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Fundamentals of Project Management For Development Organizations
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pm4dev.PM4DEV | 3 ISBN: 978-0-557-04873-1 Published by: PM4DEV. No part of this publication may be reproduced. electronic. mechanical. stored in a retrieval system. Project Management for Development Organizations Email: email@example.com © PM4DEV 2009 All rights reserved. without the prior written permission of the publishers. recording or otherwise. . photocopying.com WEB: www. or transmitted in any form or by any means.
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PM4DEV | 5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS A methodology to manage development projects for international assistance and humanitarian relief organizations .
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PM4DEV | 7 Preface More than ever. they will need to dramatically change the way in which projects are managed. they need to use different approaches to solve complex problems. . The second edition builds on the strong points of the first edition and adds even more important information and features. Donors are requiring better controls and more professional managerial competences in the staff responsible for managing projects. as well as the skills required to successfully run a project within a challenging environment subject to constraints typical of development projects. under budget and to meet the level of quality demanded by donors and beneficiaries. and in order to deliver the projects on time. The future of many development organizations depends on their ability to employ the potential of modern project management methods to face their new challenges. Today’s development projects are more complex and require the application of many skills. development organizations need to respond quickly to new challenges imposed by a changing environment were more stakeholders. Depending on the technical competency of project managers to guarantee the project’s success is not enough. Project managers need to coordinate project teams that bring together specialists from different fields. while at the same time they are being asked to do more with less. In this book. best practices and a project management methodology proven successful in other industries. This book was well received in its first edition. Our many years of experience managing projects have convinced us of the need for a book on project management for development organizations that provides a deeper understanding of the subject matter from a professional perspective. We direct particular attention to the new role that a project manager needs to play. we cover the fundamental concepts of project management with a quick overview of the project management cycle and its management processes. it will not be a surprise that in the near future this competence is not only required but demanded. to help reduce their risks and increase their chances of success. These organizations need to invest in the education of their project managers who need to develop basic managerial competencies. and constraints are limiting the ability of project managers to reach the objectives of their project. and are urged to use the tools. Today’s development organizations are becoming catalysts of change in the communities they serve.
At the end of each module. a short test is available to practice and review the main topics of the book. Each module of the course presents the most important ideas and concepts with the aid of charts and graphics. . At the end of each chapter we have included a review section including questions designed to go through the chapter’s important lessons (answers can be found at the end of the book).com/english/elearn. Visit our web site at http://www. This book has a companion e/course on CD-ROM that can be purchased from our web site.htm for additional information and instructions on how to obtain a copy of this eCourse. The book also features updated graphs and additional diagrams to help readers illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 8 New to the Second Edition The second edition of “Fundamentals of Project Management" incorporates a new approach to learn the basic elements of project management.pm4dev. The course provides a simple way to learn the basic elements of modern project management concepts that were presented in this book.
• • • • • .PM4DEV | 9 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS • Chapter 1 Introduction to the Modern Project Management Methodologies and Key Definitions. Roles and Responsibilities in Project Management. Chapter 5 The Skills. Chapter 4 The Nine Project Management Processes that Facilitate the Delivery of Project Benefits. Chapter 6 The Organizational Structures for Project Management. Chapter 2 The Development Project Environment and the Various Challenges that Limit Project Success. Chapter 3 The Six Project Management Phases and the Project Management Cycle.
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PM4DEV | 11 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT Introduction to Project Management Defining a Project Definition of Project Management Project Management Constraints CHAPTER 2 THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT Definition of a Development Project The Challenges of a Development Project The Need for a Project Management Methodology Benefits of a Project Management Methodology CHAPTER 3 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE A Systemic Approach The Project Management Ecosystem Project Management Phases Project Management Cycle CHAPTER 4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Project Management Processes Core Processes Supporting Processes CHAPTER 5 ROLES. Responsibilities and Skills Together CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT The Project Organization Structure Factors in Designing a Project Structure Types of Project Organizations Structures Management Styles Project Governance GLOSSARY OF TERMS INDEX 13 13 17 19 20 27 27 29 31 32 35 35 36 37 47 51 51 55 63 75 77 85 88 92 95 96 99 99 99 101 102 109 111 117 133 . RESPONSIBILITIES AND SKILLS Role of the Project Manager Responsibilities of the Project Manager Managerial Skills for Project Managers Interpersonal Skills for Project Managers Influence and Power of the Project Manager Placing Roles.
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little effort is devoted to plan the various management processes that make up a project. meeting the expectations of its stakeholders. it includes the management of limited resources to ensure that the project meets its objectives within the expected quality. In fact. if any. . few books. project management only deals with the implementation of the activities designed during the development of the project’s proposal for funding and with keeping track of budget expenditures. but. Project management is more than just implementing the activities identified in a logical framework. Additionally. development projects operate in locations surrounded by many challenges from extreme working conditions to volatile environments were human or natural events can put the project at risk of not meeting its goals. and. timeframe. methods. or the monitoring and evaluation’s aspects of development. For most development organizations. at the same time. incorporate the basic tools. and budget. and processes that are commonly used in the project management profession and widely used in the private and government sectors. current available literature regarding development project management focuses on donor requirements or monitoring and evaluation rather than in the managerial aspects of the development project.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 13 CHAPTER 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT Introduction to Project Management Why a book of project management for development organizations? While most books on development projects focus on the design and identification of solutions to reduce poverty.
and reliable manner. for that reason. Management skills are often seen as an unnecessary element. monitor schedules. and evaluate outcomes. . project managers have to deal with numerous requests from numerous stakeholders in addition of being responsible to deliver outcomes in conditions were security risks are high and goods and services are limited. there is not a widely defined standard for managing development projects.have little or no formal training in management. Most organizations run projects relying on the technical skills of their project managers who –not surprisingly. Currently. but with an increase in the risks of failing to meet their intended objectives. at the same time. the success of development organizations requires that organizations take a new approach to their understanding of management within the context of a development project. predictable. which creates an environment of distrust from donors and stakeholders. line of the organization’s development goals by producing outcomes at higher costs and higher risks. in such a way that their projects -at best-.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 14 Development projects face constant demands to do more with less. however. are able to accomplish the planned activities. Yet. in fact. Nonetheless. Although many development organizations claim to have good principles of project management. only a few can provide evidence that they use formal project management methodologies in a consistent. many project managers using the log frame. and that is the institutionalization of the project’s logical framework or log-frame. it requires that projects take into account the input from different stakeholders while balancing the need to manage project budgets. This complex project environment needs appropriate project management skills. This problem implies a direct impact to the organization. having a log-frame does not ensure the success of a project. fail to understand the critical managerial components of the project and focus excessively on the technical components while ignoring the processes facilitating the planning and implementation of a project. each organization or project manager defines their own approach to manage a project. there is one significant advance in the development sector. In this environment development workers assigned to manage projects are The lack of consistent often not sufficiently equipped with the project management necessary management skills and lack methodology results in access to the tools and methods that will the duplication of efforts help them do their job in an efficient and that affect the bottom effective manner. and something that can be achieved just by monitoring the project’s budget and schedule.
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In recent years, most development organizations have seen an increase on accountability requirements from international cooperation and donor agencies, leading to a greater focus on effectiveness and efficiency in the way projects are using the resources and delivering benefits. In this rapidly changing environment, with a diverse range of issues and challenges, project management can support the achievement of project and organizational goals and give greater assurance to stakeholders that resources are managed effectively. Many development projects fail to deliver the expected outcomes or fail to produce the desired impact in the communities they serve. The most common for project failures are: • • • Objectives not properly defined and agreed due to the rush to obtain funding. There is little attention paid to include beneficiaries in the early decisions. Discrepancy by stakeholders in understanding the project’s objectives due to the low participation from stakeholders. Outcomes and benefits are not properly defined in measurable terms, there is too much emphasis in measuring and tracking activities and tangible outputs than the intangible benefits that come as a result of achieving the project’s final goal. Insufficient planning and coordination of resources results in plans that do not meet the actual conditions in the field and project staff have limited skills to modify and adapt the plan in time and under budget. Poor estimation of duration and cost result in activities that take longer than planned and cost more than what was budgeted. Incomplete, unrealistic, and outdated project plans: the team follows blindly the plans that, in many cases, have never been verified or modified to adapt to a changing environment. Lack of communication and stakeholder management leads to high expectations about the project, increases distrust, and results in beneficiaries that are disconnected from the project. Weak project leadership, vague lines of responsibility and authority producing an uncoordinated team that often duplicates efforts. Inadequate definition and acceptance of roles results in project staff that cannot assume their responsibilities and increases the time a project manager needs to work with the team. Poor commitment to the project by the team, the organization, and the beneficiaries that result from inadequate leadership skills. Weak control processes and feedback mechanisms that do not detect problems early enough. Lack of analysis of major risk factors and inadequate risk response strategies results in higher costs to recover from the risk events.
• • • • • • • •
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Lack of good quality controls that impact the ownership of the project by the beneficiaries and other key stakeholders.
All of these causes could be addressed by the application of modern project management tools and techniques. Applying a formalized project management framework, or methodology, to projects can help with clarification and agreement to goals. It helps with the correct identification of the resources needed to ensure accountability for results, performance and foster a focus on the benefits to be achieved. This book, and the other books in the PM4DEV series aim to provide project managers with a guide to help them plan, implement, and monitor projects and to provide international development organizations, with a methodology to initiate, plan, implement, monitor and close projects in a more consistent, reliable and predictable manner. The effective use of a project management methodology ensures a cost effective use of limited resources such as people and funds. A project management methodology can help development organizations meet their strategic goals by standardizing processes, reducing risks, and avoiding duplication of efforts with the purpose of increasing the impact of their interventions. The proposed premise is that organizations that systematically apply modern project management methodologies can ensure that donor, organizational and beneficiary resources are used in the most efficient and effective manner in a way that will increase the chances of meeting the needs of the beneficiaries. This book has been written for three main audiences: • For Project Managers, who have been assigned with the responsibility to manage a project, within a certain time, budget, and scope, for whom the guidance provided in this book should be useful for building the range of skills appropriate for effective project management.
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For Development Organizations, to whom the arguments presented in this book should demonstrate the benefits of a structured methodology in the process of selecting the right projects, in addition to helping them do the projects right. For Project Staff, in charge of implementing the project’s plans, as they need clear guidelines to help them do their job in the most efficient manner.
The objectives of this book are: • To help development organizations understand the need to quickly adapt to new challenges and invest their limited resources in the best way possible in order to achieve recurring successes for which they can use a proven, but flexible, project management methodology. To help development organizations understand that in order to implement projects successfully, project management must become part of the organizational culture; because, the effective utilization of the project management methodology depends upon the integration of project management processes into the day-to-day operations in the field. To provide a common framework and terminology across development organizations, especially Non Governmental Organizations (NGO’s); as it is trough a common methodology, and a common language that project managers in development organizations can increase their knowledge and build their skills.
This book focuses on concepts and practices related to development projects. It is our hope that the ideas and methodologies presented in the course of the following chapters, and in the other books of the PM4DEV series, are proven useful to anyone who is engaged in managing projects in the broader development field. We hope that this experience helps bring sustainable benefits to the communities and beneficiaries who need it the most.
Defining a Project
There are many definitions for what constitutes a project, some of these definitions describe the nature of a project and how it differs from other type of work, the descriptions used to define a project include the following:
A project has limited resources. Management. A clear set of activities with related inputs and outputs aimed to achieve objectives and goals linked to anticipated (desired) effects and impacts in a target population. For the purpose of this book. directing.objectives through people and other resources. A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. A project has constraints and a unique reason. one can see that there are some specific attributes that define a project and separate it from most ordinary work: • • • • • A project has a beginning and an end. organizing. designed to deliver a unique purpose. A project follows a planned. constrained by time. A group of inter-related activities.. Stoner. Every project is unique. From all these descriptions. and controlling. A temporary effort of sequential activities designed to accomplish a unique purpose. Management has also been defined as “the art of getting things done through other people”1 This definition 1 J. Management is a process of setting and achieving goals through the execution of the four basic functions of management: planning. and scope. Definition of Management Management is defined as the achievement of -project or organizational. a set of tasks.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 18 • • • • • • A temporary process. which has a clearly defined start and end time. and material resources. by utilizing human. financial. and a budget. we will use the following definition of a project: A project is a temporary effort made up of a set of related activities undertaken to achieve a unique goal or objective within specified constraints. An undertaking that encompasses a set of tasks or activities having a definable starting point and well defined objectives. (Prentice Hall 1989) . that is developed to accomplish a well-defined goal or objective. cost. 4th Ed. organized method to meet its objectives with specific goals of quality and performance.
Controlling is the process by which the organization monitors the performance and takes corrective action. skills. There are four basic functions in management. organizing.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 19 highlights the fact that managers achieve organizational goals by developing an environment where others can perform the tasks and not themselves. leading and controlling. Checking progress against plans and make the necessary modifications to keep the plans in track. “Project management is the application of knowledge. Leading involves getting others to perform the tasks by direct influence and by applying communication skills that will build the right atmosphere to help employees do their work. Managers plan with the objective of achieving a desired future by committing resources and deciding with tasks must be done to reach the intended goals Organizing is the process of creating organizational structures that will enable employees to carry out the manager’s plans. Third Edition”2. cost and resources”. other leading organizations in project management offer the following definitions: • The ISO 10006.pmi. the UK standard for project management says: “a temporary organization that is needed to produce a unique and predefined outcome or result at a pre-specified time using predetermined resources” • 2 www. It is about making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful implementation of plans. including constraints of time. tools. undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements. often classified as planning. In addition to this definition. and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project”.org . a standard for quality in project management defines it as: “Unique process consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates. PMI. − − − Definition of Project Management According to “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. − Planning involves defining organizational goals and proposing ways to reach them. PRINCE2.
Jason Westland. and knowledge to complete a project within established goals of time. we believe that it is important to place under this category the constraint of quality. Kogan Page Limited. time.” 3 In other words. 2006. implementing. the International Project Management Association. defines a project as “a time and cost constrained operation to realize a set of defined deliverables up to quality standards and requirements. For development projects it is not enough to deliver a project according to the 3 4 www. achieved by effectively controlling and balancing the constraint of scope. and four constraints if they want to realize cost constraints. The temporary nature of projects contrasts with processes. the full benefits of a project. the plans and processes to keep them organizing. schedule. For the purposes of this book we will use the following definition: Project management is the process of combining systems.ch The Project Management Life Cycle. scope and quality. and managing in balance. or operations.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 20 • IPMA. Project Management Constraints Every project has to manage four basic constraints. techniques. schedule. and budget. It is not enough for a proresources to deliver all ject to meet the budget targets or to the work required to show to the donor that all activities have been completed on time. The success of a project depends on the skills and knowledge of a project manager to take into considProject management is eration these constraints and develop the discipline of planning. which are permanent or semi-permanent ongoing functional work to create the same product or service over-and-over again. in producing quality deliverables that meet or exceed the expectations of the project stakeholders. Develcomplete a project within opment projects need to balance all defined scope. time and costs (known as the project triangle)4. Project management is the planning. Classical project management usually considers three constrains on a project: scope. . and monitoring of project activities to meet project objectives. budget.ipma. budget and quality. scope.
adjusting any one of these sides. the other two are affected. schedule. budget and quality. Failure to do that may result in the use of resources on areas that do not contribute to the ultimate success of the project. Depending on those factors. Understanding the combination of these elements allows to make better choices when tradeoffs are needed. a change in the project plan to shorten the schedule might result in an increase in costs or require a decrease in scope. the donors and the final beneficiaries. For example. these types of decisions. on time and under budget. The use of a triangle helps understand these relationships. have a fundamental impact on all the project plans that will need to be designed to ensure that the project is able to manage the four constraints. The definition of project management implies that projects have specific limits in scope. but the project must meet the needs and expectation of the beneficiaries who are the ultimate judges of the project quality. The diagram below helps visualize the close relationship amongst these four constraints: Scope Quality Schedule Budget Figure 1. early in the project. a project may consign more importance to the budget and quality than to the schedule or scope. Managing these constrains requires careful analysis and an agreement on the priorities for the organization. The Four Constraints of Project Management .Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 21 scope.
Schedule is defined as the target date to complete the project. Scope is the boundary of a project. it is what the beneficiaries. Poorly executed budget plans can result in a last minute rush to spend the allocated funds. it is the reason and the purpose of the project. The schedule is often the most frequent project oversight in developing projects which is reflected in missed deadlines. Proper control of time requires the careful identification of tasks to be performed. either because the project manager did not spend enough time defining the work. The schedule also uses critical information from key project stakeholders about their availability to the project. and the donors expect from the project. because many projects receive funds or grants that have contract clauses with a ‘use it or lose it’ approach to project funds. because. there was no agreement on the scope by stakeholders. The project team should verify any time constrains or requirements for a specific date or period that comes from beneficiaries or other key stakeholders. and how people and resources are allocated. nothing more and nothing less. for instance. it entails all the work involved in delivering the project outcomes and the processes used to produce them. incomplete activities. is the tendency of a project to include more tasks than originally specified. an accurate estimation of their durations. The schedule is an approximation of the duration of all activities in the project and it is not unusual to find that the original estimates were off target once the project makes progress and there is an increased understanding of its environment. this is known as scope creep. may dictate the methods by which resources such • • . which often leads to higher project costs than planned and an extension of the initial implementation date. the sequence in which they are going to be done. or the uncontrolled changes in a project's scope. and late donor reports. beneficiaries who have limited time to commit to the project although it demands for their participation. Scope creep. Budget or the costs approved for the project include all the required expenses needed in order to deliver the project within scope and schedule. and organizational. A number of constraints: financial. political. One of the leading causes for project failures is poor management of the project scope. In development projects managers have to balance between not running out of money and not under spending. or because there was a lack of scope management which leads to incurring into additional work that was not authorized or budgeted.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 22 • Scope is what the project is trying to achieve.
• Quality is the fourth constraint defined as: delivering the project outcomes according to the stated or implied needs and expectations of the project beneficiaries and the donor agency. Quality is also defined as the “Conformance to requirements or fitness for use”5. local government (such as laws and regulations). Quality is all about achieving stakeholder’s satisfaction. guidelines.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 23 as personnel. and an increase in scope has an impact in both time and budget. or by professional standards (such as health). Quality Control Handbook (1951) . projects 5 Joseph M. services and materials are acquired. Focusing on successful and suitable applications should be considered for implementation on the current project. the preferences from the beneficiaries and/or the donor’s representatives may influence purchasing decisions. Managing the four constraints also involves making trade-offs. which means that the product or services must meet the intended objectives of the project and that the beneficiaries can use or benefit from the project deliverables as it was originally intended. and procedures. It also means complying with quality standards that are either mandated by the donor. Each constrain has a specific goal and a project is deemed successful when it achieves all four. The Project Manager needs to be aware of existing resource acquisition policies. Moreover. failure in any of the four has an impact in the other three. Information from similar or past projects can be used to gain a better understanding of budgeting strategies. All projects are implemented using estimates to establish the time and cost to deliver specific objectives of certain level of quality. a delay in a project has an impact on its cost. therefore. Duran . equipment. Managing the Project Constraints Managing these constraints is the main responsibility of the project manager. For instance.
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are implemented with many uncertainties and exposed to many risks, which requires revisions to the original plans along with negotiations with the different stakeholders. Changes in the social and natural environment can delay a project, increase its costs, or reduce its scope forcing the project manager to evaluate alternatives and negotiate with the donors and beneficiaries for modifications. Project management is in essence the art, science and craft required to balance the scope, schedule, budget, and quality constraints of the project. The project triangle illustrates the process of balancing constraints because the three sides of the triangle are connected, and changing one side of a triangle affects at least one other side, and all sides affect the center were quality relies. Here are some examples of project constraint balance: • When the schedule of a project needs to decrease, the project might need to increase the budget because more resources are needed to do the same work in less time. If the budget cannot be increased (the donor doesn’t approve the increase), then scope might need to be reduced because the available resources will not be sufficient to do all the planned work in less time. When the budget of the project decreases, the schedule might need to be stretched out because budget is not available to pay for the staff as originally planned. If time cannot be increased, the other alternative is to reduce the project scope because fewer staff will not be able to do all of the planned work in the available timeline. When the project scope increases, there is a need for more time or more resources (budget) to complete the additional work. When the project adds more work than the originally budgeted it is important that before the new work is started, there is an approval from the donor for additional funds, otherwise the project will end up with a budget shortfall that could have an impact on the expectations from the beneficiaries.
