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Bhakti Aur Bhagwan - Part 2 of 2 (Hindi Language) (Jagatgururampalji.org)

Bhakti Aur Bhagwan - Part 2 of 2 (Hindi Language) (Jagatgururampalji.org)

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Bhakti aur Bhagwan - Part 2 of 2
Language: Hindi
Source: jagatgururampalji.org
Bhakti aur Bhagwan - Part 2 of 2
Language: Hindi
Source: jagatgururampalji.org

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Published by: Acharya on Jul 25, 2013
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10/04/2014

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V Z

Z
Y
txr xq # rRon'khZ txr xq # rRon'khZ
txr xq # rRon'khZ txr xq # rRon'khZ txr xq # rRon'khZ
la r jkeiky th egkjkt la r jkeiky th egkjkt
la r jkeiky th egkjkt la r jkeiky th egkjkt la r jkeiky th egkjkt
c c
Hkxoku Hkxoku
Hkxoku Hkxoku
Hkxoku
(-rrn2)
=n +¤|º +| «¤r
vkS j vkS j
vkS j vkS j
vkS j
HkfDr HkfDr
HkfDr HkfDr
HkfDr
e-mail : jagatgururampalji@yahoo.com
visit us at - www.jagatgururampalji.org
?
(=r=r·r =¸-¤ =r>r 5 =¤¤)
=n ºr=¤r¬ «r= =;rºr¬
=n¬r+ ¤r~=
=--i cr- -ri+a =i+a :-: {·i=. 3955),
·r=a= =-=· ·r-, =·r·rr, i=. ·r=a= {=i··) -rr·a(
=a=r= ¬r¤=, -r=a+· ·r-, =·¤r=r, i=. i==r· {=i··)-rr·a(
¤ +91-9992600801, +91-9992600802, +91-9992600803,
+91-9812166044, +91-9812151088, +91-9812026821,+91-9812142324
1. ~rq ==|=rr (J)k ls fd;k x;k 'kkL=kfoèkh vuqlkj vè;kfRed
dÙkZO; deZ Jk) dgykrk gS)-------------------------------------------1
2. n|·r n·rr =rr= «¤r ; ----------------------------------------------20
3. ¤|¤>r n|·r n·rr =rr= +| ¬r¬+rº|--------------------------------20
4. n|·r ª·rr¤¬r + ¤=rºr---------------------------------------------21
5. |¤n ºrq n|·r------------------------------------------------------24
6. ~| ¤=º¬r·r =rr= +| ª·rr¤¬r += ;;?--------------------------25
7. ¤·ºrr «¤| + =|-«º +| ª·rr¤¬r += ;;?------------------------25
8. ¤º| = ~| ¬n-¬r·r ¬| +r =|-«º ¤·rrn =rr= += ¤¬r---------26
9. ~| ¬n-¬r·r + =|-«º = e¤rern ¤rº--r = ;| ¬;| ; ---------31
10. =¸|n ¤¸¬r +º¬r =|¤n ¤r ¤¬|¤n-------------------------------33
11. ¤¸ºr =n +| «¤r ¤;¤r¬ ;(1)-------------------------------------34
12. ¤¸ºr =n +| ¤;¤r¬ (2)-------------------------------------------39
13. += |=¬ -rn¤r¬---------------------------------------------------45
14. ¤·r= |+ªn --------------------------------------------------------50
15. |øn|¤ |+ªn ------------------------------------------------------59
16. n|=º| |+ªn -------------------------------------------------------71
17. ¤r·r| |+ªn --------------------------------------------------------83
18. ¤r¤¤| |+ªn -------------------------------------------------------88
19. ea| |+ªn ---------------------------------------------------------91
20. =rn¤| |+ªn ------------------------------------------------------97
21. ¤ra¤| |+ªn ------------------------------------------------------102
22. ¬r¤| |+ªn --------------------------------------------------------105
23. «=¤| |+ªn -------------------------------------------------------111
24. -r«n «|¤+ «r= + ¤|º¤rº +| ¤r-= +·rr ------------------117
25. nr¤>r| =->r «¤r ; ? --------------------------------------------121
|¤·r¤ =¸ ¤|

fuosnu
1 )' 1 J` 1'ö1' + '¯õc` ¸ '1 (¸ 1'¯a 1 +c1 1' õ '1cõ 1'õ`
J `` +J'n'¯ 1a' J '¯ä'1õ' 1 J'¯(J + '*¯' * ¯'' 1' + ¤ ¸ ¸ c¯''
¯+J + '-c ¯nõ'`` 1' )'` (' ¤ '1(' ¤(' ¸ i (¸ 'õ¯' ( * õ 1 '*ë '1
1¯J º¯¯ 1 ä'õ 1` ¤¸¯'¯ J 1' õ '1cõ 1'õ` J ¸ . }1(' + '-c
¯nõ'`` 1' 1¯ 1'¯ 1< c¯'' 1¸ ¯' c(' +Jn , '4¯ ¯+ 1'¯a 1 +c1 J '*¯'
'¯¯¯¯' 1' J'õõ' A'+'õ ¸' J'ë¤' i
(¸ º''+a' + A''¯-1'¯ '1(' ¸ i +¯ ¯('¯(' º''+a' 1 1 J'¯'' +
1 J''¯'c ¸ i 1'¯a ¬`J¯ )'¤¯¯ ¤`c' J` 1 A¯('( ¡( º*' 1 ;;-;, J
'*¯'' ¸ '1 J' +'¯'1 º''+a '¯'¯' 1' ¯('¤ 1¯ JõJ'õ' A'n¯¯' (1¸ J')
1¯c ¸ ¯ õ c' 1¯J¤'c 1' 1 '¯c ¸' c ¸ , õ + ¯' 1' c¯'' õ '+'¸ 1' ¸`i
¯+'*ë A'11 '*ë )''!c 1 1¯õ ¯ õ 1¯õ ¯'* A'n¯¯' (1¸ J' 1J' ±) 1
'*ë º''+a ¸` 1 J'¯' ¸ i
¯c J'õ 1 +¯ + c, J¸ c ¯ ¤ ¯Jõ JõJ'õ` +'¯'õ' 1¯ c¯'' 1¯¯'
¯¸ ¸ i ¯+'*ë ¯'+c'¯1 )''!c +'¯'õ' 1 '*ë A1õ +¯ ¤ :¯'' 1' ¸`
A'¬( * õ' '¸c1¯ ¸ , ¯+ 1'¯a 1 +c1 J A'1 Jõ' 1' A'+'õ` + 'õ¯' (
¸' J'( ¤' '1 ¯'+c'¯1c' !(' ¸ c¯'' 1¯J º¯¯ 1 ä'õ 1` ¤¸¯'¯ J 1' õ
'1cõ 1'õ` J ¸ . :+1 1ºn'c +c*' 1 A'¬J J A'1¯ A'¯J 1*('¯'
1 '*ë 1¸ ¯' J' ;' J'¤ A'¯*·1 c¯'' 'õ·º' *1 J n ¯'+ + 1 '¯c 1¯ i
+c +'¸ 1, J( 1:¯` ;' ¯ i
¯'J1'* ¯'+
+¯ 1' º')''n:c1
N
''~rq ==|=rr''
(~qr = |+¤r n¤r ºrrª>r|¤|=r ¤¬=rº ¤=¤r|·=+ +-r·¤ +=
~rq +;¬rnr ;)
~r{ + f¤·r¬ = : ¤¤=: ~r{ +rf< ar=r f¤n=r +r =n·a +==r -rt v+
=+r= +r=¬rf-=+ += ¢; ¬¢ +¤¤¬ +==r ¤rf¢v; +r¤ ~r{ += +r ==r f+=
f¬v +=n ¢r; f¤·vr ¤=rvr J¬tnr ¤= ¬r==r¤= = ¤+rf¤rn +=¤r< +nr =
=f=¬r¬ ¬·n) + n` ` ` ``nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 15 + ¤¬r+ 1 = 53 ¤` ` ` ``·a 210-213 ¤=
f¬=rr ¢ f+ ~r{ = n` ` ` ``·n ¢r += f¤n` ` ` `` ¬vr ===n +r==r+r +r ¤¸vr += <n ¢; +r¤
==nr +r -rf=n += =¢ ¢r;
=+r= : f¤·vr ¤=rvr = -r¬¤r= ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t +t =` ` ` ``-¬ n+ +r ==¬=r ¤=rvr
¤«nr = ¤¤= +¤r + +=¬r¬ 37 = ¤` ` ` `` ·a 413 = 415 n+ f¬=rr ¢; f== = f={
¢rnr ¢ f+ == = ¤¸¤ ¬¢ f¤·vr ¤=rvr =¢t «rt; >f·r¬vr =rf=r+ ¤rnr = ¢t -rf«n
=r=r=r «nrn «r; =r ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢; «¬rf+ s=t f¬v -r¬¤r= +r¬ ÷¤t «m =
~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t + ¤r=t= = ¤¤¤r +=+ ~t =<-r¬¤n ¬tnr =t +r ¬r= «r¬r f==+
+=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 1 = 3 = ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r = +¢r ¢ f+ +== ¬¢ -rf«-r ¬r=
¤¢¬ == =¸¬ = +¢r «rr; =¸¬ = +¤= ¤>r ¤¤=n == = +¢r == = s=¤r+ +r
+¢r f¤= ¬¢ ¬r= ¬r¬ +e =r=f·r¬r n+ ¤¬r; +« ¬¢ ¤rr=>rf¤f=r +==r= ¬r=
¬r¬ «¢n ==¬ = =·a +«rr-r ==r·n «rr; s= f¤¤=vr = f={ ¢+r f+ ~t ¤r=r==
>f·r +r ¬tnr +«rrn ¤<r ¤r¬r -rf«-r =r¬ +r ¬r= =¢t «rr; ~t ¤r=r== =t =
~r{ +==r +«rrn f¤n= ¤¸=r +== +t =r¬ f¤·vr ¤=rvr + n` ` ` ``nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬
14 = 16 n+ ¤` ` ` `` ·a 206 = 215 n+ <t ¢; f¤=n` ` ` `` n f¤¤=vr f¬=rr ¢; =« f+ ¤<r ¤
~t =<-r¬¤n ¬tnr =t = f¤n= ¤¸=r J~r{ +=) -r¸n ¤¸=r J¤n+=) ¤ <¤¤¸=r
+rf< +r ==r f+¬r ¢; ¬tnr +. 9 ¤¬r+ 25 = =¤·a f+¬r ¢ f+ =r -r¸n ¤¸=r J¤n
+==+f=«r¬r ¤==r +«rrn ¤¸¬ =ar=r, n=¢¤t fa¬r, =rf=+ fa¬r, f¤v= <r=
+rf< ¤n += ¢ f==+r f¤¤=vr f¤·vr ¤=rvr n` ` ` ``nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 13 = ¤¬r+ 1
= 41 ¤` ` ` ``·a 203 = 206 n+ ==¬=r ¢) +== ¤r¬ -r¸nr +r ¤r·n ¢r¬ +«rrn ¤n «=
+= ¤¸¤ «= ¤nr + ¤r= ¤¬ =rv¬; <¤ ¤¸=r J«mr, f¤·vr n«rr f¤r¤ +rf< <¤nr+r
+r ¤¸== ¤r¬) <¤nr+r +r ¤r·n ¢r¬ +«rrn +=¤=r +t ¤<¤t ¤r·n +=+ +¤=2
s·a <¤ + ¬r+ +r ¤r·n ¢r =rv¬; f¤= +¤=r ¤¸v¬ += =¤¬ ¬r+ = ==r·n
+=+ ==+ = n«rr f¤= +-¬ ¤rfvr¬r +t ¬rf=¬r = =<r +·a =arv¬;
«¬rf+ ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 9 ¤¬r+ 23 n«rr 24 = +¢r ¢ f+ =r =r=r+ ~{r =
+-¬ <¤nr+r +t ¤¸=r +=n ¢ ¤ ==t ¤¸=r +=n ¢ -rr¤r«r ¢ f+ ¤ =r=r+ ¤==r-=r
2
¤rf·n + f¬v ¢t ¤¬-= ¤rt¬ ¢ ¤=-n ==+t ¤¢ +-¬ <¤nr+r +t ¤¸=r
¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢; J¤¬r+ 23) «¬rf+ ¤ =r=r+ =n n«rr ==t =r=r=r +r n-¤ = =¢t
=r=n J«¬rf+ ¤¸vr =r=r =r¬ +r n-¤¬r= n-¤<¤rt =-n ¢t «nrv¬ f==+ f¤·r¬
= ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34 n«rr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 = 1 = 4 = ¤fvrn ¢;) s=f¬v ¤
~{r = ¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vr +== ¤r¬ =r=r+ ¤n= +r ¤r·n ¢rn
¢ +«rrn -rf«-r ¢t= ¢r+= f-r-= ¤rfvr¬r + ¤r=t= = +·a =arn ¢; J¤¬r+ 9,24)
¬¢t ¤=rvr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 7 ¤¬r+ 15 n«rr 20 = 23 n+ ¢; f== = +¢r ¢ +-¬
<¤nr+r J«mr, f¤·vr n«rr f¤r¤ =t +rf<) +r == ¢t +e ¤rf«n ¤<r= += ==rt ¢
¤=-n == +=¤«f{ ¤r¬r J=¸=rr) +t ¤¢ ¤rr=>rf¤f=r =f¢n =r=r=r ¢r= + +r=vr
·¬«r ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 7 ¤¬r+ 15 = -rt =¤·a f+¬r ¢ f+ f== =r=r+r +r
f>r¬vrr-=+ =r¬r J~t «mr =t, ~t f¤·vr =t n«rr ~t f¤r¤ =t) = f=¬= ¤r¬
=rfvr+ ¬r-r = ¬r= ¢=r =r ¤+r ¢ ¤ =¤-rr¤ ¤¤r =-¢t +t ¤¸=r +=n ¢ ¤ =r=r=
=¤-rr¤ +r =rr=vr f+v ¢v ==·¬r = =t¤ <¸f·rn += +== ¤r¬ =¸=r =¸n -rt =¢t
-r=n +«rrn «m =r=r=r -rt =¢t +=n; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16 ¤¬r+ 23-24 = =¤·a
f+¬r ¢ f+ =r =r=r+ ¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vr +«rrn ¤¸=r +=n ¢
==+r = nr +rs ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢ +«rrn = +rs f=f{ ¤r·n ¢rnt ¢ = +rs ==r ¢rnr
¢ = ¤==¬fn +«rrn =r=r ¢rnr ¢; -rr¤r«r ¢ f+ ¤rr=>rr J¤<r) = ¤fvrn =r=r=r
er= += ===r=t ¤¸=r f+=t ·¬f«-r ¬r >f·r ¤ =-n f¤¤r·r + +¢= = +== ¤r¬
=r=r+ +t =r=r=r ·¬«r ¢rnt ¢; s=f¬v ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16 ¤¬r+ 24 = +¢r ¢ f+
+r= =t =r=r=r +== ¬r-¬ J+n·¬ +=) ¢ n«rr +r= =t er== ¬r-¬ J++-r·¬
+=) ¢; s=+ f¬v ¤rr=>r J¤<) ¢t ¤=rvr ¢; f+=t +-¬ ar=r ¬r+¤< +«rrn <-n
+«rr+r + +r=rr= = «nr¬r ¬¬r -rf«n =r¬ =¤t+r= =¢t +==r ¤rf¢v;
=r+v=¬ ¤=rvr J¬tnr ¤= ¬r==r¤= = ¤+rf¤rn) = +=¬r¬ ´´=r-¬ == +t
=-¤f+r +«rr´´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 242 = 244 n+ = ¤=rvr ¢ +t ¤<r = +==r¬ +«rrn ~r{
+rf< +== +r +f¤nr +¢r +«rrn ¤rr=>rf¤f=r =f¢n =r=r=r ===r=r +r¤=vr +¢r
¢; ¬·ii ¬i ¬ºi -i¬º·¤ ¬i ¬rn r ÷ ¤¸( ¬i¬ - ¤¬ ª¤i ·i-¬ ~l·i (·i ¬ ni· ^rºi
¬º ¬ ¬i·i·i ¬º ºri ·ii| (r «i¬ «s¤iºi ·ii ·¬ ¬-¤ (r ¤i« ri ¤¬i ·ii| l¬¬ ¬-¤
ªl¤ ~l·i ¬i ·¬¬ ¤iº l¤nº (l¤ni, l¤ni-r, ¤ºl¤ni-r n·ii ·¸¬ºi ¤ºl¤ni-r) l·ªii; l·¤|
··ri· ¬ri «-i ¬i¤· l((ir ·¤i ·ri l¬¤i| ^`r-·i ¤ª·i ¬--n ·(ni¬i ¬i l¤nºi, ~l·i¤i
¬iº ¬lnl·i¤i ¬i ¤¸¬i¬º¬ ¤º¤-¤ ¬i¬i ¬i ¤i·n ¬ºni r| (r -(ir ¬ ··¤iººi ¬
(·(ni¬i ¬i) -(·ii ºi·· ¬ (l¤nºi ¬i) n·ii ¬···i· («l¬(º(·() ¬il· ¬ ·i¸n ¬il·
¤ilºi¤i ¤( ¬lnl·i¤i ¬i ··¬i ·ii^ ¬-l¤n ¬ºni r| «-i r- ¤¬i -i·n r| ªl¤ «i¬i÷
l¤ni-ri! (· - ¬- -i^ ¬i ¬l(ni ¬ri ^¤i r| l¤º ·¤i ¬i¤ ¬i^ -n ·¬ -i^ - ¬^in r|
l¤nº «i¬ ÷ ¤r ¬-¤ r l¬ ¬- ¬i ¬l(ni ri ¬ri ^¤i r ;¬ - nl·¬ ·ii l-·¤i ·ri r| l¤º
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
3
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
·ii (-¬! n- l(l·i¤¸(¬ -ii ¬^r ¬ºi ¤¬i · ri l¬ ;¬ ¬i¬ ¬i ¬i·i · l-¬· ¬ ¬iººi n·riºi
¬·- l·i·¤¬ ri ¬i¤| ªl¤ · ¬ri÷ l¤nºi! ¬« ni - «¸«i ri ^¤i r¸| ·i¬i -n ¬i ¬i· -ii
·^i| -º ¬¬i ·lº· (¬^i¬) -ii ¬i ¬¬ ºªi ¬¬^i| l¤nº «i¬ ÷ (-¬! ¤l· r-iºi «in ·ri
-i·^i ni r- ¬i^i ¬i ¤n· ri ¬i¤^i ¬iº n·riºi ·ii ¬·ii^ln ri^i| -i¬º·¤ ¬i · ¬ri ÷
;¬ ¤¬iº ¬r ¬º l¤nº ¬·`ºi ri ^¤| ªl¤ ··¬i «ini ¬ l¤l·nn ri ^¤i| l((ir ¬ l¬¤
¤¤-· l¬¤i| n¤-¤i ¬i| n¤-¤i ¬º¬ ¤-·i ¤i·n ¬º¬ ^`r-·ii «· ^¤i| l¤º l¤nºi ¬ ¬i,
l¬¤|
f¤¤r= +=: ÷f¤ >f·r + ¤¸¤= =¤¬ ¤rr=>rf¤f=r =f¢n ~r{ +rf< ar=r f¤n=
¤¸=r +=+ f¤n= «= =r= ¢; f¤= +¤= «-¤ +r ¬==r¢ += =¢ ¢; =r ¤rr=>rf¤f=r
+==r= J¤<r +==r=) =r=r=r += =¢r «rr; f¤n= ¬¢ -rt =¤t+r= += =¢ ¢ f+ ¤<r
= += =r¬ J~r{ +rf< +==r) +f¤nr J=¸¸=r +r¬) +¢r ¢; f¤n= -rt +¤= ¬r+
¤< + +r=rr= = +¤= «-¤ ÷f¤ +r f¤r=rr < =¢ ¢ f+ f¤n=, <¤nr ¤ -r¸nr +t ¤¸=r
+=+ ¤v¬=¬ ¬r+r +r ¤r·n +=nr ¢; f¤¤r= +== ¤r¬t «rn ¢ f+ f¤n= «¬r
=¢t ¬v == ¤v¬=¬ ¬r+r +r³ =¤¬ ¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += =r=r=r +=+ -r¸=r ==
=¢ ¢; ÷f¤ +r -rt f¤n= «=r= +r ¤¬-= += =¢ ¢; =¤¬ +¢ =¢ ¢ f+ ¬f< n¸
~r{ =¢t +=¬r nr ¢=r=r ¤n= ¢r =rv¬r; -rr¤r«r ¢ f+ ~r{ +== = ¢t f¤n=r
+r +r¢r= f=¬nr ¢; f¤= ==+ ¤v¬ +¢r ¬v³ ¤r=nf¤+nr ¬¢ ¢ f+ f¤n= ¤¸=r
+=+ f¤n= «= ¬v; f¤n= ¬rf= «¢n +·a=¬ ¢rnt ¢; s=+t +r¬ -rt +f=r+
¢rnt ¢; s= ¬rf= +r -rr¬ += f¤= +-¬ ¤rfvr¬r +t ¬rf=¬r = ¤r=t= =rr=vr +==r
¤=¬r;
¤r+r ¤¤=: ¬f< f+=t + =rnrf¤nr -r¸=r ¢r ¤ f<=rrs < += +¢ nr ¤¢ ¤>r
