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Fundamentals of Project Management For Development Organizations
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 2
No part of this publication may be reproduced. Project Management for Development Organizations Email: info@pm4dev. without the prior written permission of the publishers. photocopying. or transmitted in any form or by any means.com WEB: www.com © PM4DEV 2009 All rights reserved. mechanical.PM4DEV | 3 ISBN: 978-0-557-04873-1 Published by: PM4DEV. electronic.pm4dev. . stored in a retrieval system. recording or otherwise.
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PM4DEV | 5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS A methodology to manage development projects for international assistance and humanitarian relief organizations .
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while at the same time they are being asked to do more with less. development organizations need to respond quickly to new challenges imposed by a changing environment were more stakeholders. These organizations need to invest in the education of their project managers who need to develop basic managerial competencies. Today’s development organizations are becoming catalysts of change in the communities they serve. . This book was well received in its first edition. and constraints are limiting the ability of project managers to reach the objectives of their project. The second edition builds on the strong points of the first edition and adds even more important information and features. it will not be a surprise that in the near future this competence is not only required but demanded. Today’s development projects are more complex and require the application of many skills. and are urged to use the tools. Our many years of experience managing projects have convinced us of the need for a book on project management for development organizations that provides a deeper understanding of the subject matter from a professional perspective. they will need to dramatically change the way in which projects are managed. under budget and to meet the level of quality demanded by donors and beneficiaries. In this book. Project managers need to coordinate project teams that bring together specialists from different fields. we cover the fundamental concepts of project management with a quick overview of the project management cycle and its management processes. best practices and a project management methodology proven successful in other industries. Depending on the technical competency of project managers to guarantee the project’s success is not enough. We direct particular attention to the new role that a project manager needs to play. they need to use different approaches to solve complex problems. The future of many development organizations depends on their ability to employ the potential of modern project management methods to face their new challenges. to help reduce their risks and increase their chances of success. Donors are requiring better controls and more professional managerial competences in the staff responsible for managing projects. as well as the skills required to successfully run a project within a challenging environment subject to constraints typical of development projects.PM4DEV | 7 Preface More than ever. and in order to deliver the projects on time.
. At the end of each chapter we have included a review section including questions designed to go through the chapter’s important lessons (answers can be found at the end of the book). Each module of the course presents the most important ideas and concepts with the aid of charts and graphics. This book has a companion e/course on CD-ROM that can be purchased from our web site. The course provides a simple way to learn the basic elements of modern project management concepts that were presented in this book. Visit our web site at http://www.pm4dev. At the end of each module.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 8 New to the Second Edition The second edition of “Fundamentals of Project Management" incorporates a new approach to learn the basic elements of project management. a short test is available to practice and review the main topics of the book.com/english/elearn. The book also features updated graphs and additional diagrams to help readers illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book.htm for additional information and instructions on how to obtain a copy of this eCourse.
• • • • • . Chapter 5 The Skills. Roles and Responsibilities in Project Management. Chapter 6 The Organizational Structures for Project Management. Chapter 3 The Six Project Management Phases and the Project Management Cycle.PM4DEV | 9 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS • Chapter 1 Introduction to the Modern Project Management Methodologies and Key Definitions. Chapter 2 The Development Project Environment and the Various Challenges that Limit Project Success. Chapter 4 The Nine Project Management Processes that Facilitate the Delivery of Project Benefits.
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Responsibilities and Skills Together CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT The Project Organization Structure Factors in Designing a Project Structure Types of Project Organizations Structures Management Styles Project Governance GLOSSARY OF TERMS INDEX 13 13 17 19 20 27 27 29 31 32 35 35 36 37 47 51 51 55 63 75 77 85 88 92 95 96 99 99 99 101 102 109 111 117 133 .PM4DEV | 11 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT Introduction to Project Management Defining a Project Definition of Project Management Project Management Constraints CHAPTER 2 THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT Definition of a Development Project The Challenges of a Development Project The Need for a Project Management Methodology Benefits of a Project Management Methodology CHAPTER 3 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE A Systemic Approach The Project Management Ecosystem Project Management Phases Project Management Cycle CHAPTER 4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Project Management Processes Core Processes Supporting Processes CHAPTER 5 ROLES. RESPONSIBILITIES AND SKILLS Role of the Project Manager Responsibilities of the Project Manager Managerial Skills for Project Managers Interpersonal Skills for Project Managers Influence and Power of the Project Manager Placing Roles.
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but. Project management is more than just implementing the activities identified in a logical framework. and. development projects operate in locations surrounded by many challenges from extreme working conditions to volatile environments were human or natural events can put the project at risk of not meeting its goals. project management only deals with the implementation of the activities designed during the development of the project’s proposal for funding and with keeping track of budget expenditures. few books. it includes the management of limited resources to ensure that the project meets its objectives within the expected quality. little effort is devoted to plan the various management processes that make up a project. if any. and processes that are commonly used in the project management profession and widely used in the private and government sectors. or the monitoring and evaluation’s aspects of development.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 13 CHAPTER 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT Introduction to Project Management Why a book of project management for development organizations? While most books on development projects focus on the design and identification of solutions to reduce poverty. timeframe. For most development organizations. methods. current available literature regarding development project management focuses on donor requirements or monitoring and evaluation rather than in the managerial aspects of the development project. incorporate the basic tools. . In fact. Additionally. at the same time. and budget. meeting the expectations of its stakeholders.
Most organizations run projects relying on the technical skills of their project managers who –not surprisingly. in such a way that their projects -at best-. for that reason. which creates an environment of distrust from donors and stakeholders. Although many development organizations claim to have good principles of project management. the success of development organizations requires that organizations take a new approach to their understanding of management within the context of a development project. project managers have to deal with numerous requests from numerous stakeholders in addition of being responsible to deliver outcomes in conditions were security risks are high and goods and services are limited. Nonetheless. only a few can provide evidence that they use formal project management methodologies in a consistent. This complex project environment needs appropriate project management skills. at the same time. many project managers using the log frame. and evaluate outcomes. there is one significant advance in the development sector. Yet. In this environment development workers assigned to manage projects are The lack of consistent often not sufficiently equipped with the project management necessary management skills and lack methodology results in access to the tools and methods that will the duplication of efforts help them do their job in an efficient and that affect the bottom effective manner. Management skills are often seen as an unnecessary element. there is not a widely defined standard for managing development projects. fail to understand the critical managerial components of the project and focus excessively on the technical components while ignoring the processes facilitating the planning and implementation of a project. it requires that projects take into account the input from different stakeholders while balancing the need to manage project budgets. predictable.have little or no formal training in management. Currently. but with an increase in the risks of failing to meet their intended objectives. however. having a log-frame does not ensure the success of a project. and that is the institutionalization of the project’s logical framework or log-frame.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 14 Development projects face constant demands to do more with less. each organization or project manager defines their own approach to manage a project. and reliable manner. monitor schedules. . line of the organization’s development goals by producing outcomes at higher costs and higher risks. and something that can be achieved just by monitoring the project’s budget and schedule. in fact. are able to accomplish the planned activities. This problem implies a direct impact to the organization.
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In recent years, most development organizations have seen an increase on accountability requirements from international cooperation and donor agencies, leading to a greater focus on effectiveness and efficiency in the way projects are using the resources and delivering benefits. In this rapidly changing environment, with a diverse range of issues and challenges, project management can support the achievement of project and organizational goals and give greater assurance to stakeholders that resources are managed effectively. Many development projects fail to deliver the expected outcomes or fail to produce the desired impact in the communities they serve. The most common for project failures are: • • • Objectives not properly defined and agreed due to the rush to obtain funding. There is little attention paid to include beneficiaries in the early decisions. Discrepancy by stakeholders in understanding the project’s objectives due to the low participation from stakeholders. Outcomes and benefits are not properly defined in measurable terms, there is too much emphasis in measuring and tracking activities and tangible outputs than the intangible benefits that come as a result of achieving the project’s final goal. Insufficient planning and coordination of resources results in plans that do not meet the actual conditions in the field and project staff have limited skills to modify and adapt the plan in time and under budget. Poor estimation of duration and cost result in activities that take longer than planned and cost more than what was budgeted. Incomplete, unrealistic, and outdated project plans: the team follows blindly the plans that, in many cases, have never been verified or modified to adapt to a changing environment. Lack of communication and stakeholder management leads to high expectations about the project, increases distrust, and results in beneficiaries that are disconnected from the project. Weak project leadership, vague lines of responsibility and authority producing an uncoordinated team that often duplicates efforts. Inadequate definition and acceptance of roles results in project staff that cannot assume their responsibilities and increases the time a project manager needs to work with the team. Poor commitment to the project by the team, the organization, and the beneficiaries that result from inadequate leadership skills. Weak control processes and feedback mechanisms that do not detect problems early enough. Lack of analysis of major risk factors and inadequate risk response strategies results in higher costs to recover from the risk events.
• • • • • • • •
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Lack of good quality controls that impact the ownership of the project by the beneficiaries and other key stakeholders.
All of these causes could be addressed by the application of modern project management tools and techniques. Applying a formalized project management framework, or methodology, to projects can help with clarification and agreement to goals. It helps with the correct identification of the resources needed to ensure accountability for results, performance and foster a focus on the benefits to be achieved. This book, and the other books in the PM4DEV series aim to provide project managers with a guide to help them plan, implement, and monitor projects and to provide international development organizations, with a methodology to initiate, plan, implement, monitor and close projects in a more consistent, reliable and predictable manner. The effective use of a project management methodology ensures a cost effective use of limited resources such as people and funds. A project management methodology can help development organizations meet their strategic goals by standardizing processes, reducing risks, and avoiding duplication of efforts with the purpose of increasing the impact of their interventions. The proposed premise is that organizations that systematically apply modern project management methodologies can ensure that donor, organizational and beneficiary resources are used in the most efficient and effective manner in a way that will increase the chances of meeting the needs of the beneficiaries. This book has been written for three main audiences: • For Project Managers, who have been assigned with the responsibility to manage a project, within a certain time, budget, and scope, for whom the guidance provided in this book should be useful for building the range of skills appropriate for effective project management.
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For Development Organizations, to whom the arguments presented in this book should demonstrate the benefits of a structured methodology in the process of selecting the right projects, in addition to helping them do the projects right. For Project Staff, in charge of implementing the project’s plans, as they need clear guidelines to help them do their job in the most efficient manner.
The objectives of this book are: • To help development organizations understand the need to quickly adapt to new challenges and invest their limited resources in the best way possible in order to achieve recurring successes for which they can use a proven, but flexible, project management methodology. To help development organizations understand that in order to implement projects successfully, project management must become part of the organizational culture; because, the effective utilization of the project management methodology depends upon the integration of project management processes into the day-to-day operations in the field. To provide a common framework and terminology across development organizations, especially Non Governmental Organizations (NGO’s); as it is trough a common methodology, and a common language that project managers in development organizations can increase their knowledge and build their skills.
This book focuses on concepts and practices related to development projects. It is our hope that the ideas and methodologies presented in the course of the following chapters, and in the other books of the PM4DEV series, are proven useful to anyone who is engaged in managing projects in the broader development field. We hope that this experience helps bring sustainable benefits to the communities and beneficiaries who need it the most.
Defining a Project
There are many definitions for what constitutes a project, some of these definitions describe the nature of a project and how it differs from other type of work, the descriptions used to define a project include the following:
by utilizing human. organizing. A project follows a planned.. (Prentice Hall 1989) . financial. Every project is unique. Stoner. and controlling. and a budget. cost. A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. and scope. directing. A project has constraints and a unique reason. which has a clearly defined start and end time. A group of inter-related activities.objectives through people and other resources. a set of tasks. A clear set of activities with related inputs and outputs aimed to achieve objectives and goals linked to anticipated (desired) effects and impacts in a target population. Management has also been defined as “the art of getting things done through other people”1 This definition 1 J. A temporary effort of sequential activities designed to accomplish a unique purpose. designed to deliver a unique purpose. constrained by time. An undertaking that encompasses a set of tasks or activities having a definable starting point and well defined objectives. one can see that there are some specific attributes that define a project and separate it from most ordinary work: • • • • • A project has a beginning and an end. Management is a process of setting and achieving goals through the execution of the four basic functions of management: planning. and material resources. Management. A project has limited resources. organized method to meet its objectives with specific goals of quality and performance. 4th Ed. we will use the following definition of a project: A project is a temporary effort made up of a set of related activities undertaken to achieve a unique goal or objective within specified constraints. From all these descriptions.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 18 • • • • • • A temporary process. For the purpose of this book. Definition of Management Management is defined as the achievement of -project or organizational. that is developed to accomplish a well-defined goal or objective.
− − − Definition of Project Management According to “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. There are four basic functions in management. − Planning involves defining organizational goals and proposing ways to reach them. PMI. Checking progress against plans and make the necessary modifications to keep the plans in track. Leading involves getting others to perform the tasks by direct influence and by applying communication skills that will build the right atmosphere to help employees do their work. skills. a standard for quality in project management defines it as: “Unique process consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates. Managers plan with the objective of achieving a desired future by committing resources and deciding with tasks must be done to reach the intended goals Organizing is the process of creating organizational structures that will enable employees to carry out the manager’s plans. Third Edition”2. cost and resources”. Controlling is the process by which the organization monitors the performance and takes corrective action.org . including constraints of time. PRINCE2. It is about making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful implementation of plans. leading and controlling.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 19 highlights the fact that managers achieve organizational goals by developing an environment where others can perform the tasks and not themselves. In addition to this definition.pmi. the UK standard for project management says: “a temporary organization that is needed to produce a unique and predefined outcome or result at a pre-specified time using predetermined resources” • 2 www. organizing. tools. “Project management is the application of knowledge. undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements. other leading organizations in project management offer the following definitions: • The ISO 10006. often classified as planning. and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project”.
Project Management Constraints Every project has to manage four basic constraints.ch The Project Management Life Cycle. and budget. achieved by effectively controlling and balancing the constraint of scope. Classical project management usually considers three constrains on a project: scope. For development projects it is not enough to deliver a project according to the 3 4 www. budget. 2006. schedule. the International Project Management Association. . which are permanent or semi-permanent ongoing functional work to create the same product or service over-and-over again. in producing quality deliverables that meet or exceed the expectations of the project stakeholders. It is not enough for a proresources to deliver all ject to meet the budget targets or to the work required to show to the donor that all activities have been completed on time. time and costs (known as the project triangle)4. Project management is the planning.ipma. and four constraints if they want to realize cost constraints. the full benefits of a project.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 20 • IPMA. scope. The success of a project depends on the skills and knowledge of a project manager to take into considProject management is eration these constraints and develop the discipline of planning. the plans and processes to keep them organizing. For the purposes of this book we will use the following definition: Project management is the process of combining systems. Develcomplete a project within opment projects need to balance all defined scope. and knowledge to complete a project within established goals of time. Jason Westland. scope and quality. time. defines a project as “a time and cost constrained operation to realize a set of defined deliverables up to quality standards and requirements. schedule. or operations. budget and quality. The temporary nature of projects contrasts with processes. implementing. Kogan Page Limited.” 3 In other words. techniques. and monitoring of project activities to meet project objectives. we believe that it is important to place under this category the constraint of quality. and managing in balance.
adjusting any one of these sides. on time and under budget. Depending on those factors. The Four Constraints of Project Management . Failure to do that may result in the use of resources on areas that do not contribute to the ultimate success of the project. have a fundamental impact on all the project plans that will need to be designed to ensure that the project is able to manage the four constraints. Managing these constrains requires careful analysis and an agreement on the priorities for the organization. early in the project. The definition of project management implies that projects have specific limits in scope. a project may consign more importance to the budget and quality than to the schedule or scope. a change in the project plan to shorten the schedule might result in an increase in costs or require a decrease in scope. Understanding the combination of these elements allows to make better choices when tradeoffs are needed. these types of decisions. the donors and the final beneficiaries. schedule. For example.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 21 scope. the other two are affected. The diagram below helps visualize the close relationship amongst these four constraints: Scope Quality Schedule Budget Figure 1. The use of a triangle helps understand these relationships. but the project must meet the needs and expectation of the beneficiaries who are the ultimate judges of the project quality. budget and quality.
Proper control of time requires the careful identification of tasks to be performed. it entails all the work involved in delivering the project outcomes and the processes used to produce them. because many projects receive funds or grants that have contract clauses with a ‘use it or lose it’ approach to project funds. Poorly executed budget plans can result in a last minute rush to spend the allocated funds. may dictate the methods by which resources such • • . and how people and resources are allocated.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 22 • Scope is what the project is trying to achieve. an accurate estimation of their durations. it is what the beneficiaries. political. One of the leading causes for project failures is poor management of the project scope. which often leads to higher project costs than planned and an extension of the initial implementation date. Scope creep. Schedule is defined as the target date to complete the project. Budget or the costs approved for the project include all the required expenses needed in order to deliver the project within scope and schedule. there was no agreement on the scope by stakeholders. Scope is the boundary of a project. and late donor reports. or the uncontrolled changes in a project's scope. beneficiaries who have limited time to commit to the project although it demands for their participation. nothing more and nothing less. is the tendency of a project to include more tasks than originally specified. incomplete activities. In development projects managers have to balance between not running out of money and not under spending. the sequence in which they are going to be done. The project team should verify any time constrains or requirements for a specific date or period that comes from beneficiaries or other key stakeholders. or because there was a lack of scope management which leads to incurring into additional work that was not authorized or budgeted. because. it is the reason and the purpose of the project. either because the project manager did not spend enough time defining the work. this is known as scope creep. for instance. The schedule also uses critical information from key project stakeholders about their availability to the project. and organizational. The schedule is often the most frequent project oversight in developing projects which is reflected in missed deadlines. The schedule is an approximation of the duration of all activities in the project and it is not unusual to find that the original estimates were off target once the project makes progress and there is an increased understanding of its environment. and the donors expect from the project. A number of constraints: financial.
therefore. projects 5 Joseph M. For instance. services and materials are acquired. Managing the Project Constraints Managing these constraints is the main responsibility of the project manager. local government (such as laws and regulations). guidelines. and an increase in scope has an impact in both time and budget. Each constrain has a specific goal and a project is deemed successful when it achieves all four. failure in any of the four has an impact in the other three. Information from similar or past projects can be used to gain a better understanding of budgeting strategies. • Quality is the fourth constraint defined as: delivering the project outcomes according to the stated or implied needs and expectations of the project beneficiaries and the donor agency. and procedures. the preferences from the beneficiaries and/or the donor’s representatives may influence purchasing decisions. Duran . Focusing on successful and suitable applications should be considered for implementation on the current project. or by professional standards (such as health). Quality is all about achieving stakeholder’s satisfaction. Quality Control Handbook (1951) . The Project Manager needs to be aware of existing resource acquisition policies. Quality is also defined as the “Conformance to requirements or fitness for use”5. Managing the four constraints also involves making trade-offs. a delay in a project has an impact on its cost. equipment. It also means complying with quality standards that are either mandated by the donor. which means that the product or services must meet the intended objectives of the project and that the beneficiaries can use or benefit from the project deliverables as it was originally intended. All projects are implemented using estimates to establish the time and cost to deliver specific objectives of certain level of quality.Chapter 1 – Project Management For Development | 23 as personnel. Moreover.
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are implemented with many uncertainties and exposed to many risks, which requires revisions to the original plans along with negotiations with the different stakeholders. Changes in the social and natural environment can delay a project, increase its costs, or reduce its scope forcing the project manager to evaluate alternatives and negotiate with the donors and beneficiaries for modifications. Project management is in essence the art, science and craft required to balance the scope, schedule, budget, and quality constraints of the project. The project triangle illustrates the process of balancing constraints because the three sides of the triangle are connected, and changing one side of a triangle affects at least one other side, and all sides affect the center were quality relies. Here are some examples of project constraint balance: • When the schedule of a project needs to decrease, the project might need to increase the budget because more resources are needed to do the same work in less time. If the budget cannot be increased (the donor doesn’t approve the increase), then scope might need to be reduced because the available resources will not be sufficient to do all the planned work in less time. When the budget of the project decreases, the schedule might need to be stretched out because budget is not available to pay for the staff as originally planned. If time cannot be increased, the other alternative is to reduce the project scope because fewer staff will not be able to do all of the planned work in the available timeline. When the project scope increases, there is a need for more time or more resources (budget) to complete the additional work. When the project adds more work than the originally budgeted it is important that before the new work is started, there is an approval from the donor for additional funds, otherwise the project will end up with a budget shortfall that could have an impact on the expectations from the beneficiaries.