Quality is at the center of the project triangle because it affects every side of the triangle, any changes made to any side of the triangle are likely to affect quality. For example, the project may find additional time in the schedule that can allow staff the time to increase the quality of the objectives without necessarily increasing the scope. On the other hand, a need to cut activities to meet the budget might result in a decreased scope, which reduces the
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opportunities to achieve an acceptable level of quality; therefore, lower quality results from the need of cutting costs and reducing planned activities. A project management methodology helps identifying strategies by use of proven methods and best practices that will facilitate the management of these four constraints.
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Chapter 1 - Review Questions Question 1 – Which of the following project characteristics is correct? A) It has a beginning and an end B) It has unlimited resources C) It doesn't need objectives D) It has a beginning but no end Question 2 – What is not a basic function of management? A) Planning B) Delegating C) Leading D) Controlling Question 3 – What are the four project constraints? A) Scope, People, Schedule, Budget B) Quality, Schedule, People, Budget C) Scope, Schedule, Budget, Quality D) Budget, People, Schedule, Resources Question 4 – What is project scope? A) The boundaries of a project B) The strategy for implementing a project C) The activities of a project D) The duration of a project Question 5 – In which project constraint do project beneficiaries have a significant role? A) Project Scope B) Project Schedule C) Project Budget D) Project Quality
welfare support. or Government agencies (within the developing countries).A development project nomic and social conditions of a group of deals with many stakepeople. fund their projects from grants or contracts that come from competitive bidding processes. improvement in maternal health. Development organizations. education. non-profit organizations (NGOs). Examples of the type of objectives of holders and operates in development projects are: reduction in child difficult a environment mortality. eases. Development projects are managed by development organizations that have long term strategies to achieve goals to contribute to the reduction of poverty. or that increases its comcombat HIV/AIDS.Chapter 2 – The Development Project Environment | 27 CHAPTER 2 THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT Definition of a Development Project Development projects in developing countries are financed by bilateral and multi-lateral government agencies. most share the common goal of helping people and benefiting society. malaria and other displexity and risk. . private institutions. Characteristics of Development Projects Development organizations vary in size and orientation. health. support development activities ranging from community organization. smallfinancial loans and protection of the environment. from the most part. A development project is designed to deliver a specific output aiming to improve the eco. These organizations include international humanitarian organizations and national NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs).
A larger number of national NGOs are small in both size and scope of operations and their impact sometimes is limited. Development organizations prepare and implement development projects and work to strengthen the capabilities of local institutional and promote community self-reliance through sustainable strategies. voluntary. developmental aid and sustainable development. Beneficiaries need to play a larger role in the planning and implementation of development efforts that will reshape their lives. often focused on a specific concern or a specific location.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 28 NGOs typically are private. while geared toward promoting active participation of community based organizations to deliver the services that will benefit the poor and other intended beneficiaries more directly. development projects make significant contributions to the socioeconomic development of the communities they work with. Funding for projects comes through private and public donations. poverty relief efforts. This is one of the reasons why development projects are gradually moving away from traditional projects that rely on delivering direct services. non-profit and service oriented organizations that emphasize on humanitarian issues. many lack a broader economic and social perspective. Development projects may consist of a single. Although. some are loosely structured and may have limited accountability and their management and planning methods may be weak or too flexible. . One of the key success factors of development projects is when their planning processes involve people who will benefit or be affected by the project. they have set limitations. NGOs can suffer from financial and technical constraints. transformative project to address a specific problem or series of projects addressing several problems. The goal of all development projects is to help improve people's lives through skills training and other livelihood programs. government assistance and a variety of other sources.
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Involvement of beneficiaries also increases the likelihood that the development efforts will realize their intended benefits and can help avoid implementation problems. The concept of participation is concerned with ensuring that the intended beneficiaries of development projects are involved in the planning and implementation of those projects. This is considered important as it empowers the recipients of development projects to influence and manage their own development and helps remove any type of dependency after the project is completed. Beneficiary participation is widely considered to be one of the most important concepts in modern development theory.
The Challenges of a Development Project
Development projects operate in challenging environments, where uncertainties about the future increase risks around the project. Managers need to deal with extremely complex social, economic, and political factors that affect the delivery of goods and services. Development projects are implemented in some of the most remote and difficult locations in the world; additionally, projects operate in areas of high personal risk and high security threats to project staff. The lack of proper infrastructure, limited resources, and a changing environment put a strain on project managers who are pressed to deliver the project outcomes. The constant changes in the social, economic, political, and natural environment force many projects to change its original plans; in fact, project plans are built on many assumptions that eventually are challenged by the changes in the environment. These changes in the environment are not always reflected in the original design, which causes projects to miss their target objectives; this is why it is not uncommon to find a project that has delivered all its expected outputs but has failed significantly in reaching its outcomes and objectives. From extensive observation and experimentation through working with development agencies for years, we have seen the following weaknesses in development projects:
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• • • • • • •
Poor project planning, in the rush to get the project started managers pay little attention to the effort required to fully develop all the plans needed to manage the project. Under this pressure, the project design is likely to omit a deeper analysis of the project risks and an analysis of project stakeholders. Inadequate management skills as the available staff may be unqualified for the tasks required for managing a project. This challenge is in part due to the lack of training opportunities project managers have to build their management skills. Emphasis in the technical component. Development projects are planned primarily from a technical perspective, rather than a more holistic perspective that includes the project management cycle. Lack of accountability, projects are run with little definition of roles and responsibilities and no clear identification of who is accountable for the project outcomes before the donors and the beneficiaries. Lack of stakeholder involvement, key project stakeholders are not systematically involved in the planning and monitoring of a project, which leads to a lack of ownership while the project is implemented. Unrealistic plans. Because projects are planned on a linear process, this reasoning leaves little or no opportunities to modify and adjust plans as needed. No measure to evaluate quality. Projects fail to define the criteria by which beneficiaries will know if the project was a success or not. Poor, inconsistent project management discipline. There is no consistent use of a proven methodology to help manage, monitor, and adapt the project implementation. Duplication of efforts. Organizations that do not have a standard process and methodology for project management discover that projects are reinventing –over-and-over-again- the same solutions, due to little opportunities to use lessons learned which increases the chances to make the same mistakes again.
A critical challenge is that projects do not have time for learning from the past. Development Projects are learning-intensive, but very little of this gained knowledge remains in the organization at the end of a project. Because a time bound project entails a short term vision while the concept of “an organization” is long term ; it is difficult to integrate the two concepts when time comes for sharing the knowledge gained in the implementation of projects. Experiences from past projects are potential knowledge that new projects could use to increase their chances for success; however, organizations loose the opportunity to capture and use this knowledge due to lack of processes to do so.
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Once a project is completed, most organizations do not have processes in place to capture the lessons learned; therefore, this knowledge is not incorporated in the design of future projects. Unfortunately, too often, the project evaluation report sits in the library along with many others, available to a few adventurous who are willing to discover experiences and practices that can be useful to their needs. A project management methodology can overcome this challenge by providing development organizations with a discipline to integrate a practice of continuous learning process.
The Need for a Project Management Methodology
In this type of environment, organizations great degree of flexibility to accommodate the constantly changing environment of the project. A methodology that promotes optimal standards of performance, and reinforces the organizational capacity to deliver its services in a transparent and effective manner. need a methodology that allows a
Without a project management methodology organizations risk loosing the knowledge and skills they gain from completed projects; knowledge that is also lost due to the high staff turnover in development organizations, which makes it hard to build institutional memory to improve the efficiency of development projects and to implement lessons learned in future projects. Definition of a Project Management Methodology A project management methodology is a method to capture the best practices around project management and disseminate them in the organization. It is a system of principles, practices, and procedures. It’s the collection of practical ideas and proven practices. Development organizations need a project management methodology that they can use and customize to meet its needs, one that provides the right mix of methods, processes and practices that are repeatedly applied to deliver projects in a consistent manner with predictable results. The best methodologies are the ones that are built based on the experience of its practitioners; organizations that build a learning cycle in its methodologies
Defining and implementing a good methodology is essential for development organizations to document a project management approach for performing project activities in a coherent, consistent, accountable, and repeatable manner.
Amongst the main benefits is an increase in the level of collaboration amongst al project stakeholders. the delivery of consistent results of predicable quality with defined roles and responsibilities that ensure proper accountability. coordinate and track project activities. With this approach organizations will have a comprehensive knowledge methodology for successful project management. gives organizations the means to practice established and time-tested practices of project management to help them achieve successful outcomes.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 32 will benefit by incorporating the knowledge of its project managers and thus will have a methodology that reflects its current best practices. Benefits of a Project Management Methodology The use of a systematic project management methodology gives development organizations a strategic tool. . A Project management methodology can deliver the following benefits: • • • • • • • A methodology provides a common approach and a consistent discipline for how projects are planned and implemented in the organization A methodology incorporates a standard project terminology. understood by all stakeholders Provides project donors and stakeholders confidence on how projects are done in the organization Permits accurate predictions of project resource requirements and avoids duplication of efforts Stipulates clear procedures for developing project plans that allow better control of the project throughout its life cycle. Reduces the impact that risks have on the project Development Organizations can increase the chances of success by implementing a project management methodology that is applicable to their projects. Only when using a standard methodology of processes and techniques organizations can coordinate resources to achieve predictable results. procedures and techniques. by describing the basic practices. The processes that a methodology delivers help organizations keep focus and deliver solutions that project beneficiaries and its communities desperately need them. Assists the project manager to integrate.
guidelines and techniques to structure the work. and the project stakeholders. A good methodology increases the odds of being successful.Chapter 2 – The Development Project Environment | 33 Building and managing according to a project management methodology is partly an art that requires flexibility and creativity. processes. . A good methodology provides the framework. and therefore provides value to the organization.
and political factors D) All of the above Question 3 – What is a project management methodology? A) A system of principles.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 34 Chapter 2 .Review Questions Question 1 – What is not a development project? A) One that is funded from grants or contracts B) One that improves the economic and social conditions of a target group C) One that focuses on generating a profit D) One that contributes to the reduction of poverty Question 2 – What is a challenge of development projects? A) Lack of accountability B) Limited Funds C) Deal with extremely complex social. economic. and procedures B) A set of recommendations C) A system of rules and laws D) An approach to manage the log frame Question 4 – Which is a benefit of a project management methodology? A) Provides a common approach B) Avoids duplication of efforts C) Reduces the impact of risks D) All of the above Question 5 – Complete the following phrase: “The best methodologies are the ones that are built based on the experience of its ________” A) Consultants B) Practitioners C) Vendors D) Readers . practices.
A Project or a "system" agers need to consider projects within is a dynamic and comthis greater context. project managers need to take a holistic view of as a structured funcunit with a project and understand how it is situ. it continuously examines the plan against any changes in the environment to make the corresponding adjustments to keep the project on track. To be effective at plex whole. Traditional methods involve a linear cause and ef- . opportunities. Development Projects must operate in a broader environment. the project is a system that has a set of interdependent and temporally interacting phases. and project man. By information flowing betaking this holistic view of projects.tional ated within the larger environment. if they are run in isolation the projects may face the risk of not serving the needs of those who really need it. pro.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 35 CHAPTER 3 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE A Systemic Approach Projects by definition are temporary endeavors but they cannot stay insolated from the rest of its environment. Using a systemic approach for project management provides a holistic and analytical method to solve the complex problems a project will face. As such. interacting managing complex situations. The analysis then examines the possible solutions for improving the current situation.tween the different eleject managers are better prepared to ments that compose the understand the external factors that will system. all working within an environment to fulfill a purpose. impact the project. constraints and needs. identifies an optimum solution and a solution action plan. and finally. A project management methodology uses system analysis as a problem solving approach that involves looking at the project as the sum of different phases that facilitate the identification and evaluation of problems.
Tools include the technology available to manage the information the project generates and improve its analysis to allow the project to make decisions. track project progress and evaluate performance. Using a system approach is critical for successful project management. we look at the whole system of inputs. the set of skills and capabilities of the people in charge of managing the project. feedback. Tools.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 36 fect relationships. and allows the project to see change as a continuous process. By taking a systems approach. who follow the processes and procedures geared to control the quality of services provided by the organization. the development activities defined in the policies and procedures and the roles and responsibilities required in managing development projects. people and tools. The people component is influenced by the compensation and values of the organization and by the external labor market that sets conditions to find qualified staff for the project. the techniques and devices selected by the organization with the purpose of facilitating the management of the project. the project depends on three basic components: processes. The Project Management Ecosystem Projects don’t exist in isolation they are influenced by two strong factors. the internal and external environment. all integrated and influenced by the internal environment (the organization) and an external environment (the world). • • . meet its objectives and facilitate its contractual obligations. Processes determine the work that needs to be accomplished which defines the requirements for people skills. For example: techniques to control budgets. this is the project ecosystem. outputs. As a system. including government and donor regulations which heavily influence the project. • Process. This larger picture provides more useful results than traditional methods. processes. Instead of analyzing a problem in terms of input and output. project managers need to identify all the issues and components of a project and its relationship with the internal and external environment. People. projects can see the whole network of bidirectional interrelationships. and controls.
by using a holistic approach project managers can integrate all the internal and external issues into their planning. Compensation. Project Management Phases Projects operate as part of a system that involves a high degree of uncertainty. limitations on the availability and communications technology and local infrastructure. Norms and Rules. or not. it also helps them see a pro- . The Project Management Ecosystem The external environment is made of the conditions that the project has little or no influence to change. benefits and other Human Resource practices. these include: donor and government requirements. The success of project management depends on the equilibrium of the process. the standardization. the whole system fails. Education Centers TOOLS TOOLS: Local Standards and Infrastructure PEOPLE Figure 2. people and tools components. The internal environment includes the policies and procedures the organization has already established for all projects including the compensation. of project management tools and methods including the use of communications technology. and limited availability of people with the required skills or a competitive labor market and poor or inadequate training facilities.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 37 The graphic below shows the tight interdependency amongst these elements in the system: Internal Environment PROCESS: Organizational Policies and Procedures External Environment PROCESS: Donor and Local Government Requirements PEOPLE: Organizational Benefits. legal regulations. when one of them fails or doesn’t receive the adequate funding or support. general practices and standards imposed by international or local regulations. TOOLS Organizational Standards PROCESS PROJECT MANAGEMENT PEOPLE: Local Labor Market.
but as an interdependent continuous management effort. The rational behind the use of project management phases is that it supplies for an integrated approach that provides for the continuous identification. . outputs from one phase are used as input for the next phase. monitoring.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 38 ject as a series of interrelated phases. selection. while small projects may not need to spend too much time on planning. Project Phases Initiate Plan Implement Monitor Adapt Close Figure 3. project managers have a better job of ensuring project success. implementation. implementation. adapting and closure. evaluation and learning. Each phase should not be seen as independent from another phase. this approach to project cycle provides better management control and builds the appropriate links with the internal and external environment. PM4DEV’s project management methodology consists of six phases. By doing this. planning. redirected or terminated. monitoring. implementation. but. planning. they help in keeping the project on track and determine if the project should continue. in general they include an initiation. The Six Project Management Phases The complexity of a project determines the need to spend more time in the initiating or planning phase. a project life cycle is a collection of project phases which vary from one methodology to another. monitoring and close phase. initiation. It is a good practice to divide projects into several phases. A project must successfully complete each phase before moving onto the next. large projects may need to spend a good amount of time in the initiation and planning phases.
Project reviews are important for keeping projects on track and determine if they should be continued. The monitoring phase informs the implementation and the planning phases for changes and modifications until there are no additional changes and all project deliverables have been completed. redirected. or terminated. Project phases relate to each other not on a linear but on a cyclical manner. reviews act as feedback loops that operate to keep the project on check. The Project Management Phases and the Project Lifecycle . The figure below shows a representation of the project phases during the project lifecycle. By breaking a project into manageable phases the organization can make sure that the projects are still compatible with the needs of the stakeholders and beneficiaries. These internal project reviews are part of the implementation – monitoring – planning sub-cycle of the project and could occur many times during the life of a project. as the project moves from the initiation phase effort increases until it reaches a peak during implementation where the phases of monitoring and adapting also occur. but simply “reality checks” that project managers should do to see whether or not the project needs corrections. they are not evaluations.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 39 A good practice is to use each phase as a gate to review how the project is going before moving to the next phase. Project Life-cycle initiate Project Effort plan implement & monitor close adapt Figure 4. the review should occur at the end of each phase to evaluate progress and review initial assumptions about the project objectives.
mission and vision. During initiation a diagnostic and analysis of the problem are performed including the delineation of the strategies that the project will use to achieve its benefits. In either case. usually from a competitive process 5. were the idea gets support from management to seek for funding (internal or external funding). Authorization of the project concept leads to the development of a formal project proposal. team. the design of the project approach. Project Contract signature and approval to initiate the planning phase. it includes the documentation that supports the requirements of the funding agency. Project Proposal. the organization has identified that this project is aligned with the organization’s strategies. budget and submission of the proposal to a donor. Project Concept. local needs. which deals with acceptance of the proposal. the organization makes a decision to support the project and assigns resources to work on the proposal. and government/donor interest. 3. Project Proposal Approval. Project Concept Approval. schedule. It includes some planning and estimating to clarify its objective and scope. 6. 2. were the idea for a project emerges as a result of a diagnostic and analysis of needs in a community. The major steps during Initiation include: 1.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 40 Initiation Phase This phase is where an idea or a concept is authorized and funded as a project. In this phase the . Project funding negotiations and revisions to proposal to meet donor regulations. Major outcomes or decision from this phase is the acceptance of the project concept and approval of the project proposal. This decision is based on an organization’s programming principles and/or strategic objectives and takes into consideration available resources. 4. additionally. Usually ideas for a project are started by an organization in the form of a proposal or they are initiated by a donor agency by a competitive bidding process or a cooperative agreement.
these include: team. meeting with the project team to officially start the project. the development of the core and facilitating management plans with the project team and key stake- . includes the hiring or assignment of staff to the project team 3. • Primary plans include the development of detailed planning documents that were initially produced as part of the project proposal. Primary plans must include expected outcomes in terms of the scope. This phase includes two planning components. it is not unusual that the donor and the organization engage in long negotiations on the final budget of the project. stakeholder. • The major steps during planning include: 1. Project Kick off. risk. Project Planning. in other cases authorization comes from the organization when funds are internal. Planning Phase Once the proposal is accepted and funds have been approved the project is finally ready to start. the development of detailed plans that are required as part of the proposal or primary plans. The approval of the project proposal is done by the donor when the organization responds to an RFP (Request for Proposal) or an RFA (Request For Assistance). a document that gives authorization to the PM to manage the project and states the objectives of the project 2. The project manager’s first task is to further develop detailed project plans including a detailed project budget and schedule. or may require additional analysis or modifications to the proposal. Primary plans are also known as the Detailed Implementation Plans (DIP) Support plans include the development of plans to manage all the other support processes required to manage the project. a document that gives authorization to the project manager to start work and initiate the organization and development of the project team. The first step is the development of the project charter. which can include participation of beneficiaries 4. schedule. Approval of the proposal opens the project to start the second phase of the project. and contract plans. Project Chapter.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 41 project may or may not be approved or accepted. and the plans to manage the implementation of the project or supporting plans. and quality of the project. budget. Project Management Plans. who will participate in the development of all project plans. information. Organize and develop the project team.