=¢t =r ==+t s-er ¤¸=t = +=;
¤r+r ==r=rr=: ¬f< f+=t +r «-¤r +v = f¬=r ¢r ¤¢ nr f¤=¬rv¬r =n
«-rr ¬r; f¤nr =t +r =r+r = == =¢r ¢¸; ¤¢ f¤nr =¸=r ¢r¬r =r -rr¤+ ¢r += +v
= e¬r¬ ¬¬r+= «-¤ +r «¤r= +t +rf¤r¤r +=+ =¤¬ -rt =¸« += == =rv¬r;
«-¤ +r -rt =¢t «¤r ¤rv¬r; == +r ¤rf¢v f+ ¬-«t ===t +r ¤«-=r +=; f¤=
== +v = er=; «--rr == ¤+= ¬ f¤= «r¢= =r¤ += «-¤ +r +v = f=+r¬;
s=t ¤+r= ¤¸¤= nr ¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +=+ f¤n= «=
¤+ ¢; =nr= +r -rt f¤n= «=r= + f¬v ¤+r= =¢ ¢; s=f¬v ~{r¬+r = ¤r«r=r
¢ f+ n-¤¬r= +r ==n += +¤=r +=¬rvr +=rv n«rr =n <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) +
¤r= ¤==¤¤= +«t= «<t er= =t +t ¤<r= +t ¢s ¤¢ f¤f=r ¢ =r =r=r+ +r nr
+=¬rvr +=¬t ¢t =r«r = ==+ f¤n=r +t -rt f¤n= ¬rf= e¸a += =r=¤ =-= ¤r·n
¢r¬r n«rr -rf«n ¬¬ = =-= ¢r+= =-¬ -rf«-r +=+ v+ ¬r <r =-= = ¤¸vr =r=r
¤r·n +=¬;
4
f¤¤r= += : ==r f+ =¤=r«n ÷f-r >f·r +t +«rr = f¤n= == =¢ ¢ f+
¬f< ¢=r= ~r{ =¢t f+v ¬v nr ¢= ¤n= +r ¤r·n ¢r¬ +«rrn ¢=r=r ¤n= J=` ` ` `` -¬)
¢r =rv¬r; +« ==+r f¤n= ¬rf= =r +-¬n +·a=¬ ¢ +-et ¬¬ =¢t ¢; ==
-¬r¬=r =¢t ¤r¢ =¢ ¬¢ nr ¤¢t +¢r=t ¤r¬t «rn ¢ f+ ´´v+ ==¬ v+ >f·r +r
+¤= -rf¤·¬ + =-= +r ¬r= ¢+r; === +¤= ¤>rr +r «nr¬r f+ ==r +¬¬r
=-= +=¸+ ·¬f«n + tr= v+ =¸+=t = ¢r¬r; = =¸+= +r =-= ¤r=¬r == =¸+=t
+ ¬¬ = ¬ra ¢ ¬¢ ==+t ¤¢¤r= ¢ ==+ =<= = ==r =-= ¢r¬r; ==t ¤¢¤r=
¬¢ ¢r¬t +t == f== ¤= ¬ra ¢r¬t =r <¸= = f<=rrs <¬t; == «-¤r == ·¬f«n =
=n =r¬ ¬ ¬=r n«rr =n =r= <=r, ==t ¬fn += <=r; «-¤r = +¢r «¢n +-er
f¤nr =t; >f·r = f¤= +r=rr = ¤r=t -r= += +¢r «-¤r +¢t ¬r¬¤ ¤¤r =n =r¬
= ¬r +r= =n n= =r=r =¢t, ¬¢ +r¬ n= +¤¤¬ +==r, =¢t nr = =¸+= ¬rf= =
=¢r+·a =ar=¬r; «-¤r = ¤¸vr f¤¤¤r= f<¬r¬r; ==+ ¤¤¤rn == >f·r +r
<¢rn ¢r ¬¬r; ==t ·¬f«n + tr= ¤= ==t ¬¬ = ¬ra ¤r¬t =+=t + ¤¢t f== ¤=
¬ra ¤r¬r «--rr -rt +-¬ «-¤r + =r«r =-¤-= ¢+r; == >f·r + «-¤r = ¤¢
=+=t +r «-¤r =r¬ ¬ f¬¬r; =« == =r== ¬¬ ==t ==¬ ¤¢ «-¤r «r¬r «ar
=n =n =r=r ==r =t¤= =·a +=+ n-¢ «¬r f=¬¬r; n« == >f·r + ¤¸¤ =-= +
«ar = +¢r, f¤nr =t! +r¤= ¢t nr +¢r «rr; n« ¤¢ =+= + «-¤ ÷¤ = >f·r
«r¬r = +r¤+ =r== ¢r«r =r=nr ¢¸ =n =n =r=r, == -rrs¬r J+-¬ =¸+= +
«-¤r) + =r«r ==r f<¬ ¬¬r ¢; =n «=¤r <r; «-¤r = ¤¢ «-¤r er= f<¬r =r=r
=¢t; s= ¤+r= ¬¢ =t¤ f== -rt ¬rf= = =-¤-= ¢r =rnr ¢ == -¬r¬=r =¢t
¤r¢nr; =«f+ ¬¢ ¤r=t= v+ f<= =¤ +r =rv¬r; s=f¬v -rr¤+nr = = «¢ +=
f¤¤+ = +r¬ +==r ¤rf¢v; ¬¢ <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) =r =r=r=r «nrv¬r ===
+r= + +r= +r= ¬af¬¬r + <r= -rt f=¬¬ s=t f¤·vr ¤=rvr = n` ` ` `` nt¬ +¤r +
+=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 55-56 ¤` ` ` ``·a 213 ¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+ ´´J+r¤ >f·r =¬= =r=r +r «nr
=¢r ¢ )´´ r ºi¬· ¬i, ¬º· (i¬ ¤ª·i ¬ l¤nº^ºi, l(º(·( ^ºi ¬il· ¬( ¬n·- ri ¬in
r| r ·i¸¤i¬! l¤nº^ºi ¬i ¬i·iiº ¤··-i r ¬iº ¤··-i ¬i ¬i·iiº ¤i^ (ºii-i¬·¬¸¬ ·il·n) r|
;¬l¬¤ ¬i, - ¤i^i ¬· (n-( ni· ¬·¬iº ºii-il(l·i ¬·¬iº ·il·n ¬º ºr ¬i·i¬ ¬·) ¬i
¬(º¤ «¬i¤| ¤l· ¬i, - ¤¬ r¬iº «isºi ·ii¬· ¬º ºr ri ··¬ ¬i-· ¤¬ ¤i^i
(ºii-i¬·¬¸¬ ¬i·i¬) ·ii ri ni (r ·· ¤¬ r¬iº «isºii ¬i ·ii ·,iº ¬º ·ni r n·ii ¤¬-i·
n·ii l¤nºi ¬i ·ii ·,iº ¬º ·ni r| Jf¤n=r +r ={r= +r +«r ¢ f+ f¤n=r +t ¬rf=
e¸a += =r=¤ ¤r=t= f=¬¬r ¬==r= n«rr «rmvrr + ={r= = nr-¤¬ ¬¢ ¢ f+
==+r =-¬ =r=r=r +r =¤<¤r +=+ =r=r +r +f=r+r=t «=rv¬r)
¬r¬t +t ¤f=-rr·rr : ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 2 ¤¬r+ 53 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¢ +==! f==
==¬ +r¤ +t «f{ f-r-=2 ¤+r= + -rf=n +== ¤r¬ ¬r= = ¢a += v+ n-¤
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
5
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¬r= ¤= f=«r= ¢r =rv¬t n« n¸ ¬r¬t «=¬r +«rrn -r«n «=¬r; -rr¤r«r ¢ f+ n-¤
¬r= +r=rr= = =r=r=r +== ¤r¬r ¢t =r=r +r +f=r+r=t «=nr ¢ ==t = =r=
=r=r=r J-rf«n) +r =r= ¢rnr ¢ ¤¢ =r= =r= +t +=rs +r =r=t ¢rnr ¢;
s=f¬v ¬¢ <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) +r¤+r ¤¢ ¤rr=>r+=+¸¬ =r=r=r ¤<r=
+=¬r f=== +r¤ ¬r¬t J=-¬ =r=r+) ¢r =r+r¬; +r¤+r +=¬rvr n«rr +r¤+
f¤n=r +r -rt +=¬rvr ¢r =rv¬r; ==r f+ f¤·vr ¤=rvr n` ` ` `` nt¬ +¤r +=¬r¬ 15
¤¬r+ 13 = 17 ¤` ` ` ``·a 210 ¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+ <¤nr+r + f=f=+r ~r{ J¤¸=r) = +¬-=
==¬r J3,5,7,9 +t ==¬r) = «rmvrr +r v+ =r«r -rr== +=rv n«rr ==+r =¢
¤¸¤ +t +r= «ar += -rr== +=rv n«rr f¤n=r + f¬v ~r{ J¤¸=r) +== + ==¬
¬-= ==¬r J<r, ¤r=, e:, +ra +t ==¬r) = =+r= +t +r= ==r +=+ «arv n«rr
-rr== +=rv; f¤¤r= +== +t «rn ¬¢ ¢ f+ s=t f¤·vr ¤=rvr, s=t n` ` ` ``nt¬r +¤r +
+=¬r¬ 15 = ¤¬r+ 55-56 ¤` ` ` `` ·a 213 ¤= ¬¢ -rt nr f¬=rr ¢ f+ v+ ¬r¬t
J¤rr=>r+=+¸¬ =-¬ =r=r+) ++¬r ¢t f¤n=r n«rr v+ ¢=r= «rmvrr n«rr ¬==r=
=f¢n =¤ +r ={r= += <¬r; «¬r = ¢= v+ ¬r¬t +t =rr= += f=== =¤ ¬r-r
¤r·n ¢r =rv¬r;
+«t= ¤==¤¤= =t = +¢r ¢ : ¤¬ ¬i·i ¬« ¬·i, ¬« ¬i·i ¬« ¬i¤,
-i¬i ¬i¤ -¸¬ ¬i, ¤¬ ¤¸¬ ¬·ii¤||
¬¢ <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) -rt =rrf=+ +=·ar= J~{r = ¤¸=r) +=nr +r=
+=rnr ¢; f==+ +== = =r=r+ f¤n=, -r¸n =¢t «=nr +f¤n ¤¸vr =r=r ¤r·n
+=nr ¢ n«rr =r ¤¸¤= ¬¬n =r=r=r J¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vr +«rrn
¤¸=r) +=+ f¤n= -r¸n «= ¢, ==+r -rt ea+r=r ¢r =rnr ¢; ¬¢t ¤=rvr s=t f¤·vr
¤=rvr ¤` ` ` ``·a 209 ¤= s=t n` ` ` `` nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 14 ¤¬r+ 20 = 31 = -rt f¬=rr ¢ f+
f==+ ¤r= ~r{ +== + f¬v =r= =¢t ¢ nr ¤¢ ¬¢ +¢ ´´ ¢ f¤n= ¬vrr +r¤ ==t
-rf«n = n` ` ` ``f·n ¬r-r ¤r·n +=; «¬rf+ == ¤r= ~r{ +== + f¬v f¤+r =¢t ¢´´
+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤ra+ == f¤¤r= += f+ =« -rf«-r J=->r =r¤ +t +=rs) = f¤n= n` ` ` ``·n ¢r
=rn ¢ nr f¤= +-¬ +=+rv= +t «¬r +r¤¤¬+nr ¢; ¬¢ =¤ ¤¤v¤ ¬r=¢t= ¬÷
¬r¬r = +¤= =<= ¤r·rvr + f¬v ¢t f+¬r ¢; «¬rf+ ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 33 =
-rt f¬=rr ¢ <·¬ J=r= ar=r f+¬r) ¬¬ J=rrf=+ +=·ar=) = ¬r= ¬¬ Jn-¤¬r=
+r=rr= ¤= =r= =r¤ =r=r=r) ~·a ¢;
v+ +r= f¤¤r·r f¤¤r=vrt¬ f¤·r¬ ¢ f+ f¤·vr ¤=rvr = f¤n= ¤ <¤ ¤¸== +r
+r<¤r v+ >f·r +r ¢ n«rr ¤<r ¤ ¬tnr =t = f¤n=r ¤ <¤nr+r +t ¤¸=r +r f=·r=r
¢ =r +r<¤r «m J+r¬ ÷¤t «m) -r¬¤r= +r ¢; ¬f< ¤=rvrr + +==r= =r=r=r
+=n ¢ nr ¤-r + +r<¤r +t +¤¢¬=r ¢rnt ¢; f== +r=vr = =r=r+ <v= +r
-rr¬t ¢rnr ¢;
6
v+ +«rr ¢ : v+ ==¬ v+ ·¬f«n +t <r=nt v+ ¤f¬= «rr=<r= = ¢r ¬s;
== ·¬f«n = +¤= <r=n «rr=<r= = +¢r f+ ==r ¤=r=t =n «¢n ¤=¤rr= +=nr
¢; «rr=<r= JS.H.O.) = +¢r f+ =r= ¬aa = +r¤ f=¤a ¬¸¬r; «rr=<r= <r=n +t
+r¬r +r ¤r¬= +=+ == ·¬f«n = +¤= ¤=r=t +r ¬aa =r=r, f== = ¤ra ¬¬=
+ +r=vr ¤=r=t +t =` ` ` `` -¬ ¢r ¬s; ==t =r>r +r +f=r+r=t ¢r= + +r=vr ¤¢ «rr=r
¤-rr=t +¤= <r=n +r ¤+= += ¬r¬r, +< = =r¬ f<¬r n«rr == ·¬f«n +r =` ` ` ``-¬
<v= f=¬r; ==+r <r=n «rr=<r= +e =<< =¢t += =+r; «¬rf+ =r=r +r
=f¤=rr= ¢ f+ ¬f< +rs f+=t +t ¢-¬r +=¬r nr == =` ` ` `` -¬ <v= ¤r·n ¢r¬r; ==
=r<r= ·¬f«n = +¤= <r=n <=r¬r +t +r¬r =r= += =r=r +r =f¤=rr= -r¬ +=
f<¬r; f=== =t¤= = ¢r«r =rr «ar; at+ s=t ¤+r= ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t ¤ ¤f¤>r ¤<
¬¢ ¤-r +r =f¤=rr= ¢; f=== +¤¬ v+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t ¤¸=r +r ¢t f¤=rr= ¢,
+-¬ <¤nr+r f¤+r=r -r¸nr +t ¤¸=r +==r ==r ¢; ¤=rvrr = >f·r¬r J«rr=<r=r)
+r +r<¤r ¢; f==+t +r¬r ¤r¬= +== = ¤-r +r =f¤=rr= -r¬ ¢r= + +r=vr +·a
¤= +·a =ar=r ¤=¬r; s=f¬v +r= =¤r==r ¤¸vr =r=r = «r=r+ ¢;
¤-¤ =«r;ººr : == ¤¸=¬ ¬=<¤ =¤r=t =r=<¤r=-< =t ¬¬-r¬ =r¬¢ ¤·r
+t +r¬ = ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t ¤rf·n + f¬v +¤r=+ tr= -¬r¬ += f=+¬ ¬v;
¤fnf<= ¤¢== ¤r¬ ¤=>rr +r +¤= ¢t =rnr + f=+a tr= =¬¬ = f+=t =` ` ` ``n ¤¤r
+t +f=«r¬r + ¤r= =r¬ ¬v; ¤rr= +r tr= = ¤¢¤= + +r=vr tr= ¤r¬r = =¬¬ =
=rr= +t; =r>rt +r ==¬ «rr; +¤= ¤¢¤r= += <:=rt == = ¤¤r +t +f=«r¬r +r
«-¤ +t +f=«r¬r =r= += =ar ¬rv n«rr ¬¢ =r¤r f+ «-¤r =¬¬ = ¤¬r ¬¬r,
f+=t f¢=+ =r=¤= = =rr f¬¬r; +f-n= ==+r= += f<¬r; =¤ fa¬rv +t,
n=¢¤t «==t +rf< +t n«rr ~r{ -rt f=+r¬n =¢; ¬¬-r¬ 104 ¤·r +t +r¬ ¤r·n
¢r= + =¤=r-n =¤r=t =t +¤r=+ +¤= ¬r¤ «=r ¤nr¤r=,n.¤==rt<r<=t,f=¬r
f-r¤r=t, ¢f=¬rvrr = ¤¢¤ ¬v; =¤r=t =t +r «¤¤= +r =r= ~t ¢f=ar=t =t «rr
n«rr ¤f¤>r «rmvr +¬ = =-= «rr;
=n <r= +r ¤nr ¤¬r nr = -rt <¤r=r«r ¤¢¤ ¬¬r; =¤r=t =t +t -rr-rt =t
=r ¬¬-r¬ 92 ¤·r +t +r¬ +t «rt; == == ¤` ` ` `` {r = ¤¸er f+ ¢=r= ¬= =t + tr=
-¬r¬ =r= + =¤=r-n «¬r =¢=¸= f+¬r³ == ¤` ` ` ``{r = «nr¬r f+ ==r f¤¤r¢ ¢+r
n« =n «nr¬r ¬¬r f+ s=+r v+ -rrs ¢f=ar=t «rr =r f+=t f¢=+ =r=¤= =
=¬¬ = =rr f¬¬r «rr; ==+ ~r{ f=+r¬ =r =¢ ¢; =n -rt s=+ ~r{ f=+r¬=
+r +¢r ¬¬r; ¤` ` ` ``{r = «nr¬r f+ 70 ~r{ nr = +¤= ¢r«rr f=+r¬ ¤+t ¢¸; =«
+-rt ¤=¬ +-et =¢t ¢rnt ¬r +rs tr= +r =<=¬ «t=r= ¢r =rnr nr +¤=
¤=rf¢n J¬= =t) = +r=vr ¤¸en nr ¤¢ +¢r +=nr f+ ¢=ar=t f¤+r= «=r ¢, ¤¢
n-¢ <:=rt += =¢r ¢; ~r{r + f=+r¬= = +rs +¤rf{ =¢t ¢; +«+ = =¤¬ =¤
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
7
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
fa¬r +¤= ¢r«rr = +÷¬r; ¤¢¬ =n ==¬ =¢t f=¬r «rr, «¬rf+ v+ ¢t f<= =
+s =¬¢ ~r{ fa¬rv +== =r=r ¤=r; s=f¬v «-¤ +r -r=r «rr; n« n+ +e
-ra ¤ar+r nrf+ == ¤rr-n f+¬r =rv; n« == 21 ¬r 51 =r -rt +¢nr «rr ==n
-ra +=n «r, f¤= ~r{r + ==¬ ¬= =t =¤¬ ~r{ +=n «r; n« == +¢r =rnr
=t +« nr er= <r s= ¬tnr =t f¤={ =r=r=r +r; =¢t nr +r¤ -rt ¤n «=r¬t;
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 9 ¤¬r+ 25 ==r¬r; n« ¤¢ ¤` ` ` ``{r +¢= ¬¬t ¬tnr = -rt ¤ant ¢¸;
<r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) = +¢r +r¤= ¬tnr =t +r ¤ar ¢, ==nr =¢t; +r¬ = nr
«-< += <r s= =r<r= =r=r=r +r; ¤` ` ` ``{r = =+r= f<¬r =r -rrs, += er= < ~r{
f=+r¬=r, ¬¢ nr =f<¬r ¤=r=t J¬r¬) ¤=-¤=r ¢;
¤¤=: = nr ¬r¬t ==t +r =r=nr ¢¸ =r +r== +=nr ¢ n«rr +=rnr
Jf==rrnr) ¢ n«rr f+=t +r== f¤¤r·r ¤= +r÷a ¢r+= n¤=¬r -rf«n +=nr ¢ ³
=+r=: ¬r¬t ¤¢ -rt +¢¬rnr ¢ ¤=-n ¤¢ ¬r¬t nr v+ =r>r ¤r+` ` ` ``fn+
f¤f+-=+ J¤n) ¢; ¬¢ +·ar¬ ¬r¬ ¤-r =r=r=r = s=f¬v =¢¬r¬t =r=r ¬¬r ¢
f+ s== ¤r=t= =¤=«r =¢nr ¢; =¤=«r ¤r=t= = -rf«n +-et ¢rnt ¢; ¤=-n
+r=¬rf-=+ =r¬ = == ¬r¬t +t -r¸f=+r =¢t =r=t =rnt «¬rf+ ¤==r-=r +t =-¬
=r=r= J¬r¬) = =r=r+ +r +=r=¬ =r¬ -rt at+ ¢r =rnr ¢; f=== =r=r+ +t
~{r +f=r+ «a =rnt ¢ ¤¢ +f=r+ ~{r = =r=r=r J¬r¬) +=+ ¤==r-=r ¤rf·n
+= =rnr ¢; v+ +·ar¬ ¬r¬t J+r== ¤ fa¬r +== ¤r¬r) <tra=r +t ¤¤a = +r
¬¬r <r=r ar¬ a¸a ¬s; === =at¬ Js=¤rn) +t =r= Je=t¬r) =r¬t ¬s; ¤¢
+r=t¤= +·ar¬ ¬r¬ =¢t += =+r; f+=t v+ =«rr= ¤= +r== ¤= «a+= -rt ¤¢
<tr=r¬=n ·¬f«n -rf«n -rt =¢t += =+nr; +r¤ + +==r= nr ¤¢ -rf«n = ¤f¤n
=¢ =rv¬r; ¤rr=>r+=+¸¬ =r=r+ J¬r¬t) +r v=t tra=r+r = ¤==r-=r «¤r¤ +=nr
¢;
~t =<-r¬¤n ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 3 ¤¬r+ 4 = 8 = +¢r ¢ f+ =r =¸=r ·¬f«n ¢a
¬r¬ += Jv+ =«rr= ¤= f+=t +r== ¤= +r÷a ¢r+=) -rf«n +=nr ¢; ¤¢
¤r=rv= +=nr ¢ «¬rf+ ¤¢ +¤¬ += sf-<¬r +r ¢a ¤¸¤+ =r+ += f=«rn ¢
¤=-n ¬r= sf-<¬r ar=r «rw¬ ¤=n+r + f¤-n= = ¬¬r ¢; ¬f< +== n¸ v+
=«rr= ¤= f+=t +r== ¤= +r÷a ¢r+= «ar =¢¬r nr n=r f=¤r¢ += ¢r¬r³
s=f¬v ==rf=+ += +=nr ¢+r, ¤==r-=r +r -rt ¬r< +=; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 8 ¤¬r+
7 n«rr 13 = nr ¬¢r n+ +¢r ¢ f+ ==r v+ ÷ J+r) +=r= ¢ ===vr +== +r
==+r +f-n= =¤r= n+ ===vr +== = == ¤r¬t ¬fn ¤r·n ¢rnt ¢ s=f¬v +==
n¸ ¬{ -rt += n«rr ==r ===vr -rt +=;
f¤¤r= += : ¬{ = +fa= +r¬ +e =¢t ¢rnr === -rt ¤-r +r ===vr
+== +r +¢r ¢; s== f={ ¢+r f+ ¤==r--rr +t -rf«n +r¬ +=n+=n +==t
8
¢; =r =¤ =<¬-«rr = ¤=rvr ¢; ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 40 =->r 15 = +¢r ¢ ! +r= J÷)
=->r +r ===vr +r= +=n+=n +=, f¤¤r·r +=+ + =r«r ===vr += =r=¤
=t¤= +r =¸¬ +-r·¬ ==n += ===vr += f=== =` ` ` ``-¬ + ¤¤¤rn n=r f¬¬ ¤r=t=
+== ¢r =rv¬r; =« n+ =«r¸¬ ¤r=t= ¢ +«rrn =tf¤n ¢ n« n+ =r==vr +== =