Quality is at the center of the project triangle because it affects every side of the triangle, any changes made to any side of the triangle are likely to affect quality. For example, the project may find additional time in the schedule that can allow staff the time to increase the quality of the objectives without necessarily increasing the scope. On the other hand, a need to cut activities to meet the budget might result in a decreased scope, which reduces the
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opportunities to achieve an acceptable level of quality; therefore, lower quality results from the need of cutting costs and reducing planned activities. A project management methodology helps identifying strategies by use of proven methods and best practices that will facilitate the management of these four constraints.
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Chapter 1 - Review Questions Question 1 – Which of the following project characteristics is correct? A) It has a beginning and an end B) It has unlimited resources C) It doesn't need objectives D) It has a beginning but no end Question 2 – What is not a basic function of management? A) Planning B) Delegating C) Leading D) Controlling Question 3 – What are the four project constraints? A) Scope, People, Schedule, Budget B) Quality, Schedule, People, Budget C) Scope, Schedule, Budget, Quality D) Budget, People, Schedule, Resources Question 4 – What is project scope? A) The boundaries of a project B) The strategy for implementing a project C) The activities of a project D) The duration of a project Question 5 – In which project constraint do project beneficiaries have a significant role? A) Project Scope B) Project Schedule C) Project Budget D) Project Quality
health. malaria and other displexity and risk. support development activities ranging from community organization. education. fund their projects from grants or contracts that come from competitive bidding processes. eases.Chapter 2 – The Development Project Environment | 27 CHAPTER 2 THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT Definition of a Development Project Development projects in developing countries are financed by bilateral and multi-lateral government agencies. Examples of the type of objectives of holders and operates in development projects are: reduction in child difficult a environment mortality. improvement in maternal health. from the most part. non-profit organizations (NGOs). welfare support. most share the common goal of helping people and benefiting society. .A development project nomic and social conditions of a group of deals with many stakepeople. These organizations include international humanitarian organizations and national NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs). Development projects are managed by development organizations that have long term strategies to achieve goals to contribute to the reduction of poverty. or that increases its comcombat HIV/AIDS. Development organizations. private institutions. or Government agencies (within the developing countries). Characteristics of Development Projects Development organizations vary in size and orientation. smallfinancial loans and protection of the environment. A development project is designed to deliver a specific output aiming to improve the eco.
they have set limitations. This is one of the reasons why development projects are gradually moving away from traditional projects that rely on delivering direct services. A larger number of national NGOs are small in both size and scope of operations and their impact sometimes is limited. Funding for projects comes through private and public donations. poverty relief efforts. government assistance and a variety of other sources. while geared toward promoting active participation of community based organizations to deliver the services that will benefit the poor and other intended beneficiaries more directly. Development organizations prepare and implement development projects and work to strengthen the capabilities of local institutional and promote community self-reliance through sustainable strategies.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 28 NGOs typically are private. transformative project to address a specific problem or series of projects addressing several problems. often focused on a specific concern or a specific location. One of the key success factors of development projects is when their planning processes involve people who will benefit or be affected by the project. developmental aid and sustainable development. Although. many lack a broader economic and social perspective. . The goal of all development projects is to help improve people's lives through skills training and other livelihood programs. some are loosely structured and may have limited accountability and their management and planning methods may be weak or too flexible. Beneficiaries need to play a larger role in the planning and implementation of development efforts that will reshape their lives. development projects make significant contributions to the socioeconomic development of the communities they work with. non-profit and service oriented organizations that emphasize on humanitarian issues. Development projects may consist of a single. NGOs can suffer from financial and technical constraints. voluntary.
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Involvement of beneficiaries also increases the likelihood that the development efforts will realize their intended benefits and can help avoid implementation problems. The concept of participation is concerned with ensuring that the intended beneficiaries of development projects are involved in the planning and implementation of those projects. This is considered important as it empowers the recipients of development projects to influence and manage their own development and helps remove any type of dependency after the project is completed. Beneficiary participation is widely considered to be one of the most important concepts in modern development theory.
The Challenges of a Development Project
Development projects operate in challenging environments, where uncertainties about the future increase risks around the project. Managers need to deal with extremely complex social, economic, and political factors that affect the delivery of goods and services. Development projects are implemented in some of the most remote and difficult locations in the world; additionally, projects operate in areas of high personal risk and high security threats to project staff. The lack of proper infrastructure, limited resources, and a changing environment put a strain on project managers who are pressed to deliver the project outcomes. The constant changes in the social, economic, political, and natural environment force many projects to change its original plans; in fact, project plans are built on many assumptions that eventually are challenged by the changes in the environment. These changes in the environment are not always reflected in the original design, which causes projects to miss their target objectives; this is why it is not uncommon to find a project that has delivered all its expected outputs but has failed significantly in reaching its outcomes and objectives. From extensive observation and experimentation through working with development agencies for years, we have seen the following weaknesses in development projects:
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• • • • • • •
Poor project planning, in the rush to get the project started managers pay little attention to the effort required to fully develop all the plans needed to manage the project. Under this pressure, the project design is likely to omit a deeper analysis of the project risks and an analysis of project stakeholders. Inadequate management skills as the available staff may be unqualified for the tasks required for managing a project. This challenge is in part due to the lack of training opportunities project managers have to build their management skills. Emphasis in the technical component. Development projects are planned primarily from a technical perspective, rather than a more holistic perspective that includes the project management cycle. Lack of accountability, projects are run with little definition of roles and responsibilities and no clear identification of who is accountable for the project outcomes before the donors and the beneficiaries. Lack of stakeholder involvement, key project stakeholders are not systematically involved in the planning and monitoring of a project, which leads to a lack of ownership while the project is implemented. Unrealistic plans. Because projects are planned on a linear process, this reasoning leaves little or no opportunities to modify and adjust plans as needed. No measure to evaluate quality. Projects fail to define the criteria by which beneficiaries will know if the project was a success or not. Poor, inconsistent project management discipline. There is no consistent use of a proven methodology to help manage, monitor, and adapt the project implementation. Duplication of efforts. Organizations that do not have a standard process and methodology for project management discover that projects are reinventing –over-and-over-again- the same solutions, due to little opportunities to use lessons learned which increases the chances to make the same mistakes again.
A critical challenge is that projects do not have time for learning from the past. Development Projects are learning-intensive, but very little of this gained knowledge remains in the organization at the end of a project. Because a time bound project entails a short term vision while the concept of “an organization” is long term ; it is difficult to integrate the two concepts when time comes for sharing the knowledge gained in the implementation of projects. Experiences from past projects are potential knowledge that new projects could use to increase their chances for success; however, organizations loose the opportunity to capture and use this knowledge due to lack of processes to do so.
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Once a project is completed, most organizations do not have processes in place to capture the lessons learned; therefore, this knowledge is not incorporated in the design of future projects. Unfortunately, too often, the project evaluation report sits in the library along with many others, available to a few adventurous who are willing to discover experiences and practices that can be useful to their needs. A project management methodology can overcome this challenge by providing development organizations with a discipline to integrate a practice of continuous learning process.
The Need for a Project Management Methodology
In this type of environment, organizations great degree of flexibility to accommodate the constantly changing environment of the project. A methodology that promotes optimal standards of performance, and reinforces the organizational capacity to deliver its services in a transparent and effective manner. need a methodology that allows a
Without a project management methodology organizations risk loosing the knowledge and skills they gain from completed projects; knowledge that is also lost due to the high staff turnover in development organizations, which makes it hard to build institutional memory to improve the efficiency of development projects and to implement lessons learned in future projects. Definition of a Project Management Methodology A project management methodology is a method to capture the best practices around project management and disseminate them in the organization. It is a system of principles, practices, and procedures. It’s the collection of practical ideas and proven practices. Development organizations need a project management methodology that they can use and customize to meet its needs, one that provides the right mix of methods, processes and practices that are repeatedly applied to deliver projects in a consistent manner with predictable results. The best methodologies are the ones that are built based on the experience of its practitioners; organizations that build a learning cycle in its methodologies
Defining and implementing a good methodology is essential for development organizations to document a project management approach for performing project activities in a coherent, consistent, accountable, and repeatable manner.
Only when using a standard methodology of processes and techniques organizations can coordinate resources to achieve predictable results. by describing the basic practices. With this approach organizations will have a comprehensive knowledge methodology for successful project management. understood by all stakeholders Provides project donors and stakeholders confidence on how projects are done in the organization Permits accurate predictions of project resource requirements and avoids duplication of efforts Stipulates clear procedures for developing project plans that allow better control of the project throughout its life cycle. Assists the project manager to integrate. procedures and techniques. Reduces the impact that risks have on the project Development Organizations can increase the chances of success by implementing a project management methodology that is applicable to their projects. The processes that a methodology delivers help organizations keep focus and deliver solutions that project beneficiaries and its communities desperately need them.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 32 will benefit by incorporating the knowledge of its project managers and thus will have a methodology that reflects its current best practices. coordinate and track project activities. . A Project management methodology can deliver the following benefits: • • • • • • • A methodology provides a common approach and a consistent discipline for how projects are planned and implemented in the organization A methodology incorporates a standard project terminology. Benefits of a Project Management Methodology The use of a systematic project management methodology gives development organizations a strategic tool. Amongst the main benefits is an increase in the level of collaboration amongst al project stakeholders. the delivery of consistent results of predicable quality with defined roles and responsibilities that ensure proper accountability. gives organizations the means to practice established and time-tested practices of project management to help them achieve successful outcomes.
A good methodology increases the odds of being successful. and therefore provides value to the organization. . and the project stakeholders. guidelines and techniques to structure the work. A good methodology provides the framework.Chapter 2 – The Development Project Environment | 33 Building and managing according to a project management methodology is partly an art that requires flexibility and creativity. processes.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 34 Chapter 2 . economic. practices.Review Questions Question 1 – What is not a development project? A) One that is funded from grants or contracts B) One that improves the economic and social conditions of a target group C) One that focuses on generating a profit D) One that contributes to the reduction of poverty Question 2 – What is a challenge of development projects? A) Lack of accountability B) Limited Funds C) Deal with extremely complex social. and political factors D) All of the above Question 3 – What is a project management methodology? A) A system of principles. and procedures B) A set of recommendations C) A system of rules and laws D) An approach to manage the log frame Question 4 – Which is a benefit of a project management methodology? A) Provides a common approach B) Avoids duplication of efforts C) Reduces the impact of risks D) All of the above Question 5 – Complete the following phrase: “The best methodologies are the ones that are built based on the experience of its ________” A) Consultants B) Practitioners C) Vendors D) Readers .
tional ated within the larger environment. the project is a system that has a set of interdependent and temporally interacting phases. As such.tween the different eleject managers are better prepared to ments that compose the understand the external factors that will system. Traditional methods involve a linear cause and ef- . pro. identifies an optimum solution and a solution action plan.A Project or a "system" agers need to consider projects within is a dynamic and comthis greater context. constraints and needs. impact the project. project managers need to take a holistic view of as a structured funcunit with a project and understand how it is situ. To be effective at plex whole. and finally. interacting managing complex situations. and project man. Development Projects must operate in a broader environment. opportunities.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 35 CHAPTER 3 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE A Systemic Approach Projects by definition are temporary endeavors but they cannot stay insolated from the rest of its environment. Using a systemic approach for project management provides a holistic and analytical method to solve the complex problems a project will face. it continuously examines the plan against any changes in the environment to make the corresponding adjustments to keep the project on track. By information flowing betaking this holistic view of projects. The analysis then examines the possible solutions for improving the current situation. A project management methodology uses system analysis as a problem solving approach that involves looking at the project as the sum of different phases that facilitate the identification and evaluation of problems. all working within an environment to fulfill a purpose. if they are run in isolation the projects may face the risk of not serving the needs of those who really need it.
The people component is influenced by the compensation and values of the organization and by the external labor market that sets conditions to find qualified staff for the project. • Process.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 36 fect relationships. processes. the internal and external environment. outputs. Using a system approach is critical for successful project management. feedback. This larger picture provides more useful results than traditional methods. projects can see the whole network of bidirectional interrelationships. all integrated and influenced by the internal environment (the organization) and an external environment (the world). this is the project ecosystem. and allows the project to see change as a continuous process. who follow the processes and procedures geared to control the quality of services provided by the organization. the techniques and devices selected by the organization with the purpose of facilitating the management of the project. including government and donor regulations which heavily influence the project. • • . we look at the whole system of inputs. people and tools. People. Processes determine the work that needs to be accomplished which defines the requirements for people skills. track project progress and evaluate performance. Tools. Instead of analyzing a problem in terms of input and output. meet its objectives and facilitate its contractual obligations. the project depends on three basic components: processes. project managers need to identify all the issues and components of a project and its relationship with the internal and external environment. The Project Management Ecosystem Projects don’t exist in isolation they are influenced by two strong factors. By taking a systems approach. the development activities defined in the policies and procedures and the roles and responsibilities required in managing development projects. As a system. and controls. For example: techniques to control budgets. the set of skills and capabilities of the people in charge of managing the project. Tools include the technology available to manage the information the project generates and improve its analysis to allow the project to make decisions.
when one of them fails or doesn’t receive the adequate funding or support. the whole system fails. by using a holistic approach project managers can integrate all the internal and external issues into their planning. Project Management Phases Projects operate as part of a system that involves a high degree of uncertainty. it also helps them see a pro- . The Project Management Ecosystem The external environment is made of the conditions that the project has little or no influence to change. the standardization. benefits and other Human Resource practices.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 37 The graphic below shows the tight interdependency amongst these elements in the system: Internal Environment PROCESS: Organizational Policies and Procedures External Environment PROCESS: Donor and Local Government Requirements PEOPLE: Organizational Benefits. of project management tools and methods including the use of communications technology. Education Centers TOOLS TOOLS: Local Standards and Infrastructure PEOPLE Figure 2. or not. general practices and standards imposed by international or local regulations. Norms and Rules. The success of project management depends on the equilibrium of the process. The internal environment includes the policies and procedures the organization has already established for all projects including the compensation. and limited availability of people with the required skills or a competitive labor market and poor or inadequate training facilities. people and tools components. Compensation. limitations on the availability and communications technology and local infrastructure. legal regulations. TOOLS Organizational Standards PROCESS PROJECT MANAGEMENT PEOPLE: Local Labor Market. these include: donor and government requirements.
implementation. Each phase should not be seen as independent from another phase. PM4DEV’s project management methodology consists of six phases. planning. The Six Project Management Phases The complexity of a project determines the need to spend more time in the initiating or planning phase. monitoring.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 38 ject as a series of interrelated phases. outputs from one phase are used as input for the next phase. selection. By doing this. while small projects may not need to spend too much time on planning. a project life cycle is a collection of project phases which vary from one methodology to another. Project Phases Initiate Plan Implement Monitor Adapt Close Figure 3. implementation. in general they include an initiation. It is a good practice to divide projects into several phases. monitoring and close phase. monitoring. evaluation and learning. initiation. but as an interdependent continuous management effort. large projects may need to spend a good amount of time in the initiation and planning phases. planning. but. A project must successfully complete each phase before moving onto the next. they help in keeping the project on track and determine if the project should continue. . project managers have a better job of ensuring project success. this approach to project cycle provides better management control and builds the appropriate links with the internal and external environment. The rational behind the use of project management phases is that it supplies for an integrated approach that provides for the continuous identification. implementation. redirected or terminated. adapting and closure.
or terminated. Project phases relate to each other not on a linear but on a cyclical manner. but simply “reality checks” that project managers should do to see whether or not the project needs corrections. These internal project reviews are part of the implementation – monitoring – planning sub-cycle of the project and could occur many times during the life of a project.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 39 A good practice is to use each phase as a gate to review how the project is going before moving to the next phase. reviews act as feedback loops that operate to keep the project on check. redirected. they are not evaluations. Project Life-cycle initiate Project Effort plan implement & monitor close adapt Figure 4. the review should occur at the end of each phase to evaluate progress and review initial assumptions about the project objectives. The Project Management Phases and the Project Lifecycle . The figure below shows a representation of the project phases during the project lifecycle. as the project moves from the initiation phase effort increases until it reaches a peak during implementation where the phases of monitoring and adapting also occur. By breaking a project into manageable phases the organization can make sure that the projects are still compatible with the needs of the stakeholders and beneficiaries. Project reviews are important for keeping projects on track and determine if they should be continued. The monitoring phase informs the implementation and the planning phases for changes and modifications until there are no additional changes and all project deliverables have been completed.
During initiation a diagnostic and analysis of the problem are performed including the delineation of the strategies that the project will use to achieve its benefits. the organization makes a decision to support the project and assigns resources to work on the proposal. and government/donor interest. local needs. In this phase the . Project Concept Approval. In either case. This decision is based on an organization’s programming principles and/or strategic objectives and takes into consideration available resources. Major outcomes or decision from this phase is the acceptance of the project concept and approval of the project proposal. Project Proposal. were the idea for a project emerges as a result of a diagnostic and analysis of needs in a community. team. Usually ideas for a project are started by an organization in the form of a proposal or they are initiated by a donor agency by a competitive bidding process or a cooperative agreement. 3. were the idea gets support from management to seek for funding (internal or external funding). which deals with acceptance of the proposal. the design of the project approach. mission and vision. 2. Project funding negotiations and revisions to proposal to meet donor regulations. Authorization of the project concept leads to the development of a formal project proposal. 4. the organization has identified that this project is aligned with the organization’s strategies.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 40 Initiation Phase This phase is where an idea or a concept is authorized and funded as a project. 6. budget and submission of the proposal to a donor. additionally. Project Concept. it includes the documentation that supports the requirements of the funding agency. The major steps during Initiation include: 1. Project Proposal Approval. It includes some planning and estimating to clarify its objective and scope. usually from a competitive process 5. schedule. Project Contract signature and approval to initiate the planning phase.
budget. stakeholder. these include: team. Approval of the proposal opens the project to start the second phase of the project. or may require additional analysis or modifications to the proposal. Primary plans are also known as the Detailed Implementation Plans (DIP) Support plans include the development of plans to manage all the other support processes required to manage the project. which can include participation of beneficiaries 4. the development of detailed plans that are required as part of the proposal or primary plans. includes the hiring or assignment of staff to the project team 3. and the plans to manage the implementation of the project or supporting plans. • The major steps during planning include: 1. meeting with the project team to officially start the project. The approval of the project proposal is done by the donor when the organization responds to an RFP (Request for Proposal) or an RFA (Request For Assistance). the development of the core and facilitating management plans with the project team and key stake- . Project Management Plans. and quality of the project. a document that gives authorization to the project manager to start work and initiate the organization and development of the project team. The project manager’s first task is to further develop detailed project plans including a detailed project budget and schedule. This phase includes two planning components. • Primary plans include the development of detailed planning documents that were initially produced as part of the project proposal. Project Planning. The first step is the development of the project charter. a document that gives authorization to the PM to manage the project and states the objectives of the project 2. risk. and contract plans. Planning Phase Once the proposal is accepted and funds have been approved the project is finally ready to start.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 41 project may or may not be approved or accepted. it is not unusual that the donor and the organization engage in long negotiations on the final budget of the project. schedule. who will participate in the development of all project plans. Project Kick off. information. in other cases authorization comes from the organization when funds are internal. Project Chapter. Primary plans must include expected outcomes in terms of the scope. Organize and develop the project team.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 42 holders. It is not unusual to find that a project proposal was designed without incurring the appropriate feedback from the project stakeholders. vehicles. developing the project team. The project manager starts by forming a team and starts authorizing the initial expenses required by the project which may include the purchase of office equipment. beneficiaries and key stakeholders A detailed plan helps discovering oversights or wrong assumptions made during the initiation phase and the project proposal. assuring quality. 5. this phase also includes activities such as providing project leadership. procuring the necessary resources and taking ongoing corrective actions. . Outputs from this process include a formal project management plan including authorization to the project staff to implement its activities. The development of a detailed plan is the opportunity for the project manager to further understand each component of the project and formulate the plans that will help implement the project. Implementation occurs once the final project plans have been approved by the organization and/or the donor agency. Communicate and share approved project plans with team members. which may include participation of local implementing partners. usually by the project manager supervisor 6. or that budget assumptions were based on old data. producing progress reports. Implementation Phase Implementation includes taking all necessary actions to ensure that the activities in the project plan are completed and that the outputs of the plan are delivered. acceptance of the project plans. verifying project scope. and other goods and services required by the project. Implementation includes organizing and coordinating people and other resources required to perform the project plans and obtain the desired outcomes of the project or phase. Project Plan Approval.