Implementation includes organizing and coordinating people and other resources required to perform the project plans and obtain the desired outcomes of the project or phase. Outputs from this process include a formal project management plan including authorization to the project staff to implement its activities.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 42 holders. . The development of a detailed plan is the opportunity for the project manager to further understand each component of the project and formulate the plans that will help implement the project. developing the project team. 5. Project Plan Approval. procuring the necessary resources and taking ongoing corrective actions. usually by the project manager supervisor 6. beneficiaries and key stakeholders A detailed plan helps discovering oversights or wrong assumptions made during the initiation phase and the project proposal. producing progress reports. Communicate and share approved project plans with team members. which may include participation of local implementing partners. Implementation Phase Implementation includes taking all necessary actions to ensure that the activities in the project plan are completed and that the outputs of the plan are delivered. It is not unusual to find that a project proposal was designed without incurring the appropriate feedback from the project stakeholders. assuring quality. acceptance of the project plans. this phase also includes activities such as providing project leadership. vehicles. verifying project scope. Implementation occurs once the final project plans have been approved by the organization and/or the donor agency. and other goods and services required by the project. The project manager starts by forming a team and starts authorizing the initial expenses required by the project which may include the purchase of office equipment. or that budget assumptions were based on old data.
schedule and budget. In the areas of scope. The major steps during Monitoring include: 1. and communications to stakeholders. initiate the quality assurance process 3. and evaluate project indicators and results 2. too much control is time consuming and too little control is too risky. Contract management and initiate the sub grant process (if any). Implement plans and assign tasks to the project team. Quality Control. Quality Assurance and implementation of quality standards 5. Traditionally the focus is on monitoring the four project constraints. Organize and develop the project team. looking at deviations from the plan and taking corrective steps to put the project back on track. Project monitoring begins with planning and ends with evaluation with a thorough involvement in each step of the process. progress reports. including all procurement processes to purchase goods and services 4. Progress reports and other managerial reports 6. Communications to key stakeholders Outputs from this phase are the project deliverables. assign the roles and responsibilities to carry the project activities and initiate the team development plans 2. Each project should be assessed for the appropriate level of control needed and find an equilibrium that can give the benefits without increasing work. Monitoring Phase Monitoring is about measuring the progress of a project against its objectives. Monitoring runs across the planning and implementation project phases of the project life cycle. control of quality standards and quality audits .Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 43 The major steps during Implementation include: 1. Evaluate Project Performance.
develop reports informing about any variance in performance and recommendations for changes 6. Performance Reports.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 44 3. Risk Monitoring. strategies and methods planned to deliver the project interventions. Monitoring helps verifying if the intervention is producing the desired effects or benefits. monitoring risk against original assumptions 4. and within budget. Project monitoring is an important element of the project that keeps it on-track. The major steps while “Adapting” include: 1. and changes to the budget . Monitoring also looks for new opportunities that may have risen since the project started and that may improve the chances to achieve the project goals. Review performance reports and the causes for the variances from the original plans 2. Adapting Phase This phase refers to the process by which the project manager adapts its project management methods and determines what works best for the project. and how the initial assumptions of the project have changed. establishes a discipline that helps monitor how the situation and the context of the project are evolving. it also helps identifying unexpected consequences. Determine need for changes in project plans Monitoring is the constant check on the project to see if it is doing the right things at the right time within the given resource restrictions. which contributes to regular adjustments geared towards the project’s success. on-time. It also refers to the changes that need to be incorporated in the original processes. changes to schedule. approaches. additional request to add or delete activities in the project. Review change requests. Team Evaluation. determine level of performance of team and individuals 5.
Adapting also refers to the process by which project members learn from the experience that they gained in the project. each completion process provides an opportunity to reflect on the why’s of the successes or failures and provides important lessons that need to be incorporated for the next project deliverable. . Approval of proposed changes by key stakeholders. Closing Phase The closing phase of the project is when the project has achieved the planned objectives and all deliverables have been completed. The major steps during closing include: are opportunities that give rise to adjustments in the project and contribute to learning.and will have different proach throughout the project cycle. Adapting involves the analysis of the changes required and its impact and relevance to the project and its constraints. It uses inputs from the Monitoring phase that informs what needs to be changed or modified. the is through a feedback loop of experi. Update project plans as per approved changes 6. because. This could be caused by changes in organizational strategies. this phase helps make the necessary changes. This process encourages an increased productivity over time and to economies of scale. therefore. donors or management 5.project manager’s role is ence.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 45 3. Capture lessons learned and communicate changes Adapting is taking corrective actions. The original assumptions under the project as first planned usually change. that the to ensure that the cycles project can improve its interventions. it cycles during its life. There could be instances where a project is closed before all deliverables have been completed. Modifying the project and making the necessary changes should occur at the end of each major project delivery. The Adapting phase Each project is different incorporates a “Lessons learned” ap. Development of proposal for changing plans to bring the project back in track 4. learning and practice. unavailability of funds or security conditions that make project work impossible.
A key step in the closure phase is the project evaluation. and that the project’s lessons learned are developed and shared. confirming that the project has met all stakeholder’s requirements and celebration of successful completion of the project with the team members. which may include audit evaluations. At closure the project ensures that all administrative tasks have been completed including all contracts. Team reassignments: Provide staff performance evaluations and assist in their transfer to new job opportunities. . Closing Contracts: Finalize all contracts with suppliers and consultants. Evaluation by the donor is a significant effort designed to ensure that the project was able to deliver the outputs according to planned and that all project funds were used correctly. Project Final Reports: To donors and key stakeholders as per contract requirements or expressed needs. 3. donor evaluation. 2.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 46 1. or internal evaluations conducted by the organization or the project. that staff is reassigned to other projects. Distribute Lessons Learned: share the experience of the project within the organization and with other similar project that may benefit from the knowledge acquired during the project. 5. It is an opportunity to recognize the special contributions made by the team members and key stakeholders and give awards and small gifts or certificates as symbols of appreciation for their extraordinary contributions to the success of the project. 6. Project Evaluation: Participation in the evaluation of the project by either internal or external evaluators and a “Lessons learned” session with the project team. All project documentation is properly archived and made accessible to the organization and the donor. 4. The closing phase is also a time to celebrate the successful completion of the project. Administrative close: Archive all documents and project records.
Implement Initiate Plan Monitor Close Adapt Figure 5. The cycle represents a continuous process in which each phase provides the foundation for the next. that some activities are . The cycle approach allows for opportunities to review the original project assumptions and plans. during the monitoring phase the projects may encounter that the original assumptions about a project activity have changed which leads to propose a readjustment of the plans. this repetitive cycle continues until all project activities and objectives have been delivered. during implementation the monitoring phase provides inputs and changes to the original design which then modifies the implementation plans. with each phase receiving feedback from the preceding: for example. As the project makes progress the initial conditions could have changed making it necessary for the project to change course or readjust the original plans.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 47 Project Management Cycle A project management methodology follows a cyclical approach throughout the life of the project. implement and monitor phases is repeated throughout the life of the project. it is cyclical. Project Management Cycle A project is not a linear process. The cycle allows for a constant. For example. Another example may be. interactive process by which the project is constantly monitored and any required changes are reflected in the plans. These cyclic nature amongst the design. either in schedule or in scope.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 48 no longer needed or desired by the beneficiaries which require the project to modify some parts of the original plans. phase starts. No situation in which a project intervenes is static. Project management is a dynamic effort and requires a continual process of monitoring and evaluation.ing the initial design and being fed by experience from each implementation tions before the next and evaluation cycle.identified through the monitoring phase . the infor decision and apteractions should become smaller in proval. such as oversight. quality requirements and risk plans. Once the planning phase has been completed. Adjustments are caused by changes in the project environment and information that was not present (or available) at the time of planning. each with its own project management cycle. This check points magnitude and more defined as more allow for the donor or detailed information about the project is management to reflect developed. project management is a cycle that is continually repeated to adapt to a changing context. within the planning phase. Evaluation activities. Over time. the impact there are stages or gates to other project management areas must be determined. Each project’s management and review the progress cycle is a knowledge cycle in itself shapand make recommenda. were the closure on the first phase of a project leads to the initiation of the second phase.may result in adjustments to the project management plan. quality con- . The application of project management is an interactive process. For larger projects the phases may be broken down in smaller manageable phase. several interactions of planning may occur as the team develops the best approach and methodologies to implement the project. budget estimates. The project management cycle continues in a spiral fashion until the project is completed and closed. For example. This process requires additional improvements and refinements to the schedule. As Between each phase improvements start to occur. feedback from the implementing phase .
monitoring and adapting phase are continuous and occur during the life of the project. no work should be started until all project plans have been completed. It also fosters an environment that discourages the use of creative problem-solving strategies. Another critical characteristic of the project management cycle is that the checkpoints or decision gates allow for opportunities to approve the work on a phase before work on the second phase begins. the project will review if all activities and objectives have been achieved before staring the close phase and project evaluation. revised and authorized. they help inform the project if the activities are being done according to plan and if any changes are needed before the next round of implementation activities occurs. A third stage approval occurs between the monitoring and closing phase. the second gate occurs between the planning and implementation phase.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 49 trol. linear process can lead to project failure. This is an important quality assurance tool. Treating project management as a static. and management review are ongoing activities and affect every phase of the project. Authorization on the project proposal and funding allows the organization to initiate the planning phase. it also helps the organizations to identify early problems and to act accordingly before more resources are used and expenses or costs are committed. This helps the organizations avoid problems of projects starting work when the details have not been properly defined. a rigid project management approach that hinders the ability of the project team to make the necessary mid-course corrections during project implementation. The decision gates between the implementation. . The most important checkpoints occur between the initiation and planning phases.
monitor. adapt. implement. close Question 5 – In which phase are changes to the project plans approved? A) Planning phase B) Monitoring phase C) Initiation phase D) Adaption phase . implement. monitor. adapt. Process and Policies B) Process. initiate.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 50 Chapter 3 . Tools and Budget C) Process. close D) Initiate. People and Tools D) Quality. close C) Plan. implement. adapt. monitor. plan. Schedule Question 2 – What are some examples of external influential factors in the environment of the project? A) Donor regulations and government requirements B) Policies and Procedures C) Norms and values of the organization D) Senior management requirements Question 3 – A project has ____ phases A) Three B) Six C) Four D) Nine Question 4 – Which statement contains the correct order of the project phases? A) Initiate. close B) Plan. implement.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three basic components of a project? A) People. plan. Budget. monitor. initiate. adapt.
Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 51 CHAPTER 4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Project Management Processes Project management is a process of leading a team of capable people in planning and implementing series of related activities that need to be accomplished on a specific date. A systems approach requires the identification of the components or processes that make up the entire project management framework. interrelated parts. and the increasing demands from all stakeholders. scope and schedule to deliver the project objectives under the ex. and an understanding that the project is made of a series of interacting components working to meet an objective or benefit. To manage this complexity the project needs to be deconstructed into manageable. assumptions about the project must be listed. evaluated. A systems approach includes a holistic view of the project environment.set of activities that must plexity of development projects that be performed to achieve require a different approach and a new a goal. Managing a project requires that manager’s take in consideration a system approach to manage the different elements of a project. There is also the com. This framework helps understand the basic structure required to properly manage a project and helps identify the most important elements that need close supervision and careful analysis. its risks assessed and contingency plans developed. in this case the way at managing the limited resources project goal. Because development projects take on unexplored territory. or processes. Projects are required to do a close monitoring of the budget. Because of its coordinating nature all these activities require a “process approach”. By separating the project into different management processes the project manager has a better chance to control the outcomes of the project and manage the challenges that can never be fully planned or predicted at its onset.A process is defined as a pected quality. These .
highly complex projects will require specialized resources to manage each process making the role of the project manager as the coordination of these processes. The effort and detail required for each process depends entirely on the size. The nine project management processes are divided into two groups: requires a cyclical approach that consists of planning. checking and learning as components to ensure process quality. the entire project life cy. In many cases it could result in making trade-offs amongst the different competing expectations from The nine management stakeholders. One of the most critical roles of the project manager is the integration of these nine management processes to ensure they all are properly coordinated. Large. a project that has identified that cost is a critical success factor will spend more time and effort in developing a cost management plan. These management nine processes occur during processes are all integrative. implementation. the project manager after making an analysis of the project risks and constraints will decide which processes require more effort than others The project management processes are interrelated with the project management phases during the entire project management cycle. doing. areas that he will need to plan. The idea of having nine processes is to define the areas that are the main responsibility of the project manager.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 52 processes are also known as key knowledge areas or management competencies. for example. Smaller less complex projects may not even need all the nine processes. These are designed to help manage the different elements of a project and different projects may have different needs from each process. organize. lead and control. complexity and risk of a project. adapting and closing phases of the project. . monitoring. that is. The project manager uses the nine processes as management tools to help in the initiation. planning.they need to be managed in a combining and coordinating manner to bring these cle and each one of them diverse elements into a whole. There are nine management processes that are relevant to development projects.
• . managing the relationships with the project stakeholders. security and other general services required by the organization and its projects to achieve their work. managing and developing the project team 6. implementation and operations of all information and communications technologies such as access to the internet. support to users with hardware and software tools selected by the project or the organization. 2. area that supports the projects in procurement of goods and services. Risk Management. managing the work required to accomplish the project objectives.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 53 Core Processes: 1. General Administration. managing the information produced by the project as well as the information needed from the project by the stakeholders. managing the plans to respond to risk events based on the assumptions set by the projects. 3. building services. managing the funds from donors according to the contract clauses. which deals with the long term objectives of the organization to achieve its vision and mission. managing that all project activities and actions follow a quality standard. Budget Management. Strategic Management. Quality Management. these include: • • • • Financial management. Technology Management. which deals with the hiring and general development of the organization’s human resources. Information Management. Stakeholder Management. Scope Management. Schedule Management. 4. which deals with the overall management of the financial resources of the project and the organization. Team Management. which deals with the design. managing the scheduled time created for all project activities. 7. There are other management areas that the project manager is not entirely responsible for but are important that he is involved ad has a good understanding of its policies and procedures. managing the donor contract. 9. Contract Management. sub-grants and procurement contracts. fleet management. Human resource management. 8. Supporting Processes: 5.
large. from initiation to closing. . non-complex projects. The Project Manager assesses the project risks and constraints to determine the detail needed for each process in a specific project.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 54 The graphic below shows the relationship between the project phases and the project management processes: Scope Management Schedule Management Budget Management Quality Management Core Processes Project Phases Initiate Plan Implement Monitor Adapt Close Supporting Processes Team Management Stakeholder Management Information Management Risk Management Contract Management Figure 6. Project Management Processes and Phases Depending on the scope. complex projects will require a more rigorous application of project management processes than small. The effort is reflected in the Project Management Plan. The Project Management Processes are overlapping activities that occur at varying levels of intensity throughout each phase of the project.
on time. the objectives to be achieved and what will not be part of the project. it defines what the project will and will not deliver. these processes deal directly with the project constraints. Assigning Scope Work. As mentioned in chapter one. assignment of work to the project team. cost management. This process also serves to ensure that the project has correctly identified the goals and objectives and that those have been documented and defined in terms of effective set of indicators useful to monitor the progress. Defining the Scope. They are at the core because they lead to specific objectives of the project and are the basis to define a project success. which is when a project gets additional requirements added to the project without reconsidering the impact to the schedule or budget.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 55 Core Processes Core processes include scope management. as requested by the donor and by the quality needed by the beneficiaries. define what needs to be done. This is a critical process that will help project managers with scope creep (also referred as the uncontrolled changes in a project's scope). ensuring that the work is done according to plans 4. making the necessary changes that occur from changes in the environment and changes in priorities During his process a scope change management plan is created to help manage any changes to the project. Verifying the Scope. Scope management involves four distinct steps: 1. which is one of the leading causes for project failures. Adapting the Scope. under budget. . Scope Management Includes the processes involved in defining and controlling all the activities that make up the project and that are required to complete the project successfully. consultants and partners 3. These requests may come from various stakeholders causing the project manager to add activities without a corresponding increase in the time and budget. The scope describes the boundaries of the project. includes the creation of a work breakdown structure 2. time management and quality management.
and why any new addition to the project is included by defining a process for assessing. illustrating when each activity must begin and end.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 56 To manage scope creep the project will establish a “scope change control plan” that will facilitate how. Schedule Management This process includes the actions required to ensure the timely completion of the project. scheduling and implementing any new activities. Schedule management includes the development of a “project schedule” listing all project activities. budgeting. by defining what is out of scope. This structure is used as an input to define the time and budget variables of the project. The project schedule is a communications tool that informs project stakeholders about the status of the project and gives information to project team members in the form of graphs and charts. First level Project Goal Third level Objective Objective Fourth level Activity Activity Activity Activity Fifth level Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Figure 7. . The Work Breakdown Structure The WBS is a tool that will generate information used by the schedule and budget management processes. authorizing. Another important element of scope management is the definition of what is not included in the project. During this process the project manager develops a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) which is a management technique of breaking the project down into a hierarchy of work tasks which represent the work to be done. the project stakeholders can have a better understanding of the project which helps reducing frustrations due to unmet expectations. when.
Monitoring the Schedule: Monitor events that will impact the schedule and come up with alternative solutions 4. the project staff must determine the best options to bring the project back to schedule using methods such as making trade-offs to compress the schedule or fast tracking which in either case involves incurring into more parallel activities. the relationships amongst the activities and the sequence in which they will occur. The project schedule is also used to assign project staff with their tasks. Often. such as festivities. during the planning phase. Updating the Schedule: Update the schedule to reflect decisions potentially affecting the time variable and the implementation of activities The first step in schedule management is estimating the time that each one of the activities identified in the WBS would take to be completed.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 57 The key steps of the schedule management process are: 1. Publishing the Schedule: Distributing the schedule to key stakeholders 3. A common method to diagram and present a schedule is by using a GANTT diagram listing all project activities from the WBS. social events or agricultural activities. The schedule management plan should include instructions on how to proceed when schedule variance occurs. and will determine the total project duration 2. If the project is behind schedule. A network diagram is a tool used to graphically display the activity sequence and dependencies. including the length of . Defining the Schedule: Based on information from the WBS a schedule is developed with help from key stakeholders. Another element of schedule management is the procedure to control schedule changes and define who can authorize the changes. the project managers must review the progress made against the scheduled baseline and determine any schedule variances. Monitoring the schedule is an ongoing task: As each activity is performed. Schedule management includes reporting techniques to compare the project baseline with the actual dates and uses variance analysis to determine project progress. and also unpredictable events such as weather or political events that can disrupt any project schedule. there is some oversight about unexpected events that will affect the beneficiaries’s involvement in the project.
the organization. Controlling the Budget. and financial losses that the organization may have to cover using their limited unrestricted funds. authorizing expenditures 3. GANTT Diagram Budget Management Budget management processes are required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. Updating the Budget. the chart portrays the dependencies amongst activities. The chart below shows a schedule in a Gantt diagram were activity durations are shown as bars and the arrows show the dependencies Figure 8. and to the beneficiaries. improper assignment of expenses. not only in compliance with donor’s requirements but also as a measure of its efficiency. Executing the Budget. Inadequate budget management can lead to misappropriations of funds. Additionally.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 58 duration of each activity represented with a bar. Risks in this area have the highest impact to the project. Defining the Budget. the development of all the costs that the project will incur and the approach to manage the budget 2. This is the area that receives great scrutiny during and after the project is completed. The project’s ability to manage the financial resources obtained by the organization will be a measure of the organizations probity. The steps for budget management are: 1. monitoring budget performance according to plans 4. making necessary changes to the budget following clauses set by the contract or grant .