¬r-r ¤r·n ¢rnr ¢; s== f={ ¢+r f+ v+ =«rr= ¤= +r== ¬¬r+= =r=r=r +==r
¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢; ¤ra+r + == = ¬¢ -rt ¤¤= =a¬r f+ ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr =, ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 6 ¤¬r+ 10 = 15 = ¬¢ -rt +¢r ¢ f+ v+rn =«rr= = v+ +r== ¤=
«a+= =r+ + +¬¬ -rr¬ +r <=r v= =r=r=r +=; s= ¤¤= +r =+r= ¤f¤>r ¬tnr
=t = f=¬nr ¢; ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr J+r¬ ÷¤t «m) = ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34 =
+¢r ¢ f+ n-¤¬r= J¤¸vr =r=r =r¬ +t -rf«nf¤f=r + ¬r=) +r ==n= + f¬v
n-¤<¤rt =nr = f¤== -rr¤ = ¤¸er f¤= ==r =r¬<¤r= ¤ +=; == ¤+r= =r=r=r
+=; n-¤<¤rt =n +t ¤¢¤r= ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 1 ¤ 4 = «nrs ¢;
s= ¤+r= ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r = +¤= +r¤ +r <r·r =«n += ==rr ¢ n«rr
+¤= ¬tnr ¬r= = =«rr=2 ¤= +¢r ¢ f+ ¬¢ ==r =n Jf¤¤r=) ¢; ¤r=nf¤+ -rf«n
f¤f=r nr -r-¤<¤rt =-n ¢t «nrv¬r; s= J¬tnr +=¬r¬ 6 ¤¬r+ 10 = 15 ¤r¬)
¬r= +r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 3 ¤¬r+ 4 = 8 = n«rr +=¬r¬ 6 + 16 = ¢t =rv== f+¬r ¢;
¤¸vr ¤==r-=r ar=r f=¬= ¤r¬r ¤¸vr =r=r J= v+rn=) = nr v+ =«rr= ¤= f¤¤r·r
+r== ¤= «a= = f={ ¢rnr ¢; = +f=r+ =rr= ¤r¬ +r = f«=+¬ = =rr= ¤r¬
+r J¤n,=¤¤r= ==r= ¤r¬ +r) = +f=r+ =r¬= ¤r¬ J¢a¬r¬ +== ¤r¬) +r =
+f=r+ =r= ¤r¬ +r f={ ¢rnr ¢ +«rrn =¤=r«n fa¬r +== ¤r¬ +t -rf«n ·¬«r
¢; «¬rf+ ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 6 ¤¬r+ 10 = 15 = nr ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr = +¤=t -rf«n
=r=r=r f¤f=r «nrs ¢; f=== ¢r= ¤r¬t =f«n J¬fn) +r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 7 ¤¬r+ 18
= +~·a «nr¬r ¢; f== +r=vr = ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 5 = +¢r ¢ f+ +== n=
n«rr == «¢n =-= ¢r ¤+ ¢; +«rrn ¢= J= n«rr == =r=r+ n«rr n¸) ¤¸vr =r=r
¤r·n =¢t += =+n; s=f¬v ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr = ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 62,
+=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 4 = f+=t +-¬ ¤==r-=r +t =r=r=r +== +r +¢r ¢ n«rr ==
¤==r-=r +t -rf«nf¤f=r +rs n-¤<¤rt J¤¸vr) =-n «nrv¬r; Js=f¬v ¤ra+ ==
-rf=n = ¢r+= n-¤¬r= +r ==n)
~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr + f== f¤¤=vr + f¤·r¬ = +r¤= +¢r ¢ ==+r f=·+·r ¬¢
¢ f+ ´´~t ¤r=r== =t = +¤= f¤r·¬ ~t =>r¬ =t +r «nr¬r ¢ f+ =r ~r{ +=
Jf¤n= ¤¸=r) +rf< + f¤·r¬ = +r¤= =n = ¤¸er ¢ ¬¢t ¤¤= =r=r =¬= = -r` ` ` ``¬
¤¤rt >f·r +r¤ =t = ¤¸er «rr; =r +r¤ >f·r = =r=r =¬= = ~r{ += Jf¤n=
¤¸=r) + f¤·r¬ = «nr¬r «rr ¤¢ = +r¤ +r ==rnr ¢¸ =¬r= ¤¸¤+ ==! ¤ra+ ==
+` ` ` ``·r¬r ¤¸vr ¤rnr ~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr n` ` ` `` nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 13 = 16 ¤` ` ` `` ·a 203 = 215
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
9
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
n+ ¤a; ¬¢r ¤= ¤=n+ f¤=nr= +r =¬r= ==rn ¢v, =f=r·n ¤ =r+fn+ f¤¤=vr
f¤¤¤= + =r«r f¬=rr =rnr ¢; =¤¤«r= nr ~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr + ¤«nr =¢f·r ¤r=r¤r=
=t +r n-¤¬r= ÷¤t n¬r = nr¬n ¢; f=vr¬ +=n ¢ f+ ¤r=r¤r= =t f+n=
f¤ar= «r;
~t ¤r=r¤r= =¢f·r =t = ~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr fant¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 7 ¤¬r+ 5 =
¤` ` ` ``·a ==¬r 126127 ¤= ¬¢r +t =r=+r=t <t ¢; f=== ¤` ` ` `` «¤t + f=+an= =¸¬ +r
«nr¬r f==+t ¤` ` ` ``«¤t = <¸=t v+ ¬r=r ¬r== +«rrn n=¢ ¬r=r f+¬r =ta= «nrs
s=+ ¤¤¤rn «nr¬r ¢ f+ ¤-<=r =¸¬ ¬ -rt v+ ¬r=r ¬r== <¸= ¢; f==+t ¤` ` ` ``«¤t
= <¸=t 2 ¬r=r ¬r== J26 ¬r=r f+¬r =ta=) «nrs ¢;
f¤¤r= += ¤n=r= = J== 2006 n+ +t =rr= =) =¤·a ¢r ¤+r ¢ f+
¤-<=r ¤` ` ` ``«¤t + f=+an= ¢ f==+t ¤` ` ` ``«¤t = <¸=t =¸¬ +t n¬=r = +s ¬vrr +=
¢;
<¸==r ¤=rvr : ~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr ¤«r= +¤r +=¬r¬ 5 ¤` ` ` ``·a 17 ¤= f<==rn +=
«= ¢; s=+t =r=+r=t ¬ ¢; ~t ¤r=r== =t = +¢r f+ ¤=r¤fn «mr =t
=` ` ` ``·at=¤=r +t s-er = ¬«nf¤n ¢v nr n=r¬vr +t ¤` ` ` `` f{ ¢s; =« = ¤¢¬ +==
=-¤-= ¢v; «mr = == ¤r=t= +r -¬r¬ f<¬r ¤¢ er=r ¢+r ¤r=t= =rf>r ¢+r;
<¸==r ¤r=t= =rr=vr f+¬r == ¤r=t= = <¤ =-¤--r ¢v; ¤=r¤fn «mr = ¤¢ ¤r=t=
-rt -¬r¬ f<¬r; ¤¢ -¬r¬r ¢+r ¤r=t= f<= ¢+r; ¤ra+ == +` ` ` ``·¬r f¤¤r= += «¬r ¬
f¤¤r= v+ f¤ar= + ¢;
~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr + ¤«nr +r =r=r-¬ ¬r= -rt at+ =¢t ¢ nr ==+ ar=r
«nr¬r ¬¬r +=¬rf-=+ ¬r= += at+ ¢r =+nr ¢; ~t ¤r=r== =t = f¤= ¬¢r +t
+-¬ ·¬r=¬r +t ¢ : ~t f·r·vr ¤=rvr + ¤«nr ~t ¤r=r¤r= =t = ~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr
J¬tnr ¤= ¬r==r¤= = ¢t ¤+rf¤rn) + fant¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 8 + ¤¬r+ 1 = 7 =
¤` ` ` ``·a 129 ¤= =¬ J=r +f-= f¤v= +r+r¤r = n¤ =¢r ¢) + =«r + f¤·r¬ = +¢r ¢
^¬¸¤ ¬ º·i ¬i l(-niº ·i r¬iº ¤i¬· r| ;¬¬ ¬¸¬i ¬iº º·i ¬ «i¤ ¬i ·¸ºi 18 r¬iº ¤i¬·
r| ;¬¬i ·iºi ·« ¬ºi· ¬in ¬iªi ¤i¬· r| ¬·ii-i ¤¬ ¬ºi· 57 ¬iªi ¤i¬· ¬·«i r|
l¬¬- ·¬¬i ¤lr¤i ¬^i r ¬il·÷2 «rn ¬¬ l¬ªii r| +` ` ` ``·r¬r ¤ra+ == f¤¤r= +=
«¬r ¬¢ ¬r= f+=t f¤ar= ¤÷·r +r ¢r =+nr ¢; ~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr = s=t +f-=
f¤v= =¸¬ + f¤·r¬ = ¤` ` ` `` ·a 166 = 167 ¤= n` ` ` `` nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 2 + ¤¬r+ 1 = 13
= ~t ¤r=r¤r= >f·r = +¢r ¢ f+ ¬¸¤ ¬i l((ir l(º(¬-i ¬i «-i ¬ni ¬ r¬i ·¬¬ ·i
¤i -· ( ¤- n·ii ¤¬ ¬·¤i ¤-i ·-¤·· r;| ¬¸¤ ¬i ¤-·i ¬ni ¬¤· ¤ln ¬ n¬ ¬ ·ªii
ri¬º n¤-¤i ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ (· - ¤¬i ^;| (ri ·ii·i ¬i ª¤ «·i ¬º n¤-¤i ¬º· ¬^i ¬¤·
-·ii· ¤º ¬¤·i r-ºi·¬ ¬·¤ -ii ¤¬- ¬i ·¬¬i ·i- ¬i¤i ºªii n·ii ·¬¬ ¬ni · ¬ri n¸
-º ¤ln ¬i ¤-·i «·¬º ºr| ¤r ·i· l¬¬i ¬i -n «ni·i| -ºi ¤ln nn ¬ni ri ¬-n^i|
10
¬i¤i · ¬ri ¬i ¬i¤¬i ¬ini| ¬¸¤ · ¬i¤i ¬i ¬ni ¬i·¬º ·i ¬ni· ·-¤·· ¬i ¤¬ ¬·¬i
¤¬ ¬· ¬i|
¤¬ l·· ·i· ªi¬· ¤º ¬¸¤ ¬¤· º(ºiº l(º(¬-i ¬ ¤i¬ ^¤ n·ii l(º(¬-i ¬ ¬ri
¬i¤ -ºi n¬ ¬i- ·i ;¬ n¬ ¬ ·º ¬ ¬i¤¬i «-i ¬ni (· - ¤¬i ^; r| ¬i l(º(¬-i ¬i ·
¬¸¤ ¬i ·i-i¤·i (¬i·) ¤º ¤«i ¬º ·¬¬i n¬ ¬i-i (¬i- l·¤i) (r ¬¤ºi (ªiºi· ¬ ¬-i
r¬i ¬- ¤i¬) ·iºni ¤º l^ºi l¬¬¬ ¬i l(º(¬-i · ·i^(i· l(·ºi ¬i ¤> ·i^(i· lºi( ¬i
liºi¬ n·ii ¬«º ¬i l(-i· ¬il·÷2 «·i¤| nn ¤º¤in ¬¸¤ ·ii·i «· ¬º ¬ni ¬ ¤i¬ (· -
^¤i| ¬ni ¬ ·ii·i ª¤ - ri ¬·ii^ ¬º¬ ni· ¤i ·-¤·· l¬¤| ·i ·ii·i ¬ -ªi ¬ ·-¤·· r¤
··¬i ¬º(·i ¬-iº ¬ri ¬ini r| l¬·¬ ·i- r (1) ·i-i-¤ (2) ·¬ ¤ ·i·i ¬º(·i ¬-iº
·(ni¬i ¬ (n «· n·ii ni¬ºi ¤i ºn¬i( ·-¤·· r¬i ¬ri ¤º ¬¸¤ ¬i (i¤ ·¬ ¬-¤ l^ºi
·ii| ¬« (r ·ii·i ª¤ ·iiºi ¬ni ¬ -ªi ¬i ¬iº ri ·ii·i ª¤ - ¬·ii^ ¬º· ¬i ¬ilºiºi ¬º ºri
·ii| (ri l^º (i¤ ¬ ºn¬i( ¤i ¬-i· ¤º ri ·-¤·· ri ^¤i| (r ·ii·i ¤º «-i r¬i ri·i -
·i··i ¬il· l¬¤ r¤ ·-¤·· r¬i ·ii l¬¬ -·ii· ¤º ;¬ ¬i^ ¬ ^i¬ (¬l·· l¤º·) ¬¸¤ · ·ii·
¬i ª¤ ·iiººi ¬º¬ ·ii·i ª¤ ·iºi ¬ni ¬ ¬·ii^ l¬¤i ·ii| ¬ri ·i ¤i ¬lº(·i ¬-iº (·i-i-¤
n·ii ·¬) ·-¤·· l¬¤ ·i| ·¬ ni·i ¬i ·i- ¬º( ni·i, ·ii· ni·i ¬iº ¤¤(-i ¬i¬- ¬ ·i- ¬
l(ª¤in r¬i ¬¸¤ ¬i ·i·i ¬·¤i¤ ·i ··i¤i ¬ªºii, (ªºii ·i- ¬ ¬¤· l¤ni ¬ l-¬· ¬i; ·ii
·· ·i·i ¬i ¬ri ^^i ··i - ¬^- r¬i r (r «rn ·-i- ni·i ·· ni·ii - -·i· ¬º· ¬ (
·i· ¬º· ¬ ¬-i¤ ·i· ·· (i¬i r| ·¬ ni·i ¬i ¬-ººi, ¬in·, ¬(ºi (¬··) ¬º· ¬ ¬(
¤i¤i ¬i ·iºi ri¬º -··¤ ¬ªii ri ¬ini r| (=¤ºr«n |¤¤ººr =r+º=¤ ¤ºrºr n|nr ¤=
nrº=r¤º = ¤+r|ºrn ¤` ` ` ``·a 172 = 175 ¤=¤r¤ ¤¤ª¤n =-¤-nº +| +·rr n·rr =r¤|ºr+
=-¤-nº +r =|=r-n ¤|º¤¤ = n·rr ¤æ ¤ºrºr ¤=¤r¤ ''¬¬ ª·rr¬, ¤º¤ n|·r, -rr¬ n|·r
¤rº ¤=ºrr ¤=ºrr =n= +| =|;=r = n·rr |¤·ºr ¤ºrºr + n` ` ` ``n|¤ ¤ºr + ¤=¤r¤ 2 º¬r+ 1
= 13 ¤` ` ` ``·a 166-167 = |¬¤r n¤r ;) ;¬i l(·ºi ¤ºiºi l,ni¤ ¬ºi ¬ ¬·¤i¤ 8 º¬i¬ 41 ¬
52 n¬ n·ii ¤`·- 132 ¤º ¬ri r l¬ ¬¸¤ ¬·ii l·· - n¬ ^ln ¬ ¤¬ni r ¬·ii ºiii - -·
^ln ¬ ¤¬ni r ;¬ ¤¬iº ¬¤·i ¤¬ l·· ºin ¬i ¤> -º·¬i¬iº - ·i¸- ¬º ¤¸ºi ¬ºni r|
(¤ºrºr ¤«nr +r -rr¤ ; |+ =¸¤ + ¤` ` ` ``·¤| + ¤rºr ¤rº ¤> ¬nr¬ = |«¬ ºrn ¤¬n ; ¬¤ |+
¤n=r¬ = (=¬ 2006 n+ +| =rr¬ =)ª-r·c ;r ¤+r ; |+ ¤` ` ` ``·¤| ª¤¤ ·r¸=n| ; |¬= +rººr
= |«¬ºrn ¤¬n ; n·rr ¤` ` ` ``·¤| ¢+ ¤·r = (364 ( |«¬ =) =¸¤ + ¤rºr ¤rº -r| ·r¸=n| ; |¬=
+rººr = |«¬ºrn erc ¤= ¤¬n ;|)
¤ºiºi ¬ (·ni · ¤r ·ii l¬ªii r l¬ ºii- ¬ ¬-¤ (¬·¤i ¬-¤) -··ri ·i-¬ ·i¤¬º
ºi-i¬ ^ºi ¬¸¤ ¬i ªii·i ¤irn r| ¬·¤i ¬i¬ - ··¬i ¬¸¤ ¬ ·i¤¬º ¤, rini r|
f=·+·r : =¤=r«n ¤=rvr + ¬=r = ¤=rvr + ¤«nr ~t ¤r=r¤r= >f·r +
+r=¬rf-=+ ¤ =r=r-¬ ¬r= +r ¤nr ¤¬nr ¢ f+ ¤¢ f¤ar= =¢t «rr; f¤= ==
=¢r¤÷·r ar=r «nr¬r ~r{ += f== +r¤ +=n ¢; ¤¢ += ~·a =r=r =rv;
=«f+ ¤f¤>r ¤<r ¤ ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +rf< ¤-r<+r =<¬-«rr = ~r{ += ¤ <¤nr+r
+t ¤¸=r +r =¸=rr +t =r=r=r f¬=rr ¢; ¤¸¤r«n ¬=r = ÷¤t >f·r + ¤+=vr =
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
11
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
+r¤= ¤ar f=== ¤<r + ¬rnr ÷-rt >f·r =t +¤= f¤n=r +r ¤<r + ¤=rvr < +=
+¢ =¢r ¢ f+ ~r{ +=, <¤nr+r +t ¤¸=r, -r¸n J¤n) ¤¸=r +r ¤<r = =¸=rr +t
=r=r=r +¢r ¢; f¤= +r¤ =n f+=f¬v ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r +== +t ¤=vrr < =¢
¢r; ~t ÷¤t >f·r =t ¤ ¤r=r f¤n= -rt, s=t «rn +r ==«r= += =¢ ¢ f+ ¬¢ nr
=-¬ ¢ f+ ¤<r = ~r{ +=, <¤nr+r +t ¤¸=r, ¤n J-r¸n) ¤¸=r +r f=·r=r ¢; =¸=rr
+t ¤¸=r +¢r ¢; s== nf=+ -rt =<¢ =¢t ¢; s=+ ¤¤¤rn f¤n=r = +¤=
-rr¬-rr¬ ¤¤r= ÷¤t >f·r +r ¤rr=>rf¤f=r +==r= =r=r=r -¬r¬= n«rr ¤rr=>rf¤f=r
f¤÷{ ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +== + f¬v f¤¤¤r += f<¬r f== +r=vr = ~t
÷f¤ >f·r -rt ¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬+= ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +=+ =r=¤ =t¤= +r
·¬«r +=+ f¤n= =¸=t J¬rf=) +r ¤r·n ¢+r; ~t =<-r¬¤n ¬tnr =t J=r ¤r=r ¤<r
+r =r=r¤r ¢;) + +=¬r¬ 16 ¤¬r+ 23-24 = +¢r ¢ f+ =r =r=r+ ¤rr=>r f¤f=r
-¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +=nr ¢; == +r = nr f=f{ ¤r·n ¢rnt ¢, =
==+t ¤==¬fn J=r=r) ¢rnt ¢ = +rs ==r ¢t ¤r·n ¢rnr ¢ +«rrn ==
¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r +== ¤r¬ ¬r¬t J-r«n) +r =t¤= =·a ¢r =rnr ¢; ¬¢ ¤=rvr
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16 ¤¬r+ 23 = ¢; ¤¬r+ 24 = f¬=rr ¢ f+ =r =r=r=r ¬¢vr +==t
¤rf¢v n«rr =r -¬r¬=t ¤rf¢v ==+ f¬v nn ¤rr=>r J¤r=r ¤<) ¢t ¤=rvr ¢; +-¬
f+=t + ¬r+ ¤< J<-n +«rr) +r +¤¬-«= =¢t +==r ¤rf¢v;
~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr + n` ` ` `` nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 14 + ¤¬r+ 10 = 14 = ~r{ +
f¤·r¬ = ~t =-r-+=r= = +¢r ¢ f+ n` ` ` ``nt¬r, +rfn+, ¤r«¬r =r=t, -rr<¤< +` ` ` ``·vrr
>r¬r<¤rt n«rr =rtr=r= +t +=r¤=¬r s= ¤r=r fn«rt¬r +=-n ¤v¬<r¬tf= ¢;
¤-<=r ¬r =¸¬ ¬¢vr + ==¬ nt= +·a+r+r +«r¤r =+r=r¬vr ¬r <f=rvrr¬= +
+r=--r = =r ¤÷·r v+r¬¢ f¤n = f¤n= ¬vrr +r fn¬ =f¢n =¬ -rt <r= +=nr ¢
¤¢ =r=r v+ ¢=r= ¤·r n+ + f¬v ~r{ += ¬nr ¢; ¬¢ ¤== =¢=¬ =¤¬ f¤n=
¬vr ¢t «nrn ¢;´´ J¬=r ==r·n)
f¤¤r= += =¤=r«n ~r{ f¤f=r f¤n=r + ar=r «nrs ¬s ¢ = +t ¤<r«n ¬r
~t =<-r¬¤n ¬tnr + +r=rr= = ¢; s=f¬v +` ` ` `` ·¬r ¤a ¤¸¤r«n f¤¤=vr ´´«rr=<r=
¤r¬r´´ s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=) + ¤` ` ` `` ·a 6 ¤=;
~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr + n` ` ` ``nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 16 + ¤¬r+ 11 = ¤` ` ` `` ·a 214 ¤=
f¬=rr ¢ ´´=rt==+¤r¤r=r ¬<r·a=rf¤+=¤ ¤; =r¬ ¤ =rf¢·r ¤¤ ¤=¬-er+=rfvr´´;;
s= ¤¬r+ +r f¢-<t +=¤r<=v+ =r=¤r¬r +r, =a=t +r, -r= +r =` ` ` `` ¬t +r n«rr
-r= +r <¸=r ~r{+= = ¤¬r¬ = += J+r= = = ¬rv)
==t=rr : ¤n=r= J== 2006 n+) =¤ ·¬f«n ~r{r = -r= + <¸=r +r ¢t
¤¬r¬ += =¢ ¢; =r ¤=rvr = ¤f=n ¢; f== +r=vr = ==+ ar=r f+¬r ~r{ +=
-rt ·¬«r ¢+r; ~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr + n` ` ` `` nt¬ +¤r + +=¬r¬ 16 + ¤¬r+ 1 = 3 = ¤` ` ` `` ·a