Traditionally the focus is on monitoring the four project constraints. initiate the quality assurance process 3. and communications to stakeholders. Organize and develop the project team. The major steps during Monitoring include: 1. too much control is time consuming and too little control is too risky. Progress reports and other managerial reports 6.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 43 The major steps during Implementation include: 1. Monitoring Phase Monitoring is about measuring the progress of a project against its objectives. Implement plans and assign tasks to the project team. looking at deviations from the plan and taking corrective steps to put the project back on track. Contract management and initiate the sub grant process (if any). Each project should be assessed for the appropriate level of control needed and find an equilibrium that can give the benefits without increasing work. schedule and budget. Evaluate Project Performance. Monitoring runs across the planning and implementation project phases of the project life cycle. control of quality standards and quality audits . In the areas of scope. including all procurement processes to purchase goods and services 4. Project monitoring begins with planning and ends with evaluation with a thorough involvement in each step of the process. Communications to key stakeholders Outputs from this phase are the project deliverables. assign the roles and responsibilities to carry the project activities and initiate the team development plans 2. and evaluate project indicators and results 2. Quality Control. Quality Assurance and implementation of quality standards 5. progress reports.
Team Evaluation. monitoring risk against original assumptions 4. it also helps identifying unexpected consequences.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 44 3. additional request to add or delete activities in the project. changes to schedule. Determine need for changes in project plans Monitoring is the constant check on the project to see if it is doing the right things at the right time within the given resource restrictions. It also refers to the changes that need to be incorporated in the original processes. Project monitoring is an important element of the project that keeps it on-track. which contributes to regular adjustments geared towards the project’s success. approaches. Adapting Phase This phase refers to the process by which the project manager adapts its project management methods and determines what works best for the project. develop reports informing about any variance in performance and recommendations for changes 6. Monitoring helps verifying if the intervention is producing the desired effects or benefits. Review performance reports and the causes for the variances from the original plans 2. The major steps while “Adapting” include: 1. and within budget. strategies and methods planned to deliver the project interventions. and changes to the budget . Performance Reports. on-time. Risk Monitoring. Review change requests. establishes a discipline that helps monitor how the situation and the context of the project are evolving. and how the initial assumptions of the project have changed. Monitoring also looks for new opportunities that may have risen since the project started and that may improve the chances to achieve the project goals. determine level of performance of team and individuals 5.
This could be caused by changes in organizational strategies. it cycles during its life. learning and practice. . Modifying the project and making the necessary changes should occur at the end of each major project delivery. Development of proposal for changing plans to bring the project back in track 4. Capture lessons learned and communicate changes Adapting is taking corrective actions. Update project plans as per approved changes 6. that the to ensure that the cycles project can improve its interventions. this phase helps make the necessary changes. Adapting involves the analysis of the changes required and its impact and relevance to the project and its constraints. unavailability of funds or security conditions that make project work impossible.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 45 3. Adapting also refers to the process by which project members learn from the experience that they gained in the project. donors or management 5. each completion process provides an opportunity to reflect on the why’s of the successes or failures and provides important lessons that need to be incorporated for the next project deliverable. the is through a feedback loop of experi. There could be instances where a project is closed before all deliverables have been completed. The Adapting phase Each project is different incorporates a “Lessons learned” ap.and will have different proach throughout the project cycle. The major steps during closing include: are opportunities that give rise to adjustments in the project and contribute to learning. The original assumptions under the project as first planned usually change. Closing Phase The closing phase of the project is when the project has achieved the planned objectives and all deliverables have been completed. Approval of proposed changes by key stakeholders. therefore.project manager’s role is ence. This process encourages an increased productivity over time and to economies of scale. It uses inputs from the Monitoring phase that informs what needs to be changed or modified. because.
Team reassignments: Provide staff performance evaluations and assist in their transfer to new job opportunities. At closure the project ensures that all administrative tasks have been completed including all contracts. Closing Contracts: Finalize all contracts with suppliers and consultants. It is an opportunity to recognize the special contributions made by the team members and key stakeholders and give awards and small gifts or certificates as symbols of appreciation for their extraordinary contributions to the success of the project. Administrative close: Archive all documents and project records. 5. Project Final Reports: To donors and key stakeholders as per contract requirements or expressed needs. and that the project’s lessons learned are developed and shared. donor evaluation. Distribute Lessons Learned: share the experience of the project within the organization and with other similar project that may benefit from the knowledge acquired during the project. . Project Evaluation: Participation in the evaluation of the project by either internal or external evaluators and a “Lessons learned” session with the project team. which may include audit evaluations. All project documentation is properly archived and made accessible to the organization and the donor. or internal evaluations conducted by the organization or the project. that staff is reassigned to other projects. Evaluation by the donor is a significant effort designed to ensure that the project was able to deliver the outputs according to planned and that all project funds were used correctly. 3. A key step in the closure phase is the project evaluation. 2. confirming that the project has met all stakeholder’s requirements and celebration of successful completion of the project with the team members.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 46 1. 4. The closing phase is also a time to celebrate the successful completion of the project. 6.
during implementation the monitoring phase provides inputs and changes to the original design which then modifies the implementation plans. The cycle allows for a constant. The cycle approach allows for opportunities to review the original project assumptions and plans. during the monitoring phase the projects may encounter that the original assumptions about a project activity have changed which leads to propose a readjustment of the plans. this repetitive cycle continues until all project activities and objectives have been delivered. As the project makes progress the initial conditions could have changed making it necessary for the project to change course or readjust the original plans. interactive process by which the project is constantly monitored and any required changes are reflected in the plans. with each phase receiving feedback from the preceding: for example. either in schedule or in scope.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 47 Project Management Cycle A project management methodology follows a cyclical approach throughout the life of the project. implement and monitor phases is repeated throughout the life of the project. For example. These cyclic nature amongst the design. Implement Initiate Plan Monitor Close Adapt Figure 5. Project Management Cycle A project is not a linear process. that some activities are . The cycle represents a continuous process in which each phase provides the foundation for the next. it is cyclical. Another example may be.
quality requirements and risk plans. such as oversight. Once the planning phase has been completed. Adjustments are caused by changes in the project environment and information that was not present (or available) at the time of planning. phase starts. each with its own project management cycle. This check points magnitude and more defined as more allow for the donor or detailed information about the project is management to reflect developed. No situation in which a project intervenes is static. within the planning phase. As Between each phase improvements start to occur. feedback from the implementing phase .Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 48 no longer needed or desired by the beneficiaries which require the project to modify some parts of the original plans. quality con- . This process requires additional improvements and refinements to the schedule. the impact there are stages or gates to other project management areas must be determined. Each project’s management and review the progress cycle is a knowledge cycle in itself shapand make recommenda. The application of project management is an interactive process. several interactions of planning may occur as the team develops the best approach and methodologies to implement the project.may result in adjustments to the project management plan. Over time. Evaluation activities. The project management cycle continues in a spiral fashion until the project is completed and closed. project management is a cycle that is continually repeated to adapt to a changing context. Project management is a dynamic effort and requires a continual process of monitoring and evaluation. For example. were the closure on the first phase of a project leads to the initiation of the second phase. the infor decision and apteractions should become smaller in proval. For larger projects the phases may be broken down in smaller manageable phase.identified through the monitoring phase .ing the initial design and being fed by experience from each implementation tions before the next and evaluation cycle. budget estimates.
This helps the organizations avoid problems of projects starting work when the details have not been properly defined. they help inform the project if the activities are being done according to plan and if any changes are needed before the next round of implementation activities occurs. monitoring and adapting phase are continuous and occur during the life of the project. Treating project management as a static. it also helps the organizations to identify early problems and to act accordingly before more resources are used and expenses or costs are committed. no work should be started until all project plans have been completed. A third stage approval occurs between the monitoring and closing phase. linear process can lead to project failure. the second gate occurs between the planning and implementation phase. and management review are ongoing activities and affect every phase of the project. Authorization on the project proposal and funding allows the organization to initiate the planning phase. The most important checkpoints occur between the initiation and planning phases. This is an important quality assurance tool.Chapter 3 – The Project Management Cycle | 49 trol. Another critical characteristic of the project management cycle is that the checkpoints or decision gates allow for opportunities to approve the work on a phase before work on the second phase begins. It also fosters an environment that discourages the use of creative problem-solving strategies. revised and authorized. the project will review if all activities and objectives have been achieved before staring the close phase and project evaluation. a rigid project management approach that hinders the ability of the project team to make the necessary mid-course corrections during project implementation. The decision gates between the implementation. .
close D) Initiate. close B) Plan. Process and Policies B) Process. initiate. adapt. plan. adapt. monitor. Schedule Question 2 – What are some examples of external influential factors in the environment of the project? A) Donor regulations and government requirements B) Policies and Procedures C) Norms and values of the organization D) Senior management requirements Question 3 – A project has ____ phases A) Three B) Six C) Four D) Nine Question 4 – Which statement contains the correct order of the project phases? A) Initiate. monitor. implement. People and Tools D) Quality.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three basic components of a project? A) People. implement. initiate. Budget. plan. monitor. adapt. Tools and Budget C) Process. close C) Plan. monitor. close Question 5 – In which phase are changes to the project plans approved? A) Planning phase B) Monitoring phase C) Initiation phase D) Adaption phase . implement. adapt. implement.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 50 Chapter 3 .
Because development projects take on unexplored territory. in this case the way at managing the limited resources project goal. To manage this complexity the project needs to be deconstructed into manageable.set of activities that must plexity of development projects that be performed to achieve require a different approach and a new a goal. assumptions about the project must be listed. and the increasing demands from all stakeholders. A systems approach includes a holistic view of the project environment. Projects are required to do a close monitoring of the budget. evaluated. There is also the com. and an understanding that the project is made of a series of interacting components working to meet an objective or benefit. A systems approach requires the identification of the components or processes that make up the entire project management framework.A process is defined as a pected quality. Because of its coordinating nature all these activities require a “process approach”. By separating the project into different management processes the project manager has a better chance to control the outcomes of the project and manage the challenges that can never be fully planned or predicted at its onset.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 51 CHAPTER 4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES Project Management Processes Project management is a process of leading a team of capable people in planning and implementing series of related activities that need to be accomplished on a specific date. or processes. interrelated parts. These . scope and schedule to deliver the project objectives under the ex. Managing a project requires that manager’s take in consideration a system approach to manage the different elements of a project. This framework helps understand the basic structure required to properly manage a project and helps identify the most important elements that need close supervision and careful analysis. its risks assessed and contingency plans developed.
Large. the project manager after making an analysis of the project risks and constraints will decide which processes require more effort than others The project management processes are interrelated with the project management phases during the entire project management cycle. One of the most critical roles of the project manager is the integration of these nine management processes to ensure they all are properly coordinated. These management nine processes occur during processes are all integrative. organize. doing. that is. for example. adapting and closing phases of the project. the entire project life cy.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 52 processes are also known as key knowledge areas or management competencies. planning. . complexity and risk of a project. There are nine management processes that are relevant to development projects. monitoring. implementation. The project manager uses the nine processes as management tools to help in the initiation. In many cases it could result in making trade-offs amongst the different competing expectations from The nine management stakeholders. The idea of having nine processes is to define the areas that are the main responsibility of the project manager.they need to be managed in a combining and coordinating manner to bring these cle and each one of them diverse elements into a whole. checking and learning as components to ensure process quality. These are designed to help manage the different elements of a project and different projects may have different needs from each process. a project that has identified that cost is a critical success factor will spend more time and effort in developing a cost management plan. The nine project management processes are divided into two groups: requires a cyclical approach that consists of planning. lead and control. The effort and detail required for each process depends entirely on the size. areas that he will need to plan. Smaller less complex projects may not even need all the nine processes. highly complex projects will require specialized resources to manage each process making the role of the project manager as the coordination of these processes.
implementation and operations of all information and communications technologies such as access to the internet. 7. sub-grants and procurement contracts. which deals with the design. building services. support to users with hardware and software tools selected by the project or the organization. Budget Management. which deals with the overall management of the financial resources of the project and the organization. 4. managing the donor contract. Supporting Processes: 5. managing and developing the project team 6. which deals with the long term objectives of the organization to achieve its vision and mission. managing the funds from donors according to the contract clauses. fleet management. Schedule Management. • .Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 53 Core Processes: 1. managing the information produced by the project as well as the information needed from the project by the stakeholders. managing that all project activities and actions follow a quality standard. Contract Management. area that supports the projects in procurement of goods and services. 8. Strategic Management. Stakeholder Management. Technology Management. Human resource management. managing the plans to respond to risk events based on the assumptions set by the projects. security and other general services required by the organization and its projects to achieve their work. Information Management. Quality Management. 9. General Administration. managing the work required to accomplish the project objectives. 2. these include: • • • • Financial management. 3. Scope Management. which deals with the hiring and general development of the organization’s human resources. managing the relationships with the project stakeholders. There are other management areas that the project manager is not entirely responsible for but are important that he is involved ad has a good understanding of its policies and procedures. Risk Management. managing the scheduled time created for all project activities. Team Management.
large. . The effort is reflected in the Project Management Plan. Project Management Processes and Phases Depending on the scope.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 54 The graphic below shows the relationship between the project phases and the project management processes: Scope Management Schedule Management Budget Management Quality Management Core Processes Project Phases Initiate Plan Implement Monitor Adapt Close Supporting Processes Team Management Stakeholder Management Information Management Risk Management Contract Management Figure 6. The Project Management Processes are overlapping activities that occur at varying levels of intensity throughout each phase of the project. non-complex projects. complex projects will require a more rigorous application of project management processes than small. The Project Manager assesses the project risks and constraints to determine the detail needed for each process in a specific project. from initiation to closing.
it defines what the project will and will not deliver. assignment of work to the project team. Scope management involves four distinct steps: 1. define what needs to be done. These requests may come from various stakeholders causing the project manager to add activities without a corresponding increase in the time and budget. which is when a project gets additional requirements added to the project without reconsidering the impact to the schedule or budget. as requested by the donor and by the quality needed by the beneficiaries. which is one of the leading causes for project failures. Defining the Scope. the objectives to be achieved and what will not be part of the project. This process also serves to ensure that the project has correctly identified the goals and objectives and that those have been documented and defined in terms of effective set of indicators useful to monitor the progress. cost management. The scope describes the boundaries of the project. They are at the core because they lead to specific objectives of the project and are the basis to define a project success. these processes deal directly with the project constraints. time management and quality management. consultants and partners 3. Scope Management Includes the processes involved in defining and controlling all the activities that make up the project and that are required to complete the project successfully.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 55 Core Processes Core processes include scope management. under budget. includes the creation of a work breakdown structure 2. ensuring that the work is done according to plans 4. making the necessary changes that occur from changes in the environment and changes in priorities During his process a scope change management plan is created to help manage any changes to the project. This is a critical process that will help project managers with scope creep (also referred as the uncontrolled changes in a project's scope). . Assigning Scope Work. Adapting the Scope. on time. Verifying the Scope. As mentioned in chapter one.
. Schedule management includes the development of a “project schedule” listing all project activities.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 56 To manage scope creep the project will establish a “scope change control plan” that will facilitate how. During this process the project manager develops a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) which is a management technique of breaking the project down into a hierarchy of work tasks which represent the work to be done. authorizing. The Work Breakdown Structure The WBS is a tool that will generate information used by the schedule and budget management processes. First level Project Goal Third level Objective Objective Fourth level Activity Activity Activity Activity Fifth level Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Figure 7. illustrating when each activity must begin and end. by defining what is out of scope. budgeting. when. This structure is used as an input to define the time and budget variables of the project. The project schedule is a communications tool that informs project stakeholders about the status of the project and gives information to project team members in the form of graphs and charts. and why any new addition to the project is included by defining a process for assessing. Schedule Management This process includes the actions required to ensure the timely completion of the project. Another important element of scope management is the definition of what is not included in the project. scheduling and implementing any new activities. the project stakeholders can have a better understanding of the project which helps reducing frustrations due to unmet expectations.
Monitoring the Schedule: Monitor events that will impact the schedule and come up with alternative solutions 4. such as festivities. Schedule management includes reporting techniques to compare the project baseline with the actual dates and uses variance analysis to determine project progress.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 57 The key steps of the schedule management process are: 1. the project managers must review the progress made against the scheduled baseline and determine any schedule variances. and also unpredictable events such as weather or political events that can disrupt any project schedule. there is some oversight about unexpected events that will affect the beneficiaries’s involvement in the project. including the length of . and will determine the total project duration 2. the relationships amongst the activities and the sequence in which they will occur. social events or agricultural activities. The schedule management plan should include instructions on how to proceed when schedule variance occurs. Often. The project schedule is also used to assign project staff with their tasks. A network diagram is a tool used to graphically display the activity sequence and dependencies. A common method to diagram and present a schedule is by using a GANTT diagram listing all project activities from the WBS. Updating the Schedule: Update the schedule to reflect decisions potentially affecting the time variable and the implementation of activities The first step in schedule management is estimating the time that each one of the activities identified in the WBS would take to be completed. during the planning phase. Another element of schedule management is the procedure to control schedule changes and define who can authorize the changes. If the project is behind schedule. Defining the Schedule: Based on information from the WBS a schedule is developed with help from key stakeholders. the project staff must determine the best options to bring the project back to schedule using methods such as making trade-offs to compress the schedule or fast tracking which in either case involves incurring into more parallel activities. Monitoring the schedule is an ongoing task: As each activity is performed. Publishing the Schedule: Distributing the schedule to key stakeholders 3.