EVA measures project progress objectively. within a single integrated methodology. the chart below shows an example of a project budget monitoring chart in which the planned budget is shown as a dotted . The value of EVA provides an early warning of performance problems when corrective actions are less impactful. and cost performance. schedule performance. The method used to monitor the performance of the budget depends on the accounting system used by the organization to track costs expenses. which is a closer approximation to the project’s real needs and uses the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to estimate the value of each task or activity and then adds up the values until a total budget is developed. This can lead to estimates that during the project implementation do not reflect the actual needs of the project. communicates objective progress to stakeholders. and a project budget to meet the monitoring and accounting needs of the organization. With this technique. combines measurements of scope performance.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 59 The “Budget management process” includes the activities to develop a budget proposal to meet the requirements from the Request for Proposal (RFP) (in case of a donor funded project). EVA improves the definition of project scope. regardless of the effort expended or the time elapsed. the project can determine the cost of each objective and the total project budget. A leading cause for project failure is a poor estimation of the project budget. prevents scope creep. Budget performance is the activity to evaluate whether the project’s expenses are being executed according to the budget plan and it helps identify deviations and develop corrective actions. it is not unusual that during the RFP process the organization -in its rush to meet the deadlines. and keeps the project team focused on achieving progress. An important technique in budget management is the use of Earned Value Analysis (EVA) which is basically a tracking metric method that measures the actual amount of work the project has accomplished. Monitoring the budget is a critical activity of the project manager. One of the tools used during this process is the activity based budget.tried to short cut the “budget creation process”.
a budget management plan that defines the levels of authority for charging items to the budget.000 $800.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 60 line and the actual budget is shown as a solid line.Curve $1. material. Failure to revise can lead to working and spending that do not benefit the project.000 $1.000 $200.000.400. and equipment by getting a cost estimate of each resource including human resources and develop a budget baseline that will be used to track and report budget expenditures.000 $600. and a budget control plan that defines the process for revision to the budget. Budget management is an important responsibility of the project manager that should not be completely delegated. . and budget updates.000 $1.000 $1. Estimates should be revised once the project starts to plan for deviations. Outputs from this process include: a project budget.000 $400.600. Budget S. Monitoring the Project Budget Other steps of budget management include determining all the resource requirements for consultants. This is a useful chart to monitor the deviation from plans that will allow corrective actions be made on time.000 $1 2 3 4 5 6 Time in Months 7 8 9 Plan Actual Budget 10 11 12 Figure 9.200.
Quality is not about delivering the most expensive materials or services. 6 Walter Andrew Shewhart. This cycle for quality assurance consists of four steps: Plan. and Act. Quality Control. 1980 . These steps are commonly abbreviated as PDCA. needs to act on the plan. Quality Definition. making improvements to the project that will increase quality levels The most popular tool used to determine quality assurance is the Shewh6art Cycle. There are four steps in quality management: 1. or are part of the technical competence area the project is focusing. that they are delivered in a timely manner. Check. such as health or education. For every activity or process the projects needs a plan. Economic Control of Quality. The PDCA Cycle is used in every activity of the project and in every management process. ensuring that quality is built into every element of the project 3. the donor. monitoring and auditing quality 4.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 61 Quality Management Quality management is the process to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs of the beneficiaries. and it’s doing what the project said it was going to do. Quality is defined as a commitment to deliver the project outputs and meet the expectations from the beneficiaries (which means that quality is ultimately defined by the beneficiary). It is not necessarily doing additional work if it does not add value or benefit to the beneficiaries. Quality Assurance. it’s about delivering according to the commitments made the project initiation. ensuring that the project outputs are relevant to the needs of the beneficiaries. some of which may be initially set by the organization. During the quality management process the project manager develops a “quality management plan” which identifies the quality standards that are relevant to the project. but rather. Do. American Society for Quality. determining the quality standards for the project 2. and are adequate to the conditions in which they have to be used. Quality Improvements. check the results of the actions and act based on the new learning or changes needed to improve the next cycle.
The third process in quality management is quality control. implementing the project by delivering all that the projects was designed to deliver in the time allotted and under the approved budget. this is where the project measures the results of the deliverables or outputs and checks to see if they meet the quality standards. meeting quality standards could mean meeting legal and regulatory standards set by the local government or the donor agency. quality is also maintaining the project constraints in balance. and quality improvement records. making changes to the quality plan and identifying ways to improve quality an eliminate causes of unsatisfactory quality discovered during quality control. As such. . The Shewart/Deming Cycle The second process in quality management includes quality assurance. The final process is quality improvements. This process includes quality audits performed by the project team during every project deliverable and reevaluating the quality standards. which implies the execution of the quality plan.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 62 Plan Do Act Check Figure 10. quality audit reports. Quality management outputs include a quality management plan. In certain conditions. Quality assurance focuses on prevention measures during the project implementation phase and checks to see that the project team. consultants or project partners are following the quality standards. and any assumptions. made in the quality plan.
Team Management During the definition of the project activities a list is created that identifies the skills needed by the project. The first step is identifying the roles. . The project team is after all the team responsible for the project and the project manager needs to be clear in acquiring the skills when needed.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 63 Supporting Processes The supporting process areas are team. Team evaluation. Steps during the team management process: 1. These range from highly technical to administrative and support functions. 3. stakeholder. and using motivational techniques. and contract management. responsibilities and reporting relationships. evaluating the performance of the team and dealing with conflict and people issues. assigning roles and responsibilities. the success of the project will depend on the quality and commitment of the team. Team identification. improving team performance. the process of identifying the skills and competencies required for carrying out the project activities and the sources were those skills can be located. organizing the team and building their capacity to perform in the project. they are supporting areas because they assist and make possible for the project to achieve its objectives. information. Team improvement. The second step is getting the people that will be assigned to the project. 4. Team building. These can come from within the organization or hired through the Human Resource function of the organization. This is where the project manager needs to be heavily involved and participate in all interviews with possible candidates. risk. Team management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. 2.
norms. another good method to help them is a formal mentorship. that defines the development strategies and goals. The chart also helps identify the reporting relationships amongst the project team members and how the project integrates with the organization. communications. Most projects do not have the luxury of time to fully develop a team. culture. . it rather involves careful planning to ensure that the project has the right people at the right time doing the right things. and soft skills include time management. which should not be done once a year or at the end of the project but on an ongoing basis where the feedback opportunities should allow staff to be aware about their performance as it compares with expectations and identify ways to improve it.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 64 Once people have been assigned to the team the next step is to develop the team. This process helps new staff to navigate through the organizations policies and procedures. Once the team has been identified. facilitating and negotiation skills. guidelines. can help the project manager build the right team and helps the team to start implementing the project activities with the right level of skills. the project manager develops the “project organization chart” illustrating the structure that the project will use to manage the project team. Team development includes hard and soft skills. Some organizations also include an induction process fully describing the mission. Hard skills includes technical training to learn new methodologies or practices. and other internal processes for new hires. but the creation of a development plan. were a project member is assigned to guide a new staff member to help navigate and understand the organizational culture and procedures. Team management is not limited to the hiring and reassigning staff at the end of the project. Part of team management also includes team evaluation.
the type of project. including participants such as the local press. the geographic location and the external environment in which the project will take place. Stakeholders are all the people who have an interest in the project.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 65 Project Manager Level 1 Support Level 2 Level 2 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Figure 11. local government. A project objective could be to improve the way in which the relationships between the project . local institutions and even watchdog organizations. partner organizations and anyone who will be impacted by the project. all defined by the scope of work. Managing stakeholders is not an easy task. Stakeholders include donors. Each project has a different list of stakeholders. The Project Organization Chart Stakeholder Management Stakeholder management is one of the areas typically capturing the least amount of thought and planning in development projects due to limited or no understanding and agreement on who are the stakeholders and their role in the project. whose satisfaction is the most critical element to define the success of a project. beneficiaries.
and communication. Stakeholder management improvement. 2. their level of interest and influence in the project. 4. implementing the strategies through communications and relationship building. and specially identify their fears and concerns about the project. Stakeholder Mapping. The final step is to develop a good understanding of the most important stakeholders and develop a communication strategy that will help manage the relationship. the next step is to understand their needs. Stakeholder relationship building.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 66 and the stakeholders are managed by taking a proactive approach geared towards building trust. evaluating the results of stakeholder management strategies. The Stakeholder Map C High . planning. improving stakeholder management strategies to increase support to the project. Stakeholder management includes the processes of stakeholder analysis. There are four steps in stakeholder management process: 1. Stakeholder Analysis is the technique used to identify who are the project stakeholders. the process of mapping and analysis of stakeholders and develop stakeholder management strategies. Below is an example of the stakeholder map: High A Keep Committed Keep Satisfied B Influence Keep Informed Low Keep Engaged D Low Interest Figure 12. Stakeholder evaluation. An important tool on identifying stakeholders is the creation of a stakeholder map that places each stakeholder on a matrix of influence and interest. 3.
A group that was initially recognized as having low influence and low interest can change to have a large influence and interest in the project. This analysis provides information for additional plans that could prove to be valuable for the project team such as a “communication management plan” and a “risk management plan”. this is usual at the start of the project when limited information about the project has been distributed. especially when stakeholders could have a significant impact on the project. Failure to do this can cause that stakeholders loose interest or change their positive interest into negative interest and which case and due to their high level of influence these effects can be significant to the project. The best approach is to keep this group informed. The goal is to work on building more positive interest in the project by keeping them committed. Stakeholder analyses are techniques that can help project team members understand the variety of stakeholders that have influence and an interest in the project. but. The project team needs to monitor these groups. Quadrant D – Stakeholders with low influence and low interest belong to this group to whom the project should pay little attention. there is little the project can do to increase the influence. • • • The level of influence and interest on the project can change during the life of the project. Stakeholder analysis provides the team with views and some basic measures that can help uncover and remove barriers. Each stakeholder has a different idea or expectation of what the project is. Quadrant C – This group’s level of impact to the project is medium and needs occasional monitoring. This is a relationship that needs to be managed closely to avoid changes in perceptions aboutthe project. Quadrant B – Stakeholders that belong to this group need to be kept satisfied so that their interest is sustained and the organization can take advantage of their influence. When beneficiaries are not involved in the planning or consulted on their needs and expectations about the project they can easily turn . Increasing information to maintain the level of engagement on the project is a good strategy.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 67 • Quadrant A– This group is made of stakeholders that have high influence but low interest in the project. Stakeholders with low influence and high interest belong to this group. Stakeholder management also helps manage expectations. as well as add or remove stakeholders from the list.
and ultimate disposition of project information. collection. Information Improvement. Failure to do this can increase the risks to the project. concerns and issues of the stakeholders early in the process. especially when the project has to deal with a key stakeholder who has the power to disrupt the project. Information Planning.can be used to its advantage. 80% of a project managers’ time is spent communicating via reports. not project managers.needs. Information Evaluation. dissemination. Information Management This important process includes the steps required to ensure timely and appropriate generation. that is why it communication with stakeholders is is important to know all another leading cause of project failure. or assume that they will support the project unconditionally. a good stakeholder management plan helps manage the politics that can often arise with development projects. By identifying the Stakeholders have dif. the ferent levels of interest project has developed a knowledge that on a project and their in. improving information management processes the project stakeholders and identify their level of interest and influence. the process of defining the information needs and plans to manage project information 2. meetings or presentations. Failing to identify stakeholders can lead to difficult situations. the process of collecting. . storage. it helps win support and eliminates a major source of project stress. evaluating the results of information management plans 4. analyzing and reporting project information 3.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 68 their back to the project and without beneficiaries the project doesn’t have a reason to continue. fluence on the project Insufficient involvement and infrequent also varies. telephone. Information Management. The steps in information management include: 1. email. The success or failure of the project is ultimately judged by stakeholders. A project should never try to take stakeholders for granted.
Principles are the values and norms that govern the behavior of the people in charge of developing the communication messages. Having a successful information management plan depends on developing a sound communication strategy and to the ability of the project manager to listen.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 69 The information management plan is influenced by the type and needs of the project stakeholders. editing and distributing the information. different needs for information. but learning to listen first and then define what information is needed. how the information will be distributed and how to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of the information. One type of report cannot be used to inform all stakeholders because each of them has a different interest on the project. this is important specially when developing donor reports or reports to comply with local laws or regulations. and the frequency of communications is also different. The goal of commu- . Donors have specific information needs from the project and provide formats that describe the content and timing of the information required. communities and local NGOs. The first step of the plan is to define the type of information that the stakeholders need from the project. Communication is not just about sending information. The information management plan contains a list or description of all the types of information that needs to be communicated by the project. Distributing information is another element of information management. determine when they need it. this step is useful when communication is used as a tool to build stakeholder support and build relationships with beneficiaries. it identifies who will be responsible for collecting. they require information in different formats and channels. It is a good practice that the project defines the communications principles guiding all communication efforts. Information management also includes an analysis or evaluation of the effectiveness and relevance of the information distributed. it goes beyond the act of sending information and includes steps to ensure that the information was received and understood by the intended recipients.
will have an adverse impact on the project. Risk Planning. the goal of communications is not achieved. 4. and similar projects done in the past. analyzing. But if the receiver responds to the message by taking the appropriate action. includes the activities to monitor risks and respond to risk events. Risks Monitoring and Response. the goal of the communication has been achieved. The level of risk in projects is defined as something that may happen and if it does. involves the evaluation of the risk management plan and response to actions taken by the project. The team assesses each identified risk for its probability of occurring and its impact on project objectives. involves the identification and quantification of all risks and the development of a response plan. a way of numerically estimating the probability that a project will meet its cost and time objectives. but fails to act. its environment. There are four stages to risk management planning: risk identification. based on a simultaneous evaluation of the impact of all identified and quantified risks. it involves identifying potential project risks and documenting their characteristics. Risk analysis assesses the importance of the identified risks and develops prioritized lists of these risks for further analysis or direct mitigation. Part of risk management includes the revision of risk analysis during the project’s lifecycle. The next step is the analysis of the project risks. The project risk list is a project deliverable. and responding to risks. The project team members identify the potential risks using their own knowledge of the project. risk analysis and quantification. risk monitoring and control. Risk Plan Improvement. Qualitative risk analysis. the actions to improve the risk plan and response mechanisms as well as an update on the risk levels. Risk identification deals with identifying all possible risks that may impact the project. The four steps in risk management are: 1. If the receiver understands the meaning of the message which asks for action. 3. There are two types of risk analysis: • • Quantitative risk analysis. .Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 70 nication is the acceptance of the project’s message by the receiving audience. Risk Evaluation. risk response. 2. Risk Management Risk Management includes the processes concerned with identifying.
Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 71 Risk response planning focuses on the high risk items evaluated in the qualitative and/or quantitative risk analysis. It also ensures the execution of risk response plans. As the project makes progress the probability for risks to occur changes. The project manager and the team identify which strategy is best for each risk. The project risks during project lifetime . The list of project risks changes as the project matures. this has implications on the budget and other contingency plans developed by the team. new risks develop. It identifies and assigns staff to take responsibility for each risk response. Risk monitoring and control continues for the life of the project. residual risks. but the potential impact increases. and evaluates their effectiveness. and then design specific actions to implement that strategy. Risk monitoring and control keeps track of the identified risks. or anticipated risks disappear. and new risks. Risk Probability High Probability Low Probability Project Timeline High Impact Risk Impact Low Impact Project Timeline Figure 13.
includes: identifying the steps for approval and negotiation of the donor contract or grant. Develop the proposals. sub-grants and procurement contracts. done in conjunction with the organizations’ procurement . Because of this probabilistic and speculative nature of risk management. many project managers feel it’s is not necessary and prefer to deal risks only when it occurs. selecting the vendors. specifications and clauses that the donor has established. the plan identifies the what. and/or selectign sub-grant recipients. Contract award. 3. The procurement contract management is a key element during the project implementation. Sub-Grant contract management deals with the processes the project will establish to select. 2. award and monitor the funds that other organizations will receive from the project to carry work on behalf of the project. − Contract management consists of four steps: 1. which includes: sending a proposal to the donor. and/or sending a request for proposal for sub-grants. It also identifies potential sources and the strategies that the project will use to procure goods and services. and includes the preparation of plans to reduce the impact to the project. Update the contract as needed to reflect authorized changes or modifications. Review performance and monitor application of clauses and obligations under the contracts. regulations.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 72 Risks management is the management of events that may or may not occur. Contract Management Contract Management includes the processes required to manage the three types of contracts: Grants. Procurement contract management deals with the provision of goods and services that the project will hire from local or international vendors and consultants. Different projects have different needs relating to contract management. when and how many of the goods and services are needed within the budgeted limits. grants and sub-grants 4. − − Grant contract management deals with the processes to ensure that the project follows the conditions. sending a request for procurement of goods and services needed by the project.
ensuring reports and payments are made on time and goods and services are delivered under specifications. the project must develop processes to monitor the sub-grants. developing the selection criteria and contract terms. Contract management will not only identify all the activities that the subgrantee will perform and all the goods and services that the project needs. identifying risks and issues related to the proposed transaction. This process has the objective to ensure that the project gets what it needs without creating risk to the pro- . Implementing the procurement plan is the process of developing the procurement documents such as the Request for Proposal (RFPs). Most of the time in this process is spent in contract management. when to procure. This process involves deciding how to award sub-grants. and selecting the vendors that meet the requirements of the project. proposals or offers. and negotiating and awarding the contract. resolution of open issues. Monitoring the plan involves managing the relationship with the donor. it also involves the process to solicit the goods and services. how to procure. obtaining quotes. verifying their qualifications and capacity. what to procure and how much should be procured. Selecting the vendor or source involves choosing from the potential suppliers. monitoring contract performance. if required by the donor. therefore. final verification. When all contract obligations have been achieved (or when they have not) the project will close the contract. Sub-Grant contract management occurs in many large projects were the donor requires that a substantial amount of the project funds are directed to local organizations to carry the activities with beneficiaries. donor restrictions and the applicable host country government regulations. a contract audit.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 73 function. In this scenario the project and the organization is responsible for ensuring that the funds are utilized in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. subgrantee and suppliers. Closing a contract includes the completion and settlement of the contract. but it also identifies the organizations procedures. formal acceptance and. which consists of following the due diligence process required to ensure that the project obtains the goods and services under the required specifications. This is a process of systematically evaluating vendor information. bids.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 74 ject and the organization/s. the management of risks related to the appropriate use of donor funds to purchase the goods and services within the donor requirements. Risks can occur in the form of improper or inadequate controls to manage the contract relationships. Especially. . and ultimately the needs of the beneficiaries. and to ensure that the goods and services meet the needs of the project.
Information. Budget. Stakeholder. Schedule. verify. Risk and Contract C) Contract.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 75 Chapter 4 . Budget and Quality B) Schedule. . Stakeholder. Stakeholder. verify and adapt C) Adapt. Risk and Quality C) Risk. Scope. Information. assign and adapt Question 3 – What step in Schedule Management requires input from the WBS? A) Define the Schedule B) Monitor the Schedule C) Publish the Schedule D) Update the Schedule Question 4 – What is a GANTT chart? A) A diagram that shows the roles in a project B) A diagram to represent the cost of each activity C) A diagram that list all project activities from the WBS D) A diagram used to monitor the project quality Question 5 – What are the five supporting processes? A) Scope. define. Risk and Scope D) Team. define. verify and assign D) Define. Risk and Contract B) Team. Budget and Quality Question 2 – What is the correct order of the fours steps in Scope Management? A) Assign. Risk and Contract.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the four core project management processes? A) Scope. Budget and Scope D) People. Schedule. adapt and verify B) Define. Information. Budget. Schedule. assign.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 76 .
. Organizations need to build a better understanding of the role of a project manager starting from the premise that this role is not the same as a technical manager/director. coordinate the use of resources. Responsibilities and Skills | 77 CHAPTER 5 ROLES. The job description for a project manager needs to be more explicit on the managerial skills and competencies required for the job. and leadership. These skills are often overlooked at the time of hiring or appointing a project manager. negotiating. project managers are also required to have good management skills such as communicating. It is not unusual to find a good engineer being promoted to project manager just for his or her technical competence. While it is true that a good understanding of the technical aspects of the project is useful. -all at the same time-. communicator and facilitator. communicate with stakeholders and manage the project constraints. planning. this role is of equal or more importance than the role of a technical manager. Organizations usually assign a project manager with the idea that all that is required is expertise in a technical area and often forget the need to have a project manager with the skills to lead a project team. coaching.Chapter 5 – Roles. The project manager role entails to be a good integrator. RESPONSIBILITIES AND SKILLS Role of the Project Manager Development organizations appoint a project manager according to the depth of his or her technical skills. decisionmaking.
