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GRADUATE PROGRAMME IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT (GPPM)
MODULE - 18
CONSTRUCTION PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
Prepared By – Soumen Dhara ss Reg. No. 212-05-14-10584-2133
1 2 3 4 Course No Course Title Assignment No Date of Dispatch NCP 22 Construction Personnel Management One August 16,2012
Last Date of Receipt of Assignment at 5 CODE Office August 25, 2012
You are a Project Manager on site where work for 3 Km long Tunnel has been
undertaken. The site is remote and takes about 2 days travel to nearest town. Supervisors, technicians & skilled workers are engaged in dangerous / hazardous work. Absenteeism due to sickness, quarrels, drinking are adding to less output of work and chances of accidents on site are increasing. Management has urged to do something so that time targets can be achieved. Discuss how will you tackle the problem and increase the output of work.
Introduction of Main Problem: 1. Working condition at remote location. 2. Less productivity & irregularity of workman hampering the project progress. 3. Involvement of Dangerous / hazardous activity 4. Absence due to sickness. 5. Absence due to quarrels & drinks. 6. Accidents at site. Reasons of Various Problems: 1. Involvement of High risk construction activity 2. Improper Manpower Management Planning & absenteeism of workmen. 3. Un-Hygienic surroundings & Temporary Accommodation 4. Non availability of Medical facilities at the vicinity of the project Site 5. Availability of Alcohol & Consumption of Alcohol by the Labours 6. Work related risk of rural construction workers.
Needs & Their Fulfilments on Site: 1. Involvement of High risk construction activity Proper construction methodology is to be established prior to starting of activity. Design stability to be ensured for each supporting / enabling works. Identify risk involvement of each project related activity and their impact. Highlight / intimate risk identified and collect the suitable economical suggestion through conducting inter brainstorming or consultancy from out side. Involvement of human resource to be minimized by identifying alternative automated methods. Explore the possibilities of engagement of modern technology applicable for the project work. Ensuring the good condition of the machinery involved. Prepare methodology statement understandable for frontline supervisor / technician who have more practical knowledge but less theoretical knowledge. Recommendation for dangerous and hazardous constructing activity: o o o o o o o Ensure Preparation of proper construction methodology prior to start. Conduct training for the supervisor / technician on the methodology adopted. Identifying more automated method for carrying out the construction activity. Engage more machinery and reduce manpower involvement as much as possible. Keep equipment in good condition. Ensure the stability of the enabling structure. Regular conduct training for workmen engaged for particular activity.
2. Improper Manpower Management Planning & absenteeism of workmen: Preparation of a proper schedule of Project and assign resources to each task i.e. each activity, Assigning resources means identify manpower required for each Task and what is the availability of manpower and how much work has been done till date and how much work is to be done. Identify type of manpower required i.e. Skilled or unskilled. If manpower is in adequate try to get more manpower or try to use the available manpower fully so that maximum amount of work to complete and try to complete the urgent works such that it does not effect our project duration, reschedule the project and
update schedule to head office and inform them weekly work progress so that they can help you to overcome the manpower problem or try to motivate the available manpower by giving extra benefits if they complete the project in time or if manpower is very less than required then immediately inform head office so that they can send some more manpower so that the project can run smoothly Recommendation for Manpower Management Planning: o Manpower planning involved some of steps project manager has to follow the same for engagement of manpower, because the Tunnel project is a large project more number of manpower is involved in the project . o o Developing source of manpower supply for all categories of manpower. Understanding the project in all respect and get all details of the project i.e Site condition, contract conditions, technical specifications, construction techniques, and time frame o Working out the labour component in various parameter of the project, by using consultants to work out labour requirement o Classifying and categorising labour requirement and various jobs by level of skill, responsibility, nature of work etc. o Estimation of manpower required in view of the anticipated of absenteeism and labour turnover and the stability factor. o Ensure the guideline set by the organization for engagement of manpower to be followed.
The guiding principles are as follows: o o o o Care and skill should be exercised in the selection of employees. Introduction to the job should be friendly skilful and adequate. Each employee should be made of feel that his efforts are really appreciated. Consideration should be given to the effect that each rule and instruction may have on the feelings of employees. o o o There should be sense of security and reasonable freedom from worry Employees should have a part in planning those things that affect their working conditions. Management should be absolutely fair in every policy every practice.