The project’s ability to manage the financial resources obtained by the organization will be a measure of the organizations probity. The steps for budget management are: 1. authorizing expenditures 3. GANTT Diagram Budget Management Budget management processes are required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. making necessary changes to the budget following clauses set by the contract or grant . Defining the Budget. Controlling the Budget. and financial losses that the organization may have to cover using their limited unrestricted funds. the development of all the costs that the project will incur and the approach to manage the budget 2. Inadequate budget management can lead to misappropriations of funds. The chart below shows a schedule in a Gantt diagram were activity durations are shown as bars and the arrows show the dependencies Figure 8. the organization. and to the beneficiaries. improper assignment of expenses.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 58 duration of each activity represented with a bar. the chart portrays the dependencies amongst activities. Risks in this area have the highest impact to the project. Additionally. not only in compliance with donor’s requirements but also as a measure of its efficiency. monitoring budget performance according to plans 4. Updating the Budget. Executing the Budget. This is the area that receives great scrutiny during and after the project is completed.
prevents scope creep.tried to short cut the “budget creation process”.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 59 The “Budget management process” includes the activities to develop a budget proposal to meet the requirements from the Request for Proposal (RFP) (in case of a donor funded project). schedule performance. A leading cause for project failure is a poor estimation of the project budget. combines measurements of scope performance. The value of EVA provides an early warning of performance problems when corrective actions are less impactful. regardless of the effort expended or the time elapsed. An important technique in budget management is the use of Earned Value Analysis (EVA) which is basically a tracking metric method that measures the actual amount of work the project has accomplished. and cost performance. within a single integrated methodology. communicates objective progress to stakeholders. EVA improves the definition of project scope. the chart below shows an example of a project budget monitoring chart in which the planned budget is shown as a dotted . it is not unusual that during the RFP process the organization -in its rush to meet the deadlines. EVA measures project progress objectively. Monitoring the budget is a critical activity of the project manager. The method used to monitor the performance of the budget depends on the accounting system used by the organization to track costs expenses. which is a closer approximation to the project’s real needs and uses the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to estimate the value of each task or activity and then adds up the values until a total budget is developed. the project can determine the cost of each objective and the total project budget. and keeps the project team focused on achieving progress. and a project budget to meet the monitoring and accounting needs of the organization. Budget performance is the activity to evaluate whether the project’s expenses are being executed according to the budget plan and it helps identify deviations and develop corrective actions. With this technique. One of the tools used during this process is the activity based budget. This can lead to estimates that during the project implementation do not reflect the actual needs of the project.
and budget updates.000 $1.200.000 $1. Estimates should be revised once the project starts to plan for deviations.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 60 line and the actual budget is shown as a solid line.400. This is a useful chart to monitor the deviation from plans that will allow corrective actions be made on time.000 $1 2 3 4 5 6 Time in Months 7 8 9 Plan Actual Budget 10 11 12 Figure 9. and a budget control plan that defines the process for revision to the budget.000 $400.Curve $1. Outputs from this process include: a project budget. .000. Budget S. Failure to revise can lead to working and spending that do not benefit the project. a budget management plan that defines the levels of authority for charging items to the budget. material.000 $600.000 $1. Budget management is an important responsibility of the project manager that should not be completely delegated.000 $200. Monitoring the Project Budget Other steps of budget management include determining all the resource requirements for consultants.000 $800.600. and equipment by getting a cost estimate of each resource including human resources and develop a budget baseline that will be used to track and report budget expenditures.
that they are delivered in a timely manner. There are four steps in quality management: 1. For every activity or process the projects needs a plan. ensuring that the project outputs are relevant to the needs of the beneficiaries. The PDCA Cycle is used in every activity of the project and in every management process. 6 Walter Andrew Shewhart. Quality Definition. monitoring and auditing quality 4.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 61 Quality Management Quality management is the process to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs of the beneficiaries. some of which may be initially set by the organization. the donor. Quality Control. needs to act on the plan. check the results of the actions and act based on the new learning or changes needed to improve the next cycle. Do. Quality is defined as a commitment to deliver the project outputs and meet the expectations from the beneficiaries (which means that quality is ultimately defined by the beneficiary). It is not necessarily doing additional work if it does not add value or benefit to the beneficiaries. ensuring that quality is built into every element of the project 3. Economic Control of Quality. Quality Assurance. Check. These steps are commonly abbreviated as PDCA. determining the quality standards for the project 2. During the quality management process the project manager develops a “quality management plan” which identifies the quality standards that are relevant to the project. making improvements to the project that will increase quality levels The most popular tool used to determine quality assurance is the Shewh6art Cycle. Quality is not about delivering the most expensive materials or services. 1980 . This cycle for quality assurance consists of four steps: Plan. but rather. and Act. or are part of the technical competence area the project is focusing. Quality Improvements. American Society for Quality. and are adequate to the conditions in which they have to be used. such as health or education. it’s about delivering according to the commitments made the project initiation. and it’s doing what the project said it was going to do.
and quality improvement records. Quality management outputs include a quality management plan. consultants or project partners are following the quality standards. . quality audit reports. this is where the project measures the results of the deliverables or outputs and checks to see if they meet the quality standards. quality is also maintaining the project constraints in balance. The Shewart/Deming Cycle The second process in quality management includes quality assurance. In certain conditions. which implies the execution of the quality plan. As such. and any assumptions. making changes to the quality plan and identifying ways to improve quality an eliminate causes of unsatisfactory quality discovered during quality control. Quality assurance focuses on prevention measures during the project implementation phase and checks to see that the project team. The final process is quality improvements. implementing the project by delivering all that the projects was designed to deliver in the time allotted and under the approved budget. meeting quality standards could mean meeting legal and regulatory standards set by the local government or the donor agency. made in the quality plan. The third process in quality management is quality control. This process includes quality audits performed by the project team during every project deliverable and reevaluating the quality standards.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 62 Plan Do Act Check Figure 10.
. 4.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 63 Supporting Processes The supporting process areas are team. Team evaluation. 3. Steps during the team management process: 1. responsibilities and reporting relationships. The first step is identifying the roles. stakeholder. Team management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. risk. and using motivational techniques. Team building. These range from highly technical to administrative and support functions. the process of identifying the skills and competencies required for carrying out the project activities and the sources were those skills can be located. and contract management. 2. information. evaluating the performance of the team and dealing with conflict and people issues. This is where the project manager needs to be heavily involved and participate in all interviews with possible candidates. assigning roles and responsibilities. Team Management During the definition of the project activities a list is created that identifies the skills needed by the project. they are supporting areas because they assist and make possible for the project to achieve its objectives. These can come from within the organization or hired through the Human Resource function of the organization. improving team performance. Team identification. organizing the team and building their capacity to perform in the project. the success of the project will depend on the quality and commitment of the team. The project team is after all the team responsible for the project and the project manager needs to be clear in acquiring the skills when needed. Team improvement. The second step is getting the people that will be assigned to the project.
it rather involves careful planning to ensure that the project has the right people at the right time doing the right things. another good method to help them is a formal mentorship. . Team management is not limited to the hiring and reassigning staff at the end of the project. can help the project manager build the right team and helps the team to start implementing the project activities with the right level of skills. and other internal processes for new hires. guidelines. were a project member is assigned to guide a new staff member to help navigate and understand the organizational culture and procedures. the project manager develops the “project organization chart” illustrating the structure that the project will use to manage the project team. Part of team management also includes team evaluation. Some organizations also include an induction process fully describing the mission. and soft skills include time management. facilitating and negotiation skills. Once the team has been identified. but the creation of a development plan. Team development includes hard and soft skills. which should not be done once a year or at the end of the project but on an ongoing basis where the feedback opportunities should allow staff to be aware about their performance as it compares with expectations and identify ways to improve it. Most projects do not have the luxury of time to fully develop a team. culture. Hard skills includes technical training to learn new methodologies or practices. communications. norms. The chart also helps identify the reporting relationships amongst the project team members and how the project integrates with the organization.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 64 Once people have been assigned to the team the next step is to develop the team. that defines the development strategies and goals. This process helps new staff to navigate through the organizations policies and procedures.
Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 65 Project Manager Level 1 Support Level 2 Level 2 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 3 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Level 4 Figure 11. partner organizations and anyone who will be impacted by the project. local government. Stakeholders are all the people who have an interest in the project. the geographic location and the external environment in which the project will take place. Stakeholders include donors. The Project Organization Chart Stakeholder Management Stakeholder management is one of the areas typically capturing the least amount of thought and planning in development projects due to limited or no understanding and agreement on who are the stakeholders and their role in the project. local institutions and even watchdog organizations. beneficiaries. including participants such as the local press. Managing stakeholders is not an easy task. all defined by the scope of work. the type of project. A project objective could be to improve the way in which the relationships between the project . whose satisfaction is the most critical element to define the success of a project. Each project has a different list of stakeholders.
their level of interest and influence in the project. 2. Stakeholder evaluation. An important tool on identifying stakeholders is the creation of a stakeholder map that places each stakeholder on a matrix of influence and interest. the next step is to understand their needs. Stakeholder management improvement. evaluating the results of stakeholder management strategies. 4. Stakeholder Mapping. and specially identify their fears and concerns about the project. implementing the strategies through communications and relationship building. improving stakeholder management strategies to increase support to the project. The Stakeholder Map C High . The final step is to develop a good understanding of the most important stakeholders and develop a communication strategy that will help manage the relationship. There are four steps in stakeholder management process: 1. Below is an example of the stakeholder map: High A Keep Committed Keep Satisfied B Influence Keep Informed Low Keep Engaged D Low Interest Figure 12. Stakeholder relationship building. 3. Stakeholder Analysis is the technique used to identify who are the project stakeholders.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 66 and the stakeholders are managed by taking a proactive approach geared towards building trust. planning. Stakeholder management includes the processes of stakeholder analysis. the process of mapping and analysis of stakeholders and develop stakeholder management strategies. and communication.
as well as add or remove stakeholders from the list.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 67 • Quadrant A– This group is made of stakeholders that have high influence but low interest in the project. The best approach is to keep this group informed. Stakeholder analyses are techniques that can help project team members understand the variety of stakeholders that have influence and an interest in the project. but. The project team needs to monitor these groups. The goal is to work on building more positive interest in the project by keeping them committed. • • • The level of influence and interest on the project can change during the life of the project. When beneficiaries are not involved in the planning or consulted on their needs and expectations about the project they can easily turn . Stakeholder analysis provides the team with views and some basic measures that can help uncover and remove barriers. this is usual at the start of the project when limited information about the project has been distributed. Each stakeholder has a different idea or expectation of what the project is. Quadrant C – This group’s level of impact to the project is medium and needs occasional monitoring. Quadrant B – Stakeholders that belong to this group need to be kept satisfied so that their interest is sustained and the organization can take advantage of their influence. especially when stakeholders could have a significant impact on the project. there is little the project can do to increase the influence. This is a relationship that needs to be managed closely to avoid changes in perceptions aboutthe project. A group that was initially recognized as having low influence and low interest can change to have a large influence and interest in the project. Stakeholders with low influence and high interest belong to this group. Failure to do this can cause that stakeholders loose interest or change their positive interest into negative interest and which case and due to their high level of influence these effects can be significant to the project. This analysis provides information for additional plans that could prove to be valuable for the project team such as a “communication management plan” and a “risk management plan”. Increasing information to maintain the level of engagement on the project is a good strategy. Stakeholder management also helps manage expectations. Quadrant D – Stakeholders with low influence and low interest belong to this group to whom the project should pay little attention.
The success or failure of the project is ultimately judged by stakeholders. analyzing and reporting project information 3. telephone.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 68 their back to the project and without beneficiaries the project doesn’t have a reason to continue. fluence on the project Insufficient involvement and infrequent also varies. especially when the project has to deal with a key stakeholder who has the power to disrupt the project. Information Evaluation. Information Improvement. or assume that they will support the project unconditionally. By identifying the Stakeholders have dif. the process of collecting. The steps in information management include: 1. 80% of a project managers’ time is spent communicating via reports. it helps win support and eliminates a major source of project stress. improving information management processes the project stakeholders and identify their level of interest and influence. dissemination. Information Management.needs. Failure to do this can increase the risks to the project. email. a good stakeholder management plan helps manage the politics that can often arise with development projects. collection. the process of defining the information needs and plans to manage project information 2. not project managers. Information Planning. Information Management This important process includes the steps required to ensure timely and appropriate generation. that is why it communication with stakeholders is is important to know all another leading cause of project failure. and ultimate disposition of project information. the ferent levels of interest project has developed a knowledge that on a project and their in. A project should never try to take stakeholders for granted. meetings or presentations. concerns and issues of the stakeholders early in the process. storage. Failing to identify stakeholders can lead to difficult situations. evaluating the results of information management plans 4. .can be used to its advantage.
this is important specially when developing donor reports or reports to comply with local laws or regulations. One type of report cannot be used to inform all stakeholders because each of them has a different interest on the project. Having a successful information management plan depends on developing a sound communication strategy and to the ability of the project manager to listen.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 69 The information management plan is influenced by the type and needs of the project stakeholders. Distributing information is another element of information management. it identifies who will be responsible for collecting. Information management also includes an analysis or evaluation of the effectiveness and relevance of the information distributed. Principles are the values and norms that govern the behavior of the people in charge of developing the communication messages. The information management plan contains a list or description of all the types of information that needs to be communicated by the project. this step is useful when communication is used as a tool to build stakeholder support and build relationships with beneficiaries. communities and local NGOs. and the frequency of communications is also different. different needs for information. but learning to listen first and then define what information is needed. editing and distributing the information. The goal of commu- . determine when they need it. how the information will be distributed and how to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of the information. The first step of the plan is to define the type of information that the stakeholders need from the project. Communication is not just about sending information. it goes beyond the act of sending information and includes steps to ensure that the information was received and understood by the intended recipients. Donors have specific information needs from the project and provide formats that describe the content and timing of the information required. It is a good practice that the project defines the communications principles guiding all communication efforts. they require information in different formats and channels.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 70 nication is the acceptance of the project’s message by the receiving audience. The team assesses each identified risk for its probability of occurring and its impact on project objectives. 2. it involves identifying potential project risks and documenting their characteristics. involves the evaluation of the risk management plan and response to actions taken by the project. the goal of the communication has been achieved. analyzing. The project risk list is a project deliverable. The level of risk in projects is defined as something that may happen and if it does. and similar projects done in the past. a way of numerically estimating the probability that a project will meet its cost and time objectives. and responding to risks. Risk Evaluation. Qualitative risk analysis. The next step is the analysis of the project risks. If the receiver understands the meaning of the message which asks for action. includes the activities to monitor risks and respond to risk events. Risks Monitoring and Response. . But if the receiver responds to the message by taking the appropriate action. Risk Planning. risk response. Risk Plan Improvement. Risk Management Risk Management includes the processes concerned with identifying. the goal of communications is not achieved. but fails to act. Risk identification deals with identifying all possible risks that may impact the project. There are four stages to risk management planning: risk identification. the actions to improve the risk plan and response mechanisms as well as an update on the risk levels. The four steps in risk management are: 1. 4. Part of risk management includes the revision of risk analysis during the project’s lifecycle. There are two types of risk analysis: • • Quantitative risk analysis. based on a simultaneous evaluation of the impact of all identified and quantified risks. will have an adverse impact on the project. Risk analysis assesses the importance of the identified risks and develops prioritized lists of these risks for further analysis or direct mitigation. its environment. 3. risk monitoring and control. risk analysis and quantification. The project team members identify the potential risks using their own knowledge of the project. involves the identification and quantification of all risks and the development of a response plan.
The project risks during project lifetime . Risk monitoring and control keeps track of the identified risks. and evaluates their effectiveness. Risk monitoring and control continues for the life of the project. and new risks. or anticipated risks disappear. residual risks. and then design specific actions to implement that strategy. It identifies and assigns staff to take responsibility for each risk response. The project manager and the team identify which strategy is best for each risk. The list of project risks changes as the project matures. but the potential impact increases. Risk Probability High Probability Low Probability Project Timeline High Impact Risk Impact Low Impact Project Timeline Figure 13. new risks develop.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 71 Risk response planning focuses on the high risk items evaluated in the qualitative and/or quantitative risk analysis. As the project makes progress the probability for risks to occur changes. this has implications on the budget and other contingency plans developed by the team. It also ensures the execution of risk response plans.
Develop the proposals. Procurement contract management deals with the provision of goods and services that the project will hire from local or international vendors and consultants. grants and sub-grants 4. and includes the preparation of plans to reduce the impact to the project. It also identifies potential sources and the strategies that the project will use to procure goods and services. − − Grant contract management deals with the processes to ensure that the project follows the conditions. award and monitor the funds that other organizations will receive from the project to carry work on behalf of the project. done in conjunction with the organizations’ procurement . 3. Contract Management Contract Management includes the processes required to manage the three types of contracts: Grants. and/or selectign sub-grant recipients. Because of this probabilistic and speculative nature of risk management. Contract award. selecting the vendors. the plan identifies the what. Sub-Grant contract management deals with the processes the project will establish to select. 2. when and how many of the goods and services are needed within the budgeted limits. which includes: sending a proposal to the donor. and/or sending a request for proposal for sub-grants. Different projects have different needs relating to contract management. regulations. Update the contract as needed to reflect authorized changes or modifications. includes: identifying the steps for approval and negotiation of the donor contract or grant. sub-grants and procurement contracts. sending a request for procurement of goods and services needed by the project.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 72 Risks management is the management of events that may or may not occur. specifications and clauses that the donor has established. − Contract management consists of four steps: 1. Review performance and monitor application of clauses and obligations under the contracts. The procurement contract management is a key element during the project implementation. many project managers feel it’s is not necessary and prefer to deal risks only when it occurs.
subgrantee and suppliers. but it also identifies the organizations procedures. and selecting the vendors that meet the requirements of the project. This process involves deciding how to award sub-grants. Sub-Grant contract management occurs in many large projects were the donor requires that a substantial amount of the project funds are directed to local organizations to carry the activities with beneficiaries. resolution of open issues. This is a process of systematically evaluating vendor information. verifying their qualifications and capacity. Monitoring the plan involves managing the relationship with the donor. Most of the time in this process is spent in contract management. When all contract obligations have been achieved (or when they have not) the project will close the contract. bids. a contract audit. when to procure. therefore. obtaining quotes. ensuring reports and payments are made on time and goods and services are delivered under specifications. what to procure and how much should be procured. which consists of following the due diligence process required to ensure that the project obtains the goods and services under the required specifications. Contract management will not only identify all the activities that the subgrantee will perform and all the goods and services that the project needs. identifying risks and issues related to the proposed transaction.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 73 function. if required by the donor. formal acceptance and. Selecting the vendor or source involves choosing from the potential suppliers. developing the selection criteria and contract terms. final verification. the project must develop processes to monitor the sub-grants. it also involves the process to solicit the goods and services. monitoring contract performance. In this scenario the project and the organization is responsible for ensuring that the funds are utilized in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Implementing the procurement plan is the process of developing the procurement documents such as the Request for Proposal (RFPs). This process has the objective to ensure that the project gets what it needs without creating risk to the pro- . and negotiating and awarding the contract. Closing a contract includes the completion and settlement of the contract. how to procure. proposals or offers. donor restrictions and the applicable host country government regulations.
and ultimately the needs of the beneficiaries. . the management of risks related to the appropriate use of donor funds to purchase the goods and services within the donor requirements.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 74 ject and the organization/s. and to ensure that the goods and services meet the needs of the project. Especially. Risks can occur in the form of improper or inadequate controls to manage the contract relationships.
Budget. Budget and Quality Question 2 – What is the correct order of the fours steps in Scope Management? A) Assign. verify and assign D) Define. Scope. Risk and Scope D) Team. Risk and Contract C) Contract. Budget and Scope D) People. Information. Risk and Contract B) Team. Risk and Contract. adapt and verify B) Define. Schedule. verify and adapt C) Adapt. Stakeholder. assign and adapt Question 3 – What step in Schedule Management requires input from the WBS? A) Define the Schedule B) Monitor the Schedule C) Publish the Schedule D) Update the Schedule Question 4 – What is a GANTT chart? A) A diagram that shows the roles in a project B) A diagram to represent the cost of each activity C) A diagram that list all project activities from the WBS D) A diagram used to monitor the project quality Question 5 – What are the five supporting processes? A) Scope. Information. verify.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the four core project management processes? A) Scope. Stakeholder. Schedule. Budget and Quality B) Schedule.Chapter 4 – Project Management Phases | 75 Chapter 4 . Stakeholder. . Information. Risk and Quality C) Risk. Schedule. assign. define. define. Budget.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 76 .
Responsibilities and Skills | 77 CHAPTER 5 ROLES. The job description for a project manager needs to be more explicit on the managerial skills and competencies required for the job. coaching. Organizations usually assign a project manager with the idea that all that is required is expertise in a technical area and often forget the need to have a project manager with the skills to lead a project team. communicate with stakeholders and manage the project constraints. -all at the same time-. While it is true that a good understanding of the technical aspects of the project is useful. These skills are often overlooked at the time of hiring or appointing a project manager. and leadership. The project manager role entails to be a good integrator. planning. It is not unusual to find a good engineer being promoted to project manager just for his or her technical competence. coordinate the use of resources. communicator and facilitator. this role is of equal or more importance than the role of a technical manager. Organizations need to build a better understanding of the role of a project manager starting from the premise that this role is not the same as a technical manager/director. RESPONSIBILITIES AND SKILLS Role of the Project Manager Development organizations appoint a project manager according to the depth of his or her technical skills. decisionmaking.Chapter 5 – Roles. project managers are also required to have good management skills such as communicating. . negotiating.