The project manager is the ultimate person accountable for the project. not on their technical skills. A Project Manager is also accountable to the Program Manager or Organization Director (depending on the size of the organization). As the person responsible for the project. she is the one whose job it is to make sure the project gets done and would be the principal contact person for the donor. Communicator role: Most of the work should be spent on this role by communicating with all stakeholders and building the right support and relationships. for delivering the project as planned.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 78 For example to manage an agriculture project the organization will hire an agronomist and sustain this decision mostly on the depth of the technical skills and experience but not on the managerial skills needed to supervise a team. Integrator A key role of the project manager is to ensure the proper integration of the project management processes and coordinate the project phases through . Leader role: Motivating and inspiring a team to deliver the project work by providing a vision and direction. the project manager needs to make key decisions regarding the management of the resources available to the project. and to the beneficiaries. responsibilities and skills required from project managers. Integrator role: Ensures that all the project activities. therefore. 3. beneficiaries and the key stakeholders. Most project failures point to the lack of managerial skills from project managers. 2. strategies and approaches are part of an integrated effort. monitor the schedule effectively and ensure the donor funds are utilized in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Organizations need to reevaluate the roles. communicate properly with stakeholders. The Project Manager has the delegated authority to commit the organization on matters regarding performance according to the scope of the project and the contract with the donor. the sole responsibility and authority for project direction and control. the organization’s senior management needs to assign the project manager. There are three critical roles of the project manager: 1.
ject. which involves measuring the results against the intended objectives and coordinating all changes to the plans. The role of integrator involves three specific areas of responsibility: • • • Developing the project management plans. many sources. Responsibilities and Skills | 79 the project management cycle. Project Plan Development A project plan is the document used to coordinate all the project activities and used as a guide to implement and monitor the project.Chapter 5 – Roles. on the other hand. which in most cases are managed by the project staff. and so are the project plans. which consists of the development of all project planning documents into a consistent. usually from subject matter experts and project stakeholders. which involves the execution of the project plan and ensuring that all activities are performed by all the people involved Monitor and control the plan. A large project involving many people over many years would require a detailed project plan with complete and in depth information covering many pages. Development projects are unique. not the art of integration. the plans are in- . The main role of the project manager is not related to the technical responsibilities of the project. This role is designed to ensure that all areas of the project come together to bring the project to a successful conclusion. especially because most of the information to hinder it with too derelative to the project plans come from tailed instructions. coherent project plan document Implementing the project plan. The effort of coordinating all these information gives the project manager the opportunity to build a good understanding of the overall project and use it as guide to conduct its implementation. a small project that involves a few people over a couple of months might have a project plan a few pages long. A project plan is a tool that the project The project manager taimanager uses to lead the project team lors the project plan to and asses the status of the project. fit the needs of the proIn order to create a good project plan tended to guide the prothe project manager needs to practice ject implementation. Plans should be dynamic and the project manager role is to ensure that the plans have a level of flexibility to allow changes as the project makes progress or when the project environment changes.
Project managers must provide leadership to communicate the project plans. The team that implements the plan has a better chance at succeeding when they are part of the plan’s design. A good approach to help the coordination between project planning and the project implementation is to have the same people who plan the activities be the people who will implement them. This is the effort where the project will spend most of its During implementation resources and it requires that the manager monitors the the best practices and project performance of the project activities as good results from the described in the project plan. facilitating and negotiating skills. Project implementation requires a different set of skills: leadership. Although project managers are responsible for developing the overall project management plan. Since the main objective of developing a project plan is to guide the project implementation. Project planning and implementation are closely related and intertwined activities. in addition to effectively communicate with the project stakeholders and facilitate negotiations as needed to help implement the project plans. Project managers and their staff must posses the required expertise for successful project implementation. Project Plan Monitoring and Control early activities needs to be documented to benefit future activities and facilitate improvements to the project plan. Implementing the plan is essentially a proactive role accomplished constantly relying on the project plan. . beneficiaries.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 80 The project manager or the development organization can decide the minimum content of the project plan. communication. Project Plan Implementation Project plan implementation includes all the efforts necessary to achieve the activity outputs. a good plan should help produce good outputs which ultimately lead to good outcomes. they must solicit inputs from the project team members and key project stakeholders. It is a good practice if the organization develops basic guidelines or standard forms to help with the creation of the project plan. management and other key stakeholders. especially because this document will be used as a communication tool with the donor.
the role of the project managers in this area involves achieving the following objectives: • Ensure that changes are beneficial and contribute to the project success. The purpose of the report is to identify any discrepancies or issues identified by the project team who is responsible to determine the best corrective actions as needed. • • Performance reports provide information to measure the status of the project against the baseline indicators from the original plans. Update project plans and record the changes. beneficiaries and key stakeholders need to make critical decisions about the project. relevant.Chapter 5 – Roles. Communicator This is one of the main roles of the project manager. budget and quality. Part of this role is to ensure that the lessons learned are captured and shared with the organization to provide guidance to current or future projects. Responsibilities and Skills | 81 Monitoring and controlling the project involves identifying. evaluating and managing changes throughout the project management cycle. often overlooked and not properly taken into consideration when assigning a project manager to a new project. which is achieved by influencing the factors that create changes and by making trade-offs amongst the project constraints such as scope. and timely. Project managers in the role of communicators assume three functions: gathering information from project staff and other people involved with the project. Changes are common in projects but they must be managed and properly documented because changes are the most significant subject for project audits and because it helps keep the project evaluators informed. and the information they receive must be accurate. schedule. project staff. analyzing the information and . Communicate significant changes to management to beneficiaries and donors. The communication or informational role is the most critical role for the success of the project because the organization. donors. specially the changes that will impact the projects constraints.
. solve problems. The central information to the right role of the project manager is its ability people about the project. Communication is used Formal communications like progress reports and presentations to management or to the beneficiaries Informal communications like email messages. The project team needs direction for the whole life of the project and the project manager is responsible for leading the team to achieve the vision that the project has created by facilitating. and the general public to gain support for the project. beneficiaries. it involves working with and through others to achieve the objectives of the project. timely achieve the project goals.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 82 make sense of its implications. such as the donor. and motivate determines the effectiveness of the project manager. provide direction and constantly negotiate for resources. develop reports (written and spoken) to the donors. Project managers primarily use two forms of communication: • • Leader A project manager should be a leader beyond any other competency. risks. start shifting their attention from the final objective. here is where the leadership role is needed and the project manager needs to communicate and motivate the team to achieve the ultimate goal. direct. Communication is procoordinating and motivating the team to viding relevant. they listen to issues. Project managers spend most of their time communicating.which includes the ability to facilitate. and distributing the information to the internal and external environments. Leading is a central role. and team meetings to inform and educate the project stakeholders about the project objectives. to influence. The success of project managers depends greatly on their ability to communicate effectively. coordinate. The project manager’s ability to lead . During the course of the project is not unusual that the team. and communicate. beneficiaries or project partners. or the beneficiaries. telephone calls. The focus of this role is to ensure that the project team and stakeholders have a clear vision of the objectives of the project. assumptions and constraints. inspire. They host meetings.
The project manager also contributes by providing the framework to facilitate the interactions amongst the different groups so that they are able to function effectively. The facilitator role is mostly used when dealing with beneficiaries. such as finance. The project manager has to inform each group about what is expected from them and how their activities will be coordinated. All participants need their activities be coordinated in away that benefits the project.Chapter 5 – Roles. . which is a shared responsibility with the project team. These groups include the functional units in the organizations. these groups will loose sight of their role within the project and may pursue their own interest at the cost of the project. stimulate and encourage the team to achieve the project objectives Facilitator Under this role the project manager supports the project team to work more effectively and helps them collaborate more efficiently to achieve a stage of synergy. the project manager role is to create the right conditions that enable the project team to carry their duties. Since the project manager doesn’t have any form of authority over this group he must provide an environment where beneficiaries feel comfortable with contributing ideas and provide input to the project including the discovery of different approaches that can help achieve the projects objectives. The goal of this role is to support the project team and their interactions with beneficiaries and other stakeholders so that they can achieve exceptional performance. direct and synchronize the efforts of all involved in the project Motivator: To inspire. human resources and procurement. the beneficiaries. The project manager is not responsible for all the tasks of the project. Responsibilities and Skills | 83 The leadership role implies the roles of: • • • Facilitator: To ease and assist the project team to do their work Coordinator: To organize. Without coordination. or the partners involved with the projects. Coordinator Coordination means integrating the goals and activities of the people and groups involved with the project. This role is needed to ensure that all these groups are working towards the same goal.
when one group requires an output produced by another group in order to complete an activity. if people are not motivated the project will fail. Motivator Development projects are highly complex and demanding on the project staff. extensive travel. The project team is an integral part of the project. The project manager’s role as a motivator is to identify the factors that would motivate the project team to take the necessary actions to complete a task given the project constraints. limited accommodations and other factors generate a need to have a highly motivated team.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 84 The need for coordination depends on the need for integration of the activities from different groups. The project manager encourages full participation from the project team. lack of motivation can lead to a high turnover and low morale which results in poor performance. Even if the project is able to develop the best plans and has all the resources needed. promotes mutual understanding with the beneficiaries and cultivates shared responsibility among all project stakeholders. high security risks. Working with people who are motivated by different reasons is not easy. Communication is the best tool to achieve an effective coordination. The nature of development projects involving difficult locations. for instance. and it depends on the degree of interdependence and the nature of communication requirements. this is the reason why the project manager has to act as a motivator to the team in times of difficulty. A high degree of coordination is needed when factors in the project environment are changing and a high level of interdependence exists amongt the activities performed by the different groups. the greater the need for information. The project manager needs to evaluate the best approach to coordination which has to match the project’s capacity. . The project manager’s role is to ensure that information is received by all groups at the right time. The greater the level of complexity and uncertainty about the project objectives.
On a large or complex project. reassignment. scope. responsibilities. probation. the organization is always held ultimately accountable for the final results. The appointed responsible manager has to select his team members and assign the activities in accordance to his planning and has the responsibility to undertake the project. such as a negative employee performance rating. Accountability comes as a result of the assigned responsibility. and specific assignments to foster self-motivation.Chapter 5 – Roles. The project manager must ensure that the assigned responsibility is clearly stated and the expected results are mutually understood and accepted by all stakeholders. Responsibilities of the Project Manager Responsibility is an agreement between two or more people for the intention of achieving a desired result. Along with the overall responsibility the project manager is also given the authority over the project which implies appropriate access to resources to . The accountability must be consistent with the responsibility assigned. quality and risk. results or activities. Responsibilities and Skills | 85 In the process of motivating the team the project manager must also understand the importance of individual motivations. Responsibility means that the organization appoints a manager who will be in charge of the project and its objectives. the organization must hold that person accountable for achieving the desired result and state the consequences of poor performance. the project manager will connect each member to their objectives. the project manager must understand what motivates them individually and as a team. the project manager may elect to appoint one or more assistant project managers and he may delegate single or multiple responsibilities to the assistant project managers to control different processes of the project including monitoring budgets. When an organization dispenses full responsibility to one person. From this premise. Projects vary in duration. however. or termination. To foster motivation for each team member. and complexity.
and responsibility to the organization for managing the project and following policies and uphold its values. The project plans are the operational instructions under which the . The project manager is responsible for three areas of the project: responsibility to the donor to provide timely and accurate information. Successful organizations have written policies and procedures that define how responsibility. and monitor progress against plans: Which may need modifications based on results from evaluations These responsibilities are part of the project manager’s main role as project integrator. equipment. materials. objectives. Planning The responsibility for planning involves defining what the project will accomplish. including the level of purchase authority over equipment and materials or the level of signature authority over other project expenditures. and who will do it. responsibility to the beneficiaries for delivering the project outcomes. accountability.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 86 complete the project. activities and resources needed. In general terms the project manager responsibilities in the project are: • • • • Planning: Developing the project plans that will guide the actions to implement the project Organizing: Coordinate the work to make optimum use of resources. how it will be implemented and monitored. and authority work in the project management environment. It is important to define in writing the specific responsibilities and authority the project manager will have in terms of personnel. The project manager is responsible for creating the project plans and defining the goals. such as personnel or budget. and funds. when it will be completed. Authority must be commensurate with the responsibility assigned and appropriate to the accountability. Directing: Leading and motivating the team and other key stakeholders Controlling. The organization must determine and explicitly define the level of authority that the project manager has to hire and terminate team members.
once the plans have been approved and distributed. lead and motivate the members of the project to perform in a unified and consistent manner. The project manager. By directing. project team and distribute and delegate some authority management of the orto the project team. Responsibilities and Skills | 87 entire project will be implemented and will serve as a map to guide the project team. Directing Once the plans are made and the organization has been determined and the project staffed. she is responsible for communicating all stakeholders on the changes and to ensure that the changes are being incorporated in the activities and tasks of the project team. control of the PM act as catalyst to activities and the flow of information get the beneficiaries. constraints. Under this responsibility the project manager may nor. The project manager will need to communicate the objectives meet the project goals. stage is on coordination. dowithin the project. An important element of organization is to staff the project with qualified people who can take the responsibility for specific elements of the project. Organizing The responsibility of the project manager is to establish a structure that will maximize the efficiency (doing the things right) and effectiveness (doing the right things) of the project. the project manager assumes the responsibility that the project team will follow the vision of the project and all instructions. The project manager is also responsible for updating the plans as new changes or modifications are approved. and work orders. and environment of the project. the responsibility of the project manager is to direct. donors. development projects bring together different expertise from socials sciences to engineering. beneficiaries. mandates. the team members may have not worked together in the past and they may come in and out of the project at different times.Chapter 5 – Roles. . ganization to work and The project manager must have the ability to determine the type of project organization that will fit the needs. and management. has the responsibility to build and staff the Project Managers must project organization that will be capable foster teamwork among to carry out the plans. The focus of this all project participants. The project team may have people with different skill sets and project experience.
the emphasis was placed on technical skills and project managers were hired based on their experience and proficiency in the project’s technical areas. and make the necessary corrections. The project manager must establish standards for performance. Development projects now use multi-dimensional methods that include different approaches including rights based. and sequence of the project activities. Project management is both a science and an art. the behavioral skills are becoming equally important as technical skills. Managerial Skills for Project Managers The evolution of development projects has changed the skills required from project managers. To be an effective project manager today requires more and more. Controlling Controlling is a responsibility to ensure that the actions of the project team contribute toward the project goals. Not long ago. the nature of development projects has changed considerably. directing.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 88 and goals of the project in a consistent manner to ensure that all work done by the team is supporting the achievement of those goals. logics. organizing. and partnership strategies. gender. and monitoring the project. It’s a science . Project managers need to spend more of their time planning. a good understanding of general management. Controlling also includes a revision of the original project assumptions and test if they are still valid. detect the variations from the standards. projects are not just onedimensional approach focused on a single solution. Projects are becoming more complex in their nature and it is no longer possible for the project manager to remain a technical expert. with the purpose to ensure that the goals be achieved within the project constraints. Starting in the late 90’s. This revision may cause changes in the approach. This responsibility ensures that the project is on track. performance measurement. In today’s projects.
project managers must be skilled in both the science and the art of project management. Furthermore. know how to read a statistical analysis of a project baseline data. He/she must know how to interpret a budget report. In order to perform the functions of management and to assume multiple roles.Chapter 5 – Roles. to reach agreements with stakeholders Conceptual skills. the project manager is expected to effectively use information and communication technologies to be more effective in his/her work. because it deals with negotiations. and understand the correct application of the different management methodologies. he/she must concentrate on managing the project. to develop and use management processes and techniques Problem solving skills. conflict resolution. to assess risks. to interpret abstract information Procedural Skills The project manager must have the skills to use management techniques. schedule. procedures and tools. There are four managerial skills essential to successful management: • • • • Procedural skills. time and quality issues. and to make tradeoffs between cost. and an art. to identify root causes and develop solutions Negotiating skills. interpersonal. and organizational factors. letting the project team members perform the technical work and limit the technical in- . financial data. Procedural skills are related to working with processes and tools relative to using specialized knowledge and experience related to project management and the specific methodologies for implementing project activities. graphs. The project manager must maintain a general perspective and avoid micromanaging. Responsibilities and Skills | 89 because it requires the analysis of charts. These skills are necessary to communicate concepts and ideas effectively with the project team.
opportunities & threats. equipment or support. evaluate project progress. A project manager must also be able to see patterns and derive meaningful conclusions from distinct pieces of data. Only then. Moreover. synthesis and analysis thinking skills. In many cases the original problem is a symptom or a larger problem. Problem Solving Skills All projects are prone to encounter problems. Negotiation is the process of obtaining mutually acceptable agreements with individuals or groups. the project team can start developing systematic solutions.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 90 volvement to evaluating the work of the team. analytical skills consist of breaking a whole into component parts. failure to make this distinction may lead to the implementation of a solution that will not solve the problem at its root cause. weaknesses. A large part of negotiation takes place within the organization to get the resources that the project needs. Problem solving Skills offer different techniques that the project team can use to address problems which might otherwise overwhelming or excessively complex. their chances of being successful are greatly reduced. and make decisions to correct deviations from plans. Negotiation Skills Project managers spend a large portion of their time negotiating for resources. develop alternatives. Additionally. Problems must be understood before the team jumps into solutions. Resources in most cases are being requested by other project managers. identifying root causes of problems. the structure and the level . allow a project manager to synthesize and collect disperse information and turning it into a meaningful whole. much like decomposing work into a WBS. Depending on the project. that were not identified in early stages. are excellent strategies to solve problems. Techniques such as breaking problems down into manageable parts. and if they do not have strong negotiating skills. analyzing strengths.
it requires that the project manager sees the project as a whole and not just the sum of its parts. the development organization. manage building agreements that will benefit both the project and the beneficiaries. Conceptual skills are necessary to appropriately deal with project politics and to acquire adequate support from top management. The bigger and more complex is the project. Beneficiaries may have other priorities. therefore. They understand relationships between projects. When dealing with vendors or consultants who are bidding for a specific good or service. and the ability to anticipate how a change in one part of the project will affect the entire project. Conceptual Skills Conceptual skills deal with the ability to coordinate and integrate all project’s efforts. The project manager needs the ability to understand how all the parts make a whole and how they all relate and depend on one another. the beneficiaries and its environment. Negotiation usually includes making trade-offs when stakeholders request changes or modifications to the project and its resources. Project managers with good conceptual skills are well aware of how various elements of the project environment or ecosystem interrelate and influence one another. and motivate the team. Responsibilities and Skills | 91 of authorization.Chapter 5 – Roles. the assistance of specialized staff such Technical skills are not as representatives from legal or the procurement department may also be enough. the donor organization. they may not be highly motivated to participate in the project activities. Negotiation skills are also useful when successful they need to dealing with project beneficiaries and be able to lead. ferent set of skills to be . and how changes in one part of the environment affect the project. the larger is the need for this type of skill. The project manager must be able to find the best approach to persuade the group by building a common understanding of its benefits and align the interest of the beneficiaries with those of the project. the project manager has to negotiate on behalf of the organization. project managers need a new and difrequired. This skill helps the project manager to keep a clear vision of the ultimate goal of the project and understand its relationships and dependencies with the project’s environment.