12
213 ¤= J=r= ar=r ~r{ +== = f¤n= ¬vr =<r n` ` ` ``·n =¢n ¢;) f¬=rr ¢
rl(·¤---¤ -i¬-n ºiºi-¤ ·¬¬-¤ ¤ | ¬i¬º¬i^ ¬ºi¤ºiº(^(¤· ¤|| (1) ¬iº
·i^·¤·¤ n·ii -i¬(`,¤i l¤ni -ri (2) ªi·^-i¬-ni(ii ¬i¬ºii¬ n·ii -·i| ºi-nil·
¬-º¤-¤·nn`l·n·il· ·ºº(º || (3) lr··i ¬·(i· ÷ rl(, --¬¤ (-·¬¬i) ºiºi¬ (ªiº^iºi)
·¬¬, ºi¬º (¬¬º), ¬i^, ¬-n¸lº¤i -`^, ¬i¬i -`^, ^(¤ (·i¬ ^i¤,(· ^i¤) ¬iº -·i (·i·)
¬ -i¬i ¬ ^·¤ (^i ¬ ·ii, ·¸·i) ¬ l¤nº^ºi ¤¬÷¤¬ -i¬ ¬l·i¬ n` ·n ºrn r ¬iº (i·iiºi¬ ¤-ii
¬ -i¬ ¬ ¬·i n`·n ºrn r| (1-2) ¬i, ¬- - ^· ¬i -i¬ ¬i¬i ºii¬ ¬iº -·i ¬-¤n ¤ºi-n
¬iº ¬-¤n n`·ni ·i¤¬ r|| (3) ¬i l(·ºi ¤ºiºi ¬·¤i¤ 2 ¤n·i ¬ºi ¤`·- 233 ¤º ·ii ¬i, ¬-
- -i¬ ¤¤i^ ¤-iºi -¤·- r|
==t=rr : =¤=r«n ¤=rvr + ¬r= +r<¤rr==r= ~r{ += +== = ¤v¬ +
=«rr= ¤= ¤r¤ ¢t ¤r·n ¢r¬r;
«¬r ¬¢ =¤=r«n =r= ar=r ~r{ +== +r +r<¤r +«rr-r ¤r¤=rr= -¬r¬
=¬n ¢ +«rrn =¢t; s=f¬v ¤=rvrr = ¤fvrn -rf«nf¤f=r n«rr ¤v¬ =r=r=r +=
¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢; =r ¬r-r + =«rr= ¤= ¢rf=+r=+ ¢;
f¤¤r·r : =¤=r«n ¤¬r+ 1-2 + +=¤r< +nr = +e +=¤r< +r tr=r +=
f¬=rr ¢; =¸¬ ==+` ` ` `` n -rr·rr = =·r·a ¬r¬ +r =r= ~r{ += = ¤¬r¬ +== +r +¢r
¬¬r ¢; f¢-<t +=¤r< +nr = ¬·¬ +«rrn ¬r + =r= + =«rr= ¤= +r·a = ´´¬r +
trt <¸=r =´´ f¬=rr ¢; f¤¤r= += «¬r f¢-< =r= =¤=r«n =r= +r¢r= +r ~r{ +=
= ¤¬r¬ += =+nr ¢; +-rt =¢t; s=f¬v v= ~r{ = +=+ ~{r¤¸¤+ =rrf=+
+=·ar= ¤¸vr =-n + «nrv =r¬ = +==r ¤rf¢v; ¤¢ ¢ =r= =>r +r =r¤, ¤r¤r
¬¬, nt=r ==¬ +t =¤r==r ¤rvrt ¤ra = =r ¬¢ <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) «nrnr ¢;
f=== f¤n=r, ¤nr +rf< +r -rt +=¬rvr ¢r+= =¤r=+ ¤¸vr =r=r ¤r·n +=¬r n«rr
==+ f¤n= J¤¸¤=) =r -r¸n ¬r f¤n= ¬rf=¬r = +·a =ar =¢ ¢, ==+t ¤¢ ¬rf=
e¸a+= n=-n =r=¤ ¤r=t= ¤r·n +=+ s= -rf«-r +r ¤r·n +=¬; f=== ==+r -rt
¤¸vr =r=r ¢r =rv¬r;
=r+v=¬ ¤=rvr J¬tnr ¤= ¬r==r¤= = ¤+rf¤rn) = +=¬r¬ ´´~r{+= +r
¤vr= ¤` ` ` ``·a 92 ¤= f¬=rr ¢ ¬i ¤l¤ni-r ¬ +¤º ¬ ni· ¤i«i¤i ¬i ·º¬ - l·(i¬ ¬ºni
r, ¬i ¤ºi÷¤-ii ¬i ¤il· - ¤· r, n·ii ¬i ·i¸n ¤n ¬il· ¬ ª¤ - l-·in r ·· ¬« ¬i l(l·i
¤¸(¬ ¬i, ¬º· (i¬i ¤¬-i· n`·n ¬ºni r| ¤`·(i ¤º ¬i ¬··i l«ªiºn r (¬i, ¬- ¬ºn
¬-¤) ·¬¬ l¤ºii¤ ¤il· - ¤· l¤nºi ¬i n`l·n rini r| -·i· ¬ (-i ¬ ¬i ¬¬ ¤`·(i ¤º
-¤¬ni r, ·¬¬ (`-i ¤il· - ¤· r¤ l¤nº n`·n rin r| ·ri· ¤º ¬¤· ºiºiº ¬ ¬i ¬¬ ¬
¬ºi ¤`·(i ¤º l^ºn r ··¬ ·· l¤nºi ¬i n`l·n rini r ¬i ·( ·ii( ¬i ¤i·n r¤ r| l¤º·i ¬
·-i· ¤º ¬i ¬·· ¬ ¬ºi ¤`·(i ¤º l^ºn r, ··¬ ¤ºi÷¤-ii ¬i ¤il· - ¤· r¤ l¤nºi ¬i n`l·n
rini r| ¬·¤i¤i¤il¬n ·i· ¬ ¬i ¬i, l¬¤i ¬ini r, ·¬¬ ¤iº·i¬ ¬il· ¤il·¤i - ¤· r¤
l¤nºi ¬i n` l·n rini r|
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
13
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
f¤¤r= += : =¤=r«n ¬rf=¬r = =r +¤= ¤¸¤= ¤= ¢; ==+r =¸¬ +r=vr ¢
f+ =-¢r= ¤rr=>rf¤f=r +==r= -rf«n =¢t +t; ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t ¤ ¤f¤>r ¤<r =
¤fvrn f¤f=r +==r= =r=r=r +=n nr =¤=r«n =¢r+·a <r¬+ ¬rf=¬r = =¢t
¤=n; =n <r= J¬=r+=r=¤r¬ <r=) +t =¤ =r=¤ ==r= = += «{ ¤r«r=r ¢
+« nr =r¬r, ¤te =r ¬¬nt ¢r ¤+t ¢, ==+t +r¤` ` ` ``f+r = ¢r; =r =r=r=r ¬¢ <r=
J=r=¤r¬ <r=) «nrnr ¢ === +r¤+ ¤¸¤= J=rn ¤tat n+ +) f+=t -rt ¬rf= =
Jf¤n=, -r¸n, f¤¤rr¤, ¤¤r¤=rt, ¤` ` ` `` =r +rf< =) ¤= ¢r == =¤ +t ¤n=r= ¬rf=
e¸a+= n=-n =r=¤ =-= f=¬¬r; f¤= ¤ ¤n=r= = =n <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) ar=r
-rf«n =r=r=r ¤r·n +=+ ¬f< =¬r<r = =¢ += +r=t¤= ¬¢ -rf«n +=n =¢¬ nr
¤¸vr =r=r ¤r·n +=¬; ¬¢t ¤=rvr +«t= ¤==¤¤= ar=r f<v n-¤¬r= +r =n
¬=t«<r= =t «nr =¢ ¢ :
¬l·· ¬^i l·¤i ¬· ¬·«i, ¤¸¬ l·¤i ·¬ -i;|¤ºiºi ·-i¬º ¤lº·n ¬i¤, ¤i¬ ^ª· ¤«i;||
·º ¬ni l¤º ¤ºi(i l¬¬ ^·ii «-i «·i;, ¬·¤· ·ii^ ¬ri -· «iº l¬n ¬º·i ¤º· ¬i;|
¤n lºi¬i ¤º ¬i¤ l(ºi¬ l¤nºi l¤º· ·iºi;, «rº ¬i, ªii· ¬i ¬i¤ ¬i^ ·i¤ ¬l¬ -iri|
¬ ¬n^ª ¬i ¬^n ¬ºn ¬¬¬ ¬- ¬- ¬i;| ¬-º ¤ºi ¤º ¬i¬· rin ¬ri ·i¸¤ ·i ¬i;|
=¤=r«n ¤rvrt ¤r¤¤ ¤< J=== +«rrn =¤== ¤<) +t ¢; f=== =¤·a f+¬r
¢ f+ f¤n=r +rf< + f¤v= <r= +=n ¢v +«rr-r ~r{ += +=n+=n -rt ¤¤r¤=rt
¤ -r¸n ¤n +t ¬rf=¬r = ¤rvrt ¤=n ¢ nr ¤¢ ~r{ += f+= +r= +r¬r³ f¤= +¢r
¢ f+ ¬f< =n¬÷ Jn-¤¬r= <rnr n-¤<¤rt =n) +r =¬ +=n +«rrn ==+ «nrv
+==r= -rf«n =r=r=r +=n nr =¤ += +a =rn; = ¤¤r «=n, = ¤=rt, = f¤n=
«=n, = ¤n; =t=r =n=rr= J¤rr¤¤n =«rr=) ¤= ¤¬ =rn =¢r =r= + ¤¤¤rn f¤=
¬ra += s= ==r= = f+=t -rt ¬rf= = =¢t +rn J¤=rvr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34
+=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 1 = 4 n«rr ¤¬r+ 16-17 = n«rr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 62 = ¤
+=¬r¬ 9 ¤¬r+ 25 =)
¤¤= : ¤=rvrr +t =¤=r f+= +r=vr ¢s; ¤<r +r er= += ~{r¬ ¤=rvrr ¤=
¢t f+= +r=vr = +r=«n ¢r ¬v;
=+r= : ¤f¤>r ~t =<-r¬¤n ¬tnr =t ¤r=r ¤<r +r =r=r¤r ¢; ¬tnr + +=¬r¬ 4
¤¬r+ 34 = n«rr ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 40 =->r 10 ¤ 13 = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¬tnr ¤ ¤< ¬r=
<rnr ¤-r +¢ =¢r ¢ f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r +rs =-¤-= ¢r= ¤r¬r +«rrn =-= ¬=
¤r¬r +¢nr ¢, nr +rs =-¤-= = ¢r= ¤r¬r +¢nr ¢ ¤=-n == ¤==r-=r +
n-¤¬r= +r n-¤<¤rt J=rt=rvrr=) =-n== ¢t «nrv¬; === f¤==nr = ¤¸er;
>f·r¬r = ¤<r +r ¤ar ==+ +==r= n«rr +r¬ ¤=vrr = ¢a¬r¬ = n¤ +rf<
=r=r=rv +t; f=== ¤==r-=r ¤rf·n =¢t ¢s; == =r=r=r = f={t¬r ¤r·n +=+
¤=-+r= +== ¬¬, +r¤rt¤r< <= ¬¬; =r=rr=vr ·¬f«n¬r +r +-¬n ¬r-r ¢r= ¬¬
14
f== +r=vr = =r=rr=vr ==nr == >f·r¬r +t ¤-¬+ «rn ¤= +a¸a f¤¤¤r= +==
¬¬t; >f·r¬r + ¤r=vrr¬n ·¬f«n >f·r¬r + ¤¤¤= ==n >f·r =t +¢n f+
¤==r-=r +t -rf«n +==t ¤rf¢v =¢t nr =r=¤ =-= ·¬«r ¢; +=¬rs +¢n «r f+
¢ ¬=¤=! +r¤ ==t +fa= =r=r=r ¢= =¢t += =+n; ¤ >f·r == +¤=
+=¬rs¬r +r +rs -rt =r=r=r +== +r +¢ <n «r; +=¬rs +¤= ¬÷<¤ >f·r
ar=r «nrs ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r +== ¬¬; f== =«¤¬ = =r=r=r +=n == ¤>r
¤rf·n, ¤>r f¤¤r¢, =r= ¤` ` ` ``f{, +·a f=¤r=vr +rf<; === = +e+ +r ¬¢ ¬r-r ==
>f·r¬r + +r¤rt¤r< = n«rr +¤= ¤¸¤ =-= + ¤v¬r = ¤r·n ¢r =rnr; ¤=-n
+=¬rs¬r +t ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r =r ==+ ¬÷ >f·r = «nrs «rt == = +rs
¬r-r =¢t ¢rnr «rr; ~{r¬ =r=n «r f+ ¢= =r -rf«n += =¢ ¢ s=t = ¢= ¬r-r ¢r
=¢r ¢; f== +r=vr = == >f·r¬r + +=¬rs ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r ¤= +r÷a ¢rn
¤¬ ¬¬; s=+ ¤te +r¬ -r¬¤r= J+r¬ ÷¤t «m, =r «mr, f¤·vr, f¤r¤ +r f¤nr
¢) +t ¤r¬ ¢; ¤¢ ¤r¢nr ¢ f+ =¤ ¤rvrt ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r +=+ == J+r¬ +)
=r¬ = ¤= =¢; ¬f< +rs ¬r=t ·¬f«n ¤==r-=r +r ¤<r + +¤= +r=rr= = ==n
+= f+ +¤¬ v+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t -rf«n +== = =r=r ¢rnr ¢; ¤¢ ¤<r + +==r=
=r=r=r +=+ -rt +r¬ =r¬ = =¢t f=+¬ =+nr; «¬rf+ ¤<r = -rf«n f¤f=r +¤¬
«m n+ +t ¢; ¤¸vr =r=r nr ¤== +=r= «m +t =¤r==r = ¢t =--r¤ ¢; ==+r
n-¤<¤rt =-n «nrnr ¢; ¤¢ n-¤ <` ` ` ``·ar =-n == >f·r¬r +r =¢t f=¬r; ==
>f·r¬r + +=¬rs +¤= ¬÷<¤ =t + «nrv +==r= f+=t -rt =->r +r =r¤ +=n,
¬r f+=t <f=¬r J=<t) = ==r= +== ¬r +rs ¤-«r= +r ¬r f=aat +r ¬t¬ «=r+=
==+t ¤¸=r +=n ==+r == >f·r +t -rf«n +=rs = +r¤rt¤r< ar=r n«rr +¤=t
¤¸¤ =-= +t -rf«n = ¤rf-en ¬r-r f=¬ =rnr; «¬rf+ =-¬¬¬ = «¢n ¢t
¤v¬+=t =r=¤ =-= ¬n ¢; ==+ ¤¸¤ =-= + ¤r-r+= +-¬f=r+ ¢rn ¢;
+f=r+n= ==+t ==r+r==r ¤¸nt ¤¸¤ =-= + ¤v¬r = ¢t ¢rnt ¢; ¤ ~{r¬ ==
¤rr=>r f¤÷{ =r=r=r +r =-¬ =r=+= +=n «r nr ¤ ==nn «r f+ =r =r=r=r J=r=
=r¤, =¸fn ¤¸=r ¬r =<t ==r=) +t ¢ ==t = ==t ==r+r==r ¤¸vr ¢s ¢; ¤r=n¤ =
¤¢ ¬r-r == =r=r+r +r ¤¸¤ =-= + ¤r-r +=r = ¤r·n ¢rnr «rr; +e == >f·r
¬= + +r¤rt¤r< = ¤r·n ¢rnr «rr; == >f·r ¬= +t -rf«n += ¢r =rnt «rt; =r=
+rs =r=t ·¬f«n +¤= ¤¤r=+r +r +¤= ¤r= = =r= < <nr ¢ nr ==+r =r= =r¬
¢r =rnr ¢; ==t = ==+ =rf«r¬r +r +rf«r+ ¬r-r ¢r =rnr ¢ ¬f< ¤¢ =r=t
·¬f«-r +¤=r +r=r«r= = +=+ +¤¬ =r= «ranr =¢nr ¢ nr ¤¢ f==r= ¢r =rnr ¢;
s=t ¤+r= >f·r== +e f<= =¬¬ = =r+= f=f{¬r ¤rf·n +t =r=r=r +=+
+rn; ¤¤¤rn ==t +r +¤= +=¬rs¬r = «ra <n; +-n = -rf«n¢t= ¢r+= f¤n=
¬rf= +r ¤r·n ¢r =rn «r; >f·r¬r + >f·r f¤r·¬ +¤= ¬÷ =t >f·r = +¢n ¢ ¢
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
15
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¬÷¤= ! +r¤= =r =->r =r¤ J+r= ¬÷, +r= ==r: -r¬¤n ¤r=<¤r¬:, +r= v ==:
+rf<) +=¸+ ·¬f«n +r =r¤ +== +r f<¬r n«rr =<t = ==r= +== +t f¤f=r «nrs
«rt n«rr =¸fn ¤¸==, ¬t¬ ¤¸==r +r f¤=rr= «nr¬r «rr f=== == ·¬f«n +r ==
¤rfen ¤¬ ¤r·n ¢+r; ¬¢ =¤ =->r ¤ f¤f=r ¤<r = +¢t =¢t f¬=rt ¢; s=+r
+==r nr ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r ¢; =r ¢r=t+r=+ «nrs ¢; +r¤ ¬¢ ¤rr=>rf¤÷{
=r=r=r f+= f¬v «nrn ¢r³ s= ¤rr=>rf¤f=r f¤÷{ =r=r=r = ¬r-r -rt ==+r ¢r
=¢r ¢; =«f+ ¤<r ¤ ¬tnr = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤rr=>rf¤f=r +r -¬r¬ += =r =r=r+
===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +=nr ¢ ==+r +rs ¬r-r =¢t ¢rnr; = nr === f={t
+t ¤rf·n ¢rnt ¢; = +rs ==r ¢rnr ¢, = ==+t ¤== ¬fn ¢rnt ¢ J¬tnr +=¬r¬
16 ¤¬r+ 23 = -rt ¤=rvr ¢); +r¤+ ar=r «nrs f¤f=r = ¬r-r f=¬nr ¢ nr «¬r
¤<r ¤ ¬tnr = f¬=rr f¤¤=vr at+ =¢t ¢; >f·r =t =+r= <n «r : ¬=¤< +=¬r¬
40 =->r 10 ¤ 13 = Jn«rr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34 =) f¬=rr ¢ f+ f== n-¤¬r=
+r ¤< -rt =¢t =r=n ==+r n-¤<¤rt =-n == J>f·r==) =r=n ¢; ¤¢
n-¤¬r= ¢=r= ¤r= ¢; ==t + +r=rr= = ¢= ¬¢ =r=r=r «nrn ¢; s= +r=vr ¤
>f·r¬r + f¤r·¬ >f·r== -rt +¤= ¬÷<¤ + +¬r= +r n-¤¬r= =r=+=
¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬+= ====rt =r¤ +== ¬¬; =« f+=t +r ¬r-r =¢t ¢rnr nr ¤
+¬r=t >f·r ¬÷== +¤= >f·r f¤r·¬r +r +fa= ¢a ¬r¬ +== +r +¢= ¬¬;
f+=t +r =¬ = =r=r ¢r+=, f+=t +r f¤r·rr== ¤= J=¤= ¤= +=+ f== ==t=
¤= ==r +=), f+=t +r ¤<=r== ¤= ·ra+= =r=r=r +== +r +¢= ¬¬; f==
+r=vr = == f¤r·¬ >f·r¬r = +e +¤= ¤¸¤ =-= + ¤r-r +=r = n«rr f=f{¬r
¤n=r= + ¢a¬r¬ n¤ = n«rr +e ¬÷=t +t +=rs = +r¤rt¤r< ar=rJ¬f< ==
>f·r +t ¤r·r ¢r nr) f=f{¬r ¤r·n ¢r =rnt; ==+ ¤¤¤rn ¤r f¤r·¬ =¤¬ ¬÷
«=+= +¤= +=¬rs¬r +r +-¬ ====rt =r=r=r «nr= ¬¬; f==+r=vr = =¤
-r«n ==r= ¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +== ¬¬r ¢;
¤=rvr : J1) ~t <¤t ¤=rvr ear =+-=r +=¬r¬ 10 ¤` ` ` ``·a 414 ¤= =¢f·r ·¬r= =t
=r=r ====¬ +r ¬r= ==r =¢ ¢ ¬ri r ºi¬· ! ¤r l·º¤¤ r l¬ ¬n¤^ - «isºi (·
¬ ¤¸ºi l(,i· ·i|| ( ·i^(ni ¬^··«i ¬i l·º·nº ¬iºi·i·i ¬ºn ·i| ·i^(ni ¬ ·ºi· ¬º· ¬
l¬¤ ( ¬·i ¬¬il¤n ºrn ·i| ^i¤ii ¬ ·¤i·, ¤iºii¤i- ¬iº ¬¤ - ( ¬¤·i ¬iºi ¬-¤ ·¤nin
¬ºn ·i| -i¤i «i¬ ¬i ¬i¤ ¬º·i ··¬i ¤·ii· ¬i¤ ·ii| ¤-¤¬ ^i( - ºil·n (·^i) ¬i -l··º
-·iil¤n ri ¤r ·· ¬-i¤^ ¬ «isºii ¬i ril·¬ ;·¬i ºrni ·ii| n-(ni· ¬ ¤iº^i-i ··
«isºii ,iºi ¬i ·ii ¬- rini ·ii| ·¬ - ¬-¤, ·¤i ¬iº ºii¤ ¤ ni· ^ºi l·lrn ºrn ·i|(¬ªi
¬-i·n)
=r= f¤¤r= : =¤=r«n ==¬=r ~t <¤t ¤=rvr = ¢; s== +¢r ¢ f+ =n¬¬ +
«rmvr ¤< + ¤¸vr f¤ar= ¢rn «r +«rrn n-¤<¤rt ¢rn «r; ¤¸=r <¤t +t +=n «r;
16
¬r¤¬r¤ <¬r + =f-<= «=¤r=r ¤r¢n «r;
¬·¤ ¤-iºi ÷ (2) ¬i ·(i ¤ºiºi ¤·i- -¬··i ¬·¤i¤ 4 ¤`·- 28-29 ¤º ¬i «si ¬i ¬ ¤¸¬·
¤º ¬i ¬i l(·ºi ¬i · ¬ri - ¬i ·i^(ni ºil·n ¬ ¬·i ¬i·ii· ºrni r¸ ·¬i ¬ ¬i·ii· ri¬º -
ºi·i ºi·¤i ¤º ¬ini r¸ ·-¤l-i ¬-¤ ¬i^ni r¸| - l·º·nº ·¬i ·i^(ni ºil·n (·^i) ¬i ·¤i·
¬ºni r¸ -º l(¤iº - ;¬ ºil·n ¬ ««¬º ¬i; ·(ni ·ri r| - ¬l·i¬nº ¬-¤ n¤ ¬º· n·ii
ºi-i¬i ¬i ¬riº ¬º· - ri ·¤nin ¬ºni r¸|
f¤¤r·r f¤¤r= : f¤¤r= +== ¬r-¬ «rn ¢ f+ ¤<r = +¢t ¤= -rt <¬r J¤+` ` ` `` fn)
+t ¤¸=r +== +r ¤r¤=rr= =¢t ¢; +¤¬ «m +«rrn =r= ¤÷·r +t =r=r=r ÷ =r=
+ =r¤ ar=r +== +r ==¬=r ¢; ¤¸vr «m +«rrn ¤== +=r= ¤÷·r +t ¤¸=r = ¤¸vr
=r=r ¢rnr ¢; ==+r +r=nn=n =->r =r¤ ¢ f== = nn n«rr =n =->r
=r+fn+ ¢; f==+ f¤·r¬ = n-¤<¤rt =-n «nrv¬r; ¬¢ ==¬=r ¤<r n«rr ~t
=<-r¬¤n ¬tnr = ¢; «m =r=r=r +r ÷ J+r) =->r ¢; ¤=-n ¬¢ -rt ¤¸vr =r=r
<r¬+ =¢t ¢; s= ¤+r= ¤< ¬r= ¢t=r +r n-¤<¤rt +¢r =rnr «rr; n«rr ==+
ar=r «nr¬r -rf«n =r¬ =¤ ~{r¬+r = ¬¢vr += f¬¬r; =r ·¬«r ¢; =«f+ ~t