There are three critical roles of the project manager: 1. 3. therefore. communicate properly with stakeholders. As the person responsible for the project. beneficiaries and the key stakeholders. not on their technical skills. The project manager is the ultimate person accountable for the project. Most project failures point to the lack of managerial skills from project managers. the project manager needs to make key decisions regarding the management of the resources available to the project. the sole responsibility and authority for project direction and control. A Project Manager is also accountable to the Program Manager or Organization Director (depending on the size of the organization). The Project Manager has the delegated authority to commit the organization on matters regarding performance according to the scope of the project and the contract with the donor. Leader role: Motivating and inspiring a team to deliver the project work by providing a vision and direction. Communicator role: Most of the work should be spent on this role by communicating with all stakeholders and building the right support and relationships. monitor the schedule effectively and ensure the donor funds are utilized in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. the organization’s senior management needs to assign the project manager.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 78 For example to manage an agriculture project the organization will hire an agronomist and sustain this decision mostly on the depth of the technical skills and experience but not on the managerial skills needed to supervise a team. Organizations need to reevaluate the roles. responsibilities and skills required from project managers. 2. for delivering the project as planned. she is the one whose job it is to make sure the project gets done and would be the principal contact person for the donor. Integrator role: Ensures that all the project activities. and to the beneficiaries. strategies and approaches are part of an integrated effort. Integrator A key role of the project manager is to ensure the proper integration of the project management processes and coordinate the project phases through .
many sources. The main role of the project manager is not related to the technical responsibilities of the project. Project Plan Development A project plan is the document used to coordinate all the project activities and used as a guide to implement and monitor the project. and so are the project plans. The role of integrator involves three specific areas of responsibility: • • • Developing the project management plans. which involves the execution of the project plan and ensuring that all activities are performed by all the people involved Monitor and control the plan. Development projects are unique. on the other hand. Responsibilities and Skills | 79 the project management cycle. especially because most of the information to hinder it with too derelative to the project plans come from tailed instructions. coherent project plan document Implementing the project plan. which involves measuring the results against the intended objectives and coordinating all changes to the plans. the plans are in- .Chapter 5 – Roles. This role is designed to ensure that all areas of the project come together to bring the project to a successful conclusion. a small project that involves a few people over a couple of months might have a project plan a few pages long. ject. A project plan is a tool that the project The project manager taimanager uses to lead the project team lors the project plan to and asses the status of the project. not the art of integration. which in most cases are managed by the project staff. usually from subject matter experts and project stakeholders. The effort of coordinating all these information gives the project manager the opportunity to build a good understanding of the overall project and use it as guide to conduct its implementation. Plans should be dynamic and the project manager role is to ensure that the plans have a level of flexibility to allow changes as the project makes progress or when the project environment changes. which consists of the development of all project planning documents into a consistent. A large project involving many people over many years would require a detailed project plan with complete and in depth information covering many pages. fit the needs of the proIn order to create a good project plan tended to guide the prothe project manager needs to practice ject implementation.
Project Plan Implementation Project plan implementation includes all the efforts necessary to achieve the activity outputs. Implementing the plan is essentially a proactive role accomplished constantly relying on the project plan. Project planning and implementation are closely related and intertwined activities. management and other key stakeholders. communication.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 80 The project manager or the development organization can decide the minimum content of the project plan. It is a good practice if the organization develops basic guidelines or standard forms to help with the creation of the project plan. they must solicit inputs from the project team members and key project stakeholders. . Although project managers are responsible for developing the overall project management plan. Since the main objective of developing a project plan is to guide the project implementation. especially because this document will be used as a communication tool with the donor. Project managers must provide leadership to communicate the project plans. Project Plan Monitoring and Control early activities needs to be documented to benefit future activities and facilitate improvements to the project plan. a good plan should help produce good outputs which ultimately lead to good outcomes. This is the effort where the project will spend most of its During implementation resources and it requires that the manager monitors the the best practices and project performance of the project activities as good results from the described in the project plan. Project implementation requires a different set of skills: leadership. facilitating and negotiating skills. in addition to effectively communicate with the project stakeholders and facilitate negotiations as needed to help implement the project plans. A good approach to help the coordination between project planning and the project implementation is to have the same people who plan the activities be the people who will implement them. beneficiaries. The team that implements the plan has a better chance at succeeding when they are part of the plan’s design. Project managers and their staff must posses the required expertise for successful project implementation.
donors. and the information they receive must be accurate. Update project plans and record the changes. the role of the project managers in this area involves achieving the following objectives: • Ensure that changes are beneficial and contribute to the project success. which is achieved by influencing the factors that create changes and by making trade-offs amongst the project constraints such as scope. Changes are common in projects but they must be managed and properly documented because changes are the most significant subject for project audits and because it helps keep the project evaluators informed. beneficiaries and key stakeholders need to make critical decisions about the project. • • Performance reports provide information to measure the status of the project against the baseline indicators from the original plans. budget and quality. Communicator This is one of the main roles of the project manager. Part of this role is to ensure that the lessons learned are captured and shared with the organization to provide guidance to current or future projects. schedule. The communication or informational role is the most critical role for the success of the project because the organization. Responsibilities and Skills | 81 Monitoring and controlling the project involves identifying. and timely. The purpose of the report is to identify any discrepancies or issues identified by the project team who is responsible to determine the best corrective actions as needed. project staff. evaluating and managing changes throughout the project management cycle.Chapter 5 – Roles. Communicate significant changes to management to beneficiaries and donors. analyzing the information and . relevant. specially the changes that will impact the projects constraints. Project managers in the role of communicators assume three functions: gathering information from project staff and other people involved with the project. often overlooked and not properly taken into consideration when assigning a project manager to a new project.
develop reports (written and spoken) to the donors. Project managers primarily use two forms of communication: • • Leader A project manager should be a leader beyond any other competency. and communicate. and the general public to gain support for the project. beneficiaries or project partners. coordinate. provide direction and constantly negotiate for resources. and distributing the information to the internal and external environments. or the beneficiaries. timely achieve the project goals. The project team needs direction for the whole life of the project and the project manager is responsible for leading the team to achieve the vision that the project has created by facilitating. direct. They host meetings. and motivate determines the effectiveness of the project manager. solve problems. The project manager’s ability to lead . The central information to the right role of the project manager is its ability people about the project. here is where the leadership role is needed and the project manager needs to communicate and motivate the team to achieve the ultimate goal. Communication is used Formal communications like progress reports and presentations to management or to the beneficiaries Informal communications like email messages. start shifting their attention from the final objective. such as the donor. risks. they listen to issues. inspire. assumptions and constraints. it involves working with and through others to achieve the objectives of the project. beneficiaries. telephone calls.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 82 make sense of its implications. Project managers spend most of their time communicating. . to influence. The success of project managers depends greatly on their ability to communicate effectively. Communication is procoordinating and motivating the team to viding relevant. Leading is a central role. During the course of the project is not unusual that the team.which includes the ability to facilitate. The focus of this role is to ensure that the project team and stakeholders have a clear vision of the objectives of the project. and team meetings to inform and educate the project stakeholders about the project objectives.
This role is needed to ensure that all these groups are working towards the same goal. which is a shared responsibility with the project team. the project manager role is to create the right conditions that enable the project team to carry their duties.Chapter 5 – Roles. The project manager has to inform each group about what is expected from them and how their activities will be coordinated. or the partners involved with the projects. direct and synchronize the efforts of all involved in the project Motivator: To inspire. these groups will loose sight of their role within the project and may pursue their own interest at the cost of the project. The project manager is not responsible for all the tasks of the project. . The facilitator role is mostly used when dealing with beneficiaries. stimulate and encourage the team to achieve the project objectives Facilitator Under this role the project manager supports the project team to work more effectively and helps them collaborate more efficiently to achieve a stage of synergy. The goal of this role is to support the project team and their interactions with beneficiaries and other stakeholders so that they can achieve exceptional performance. Responsibilities and Skills | 83 The leadership role implies the roles of: • • • Facilitator: To ease and assist the project team to do their work Coordinator: To organize. All participants need their activities be coordinated in away that benefits the project. Since the project manager doesn’t have any form of authority over this group he must provide an environment where beneficiaries feel comfortable with contributing ideas and provide input to the project including the discovery of different approaches that can help achieve the projects objectives. The project manager also contributes by providing the framework to facilitate the interactions amongst the different groups so that they are able to function effectively. Without coordination. such as finance. the beneficiaries. These groups include the functional units in the organizations. Coordinator Coordination means integrating the goals and activities of the people and groups involved with the project. human resources and procurement.
The project manager’s role as a motivator is to identify the factors that would motivate the project team to take the necessary actions to complete a task given the project constraints. if people are not motivated the project will fail. when one group requires an output produced by another group in order to complete an activity. The project manager needs to evaluate the best approach to coordination which has to match the project’s capacity. The project manager encourages full participation from the project team. The project manager’s role is to ensure that information is received by all groups at the right time. The project team is an integral part of the project. lack of motivation can lead to a high turnover and low morale which results in poor performance. promotes mutual understanding with the beneficiaries and cultivates shared responsibility among all project stakeholders. Working with people who are motivated by different reasons is not easy. limited accommodations and other factors generate a need to have a highly motivated team. and it depends on the degree of interdependence and the nature of communication requirements. The nature of development projects involving difficult locations. the greater the need for information. extensive travel. high security risks. Motivator Development projects are highly complex and demanding on the project staff. The greater the level of complexity and uncertainty about the project objectives. .Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 84 The need for coordination depends on the need for integration of the activities from different groups. Communication is the best tool to achieve an effective coordination. this is the reason why the project manager has to act as a motivator to the team in times of difficulty. A high degree of coordination is needed when factors in the project environment are changing and a high level of interdependence exists amongt the activities performed by the different groups. for instance. Even if the project is able to develop the best plans and has all the resources needed.
such as a negative employee performance rating. The appointed responsible manager has to select his team members and assign the activities in accordance to his planning and has the responsibility to undertake the project. Along with the overall responsibility the project manager is also given the authority over the project which implies appropriate access to resources to . the project manager will connect each member to their objectives. and complexity. To foster motivation for each team member. scope. Responsibilities and Skills | 85 In the process of motivating the team the project manager must also understand the importance of individual motivations. the project manager must understand what motivates them individually and as a team. reassignment. Accountability comes as a result of the assigned responsibility. the organization is always held ultimately accountable for the final results. or termination. From this premise. The project manager must ensure that the assigned responsibility is clearly stated and the expected results are mutually understood and accepted by all stakeholders. Responsibility means that the organization appoints a manager who will be in charge of the project and its objectives. however. Projects vary in duration. the organization must hold that person accountable for achieving the desired result and state the consequences of poor performance. responsibilities. When an organization dispenses full responsibility to one person. Responsibilities of the Project Manager Responsibility is an agreement between two or more people for the intention of achieving a desired result. The accountability must be consistent with the responsibility assigned. results or activities.Chapter 5 – Roles. probation. and specific assignments to foster self-motivation. the project manager may elect to appoint one or more assistant project managers and he may delegate single or multiple responsibilities to the assistant project managers to control different processes of the project including monitoring budgets. On a large or complex project. quality and risk.
Planning The responsibility for planning involves defining what the project will accomplish.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 86 complete the project. objectives. The organization must determine and explicitly define the level of authority that the project manager has to hire and terminate team members. equipment. and responsibility to the organization for managing the project and following policies and uphold its values. Authority must be commensurate with the responsibility assigned and appropriate to the accountability. Directing: Leading and motivating the team and other key stakeholders Controlling. The project plans are the operational instructions under which the . accountability. The project manager is responsible for creating the project plans and defining the goals. materials. and who will do it. It is important to define in writing the specific responsibilities and authority the project manager will have in terms of personnel. and authority work in the project management environment. The project manager is responsible for three areas of the project: responsibility to the donor to provide timely and accurate information. responsibility to the beneficiaries for delivering the project outcomes. when it will be completed. Successful organizations have written policies and procedures that define how responsibility. such as personnel or budget. and monitor progress against plans: Which may need modifications based on results from evaluations These responsibilities are part of the project manager’s main role as project integrator. In general terms the project manager responsibilities in the project are: • • • • Planning: Developing the project plans that will guide the actions to implement the project Organizing: Coordinate the work to make optimum use of resources. how it will be implemented and monitored. including the level of purchase authority over equipment and materials or the level of signature authority over other project expenditures. activities and resources needed. and funds.
Chapter 5 – Roles. dowithin the project. lead and motivate the members of the project to perform in a unified and consistent manner. beneficiaries. the responsibility of the project manager is to direct. The project manager will need to communicate the objectives meet the project goals. and management. the project manager assumes the responsibility that the project team will follow the vision of the project and all instructions. The project manager is also responsible for updating the plans as new changes or modifications are approved. stage is on coordination. constraints. control of the PM act as catalyst to activities and the flow of information get the beneficiaries. the team members may have not worked together in the past and they may come in and out of the project at different times. she is responsible for communicating all stakeholders on the changes and to ensure that the changes are being incorporated in the activities and tasks of the project team. development projects bring together different expertise from socials sciences to engineering. once the plans have been approved and distributed. donors. has the responsibility to build and staff the Project Managers must project organization that will be capable foster teamwork among to carry out the plans. Responsibilities and Skills | 87 entire project will be implemented and will serve as a map to guide the project team. mandates. project team and distribute and delegate some authority management of the orto the project team. Directing Once the plans are made and the organization has been determined and the project staffed. The project manager. . and environment of the project. By directing. and work orders. An important element of organization is to staff the project with qualified people who can take the responsibility for specific elements of the project. Organizing The responsibility of the project manager is to establish a structure that will maximize the efficiency (doing the things right) and effectiveness (doing the right things) of the project. The focus of this all project participants. The project team may have people with different skill sets and project experience. Under this responsibility the project manager may nor. ganization to work and The project manager must have the ability to determine the type of project organization that will fit the needs.
directing. Controlling Controlling is a responsibility to ensure that the actions of the project team contribute toward the project goals. and make the necessary corrections. Project managers need to spend more of their time planning. a good understanding of general management. To be an effective project manager today requires more and more. Managerial Skills for Project Managers The evolution of development projects has changed the skills required from project managers. detect the variations from the standards. In today’s projects. This responsibility ensures that the project is on track. the emphasis was placed on technical skills and project managers were hired based on their experience and proficiency in the project’s technical areas. organizing. gender. This revision may cause changes in the approach. Project management is both a science and an art. with the purpose to ensure that the goals be achieved within the project constraints. projects are not just onedimensional approach focused on a single solution.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 88 and goals of the project in a consistent manner to ensure that all work done by the team is supporting the achievement of those goals. and partnership strategies. It’s a science . Development projects now use multi-dimensional methods that include different approaches including rights based. logics. Projects are becoming more complex in their nature and it is no longer possible for the project manager to remain a technical expert. and sequence of the project activities. The project manager must establish standards for performance. performance measurement. Not long ago. Controlling also includes a revision of the original project assumptions and test if they are still valid. the nature of development projects has changed considerably. the behavioral skills are becoming equally important as technical skills. Starting in the late 90’s. and monitoring the project.
time and quality issues. to develop and use management processes and techniques Problem solving skills. and understand the correct application of the different management methodologies. and an art. interpersonal. and organizational factors. because it deals with negotiations. He/she must know how to interpret a budget report. to reach agreements with stakeholders Conceptual skills. the project manager is expected to effectively use information and communication technologies to be more effective in his/her work. graphs. There are four managerial skills essential to successful management: • • • • Procedural skills. procedures and tools. Responsibilities and Skills | 89 because it requires the analysis of charts. he/she must concentrate on managing the project. schedule. know how to read a statistical analysis of a project baseline data. Procedural skills are related to working with processes and tools relative to using specialized knowledge and experience related to project management and the specific methodologies for implementing project activities. project managers must be skilled in both the science and the art of project management. financial data. conflict resolution.Chapter 5 – Roles. to identify root causes and develop solutions Negotiating skills. letting the project team members perform the technical work and limit the technical in- . The project manager must maintain a general perspective and avoid micromanaging. to interpret abstract information Procedural Skills The project manager must have the skills to use management techniques. and to make tradeoffs between cost. Furthermore. to assess risks. These skills are necessary to communicate concepts and ideas effectively with the project team. In order to perform the functions of management and to assume multiple roles.
opportunities & threats. evaluate project progress. Negotiation is the process of obtaining mutually acceptable agreements with individuals or groups. identifying root causes of problems. In many cases the original problem is a symptom or a larger problem. Problem solving Skills offer different techniques that the project team can use to address problems which might otherwise overwhelming or excessively complex. A project manager must also be able to see patterns and derive meaningful conclusions from distinct pieces of data. Problem Solving Skills All projects are prone to encounter problems. and make decisions to correct deviations from plans. allow a project manager to synthesize and collect disperse information and turning it into a meaningful whole. Techniques such as breaking problems down into manageable parts. much like decomposing work into a WBS. analytical skills consist of breaking a whole into component parts. weaknesses. failure to make this distinction may lead to the implementation of a solution that will not solve the problem at its root cause. and if they do not have strong negotiating skills. Depending on the project. develop alternatives.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 90 volvement to evaluating the work of the team. Additionally. their chances of being successful are greatly reduced. Problems must be understood before the team jumps into solutions. the structure and the level . Negotiation Skills Project managers spend a large portion of their time negotiating for resources. are excellent strategies to solve problems. A large part of negotiation takes place within the organization to get the resources that the project needs. that were not identified in early stages. the project team can start developing systematic solutions. synthesis and analysis thinking skills. Moreover. Resources in most cases are being requested by other project managers. Only then. analyzing strengths. equipment or support.
They understand relationships between projects. Negotiation skills are also useful when successful they need to dealing with project beneficiaries and be able to lead. the development organization. ferent set of skills to be . This skill helps the project manager to keep a clear vision of the ultimate goal of the project and understand its relationships and dependencies with the project’s environment. the donor organization. they may not be highly motivated to participate in the project activities. the assistance of specialized staff such Technical skills are not as representatives from legal or the procurement department may also be enough. When dealing with vendors or consultants who are bidding for a specific good or service. The project manager needs the ability to understand how all the parts make a whole and how they all relate and depend on one another. therefore. project managers need a new and difrequired. Negotiation usually includes making trade-offs when stakeholders request changes or modifications to the project and its resources. Responsibilities and Skills | 91 of authorization. The bigger and more complex is the project. Conceptual Skills Conceptual skills deal with the ability to coordinate and integrate all project’s efforts. it requires that the project manager sees the project as a whole and not just the sum of its parts. manage building agreements that will benefit both the project and the beneficiaries. Beneficiaries may have other priorities. and motivate the team. and how changes in one part of the environment affect the project. Conceptual skills are necessary to appropriately deal with project politics and to acquire adequate support from top management. the beneficiaries and its environment.Chapter 5 – Roles. and the ability to anticipate how a change in one part of the project will affect the entire project. Project managers with good conceptual skills are well aware of how various elements of the project environment or ecosystem interrelate and influence one another. the larger is the need for this type of skill. The project manager must be able to find the best approach to persuade the group by building a common understanding of its benefits and align the interest of the beneficiaries with those of the project. the project manager has to negotiate on behalf of the organization.
delegating. These skills are most critical for effective performance in a challenging project environment. Experts leading a project are less likely to consider any other view than their own. understanding these cultures and personalities can help a project manager be more successful. policies. and human dynamics. Having interpersonal skills allows for a better understanding of people. and desires are a key element for successfully managing teams. The more a project manager knows about the organization. . The reason is that technical experts tend to be very narrow in their views. coaching. A project manager whose only competency is a technical expertise will has difficulties when dealing with a team that has a diverse technical background. project managers are appointed based on their technical expertise more than their management experience. directing and supporting those involved in the project. Major interpersonal skills include: communication. The project manager needs to have a good understanding of the organization’s culture. and therefore the only choice. A project manager needs to be open to the views and suggestions of the team members. their attitudes. motivating. the better equipped he/she is to navigate around difficult situations and make appropriate decisions. training. The results of projects led by a manager with a wider set of skills tend to yield much better deliverables than a comparable project led only by technical experts. Undersanding of the teams’ personalities needs. values. The tendency is for experts to believe their solution is the right one. Project managers work under an organization structure built upon people from different backgrounds. Unfortunately there are very little training and efforts are directed towards management and team building.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 92 Interpersonal Skills for Project Managers Traditionally. Every organization has a unique culture and the units within an organization often have their own personalities. team building. and politics. which builds the foundation to be an effective project team leader and to fabricate a cooperative environment amongst the project members and all other groups interacting with them. leadership.