Major interpersonal skills include: communication. The more a project manager knows about the organization. and human dynamics. The tendency is for experts to believe their solution is the right one. Every organization has a unique culture and the units within an organization often have their own personalities. . The results of projects led by a manager with a wider set of skills tend to yield much better deliverables than a comparable project led only by technical experts. and therefore the only choice.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 92 Interpersonal Skills for Project Managers Traditionally. Having interpersonal skills allows for a better understanding of people. leadership. team building. understanding these cultures and personalities can help a project manager be more successful. Project managers work under an organization structure built upon people from different backgrounds. coaching. training. The reason is that technical experts tend to be very narrow in their views. their attitudes. policies. The project manager needs to have a good understanding of the organization’s culture. project managers are appointed based on their technical expertise more than their management experience. values. These skills are most critical for effective performance in a challenging project environment. the better equipped he/she is to navigate around difficult situations and make appropriate decisions. A project manager needs to be open to the views and suggestions of the team members. Experts leading a project are less likely to consider any other view than their own. and politics. Undersanding of the teams’ personalities needs. and desires are a key element for successfully managing teams. motivating. delegating. Unfortunately there are very little training and efforts are directed towards management and team building. which builds the foundation to be an effective project team leader and to fabricate a cooperative environment amongst the project members and all other groups interacting with them. A project manager whose only competency is a technical expertise will has difficulties when dealing with a team that has a diverse technical background. directing and supporting those involved in the project.
it is the ability to motivate a group of people towards a common goal. This skill gives the project manager the ability to articulate a clear vision and provide direction. Leadership is an essential quality in any manager and it is the way to get the team energized.Chapter 5 – Roles. just because the organization appoints a project manager that doesn’t make him or her a leader. motivate. Leadership is the predominant contributor to the success of the project manager. Leadership is not giving orders and telling others what to do. . Leadership is not a gift that some people have and others don't. and attitudes. values. good leadership can lead to success and even overcome unskilled management. Leadership can be learned and it can improve with practice. The use of good interpersonal abilities helps building trust and confidence between members of the project team and helps creating good relations and a good working environment. This is particularly true for international projects composed of the people from different backgrounds and cultures. In small projects. Responsibilities and Skills | 93 The project manager also needs to be sensitive to the cultural differences when dealing with diverse people and their opinions. Leadership implies the ability to influence. Leadership is a critical management skill. it is not a job title either. Important interpersonal skills and abilities required to handle projects are: • • • Leadership skills to guide and inspire the team to accomplish the project goals Communication skills to build support and understanding of the project Behavioral skills to help and motivate the team Leadership Skills Leadership skills are essential for project managers because project managers must influence the behavior of others. committed and willing to follow the project plan. Project managers require leadership skills for the simple reason that they accomplish their work through individuals who have faces and names.
key stakeholders. facilitate the motivational process. to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the project. This skill is absolutely crucial in project management. understanding perceptions and attitudes. make possible to build cooperation between the project team. the project manager is able to convey the information and ideas more effectively. These skills are needed in development projects due to the large number of people interfacing with the project . other project stakeholders. Behavioral skills include dealing . and the message may not reflect what is intended. the beneficiaries. and with other people within the organization. the information and ideas do not reach its destination. Behavioral or people skills. By successfully carrying a message. causing a communications breakdown and creating roadblocks that stand in the way of the project goals. When communication is not successful. A key element of effective communication skill is having good listening skills. and the project organization.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 94 and enable the project team and even key stakeholders. Good communication skills allow both the transmitter and the receiver understand the same message. which help improve the morale of the project team and build commitment and support from stakeholders. influencing. Behavioral Skills Behavioral skills also known as people skills. the donors. Communication Skills This is the second most important skill which project managers will spend most of their time during the life of the project. These skills involve team building. an active listener makes the communication flow more effective. It has been estimated that project managers spend 80 percent of their time just communicating with the project team. Good communication skills include verbal and non-verbal enabling a project manager to convey project information in a way that it is assimilated and understood by all project stakeholders.
status. Responsibilities and Skills | 95 with how a person relates to others. 607-623). In D. Zander (eds. then they will be more likely follow the project manager’s directions or suggestions on how the work must be done. this authority may include decisions for assigning staff to the project. A project manager can threaten to fire a team member if they don’t follow a specific assignment or change a behavior. it also means having good interpersonal skills and knowing how to be articulate and how to adapt to different situations. R. it uses some form of punishment or penalty threat to persuade people to do things. If the team recognizes the project manager has a relevant expertise and has demonstrated this knowledge. A project manager can use five different types of power7: • Coercive power. Reward power involves the use of incentives such as money. • • 7 French. .). The project manager can use these type of incentives based on the resources available to the project and following the Human Resource polices of the organization. Group dynamics (pp. The authority provides a level of influence on the project and its members and the project manager can use it to establish his or her power. Jr. The bases of social power.Chapter 5 – Roles. make changes to the approach and other levels of decision-making. New York: Harper and Row. Influence and Power of the Project Manager Project managers are vested with authority on the project by the organization. and Raven. promotions. changes to the schedule. is a negative approach to power. Power is the ability to influence the behavior of the project team to do the things they will not normally do. Expert power is the use of personal expertise to influence the team to follow directions. This approach is usually used as a last resort when all other forms of influence have failed and should be done in coordination with the organizations management and never used as the only influence factor due to its negative impact on the team’s motivation. J. Cartwright and A. B. (1960). these are used as a reward to get some desired behavior or accomplish a difficult assignment. P.. official recognition or special work assignments.
skills. . and uses the power vested on the project manager by the organization to make decisions and assign work to the project team. complexity. Project managers should place relatively more emphasis on their role as leaders during the initiation phase. Referent power is based on the personal charisma of the project manager. they should be integrators during the planning phase and managers during the implementation and monitoring phase. and the special circumstances surrounding the project. and practical experience. Roles and skills are equally important in managing a project. successful project managers are expected to play a combination of these roles. communicator. This is a type of power that must be earned before it is used and it’s the best type of power to positively influence the team. However. Effective project managers should be able to tailor their roles to the size. they have to use a combination of their roles (integrator. The role and position plus the support given by management to the project manager are part of this part of type of power. cultural diversity of the people and overall organizational culture. and environment of the project. • Placing Roles. it should be recognized that although these roles have some of their own distinct characteristics. Excessive use of this type of power can lead to negative results. at the same time of overlapping. During the project management process. Responsibilities and Skills Together Project managers are expected to accomplish project objectives by using their knowledge. depending upon the situation and the phase of the project life cycle.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 96 • Legitimate power is based on authority. and leader) and skills (management and interpersonal) to manage the project. it is based on the leadership qualities of the project manager and his or her ability to build a good level of trust with the team.
Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three roles of a Project Manager? A) Integrator. Responsibilities and Skills | 97 Chapter 5 . Communicator. Integrator. Facilitator D) Communicator. Communicator. Facilitator Question 2 – Why is the Role of Integrator Important? A) To ensure proper integration of the project management processes B) To ensure project stakeholders are aware of the project objectives C) To ensure project plans are done on time and under budget D) To ensure beneficiaries receive the communications on time Question 3 – Who is the ultimate person accountable for the project results? A) The Donor B) The Finance Manager C) The Community Leader D) The Project Manager Question 4 – Which interpersonal skill is used to help and motivate the team? A) Leadership skills B) Behavioral skills C) Communication skills D) Conceptual skills Question 5 – What type of power is based on the project manager's formal authority? A) Coercive power B) Referent power C) Legitimate power D) Reward power .Chapter 5 – Roles. Leader C) Leader. Leader. Manager B) Integrator.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 98 .
A properly designed project organization is essential to project success.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 99 CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT The Project Organization Structure A project organization is a structure that facilitates the coordination and implementation of project activities. The structure defines the relationships amongst members of the project and the relationships with the stakeholders. Its main reason is to create an environment that fosters interactions amongst the team members with a minimum amount of disruptions. and the level of authority given to the project manager. A project structure can adopt various forms varying on advantages and disadvantages. Each project has its unique characteristics and the design of an organizational structure should consider the organizational environment. One of the main objectives of the structure is to reduce uncertainty and confusion that typically occurs at the project initiation phase. The chart is drawn in pyramid form where individuals located . The structure defines the authority by means of a graphical illustration called a project organization chart. One of the important decisions in project management is what type of organizational structure will be used for the project. the project constraints. overlaps and conflict. A project organization chart shows where each person is placed in the project structure.
The structure cannot be designed too rigid or too loose. The project organization establishes the formal relationships amongst the project manager. the beneficiaries and other project stakeholders. The project manager must create a project structure that will meet the various project needs at different phases of the project. This organization must facilitate an effective interaction and integration amongst all the major project participants and achieve open and effective communications amongst them. Project Manager Project Coordinator Nutrition Manager Accountant Administrator Health Manager M&E Coordinator Staff Assistant Staff Staff Staff Driver Staff Staff Figure 14. The structure needs to be designed to help develop collaboration . the development organization. the project.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 100 closer to the top of the pyramid have more authority and responsibility than members located toward the bottom. Project Organization Chart Creating the project structure is only one portion of organizing the project. and the lines connecting the boxes designate formal supervision and lines of communication between the team members. It is the relative locations of the individuals on the organization chart that specifies the working relationships. time. The objective in designing a project structure is to provide a formal environment that supports team members to do their best in completing their assignment and duties. the project team members. since the project organization's purpose is to facilitate the interaction of people to achieve the project ultimate goals within the specified constraints of scope. it is the actual implementation and application that takes the most effort. budget and quality.
it is for that reason that the design should consider other factors that will facilitate the operation of the structure. requires an open and informal structure. The education component. and the need for coordination. with more emphasis on sharing and generation of new ideas in order to achieve innovation and creativity. While specialization allows each project component to maximize their productivity to attain their . approaches and methodologies influence the way in which the project will implement its activities. or have different broad specializations in many areas of development. whereas the time horizon is longer. Factors in Designing a Project Structure There are two design factors that significantly influence the process of developing a project management structure. The organization chart only shows the hierarchical relationship amongst the team members. requires specific goals. The project manager should consider these factors at the moment of designing the project organization to help maximize the effectiveness of the structure. For large projects that have multiple specializations or technical areas. A reconstruction component. It does not show how the project organization will work. A project with a reconstruction and education component will need to manage different approaches based on specialization. each area may have a different need.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 101 amongst individual team members in a cost effective way with a minimum of duplication of effort and overlaps. These are the level of specialization. Projects can be highly specialized and focused in specific areas of development. hierarchical structure. Differences in goals. Specialization Specialization affects the project structure by the degree of specialty required in technical areas or development focus. implying a rigid. with defined time horizons with little sharing of ideas.
Most projects are characterized by the division of labor and task interdependencies.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 102 goals. This is done by redesigning the organization to emphasize on the nature of the projects and adapting how roles and responsibilities are assigned and how resources are used. creating the need for integration to meet the project Project integration is the objectives. Types of Project Organizations Structures There are several factors considered when selecting the design of the project’s organizational structure. Coordination Coordination is required to bring unity to the various elements that make up a project. The goal ing required among the of the project structure is to achieve a level of harmony amongst the individual various project compoefforts leading to the accomplishment of nents to achieve project the project goals. parts. subsystems. the greater the differences. one of the most significant ones is the extent of authority and responsibility that the organization is prepared to delegate to the project manager. integrated whole. the dissimilarities may lead to conflict amongst the members or leads for each component. . especially within an existing organization. This need is greatest when degree of collaboration there are many project components that and mutual understandhave different specializations. and units fit together as a functioning. An important function of the organizations’ top management is to design an organization that fully supports project management. In general. The project work is organized around a work breakdown structure (WBS) that divides the overall project goals into specific objectives for each project area or component. main responsibility is to develop integrating strategies ensuring that a particular component or activity is organized in a way that all of the components. The project manager must design an organizational structure ensuring that all the components are integrated so that their efforts contribute to the overall project goal. The project manager's goals. the more problems project managers have in integrating the components.
Project based. However. if the project is related to the health area. • • Programmatic Focus Based The program focus refers to a traditional structure in which program sector managers have formal authority over most resources. in which the project manager shares responsibility with other programmatic unit managers. In a program focus organization. other projects and other units in the organization. Development organizations are usually organized around programmatic focus areas such as health or education. In this environment. in which project managers have authority only within a programmatic focus area. It is only suitable for projects within one program sector. which are usually called program units and are centered on a specific development field. in which project managers have total authority over project actions. a project has three organization structures available to dictate the design. All the resources needed for the project team come from the same unit. this focus is not suitable for projects that require a diverse mix of people with different expertise from various program sectors. . methods of conflict resolution between the project and the rest of the organization. the project resources come from the health unit. There is no need to negotiate with other program units for resources. all of which are defined by the level of organizational authority given to the project manager: • Programmatic based. since all the staff needed for the project will come from the same programmatic unit. Another advantage from this type of organization is that team members are usually familiar with each other. in large projects the project managers tend to also be the program unit manager. Matrix based. For instance.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 103 The organization needs to define the project manager’s degree of authority and autonomy. a project team is staffed with people from the same area. The most obvious advantage of program-based projects is that there are clear lines of authority. and the level of relationships to the organization. such as health or education. since they all work in the same area. Organization management is also about specifying communication channels.
It is common for people to report to one person in the functional organization.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 104 A major disadvantage of the programmatic focus organization is that the program area may not have all of the specialists needed to implement the project. Another disadvantage is that current programmatic members may have other responsibilities in the unit. An Emergency Project with an education component. since the only people available will work in their own programmatic unit. they may be assigned to other projects at the same time in addition to having other pending tasks that could impact their ability to meet project deadlines. A health specialist might report to the health unit. but may be assigned to a project in another program unit that needs health expertise. while working for one or two project managers from other units. For instance. Programmatic Focus Organization Chart Matrix Based Matrix organizations allow program units to focus on their specific technical competencies and allow projects to be staffed with specialists from across the organization. nutrition specialists may report to one program unit but may be allocated out to work on various projects. Director Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Project Manager Health Project Project Manager Education Project Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Figure 15. . may have difficulty acquiring internal resources such as trainers. for instance.
It becomes more . Additional advantages to matrix management are: it allows team members to share information more readily across the unit boundaries. For instance.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 105 The main advantage of the matrix organization is the efficient allocation of resources. and is easier for a programmatic unit manager to loan an employee to another manager without having to make a permanent change. monitoring and evaluation specialists may not be utilized full-time on a project. Some people might report to program unit managers for whom little work is done. The main disadvantage is that the reporting relationships are complex. It is therefore easier to accomplish work objectives in an environment when task loads are shifting rapidly between programmatic units. especially scarce specialty skills that cannot be fully utilized by one project only. allows for specialization that can increase depth of knowledge and allow professional development and career progression to be managed. while actually working for one or more project managers. but can be fully leveraged by working on multiple projects. Director Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Staff Project Manager Health Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Education Project Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Figure 16 Project Matrix Organization Chart The matrix-based organization is also the most flexible when dealing with changing program needs and priorities.
The PMO is dedicated to provide expertise. Matrix management can add some difficulty to project managers because they must work closely with other managers and other project staff in order to complete the project. known within some organizations as the Project Management Office (PMO). and priorities than the project managers. The PMO strives to standardize and introduce economies of scale in the implementation of projects. An approach to help solve this situation is a variation of the matrix structure which includes a coordinating role that either supervises or provides support to the project managers. This type of structure also requires good communication and cooperation between multiple programmatic unit managers and project managers. objectives. best practices. Project Matrix Organization Chart and the PMO The PMO unit also defines and maintains the standards of process related to project management within the organization. training. methodologies and guidance to project managers.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 106 important for staff members to develop strong time management skills to ensure that they fulfill work expectations from multiple managers. guidance and metrics on the practice of . Director PMO Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Staff Project Manager Health Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Education Project Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Figure 17. The program managers may have different goals. regardless of which the job will have to get done timely and systematically. The PMO is the source of documentation.
The project manager is responsible for the performance appraisal and career development of all project team members while on the project. One major disadvantage of the -pure project organization. project personnel are retained on an exclusive rather than shared or part-time basis. subject only to the scope. or goals.is the costly and inefficient use of . The project manager in this structure has total authority over the project and can acquire resources needed to accomplish project objectives from within or outside the parent organization. mission. A team environment incubates a strong sense of project identification and ownership and it inspires loyalty efforts as there is a good understanding of the nature of project’s activities. Project Based In this type of organization project managers have a high level of authority to manage and control the project resources. budget. This leads to increased project loyalty. and quality constraints identified as project targets.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 107 project management and execution. Director Project Manager Health Project Project Manager Education Project Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Figure 18. Complete line authority over project efforts affords the project manager strong project controls and centralized lines of communication. Project Based Organization Chart Project based organizations more commonly host large and complicated projects. This leads to rapid reaction time and improved responsiveness. The PMO can also help in the prioritization of human resources assigned to projects. schedule. personnel are specifically assigned to the project and report directly to the project manager. In the project based organizational structure. Moreover. These large projects can better absorb the cost of maintaining an organizational structure that has some level of duplications.
since scarce resources must be duplicated on different projects. Another design is based on a mixed structure that includes a matrix. Project managers may tend to retain their best personnel long after the work is completed. An education project may be organized on a matrix using resources part-time from other units.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 108 personnel. as the organization or the donor priorities shift. In a program focus organization. Another disadvantage of the project based organization is the duplication of resources. Project team members are generally dedicated to one project at a time. In some cases. and that is a frequent complaint amongst team members concerning the lack of career continuity and opportunities for professional growth. even though they may rarely be needed on a full-time basis over the life cycle of the project. the team members still have jobs within the program unit while in a project-based organization there is lack of clarity about how and when everyone may be reassigned once the project ends. For example a health program may have a couple of projects short term and long term all reporting to the program manager. which creates another logistical and administrative burden due to the need to managing short term contracts. and a large water project organized as a fully project-based were all staff report to . In this type or organization limited opportunities exist for knowledge sharing between projects. There are also concerns about how to reallocate people and resources when projects are completed. this mix reflects the need for more flexibility in a development organization to accommodate different requirements. The project manager has the full authority and supervision of the project team. A variety of this pure project approach is temporarily projectbased organizations. project personnel may experience a great deal of uncertainty. or the end of the project seems imminent and there are no opportunities beyond the project. program focus and project based. This organization consists of a project team pulled together temporarily from their program unit and led by a project manager that does not report to a program unit. preventing their contribution to other projects and their professional development.
Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 109 the project manager. Objectives and tasks are set and the workforce is expected to do exactly as required. There are four distinct organizational management styles that have a strong influence on how projects are managed: • • • • Autocratic Paternalistic Democratic Laissez-faire Autocratic In this type of management style the manager makes all the decisions. The communication involved with this method is mainly downward. along with the nature of the project. On the other hand. a constant supervision may be required. this method can lead to a decrease in motivation from the team’s point of view. The local culture. customs and social dynamics also influence the management style. keeping the information and decision making amongst the senior management. and the decisions will all be similar which generates a sense of confidence. from the leader to the subordinate. It is not unusual to find this type of mixed project structures on a development organization. . The main advantage of this style is that the direction of the project will remain constant. team members may become highly dependent upon the project manager decisions. the nature of the team and the personality and skills of the project managers. Management Styles Organizational culture is a strong influence on the type of management style that will be used on a project. therefore.
Laissez-faire Under this style the manager's role is marginal and the team members manage their own areas within the project. balancing out the lack of team motivation caused by an autocratic management style. From the overall project’s point of view. however. This style can be highly advantageous. This style can be particularly useful when there are complex decisions requiring a wide range of specialist skills. this may cause uncoordinated delegation. whereas if the wrong decisions are made.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 110 Paternalistic It is a style where the manager makes decisions in the best interests of the employees rather than the project. The communication under this style is horizontal. job satisfaction and quality of work will improve. which means that it is equal in both directions. the manager allows the employees to take part in decision-making.however. the team members may become dissatisfied with the project manager. if the manager evades the duties of management. the decision-making process is severely slowed down. Democratic Under the democratic style. in many cases it is not deliberate and is simply a result of poor management. . This leads to a lack of staff focus and sense of direction. very little communication occurs in comparison with other styles. The manager explains most decisions to the employees and ensures that their needs are always met. everything is agreed by the majority. however. This style brings out the best in highly professional and creative groups of team members. and a poor project image. and can engender loyalty from the team members and a lower staff turnover. which in turn leads to much dissatisfaction. This style shares disadvantages with the authoritarian style because team members become highly dependent on the leader. and the need of a consensus may not necessarily conduct to making the best decisions. thanks to the emphasis on social needs.