<¤t =t J<¬r =t) = J~t <¤t ¤=rvr + =rn¤ =+-=r + +=¬r¬ 36 ¤` ` ` ``·a 562 = 563
n+ =) +¢r ¢ f+ ·¬ «s ¬i ·¤i -(ª¤ r `÷ ¤r «n¬i¤i ¬ini r| ¬i ¤¬iºi
-(ª¤, ¬«¬ ¬-¤·n ¬-i¤ - l-·in -ri· ¤· ¬·iin ¤º- ¤i·¤ r| (r ¬--n ¤¸¬i ¬
ni· ¬ ¤º r÷ ¬·iin l¬¬i l¬ «l, - ¬i· (i¬i ·ri r| ¤r n- ¬i·i| ¬i ¤¬iºi
-(ª¤ r, ¬i ¬-- ¬ ·ii ¬-¤·n ¬-- r| l¬¬- ¬·¤¸ºi ¬i¬ ¬iº ·· ¬i¬i - l·(i¬
¬º· (i¬ ¤iºii l-·in r| ¤r (r ¬-iº «s r| (r ¤º- ¬-¤ ¬iº ¬-`n÷¬l(·iºii
n-( r| n- ·¬ (·i· ¤i·¤ ¬-¤ ¬i n- (·i· ¬ºi÷-· ¬^i¬º ·¬- n·-¤ ri ¬i¬i|
·¬ ¤¬ ¤º-i--i ¬i ri ¬i·i ·¸¬ºi «in ¬i· ·i| (r ¤º-i--i ¬( ¤ilºi¤i ¬ ;·¤ -
¬·n¤i-i ª¤ ¬ (n-i· ºrni r| ;¬ l(º(i--i ¬·iin «s ¬i ÷ ·i- ¬ ¬i¤ ¬ ¬i·i
·¤i· ¬ºi| ;¬ ¬ ¬ni·-¤ ¬··i¬iº ¬ ¬(·ii ¤º ¬iº ¬¬iº ¬-·· ¬ ·¬ ¤iº ¬i
«s r| ·¬¬i ¤i ¬i¬i^| (r ¬«¬i ¬i-·ii «s÷«s¬i¬ ª¤ l··¤ ¬i¬iºi - l-·in
r| ·¬ ·iiº ¤ª·i ¬·iin n-(·ºii ¬·n (·iiº÷«l,-i· ¤ª·i) ¬¤· l(ni· (n-(ni·) ¬
,iºi ·¬ ¬l(·iºii «s ¬i ·ªi ¬n r| ·¬ ¤ª·ii-i- ¬i ·ªi ¬· ¤º ;¬ ¬i( ¬i
¬l(ni ··- ri ¬ini r| (r l·-¬ ¬iº l··¬¬¬ «s ¤¬iºi-¤ ¤º l··¤ ¤º- ·ii- -
l(ºil¬n r| ¤r ¬·¤¸ºi l(º( ¬( ¬·- «s ri r| ¬i ¬·- ¤ª·i ;¬ ¤¬iº ¬··i(
¬ºn r ( ri ¬`ni·i r| ( «s ¬i ¤i·n ¤ª·i l·-¤ ¤¬··l¤n ºrn r| (¬ªi ¬-i·n)
=r= f¤¤r= : ¤¸¤r«-r ===r=r = ~t <¤t ¤=rvr + ea =+-=r + +=¬r¬ 10 ¤` ` ` `` ·a
414 ¤= ·¬r= =t = «nr¬r ¢ f+ =n¬¬ + «rmvr ¤< + =¢rf¤ar= +«rrn
n-¤<¤rt «r; ¤ <¤t +t +=r=r=r +=n «r; =¤=r«n ===r=r = s=t ~t <¤t ¤=rvr
= ~t <¤t =t +¢ =¢t ¢ f+ == «m +t =¤r==r +=r ==+r ÷ =->r =r¤ +==
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
17
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
+r ¢; +-¬ =¤ «rn -¬r¬ <r; ¤¢ «m, «m¬r+ = ¢; ==t +t ¤¸=r = ==r=
==< = == ¤r= =r «m ¢ ==+r ¤r =r+r¬; ¤¢ f==¬ +r= f=·+¬+ «m f<·¬
=rr= = f¤=rf=n ¢; ~t f¤·vr -r¬¤r= nr J~t <¤t ¤=rvr ¤«r= =+-=r +. 4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 28-
29) +¢ =¢ ¢ f+ <¤t <¬r = «a+= +rs -r¬¤r= =¢t ¢; = s=t +t ¤¸=r +=nr
¢¸ +-¬ >f·r == -rt <¤t <¬r +r ¢t ¤-r =r=+= ¤¸=r +=n «r; ==+ =f-<= -rt
«=rv =rn «r; =«f+ <¤t <¬r J¤+` ` ` ``fn) +¢ =¢t ¢ f+ +rs +-¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r ¢
==+t ¤¸=r +==t ¤rf¢v; s== f={ ¢+r f+ = nr ~t f¤·vr =t +r ¤<r +r ¬r=
¢ = +-¬ >f·r¬r +r ¤<r +r ¬r= «rr; +¤¬ ¬r+ ¤< J==r ==r¬r =r>rt¬ ¬r=)
¢t ==n ==rn «r; ~t <¤t ¬¢ -rt +¢ =¢t ¢ f+ =¤ ==r= ¢t «m ¢; ¬¢ ¬r=
f¤¤f¬n +== ¤r¬r ¢; s= = =¤= +r ¤< ¬r= ¢ =r ~t <¤t J<¬r) = «nr¬r ¢;
«m +r¬ n«rr <¬r J¤+` ` ` ``fn <¤t) =t <r=r ¬«rr«r ¬r= + =r«r2 -rf=n ¬r= -rt
¤<r= +=n ¢; +r=vr ¬¢ ¢ f+ ¬ =¢t ¤r¢n +t +r¬ «m + +-n¬n ¤rfvr¬r +r
n-¤¬r= ¢r =rv; s=f¬v -rf=n ¬r= <+= >f·r, =¢f·r n«rr <¤ ¤ «rmvr ¤ ~t
«mr, ~t f¤·vr n«rr ~t f¤r¤ =t -rt n-¤¬r= = ¤f=f¤n =¢t ¢; s=t +r=vr = =¤
+r =-===vr +r ¤a ¤¬nr =¢nr ¢; ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r =¤¬ s= «m +r¬ + ¬r+ =
¤+a ¢r+= n-¤<¤rt =-n +t -r¸f=+r +=+ n-¤¬r= ¤<r= +=n ¢;
=<r¢=vr : =f=r·n «m ¤=rvr J¬tnr ¤= ¬r==r¤= = ¤+rf¤rn) + +=¬r¬
´´+f¢=¬r =¬= nt«r +r =¢r-¬=´´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 158-159 ¬i «si ¬i · ¬ri ÷ -· ¤¬
¬··º ¬·¤i ¬i ·-¤l-i ¬i ¤(i ri· ¤º ·¬¬i ºii·i ¬º· ¬i l(¤iº ¬i¤i| ·¬
¬·¬i ¬i ¤-·i ª¤ - ¤i·n ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ;··, (ªºi, ¬il· ¬; ·(ni ¬i¤| -º ¬ ·¬
¬·¤i ¬i ¤-·i ª¤ - ·· ¬i ¤i·i·i ¬º· ¬^| - ·¬ ¬·¤i ¬i l((ir ^in- ~l·i ¬
¬º·i ¤irni ·ii| ¬l·i¬ ·(^ºi ri· ¬ ¬iººi -· ¤¬ ºin ºªii ¬i ¬i ¤`·(i ¬i
¤·i-iºii ·¬º (¤`·(i ¬i ¤·¬º ¬^i¬º) ¬(¤·i- ¬i¤^i ·¬i ¬ ¬i·i ¬lr-¤i ·i-¬
¬·¤i ¬i l((ir l¬¤i ¬i¤^i| ¬( ·( ¤¬ ^¤| ^in- ~l·i · ¤¬ ^i¤ ·ªii ¬i «·¤
¬i ¬·- · ºri ·ii| ¬i·ii «·¤i «irº ·ii ¬i·ii ¬··º| ^in- ~l·i · ·¬ ¬º·ii ¬i
¤`·(i ·ii( ¬ ¤ºi¬`-i ¬i| ;¬¬ ¬i·i ri ^in- ~l·i · lºi( ¬i^ ¬i ·ii ¤·l-iºii ¬i
¬iº ¬(¤·i- ¬i- ¬º -º ¤i¬ («si ¬ ¤i¬) ¬i ^¤i| - («si) ·ii ·¬ ¬·¤i ¬lr-¤i
¬i l((ir ^in- ¬ ¬º·i ¤irni ·ii| ^in- · -n¬ ¬ri ¬-¬i¬· ! l(º(i--· ¬i¤
¬i «iº·«iº ·--¬iº r| «s· ! -· ¬iºi (¬·ii ¬i ¤·l-iºii ¬º ¬i ! («si ¬i · ¬ri
r) -· ·¤i· ,iºi ·ªii ¬« «in ¬i· ¬º ^in- ¬ ¬ri «s·i ! n·ri ¬i ¤r ¬··º ¬·¤i
·i ¬ini r| (i-n( - n-· ¤`·(i ¬i ¤·l-iºii ¬º ¬i r| ¬i (·i ¬ l¬¤ ·ii ·«i·i r
(¬·iin l¬¬ «in ¬i ni· (·i - ·ii ·ri r) ·¬ ·i- ¬i -(ª¤ n- ¬i·n ri| ¬i ^i¤
¬i·ii ¤¬( ¬º ¤¬i ri (r ¬in ,i¤i (i¬i ¤`·(i ¬ n-¤ r| ·¬¬i ¤·l-iºii ¬i ¬i¤
ni ¬-¸¤i ¤`·(i ¬i ¤lº>-i ri ¬ini r| lºi( l¬^ ¬i ¤·l-iºii ¬i ·ii ¤ri ¤¬ r
18
f¤¤r= += : ~t «mr =t +r +r¬ =` ` ` ``·at = ¤<r +r =-+` ` ` `` ·a f¤ar= =r=r =rnr ¢
==+ ar=r +¢ ¤¤= ¤< ¤¤= =r= =rn ¢; «mr =t +r ¤<r +r f«=+¬ ¬r=
=¢t ¢; s=t +r ¤=rvr ==+ ar=r «nrv =¤=r«n ¬r= = f=¬nr ¢; ¬rn= + ==
= ¤=vrr +r¬ «m = +t n«rr f¤= «m = +¤=t ==r+r==r ¤¸fn + f¬v ==
¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r +t ¤f·a +¤= ¤>r ==¬vr «mr = ¤n¤n ¤¤¤r ¢r+= += <t
+t ¬r¬ +t ¤<f=rvrr +r= f¤r¤ ¬t¬ +t ¤<f=rvrr +r ¤¬ ¤¸=t ¤` ` ` ``«¤t +t ¤f=a=r +r
¢t ¤¬ ¢rnr ¢; ~t «mr =t + ==r = f=+¬ ¤¤=r +r =¤ <¤nr+r n«rr >f·r¬r
+r =¤t+r= +==r ¤=nr ¢; s= ¤+r= s= ¤=rvrr +t =¤=r ¢s; =r «r< = =¢f·r
¤< ·¬r= J+` ` ` ``·vr a¤r¬r=) = ¬t¤t «{ f+¬r; l(·ºi ¤ºiºi ¬ ¤·i- ¬ºi ¬ ¬·¤i¤
15 º¬i¬ 11 ¬ 51 ¤`·- 63 ¬ 66 ¤º l¬ªii r ¤¸( ¬-¤ - (· (ni¬i (n-(·ºii ¬·ni
-) ¬·- ¤¬ ¬º· ·i-¬ -l·º(º ·i| ·¬· ^i-ni ··i ¤º ·iiº n¤ l¬¤i| l¤º ¤¬
¤·¬i¤i ¬·¬ºi · ··¬i n¤ ªiº· l¬¤i ·¬¬ ¬i·i ·i ¬i (·i l(¬i¬ l¬¤i l¤º (r
¤¬i ^;| f¤¤r= += : ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t =r ¤<r +r =r=r¤r ¢, ==+ +=¬r¬ 16 ¤
17 n«rr +=¬r¬ 3 = ¤=rvr ¢; ¢a ¬r¬ ar=r trr= n¤ +==r ·¬«r ¢ == ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 3 ¤¬r+ 4 = 8 = +¢r ¢ f+ =r ·¬f«n v+ =«rr= ¤= «a+= n¤ +r n¤nr
¢ ¤¢ ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r+ ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 17 ¤¬r+ 5 n«rr 6 = trr= n¤ +==r
==r ¢; ~t ¬rn= >f·r, +v=¸ +rf< >f·r¬r = =r ¤< f¤÷{ ¤¤= +¢ ==+
+r=vr +-¬ +=¬rs¬r +r == >f·r¬r +t -rf«n +=rs = ¬r-r ¢+r; f== +r=vr
= == n-¤¬r= ¢t= >f·r¬r +r n-¤nrJn-¤¬r= +r =r== ¤r¬r) +¢r =r= ¬¬r;
=«f+ ¤f¤>r ~t=<-r¬¤n ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34 = ¤fvrn n-¤<¤rt =-n +t
¤¢¤r= ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 = 1 = 4, 16 = 17 ¤¬r+r = «nrs ¢ f+ =r =-n ¬r
>f·r ==a ¬a+ ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` `` =r +r f¤=n` ` ` ``n f¤¤=vr «nrv ¤¢ J¤<f¤n) ¤< +
nr-¤¬ +r =r== ¤r¬r +«rrn n-¤<¤rt =-n ¢; == =¤= +r == J=¸¬) nr ¤==
+=r= «m +«rrn ¤¸vr «m =r=r; ==t= = «r¢= =r ¤` ` ` ``=r +r f¢==r n=-n f<=rrs
<nr ¢; ¤¢ n=r +=r= ¤÷·r +«rrn ¤=«m =r=r; == n= +t v+ =rat =r= +r
=r= ¤÷·r +«rrn «m =r=r n«rr == =rat =r= +t nt= ¤rr=rr+r +r ==¬vr «mr,
=n¬vr f¤·vr, n«rr n=¬vr f¤r¤ =t =r=r, == ¤rr=rr+r ¤= ¬¬ ¤nr +r +-¬
==r=t ¤rvrt =r=r; ¬¢ =¤=r«-r ¬r= =¤¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r ¢t «nrnr ¢; ¤¢ =¤¬
+e f<= s= +r¬ + ¬r+ = +fn«rt +t n=¢ =¢nr ¢; +¤= n-¤¬r= +r
¬r+rf«n¬r, <r¢r ¤ =r=rt¬r n«rr +f¤nr+r J¤r·<r-r==r) + ar=r =-¤r=vr
+=nr ¢; ==t ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r = +¬¬¬ = +¤nf=n ¢r += == 1398 = == 1518
n+ 120 ¤·r +r¤rt = =¬r¢ +t -r¸f=+r +=+ +¤= n-·r¬r= +r «nr¬r;
+«t= : ¬-iº ¤ª·i ¤¬ ¤· r l·º¬· (i¬i ·iº| ni·i ·(i ºiiªii r ¤ ¤in ª¤ ¬¬iº||
¬¢t n-¤<¤rt =n +r ¤=rvr >-¤< =v=¬ 9 =«n 96 =->r 16 = 20 = ¢;
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
19
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
f== n-¤¬r= +r J==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` `` =r +r ¤-¬+ +¬ +r) ¬r= f+=t >f·r ¤ =n +r
=¢t «rr; ¤¢ =¤¬ ¤==r-=r +«t= «-<t er= = =t = «nr¬r «rr; =r ¤n=r= = =n
<r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) ar=r ==r¬= f+¬r ¬¬r ¢; ¤¢ n-¤¬r= ¤n=r= = =n <r=
+ +fnf=«n f+=t + ¤r= =¢t ¢;
<¸==r +r=vr ¤=rvr =¤=r +r : ~t «mr =t =¤¤«r= =-¤-= ¢v «r; f==
+r=vr = ==+ ¤¤r=r = ~t «mr =t +r =¤¬ =r=+= ==r= =¤=r +r +r=vr ¤
=¤ +t =¤=r +== ¤r¬ ¤==¤¤= + f¤·r¬ = =r==r ¤r¢r; <¤t ¤¸=rvr nt== =+<
+=¬r¬ 3 = 6 = ~t «mr =t =¤¬ +¢ =¢ ¢ f+ =« = =r¤n ¢+r nr +¤= +r¤ +r
+=¬ + ¤¸¬ ¤= «ar ¤r¬r; =n =¢t ¤nr s= +¬r=r =¬ = +¢r = =-¤-= ¢r
¬¬r; =n =-¤--r +== ¤r¬r +r= ¤-r ¢³´´; s== f={ ¢+r f+ ~t «mr =t =¤¬
=¢t ¢; ==+ ar=r «nr¬r =` ` ` ``·at =¤=r +r ¬r= -rt =-¬ =¢t ¢r =+nr; ¢r +¤=
=-= + ¤¤¤rn +r ¤vr= ¤=rvrr = tra=ra= +r ¬r= at+ ¢ ¤=-n =r
-rf«n=r=r=r +t f¤f=r ¤ ¤==¤¤= ¤f=¤¬ ¬f< ¤<r = =¢t f=¬nr ¢ ¤¢ +=-¬ ¢;
~t f¤r¤ ¤=rvr, ~t f¤·vr ¤=rvr, ~t «m ¤=rvr n«rr ~t <¤t ¤=rvr +rf< s=
¤=rvrr +r ¬r= <rnr ~t «mr =t -r-r¤r= ¢; ~t <¤t ¤=rvr + nt== =+-=r J¬tnr
¤= ¬r==r¤= = ¤+rf¤rn ¢ f==+ +=¤r<+nr ~t ¢==r= ¤=r< ¤r«r= n«rr
f¤== ¬r¬ ¬r=¤r=t) = «mrv= +t =¤=r +r ¬r= <n ==¬ ~t «mr =t = +¤=
¤>r =r=< = +¢r «ar =r=< =« ==t =-¤fn ¢s nr = +=¬ + ¤¸¬ ¤= «ar ¢+r
«rr; =n =¢t ¤nr f+ ==r =-¤fn +nr +r= ¢³ s= +¬r=r =¬ = = += =-¤-=
¢r ¬¬r ´´
~t «mr =t ar=r f<¬r ¬¬r ¤=rvrr +r ¬r= +=r¸=r ¢; =-¤¸vr ¬r= =¢t ¢
«¬rf+ ~t «mr =t = «mrv= +t =¤=r +r ¬r= -rt <= +r ¤¬-= f+¬r ¢; =r
==¬ ¬«n n«rr ==r ==r¬r ¢ =r nr===r= += «nr¬r ¢; «¬rf+ ~t «mr=t +r
¤¸vr ¤==r--rr v+ >f·r + ÷¤ = +f-= >f·r + =r= = ¤+a ¢r+= f=¬ «r n«rr
¤r¤¤ ¤r¤== J===) ¤< = =` ` ` `` ·at =¤=r +r ¬r= ¤ +r¬ +r =r¬ ==nr¬r «rr; ~t
«mr =t = == >f·r = =¤<¤r ¬¢vr f+¬r; ¤=-n «r< = +r¬ ÷¤t «m = ~t
«mr =t +t «f{ «<¬ <t, +-<= = ¤=vrr +t +rs ¤r¤¤r ¤< =¢t ¢ +¤¬ ¤r= ¢t
¤< ¢; s-¢t +r ¬r= ~·a ¢ +-¬ f+=t +t «rn ¤= f¤¤¤r= =¢t +==r ¤rf¢v; n¸
=¬n +r ¬r= <rnr ¢ nn f+=t = ¬r= ¬¢vr +== +t +r¤¤¬+nr =¢t ¢;
s= +r=vr = ~t «mr =t = ¤==¤¤= = == ¬r= +r =-¬ = =r=+= +¤=t
«f{ ar=r +r¬ ÷¤t «m +t ¬·n ¤=vrr = == nr===r= += +¤= ¤¤r=r +r
«nr¬r =r ¤=rvrr = f¬¤t«{ ¢; ~t «m =t = +¤= =-= + ¤¤¤rn ¢t =-¬
tra=r+r +r =-¬ f¤¤=vr «nr¬r ¢; =r ¤¸¤r«n ¤=rvrr = f¬=rr ¢;
f=-<r ¤¤r =rr=t ¤==¤¤= = +¢r ¢ =r=<r=! +r¤ =r ¬¢ nt«r ¬r>rr +=n ¢r
20
s=+r ¬tnr =t = +rs f¤¤=vr =¢t ¢;
''n|·r n·rr =rr= «¤r ; ''
¨¤|¤>r n|·r n·rr =rr= +| ¬r¬+rº|¨
f+=t =r=r+ >f·r =t = f+=t =«rr= ¬r =¬r¤r¬ ¤= «a += =r=r=r +t
¬r +¤=t +r=¬rf-=+ ¤rf«n +r ¤<¤r= f+¬r; ¤¢ +¤=t -rf«n +=rs +=+
=r«r ¬ ¬¬r n«rr +¤= s·a ¬r+ +r ¤r·n ¢+r; == =r=r=r =«r¬ +r «r< =
nt«r ¬r =rr= =r= ¤=r; +« +rs == =«rr= +r <=r= =rv f+ ¬¢r +rs =r=r+
=¢r +=nr «rr; === «¢nr +r +=¬rvr f+¬r; +« = nr ¤¢r =n =t ¢, =r
=¤<¤r <; ¤¢ nr +¤=t +=rs +=+ ¤¬r ¬¬r;
f¤¤r= += : +` ` ` `` ·¬r nt«r ¤ =rr= +r ¢=r=<=nr J¢=r=<=nr) =r=; Jv+
=a ¤a +r ¬r¢ +r ¬r¬ ¤r>r ¬¬-r¬ =r s¤ ¤f=f=r +r ==r¬ ==r ¢rnr ¢
n«rr =a ¤a ¬-«r n«rr <r s-¤ ¤f=f=r +r ¬r¬ ¬r¢ +r ==r=r =¸=¬ ==r
¢rnr ¢ =r =r=¬t ¤ <¤rs¬r +rf< +¸a= + +r= +rnr ¢, == ¢=r=<=nr
J¢=r=<=nr) +¢n ¢;) v+ ·¬f«n +¤= ¤=r=t +r ¢=r= <=nr =r¬ += ¬r¬r;
=== ¢¤= +t =r=¬t +¸at n«rr =r==rr¬+= ¬rar f<¬r; f== +== = ¢=r=
<=nr ==rr «rr == +== = =¬=r +r= ¬¬t; tr= + =<=¬r = <=rr f+ ¬¢
=¬-=r +¢r = +r =¢t ¢ nr ¤nr ¤¬r f+ ¢=r= <=n = +r =¢t ¢; ¤ ==n
¬v f+ ¤=r=t ¬ ¬¬r «rr, === +r s = ¬ =r ¬ «n ¤=n +¸ at ¢ ; + e f<= «r<
¤¢ = ¬ =r -rt +r=t « < ¢r ¬s ;
s=t ¤+r= nt«r ¤ =rr= +r v+ ¢=r=<=nr J¢=r=<=nr) =r=r; ==
=r=¬t +¸a= ¤r¬ = +¤=t =¤ ¤=n ¤r e += ==r ¬t; =rr¬t ¢=r = <=nr ¬r ar
f<¬r; +« +r s == ¢=r = <=n +r =¸tr+= ¢t +` ` ` ``-¬r«r =r= nr =r<r=t ¢; ==+r
-rt =r=¬t ¬r=t ¤=¬t, n« ¤¸vr ¬r-r ¢r¬r;
at+ s=t ¤+r= f+=t =rr= ¤ nt«r ¤= =¢= ¤r¬r ¤f¤>r +r-=r nr =r=
=r= +t =r=¬t +¸a += nr=¤re += +¤=t =¤ -rf«n =r=r=r +t +=rs +r
=r«r ¬ ¬¬r; «r< = +==r= ~{r¬, == =«rr= ¤= =r= =r>r = +=¬rvr ==n
nr ==+ =r¬ <¤r+r J¬=+r) +t ¤rr=>r f¤f=r =f¢n «nrs =r=r=r +r ¢t ¤f=vrr=
¢; == =¢r= +r-=r =-n +t n=¢ ¤-r =r=r=r +== = ¢t +=¬rvr =--r¤ ¢;
==+ f¬v n-¤<¤rt =n +t =rr= +=+ === =¤<¤r ¬+= +r=t¤= -rf«n
+=+ =r=r ¤r·n +==r ¤rf¢v; ¤rr=>r f¤f=r +=+¸¬ =n =r=r=r =n <r=
J=r=¤r¬ <r=) + ¤r= =¤¬·=r ¢ +` ` ` ``·¬r f=:¤r=+ ¤r·n +=;
Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk Jk) leh{kk
21