Leadership is the predominant contributor to the success of the project manager. values. Leadership is not giving orders and telling others what to do. Important interpersonal skills and abilities required to handle projects are: • • • Leadership skills to guide and inspire the team to accomplish the project goals Communication skills to build support and understanding of the project Behavioral skills to help and motivate the team Leadership Skills Leadership skills are essential for project managers because project managers must influence the behavior of others. Leadership is not a gift that some people have and others don't. Leadership is an essential quality in any manager and it is the way to get the team energized. it is not a job title either.Chapter 5 – Roles. good leadership can lead to success and even overcome unskilled management. This is particularly true for international projects composed of the people from different backgrounds and cultures. just because the organization appoints a project manager that doesn’t make him or her a leader. The use of good interpersonal abilities helps building trust and confidence between members of the project team and helps creating good relations and a good working environment. Responsibilities and Skills | 93 The project manager also needs to be sensitive to the cultural differences when dealing with diverse people and their opinions. motivate. Leadership can be learned and it can improve with practice. This skill gives the project manager the ability to articulate a clear vision and provide direction. In small projects. Project managers require leadership skills for the simple reason that they accomplish their work through individuals who have faces and names. . and attitudes. committed and willing to follow the project plan. Leadership is a critical management skill. it is the ability to motivate a group of people towards a common goal. Leadership implies the ability to influence.
other project stakeholders. the donors. When communication is not successful.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 94 and enable the project team and even key stakeholders. Communication Skills This is the second most important skill which project managers will spend most of their time during the life of the project. and with other people within the organization. facilitate the motivational process. It has been estimated that project managers spend 80 percent of their time just communicating with the project team. Good communication skills include verbal and non-verbal enabling a project manager to convey project information in a way that it is assimilated and understood by all project stakeholders. the information and ideas do not reach its destination. which help improve the morale of the project team and build commitment and support from stakeholders. Behavioral or people skills. and the project organization. By successfully carrying a message. Behavioral Skills Behavioral skills also known as people skills. an active listener makes the communication flow more effective. key stakeholders. causing a communications breakdown and creating roadblocks that stand in the way of the project goals. the beneficiaries. to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the project. These skills involve team building. Good communication skills allow both the transmitter and the receiver understand the same message. A key element of effective communication skill is having good listening skills. understanding perceptions and attitudes. and the message may not reflect what is intended. Behavioral skills include dealing . make possible to build cooperation between the project team. influencing. This skill is absolutely crucial in project management. the project manager is able to convey the information and ideas more effectively. These skills are needed in development projects due to the large number of people interfacing with the project .
In D. New York: Harper and Row. P. Reward power involves the use of incentives such as money. this authority may include decisions for assigning staff to the project. promotions. Responsibilities and Skills | 95 with how a person relates to others. status. Zander (eds. . is a negative approach to power. (1960). 607-623). and Raven. make changes to the approach and other levels of decision-making. Expert power is the use of personal expertise to influence the team to follow directions. changes to the schedule. then they will be more likely follow the project manager’s directions or suggestions on how the work must be done. If the team recognizes the project manager has a relevant expertise and has demonstrated this knowledge.. Power is the ability to influence the behavior of the project team to do the things they will not normally do. it also means having good interpersonal skills and knowing how to be articulate and how to adapt to different situations. these are used as a reward to get some desired behavior or accomplish a difficult assignment. Cartwright and A. B. • • 7 French. A project manager can threaten to fire a team member if they don’t follow a specific assignment or change a behavior. A project manager can use five different types of power7: • Coercive power. This approach is usually used as a last resort when all other forms of influence have failed and should be done in coordination with the organizations management and never used as the only influence factor due to its negative impact on the team’s motivation. Group dynamics (pp.Chapter 5 – Roles. The bases of social power. it uses some form of punishment or penalty threat to persuade people to do things. R. The project manager can use these type of incentives based on the resources available to the project and following the Human Resource polices of the organization. The authority provides a level of influence on the project and its members and the project manager can use it to establish his or her power. J. Jr. official recognition or special work assignments.). Influence and Power of the Project Manager Project managers are vested with authority on the project by the organization.
However. Effective project managers should be able to tailor their roles to the size. and the special circumstances surrounding the project. cultural diversity of the people and overall organizational culture. Referent power is based on the personal charisma of the project manager. skills. Project managers should place relatively more emphasis on their role as leaders during the initiation phase. it should be recognized that although these roles have some of their own distinct characteristics. at the same time of overlapping. • Placing Roles. Roles and skills are equally important in managing a project. complexity. The role and position plus the support given by management to the project manager are part of this part of type of power. . and practical experience. depending upon the situation and the phase of the project life cycle. successful project managers are expected to play a combination of these roles.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 96 • Legitimate power is based on authority. and environment of the project. During the project management process. and uses the power vested on the project manager by the organization to make decisions and assign work to the project team. Excessive use of this type of power can lead to negative results. they should be integrators during the planning phase and managers during the implementation and monitoring phase. they have to use a combination of their roles (integrator. it is based on the leadership qualities of the project manager and his or her ability to build a good level of trust with the team. This is a type of power that must be earned before it is used and it’s the best type of power to positively influence the team. communicator. Responsibilities and Skills Together Project managers are expected to accomplish project objectives by using their knowledge. and leader) and skills (management and interpersonal) to manage the project.
Leader C) Leader. Facilitator D) Communicator.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three roles of a Project Manager? A) Integrator. Communicator. Manager B) Integrator. Responsibilities and Skills | 97 Chapter 5 . Facilitator Question 2 – Why is the Role of Integrator Important? A) To ensure proper integration of the project management processes B) To ensure project stakeholders are aware of the project objectives C) To ensure project plans are done on time and under budget D) To ensure beneficiaries receive the communications on time Question 3 – Who is the ultimate person accountable for the project results? A) The Donor B) The Finance Manager C) The Community Leader D) The Project Manager Question 4 – Which interpersonal skill is used to help and motivate the team? A) Leadership skills B) Behavioral skills C) Communication skills D) Conceptual skills Question 5 – What type of power is based on the project manager's formal authority? A) Coercive power B) Referent power C) Legitimate power D) Reward power . Communicator. Leader.Chapter 5 – Roles. Integrator.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 98 .
the project constraints. Its main reason is to create an environment that fosters interactions amongst the team members with a minimum amount of disruptions. The structure defines the authority by means of a graphical illustration called a project organization chart. Each project has its unique characteristics and the design of an organizational structure should consider the organizational environment. The structure defines the relationships amongst members of the project and the relationships with the stakeholders. A properly designed project organization is essential to project success. A project structure can adopt various forms varying on advantages and disadvantages.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 99 CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURES FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT The Project Organization Structure A project organization is a structure that facilitates the coordination and implementation of project activities. A project organization chart shows where each person is placed in the project structure. One of the important decisions in project management is what type of organizational structure will be used for the project. The chart is drawn in pyramid form where individuals located . and the level of authority given to the project manager. One of the main objectives of the structure is to reduce uncertainty and confusion that typically occurs at the project initiation phase. overlaps and conflict.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 100 closer to the top of the pyramid have more authority and responsibility than members located toward the bottom. it is the actual implementation and application that takes the most effort. The objective in designing a project structure is to provide a formal environment that supports team members to do their best in completing their assignment and duties. and the lines connecting the boxes designate formal supervision and lines of communication between the team members. Project Organization Chart Creating the project structure is only one portion of organizing the project. Project Manager Project Coordinator Nutrition Manager Accountant Administrator Health Manager M&E Coordinator Staff Assistant Staff Staff Staff Driver Staff Staff Figure 14. The project manager must create a project structure that will meet the various project needs at different phases of the project. This organization must facilitate an effective interaction and integration amongst all the major project participants and achieve open and effective communications amongst them. since the project organization's purpose is to facilitate the interaction of people to achieve the project ultimate goals within the specified constraints of scope. The structure cannot be designed too rigid or too loose. budget and quality. the beneficiaries and other project stakeholders. the project. time. It is the relative locations of the individuals on the organization chart that specifies the working relationships. The structure needs to be designed to help develop collaboration . The project organization establishes the formal relationships amongst the project manager. the development organization. the project team members.
The education component. Projects can be highly specialized and focused in specific areas of development. The organization chart only shows the hierarchical relationship amongst the team members. hierarchical structure. It does not show how the project organization will work. requires an open and informal structure. each area may have a different need. Differences in goals. approaches and methodologies influence the way in which the project will implement its activities. implying a rigid.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 101 amongst individual team members in a cost effective way with a minimum of duplication of effort and overlaps. whereas the time horizon is longer. it is for that reason that the design should consider other factors that will facilitate the operation of the structure. While specialization allows each project component to maximize their productivity to attain their . requires specific goals. and the need for coordination. For large projects that have multiple specializations or technical areas. Specialization Specialization affects the project structure by the degree of specialty required in technical areas or development focus. with defined time horizons with little sharing of ideas. These are the level of specialization. A project with a reconstruction and education component will need to manage different approaches based on specialization. with more emphasis on sharing and generation of new ideas in order to achieve innovation and creativity. Factors in Designing a Project Structure There are two design factors that significantly influence the process of developing a project management structure. or have different broad specializations in many areas of development. A reconstruction component. The project manager should consider these factors at the moment of designing the project organization to help maximize the effectiveness of the structure.
the dissimilarities may lead to conflict amongst the members or leads for each component. . subsystems.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 102 goals. Most projects are characterized by the division of labor and task interdependencies. creating the need for integration to meet the project Project integration is the objectives. An important function of the organizations’ top management is to design an organization that fully supports project management. and units fit together as a functioning. This need is greatest when degree of collaboration there are many project components that and mutual understandhave different specializations. The project work is organized around a work breakdown structure (WBS) that divides the overall project goals into specific objectives for each project area or component. The project manager's goals. The goal ing required among the of the project structure is to achieve a level of harmony amongst the individual various project compoefforts leading to the accomplishment of nents to achieve project the project goals. integrated whole. the greater the differences. The project manager must design an organizational structure ensuring that all the components are integrated so that their efforts contribute to the overall project goal. one of the most significant ones is the extent of authority and responsibility that the organization is prepared to delegate to the project manager. main responsibility is to develop integrating strategies ensuring that a particular component or activity is organized in a way that all of the components. the more problems project managers have in integrating the components. This is done by redesigning the organization to emphasize on the nature of the projects and adapting how roles and responsibilities are assigned and how resources are used. Coordination Coordination is required to bring unity to the various elements that make up a project. especially within an existing organization. Types of Project Organizations Structures There are several factors considered when selecting the design of the project’s organizational structure. parts. In general.
all of which are defined by the level of organizational authority given to the project manager: • Programmatic based. However. this focus is not suitable for projects that require a diverse mix of people with different expertise from various program sectors. and the level of relationships to the organization. in which project managers have total authority over project actions. if the project is related to the health area. in which project managers have authority only within a programmatic focus area. Development organizations are usually organized around programmatic focus areas such as health or education. • • Programmatic Focus Based The program focus refers to a traditional structure in which program sector managers have formal authority over most resources. methods of conflict resolution between the project and the rest of the organization. in which the project manager shares responsibility with other programmatic unit managers. such as health or education. a project has three organization structures available to dictate the design. For instance. In a program focus organization. Organization management is also about specifying communication channels. Matrix based. which are usually called program units and are centered on a specific development field.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 103 The organization needs to define the project manager’s degree of authority and autonomy. in large projects the project managers tend to also be the program unit manager. It is only suitable for projects within one program sector. All the resources needed for the project team come from the same unit. since they all work in the same area. Another advantage from this type of organization is that team members are usually familiar with each other. since all the staff needed for the project will come from the same programmatic unit. . In this environment. There is no need to negotiate with other program units for resources. a project team is staffed with people from the same area. other projects and other units in the organization. The most obvious advantage of program-based projects is that there are clear lines of authority. Project based. the project resources come from the health unit.
It is common for people to report to one person in the functional organization. but may be assigned to a project in another program unit that needs health expertise. Director Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Project Manager Health Project Project Manager Education Project Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Figure 15. may have difficulty acquiring internal resources such as trainers. For instance. Another disadvantage is that current programmatic members may have other responsibilities in the unit. while working for one or two project managers from other units. .Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 104 A major disadvantage of the programmatic focus organization is that the program area may not have all of the specialists needed to implement the project. since the only people available will work in their own programmatic unit. An Emergency Project with an education component. for instance. Programmatic Focus Organization Chart Matrix Based Matrix organizations allow program units to focus on their specific technical competencies and allow projects to be staffed with specialists from across the organization. nutrition specialists may report to one program unit but may be allocated out to work on various projects. A health specialist might report to the health unit. they may be assigned to other projects at the same time in addition to having other pending tasks that could impact their ability to meet project deadlines.
and is easier for a programmatic unit manager to loan an employee to another manager without having to make a permanent change. It is therefore easier to accomplish work objectives in an environment when task loads are shifting rapidly between programmatic units. Additional advantages to matrix management are: it allows team members to share information more readily across the unit boundaries. For instance. It becomes more .Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 105 The main advantage of the matrix organization is the efficient allocation of resources. especially scarce specialty skills that cannot be fully utilized by one project only. monitoring and evaluation specialists may not be utilized full-time on a project. Some people might report to program unit managers for whom little work is done. The main disadvantage is that the reporting relationships are complex. allows for specialization that can increase depth of knowledge and allow professional development and career progression to be managed. while actually working for one or more project managers. Director Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Staff Project Manager Health Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Education Project Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Figure 16 Project Matrix Organization Chart The matrix-based organization is also the most flexible when dealing with changing program needs and priorities. but can be fully leveraged by working on multiple projects.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 106 important for staff members to develop strong time management skills to ensure that they fulfill work expectations from multiple managers. regardless of which the job will have to get done timely and systematically. training. known within some organizations as the Project Management Office (PMO). guidance and metrics on the practice of . objectives. The PMO is dedicated to provide expertise. Matrix management can add some difficulty to project managers because they must work closely with other managers and other project staff in order to complete the project. The program managers may have different goals. best practices. methodologies and guidance to project managers. An approach to help solve this situation is a variation of the matrix structure which includes a coordinating role that either supervises or provides support to the project managers. Director PMO Program Manager Health Unit Program Manager Education Unit Program Manager Emergency Unit Staff Project Manager Health Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Education Project Staff Staff Staff Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Figure 17. and priorities than the project managers. Project Matrix Organization Chart and the PMO The PMO unit also defines and maintains the standards of process related to project management within the organization. The PMO strives to standardize and introduce economies of scale in the implementation of projects. The PMO is the source of documentation. This type of structure also requires good communication and cooperation between multiple programmatic unit managers and project managers.
Moreover. and quality constraints identified as project targets. A team environment incubates a strong sense of project identification and ownership and it inspires loyalty efforts as there is a good understanding of the nature of project’s activities.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 107 project management and execution. These large projects can better absorb the cost of maintaining an organizational structure that has some level of duplications. This leads to increased project loyalty. subject only to the scope. Project Based Organization Chart Project based organizations more commonly host large and complicated projects.is the costly and inefficient use of . or goals. personnel are specifically assigned to the project and report directly to the project manager. Director Project Manager Health Project Project Manager Education Project Project Manager Emergency Project Project Manager Emergency Project Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Figure 18. mission. The PMO can also help in the prioritization of human resources assigned to projects. schedule. project personnel are retained on an exclusive rather than shared or part-time basis. Project Based In this type of organization project managers have a high level of authority to manage and control the project resources. One major disadvantage of the -pure project organization. This leads to rapid reaction time and improved responsiveness. Complete line authority over project efforts affords the project manager strong project controls and centralized lines of communication. In the project based organizational structure. The project manager in this structure has total authority over the project and can acquire resources needed to accomplish project objectives from within or outside the parent organization. The project manager is responsible for the performance appraisal and career development of all project team members while on the project. budget.
preventing their contribution to other projects and their professional development. Project team members are generally dedicated to one project at a time. Another design is based on a mixed structure that includes a matrix. An education project may be organized on a matrix using resources part-time from other units. This organization consists of a project team pulled together temporarily from their program unit and led by a project manager that does not report to a program unit. In this type or organization limited opportunities exist for knowledge sharing between projects. In a program focus organization. program focus and project based. For example a health program may have a couple of projects short term and long term all reporting to the program manager. which creates another logistical and administrative burden due to the need to managing short term contracts.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 108 personnel. There are also concerns about how to reallocate people and resources when projects are completed. even though they may rarely be needed on a full-time basis over the life cycle of the project. since scarce resources must be duplicated on different projects. The project manager has the full authority and supervision of the project team. this mix reflects the need for more flexibility in a development organization to accommodate different requirements. A variety of this pure project approach is temporarily projectbased organizations. the team members still have jobs within the program unit while in a project-based organization there is lack of clarity about how and when everyone may be reassigned once the project ends. as the organization or the donor priorities shift. Project managers may tend to retain their best personnel long after the work is completed. In some cases. or the end of the project seems imminent and there are no opportunities beyond the project. and that is a frequent complaint amongst team members concerning the lack of career continuity and opportunities for professional growth. and a large water project organized as a fully project-based were all staff report to . Another disadvantage of the project based organization is the duplication of resources. project personnel may experience a great deal of uncertainty.
customs and social dynamics also influence the management style. The communication involved with this method is mainly downward. along with the nature of the project.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 109 the project manager. On the other hand. Objectives and tasks are set and the workforce is expected to do exactly as required. a constant supervision may be required. . therefore. and the decisions will all be similar which generates a sense of confidence. team members may become highly dependent upon the project manager decisions. The main advantage of this style is that the direction of the project will remain constant. Management Styles Organizational culture is a strong influence on the type of management style that will be used on a project. from the leader to the subordinate. keeping the information and decision making amongst the senior management. this method can lead to a decrease in motivation from the team’s point of view. The local culture. the nature of the team and the personality and skills of the project managers. It is not unusual to find this type of mixed project structures on a development organization. There are four distinct organizational management styles that have a strong influence on how projects are managed: • • • • Autocratic Paternalistic Democratic Laissez-faire Autocratic In this type of management style the manager makes all the decisions.
Laissez-faire Under this style the manager's role is marginal and the team members manage their own areas within the project. which in turn leads to much dissatisfaction. this may cause uncoordinated delegation. and a poor project image. Democratic Under the democratic style. and can engender loyalty from the team members and a lower staff turnover. the team members may become dissatisfied with the project manager.however. This style brings out the best in highly professional and creative groups of team members. The communication under this style is horizontal. whereas if the wrong decisions are made. everything is agreed by the majority. however. however. the manager allows the employees to take part in decision-making.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 110 Paternalistic It is a style where the manager makes decisions in the best interests of the employees rather than the project. the decision-making process is severely slowed down. . thanks to the emphasis on social needs. in many cases it is not deliberate and is simply a result of poor management. This style shares disadvantages with the authoritarian style because team members become highly dependent on the leader. job satisfaction and quality of work will improve. This style can be particularly useful when there are complex decisions requiring a wide range of specialist skills. From the overall project’s point of view. and the need of a consensus may not necessarily conduct to making the best decisions. This leads to a lack of staff focus and sense of direction. balancing out the lack of team motivation caused by an autocratic management style. This style can be highly advantageous. which means that it is equal in both directions. very little communication occurs in comparison with other styles. The manager explains most decisions to the employees and ensures that their needs are always met. if the manager evades the duties of management.
norms. The appropriate level is the managerial level that has discretionary control over the resources that will be used in the project. the escalation of issues. roles and responsibilities for each key stakeholder. policies and processes that provide the framework within which project managers make decisions and take actions to optimize outcomes related to their areas of responsibility. accountability. A good project governance helps projects define the procedures to follow. Organizations with effective governance have actively designed a set of project governance mechanisms (committees. This is achieved by defining and identifying the roles. and the interaction amongst these elements for the life of the project. Additionally. The level of governance for the project must be defined clearly and accepted at a high-level within the organization. The management team defines the project governance in a document that outlays the roles and responsibilities for decision making in the project. etc. approvals. It involves the people. this may include the creation of a project committee with its operating rules. strategy. The objective of project governance is to establish clear levels or authority and decision making. Who is ultimately responsible and accountable for the project must be clearly defined and acknowledged at an appropriate hierarchical level within the organization. and the owner- . and culture. responsibilities.) that encourage behavior consistent with the organization's mission. Development organizations have some form of project governance.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 111 Project Governance Project governance can be defined as an organization’s overall process for sharing decision rights about projects and monitoring the performance of project interventions. it defines the decision making structure. responsibilities and accountability of all people involved in a project. values. including their interaction and level of coordination including internal and external dependencies. it is important to establish the management structure for the project laying out the specific roles. The organization’s management team is responsible for setting up and supporting the governance structure before the project initiates its activities to ensure that all key decisions are made at the right time. budgeting processes.