Who is ultimately responsible and accountable for the project must be clearly defined and acknowledged at an appropriate hierarchical level within the organization. values. including their interaction and level of coordination including internal and external dependencies. responsibilities. and the interaction amongst these elements for the life of the project. Additionally. Development organizations have some form of project governance. policies and processes that provide the framework within which project managers make decisions and take actions to optimize outcomes related to their areas of responsibility. The appropriate level is the managerial level that has discretionary control over the resources that will be used in the project. it is important to establish the management structure for the project laying out the specific roles. The level of governance for the project must be defined clearly and accepted at a high-level within the organization.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 111 Project Governance Project governance can be defined as an organization’s overall process for sharing decision rights about projects and monitoring the performance of project interventions. roles and responsibilities for each key stakeholder. this may include the creation of a project committee with its operating rules. accountability. approvals. responsibilities and accountability of all people involved in a project. The objective of project governance is to establish clear levels or authority and decision making. budgeting processes. The management team defines the project governance in a document that outlays the roles and responsibilities for decision making in the project. It involves the people. the escalation of issues. A good project governance helps projects define the procedures to follow.) that encourage behavior consistent with the organization's mission. The organization’s management team is responsible for setting up and supporting the governance structure before the project initiates its activities to ensure that all key decisions are made at the right time. etc. This is achieved by defining and identifying the roles. and culture. strategy. and the owner- . it defines the decision making structure. Organizations with effective governance have actively designed a set of project governance mechanisms (committees. norms.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 112 ship management for different processes in the project. In this case the committee may include decisions about project proposal approvals and supervision of the organizations’ project portfolio in general including the selection or appointment of project managers. . Some development organizations may choose to have a standing project governance committee that oversees all projects and defines the decision making structure for each project. project management methodologies and criteria to define project success. from communications to budget change authorizations.
Specialization. Specialization Question 2 – What is one advantage of a programmatic based structure? A) Clear lines of authority B) Efficient allocation of resources C) Information is shared across unit boundaries D) Personnel report directly to the project manager Question 3 – Which is not a management style? A) Autocratic B) Paternalistic C) Democratic D) Federalist Question 4 – What is one disadvantage of a project based structure? A) Complex reporting relationships B) Complete line of authority C) Duplication of resources D) Requires good communications Question 5 – Which management style requires a consensus for decision making? A) Autocratic B) Paternalistic C) Democratic D) Laissez-Faire . Matrix. Matrix. Project B) Functional. Matrix.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 113 Chapter 6 . Matrix D) Project.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three basic forms of project structure design? A) Programmatic. Program C) Program.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 114 .
practices and procedures. Answer B. Answer A. 3. Chapter 2 – Correct Answers 1. 3. Answer D. Answer A. there are six phases in a development project. people and tools are the three basic components of a project ecosystem. All are challenges for development projects. Answer D. 3. A project is system of principles. changes to project plan are approved during the Adapt phase. organizing. external factors that influence the project includes donor regulations and government requirements. project scope is also defined as the boundaries of a project. budget and quality. Process. Answer B. 5. the correct order is initiate. monitor. implement. schedule. 2. Answer C. Answer B. Answer C. leading and controlling are the four basic management functions.PM4DEV | 115 Answers to Review Questions Chapter 1 – Correct Answers 1. 4. It is in the project quality that beneficiaries have a larger role. 5. 4. 2. . all are benefits of a project management methodology. Answer C. Answer D. plan. 2. Chapter 3 – Correct Answers 1. Answer D. planning. Answer D. Answer A. Answer A. A project has a beginning and an end. 5. 4. A development project does not generates a profit. adapt and close. the best methodologies are built based on the experience of its practitioners. the four project constraints are scope.
Answer A. Answer A. matrix and project. 5. the five supporting processes are team. the WBS provides input to the definition step of Schedule Management. Answer B. 2. schedule budget and quality management. risk and contract management. information. Answer D. stakeholder. Answer B. a GANTT chart lists all the project activities from the WBS.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 116 Chapter 4 – Correct Answers 1. assign. a democratic management styles requires a consensus for decision making. 3. Answer A. Answer C. Answer C. Answer D. the ultimate person accountable for the project is the project manager. 3. . Answer D. 4. Chapter 5 – Correct Answers 1. the core project management processes are scope. Answer C. Answer A. 4. behavioral skills are used to help and motivate the team. 3. Answer B. legitimate power use formal authority vested on the project manager by the organization. 5. Answer C. Answer A. a disadvantage of the project structure is the duplication of resources. 2. clear lines of authority is one advantage of a program structure. 2. the three basic forms of project structure design are programmatic. leader and manager. the three roles of a project manager are: integrator. federalist is not a management style. 5. Chapter 6 – Correct Answers 1. the correct order of the four steps in scope management is define. 4. the role of integrator is important to ensure proper integration of the project management processes. verify and adapt.
A point of reference. The cost or effort incurred in the performance of tasks. Generally the beneficiary has a significant authority regarding the acceptance of the project outputs Authority Balanced Scorecard Baseline Beneficiary . cost baseline and product (scope) baseline. Actions taken or work performed through which inputs. complexity. The person or organization that is the principle beneficiary of the project. A high-level description of how the project will accomplish its goals and objectives. Estimating using similar projects or activities as a basis for determining the effort. assumptions are not facts. A number of different solutions and approaches that must be evaluated and chosen to attain the objectives of a project. These provide the basis for estimating. It provides feedback for both the internal organizational processes and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results. learning curves and many other factors are made to create plan scenarios. cost and/or duration of a current one. Usually used in Top-down Estimating. The plan used as the comparison point for project control reporting.PM4DEV | 117 Glossary of Terms Acceptance Acceptance Criteria Accountability Activity Actuals Alternatives Analogous Estimating Approach Statement Assumption The formal process of accepting delivery of a product or service by the project beneficiaries or donor. Something taken as true without proof. such as funds. The ability to get other people to act based on a decision. The obligation to report on one's actions. the date’s tasks have been started or completed and the date’s milestones have been reached. and translate them into action. technical assistance and other types of resources are mobilized to produce specific outputs. Authority is generally based on the perception that a person has been officially empowered to issue binding orders. In planning. Also. The combination of these is referred to as the performance measurement baseline. Performance requirements and essential conditions that have to be achieved before project deliverables are accepted. A management and measurement system that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy. assumptions regarding staffing. There are three baselines in a project—schedule baseline.
During this phase the need. Budgeting and cost management is the estimating of costs and the setting of an agreed budget. A specific date shown on the calendar (e. A formal document providing authority to a project manager to conduct a project within scope. Communication is the giving. . Effective conflict management prevents differences becoming destructive elements in a project. non-verbally. processing and interpretation of information. the overall feasibility of the project is considered and a preferred solution identified.. tasks and sub-tasks. The process of gaining formal acceptance for the results of a project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end. Difference in an expected value or event. including the archiving of project information and post-project evaluation. receiving. duration and cost of each and rolling them up to determine the full estimate. See Relative Date. The most significant changes in project management are related to scope definition. schedule. informally. approved. estimating the effort. rejected or deferred. A documented request for a change in scope or other aspects of the plan. The budget may be expressed in terms of money or resource units (effort). actively. evaluated. quality. consciously or unconsciously. The amount allotted for the project that represents the estimate of planned expenditures and income. and the management of actual and forecast costs against that budget. Concept is part of the first phase in the project life cycle. and budget resource constraints as laid down in the document. 1962) as opposed to a relative date. opportunity or problem is confirmed. availability of resources. Approximating the size (duration and cost) and risk of a project (or phase) by breaking it down into activities. formally. passively. Change control is the process that ensures that all changes made to a project’s baseline scope. The business case for the project will be produced in this phase.g. Determining duration through a bottom-up approach requires sequencing and resource leveling to be done as part of the scheduling process. schedule. Information can be conveyed verbally. budget and quality objectives or agreed benefits are identified. June 22. Conflict management is the process of identifying and addressing differences that if unmanaged would affect project objectives.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 118 Benefits Management Bottom-Up Estimating Budget Budgeting And Cost Management Calendar Date Change Change Control Change Request Charter Closing Communication Concept Conflict Management Benefits management is the identification of the benefits at an organizational level and the monitoring and realization of those benefits. schedule and budget.
The path(s) in a project network that has the longest duration. There may be more than one critical path and the critical path(s) may change during the project. The length of time required or planned for the execution of a project activity. weeks. deadlines and milestones. reach consensus. possibly. performance goals. For example. The time at which all the tasks' predecessors have been completed and its resources are planned to be available. Measured in terms of person hours. A dependency may be logical (see Logical Relationship) or resource based (see Resource dependency). schedules. The project deliverable is differentiated from interim deliverables that result from activities within the project. Planned actions for minimizing the damage caused by a problem. a target date may be a constraint on scheduling. It is done either by year or for the life of the project and only after the project proposal is approved and funded. months. person days. A schedule may be constrained by resource limitations. A relationship between two or more tasks. A detailed implementation plan shows the implementation methods. The amount of human resource time required to perform an activity. This represents the series of activities that determines the earliest completion of the project. Any item produced as the outcome of a project or any part of a project. in the event that problem should occur. schedule and budget objectives and the establishment of a baseline plan for performance measurement. A deliverable must be tangible and verifiable. A designated amount of time and/or budget to account for parts of the project that cannot be fully predicted. A discussion in which the participants share their thoughts and gain a better understanding of the subject and. Generally constraints are outside the control of the project team. and interim evaluation points. A condition or occurrence that might restrict. Earned value management (EVM) is a project control process based on a structured approach to planning. or regulate the project. Measured in calendar time units—days. cost collection and performance measurement. It facilitates the integration of project scope. Every element of the WBS (activity or task) must have one or more deliverables. The earliest time a task can begin.PM4DEV | 119 Consensus Constraint Contingencies Contingency Reserve Critical Path Deliverable Dependency Detailed Implementation Plan (DIP) Dialogue Duration Early Start Earned Value Management Effort Unanimous agreement amongst the decision-makers that everyone can at least live with the decision (or solution). . etc. limit.
and viewpoint. The planning. A study to examine the viability of taking on a project. they should always be expressed with some indication of the degree of accuracy. The agreed upon processes. Generally activities (which may be projects. effort and/or cost to complete a task or project. its quality focus. Effective governance of project management ensures that an organization’s project portfolio is aligned to the organization’s objectives. An estimate is an approximation of project schedule and budget targets that is refined throughout the project life cycle. . etc. influencing and conducting of the policy and affairs of the project. A bar chart that depicts a schedule of activities and milestones. effectiveness and efficiency of the project interventions and its impact (both expected and unexpected) in relation to stated objectives. The amount of time available for a task to slip before it results in a delay of the project end date. Should reference the project's benefits in terms of improved social or economical conditions. Evaluation is an analysis of the relevance. It may be made at any point in the project's life. tasks. The process of coordinating the people and other resources in the performance of the project or the actual performance of the project.) are listed along the left side of the chart and the time line along the top or bottom. Since estimates are not actuals. operational activities. The 12-month period of July 1 to June 30 used for financial planning and reporting purposes. A high-level statement of the project's object of study. is delivered efficiently and is sustainable. budget and/or duration to complete a project or any part of a project. It is the difference between the task's early and late start dates. Estimating uses a range of tools and techniques to produce estimates. The expected effort. roles and responsibilities for governing the progress and direction of a project. Governance of project management (GoPM) concerns those areas of corporate governance that are specifically related to project activities. project activities.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 120 Estimate Estimate To Completion Estimating Evaluation Executing Feasibility Study Fiscal Year Float Gantt Chart Goal Goal Statement Governance Governance Model Governance Of Project Management An assessment of the required duration. The higher-order objective to which a development intervention is intended to contribute. Gantt Charts may be annotated with dependency relationships and other schedule-related information. The activities are shown as horizontal bars of a length equivalent to the duration of the activity. its purpose.
small business and individuals. The process involves an applicant submitting a proposal to a potential funder. environmental. or product versions. retention. The resulting sub-projects may deliver parts of the full product. These will be enhanced to increase functionality or improve product quality in subsequent subprojects. personal development. either on the applicant's own initiative or in response to a Request for Proposals from the funder. effort and money for those that are initiated. Positive or negative long-term effects on identifiable population groups produced by a development intervention. dissemination. reward. human. These effects can be economic. and to begin the team-building and bonding process. Human resource management (HRM) is the understanding and application of the policy and procedures that directly affect the people working within the project team and working group. intended or unintended. governments. during which the project management plan (PMP) is executed. Implementation is the third phase of the project life cycle. . training and career development. material. storage. The process of describing and deciding to begin a project (or phase) and authorizing the Project Manager to expend resources. Most grants are made to fund a specific project and require some level of reporting. monitored and controlled. The financial. directly or indirectly. corporations. In this phase the design is finalized and used to build the deliverables. Information management is the collection.PM4DEV | 121 Grant Human Resource Management Impact Implementation Incremental Delivery Information Management And Reporting Initiating Inputs Issue Management Kick-Off Meeting Late Start Grants are funds given to tax-exempt nonprofit organizations or local governments by foundations. procedures and plans. socio-cultural. A project life cycle strategy used to reduce risk of project failure by dividing projects into more manageable pieces. archiving and appropriate destruction of project information. A meeting at the beginning of the project or at the beginning of a major phase of the project to align peoples' understanding of project objectives. The latest time a task can start before it causes a delay in the project end date. Information reporting takes information and presents it in an appropriate format which includes the formal communication of project information to stakeholders. technological or of other types. These policies include recruitment. Issue management is the process by which concerns that threaten the project objectives and cannot be resolved by the project manager are identified and addressed to remove the threats they pose. technological and information resources used for the development intervention. institutional.
rights and processes that should be applied to projects. . Management tool used to improve the design of interventions. Procedures cover individual aspects of project management practice and form an integral part of a method." For example. Capturing and sharing the lessons learned is an important part of process improvement. major disruptions in the project caused by serious weather conditions. accidents. and to empower and inspire people to achieve project success. Legal awareness provides project management professionals with an understanding of the relevant legal duties. etc. Methods and procedures detail the standard practices to be used for managing projects throughout a life cycle. execution and evaluation of a development intervention. indicators. along with a statement regarding the risk of ignoring the lesson. These are sometimes called "unknown unknowns. It enables the project to proceed in an environment of change and uncertainty. Learning and development involves the continual improvement of competencies in the organization. outcomes and impact) and their causal relationships. A set of statements captured after completion of a project or a portion of a project. See Contingency Reserve. most often at the project level. It thus facilitates planning. A designated amount of time and/or budget to account for parts of the project that cannot be predicted. The statements describe in a neutral way what did or did not work well. A relationship between two or more tasks. Methods provide a consistent framework within which project management is performed. A dependency relationship between two or more tasks or between tasks and milestones. outputs. to influence and align others towards a common purpose. It involves identifying strategic elements (inputs. disciplines. The identification and application of learning within projects develops the organization’s capability to undertake current and future projects. etc. A business structure in which people are assigned to both a functional group (departments. Use of the management reserve generally requires a baseline change. such that one cannot start or finish before another has started or finished.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 122 Leadership Learning And Development Legal Awareness Lessons Learned Link Log Frame Logical Relationship Management Reserve Matrix Organization Methods And Procedures Leadership is the ability to establish vision and direction.) and to projects or processes which cut across the organization and require resources from multiple functional groups. and the assumptions and risks that may influence success and failure.
PM4DEV | 123 Metrics Milestone Mitigation Mitigation Strategies Monitoring Monitoring And Evaluation System Negotiation Network Diagram Ngo Objective Organization Structure Metrics are quantitative measures such as the number of on time projects. An objective is something to be achieved. etc. it has no duration or effort. Precedence Diagram are all forms of network diagrams. Arrow Diagram. It must be preceded by one or more tasks. In project management. or to reduce its effect should the risk event occur. Identification of the steps that can be taken to lessen risk by lowering the probability of a risk event's occurrence. Negotiation in a project can take place on an informal basis throughout the project life cycle or on a formal basis such as during procurement. seeking acceptance. and between signatories to a contract. A graphic tool for depicting the sequence and relationships between tasks in a project. Critical Path Diagram. the objectives are the desired outcomes of the project or any part of the project. A non-governmental organization is a non-profit organization that often conducts humanitarian and development work around the world. both in terms of concrete deliverables and behavioral outcomes (e. Negotiation is a search for agreement. Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact of occurrence. processes and methods for managing project information. more crops. Applied in a consistent way to support the decision making and information needs of the project and its stakeholders. A point in time when a deliverable or set of deliverables is available. keep project schedule and measure progress towards the expected goals An integrated set of mutually supporting tools. consensus and alignment of views. patterns or deviations. . analyzing and reporting project information used to make decisions for project management. A milestone is an event.. improved service.). They are used in improvement programs to determine if improvement has taken place or to determine if goals and objectives are met. Generally used to denote a significant event such as the completion of a phase of the project or of a set of critical activities. storing. The organization structure defines the reporting and decision making hierarchy of an organization and how project management operates within it. The organization structure is the organizational environment within which the project takes place. Monitoring provides project management and project stakeholders the information needed to evaluate the progress of the project.g. Monitoring is the process of routinely collecting. improved health. PERT Diagram. identify trends.
Outcomes represent changes in development conditions which occur between the completion of outputs and the achievement of impact. Parametric estimating is usually used in top-down Estimating. The intended or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs. The phase is usually the highest level of breakdown of a project in the WBS.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 124 Organizational Roles Outcome Outputs Parametric Estimating Performance Measures Performance Outcomes PERT PERT Diagram Phase PIR (Post Implementation Review) Planning Organizational roles are the roles performed by individuals or groups in a project. Results or consequences of the efforts enacted during the project's planning and execution. such as a requirements definition or product design document. The products and services which result from the completion of activities within a development intervention. and/or duration. Performance measures describe how success in achieving the project goals will be measured and tracked. which determines if the expectations established for the project outcome were met. A scheduling technique that makes use of dependency analysis and critical path to determine the duration of a project and slack to determine priorities of tasks. usually requiring the collective effort of partners. the way the project will be performed (procedures and tasks). Analyzing the gaps between current performance levels and performance targets helps projects identify priority areas needing improvement and develop strategies that will close the gap. Both roles and responsibilities within projects must be defined to address the transient and unique nature of projects and to ensure that clear accountabilities can be assigned. Also known as Close Out Report. cost. roles and responsibilities and the time and cost estimates. Program Evaluation and Review Technique. The term is often used as a synonym for network diagram. A grouping of activities in a project that is required to meet a major milestone by providing a significant deliverable. . This is a report compiled upon completion of every project. A type of network diagram deriving its name from the PERT technique. It documents the comparison between actual results of a project and the objectives and deliverables specified in the project's Charter. Estimating using an algorithm in which parameters that represent different attributes of the project are used to calculate project effort. task durations are computed as (Optimistic + 4x Most likely + Pessimistic estimates) / 6). In PERT. The process of establishing and maintaining the definition of the scope of a project. A project is broken down into a set of phases for control purposes.
selection and acquisition of suppliers. A natural series of changes or occurrences. medium or high. An explanation of why the project is needed and why it is being recommended at this time. which help to clarify scope. objectives and other relevant factors that can- . An effort to provide a product or service within finite time and cost constraints. Portfolios can be managed at an organizational.PM4DEV | 125 Portfolio Portfolio Management Post-Project Evaluation Power Predecessor Task Probability Process Procurement Program Program Management Program Manager Programmatic Drivers/Background Statement Project Project Approach Statement Project Assumptions A portfolio is a group of projects and programs carried out under the sponsorship of an organization. A statement of the way the project will do things. The person who directs the planning and execution of a program and is held personally accountable for the success of the program. so as to learn from the experience and continuously improve project performance. which may include related organizational activities that together achieve a beneficial change of a strategic nature for an organization. program or functional level. An activity to assess and evaluate the way a project was performed. Procurement is the process by which the resources (goods and services) required by a project are acquired. reference power. Usually expressed as a probability percentage or a relative scale such as low. For example. It describes the problem or issue that will be resolved by the project as well as any background information necessary to understand the problem. preparation of contracts. subject matter expertise. A task (or activity) that must be started or finished before another task or milestone can be performed. or different approaches may be considered as a way of reducing project risks. the ability to influence rewards and penalties. It includes development of the procurement strategy. Written statements relative to the project. programs and related organizational activities taking into account resource constraints. project planning may require different approaches. Portfolio management is the selection and management of all of an organization’s projects. The likelihood of a risk occurring. as well as other sources. A series of steps or actions to accomplish something. and management of the contracts. Power is the ability to influence the actions of others. A suite of related projects and ongoing operational activities managed as a whole. Power may come from formal delegation of authority. Program management is the coordinated management of related projects.