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
''n|·r ª·rr¤¬r + ¤=rºr''
1. ¤ra nt«r += «=r³ : ¬i «si ¤ºiºi ¬ªi¬ ¬`·ºi,¤i¤· ¬·iin ·¤i¬
¬i ¤¬iºi¬ ^ini ¤¬ ^iºªi¤º ¤`·- 167-168 ¤º ·i`^ ~l·i ¬i ¤i ¬l( ¬·iin ºi>
· ^in-i ··i ¬ ·-iº n- ¤º ¬ri ·i^(i· -rº(º ¬i ¬iºi·i·i ¬º¬ l(ni ¤i¤i
·ii, (r -·ii· ºi> ni·i ¬r¬ini r|
2. ¾ ===¤nt =¬= nt«r n«rr ¤÷=¤ nt«r : ¬i «si ¤ºiºi ¤`·- 172-
173 ¤º ¤¬ l·· ºi¬i ¤ªº(i, «si ¬i ¬i ¬·ii - ^¤, (ri «si ¬i ¬i ¤ii
¬º-(ni ¬i ·ªi¬º ·¬¬ l-¬· ¬i ;·¬i ¤¬- ¬i| ¬º-(ni · ri ¬º ·i|
¬º-(ni ··i ¬ n- ¤º ¬º-(ni n·ii ¤ ªº(i · ¬· ¬ (·ii n¬ ¬ ·ii ^ (¬ ·¬) l¬¤i|
¤¬ l·· «si · ··¬i l(¬i¬ ¬ºn ·ªi l¬¤i| ¬¤·i «-i ¬i ºii¤ · l·¤i| (r
··i ª¤ - ¬-i ^;| ¬ri ¤º ¤ªº(i n·ii ¬º-(ni · ¬·ii^ l¬¤i ·ii| (r ¤l(i
ni·i ¬º-(ni ¬^- ·i- ¬ l(ª¤in r¬i| ¬ri ¤º ¤ªº(i · -ri·( ¬i ·il·n ¬i
(r -·ii· ¤ªº(i ni·i ·i- ¬ l(ª¤in r¬i|
3. ¤` ` ` `` {r =¬= nt«r : ¬i «si ¤ºiºi ¤`·- 173 ¬ 175 ¤¬ ^in- ~l·i ·i|
··¬i ¤¬ r¬iº (·i ¬i ¬i¤ n¬ l((ir ·ri r¬i| (r (· ni· ·ii ·ri ¤«i ·ii
¬(¬ ^i¤ii -i ¤i· ·ii| ·¬i ¬i ¬i¤ ¬ºni ·ii| ¤¬ l·· (r ¤¬ ¤(n ¤º ¤¬
^¤i - ^¤i| (ri ¤º ··« r¬iº (·i ¬i ¬i¤ ¬i ¤¬ (`,i -ii l-¬i| ·i·i · l((ir
l¬¤i| ¤¬ l·· (lºi·- ~l·i n·ii (i- ·( ~l·i (ri ^¤i - ¬·¤ ~l·i¤i ¬ ¬i·i
¬i¤| ··ri· ^in- ~l·i ¬i ·¤ri¬ l¬¤i ¬ri r ^in- ¬i! ¤r (`,i ¬i¤ ¬i
-i r ¤i ·i·i -i` ··¬ ¬i· ¬ ¤º¤in ·i·i «rn ·ªii r¤| ¬^-n ~l·i ¬i ºi¤
¬ ^i·i(ºi ··i ¬ ^in-i n- ¤º ^¤ ¬iº ¬-iº n¤-¤i ¬º· ¬^| ··ri· ·i^(i·
ºi¬º ¬iº l(·ºi ¬i -n(· l¬¤i n·ii ¤-·i ¬ l¬¤ ^^i ¬i ¬i ·ii ªiºi l¬¤i| ^^i
· ··¬ n¤ ¬ ¤ºi··i ri¬º ¬ri ÷ «isºi ¬i¤ -·i ¤«n r¤ -º ¬¬ ¬ ¬¤·i
¤-·i ¬i ¬l·i·i¬ ¬ºi| ;¬¬ (r ª¤(ni ri ¬i¤^i| ^^i ¬i ¬ ¬i·ºi ¬ ·i·i
· ¤¬ ·¬º ¬ l¬¤ ¤¬i ri l¬¤i| ·i·i ¤ln÷¤-·i ¬··º ª¤ (i¬ ri ^¤| (r
¬¬ ¬i -·ii ¬i ·ii| ·¬¬ (`,i ·i- ··i «r ¤¬i| ·¬i -·ii· ¤º ^in- ~l·i
· ·¬ (` ,i ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ¤(ni ri ^; ·ii| -· ·iº¬º ¬·ii^ l¬¤i| n« ¬ ·¬ -·ii·
¬i ·i- (`,i ¬^- ni·i ri ^¤i| (ri ¤º ^in- ~l·i · ¬i·i·i·i ¤¬ lºi(l¬^
-·iil¤n l¬¤i ·ii| (r ·ii (`,i ¬ ·i- ¤º (`,º(º ¬r¬i¤i| ;¬ (`,i ¬^- ni·i
¬i ¬·ii ¬« ¤i¤i ¬i ·iºi ¬º· (i¬i r| (ri l¬¤i r¬i -·i·÷·i· ¬« -·iº·ii
¬i l¬, ¬º· (i¬i r|
4. +¤¤nt«r +«rrn -rr= nt«r n«rr ¤¤¤at +r~= +t =«rr¤=r : ¬i «si
¤ºiºi ¤`·- 162-163 n·ii ¬i -i¬º·¤ ¤ºiºi ¤`·- 173 ¬ 175 ¤º l¬ªii r -rl·i
22
¬º¤¤ ¬ ¤·- ¤i ¬il·-¤ (¬¸¤) r, ··¬i ¤-·i ¬i ·i- ··ii r (-i¬º·¤ ¤ºiºi
- ¬¸¤ ¬i ¤-·i ¬i ·i- ¬ni l¬ªii r ¬i -rl·i l(º(¬-i ¬i «-i r) ¬¸¤ ¤-·i
¬¤· ¤ln ¬¸¤ ¬ n¬ ¬i ¬r· · ¬º ¬¬· ¬ ¬iººi ·ªii ºrni ·ii| ¤¬ l··
¬¤·i l¬l, ºil·n ¬ ¬·¤ -ii ¬¤·i ri -(ª¤ ¬i ·-¤··i ¬i ·¬ ¬ri ¬i¤ -º
¤ln ¬i ¤-·i «· ¬º ºri nºi n·ii -ºi ºi·¬ ¬-i· r| ¬i¤ ¤r ·i· -ºi ¬·ni·
n·ii ¤ln ¬i ·ii ·ri «ni·i ¤r ¬r ¬º ¬ni (··ii) n¤ ¬º· ¬ ·ªº¤ ¬ ·-iº
¬ª-ii - ¤¬i ^; (ri ·ii·i ¬i ª¤ ·iiººi ¬º¬ n¤-¤i ¬º· ¬^i| ·i· ªi¬·
¤º ¬¸¤ ·ii ·ii· ¬i ª¤ ·iiººi ¬º¬ (ri ^¤i ¬ri ¬ni (··ii) ·ii·i ª¤ - n¤-¤i
¬º ºri ·ii| ·ii· ª¤ - ¬¸¤ · ·ii·i ª¤ ·iiºi ¬ni ¬ ¬·ii^ ¬º·i ¤iri| ··ii
(¬ni) ·ii·i ª¤ - (ri ¬ ·ii^ ¬º ^in-i ··i ¬ n- ¤º ¬i; ·ii·i ª¤ ·iiºi ¬¸¤
· ·ii ¤i¬i l¬¤i| (ri ¬i¬º ·ii·i ª¤ - ¬¤· ¤ln(n ·i- ¬i º-ii ¬ l¬¤ ·ii·i
ª¤ ·iiºi ¤ln ¬i · ¤r¤i· ¬º ·¬ ¬i ¬iº ¬¤·i ¤`·- ·ii^ · ¬º¬ -ªi ¬i ¬iº
¬ ri ¬i-·i l¬¤i| ·i·i ¬i ·il¬¬i l-¬i| ¬¸¤ (i¬·i ¬ (^ ¬i ºi¬ ·ri ¬¬
n·ii ·ii·i ª¤ ·iiºi ··ii (¬ni) ¬ -ªi ¬iº ri ¬·ii^ ¬º· ¬ ·ªº¤ ¬ ¤¤-·
l¬¤i| ·il¬¬i ,iºi (i¤ ¤(ºi ¬ ·ii·i ª¤ ·iiºi ··ii ¬ -ªi ¬ ·i ¤i ¬º(·i
¬-iº (·i¬-¤ n·ii ·¬) ·-¤·· r¤ n·ii ºi·i (i¤ ¬-i· ¤º l^º· ¬ º(·n ·i-¬
¤i ·-¤·· r¬i| (r -·ii· ¬º( ni·i ·ii· ni·i n·ii ¤¤(-i ¬i¬- ·i- ¬ l(ª¤in
r¬i| ·¬i -·ii· ¤º ¬¸¤ ¬i «l-¤i ¬i ¬ªºii n·ii (ªºii ·i-¬ ·l·¤i ¬ ª¤
- ¬-i^- r¬i| ·¬- l·i··÷2 ·(ni¬i ¬iº ni·ii ¬i ¤` ·i¬÷¤` ·i¬ ¬-i^- r¬i r|
··n ¬^- - ¬ni;¬ r¬iº ni·ii ¬i ¬-·i¤ r| (ri l¬¤i r¬i -·i· ( ·i· ¬-i¤
¤º¤ ·· (i¬i r| ·iº·! ·¬ ni·i ¬ --ººi ¬ ¬in· ¬iº ¬(ºi ¬ ·ii -··¤ ¬«
¤i¤i ¬ -·n ri ·i-(i· ¬iº ¬ªii rini r|
5. == =«rr= nt«r +t =«rr¤=r : ¬i «s ¤ºiºi (^ini ¤¬ ^iºªi¤º ¬
¤¬ilºin) ¤`·- 161-162 ¤º ~l·i ¤in(-·¤ ¬ ºi¬i ¬·i¬ · ¤¸¬i l¬ r l,¬¬·-!
«·÷2 -l·¤i · l·ºi¤ l¬¤i r l¬ ·ii^ ¬iº -i-i ·i·i ¬·- r| ¬i¤ «ni¤! ·ii^
¬ ·ii -l·n ¤i·n ¬¬ rini r` ~l·i ¤in(-·¤ ¬i · ¬ri ;¬ ¤º· ¬i ·-iº ¬i¤
º(ºiº (ªºi ¬i -i¬÷2 «ni ¬¬n r| ¤¬i ··¬ ¤¸¬n r| ·i·i ·i^(i· (ªºi ¬
¤i¬ ^¤ n·ii (ªºi · «ni¤i l¬ (· - ¤r -i^ l·lº¤n l¬¤i r l¬ ¬- · ¬º·
¬i ·¤-ii ¬- ¬º·i ¬·- r| ·i-, ¬·i, ¬i- n·ii -i-i ¤ ¤iºi ¤ª·ii·i ¬- ¬ «·i
r¤ r| ·`¤ ¬·-! ¬- ,iºi ¬« ¤¬iº ¬ ¬i·¤i ¬i l¬,i rini r, ;¬l¬¤ -··¤i
¬i ¬« nºr ¬ (l·¬ ¬- ¬i ¬··-i· ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| ;¬¬ ( ;¬ ¬i¬ - ·ii^
n·ii -i-i ·i·i ¤i·n ¬ºn r| ¬¬- ¬ ¬- ¤l(i ;¬¬ ¤º¤in ºi¬i ¬·¬ · ~l·i
¤in(-·¤ ¬i ¤ºilrn «·i¬º ^^i ¬ n- ¤º ¬·¬i ¤n l¬¤| ;¬l¬¤ ·¬ -·ii·
¬i ·i- ¬· -·ii· ni·i ¬ ·i- ¬ l(ª¤in r¬i| ·¬ ni·i ¬i l¤·n· ¬º·, (ri
rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \
23
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¬i· ¬iº ·il·n ¤¸(¬ ·¬¬i ¬(· (¤¸¬·) ¬º· ¬ -··¤ ¬« ¬l·i¬il·in (-n¬i
¬i ¤ini r ¬iº -i-i ¬i ·ii^i rini r|
=¤=r«n ¤=rvrr + ¬=rr +r f=·+·r : ¤=rvr ==¬r 1 = +¢r ¢ f+ -r` ` ` ``¬
>f·r + ¤>r ¤ra = ¬rn=t =<t + =+r= na ¤= =r=r=r +t «rt f== +r=vr =
¤¢ =«rr= ¤ra nt«r =r= = f¤=¬rn ¢+r; ¬f< +rs == ¤ra nt«r = +¤¬
==r= ¤ ¤¢r ¤= «a +r=¤r= ·¬f«-r¬r +r <r= +== = ¢t =r=r =r=nr ¢ ¤¢
¬r=¢t= ·¬f«-r ¢; ¤==r--rr +t =r=r=r == ¤rar¤r¬ = +t «rt; ¤=t ¢t =r=r=r
f+=t -rt =«rr= ¤= +rs =r=r+ +=¬r nr ¤rar¤r¬ +r =r ¬r-r ¢+r «rr ¤¢
¤r·n ¢r¬r; ¬¢t f=«rnt ¤=rvr ==¬r 5 +t ==n +t ¬¬r + na ¤= f== =«rr=
¤= =r=r ==+ = +=+r +¤¤=tr ¬¬ f+v; v+ +¤¤=tr ¬¬ = +=r=r ÷¤¬
J¤n=r= = +=«r ÷¤¬) =r¤ ¢v «r; n« =r=r =-r+ +r =¤¬ ¤rf·n ¢s «rt;
¬f< +rs +¬r=t +¢ f+ == == =«rr= nt«r ¤= =r= ¤ ==r= +== n«rr ¤¢r
=¤f=«rn v«t J¤r=r«,n-«r+¸ ¤ =r= =¤= +== ¤r¬) ·¬f«n¬r +r <r= +==
= =r=r ==+ ¤r¬r ¬r-r f=¬¬r; «¬r ¬¢ «rn -¬r¬ =¬n ¢³ sn=r +e +==
+ ¤¤¤rn -rt =r=r ==+ =«n =¢t ¢r =+r; ¤¢t +r-=r +¬¬¬ = =-n =r=+
=t + ÷¤ = ~t +r¬ =r= =¢nr + tr= =-=r; f¤= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t -rf«n
¤¸vr ¬= +«t= ¤==¤¤= = =r= ¤r·n +=+ +t n« =r=r ¤r·n ¢+r; ¤=rvr ==¬r
2 = «mr +t «at ===¤nt = ¤¸÷=¤r =r=+ =r=r + =r«r +¤= f¤nr = e¤+=
=«= J=-rr¬) f+¬r; =« f¤nr =t = =-¢ v=r +=n <=rr nr ~r¤ < f<¬r;
¤¢ =«rr= =¢r ¤= ===¤nt = n«rr =r=r ¤÷=¤r = <=r¤r= f+¬r == =«rr= +r
=r= ===¤nt =¬n nt«r f¤=¬rn ¢+r;
f¤¤r= += : «¬r v= =«rr= ¤= =r= ¤ ==r= +== = +rs ¬r-r ¢r =+nr
¢³ ¤=rvr ==¬r 3 = +¢r ¢ f+ v+ ¬r-r= =r=+ >f·r = v+ ¢=r= ¤·r +t
+r¬ = =··r ¢=r= ¤·r +t +r¬ +t ¤` ` ` ``{r = f¤¤r¢ f+¬r; +¤= +r ¬¤r «=r=
+ =«¤¬ = <r=r = ¬r<r¤=t =<t + ¬rn=t na ¤= +ar= n¤ f+¬r; ¤¤¤rn
=->rr = =¬ =f->rn +=+ v+<¸== ¤= =r¬r; <r=r ¬¤r ¢r ¬¬; nn¤¤¤rn
== =«rr= ¤= <r=r = == -r= += =-rr¬ +«rrn f¤¬r= J=«=) f+¬r; ¤¢ =«rr=
¤` ` ` ``{r =¬= nt«r +¢¬r¬r;
f¤¤r= +== ¬r-¬ «rn ¢ f+ v= =«rr=r ¤= =r= = +r-=+=¬rvr + =«rr=
¤= ¤n= ¢t ¢r¬r; +r-= =ar= =¢t; ¤=rvr ==¬r 4 = +¢r ¢ f+ =¸¬ +t ¤-=t
trr=t +r ÷¤ =rr=vr +=+ n¤=¬r += =¢t «rt; =¸¬ +r= ¤r==r J=«= ¤==)
+ ¤¤r ¢r+= trr=r ÷¤ =rr=vr +=+ trr=t ÷¤ =rr=t +¤=t ¤-=t + ¤r= ¬¬r;
trr=t = == +¤= ¤` ` ` `` ·a -rr¬ J¤te) +t +r= =¢t =r= f<¬r; =¸¬ sn=r =«=
¤== J+r= ¤r==r + <«r¤) = «rr f+ === trr=t + ==r +t +r= ¢t =-rr¬
24
fa¬r ¤r=--r +t f== +r=vr = =-¢ nt= ¤>r ¤r·n ¢v; ¤¢ =«rr= +¤¤ nt«r
=r= = f¤=¬rn ¢+r; ¤¢t ¤= =¸¬ +t <r «fa¬r =r+= =<t «= += «¢= ¬¬t;
f== +r=vr = ¤¢t =«rr= ¤¤¤at +r~= =r= = -rt ¤f={ ¢+r; ==t =«rr= +r
-rr=¸ nt«r -rt +¢r =rnr ¢; s= nt«r +r ¬r-r f¬=rr ¢ f+ s=+ ===vr = n«rr
+tn= +== = n«rr s=+t +«rr ~¤vr +== = =« ¤r¤r = =«n ¢r+= =r=¤r=
+r= ==rt ¢rnr ¢ f¤¤r= +=r ¤v¬r-=r+r «¬r v=t +«rr+r +r === n«rr v=
=«rr= ¤= =r= = +r-= +=¬rvr =--r¤ ¢; s=f¬v ¤rr=>rr J¤r¤r ¤<r, ¬tnr =t)
+ +==r= -rf«n +== = =¤ ¤r¤r = =«n ¢r+= ¤¸vr =r=r =--r¤ ¢;
|¤n ºrq n|·r
f¤n¤r{ nt«r +«rrn n-¤<¤rt =-n +r =-=¬ =¤ nt«rr = ~·a : ¬i ·(i
¤ºiºi ¬-i -¬·· ¬·¤i¤ 10 ¤`·- 417 ¤º l¬ªii r ·¤i¬ ¬i · ºi¬i ¬·-¬¤ ¬
¬ri ºi¬·! ¤r l·º¤¤ r l¬ ni·i ·r ¬·«··ii -¬ ¬i ¬i¤ ¬º ·n r, l¬·n -·
¬ -¬ ¬i ·ii· ¬i ºil·n ni·ii - ·ri r| l¤nºi, ni·i ^^i ¬il· ni·ii ¬ ·ii ¬l·i¬
¤l(i -i·i ¬ini r| ¤l· ·ii·¤(ºi l¤nºi, ni·i ¬-i·i ri ¬i¤ ni ¬·iin n-(·ºii
¬ni ¬i ¬-¬^ ª¤i ni·i ¤i·n ri ¬i¤ ni -i·l¬¬ -¬ ¬ ·i¬ ¬i· - ¬i; ¬·r
·ri| ¤º·n ºi¬·! ;¬ l¤nºi, ni·i ¬i ¤i·n ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ni·i ¤ª·ii ¬·iin
n-(·ºii ¬·ni ¬ ¬-¬ ^ ¬i l(ºi ·i ¬i(º¤¬ni r | ( ·, ºii-i, ( n, n¤, ¤n ¬i º ·i·
¬ l¤nºi , ri ·i «r n ¬l-· r | (lºi·- ¬i « si ¬i ¬ ¤ i ·i | ··ri · ( · ¬i º l(ni
¬i ¬·¤¬ ¤¬iº ¬ ¬·¤¤· l¬¤i ·ii| ^^i ¬ n- ¤º l·(i¬ ¬ºn ·i| n·iil¤ ,·i
¬ ¬iººi ··¬i l(º(il-i ¬ ¬i·i (-·-¤ ri ^¤i ¬iº ·i·i · ¤º-¤º ¬i¤ · l·¤
n·ii ··- ·i¤¬º ¤, ri· ¬^i| ;¬¬ l¬, r¬i l¬ ¬ni ¬ ¬-¬^ ¬ l¤nºi,
¬º ¬·i ¬ln ¬i(º¤¬ r ¬·¤·ii (· ni·, n¤, (n, ni·i, ·i· n·ii ·i- ¬ l¬n·
¬i·i· r ( ¬«¬ ¬« ¬i; l(ºi·i ¤¤i¬· l¬, ·ri ¬º ¬¬n (¬i ·(i ¤ºiºi ¬
¬ªi ¬-i·n)
f¤¤r·r f¤¤r= : =¤=r«n ~t <¤t ¤=rvr + ¬=r = =¤·a ¢ f+ n-¤<¤rt
=-nr + =-=¬ = ~·a +rs -rt nt«r =¢t ¢ n«rr n-¤<` ` ` ``·ar =-n + «nrv =r¬
= =r=r=r +== = +=¬rvr =--r¤ ¢; nt«r, ¤n, n¤, <r= +rf< ·¬«r ¤¬-= ¢;
n-¤<¤rt =-n + +-rr¤ + +r=vr +¤¬ ¤r=r ¤<r = ¤fvrn -rf«n f¤nt = ¤¸vr
=r=r ¬r-r =¢t ¢; ¤==¤¤= +«t= =t = +¢r ¢ :
¬n^ª l«· (· ¤« ¬i ¤iºii, ¬-n ·i ¬iº ºr ¬ni·i||
¬n^ª l«· ¬ir¸ · ¤i¤i ni·i, ¤i ·ii·ii ·i·i l¬· -¸« l¬¬i·i||
¬·¬- ni·i ·i-÷·i- ¬i( ¬( ¤¬ ¬n^ª ¤ººii ¤i(||
¬«iº ni·i ¬lº÷¬lº ¬^ -¬i, ·· ¤i·i ·ri¤| ¬n·i- ¬¤i ·ri, ¬i¬ ·i¬i- ¬i¤||
rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \
25
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¨~| ¤=º¬r·r =rr= +| ª·rr¤¬r += ;;?¨
-r¬¤r= ¤r+= =t = ¤r¤nt =t +r v+rn =«rr= ¤= =¤<¤r f<¬r «rr f==
+r=vr = =rnr ¤r¤nt =t sn=t =«n ¢r ¬s f+ =« n+ ¤-r f¤r¤ =t Jn=r¬vr)
+t =` ` ` ``-¬ =¢t ¢r¬t, n« n+ ==r =t +t -rt =` ` ` `` -¬ =¢t ¢r¬t; =rn «mr =t
J==r¬vr) +t =` ` ` ``-¬ + =¤=r-n -r¬¤r= f¤·vr J=nr¬vr) +t =` ` ` `` -¬ ¢r¬t; =rn f¤·vr
=t +t =` ` ` ``-¬ + ¤¤¤rn f¤r¤=t +t =` ` ` ``-¬ ¢r¬t; n« =rnr ¤r¤nt =t -rt =` ` ` ``-¬ +r
¤r·n ¢r¬t, ¤¸vr =r=r =¢t ¢+r; f¤= -rt f=n=r ¬r-r ¤r¤nt =t +r ¢+r ¤¢ -rt
+f=r+r=t = =¤<¤r =>r ¬ += +r=t¤= =r¤ +== = ¢+r; «r< = ~{r¬+r
= == =«rr= +t ¬r< «=rv ==r= + f¬v =f-<= ==r ¬r<¬r= «=r+= ==+r
==f=rn ==rr n«rr <¤r+ =r= ¬¬;
== ¬¢ <r= J=-n =r=¤r¬) =«rr==«rr= ¤= =r += =-=¬ +=nr ¢;
¤¢r ¤= =rt= ¤ ¢¬¤r -rt «=rv =rn ¢; =r -r«nr-=r =¤<¤r ¤r·n += ¬nr
¢, ==+r +=¬rvr ¢r =rnr ¢; =-=¬ ==r¤= + =¤=r-n =¤ aa +rf< ==rr=
+= <¸== =«rr= ¤= =-=¬ + f¬v ¤¬ =rn ¢, ¤¸¤ =«rr= ¤= +¤¬ f=aat ¬r
sar +t «=rs -raat ¤ ¤¸=¢ ¤r·r =¢ =rn ¢; f¤= +rs ==t ¤r¢= + ·¬f«n
= +¢ f+ +r+r +r¤ +r ¤¢ =«rr= f<=rr += ¬rnr ¢¸, =¢r =n =r=¤r¬ <r=
=t +r =-=¬ ¢+r «rr, =rt= «=rs «rt; «r< = == -rfaa¬r +r <=r= =r= ¤r¬
+r = nr =rt= f=¬, = ¢t =-=¬ + +=` ` ` ``n ¤¤= === +r f=¬, = ¢t =¤<¤r
¤r·n ¢r =+nr f=== +=¬rvr ¢r =+; ==+ f¬v =n ¢t =rr==r ¤=¬r, =¢r
=-=¬ ¤¬ =¢r ¢r, ¤¢r ¤= =¤ +r¬ f={ ¢r¬;
at+ s=t ¤+r= nt«rr ¤ =rr=r ¤= =r=r nr == ¬r<¬r= =«rr= ÷¤t -raat
+r <=r=r =r>r ¢t ¢;
¬¢ ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t = ¤fvrn = ¢r= = ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ ¢s; f=== +rs ¬r-r
=¢t J¤=rvr ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16 =>r 23-24);
n-¤ ¬r= ¢t= =-nr ¤ =¢nr n«rr +r¤r¬r ar=r -rf=n ~{r¬ nt«rr ¤
=rr=r ¤= +r-= +=¬rvrr«r =rn ¢; ~t +===r«r =t +t ¬r>rr ¤= ¬v ~{r¬
nt=¤r= «r= «¤r=t n¤r= = <« += =` ` ` `` -¬ +r ¤r·n ¢v; ¤-¬+ «r= === ¤r¬r
+t ==¬r ¢=r=r ¢rnt «rt; f¤¤r=vrt¬ f¤·r¬ ¢ f+ ¬f< ~t +===r«r =t +
<¤r= ¤ ¤¸=r ¬r-r<r¬+ ¢rnt nr «¬r -r¬¤r= f¤r¤ == ~{r¬ +r +t ==rr =¢t
+=n ³ +«rr n ¤ -r f¤r¤ =t -rt ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ =r=r=r = +¤ =-= ¢ ;
''¤·ºrr «¤| + =|-«º +| ª·rr¤¬r += ;;?''