Each employee should have a feeling of pride in the worthwhileness of his work and his company.
3. Un-Hygienic surrounding & Temporary Accommodation: Before starting of the project management has to well plan because this project is long duration so manpower involved will be more it is the one of the preliminary need for the employees & workers. Un-Hygienic surrounding observed in the project sites are as follows: a. Poor drainage condition – resulting stagnant water causing growth of mosquito, which develop the possibilities of malaria of workmen. b. Shallow tube oil for drinking water – resulting water diseases. c. Improper toilet & latrine facilities for workmen. d. Inadequate space for leaving.
e. Cooking facilities not available towards labour hut f. Canteen for food – not allotted to labours.
g. Cleaning of wast material from the colony area.
Suggestion Methods for Hygiene Factors: Management has to well plan for the temporary shelters in such a way that number of workers will be involved in the project and how many shelters are required and for different category of employees will be working at site and different facility what all materials required for construction any how much time required to construct it so that all those thing should be completed before starting of project, Management should built temporary shelters for the workers who will be working at site because the site is at remote area workers cannot be able to say at there and come for work it is the preliminary requirement for the workers so management has to take extra precautions, A site office also built with all necessary requirements, drinking water should be good because most of diseases are spread by water so it is important step to taken care by management.
4. Non availability of Medical facilities at the vicinity of the project Site Management should send a medical team to site and they should stay there till completion of project, they should be supplied necessary equipment and medical kits so that they can manage any hazardous situation i.e. any sudden accidents they can over come that situation, any epidemic occurred they can over come that situation. By this work will be smoothly progressed and number of workers absenteeism will be reduced. Worker who is sick will be taken care by medical team he will be recovered quickly and he can start doing the work so that manpower problem is solved.
5. Availability of Alcohol & Consumption of Alcohol by the Labours: This is the major problem with labour because they drink daily after work so that they get some relief from whole day’s work and body pains, but management should try to avoid drinking alcohol or try to get them in limited dose so that they have it in just go for sleep if they get it in excess quantities they will be drinking whole night and next day they will be absenteeism and also after excess drinking they start quarrelling between themselves it’s a big problem for the project manager while quarrelling their may be any accidents that leads to more absenteeism that will also indirectly effect the progress of project. If this quarrelling happens regularly then management has to take some precaution steps to handle that problem. Such as try to avoid the availability of alcohol near the site so that the labour cannot consume much alcohol and this problem is solved and the project may continue smoothly.
Work related risk of rural construction workers.
The workers are vulnerable not only because they are rural workers who do not enjoy the same equal social protection as their urban counterparts. They are vulnerable also because they work in the construction industry which brings with it a set of risks that are particularly serious for construction workers. They are also migrants who are not yet fully integrated into urban life and keep distinctive lifestyles. Therefore, even if the state policy intends to extend the formal social security schemes to these workers, a combination of work related risks, and social risks and personal understanding of the risks, often expressed with their status as rural-urban migrants, may lead to the failure of a simple extension of social security. To understand the challenges
better, it is important to distinguish work related and status related risks that affect the livelihoods of these workers. o Some subcontractors deliberately hold the money for a long time to earn interest. When a subcontractor mainly hires workers from his home village or county, he is more likely to behave in a more responsible way, as he has to face the pressure back at home. Late or missing pay is more frequent when a subcontractor hires people from outside his home county. o Another work related risk is injuries. Construction work involves hard labour and operation of heavy equipment. Industrial accidents are frequent, especially among poorly trained and inexperienced workers
Measures to minimize the work related risk:
o o Ensure time release of labour payment and monitor actual payment towards labour involved. Ensure safety standard for protection against industrial injuries.
Motivation of Employees in Construction Project: Motivation is the driving force within individuals that drive them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfil their needs or expectations. Motivators may be intrinsic or extrinsic. An example of an intrinsic motivator is the self-fulfilment of a worker as a result of performing a task well.
Motivation of labour in Construction Project: Construction labour can be motivated. This is important because dwindling productivity is a major problem confronting construction today. Productivity has decreased every year for the past decade, in part because of increasing design complexity, more rigorous federal and state regulations and socio-economic changes affecting the work force. Our findings indicate that a highly motivated workforce enhances productivity and project effectiveness.