The funding agency that provides funds to the project.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 126 not be known at a given point in time. planned. Projects bring about change and project management is recognized as the most efficient way of managing such change. A project office can range from simple support functions for the project manager to being responsible for Project Context Project Donor Project Environment Project Funding Project Life Cycle Project Management Project Management Life Cycle Project Management Plan Project Manager Project Objectives Project Office . The purpose of the project management plan (PMP) is to document the outcomes of the planning process and to provide the reference document for managing the project. The project management plan brings together all the plans for a project. Adapting. The single point of accountability for a project." or any number of other synonyms. Project management is the process by which projects are defined. Project Charter A document that describes the project at a high level of detail and is used to authorize the Project Manager to begin work. which assist or restrict the attainment of the project objectives. Each period may be identified as a phase and further broken down into stages. Project context refers to the environment within which a project is undertaken. Projects do not exist in a vacuum and an appreciation of the context within which the project is being performed will assist those involved in project management to deliver a project. controlled and delivered such that the agreed benefits are realized. The full set of activities from the beginning to the end of a project. which are determined based on the major parts of project performance. Project funding is the means by which the capital to undertake a project is initially secured and then made available at the appropriate time. namely: Initiation. both individual and collective. The person responsible and accountable for managing a project's planning and performance. Projects are unique. funded internally or a combination of both. Descriptions of the project's intended results. A project office serves the organization’s project management needs. Planning. The project management plan is owned by the project manager. Monitoring. transient endeavors undertaken to achieve a desired outcome. monitored. Projects may be financed externally. The combined internal and external forces. Implementation. It may also be called a "Project Brief. The sequential major time periods through which any project passes. Closure. Generally associated with a set of phases.
Written reports given to both the project team and to a responsible person on a regular basis. A concise and accurate description of the expected work. Making sure standards and procedures are effective and that they are complied with. The sponsor ensures the project remains a viable proposition and that benefits are realized. time and performance. Members of the core project team and those that are assigned to development and/or support the project deliverables. It generally includes three components: cost. or whole project. or desired outcome. Project sponsorship is an active senior management role. work package. Includes testing and reviews. Project risk management is a structured process that allows individual risk events and overall project risk to be understood and managed proactively. products and deliverables. Project reviews take place throughout the project life cycle to check the likely or actual achievement of the objectives specified in the project management plan (PMP) and the benefits detailed in the project proposal. optimizing project success by minimizing threats and maximizing opportunities. stating the position of an activity. Project success is the satisfaction of stakeholder needs and is measured by the success criteria as identified and agreed at the start of the project.PM4DEV | 127 linking corporate strategy to project execution. Additional reviews will take place following handover and closeout to ensure that the benefits are being realized. resolving any issues outside the control of the project manager. problem or opportunity. Making sure deliverables comply with acceptance criteria. Also includes work and products that are not included in the project. Quality is broadly defined as fitness for purpose or more narrowly as the degree of conformance of the outputs and process. Project Reviews Project Risk Management Project Scope Statement Project Sponsorship Project Statement Project Status Reports Project Success Project Team Members Quality Assurance (Qa) Quality Control (Qc) . responsible for identifying the business need. A concise statement that clearly identifies the project's purpose. Status reports control the project and keep management informed of project status. Project Outcomes Project Outputs Project Quality Management A result or consequence of the project activity or project outputs. The deliverables of a project activity or phase Project quality management is the discipline that is applied to ensure that both the outputs of the project and the processes by which the outputs are delivered meet the required needs of stakeholders.
Resource management identifies and assigns resources to activities so that the project is undertaken using appropriate levels of resources and within an acceptable duration. smoothing. Resource dependent tasks can be scheduled at the same time but are limited by the availability of the shared resources. For example. leveling and scheduling are techniques used to determine and manage appropriate levels of resources. supply item or facility used in the performance of a project. limited availability of resources or difficult-to-manage resource levels). Resource Leveling Resource Loading Resource Management Responsibility Responsibility Assignment Matrix (Ram) . Responsibility may be delegated to others but the delegation does not eliminate the responsibility. Resource leveling is the part of the scheduling process in which the start and end dates of tasks are driven by resource limitations (e. weeks. The process of assigning resources (people.g. The obligation to perform or take care of something. Its purpose is to ensure that every activity is assigned to one or more individuals (only one with primary responsibility) and that the individuals are aware of their responsibilities. facilities and equipment) to a project. usually by higher authority. is to ensure that resources are not overburdened and that there are not significant peaks and valleys in the resource schedule.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 128 Relative Date Request For Applications (RFA) Request For Proposal (RFP) Required Approvals Resource Resource Dependency A date expressed as a number of periods (e. two months after the project start date. of a willingness to consider proposals for the performance of a specified project or program component. A dependency between tasks in which the tasks share the same resources and therefore cannot be worked on simultaneously. or months) from a reference point. This is a document sent out to the development community to inform them that funding will be made available in the form of grants to development organizations interested in conducting development work in a specific area.. Any tangible support such as. days. A request for proposals is often issued when proposals for a specific research project are being sought. An RFP is an announcement. a person. often by the government agency. Resource allocation. Required sign offs. Human resources are people.. Amongst the scheduling objectives. Request for Applications.g. usually with the liability to be accountable for loss or failure. usually activity by activity. A tool used to relate each project activity in the WBS with a responsible organization unit or individual. tool.
determine which risks are important to deal with. identifying the dates (absolute or relative to a start date) that project tasks will be started and completed. and requires monitoring and self-assessment of progress towards results. outcomes and impacts). and reporting on performance. and determine possible options for avoidance. An examination of risk areas or events to assess the probable consequences for each event. . medium or high. Action that can be taken to address the occurrence of a risk event. or combination of events in the analysis. medium or high. taking into account requirements and availability of resources. A management strategy by which an organization ensures that its processes. positive and/or negative) which can be set in motion by a development intervention – its output. The project timeline. The likelihood of the occurrence of an event. This includes identification of activities and their logical dependencies. and estimation of activity durations. Contingency plans are collections of risk responses. Usually expressed on a relative scale such as low. Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact of occurrence. RBM rests on clearly defined accountability for results. The harm or consequences to a project of a risk if it occurs. products and services contribute to the achievement of desired results (outputs. Generally. Part of risk management in which planners identify potential risks and describe them. and implement strategies to reduce the likelihood or consequences (impact) of those problems. Scheduling is the process used to determine the overall project duration and when activities and events are planned to happen. outcome and impact. the event is a negative one like project failure. Usually expressed as a probability percentage or a relative scale such as low.effect relationship. probability of occurrence and potential impact. causes. like the early completion of a task.PM4DEV | 129 Results Results Based Management (RBM) Risk Risk Analysis Risk Assessment Risk Impact Risk Management Risk Mitigation Risk Probability Risk Response Risk Trigger Schedule Scheduling Results are changes in a state or condition which derive from a cause-and. The likelihood of a risk occurring. usually in terms of their symptoms. but may also be a positive event. Events or thresholds for indicators that specify when an action such as implementing a contingency plan needs to be taken. A process to assess potential problems (risks). resources will be required and upon which milestones will be reached. There are three types of such changes (intended or unintended.
negotiate with and influence stakeholders. Development of a statement of the principle deliverables of a project along with the project's justification and objectives. A description of the scope of a project centered on the major deliverables and constraints. namely Specific. what is in and out of scope.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 130 Scope Scope Change Scope Change Control Scope Creep Scope Definition Scope Management Scope Planning Scope Verification Sequencing Tasks Smart Specifications Stakeholder Stakeholder Management Statement Of Work Project scope is the work that has to be done to deliver the outputs by means of the planned activities of the project. etc. Also called scope change management. The unconscious growth of the project scope resulting from uncontrolled changes to requirements. Stakeholder management is the systematic identification. Specifications generally describe the deliverables in terms of appearance. Specifications are the basis for acceptance criteria used in scope verification and quality control. Anybody and everybody with a stake in the project . development and project control easier. partners. the general public and local organizations can be considered stakeholders. Sequencing results in a task network. regulatory changes. Any change in the definition of the project scope.e. donors. Identification and definition of the scope must describe what the project will include and what it will not include. Achievable. The process of making sure that all changes to the project scope are consciously evaluated and their implications to the project plan are considered in making a decision to make the change. Realistic. analysis and planning of actions to communicate with. It is associated with acceptance of the product by beneficiaries and donors. Scope management is the process by which the deliverables and work to produce them are identified and defined. i. operational constraints and quality attributes.beneficiaries. The people who have a vested interest in the outcome of the project or are impacted by the project. Scope change can result from changes in beneficiary or donor needs. Detailed statements of project deliverables that result from requirements definition and design. Measurable. This may be part of requirements definition and/or design. postpone it or reject it. A part of the scheduling process in which the tasks are positioned serially or parallel to one another based on dependencies between them. Time Bound. discovery of defects or omissions. more manageable components to make verification. The process to ensure that all project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily. The five elements for a well-worded objective. Breaking down the project's major deliverables into small. .
The term is also used to denote a piece of work at a particular level in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) hierarchy e. A relationship in which a task or milestone relies on other tasks to be performed (completely or partially) before it can be performed. duration or effort and the actual result of performance. and an activity into a set of tasks. The comparison may be made directly using "analogous estimating. Also referred to as a logical relationship. Also .g. planning. A task must be broken down into at least two sub-tasks for a meaningful decomposition. A task or milestone that is logically linked to one or more predecessor tasks. A breakdown of a task into the work elements that make it up. Approximating the size (duration and cost) and risk of a project (or phase) by looking at the project as a whole and comparing it to previously performed similar projects. values and objectives.PM4DEV | 131 Steering Committee Strategic Plan Sub Grant Sub Grantee Sub-Contractor Subject Matter Expert (SME) Sub-Task Successor Task Task Dependency Teamwork Top-Down Estimating Variance Vendor A group of people who monitor the project and give guidance to the program manager or project manager." through an algorithm as in "parametric estimating". A piece of work requiring effort. An expert in some aspect of the project's content expected to provide input to the project team regarding social. An organization or individuals providing products or services under contract to the project or to the beneficiaries. a phase is broken into a set of activities. In addition. sub-contractors are considered to be vendors. engineering or other subjects. scientific. resources and having a concrete outcome or deliverable. An award of financial assistance in the form of money.. or from the memory of estimating experts. The difference between estimated cost. and depends heavily on highlevel coordination and influences management to achieve their goals. made under a grant by a grantee to an eligible sub-grantee. vision. Input may be in the form of requirements. can be the difference between the initial or baseline product scope and the actual product delivered. resolutions to issues and/or review of project results. or property in lieu of money. Teamwork is when people work collaboratively towards a common goal as distinct from other ways that individuals can work within a group. A legal entity to which a sub-grant is awarded and which is accountable to the grantee for the use of the funds provided A group or individual providing products or services to the project. Commonly. Except for this hierarchical usage. activity is synonymous with task. A plan that is tightly tied to the organization's mission.
A hierarchical task list created by decomposing the project based on the breakdown of the product into components and the breakdown of the project process into increasingly detailed tasks. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Work Package . Usually a week or so in duration and performed by an individual or small work group. The WBS is depicted as a tree diagram (or hierarchy chart) or as a list in outline form with detailed items subordinated to higher-level items.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 132 called sub-contractors. A task at a low level of the Work Breakdown Structure at which project accounting is performed. memorable and reflect the desires of those with vested interests. A vision statement must be inspirational. Vision Statement A statement that captures the long-term picture of what the organization wants to become.
68 Information improvement. 83 corrective actions. 73 Grant contract management. 19. 32 duplication of resources. 18 Definition of Project Management. 22 Budget Management. 53. 17 Defining the Budget. 49 Defining a Project. 58 Coordination. 83 Formal communications. 78 Conceptual Skills. 59 Characteristics of Development Projects. 73 Contract award. 88 Controlling the Budget. 55 Definition of Management. 58 Budget performance. 45 Coercive power.. 42 increase the chances of success. 63. 85 Adapting Phase.PM4DEV | 133 INDEX Accountability. 67. 87 Distributing information. 57 Defining the Scope. 53 Information Planning. 32 induction process. 44 Adapting the Scope. 95 Facilitating Processes. 82 Information Evaluation. 109 basic functions in management. 27 Directing. 58 Defining the Schedule. 28 Beneficiary participation. 68 . 86. 41 developing countries. 19 Democratic. 69 division of labor. 101 highly motivated team. 95 Communication Skills. 110 Detailed Implementation Plans. 68 Information Management. 95 Implementation Phase. 46 Assigning Scope Work. 19 behavioral skills. 82 GANTT diagram. 55 Administrative close. 72 Contract Management. 55 Autocratic. 63 Facilitator. 84 Human Resource. 24 contract audit. 64 influence. 70 government regulations. 94 Communicator. 66. 108 Earned Value Analysis. 58 Expert power. 68 Information Management. 53. 57 goal of communication. 72 hierarchical relationship. 91 constraint balance. 94 Beneficiaries.. 81 Communicator role. 95 Informal communications. 88 Behavioral Skills. 27 Closing Phase. 102 Coordinator. 102 duplication of efforts. 72 Controlling. 29 Budget.. 59 Enabling processes. 53 Executing the Budget. 45 decision gates. 86.
61 quality management plan. 77 Managerial Skills. 62 quality management process. 78 Integrator role. 54 Project phases. 14 manage expectations. 39 Referent power. 93 Leading. 82 Leader role. 64 Monitoring.. 61 Quality Improvements. 123 Monitoring Phase. 38. 31. 107 Project Chapter. 67 management processes. 39 Quality. 70 reality checks. 110 PDCA Cycle. 81 Planning. 40 Integrator. 46. 110 Leader. 32. 79 Project Plan Implementation. 64. 99 project phases. 92 Involvement of beneficiaries. 90 Procedural Skills. 61 quality standards. 104 project based organizational structure. 30 log frame. 61 Quantitative risk analysis. 54 project manager role. 19. 78 Interpersonal skills. 23 quality assurance. 20 project management methodology. 103 Programmatic Focus Organization Chart. 78 Leadership Skills. 19 job descriptions. 77 Lack of accountability. 96 reporting relationships. 29 ISO 10006. 65 Paternalistic.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 134 Initiation Phase. 30 PRINCE2. 40 project environment. 61 Performance reports. 19.. 99 project organization chart. 61 Quality Definition.. 16. 19 Problem Solving Skills. 52 management skills. 111 Project Management Constraints. 92 Project Evaluation. 38. 47 project management processes. 19 Poor project planning. 43 Monitoring the Schedule. 35. 33. 61 Quality Management. 86 Planning Phase. 88 Matrix management. 106 Matrix organizations. 27 Organizing. 17. 87 partner organizations. 137 PMI. 16. 86. 105 . 125 Project governance. 84 Negotiation Skills. 72 program-based projects. 61 quality assurance tool. 19 learning from the past. 62 Quality Assurance. 43 project organization. 17. 49 Quality Control. 80 Project Plan Monitoring and Control. 40 Project Contract. 89 Procurement contract management. 53. 14. 90 NGOs. 41 Project Concept. 77 Project monitoring. 41 PM4DEV. 80 Project Proposal. 40 Project reviews. 30 Laissez-faire. 104 mentorship. 92 Interpersonal Skills. 39 Project Plan Development. 25. 57 Motivator.
131. 65 Stakeholder management improvement.PM4DEV | 135 Request For Assistance. 63 Team reassignments. 63 Team improvement.. 57 Verifying the Scope. 22 Schedule Management. 59 Scope Management. 66 Stakeholder Management. 55 WBS. 58 Updating the Schedule. 56. 95 Risk Evaluation. 128. 56 Scope. 57. 53. 124. 53 stakeholder map. 56. 132 Work Breakdown Structure. 102. 63 Team identification. 70 Risk management. 101 Stakeholder evaluation. 132 . 85 Reward power. 53 Risk Management. 72 system approach. 63 team management. 103 Updating the Budget. 59. 56. 59. 66 Stakeholder Management. 51 Team building. 119. 66 Stakeholder relationship building. 66 Sub-Grant contract management. 70 Schedule. 22. 63 Team evaluation. 21 traditional structure. 70 Risks Monitoring. 41 Responsibility. 22 scope creep. 90. 61 Specialization. 66 Stakeholder Mapping. 46 tradeoffs. 41 Request For Proposal. 131.. 70 Risk Plan Improvement. 53. 64 Team Management. 55 Scope Management. 53 Shewhart Cycle. 55. 70 Risk Planning.
3. These documents are in Adobe PDF format.com.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 136 eCourse Fundamentals of Project Management This eCourse provides a simple way to learn the basic elements of modern project management concepts presented in this book.pm4dev. By having two formats available we want to ensure that the access to this book is most flexible to the needs of people interested in learning and expanding their knowledge on project management. 4. This course is divided in 6 easy lessons: 1. Each module presents ideas and concepts with the aid of charts and graphics to help increase your understanding. To help you increase your knowledge. The Objectives of the Course Introduction to Project Management The Project Management Cycle The Project Management Processes The Roles and Responsibilities of the Project Manager The Project Management Organization Structure How to obtain the CD eCourse: You can purchase a copy of this eCourse in two formats: CD-ROM box and Download. the menu and index can help you move around the course and take each module and each lesson independently. This course has been designed to be taken in no more than 60 minutes. 6.com/english/fpm-c. You can take the course and its modules at your own pace. Go to our web site and you can place your order for a copy of the eCourse at: http://www. many modules include links to documents that you can open and read at your convenience. After each module you will have an opportunity to review the main topics with a short quiz.htm For questions regarding the use of this eCourse contact us at info@pm4dev. . 2. 5.
This publication contains PM4DEV copyrighted material and no part of it can be copied or otherwise disseminated for commercial purposes. Neither should it be taken as providing technical or other professional advice on any of the topics covered. the PM4DEV logo and Management for Development Series are trademarks of PM4DEV. “PM4DEV”. the information contained on this book is correct and accurate but no responsibility is accepted for any inaccuracy or error or any action taken in reliance on this publication. As PM4DEV is aware. .PM4DEV | 137 Copyright © 2009 PM4DEV All rights reserved. This point of view is intended as a general guide and not as a substitute for detailed advice.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 138 .
These are designed to help manage the different elements of a project: scope. The reader will learn how understanding the project cycle allows for opportunities to make adjustments and an on-going learning process. and keeps the project on track to deliver its outcomes on time. to project portfolio management. Mastering Project Management This book presents the nine project management processes. implementing. risk and contract management. planning. team. The Project Management Cycle This book offers and introduction to the concept of managing a project using a cyclical approach. Advanced Project Management This book focuses on advanced practices and methodologies in project management. quality. adapting and closing. This integrated approach provides a continuous learning process. This book will give readers helpful information that can be incorporated in their project management practices. One of the most critical roles of the project manager is the integration of these processes to ensure that they are all properly coordinated. stakeholder. Topics discussed include: project management during emergencies. schedule. monitoring. project management information systems and helpful advice on how to implement a project management methodology in a development organization. on budget and under the expectations of the donor and project beneficiaries. .Project Management Series: Fundamentals of Project Management This book is and introduction to the basic ideas and concepts of project management for development organizations starting with an Introduction to the project management cycle and followed by the nine management processes. Project Management for Development Organizations consists of six phases: initiating. budget. from the project maturity model. Readers will develop a basic understanding of how a modern project management methodology can help development organizations deliver projects that produce the most impact. managing international projects. This book includes practical insight on the key skills a project manager must learn to be effective in attaining the project objectives and how organizations can benefit from using modern project management practices and methodologies. information. security management. The reader will learn that the complexity of development projects require a different approach and also new ways of managing limited resources and the increasing demands from all stakeholders.PM4DEV | 139 PM4DEV .
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 140 .
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