. from communications to budget change authorizations. In this case the committee may include decisions about project proposal approvals and supervision of the organizations’ project portfolio in general including the selection or appointment of project managers. project management methodologies and criteria to define project success. Some development organizations may choose to have a standing project governance committee that oversees all projects and defines the decision making structure for each project.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 112 ship management for different processes in the project.
Matrix.Chapter 6 – Structures for Project Management | 113 Chapter 6 . Project B) Functional. Specialization Question 2 – What is one advantage of a programmatic based structure? A) Clear lines of authority B) Efficient allocation of resources C) Information is shared across unit boundaries D) Personnel report directly to the project manager Question 3 – Which is not a management style? A) Autocratic B) Paternalistic C) Democratic D) Federalist Question 4 – What is one disadvantage of a project based structure? A) Complex reporting relationships B) Complete line of authority C) Duplication of resources D) Requires good communications Question 5 – Which management style requires a consensus for decision making? A) Autocratic B) Paternalistic C) Democratic D) Laissez-Faire . Matrix D) Project. Matrix.Review Questions Question 1 – What are the three basic forms of project structure design? A) Programmatic. Specialization. Matrix. Program C) Program.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 114 .
3. the best methodologies are built based on the experience of its practitioners. planning. Answer A. A project has a beginning and an end. 5. Answer B. all are benefits of a project management methodology. Answer B. It is in the project quality that beneficiaries have a larger role. Answer D. project scope is also defined as the boundaries of a project. 4. 4. 5. Answer C. the correct order is initiate. Answer A. adapt and close. Answer D. budget and quality. A project is system of principles. Answer C. Answer D. Answer D. Answer A. practices and procedures. changes to project plan are approved during the Adapt phase. Answer D. 4. Answer A. 2. 2. plan. organizing. 3. leading and controlling are the four basic management functions. All are challenges for development projects. implement. Process. there are six phases in a development project. Chapter 3 – Correct Answers 1. Answer C. . people and tools are the three basic components of a project ecosystem. external factors that influence the project includes donor regulations and government requirements. 2. Chapter 2 – Correct Answers 1.PM4DEV | 115 Answers to Review Questions Chapter 1 – Correct Answers 1. Answer B. the four project constraints are scope. schedule. 3. A development project does not generates a profit. 5. monitor.
the three roles of a project manager are: integrator. the role of integrator is important to ensure proper integration of the project management processes. matrix and project. behavioral skills are used to help and motivate the team. leader and manager. Answer D. Answer A. 3. a GANTT chart lists all the project activities from the WBS. Answer D.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 116 Chapter 4 – Correct Answers 1. Answer B. Answer C. federalist is not a management style. Answer C. Chapter 5 – Correct Answers 1. information. a disadvantage of the project structure is the duplication of resources. verify and adapt. clear lines of authority is one advantage of a program structure. 3. 5. the five supporting processes are team. the ultimate person accountable for the project is the project manager. legitimate power use formal authority vested on the project manager by the organization. 5. . schedule budget and quality management. Answer C. Answer C. 2. Answer B. Answer A. 2. the core project management processes are scope. risk and contract management. 2. the correct order of the four steps in scope management is define. 4. Answer A. assign. Chapter 6 – Correct Answers 1. the WBS provides input to the definition step of Schedule Management. a democratic management styles requires a consensus for decision making. Answer D. Answer A. the three basic forms of project structure design are programmatic. 4. 5. stakeholder. 3. Answer B. 4. Answer A.
A number of different solutions and approaches that must be evaluated and chosen to attain the objectives of a project. cost and/or duration of a current one. assumptions regarding staffing. and translate them into action. such as funds. A management and measurement system that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy. The person or organization that is the principle beneficiary of the project. Estimating using similar projects or activities as a basis for determining the effort. complexity. The combination of these is referred to as the performance measurement baseline. The plan used as the comparison point for project control reporting. These provide the basis for estimating. Authority is generally based on the perception that a person has been officially empowered to issue binding orders. Performance requirements and essential conditions that have to be achieved before project deliverables are accepted. A point of reference. assumptions are not facts. Generally the beneficiary has a significant authority regarding the acceptance of the project outputs Authority Balanced Scorecard Baseline Beneficiary . It provides feedback for both the internal organizational processes and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results. A high-level description of how the project will accomplish its goals and objectives. Usually used in Top-down Estimating. Also. The ability to get other people to act based on a decision. Actions taken or work performed through which inputs. the date’s tasks have been started or completed and the date’s milestones have been reached. The cost or effort incurred in the performance of tasks. technical assistance and other types of resources are mobilized to produce specific outputs. learning curves and many other factors are made to create plan scenarios. The obligation to report on one's actions. There are three baselines in a project—schedule baseline. cost baseline and product (scope) baseline. Something taken as true without proof.PM4DEV | 117 Glossary of Terms Acceptance Acceptance Criteria Accountability Activity Actuals Alternatives Analogous Estimating Approach Statement Assumption The formal process of accepting delivery of a product or service by the project beneficiaries or donor. In planning.
.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 118 Benefits Management Bottom-Up Estimating Budget Budgeting And Cost Management Calendar Date Change Change Control Change Request Charter Closing Communication Concept Conflict Management Benefits management is the identification of the benefits at an organizational level and the monitoring and realization of those benefits. The business case for the project will be produced in this phase. informally. Concept is part of the first phase in the project life cycle. estimating the effort. receiving. Determining duration through a bottom-up approach requires sequencing and resource leveling to be done as part of the scheduling process. The most significant changes in project management are related to scope definition. opportunity or problem is confirmed. Conflict management is the process of identifying and addressing differences that if unmanaged would affect project objectives. A formal document providing authority to a project manager to conduct a project within scope. approved. Budgeting and cost management is the estimating of costs and the setting of an agreed budget. tasks and sub-tasks. The amount allotted for the project that represents the estimate of planned expenditures and income. During this phase the need. See Relative Date. The budget may be expressed in terms of money or resource units (effort). . schedule. The process of gaining formal acceptance for the results of a project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end. the overall feasibility of the project is considered and a preferred solution identified. Change control is the process that ensures that all changes made to a project’s baseline scope. duration and cost of each and rolling them up to determine the full estimate. passively. non-verbally. actively. 1962) as opposed to a relative date. formally. schedule. processing and interpretation of information. and the management of actual and forecast costs against that budget. Information can be conveyed verbally. availability of resources. Communication is the giving. consciously or unconsciously.g. A specific date shown on the calendar (e. schedule and budget. Approximating the size (duration and cost) and risk of a project (or phase) by breaking it down into activities. evaluated. and budget resource constraints as laid down in the document. A documented request for a change in scope or other aspects of the plan. rejected or deferred. Effective conflict management prevents differences becoming destructive elements in a project. June 22. budget and quality objectives or agreed benefits are identified. Difference in an expected value or event. including the archiving of project information and post-project evaluation. quality.
A deliverable must be tangible and verifiable. Measured in terms of person hours. schedule and budget objectives and the establishment of a baseline plan for performance measurement. in the event that problem should occur. The time at which all the tasks' predecessors have been completed and its resources are planned to be available.PM4DEV | 119 Consensus Constraint Contingencies Contingency Reserve Critical Path Deliverable Dependency Detailed Implementation Plan (DIP) Dialogue Duration Early Start Earned Value Management Effort Unanimous agreement amongst the decision-makers that everyone can at least live with the decision (or solution). deadlines and milestones. A relationship between two or more tasks. Every element of the WBS (activity or task) must have one or more deliverables. and interim evaluation points. The project deliverable is differentiated from interim deliverables that result from activities within the project. The path(s) in a project network that has the longest duration. For example. The length of time required or planned for the execution of a project activity. Earned value management (EVM) is a project control process based on a structured approach to planning. etc. or regulate the project. possibly. schedules. a target date may be a constraint on scheduling. person days. reach consensus. The earliest time a task can begin. performance goals. Any item produced as the outcome of a project or any part of a project. It facilitates the integration of project scope. A condition or occurrence that might restrict. cost collection and performance measurement. Generally constraints are outside the control of the project team. A designated amount of time and/or budget to account for parts of the project that cannot be fully predicted. The amount of human resource time required to perform an activity. . Measured in calendar time units—days. weeks. A schedule may be constrained by resource limitations. There may be more than one critical path and the critical path(s) may change during the project. A detailed implementation plan shows the implementation methods. months. limit. Planned actions for minimizing the damage caused by a problem. A dependency may be logical (see Logical Relationship) or resource based (see Resource dependency). A discussion in which the participants share their thoughts and gain a better understanding of the subject and. It is done either by year or for the life of the project and only after the project proposal is approved and funded. This represents the series of activities that determines the earliest completion of the project.
Effective governance of project management ensures that an organization’s project portfolio is aligned to the organization’s objectives. The agreed upon processes. It is the difference between the task's early and late start dates. operational activities. Should reference the project's benefits in terms of improved social or economical conditions. The higher-order objective to which a development intervention is intended to contribute. Evaluation is an analysis of the relevance. A high-level statement of the project's object of study. and viewpoint. budget and/or duration to complete a project or any part of a project. its purpose. they should always be expressed with some indication of the degree of accuracy. project activities. influencing and conducting of the policy and affairs of the project. effectiveness and efficiency of the project interventions and its impact (both expected and unexpected) in relation to stated objectives. The amount of time available for a task to slip before it results in a delay of the project end date.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 120 Estimate Estimate To Completion Estimating Evaluation Executing Feasibility Study Fiscal Year Float Gantt Chart Goal Goal Statement Governance Governance Model Governance Of Project Management An assessment of the required duration. its quality focus. effort and/or cost to complete a task or project. Estimating uses a range of tools and techniques to produce estimates. tasks. A bar chart that depicts a schedule of activities and milestones. is delivered efficiently and is sustainable. An estimate is an approximation of project schedule and budget targets that is refined throughout the project life cycle. roles and responsibilities for governing the progress and direction of a project. Governance of project management (GoPM) concerns those areas of corporate governance that are specifically related to project activities. Since estimates are not actuals. It may be made at any point in the project's life. The planning. The activities are shown as horizontal bars of a length equivalent to the duration of the activity. The process of coordinating the people and other resources in the performance of the project or the actual performance of the project. A study to examine the viability of taking on a project. The expected effort. The 12-month period of July 1 to June 30 used for financial planning and reporting purposes. Generally activities (which may be projects. etc. . Gantt Charts may be annotated with dependency relationships and other schedule-related information.) are listed along the left side of the chart and the time line along the top or bottom.
In this phase the design is finalized and used to build the deliverables. These effects can be economic. training and career development. archiving and appropriate destruction of project information. Positive or negative long-term effects on identifiable population groups produced by a development intervention. material. monitored and controlled. procedures and plans. human. technological or of other types. Information reporting takes information and presents it in an appropriate format which includes the formal communication of project information to stakeholders. personal development. corporations. and to begin the team-building and bonding process.PM4DEV | 121 Grant Human Resource Management Impact Implementation Incremental Delivery Information Management And Reporting Initiating Inputs Issue Management Kick-Off Meeting Late Start Grants are funds given to tax-exempt nonprofit organizations or local governments by foundations. Information management is the collection. either on the applicant's own initiative or in response to a Request for Proposals from the funder. dissemination. The process involves an applicant submitting a proposal to a potential funder. These policies include recruitment. Issue management is the process by which concerns that threaten the project objectives and cannot be resolved by the project manager are identified and addressed to remove the threats they pose. small business and individuals. socio-cultural. intended or unintended. technological and information resources used for the development intervention. environmental. The financial. during which the project management plan (PMP) is executed. governments. These will be enhanced to increase functionality or improve product quality in subsequent subprojects. or product versions. Most grants are made to fund a specific project and require some level of reporting. institutional. Implementation is the third phase of the project life cycle. . Human resource management (HRM) is the understanding and application of the policy and procedures that directly affect the people working within the project team and working group. The resulting sub-projects may deliver parts of the full product. directly or indirectly. A project life cycle strategy used to reduce risk of project failure by dividing projects into more manageable pieces. effort and money for those that are initiated. reward. storage. The process of describing and deciding to begin a project (or phase) and authorizing the Project Manager to expend resources. The latest time a task can start before it causes a delay in the project end date. retention. A meeting at the beginning of the project or at the beginning of a major phase of the project to align peoples' understanding of project objectives.
Management tool used to improve the design of interventions. . A business structure in which people are assigned to both a functional group (departments. rights and processes that should be applied to projects.) and to projects or processes which cut across the organization and require resources from multiple functional groups. It thus facilitates planning. indicators. Capturing and sharing the lessons learned is an important part of process improvement. It enables the project to proceed in an environment of change and uncertainty. Use of the management reserve generally requires a baseline change. Procedures cover individual aspects of project management practice and form an integral part of a method. A designated amount of time and/or budget to account for parts of the project that cannot be predicted. A dependency relationship between two or more tasks or between tasks and milestones. The statements describe in a neutral way what did or did not work well. such that one cannot start or finish before another has started or finished. outputs. These are sometimes called "unknown unknowns. See Contingency Reserve. outcomes and impact) and their causal relationships. Legal awareness provides project management professionals with an understanding of the relevant legal duties. major disruptions in the project caused by serious weather conditions. It involves identifying strategic elements (inputs. etc. The identification and application of learning within projects develops the organization’s capability to undertake current and future projects. and to empower and inspire people to achieve project success. accidents. Methods and procedures detail the standard practices to be used for managing projects throughout a life cycle. A set of statements captured after completion of a project or a portion of a project. most often at the project level." For example. disciplines. execution and evaluation of a development intervention. Methods provide a consistent framework within which project management is performed.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 122 Leadership Learning And Development Legal Awareness Lessons Learned Link Log Frame Logical Relationship Management Reserve Matrix Organization Methods And Procedures Leadership is the ability to establish vision and direction. Learning and development involves the continual improvement of competencies in the organization. along with a statement regarding the risk of ignoring the lesson. to influence and align others towards a common purpose. etc. and the assumptions and risks that may influence success and failure. A relationship between two or more tasks.
The organization structure defines the reporting and decision making hierarchy of an organization and how project management operates within it. Negotiation in a project can take place on an informal basis throughout the project life cycle or on a formal basis such as during procurement. keep project schedule and measure progress towards the expected goals An integrated set of mutually supporting tools. The organization structure is the organizational environment within which the project takes place.g.PM4DEV | 123 Metrics Milestone Mitigation Mitigation Strategies Monitoring Monitoring And Evaluation System Negotiation Network Diagram Ngo Objective Organization Structure Metrics are quantitative measures such as the number of on time projects.). A point in time when a deliverable or set of deliverables is available. Monitoring provides project management and project stakeholders the information needed to evaluate the progress of the project. storing. it has no duration or effort. They are used in improvement programs to determine if improvement has taken place or to determine if goals and objectives are met. or to reduce its effect should the risk event occur. Arrow Diagram. A graphic tool for depicting the sequence and relationships between tasks in a project. identify trends. both in terms of concrete deliverables and behavioral outcomes (e. . Monitoring is the process of routinely collecting. Generally used to denote a significant event such as the completion of a phase of the project or of a set of critical activities. seeking acceptance. Identification of the steps that can be taken to lessen risk by lowering the probability of a risk event's occurrence. A milestone is an event. Precedence Diagram are all forms of network diagrams. and between signatories to a contract. Critical Path Diagram. It must be preceded by one or more tasks. Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact of occurrence. Applied in a consistent way to support the decision making and information needs of the project and its stakeholders. A non-governmental organization is a non-profit organization that often conducts humanitarian and development work around the world. Negotiation is a search for agreement. more crops. consensus and alignment of views. analyzing and reporting project information used to make decisions for project management. An objective is something to be achieved. patterns or deviations. improved service. processes and methods for managing project information.. etc. PERT Diagram. the objectives are the desired outcomes of the project or any part of the project. In project management. improved health.
In PERT.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 124 Organizational Roles Outcome Outputs Parametric Estimating Performance Measures Performance Outcomes PERT PERT Diagram Phase PIR (Post Implementation Review) Planning Organizational roles are the roles performed by individuals or groups in a project. Performance measures describe how success in achieving the project goals will be measured and tracked. the way the project will be performed (procedures and tasks). It documents the comparison between actual results of a project and the objectives and deliverables specified in the project's Charter. roles and responsibilities and the time and cost estimates. Estimating using an algorithm in which parameters that represent different attributes of the project are used to calculate project effort. cost. Analyzing the gaps between current performance levels and performance targets helps projects identify priority areas needing improvement and develop strategies that will close the gap. A scheduling technique that makes use of dependency analysis and critical path to determine the duration of a project and slack to determine priorities of tasks. task durations are computed as (Optimistic + 4x Most likely + Pessimistic estimates) / 6). Both roles and responsibilities within projects must be defined to address the transient and unique nature of projects and to ensure that clear accountabilities can be assigned. usually requiring the collective effort of partners. Parametric estimating is usually used in top-down Estimating. This is a report compiled upon completion of every project. Results or consequences of the efforts enacted during the project's planning and execution. A grouping of activities in a project that is required to meet a major milestone by providing a significant deliverable. which determines if the expectations established for the project outcome were met. and/or duration. Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Outcomes represent changes in development conditions which occur between the completion of outputs and the achievement of impact. such as a requirements definition or product design document. The phase is usually the highest level of breakdown of a project in the WBS. The products and services which result from the completion of activities within a development intervention. A project is broken down into a set of phases for control purposes. The term is often used as a synonym for network diagram. A type of network diagram deriving its name from the PERT technique. . The intended or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs. Also known as Close Out Report. The process of establishing and maintaining the definition of the scope of a project.
