirational.
63 Facilitator. 68 Information Management. 101 highly motivated team. 58 Expert power. 94 Communicator. 95 Implementation Phase. 57 goal of communication. 95 Communication Skills. 63. 72 Controlling.PM4DEV | 133 INDEX Accountability. 95 Facilitating Processes. 53 Information Planning. 102 duplication of efforts. 88 Controlling the Budget. 73 Contract award. 22 Budget Management. 78 Conceptual Skills. 95 Informal communications. 70 government regulations. 55 Administrative close. 58 Coordination. 91 constraint balance. 84 Human Resource. 44 Adapting the Scope. 19. 94 Beneficiaries. 86.. 59 Enabling processes. 66. 58 Budget performance. 68 Information improvement. 19 behavioral skills. 53. 29 Budget. 57 Defining the Scope. 72 hierarchical relationship. 83 Formal communications.. 82 Information Evaluation. 32 induction process. 55 Autocratic. 88 Behavioral Skills. 58 Defining the Schedule. 83 corrective actions.. 82 GANTT diagram. 45 Coercive power. 49 Defining a Project. 42 increase the chances of success. 73 Grant contract management. 59 Characteristics of Development Projects. 27 Closing Phase. 27 Directing. 32 duplication of resources. 68 Information Management. 109 basic functions in management. 68 . 53. 46 Assigning Scope Work. 85 Adapting Phase. 18 Definition of Project Management. 28 Beneficiary participation. 87 Distributing information. 72 Contract Management. 81 Communicator role. 19 Democratic. 45 decision gates. 67. 24 contract audit. 69 division of labor. 102 Coordinator. 64 influence. 17 Defining the Budget. 86. 110 Detailed Implementation Plans. 108 Earned Value Analysis. 55 Definition of Management. 53 Executing the Budget. 41 developing countries.
103 Programmatic Focus Organization Chart. 40 project environment. 79 Project Plan Implementation. 49 Quality Control. 41 PM4DEV. 38. 25. 20 project management methodology. 78 Leadership Skills. 30 Laissez-faire. 110 Leader. 61 Quality Management. 19 Problem Solving Skills. 86 Planning Phase. 92 Project Evaluation. 90 Procedural Skills. 47 project management processes. 87 partner organizations. 62 quality management process. 43 project organization. 107 Project Chapter. 104 mentorship. 17. 111 Project Management Constraints. 40 Project Contract. 29 ISO 10006. 64. 31. 70 reality checks. 61 Quality Improvements. 67 management processes. 35. 19 Poor project planning. 33. 72 program-based projects. 99 project organization chart. 14 manage expectations. 46. 57 Motivator. 80 Project Proposal. 40 Integrator.. 80 Project Plan Monitoring and Control. 38. 77 Managerial Skills. 77 Project monitoring. 53. 90 NGOs. 78 Integrator role. 39 Referent power. 62 Quality Assurance. 64 Monitoring. 54 project manager role. 93 Leading. 17. 40 Project reviews. 19 job descriptions. 137 PMI. 82 Leader role. 16. 105 . 77 Lack of accountability. 84 Negotiation Skills. 78 Interpersonal skills. 61 Quality Definition. 16. 81 Planning. 30 PRINCE2. 61 quality management plan. 41 Project Concept. 96 reporting relationships. 32. 88 Matrix management. 52 management skills. 99 project phases. 39 Quality. 125 Project governance. 27 Organizing. 61 Quantitative risk analysis. 92 Involvement of beneficiaries. 14. 61 Performance reports. 89 Procurement contract management.. 43 Monitoring the Schedule. 61 quality standards. 61 quality assurance tool. 39 Project Plan Development. 19.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 134 Initiation Phase. 106 Matrix organizations. 123 Monitoring Phase. 23 quality assurance. 65 Paternalistic. 110 PDCA Cycle. 30 log frame. 92 Interpersonal Skills. 104 project based organizational structure. 86. 19.. 54 Project phases. 19 learning from the past.