=« =nt =t J==r <¤t) +¤= f¤nr =r=r <=r + ¢¤= +v= = e¬r¬
26
¬¬r= = =¬+= =` ` ` `` -¬ +r ¤r·n ¢s; -r¬¤r= f¤r¤ =t =nt =t + +{ =¬ ¤r=t=
+t +f=«r¬r + ++r¬ +r =r¢¤¤r =nt =t J¤r¤nt =t) =r= += <= ¢=r= ¤·r
n+ +=r ¤= f¬v ¤r¬¬r +t n=¢ tr¸=n =¢; -r¬¤r= f¤·vr =t = =<¤r= ¤a
= =nt =t + ++r¬ +r fe-=f-r-= += f<¬r; =¢r =r= f¬=r ¤¢r ¤= == +r
==t= = ¬ra f<¬r ¬¬r; s= =rrf=+ tra=r +t ¬r< «=rv ==r= + f¬v ==+
=¤= v+ =f-<= ==t ¬r<¬r= «=r <t f+ +¢t +r= ¤r¬ ==¬ = +rs ¬¢ =
+¢ < f+ ¤=rvr = ¬¬n f¬=rr ¢; == =f-<= = v+ =>rt +r f¤>r ==r f<¬r
== ¤·vrr <¤t +¢= ¬¬; ==+t <=r==r ¤ ~{r¬ <¤r+r +r == =«rr= +t
+¢r=t «nr= + f¬v v+ =+ ·¬f«n f=¬«n f+¬r ¬¬r; ==+r +-¬ =rrf=+
·¬f«n +e ¤n= <n «r; «r< = ==+ ¤¤r=r = == ¤= -ra J<r=) ¬=r ¤r=--r
+= f<¬r n«rr +¢= ¬¬ f+ v+ ·¬f«n +r ·¬r¤r= a·¤ ¢r ¬¬r «rr, =rnr +
=r ÷¤¬ =+=¤ f+v, v+ =rf=¬¬ ¤ar¬r; ¤¢ «¢n =r=¤r= ¢r ¬¬r; v+
f=:=-nr= <-¤fn «rr, === =rnr + <r =r ÷¤v, v+ =r=t, v+ =r= +r ¬¬
+r ¢r= ¤ar= +r =+=¤ f+¬r; ==+r ¤>r ¤r·n ¢r ¬¬r;
s= ¤+r= -rr¬t +r-=rv s= <-n +«rr+r ¤= +r=rrf=n ¢r+= +¤=t ¤f¤>r
¬tnr =t n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤<r +r -r¸¬ ¬v, f=== ¤¢ =¤ =r=r=rv ¤rr=>r f¤f=r =f¢n
f¬=rt ¢; f==+ +r=vr = +rs ==r ¢rnr ¢, = +rs +r¬ f={ ¢rnr ¢, = ¢t
¤== ¬fn +«rrn =f«n ¢rnt ¢; J¤=rvr ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16 =>r 23-24);
s=t ¤+r= =¢r <¤t +t +r=r f¬=t ¤¢r ==r <¤t +r =f-<= ¤ =¢r f=¤r f¬=t
¤¢r ~t =¤r¬r =t + =f-<= n«rr =¢r =r= f¬=r ¤¢r ¤·vrr <¤t + =f-<= +t
=«rr¤=r ¢s;
f¤¤r·r: ¤·vrr <¤t ¤= <¤r=r«r =r= ¤r¬r = = «¢n = ~{r¬ <tra=r =
=` ` ` ``-¬ +r ¤r·n ¢rn ¢; v+ ==¬ ¬r¤ ¬=r= =r==r Jf=. =r¢n+) + ¤r= <r
=r=¤= +t «= +r¤= = a+=rs f=== ¬¬-r¬ 30 ·¬f«n =r= ¬¬, === ¤r¬r
+t ==¬r == «= = +f=r+ «rt, =r ¤·vrr <¤t = +rs «rt;
¨¤º| = ~| ¬n-¬r·r ¬| +r =|-«º ¤·rrn =rr= += ¤¬r¨
==t=r ¤rn = v+ s-<<== =r= +r =r=r «rr; ¤¢ -r¬¤r= ~t +` ` ` `` ·vr =t
+r +=-¬ -r«n «rr; v+ =r>rt +r ~t +` ` ` `` ·vr =t = =r=r +r =¤¤= = <¤r= <+=
+¢r f+ =¬-=r«r =r= = ==r v+ =f-<= «=¤r <; ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t = ¬¢ -rt +¢r
«rr f+ s= =f-<= = =¸fn ¤¸=r =¢t +==t ¢; +¤¬ v+ =n er==r ¢ =r
<¤r+r +r ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +==r= ¬r= ¤¤r= +=; ==< na ¤= ¤¢ =«rr= -rt
f<=rr¬r =¢r =f-<= «=r=r «rr; =«¢ =a+= =r=r s-<<== = +¤=t ¤-=t +r
«nr¬r f+ +r= =r>rt +r -r¬¤r= ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t f<=rrs f<v; =f-<= «=¤r= +
rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \
27
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
f¬v +¢r ¢; =r=t = +¢r ¤r-r +r¬ = <=t «¬r³ =¤ =-¤f+r =-¢t +t <t ¢s
¢; =-¢t +r ==f¤n +== = «¬r =r¤=r ¢³ =r=r = == =«rr= ¤= =f-<=
«=¤r f<¬r =r ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t = =¤¤= = ==< + f+=r= ¤= f<=rr¬r «rr; =f-<=
«== + «r< ==<t n¤r= =ar, =f-<= +r nr= f<¬r; f=¤rr= -rt =¢t «¤r f+
¬¢r =f-<= «rr; v= =r=r = ¤r¤ «r= =f-<= «=¤r¬r; ¤r¤r «r= ==< = nr=
f<¬r;
=r=r = f==r¤r ¢r+= =f-<= = «=¤r= +r f=vr¬ ¬ f¬¬r; ¬¢ =r¤r f+
= =r= ==< == = +r== =-= +r ¤fn¤rr=r ¬ =¢r ¢; +r·r f=«n ¢r ¬¬r,
=f-<= «=r =¢t; +e ==¬ =¤=r-n ¤¸vr ¤==¤¤= J+f¤<¤) =¬rfn f====
J+r¬) +r f<v ¤¤= +==r= =r=r s-<<== + ¤r= +rv n«rr =r=r = +¢r
+r¤ =f-<= «=¤r+r; +« + ==< =f-<= J=¢¬) =¢t nr=¬r; =r=r = +¢r =n
=t =n f¤¤¤r= =¢t ¢; = -r¬¤r= ~t +` ` ` `` ·vr Jf¤·vr) =t + +r<¤r = =f-<=
«=¤r =¢r ¢¸; ~t +` ` ` `` ·vr =t ==< +r =¢t =r+ ¤r =¢ ¢; ¤r¤ «r= =f-<= «=¤r
¤+r ¢¸, ¬¢ =r¤ += f+ +¢t -r¬¤r= ==t ¤=t=rr ¬ =¢ ¢r; ¤=-n +« nr
¤=t=rr <= ¬r-¬ -rt =¢t =¢r ¢¸ «¬rf+ +r·r -rt f=«n ¢r ¬¬r ¢; +« =f-<=
«=¤r=r == ¤¤r +t «rn =¢t; ¤==¤¤= = +¢r s-<<== f== ¤==¤¤= = =¤
«mv=r +t =¤=r +t ¢, ¤¢t =¤ +r¬ +== = ==r= ¢, +-¬ ¤-r =¢t; = ==
¤==¤¤= +t ¤¤= ¤rf«n ¤r·n ¢¸; = ==< +r =r+ =+nr ¢¸ J+¤= +r¤ +r
e¤rn ¢v ¬«rr«r +¢ =¢ «r); =r=r = +¢r f+ =n =t = =¢t =r= =+nr f+
~t +` ` ` `` ·vr =t = -rt +rs ¤«¬ ¤rf«n ¬«n ¤-r ¢; =« ¤ ¢t ==< +r =¢t =r+
=+ nr +r¤ +r= = =rn +t =¸¬t ¢r; =n f¤¤¤r= =¢t ¢rnr n«rr = ¢t ==t
f¤fn¬ f=«rfn =f-<= J=¢¬) «=¤r= +t ¢; =n ÷¤ = +rv +f¤<¤ J+«t=
¤==¤¤=) = +¢r =r== ¬f< =f-<= «=¤r= +r == «= nr == ¤r= +r =r=r
= +=¸+ =«rr= ¤= =¢nr ¢¸; +« + ==< =f-<= +r =¢t nr=¬r; ¬¢ +¢ +=
¤-r ¤¬ +rv;
==t =r>rt = ¤-r ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t = f¤= =r=r s-<<== +r <¤r= f<v n«rr
+¢r s-<<== v+ «r= f¤= =¢¬ «=¤r <; =r n= ¤r= =n +r¬r «rr ===
=-¤+ +=+ =¢r¬nr +t ¬r¤=r += ¬; ¤¢ v=r ¤=r =n =¢t ¢; ==+t
-rf«n ¤rf«n +r +rs ¤r=¤r= =¢t ¢;
=r=r s-<<== =t< = =r¬r, =¤¤= +r ¤¸=r ¤` ` ` ``nr-n +¤=t =r=t +r
«nr¬r; =r=t = +¢r ¤-r +¢ =¢ ¢ nr +r¤ =n ¤+r; ¤-r +r =¢¬ f¤= «=¤r
<r; =r=t +t =<-rr¤=r ¬«n ¤rvrt == += =r=r = +¢r +« nr +r·r -rt =rr¬t
¢r ¤+r ¢; ¬f< =f-<= =¢t «=¤r=¬r nr ¤-r +¤=-= ¢r =r¬¬; = nr =r=
=+a = ¤= ¬¬r ¢¸; =r=t = +¢r == ¤r= ¬¢= ==r ¢; === +r=r=t =
28
=f-<= «= =r¬¬r; +r¤ ¬¢ ¬¢= ¬r n«rr ¤-r + +r<¤r +r ¤r¬= +=r, ¬¢
+¢n ¢v =r=t = =¤ ¬¢= =r tr= ==r «r n«rr =r ¤¢= ==r «r f=+r¬ +=
¤-r + f=f=n +¤= ¤fn + ¤=vrr = ==f¤n += f<¬; =r=r s-<<== ==
=«rr= ¤= ¬¬r =r ¤==¤¤= = =n ÷¤ = +r+= «nr¬r «rr; +«t= ¤-r +«rrn
+¤f=f¤n =n +r =rr= += ==< +r =r+= +t ¤r«r=r +t; ¤-r +«t= =t
J+f¤<¤) = +¢r f+ f== n=¤ = ==< =a += +rnr ¢, ¤¢r ==< + f+=r=
v+ ¤r=r J¤«¸n=r) «=¤r <; f== ¤= «a += = ¤-r +t -rf«n +÷¬r n«rr
==< +r =r+¸¬r;
=r=r = v+ «= ¤-«r= +r +r=t¬=r = ¤«¸n=r ==r «=¤r¬r, ¤==¤¤=
+«t= == ¤= «a ¬v; eat «r= =f-<= «==r ¤r=--r ¢+r; ==t ==¬ v+ =r«r
¤=-¤=r + f={ =¢r-=r +r ¬v; =r«r =t = =r=r = +¢r =r=r «¢n +-er
=f-<= «=¤r =¢ ¢r, s== =¸fn -rt =«rrf¤n +==t ¤rf¢v; =¸fn f«=r =f-<=
+=r³ ¬¢ ==r +r<¤r ¢; =r=r s-<<== = ¢r«r =r= += +¢r =r«r =t ¤-r
~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t = =n =¤¤= = <¤r= < += =f-<= «=¤r= +r +r<¤r f<¬r «rr
n«rr +¢r «rr f+ s= =¢¬ = = nr =¸fn ==r=t ¢, = ¢t ¤r=rv= ¤¸=r +==t
¢; =r=r +t «rn ==+= =r«r = +¢r =¤¤= -rt +rs =n ¢rnr ¢; == +r<¤r
+r ¤r¬= +tf=v n«rr ¤-<= +t ¬+=t +t =¸fn +¤¤¬ =«rrf¤n +tf=v¬r; ¬¢
+¢ += =r«r =t f«=r =¬ ¤r= ¬¢vr f+v =a ¬v; =r=r = == + =r= ¤-<=
+t ¬+=t =¬¤rs n«rr +r=t¬= +r =¸fn «=r= +r +r<¤r < f<¬r; v+ =¸fn
~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t +t =«rrf¤n +== +r +r<¤r ~t =r«r =t +r «rr; f¤= +-¬
¬=+r=nr = =r=r +r =r¬ <t f+ ++¬ ¤-r += =¢¬³ ¤ nr ~t «¬=r= +r
=<r =r«r ==rn «r; v+ = +¢r «¢= =-r<r nr -r¬¤r= ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t +t ¬r=¬t
«¢= «rt, ¤¢ += +¤= -rrs f«=r =¢ =+nt ¢³ nt= =¸fn¬r «=¤r= +r f=vr¬
f¬¬r ¬¬r; nt= +r=t¬= f=¬«n f+v; =¸fn¬r n¬r= ¢rn ¢t a+=a+= ¢r ¬s;
v= nt= «r= =¸fn¬r =rv= ¢r ¬s; =r=r «¢n f¤f-nn ¢+r; =r¤r == -rr-¬ =
¬¢ ¬¤r ¤ ¤v¬ += =¢t ¢; =f-<= «=nr ¢ ¤¢ a¸a =rnr ¢; +« =¸fn¬r a¸a
=¢t ¢; =r«r =t ÷·a ¢r += ¬v ¢; ¬f< +¢¸¬r f+ =¸fn¬r a¸a =rnt ¢ nr
=r¤¬r f+ =r=r «¢r=r «=r =¢r ¢, +¢t =n ¤rr¤ = < <; f¤-nr ¬=n =r=r
= nr +r¢r= += =¢r ¢, = =r>rt -r= f=-<r +rs; =«¢ +¤rr-n +¤=«rr = =r=
<=«r= = ¬¬r;
==t ==¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r J+f¤<¤) +«t= ¤-r v+ +==t ¤·rt¬ +r=t¬= +r
÷¤ «=r+= =r= <=«r= = =¤f=«rn ¢+r; +== ¤= v+ «r¬r ¬a+rv ¢v «rr
f=== +r=t «r¢= =¤·a f<=rrs < =¢t «rt, =r=r f«=r «nrv +r=t¬= +r ¤f=¤¬
< =¢t «rt n«rr +-¬ «=r¬r ¤ «==r +rf< «r¬ = -r= «r; +r=t¬= ¤¤r = ¤-r
rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \
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HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
= =r=r = +¢r == ==r ¢ f+ ¤-r + =f-<= + f¬v =¸fn¬r ¤¸vr =¢t ¢r =¢t
¢; = 80 ¤·r +r ¤` ` ` `` { ¢r ¤+r ¢¸ n«rr 60 ¤·r +r +=-r¤ ¢; ¤-<= +t ¬+=t
+t =¸fn ¤-¬+ +r=t¬= =¢t «=r =+nr; ¬f< +r¤ +t +r¬r ¢r nr =¤+
=¤f=«rn ¢; =r=r = +¢r +r=t¬= +r¤ == f¬v -r¬¤r= ¢t +r=t¬= «= +=
+r¬ ¬¬n ¢r; = «¢n f¤f-nn «rr; =r¤ ¢t =¢r «rr f+ +rs +=-r¤t +r=t¬=
f=¬ nr ===¬r +r ==r=rr= «=; +r¤ ¤rttr =¸fn¬r «=r <r; ¤` ` ` `` { +r=t¬= ÷¤
= +rv +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤-r) = +¢r =r== =n v+ +==r < <r, f=== «a +=
¤-r +t =¸fn n¬r= +÷¬r; = +<= = <=¤r=r «< +=+ =¤-enr = =¸fn
«=r=¬r; ¬ =¸fn¬r =« n¬r= ¢r =r¬¬t n« <=¤r=r =r¬¬r, ¬f< «t¤ = f+=t
= =rr¬ f<¬r nr f=n=t =¸fn¬r «=¬t =n=t ¢t =¢ =r¬¬t; =r=r = +¢r ==r
+r¤ =f¤n ==nr ¤=r +=r;
«r=¢ f<= =¸fn¬r «=rn ¢r ¬v nr =r«r =t +r ¬v; =r«r =t = =r=r =
¤¸er s-<<== =¸fn¬r «=rs «¬r³ =r=r = += «{ ¢r += +¢r f+ +r¤ +t
+r¬r +r ¤¸vr ¤r¬= f+¬r ¬¬r ¢ =¢r-=r =t; ¤=-n ==r <-rr-¬ ¢ f+ =¸fn¬r
«= =¢t ¤r =¢t ¢; +r=rt «=n ¢t a+=a+= ¢r =rnt ¢ =r+=r = =¸fn¬r +
a+= =¬¤r+= =r«r =t +r f¤¤¤r= f<¬r= + f¬v f<=rrv; =r«r =t = +¢r
f+ =¸fn +¤¤¬ «=¤r=t ¢; +« «=¤r+r = <=rnr ¢¸ += =¸fn a¸ant ¢; =r=r
= +¢r =r«r =t ¤¬-= f+¬r =r =¢r ¢; ¤-r +r -r=r v+ +=-r¤t 80 ¤·rt¬
+r=t¬= «-< +== = =¸fn «=r =¢r ¢; === +¢r ¢ f+ =¸fn¬r «= =r= ¤=
= +¤= +r¤ ar= =rr¬ <¸¬r; ¬f< f+=t = «t¤ = ar= =rr¬ f<¬r nr f=n=t
=¸fn¬r «=t ¢r¬t =n=t ¢t =¢ =r¬¬t; +r= == =¸fn «=rn «r=¢ f<= ¢r ¬¬;
= nr «r¢= f=+¬r ¢, = ¢t =¬ ¤r= n«rr +r¢r= ¢t f+¬r ¢; =r«r =t = +¢r
f+ =¸fn¬r <=r=t ¤rf¢¬, +=t «=r =¢r ¢³ «== + «r< «¬r <=r=r ¢; at+
=¢t «=t ¢r¬t nr at+ «=r¬¬; ¬¢ +¢+= =r«r =t =r=r s-<<== +r =r«r
¬+= == +== + =r== ¬v =¢r =¸fn «=rs =r =¢t «rt n«rr +r¤r= ¬¬rs
+r=t¬= ar= =rr¬r; +s «r= +¢r ¤=-n ar= =¢t =r¬r n«rr =r =ra=ra +t
+r¤r= +r =¢t «rt, ¤¢ -rt «-< ¢r ¬s; =r«r =t = +¢r f+ 80 ¤·rt¬ ¤` ` ` ``{ «nr
=¢ ¢r, «r=¢ f<= =rr=rf¤=r -rt =¢t f+¬r ¢; +« +r¤r= -rt «< ¢, +¢t ==
= ¬¬r ¢r; =r«+r =r= += <=¤r=r nr= f<¬r, <=rr nr nt= =¸fn¬r ==rt «rt,
nt=r + ¢r«r + ¤ ¤=r + ¤= =¢t «= «r; +r=t¬= +-n=¬r= «rr;
=f-<= «= += n¬r= ¢r ¬¬r +r= ¤r=r = <=r+= +¤= ¢a ¤= +f=¬
=r«r =t = +¢r v=t ¢t =¸fn¬r +r =«rrf¤n += <r, ¢r =+nr ¢ ¤-r +r ¬¢t
=¤t+r= ¢r, ¬¬nr ¢ ~t +` ` ` `` ·vr ¢t =¤¬ =¸fn¬r «=r += ¬v ¢;
==¬ ¤r= = ¤r-r =¸¢¸n f=+r¬ += +¬¬ f<= ¢t =¸fn¬r +t =«rr¤=r +=
30
<t; =¤ ¤rv= n«rr ==¬ ¤r=r ¤ =r=r n«rr =f=+ ¤ ~{r¬ =¸fn¬r = ¤rvr
=«rr¤=r +== + f¬v ¤¬ ¤=; ¤¸vr ¤==¤¤= J+f¤<¤) v+ ¤r< +r ÷¤ =rr=vr
+=+ =f-<= + ==¬ ar= + ==¬ = =f-<= +t +r= ==r +=+ =r= ¢r ¬v;
v=t ¬t¬r += =¢ «r =r=r ==+r ¬r= ¢t = ¢r f+ ¤te = ¤-r +t ¤rvr =«rr¤=r
+t ==r +r =¢t ¢; +r¬+r¬ ==¬ ¤r=r ¤¬ =¢r «rr; ¤==¤¤= f¤= -rt ar=
+ ==¬ = ¢t =r= =¢; f=+a +r += ==¬ ¤r= = ¤r< ÷¤ = =r= ¤==¤¤=
+r v=r =r«+r =r=r f+ <¸= =r += f¬= n«rr v+r-n =«rr= ¤= ¤r< ¬t¬r +=n
¢v «a ¬v; =r=r =f¢n =¤ ~{r¬+r = =f-<= + +-<= =r += <=rr nr =¤
=¸fn¬r ==t ar= ¤= =r= ¤r< ÷¤ ¤==¤¤= +r ÷¤ =rr=vr f+v ¢v «rt; s=
+rn¸+ +r <=r+= =¤f=«rn ·¬f«n +¤f--rn ¢r ¬v; ==¬ ¤r=r +¢= ¬¬r ¤-r
=r·=r ¢r ¬¬r ¢ «¬rf+ ==¬ ar= +r == ¤r< = +¤r{ += f<¬r ¢; s=f¬v
=¤ =¸fn¬r = ¤r< ÷¤ =rr=vr += f¬¬r ¢; «=r +f=·a ¢r ¬¬r ¢; +e ==¬
=¤=r-n =¸fn¬r +r ¤r=nf¤+ ÷¤ ¢r ¬¬r; ¬¬r =¬ = +s «r= =¤-e +=+
¤rvr =«rr¤=r +t ¬s; ¦¬l(·( · ¬ri ¬ni·ni ( ¤iªiº· (i· ¬i ¤º- ¬i-i ·ªi|
¬iºi^º -¸ ln ¬i ·i^(i· «·ni r | l¤º ¤¸ ¬iºi ¤i ¬·¤ ¬ n ·¬ -¸ ln ª¤i ¤ ·i - ¤ iºi ·i¬ni
r ¬·iin ¤·i ¬i ¬i(· ·i· ·ni r| n« (r l---i ¤i ¬¬·i ¬i ¤·i ¬i¤ l¬, ¬ºni
r, (ir º ¤iªilº·¤i ªi¸« -¸ªi «·i¤i ¤·i ¤-i ¬i--i¬i ¬i|¦
=¸fn =«rr¤=r ¢r =r= + +e f<= ¤¤¤rn ¬¬-r¬ 40 ¤¸a =¤r ==< +r
=¬ =ar f== ==<t n¤r= +¢n ¢ n«rr «¢n ¤¬ = =f-<= +t +r= ¤¬r;
=r== +«t= ¤==¤¤= ¤r=r J¤«n=) ¤= «a «r; +¤=r v+ ¢r«r =ar¬r ==
+r¤rt¤r< <n ¢, ==< =ar +r =ar =¢ ¬¬r n«rr ¤¤n +t n=¢ =r=r =¢r,
+r¬ =¢t «a =+r; f¤¤ ÷¤ «=r += ==< +r¬r n«rr ¤«¸n= ¤= «a ¤-r =