A natural series of changes or occurrences. which may include related organizational activities that together achieve a beneficial change of a strategic nature for an organization. An explanation of why the project is needed and why it is being recommended at this time. Written statements relative to the project. A statement of the way the project will do things. Procurement is the process by which the resources (goods and services) required by a project are acquired. Portfolio management is the selection and management of all of an organization’s projects. The person who directs the planning and execution of a program and is held personally accountable for the success of the program. It describes the problem or issue that will be resolved by the project as well as any background information necessary to understand the problem. medium or high. It includes development of the procurement strategy. programs and related organizational activities taking into account resource constraints. A suite of related projects and ongoing operational activities managed as a whole. preparation of contracts. so as to learn from the experience and continuously improve project performance. selection and acquisition of suppliers. Power may come from formal delegation of authority. subject matter expertise. Portfolios can be managed at an organizational. which help to clarify scope. Usually expressed as a probability percentage or a relative scale such as low. For example. and management of the contracts. reference power. the ability to influence rewards and penalties. program or functional level. Power is the ability to influence the actions of others. A task (or activity) that must be started or finished before another task or milestone can be performed. An activity to assess and evaluate the way a project was performed. The likelihood of a risk occurring. or different approaches may be considered as a way of reducing project risks. project planning may require different approaches. A series of steps or actions to accomplish something.PM4DEV | 125 Portfolio Portfolio Management Post-Project Evaluation Power Predecessor Task Probability Process Procurement Program Program Management Program Manager Programmatic Drivers/Background Statement Project Project Approach Statement Project Assumptions A portfolio is a group of projects and programs carried out under the sponsorship of an organization. An effort to provide a product or service within finite time and cost constraints. objectives and other relevant factors that can- . Program management is the coordinated management of related projects. as well as other sources.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 126 not be known at a given point in time. The combined internal and external forces. The purpose of the project management plan (PMP) is to document the outcomes of the planning process and to provide the reference document for managing the project. both individual and collective. namely: Initiation. Each period may be identified as a phase and further broken down into stages. The single point of accountability for a project. Project context refers to the environment within which a project is undertaken. controlled and delivered such that the agreed benefits are realized. monitored. funded internally or a combination of both. Implementation. Projects are unique. The full set of activities from the beginning to the end of a project. Closure. A project office serves the organization’s project management needs. The project management plan is owned by the project manager. A project office can range from simple support functions for the project manager to being responsible for Project Context Project Donor Project Environment Project Funding Project Life Cycle Project Management Project Management Life Cycle Project Management Plan Project Manager Project Objectives Project Office . which are determined based on the major parts of project performance. which assist or restrict the attainment of the project objectives. The sequential major time periods through which any project passes. Project funding is the means by which the capital to undertake a project is initially secured and then made available at the appropriate time. Projects do not exist in a vacuum and an appreciation of the context within which the project is being performed will assist those involved in project management to deliver a project. The project management plan brings together all the plans for a project. The funding agency that provides funds to the project. Monitoring. Project management is the process by which projects are defined. Descriptions of the project's intended results. Projects bring about change and project management is recognized as the most efficient way of managing such change. planned. The person responsible and accountable for managing a project's planning and performance. Projects may be financed externally. transient endeavors undertaken to achieve a desired outcome. Planning. Project Charter A document that describes the project at a high level of detail and is used to authorize the Project Manager to begin work. Generally associated with a set of phases. Adapting. It may also be called a "Project Brief." or any number of other synonyms.
Status reports control the project and keep management informed of project status. The sponsor ensures the project remains a viable proposition and that benefits are realized. products and deliverables. Project success is the satisfaction of stakeholder needs and is measured by the success criteria as identified and agreed at the start of the project. Project Outcomes Project Outputs Project Quality Management A result or consequence of the project activity or project outputs. Project risk management is a structured process that allows individual risk events and overall project risk to be understood and managed proactively. It generally includes three components: cost. responsible for identifying the business need. optimizing project success by minimizing threats and maximizing opportunities. Includes testing and reviews. stating the position of an activity. Project Reviews Project Risk Management Project Scope Statement Project Sponsorship Project Statement Project Status Reports Project Success Project Team Members Quality Assurance (Qa) Quality Control (Qc) . time and performance. problem or opportunity. Also includes work and products that are not included in the project. work package.PM4DEV | 127 linking corporate strategy to project execution. or desired outcome. Making sure standards and procedures are effective and that they are complied with. Written reports given to both the project team and to a responsible person on a regular basis. or whole project. Project sponsorship is an active senior management role. Members of the core project team and those that are assigned to development and/or support the project deliverables. resolving any issues outside the control of the project manager. A concise and accurate description of the expected work. Quality is broadly defined as fitness for purpose or more narrowly as the degree of conformance of the outputs and process. The deliverables of a project activity or phase Project quality management is the discipline that is applied to ensure that both the outputs of the project and the processes by which the outputs are delivered meet the required needs of stakeholders. Making sure deliverables comply with acceptance criteria. A concise statement that clearly identifies the project's purpose. Additional reviews will take place following handover and closeout to ensure that the benefits are being realized. Project reviews take place throughout the project life cycle to check the likely or actual achievement of the objectives specified in the project management plan (PMP) and the benefits detailed in the project proposal.
g. smoothing. of a willingness to consider proposals for the performance of a specified project or program component. Resource dependent tasks can be scheduled at the same time but are limited by the availability of the shared resources. Resource leveling is the part of the scheduling process in which the start and end dates of tasks are driven by resource limitations (e. Resource allocation. is to ensure that resources are not overburdened and that there are not significant peaks and valleys in the resource schedule. weeks. This is a document sent out to the development community to inform them that funding will be made available in the form of grants to development organizations interested in conducting development work in a specific area. For example. tool. supply item or facility used in the performance of a project. Any tangible support such as.g. usually with the liability to be accountable for loss or failure. usually activity by activity. facilities and equipment) to a project. leveling and scheduling are techniques used to determine and manage appropriate levels of resources. Resource Leveling Resource Loading Resource Management Responsibility Responsibility Assignment Matrix (Ram) .. Required sign offs. two months after the project start date. often by the government agency. usually by higher authority. An RFP is an announcement.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 128 Relative Date Request For Applications (RFA) Request For Proposal (RFP) Required Approvals Resource Resource Dependency A date expressed as a number of periods (e. Responsibility may be delegated to others but the delegation does not eliminate the responsibility. A request for proposals is often issued when proposals for a specific research project are being sought. limited availability of resources or difficult-to-manage resource levels). Human resources are people. The obligation to perform or take care of something. Request for Applications. The process of assigning resources (people. a person. or months) from a reference point. A dependency between tasks in which the tasks share the same resources and therefore cannot be worked on simultaneously. A tool used to relate each project activity in the WBS with a responsible organization unit or individual. Its purpose is to ensure that every activity is assigned to one or more individuals (only one with primary responsibility) and that the individuals are aware of their responsibilities. Resource management identifies and assigns resources to activities so that the project is undertaken using appropriate levels of resources and within an acceptable duration. days.. Amongst the scheduling objectives.
There are three types of such changes (intended or unintended. Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact of occurrence. taking into account requirements and availability of resources. . products and services contribute to the achievement of desired results (outputs. medium or high. Usually expressed as a probability percentage or a relative scale such as low. resources will be required and upon which milestones will be reached. Action that can be taken to address the occurrence of a risk event. This includes identification of activities and their logical dependencies. An examination of risk areas or events to assess the probable consequences for each event. Scheduling is the process used to determine the overall project duration and when activities and events are planned to happen. A process to assess potential problems (risks). The project timeline. and estimation of activity durations. like the early completion of a task. outcome and impact. positive and/or negative) which can be set in motion by a development intervention – its output. outcomes and impacts). but may also be a positive event. The likelihood of a risk occurring.PM4DEV | 129 Results Results Based Management (RBM) Risk Risk Analysis Risk Assessment Risk Impact Risk Management Risk Mitigation Risk Probability Risk Response Risk Trigger Schedule Scheduling Results are changes in a state or condition which derive from a cause-and. A management strategy by which an organization ensures that its processes. determine which risks are important to deal with. and determine possible options for avoidance. the event is a negative one like project failure. and reporting on performance.effect relationship. Generally. or combination of events in the analysis. Usually expressed on a relative scale such as low. and implement strategies to reduce the likelihood or consequences (impact) of those problems. Contingency plans are collections of risk responses. identifying the dates (absolute or relative to a start date) that project tasks will be started and completed. causes. Part of risk management in which planners identify potential risks and describe them. RBM rests on clearly defined accountability for results. medium or high. The harm or consequences to a project of a risk if it occurs. usually in terms of their symptoms. The likelihood of the occurrence of an event. probability of occurrence and potential impact. Events or thresholds for indicators that specify when an action such as implementing a contingency plan needs to be taken. and requires monitoring and self-assessment of progress towards results.
beneficiaries. A description of the scope of a project centered on the major deliverables and constraints. It is associated with acceptance of the product by beneficiaries and donors.e. more manageable components to make verification. donors. The five elements for a well-worded objective. Breaking down the project's major deliverables into small. Development of a statement of the principle deliverables of a project along with the project's justification and objectives.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 130 Scope Scope Change Scope Change Control Scope Creep Scope Definition Scope Management Scope Planning Scope Verification Sequencing Tasks Smart Specifications Stakeholder Stakeholder Management Statement Of Work Project scope is the work that has to be done to deliver the outputs by means of the planned activities of the project. The process of making sure that all changes to the project scope are consciously evaluated and their implications to the project plan are considered in making a decision to make the change. The people who have a vested interest in the outcome of the project or are impacted by the project. Measurable. i. Specifications generally describe the deliverables in terms of appearance. Any change in the definition of the project scope. Scope management is the process by which the deliverables and work to produce them are identified and defined. postpone it or reject it. . partners. operational constraints and quality attributes. Sequencing results in a task network. etc. A part of the scheduling process in which the tasks are positioned serially or parallel to one another based on dependencies between them. Also called scope change management. the general public and local organizations can be considered stakeholders. negotiate with and influence stakeholders. Realistic. Anybody and everybody with a stake in the project . The unconscious growth of the project scope resulting from uncontrolled changes to requirements. analysis and planning of actions to communicate with. what is in and out of scope. Time Bound. namely Specific. discovery of defects or omissions. The process to ensure that all project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily. Scope change can result from changes in beneficiary or donor needs. This may be part of requirements definition and/or design. Stakeholder management is the systematic identification. Achievable. regulatory changes. development and project control easier. Detailed statements of project deliverables that result from requirements definition and design. Specifications are the basis for acceptance criteria used in scope verification and quality control. Identification and definition of the scope must describe what the project will include and what it will not include.
engineering or other subjects. Except for this hierarchical usage." through an algorithm as in "parametric estimating". A relationship in which a task or milestone relies on other tasks to be performed (completely or partially) before it can be performed. Approximating the size (duration and cost) and risk of a project (or phase) by looking at the project as a whole and comparing it to previously performed similar projects. An organization or individuals providing products or services under contract to the project or to the beneficiaries. Also referred to as a logical relationship. resolutions to issues and/or review of project results. duration or effort and the actual result of performance. A breakdown of a task into the work elements that make it up. made under a grant by a grantee to an eligible sub-grantee. A plan that is tightly tied to the organization's mission. An expert in some aspect of the project's content expected to provide input to the project team regarding social. activity is synonymous with task. A task or milestone that is logically linked to one or more predecessor tasks. or property in lieu of money. A legal entity to which a sub-grant is awarded and which is accountable to the grantee for the use of the funds provided A group or individual providing products or services to the project. can be the difference between the initial or baseline product scope and the actual product delivered.. scientific. A task must be broken down into at least two sub-tasks for a meaningful decomposition. values and objectives. The difference between estimated cost. The comparison may be made directly using "analogous estimating. The term is also used to denote a piece of work at a particular level in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) hierarchy e. Input may be in the form of requirements.g. A piece of work requiring effort. Commonly. An award of financial assistance in the form of money. Teamwork is when people work collaboratively towards a common goal as distinct from other ways that individuals can work within a group. In addition. Also . vision. or from the memory of estimating experts. a phase is broken into a set of activities. resources and having a concrete outcome or deliverable. planning. and depends heavily on highlevel coordination and influences management to achieve their goals. and an activity into a set of tasks.PM4DEV | 131 Steering Committee Strategic Plan Sub Grant Sub Grantee Sub-Contractor Subject Matter Expert (SME) Sub-Task Successor Task Task Dependency Teamwork Top-Down Estimating Variance Vendor A group of people who monitor the project and give guidance to the program manager or project manager. sub-contractors are considered to be vendors.
The WBS is depicted as a tree diagram (or hierarchy chart) or as a list in outline form with detailed items subordinated to higher-level items. memorable and reflect the desires of those with vested interests. Vision Statement A statement that captures the long-term picture of what the organization wants to become. A vision statement must be inspirational. Usually a week or so in duration and performed by an individual or small work group. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Work Package . A task at a low level of the Work Breakdown Structure at which project accounting is performed. A hierarchical task list created by decomposing the project based on the breakdown of the product into components and the breakdown of the project process into increasingly detailed tasks.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 132 called sub-contractors.
18 Definition of Project Management. 53. 66. 70 government regulations. 110 Detailed Implementation Plans. 59 Enabling processes. 88 Controlling the Budget. 73 Grant contract management. 82 Information Evaluation. 19 Democratic. 95 Facilitating Processes. 19. 95 Informal communications. 53. 95 Communication Skills. 28 Beneficiary participation. 27 Closing Phase. 86. 88 Behavioral Skills. 59 Characteristics of Development Projects. 68 Information Management. 45 decision gates. 69 division of labor. 32 induction process. 58 Budget performance. 95 Implementation Phase. 58 Defining the Schedule. 78 Conceptual Skills. 72 Contract Management. 81 Communicator role. 27 Directing. 87 Distributing information.. 83 Formal communications. 68 . 41 developing countries. 29 Budget. 102 duplication of efforts. 49 Defining a Project. 67. 46 Assigning Scope Work. 58 Expert power. 63. 85 Adapting Phase. 53 Executing the Budget. 45 Coercive power. 22 Budget Management. 64 influence. 86. 109 basic functions in management. 55 Autocratic. 68 Information Management. 58 Coordination. 53 Information Planning. 83 corrective actions. 91 constraint balance. 57 Defining the Scope. 44 Adapting the Scope. 94 Beneficiaries. 19 behavioral skills. 24 contract audit.. 72 Controlling. 32 duplication of resources. 73 Contract award. 94 Communicator.PM4DEV | 133 INDEX Accountability. 63 Facilitator. 72 hierarchical relationship. 102 Coordinator. 57 goal of communication.. 55 Definition of Management. 68 Information improvement. 17 Defining the Budget. 55 Administrative close. 108 Earned Value Analysis. 84 Human Resource. 82 GANTT diagram. 101 highly motivated team. 42 increase the chances of success.
64 Monitoring. 79 Project Plan Implementation. 72 program-based projects. 53. 125 Project governance. 61 Performance reports. 61 quality management plan. 99 project organization chart. 14. 61 quality standards. 137 PMI. 84 Negotiation Skills. 19. 80 Project Plan Monitoring and Control. 61 Quality Definition. 77 Lack of accountability. 93 Leading. 103 Programmatic Focus Organization Chart. 33. 99 project phases. 19 learning from the past. 39 Referent power. 40 Integrator. 17. 30 Laissez-faire. 78 Integrator role. 16. 111 Project Management Constraints. 20 project management methodology. 104 mentorship. 70 reality checks. 30 log frame.. 61 Quantitative risk analysis. 31. 39 Quality. 62 quality management process. 107 Project Chapter. 78 Interpersonal skills. 65 Paternalistic. 19 Problem Solving Skills. 23 quality assurance. 106 Matrix organizations. 104 project based organizational structure.. 64. 105 . 40 Project reviews. 19. 82 Leader role. 43 Monitoring the Schedule. 88 Matrix management. 92 Project Evaluation. 49 Quality Control. 30 PRINCE2. 62 Quality Assurance. 43 project organization. 16. 38. 86 Planning Phase. 77 Project monitoring. 123 Monitoring Phase. 14 manage expectations. 92 Interpersonal Skills. 35.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 134 Initiation Phase. 17. 52 management skills. 41 Project Concept. 78 Leadership Skills. 19 job descriptions. 96 reporting relationships. 40 project environment. 61 Quality Improvements. 38. 80 Project Proposal. 110 PDCA Cycle. 61 Quality Management. 87 partner organizations. 61 quality assurance tool. 77 Managerial Skills. 54 Project phases. 25. 27 Organizing. 89 Procurement contract management. 67 management processes. 41 PM4DEV. 90 NGOs. 32. 86. 19 Poor project planning. 90 Procedural Skills. 47 project management processes. 46. 40 Project Contract. 29 ISO 10006. 54 project manager role. 110 Leader. 57 Motivator.. 92 Involvement of beneficiaries. 39 Project Plan Development. 81 Planning.
66 Stakeholder Mapping. 101 Stakeholder evaluation. 63 Team reassignments. 85 Reward power. 131. 22 Schedule Management. 57 Verifying the Scope. 53 Risk Management. 56 Scope. 55. 70 Risk Planning. 61 Specialization. 53 Shewhart Cycle. 103 Updating the Budget. 56. 63 team management. 22. 58 Updating the Schedule. 66 Sub-Grant contract management. 132 . 66 Stakeholder relationship building. 70 Risk management. 59 Scope Management. 132 Work Breakdown Structure. 56. 22 scope creep. 119. 53 stakeholder map. 64 Team Management. 41 Responsibility. 72 system approach. 131.. 21 traditional structure. 55 Scope Management. 59. 63 Team evaluation. 63 Team improvement. 70 Risk Plan Improvement. 51 Team building. 56. 59. 63 Team identification. 46 tradeoffs. 57. 90. 128. 102. 55 WBS. 53.. 66 Stakeholder Management.PM4DEV | 135 Request For Assistance. 70 Schedule. 41 Request For Proposal. 66 Stakeholder Management. 53. 95 Risk Evaluation. 65 Stakeholder management improvement. 70 Risks Monitoring. 124.
htm For questions regarding the use of this eCourse contact us at info@pm4dev.Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 136 eCourse Fundamentals of Project Management This eCourse provides a simple way to learn the basic elements of modern project management concepts presented in this book. 4. . This course is divided in 6 easy lessons: 1. To help you increase your knowledge. 5. 2. 3. the menu and index can help you move around the course and take each module and each lesson independently. 6.pm4dev. By having two formats available we want to ensure that the access to this book is most flexible to the needs of people interested in learning and expanding their knowledge on project management. many modules include links to documents that you can open and read at your convenience. Each module presents ideas and concepts with the aid of charts and graphics to help increase your understanding. These documents are in Adobe PDF format.com. You can take the course and its modules at your own pace. After each module you will have an opportunity to review the main topics with a short quiz.com/english/fpm-c. The Objectives of the Course Introduction to Project Management The Project Management Cycle The Project Management Processes The Roles and Responsibilities of the Project Manager The Project Management Organization Structure How to obtain the CD eCourse: You can purchase a copy of this eCourse in two formats: CD-ROM box and Download. This course has been designed to be taken in no more than 60 minutes. Go to our web site and you can place your order for a copy of the eCourse at: http://www.
This publication contains PM4DEV copyrighted material and no part of it can be copied or otherwise disseminated for commercial purposes. Neither should it be taken as providing technical or other professional advice on any of the topics covered. As PM4DEV is aware. This point of view is intended as a general guide and not as a substitute for detailed advice. the information contained on this book is correct and accurate but no responsibility is accepted for any inaccuracy or error or any action taken in reliance on this publication. the PM4DEV logo and Management for Development Series are trademarks of PM4DEV. . “PM4DEV”.PM4DEV | 137 Copyright © 2009 PM4DEV All rights reserved.
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Project Management Series: Fundamentals of Project Management This book is and introduction to the basic ideas and concepts of project management for development organizations starting with an Introduction to the project management cycle and followed by the nine management processes. team. risk and contract management. implementing. and keeps the project on track to deliver its outcomes on time. . security management. monitoring. adapting and closing. on budget and under the expectations of the donor and project beneficiaries. information. Topics discussed include: project management during emergencies. These are designed to help manage the different elements of a project: scope. to project portfolio management. This book will give readers helpful information that can be incorporated in their project management practices. project management information systems and helpful advice on how to implement a project management methodology in a development organization. from the project maturity model. The Project Management Cycle This book offers and introduction to the concept of managing a project using a cyclical approach. The reader will learn how understanding the project cycle allows for opportunities to make adjustments and an on-going learning process. The reader will learn that the complexity of development projects require a different approach and also new ways of managing limited resources and the increasing demands from all stakeholders.PM4DEV | 139 PM4DEV . One of the most critical roles of the project manager is the integration of these processes to ensure that they are all properly coordinated. Advanced Project Management This book focuses on advanced practices and methodologies in project management. budget. This book includes practical insight on the key skills a project manager must learn to be effective in attaining the project objectives and how organizations can benefit from using modern project management practices and methodologies. Mastering Project Management This book presents the nine project management processes. planning. quality. Readers will develop a basic understanding of how a modern project management methodology can help development organizations deliver projects that produce the most impact. stakeholder. Project Management for Development Organizations consists of six phases: initiating. schedule. This integrated approach provides a continuous learning process. managing international projects.
Fundamentals of Project Management for Development Organizations | 140 .
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