132 Work Breakdown Structure. 72 system approach. 41 Responsibility. 131. 132 . 53 Shewhart Cycle. 46 tradeoffs. 56. 70 Risks Monitoring. 57 Verifying the Scope. 21 traditional structure. 58 Updating the Schedule. 128. 57. 53 Risk Management. 56. 70 Schedule. 61 Specialization. 53. 66 Stakeholder Mapping.. 63 Team improvement. 66 Stakeholder relationship building. 59.. 56. 102. 90. 22. 55 Scope Management. 103 Updating the Budget. 53 stakeholder map. 41 Request For Proposal. 131. 70 Risk Plan Improvement. 95 Risk Evaluation. 63 Team evaluation. 66 Stakeholder Management. 63 Team reassignments. 51 Team building. 85 Reward power.PM4DEV | 135 Request For Assistance. 22 Schedule Management. 63 team management. 59 Scope Management. 101 Stakeholder evaluation. 124. 55. 56 Scope. 119. 22 scope creep. 63 Team identification. 66 Sub-Grant contract management. 55 WBS. 66 Stakeholder Management. 70 Risk Planning. 70 Risk management. 65 Stakeholder management improvement. 53. 64 Team Management. 59.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 136 eCourse Fundamentals of Project Management This eCourse provides a simple way to learn the basic elements of modern project management concepts presented in this book. the menu and index can help you move around the course and take each module and each lesson independently. To help you increase your knowledge. 4.htm For questions regarding the use of this eCourse contact us at info@pm4dev. Each module presents ideas and concepts with the aid of charts and graphics to help increase your understanding. This course has been designed to be taken in no more than 60 minutes. 5. This course is divided in 6 easy lessons: 1. 6. Go to our web site and you can place your order for a copy of the eCourse at: http://www. many modules include links to documents that you can open and read at your convenience.com. The Objectives of the Course Introduction to Project Management The Project Management Cycle The Project Management Processes The Roles and Responsibilities of the Project Manager The Project Management Organization Structure How to obtain the CD eCourse: You can purchase a copy of this eCourse in two formats: CD-ROM box and Download.com/english/fpm-c. 2. These documents are in Adobe PDF format. 3. You can take the course and its modules at your own pace. .pm4dev. After each module you will have an opportunity to review the main topics with a short quiz. By having two formats available we want to ensure that the access to this book is most flexible to the needs of people interested in learning and expanding their knowledge on project management.
the information contained on this book is correct and accurate but no responsibility is accepted for any inaccuracy or error or any action taken in reliance on this publication. This publication contains PM4DEV copyrighted material and no part of it can be copied or otherwise disseminated for commercial purposes. Neither should it be taken as providing technical or other professional advice on any of the topics covered. the PM4DEV logo and Management for Development Series are trademarks of PM4DEV.PM4DEV | 137 Copyright © 2009 PM4DEV All rights reserved. As PM4DEV is aware. “PM4DEV”. . This point of view is intended as a general guide and not as a substitute for detailed advice.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 138 .
Mastering Project Management This book presents the nine project management processes. Project Management for Development Organizations consists of six phases: initiating.PM4DEV | 139 PM4DEV . One of the most critical roles of the project manager is the integration of these processes to ensure that they are all properly coordinated. security management. implementing. This integrated approach provides a continuous learning process. budget. to project portfolio management. monitoring. This book includes practical insight on the key skills a project manager must learn to be effective in attaining the project objectives and how organizations can benefit from using modern project management practices and methodologies. planning. on budget and under the expectations of the donor and project beneficiaries. Topics discussed include: project management during emergencies. This book will give readers helpful information that can be incorporated in their project management practices. The reader will learn how understanding the project cycle allows for opportunities to make adjustments and an on-going learning process. The reader will learn that the complexity of development projects require a different approach and also new ways of managing limited resources and the increasing demands from all stakeholders. . The Project Management Cycle This book offers and introduction to the concept of managing a project using a cyclical approach. team. These are designed to help manage the different elements of a project: scope.Project Management Series: Fundamentals of Project Management This book is and introduction to the basic ideas and concepts of project management for development organizations starting with an Introduction to the project management cycle and followed by the nine management processes. and keeps the project on track to deliver its outcomes on time. information. schedule. adapting and closing. from the project maturity model. quality. managing international projects. stakeholder. Advanced Project Management This book focuses on advanced practices and methodologies in project management. project management information systems and helpful advice on how to implement a project management methodology in a development organization. Readers will develop a basic understanding of how a modern project management methodology can help development organizations deliver projects that produce the most impact. risk and contract management.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 140 .
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