In construction, the work itself that is, the building of a structure for all to behold is a key motivator for all levels of management and the work force. Therefore, a well planned project seems to be the first and most important step to achieve good productivity. Unfortunately, on large industrial projects, craftsmen often receive only minimal amounts of information about their work . Duplication of effort, numerous modifications to plans, schedules that consistently slip makes it difficult to maintain a motivated workforce. On large power plant projects, changes in design and problems with material availability are considered the major demotivating factors. With effective pre-planning, the availability of materials will be checked before workers are assigned to an area so workers do not start in one location only to have to be shifted to another location, Care in this respect should improve worker motivation and productivity and help promote a high level of accomplishment. Most foremen are craftsmen take considerable pride in the work they do. Having to rip out their work and redo it can be extremely discomforting. In fact, if it is extensive, redoing parts of a project may be the worst de-motivator of all. Craftsmen view overcrowded conditions and crew interference due to extensive rework as de-motivating. Worse, such problems can create hostile feelings as a result of the frustration. Design standardization can help to minimize rework and improve morale. Motivational Programs: Although some unique motivational programs were found, the vast majority can be grouped into five primary categories: goal setting, incentives, positive reinforcement (i.e., recognition for a job well done), worker participation, and work facilitation. The following presents a dissertation on each of the five categories discussing first their use in other industries and then their application to construction. Motivational Technique: The motivational techniques are as follows:
1. A letter of praise from a customer shared directly with the employee who delivered the service.
2. Provide training to employees. Offer them opportunities to improve themselves.
3. Involve employees in decisions that directly affect them.
4. Special Wage increase should be given to employees who do their jobs well.
5. Provide better job descriptions so that employees will know exactly what is expected of them.
6. Individual incentive bonuses based upon values that need to be reinforced.
7. Having good equipment to work with. Good working conditions.
8. Being trustworthy and respectable.
9. Job security
10. Feedback should be constructive and timely.
Welfare Amenities: To mitigate desire productivity the welfare amenities should be ensured towards workmen. The following welfare amenities at site for use of workers at scale and standards prescribed below – 1. Canteen 2. Rest rooms 3. Night Shelter 4. Clean drinking water 5. Latrines and urinals 6. Washing facilities 7. First aid facilities 8. Housing 9. Crèche
Absenteeism and Turnover: The department of Energy study indicated that the absenteeism and turnover are a relatively minor concern to workmen. Still, they can have a major impact on total project productivity. High rates of absenteeism are a concern, however, to individuals who had to carry extra workloads to compensate for missing crewmembers. The low job satisfaction resulted in high absence from work and high turnover. Thus absenteeism and turnover can be viewed as effects of motivational activities or de-motivational concerns. The cost of motivational programs is often by the reduced absenteeism and turnover. For example the cost of M2 group Engineering Private Ltd. Big Designing & construction company on eight projects has been more than paid for by the reduction in absenteeism and the reduced costs associated with hiring some amount per employee to process paper work plus two to three weeks of each new employee’s time to learn the job. Again, the figures on attendance and turnover measure the motivational effort that is finally justified. Moreover, awards for good records are perhaps the most effective method to decrease absenteeism. Recommendation to Management: Considering the project analysis and feasibility study made the following recommendation extended towards management 1. Deployment of consultant for construction method finalization. 2. Deployment of Doctor and fast aid centre with adequate medicine facilities. 3. Arrangement of periodic medical check-up for labours 4. Proper screening for labour prior to engage them in risk job. 5. Technical knowledge to be screened for workers. 6. Identifying more resource pull for workers. 7. Promoting motivational scheme for labours 8. Incentive scheme to be implemented for enhancing motivation towards work. 9. Special care to be taken in account of hygienic aspect of labour hut. 10. Separate gang to be deployed for maintenance of labour colony. 11. Remote allowance can be introduce for labours.
Bibliography : 1. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. – William R.Duncan 2. Management in organization by Koontz and Odoneal, MacGraw Hill 3. Construction Personnel Management for Construction Industry Managers – SODE, NICMAR.
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