+¢r f+ -r¬¤= +r¤ =n =r=nr < <r, = =f-<= nr== =r=¬r; ¤-r = +¢r f+
¬¢ =f-<= =¢t ¢; ¬¢ nr =¢¬ J+r~=) ¢; s= = f¤ar= ¤=·r =¢r +=¬r n«rr
¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +r ¬r= f<¬r +=¬r; +r¤+r s=+r f¤=r¤¤r +==r ¤rr-rr =¢t
<nr; ==< = +¢r f+ = s= +¤¤¬ nr=¸¬r; ¤-r = +¢r f+ =r+r +r= =r+nr
¢³ ==< = +¢r f+ = f¤¤¤r ¢r ¬¬r ¢¸; +r¤+t ¤rf«n +¤r= ¢; =n ==nr
< <r ¤-r; ¤==¤¤= +«t= =r¢« =t = ¤¸er f+ +r¤ v=r «¬r += =¢ ¢r³ f¤¤
÷¤ = =¤f=«rn ==< = +¢r f+ =« ¬¢ ~t +` ` ` `` ·vr =t >rnr¬¬ = ~t =r=¤-<
÷¤ = +r¬r «rr n« s== =n +f-= «rvr f<=rr += «=r -r¬r +¢ += +¤=rf=n
+=+ =r=nr =r¬r «rr; = ¤¢ ¤fn¤rr=r ¬= =r =¢r ¢¸;
¤==¤¤= +«t= =t = +¢r f+ ¤fn¤rr=r nr +r¤ ¤¢¬ ¢t ¬ ¤+ ¢r; +r¤=
arf=+r +r =¸«r ==rr ¢; ==< = +¢r f+ +-rt ¤¸vr =¢t =¸«r ¤r¬r ¢¸, +r=rt
=¢nt ¢; ¤¢ -rt +rs ¤«¬ ¤rf«n ¬«n =n =r== +r ¬¬r «rr f== +r=vr =
rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \
31
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
= arf=+r +r ¤¸vr ÷¤vr =¢t ==r ¤r¬r; +« -rt +rf¤r¤r +=nr ¢¸ nr ==r= =¢t
=r ¤r =¢r ¢¸; ==r= =r= = =n «r=r ==rr ¢;
n« ¤==¤¤= +«t= J+f¤<¤) = +¢r ¤¢r -rt = ¢t ¤¢¤r «rr; == ¢t ¤¢
+¤¤r·r «¤r¬r «rr; +« =r ¤r·r «¤t arf=+r +r -rt f=¬¬ ¬, ¤=-n == ¬r<¬r=
+r er= <=r, =¢r ~t +` ` ` `` ·vr =t + ¤r=t= +r +f-n= ==+r= f+¬r ¬¬r «rr (¬i
¬`·ºi ¬i ¬ ¬l·n- ¬-¬iº -·i¬ ¤º «rn «·i -l··º «·i l·¤i ^¤i| ¤r ¤i·^iº ¤-iºi
«·i ºr^i l¬ (i-n( - ¬i ¬`·ºi ¬i ¬i -`-¤ r; ·ii n·ii ¤¤ ·iiln¬ ºiºiº ¬i· ^¤ ·i|
·ri ni ¬i· (i¬ ¬-¤ - ¬r^ l¬ ¬i ¬` ·ºi ¬i ¬i ni -`-¤ ri ·ri r; ·ii); +r¬r ¤r·n
+= ¤r·r arf=+r +r -rt ==< = =¸«r f¬¬r; ¤==¤¤= +«t= =t J+f¤<¤) = +¢r
+« +r¤ +r¬ = +-rt -rt s= =¬-=r«r =f-<= +r nr== +r ¤¬-= = +==r n«rr
s= =¢¬ = <¸= ¤¬r =r; +r¬r ¤-r +t =r= += ¤vrr= +=+ ==-< =f-<=
= <¸= ¬¬-r¬ =a f+¬r=ta= +¤= =¬ +r ¬ ¬¬r; v= ~t =¬-=r«r =t +r
=f-<= +«rrn =rr= =«rrf¤n ¢+r;
¨~| ¬n-¬r·r + =|-«º = e¤rern ¤rº--r = ;| ¬;| ;¨
+e f<= ¤¤¤rn f== ¤r= = ¤-r +«t= =t +r ¤r< ÷¤ = =r«+r =r=r
«rr ==+r +·a =r¬ ¢r ¬¬r; =¤ +r·r=rt +== ¤= -rt =¤=«r =¢t ¢+r; +·a
=r¬ +r +·a +f=r+ = +f=r+ «anr ¢t ¤¬r ¬¬r; =¤ =¤r==r¬ -rt +t, ~t
=¬-=r«r =t = =r=r+= =+a f=¤rvr + f¬v ¤r«r=r +t, ¤=-n =¤ f=·¤¬
=¢t; =¤¤= = ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t = <¤r= f<v n«rr +¢r ¤r= == =n + ¤=vr =rr+=
¤=vrr=` ` ` ``n ¤r= += f==+r n= =f-<= + ==¬ ar= ¤= =r«+r =r=r «rr; n«
==+ +r¤rt¤r< = n=r +·a =r¬ at+ ¢r =+nr ¢; ¬f< === nn ;<¬ =
=r=r f+¬r nr, n=r +·a =r¬ ==r·n ¢r¬r +-¬«rr =¢t; ==nr «¬r =¢t +=nr³
¤¢ ==¬ ¤r=r =¤= =ar; +s =¢¬r¬t ¤r=r +r =r«r ¬+= == =«rr=
¤= ¬¬r =¢r ¤= ¤-r +«t= =t ¤r< ÷¤ = f¤=r==r= «r; =¬r ¢t ¤r=r ¤-r +
f=+a +r¬r nr ¤==¤¤= =a += ¤¬ ¤= n«rr +¢r ¢ ¤r=r = nr +e¸n ¢¸ ==
= <¸= =¢=r, +¢t +r¤ +¤f¤>r = ¢r =r¬; ¤r=r f=+a ¤¢¸¤r, ¤==¤¤= +r=
+r¬ ¤¬ ¤=; n« ¤r=r ¤¸a¤¸a += =r= ¬¬r n«rr +¢r ¤=¤=<t¬r= ==r <r·r
=r=r += <r; n« <¬r¬ ¤-r ÷+ ¬v; ¤r= = +r<= + =r«r v+ =¤-e ¤=>r
==t= ¤= f«er += ¤-r +r «a= +t ¤r«r=r +t; ¤-r == ¤=>r ¤= «a ¬v;
n« == ¤r= = =¤¬ ¤=vr =rrv n«rr ¤=vrr=` ` ` `` n +r ¤r>r = ¤rf¤= =r¬ f¬¬r;
¤-r +«t= =t = +¢r ¤r= ¤r¬t= f<= n+ s= ¤t=r -rt n«rr ==r= +== ¤r¬
=¬ = +e =r¬ += ==r= +=n =¢=r; ¤r¬t=¤ f<= n=r +·a =r¬ ==r·n
¢r¬r n«rr +¢r f+ -rf¤·¬ = -rt s= =¬-=r«r =t + =f-<= = f+=t = e¸+rern
32
f+¬r nr ==+r -rt <v= f=¬¬r; =¤ =¤f=«rn ·¬f«n¬r = ¤¤= f+v f+ +r=
+ «r< s= ¤f¤>r =«rr= ¤= +rs e+rern =¢t +t =r¬¬t;
f¤¤r= += : f¢-<=nr= +r v+=r>r v=r =f-<= ¢ f=== ¤r=--r = ¢t
e¸+rern =¢t =¢t ¢;
=n <r= +r -rt == =«rr= +r <=r= +r +¤== ¤r·n ¢+r; +s =¤+r
+ =r«r == =«r¬ +r <=r= + f¬v ¬¬r «rr f+ +e ¤=rvr ¤r·n +÷; ¤¢r
¤= =¤ ¤=rvr +r= -rt =r=rt f=¬; f== ¤-«r= + ¤«¸n= J¤r=r) ¤= «a +=
+«t= ¤==¤¤= =t = =f-<= +r «¤r= + f¬v ==< +r =r+r «rr ¤¢ +r= -rt
f¤n=r= ¢; ==+ =¤= v+ ¬r<¬r= ÷¤ = ¬== «=r ==rr ¢; ¤¢r ¤= «¢n
¤=rn= =¢-n J==r¤r¬r) ¤=-¤=r = v+ +r~= -rt f¤n=r= ¢; ¤¢r ¤= ¬¬-r¬
70 ¤·rt¬ ¤` ` ` ``{ =¢-n =t = =¤=r«n =f-<= +t ==< = ==rr +t =r=+r=t ¤r¢t
nr === -rt ¬¢t «nr¬r n«rr +¢r f+ == ¤¸¤= +s ¤tat¬r = ¬¢r ¤= =¢-n
J==r¤r¬) =¢ ¢; ¬¢r ¤= ¢t ~t =r=<r= =r¢« ¤ ==+t ¤-=t -r«n=fn +r==t
<¤t = ¤r=t= -¬r¬r «rr; <r=r +t ==rf=r¬r -rt =r«r=r«r «=t f<=rrs;
¢= ~t =¬-=r«r =t + =f-<= = -rt ¬v; ¤¢r ¤= =¸fn ¤¸=r +r= -rt =¢t
¢; ¤=-n ¤<¤r=t +¤¤¬ ¬¬r ==rt ¢; =r nt= =¸fn¬r -r¬¤r= ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t n«rr
~t «¬=r= =t ¤ «¢= =-r<r =t +t =f-<= + +-<= =«rrf¤n ¢ ==+ <r=r
¢r«rr + ¤= =¢t ¢, <r=r ¢r«r a¸= ¢; == =¸fn¬r +t -rt ¤¸=r =¢t ¢rnt, +¤¬
<¤r=r«r ==rt ¢; ¤¢r ¤= v+ ¬rs= ¤r= = ¤¸er f+ ==r ¢ f+ ¬¢ =f-<= ¤r¤
«r= ==< = nr=r «rr ¤== «=¤r¬r «rr; ==< = «¬r nr=r³ f¤= f+== ==<
+r =r+r; ¤r= = +¢r sn=r nr =n ¤nr =¢t; ¬¢ =¤ +` ` ` ``¤r =¬-=r«r =t +t
«rt, =-¢r= ¢t ==< +r =r+r «rr, ==r nr ¢ f+ ==< = nt= «r= =f-<= +r
nr=r «rr; == f¤= ¤¤= f+¬r f+ ¤«r= ¤r= ¢t «¬r = ==< =r+r ¤-r =; ¤r=
= =+r= f<¬r f+ ¬t¬r ¢ =¬-=r«r +t;
== f¤= ¤¸er f+ s= =f-<= = e¸+rern ¢ ¬r =¢t³ === +¢r =« =
=f-<= «=r ¢ ¬¢r +rs e¸+rern =¢t ¢; =f-<= = ¤r< n«rr ¤r=r v+ «rr¬t
¬r ¤n¬ = =rr=r =rr =+n ¢ +rs ==r =¢t +=nr; == ¤¤= f+¬r ¤r= =t
+-¬ f¢-< =f-<=r = nr ¤¢¬ «¢n e+rern «rt, s== «¬r =¢t³ ¤-r nr ¤¢t
¢; ¤r= +r =n= «rr ¬t¬r ¢ =¬-=r«r +t;
+« ¤v¬r-=rv f¤¤r= += f+ =n +r f+n=r <«r¬r ¬¬r ¢, v+ ¬t¬r
=¬-=r«r +t +¢ +=; ¤f¤>r ¬r<¬r= +r<=vrt¬ ¢, ¤=-n +r-= +=¬rvr nr
+¤¬ ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t ¤ ¤f¤>r ¤<r = ¤fvrn n«rr ¤==¤¤= +«t= =t ar=r f<v
n-¤¬r= + +==r= -rf«n =r=r=r +== =r>r = ¢t =--r¤ ¢, +-¬«rr ¤rr=>r
f¤={ ¢r= = =r=¤ =t¤= ·¬«r ¢r =rv¬r; ¤=rvr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16 =>r 23-
rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \ rhFkZ rFkk /kke D;k gS \
33
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
24 ; ~t =¬-=r«r + =f-<= = ¤-r + +r<¤rr==r= ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t + ¬r= +t
=f¢=r +r ¬vr¬r= ¢r=r ¢t ~¬+= ¢ n«rr ==r ~t=<-r¬¤n ¬tnr =t = -rf«n
f¤f=r ¢ ==t ¤+r= =r=r=r +== =r>r = ¢t +r-= +=¬rvr =-r¤ ¢, +-¬«rr
=¬-=r«r =t + <¤r= =r>r ¬r f=r¤=t ¤=r< =rr= =r>r = +rs ¬r-r =¢t, «¬rf+
¬¢ fa¬r ~t ¬tnr =t = ¤fvrn = ¢r= = ¤rr=>r f¤={ ¢s, =r +=¬r¬ 16 =>r
23-24 = ¤=rvr ¢;
''=¸|n ¤¸¬r +º¬r =|¤n ¤r ¤¬|¤n''
+«t= ¤==¤¤= = +¢r ¢ =r=<r=! +r¤ =¸fn ¤¸=r J=rf¬¬=r= +t ¤¸=r)
+=n ¢r ¬¢ ¤¸=r -rt ¬tnr =t = =¢t +¢t ¢; ¤¤= : =r=<r= =t = ¤¤= f+¬r, ¢
=¢r-=r =t «¬r =¸fn ==r=r ¢t =¢t ¤rf¢v³
¤==¤¤= = =+r= f<¬r : == +r= ¬r =« + ¤¬ +t ¤-«r= ¬r f=aat +t
=¸fn f+=t = ¬ ==rt ¢ ¬r +r¬= ¤= =-<= f¤>r «=r ==rr ¢ ¤¢ +¤¬ f¤>r ¢
¤r=nf¤+ ¤=n =¢t ¢; == ¤¬ + f¤>r = ¤=r + ¬vrr +r ¬r= ¢rnr ¢ == +r
¤r·n +=+ =rr= +r == +=nr ¢; == ¤¬ +r f==+r f¤>r +r¤+ ¤r= ¢ ¤r·n
+=+ =rr= = ¬r-r ¢r¬r = +t == ¤¬ + f¤>r ¬r =¸fn +t ¤¸=r +== =r>r =;
+r= + ¤¬ +t =¸fn +r= +r ¤¬ =¢t ¢ == =¸fn ¤r¬ ¤¬ +r ¤r·n +== +t
f¤nt f-r-= ¢; == ==<¸=t ¤f=~= +=+ ÷¤¬ ¤r·n += nn ¤¤¤rn «r=r= =
=r+= ¤¬ ¤r·n +=+ =rrv; s=t ¤+r= f== <¤ +t =¸fn ¢ == <¤ +r ¤r·n
+== +t f¤f=r f-r--r ¢; f+=t n-¤<¤rt =-n ¬= + ¤r= =r+= == ¤-r +r ¤r·n
+== +t =r=r=r J¤¸=r) +=+ == ¤==r-=r + ¬r-r +r ¤r·n +=; =¬r= =¢ f+ ¤¢
=¸fn ¤==r-=r +t ¢ ¤¢ =¸fn ¤==r-=r =¢t ¢; =¸fn +r <=r+= == ¤r·n +== +t
¤=vrr ¢rnt ¢ s=f¬v +¤= s·a <¤ +t =¸fn ==r=r +-et «rn ¢ == ===+r=
+== = =r=r+ = +r=rt=t +r -rr¤ «=r =¢nr ¢ =r -rf«n =r¬ = +fn +r¤¤¬+ ¢
n«rr ¤-r +r ¤=-< ¢ ¤=-n == =¸fn ¤ f¤>r ¤r¬ ¤==r--rr +r ¤r·n +== ¤= ¢t
==+r ¤r=nf¤+ ¬r-r +«rrn =r=r ¤r·n ¢r¬r +¤¬ =¸fn ¤¸=r = =¢t;

34
¤¤= : ¤¸vr =-n +t «¬r ¤¢¤r= ¢³ f== -rt =-n + f¤¤r= ==n ¢
¤¢ ¤¸vr ¬¬nr ¢; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = nr ¢= «nr¬r ¢ f+ =n¬r+ +«rrn
=n=r= = =n¤÷·r f==r+r= ¢; +¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢t ¤+r¤r ¢; +r-=r +r
=n¤÷·r = f¤¬t= ¢r =r=r ¢t =r=r ¢; =r= ===r ¢t =-r¤÷·r ¤rf·n ¢;
== 4 = 8 trva n+ +-¬r= += + <=r f¬¬r +rs =v=¬ f<=rrs =¢t
f<v; =r ¤+r¤r ¤ =r= +e f<= «r< f<=r= n«rr === ¬¬r «rr ¤¢t ¤¬
=¢r ¢, +r= -rt =r=r« ¢r ¬v, ¤=r = -rt +==r=t +r ¬s ¢; +r¤ + ar=r
f¬=rt ¤=n+r ´´¤==¤¤= +r =r= =<¤r´´ n«rr ´´¬¢=t === ¬tnr =´´ =
nr +r=r =rr¬ <t ¢; ==r¤r= ¤>rr = +r¤ + ¬=r ¤a= = ¬¬ =¢r ¢ f+
¤rr¬< ¤==r-=r f¤= = f=+a +r =¢r ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤=rfvrn
¤¢¤r= «nrv;
=+r=: ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤¢¤r=J1): =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + ¤«r= =-n =r= =r= ¤r¬
~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¤ =r=rr=¤r=t =t +r ¬r= ¢t =¢t f+ =n=r= «¬r ¤=n ¢; ~t
f¤r¤ <¬r¬ =t n«rr ==+ +=¬rs =r=r ¤r·n ¢t =¢t += =+n; ¤ =n=r= +r
=«rr= -rt +¢n ¢ +¢t ¤= +¢r ¢ =n=r= ¢=r=t =rfn ¢, +¢t ¤= =n¤÷·r +¢n
¢, +¢t ¤= =r==r= +¢n ¢, +¢t ¤= =n¬r+ +¢n ¢ n«rr ¤r¤ =r= =n=r= +r
=r¤ -rt ¢; =« +t =n=r= <r +=r= +r =->r ¢; f=== v+ +r= n«rr <¸==r
nnJ=r =r+fn+ ¢ +¤¬ =¤<¤rt +r ¢t «nr¬r =rv¬r) n«rr s= <r +=r= +
=n=r= +t +=rs +== + ¤¤¤rn v+ =->r +r= f<¬r =rv¬r =r =r==r= J=n
¤r·<) +¢r =rnr ¢;
+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤¢¤r= : == =r=r +r =f¤=rr= ¢; v= ¢t ¤f¤>r
¤rr=>r ¤==r-=r +r =f¤=rr= ¢ =r f+=t ·¬f«n f¤¤r·r +r «=r¬r ¢+r =¢t ¢; =¤¬
¤-r ¤<+r ¢; ¤f¤>r ¤r=r ¤< «m =` ` ` ``·at + +rf< ¬-«r ¢ =r «mJ+r¬ +«rrn
=¬rfn f====) ar=r «r¬ ¬v ¢; s-¢t ¤r=r ¤<r +r =r=r¤r ¤f¤>r ~t=<-r¬¤n
¬tnr =t ¢ =r +r¬ -r¬¤r-rJ«m,=r= ¤÷·r) ar=r ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t = ¤¤¤r +=+ «r¬r
¬¬r +=` ` ` ``n ¬r= ¢; f=== +r¬ ¤-r +t -rf«n n+ +r ¬r= ¢ n«rr ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r
J=-r¤÷·r) +r n«rr =n¬r+ +r -rt ¬r= ¢; ¤=-n -rf«n f¤f=r +¤¬ +r¬ «m
J=r= ¤÷·r) n+ +t ¢t ¢ ¤=-n ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t =r=r=r n«rr n-¤ ¬r= +r f+=t
n-¤<¤rtJ¤¸vr) =-n = =r== +r +¢r ¢ J¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34); «¬rf+
¤f¤>r ¤r=r ¤< n«rr ¤f¤>r ~t =<-r¬¤n ¬tnr =t +r v=r ¬r= =r=r == <=¤t
+=rr n+ +r ¤ra¬a=; ¤r¤¤r ¤< f== =¤== ¤<J=¸== ¤<) +¢n ¢ f===
¤r=r ¤< n«rr ¬tnr =t n«rr s== =¤= +r -rt ¬r= ¢; ¤¢ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +«rrn
iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku
35
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
=n¤÷·r +f¤<¤J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) = =¤¬ =n¬r+ = +r+= +r¬ ¬r+ = +¤=t
+=` ` ` ``n ¤rvrtJ+«t= ¤rvrt) ar=r =¤¬ ¤+a f+¬r ¢; =r +r¬ -r¬¤r=J=r= ¤÷·r) =
==r·n += f<¬r «rr; == f+=t +¤=r=r +t =rr=r + f¤·r¬ = ¤r¤ ¤+t¬ +¤=r2
=n ·¬«n += =¢ ¢; v+ +¢nr ¢ s= +¤=r=r ¤= =f¤=rr= +t =rr=r 304 ¬¬¬t,
<¸==r +¢nr ¢ 307 ¬¬¬t, nt==r +¢nr ¢ 305 ¬¬¬t, ¤r«rr +¢nr ¢ 376
¬¬¬t, ¤r¤¤r +¢nr ¢ 311«t ¬¬¬t; ¤ ¤r¤r ¤+t¬ at+ =¢t ¢r =+n; +r=
=t =rr=r at+ ¢ ¬¢ f=vr¬ <¤r + =f¤=rr= = ¢t ¢r¬r; =f¤=rr= = f¬=rr f¤¤=vr
+f-n= n«rr =-¬ =r-¬ ¢rnr ¢;
at+ s=t ¤+r= ¤==r-=r + ¬r= n«rr -rf«-r =r¬ +t =r¤ + f¬v ¤f¤>r
=<¬-«rr +r ¢t +r=rr= =r=r =rv¬r; ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t = n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤r=r ¤<r =
n«rrJ¤r¤¤ ¤<) +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) +t +=` ` ` ``n ¤rvrt = =¤ ¬r= n«rr -rf«n
f¤f=r =¤·a f¬=rt ¢; ¤¢¬ ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +r +r=rr= =r= += ¬r= ¬¢vr +=n ¢;
¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t = nt=r ¤-r+r [«m J=r= ¤÷·r,+r¬) n«rr ¤=«m J+=r= ¤÷·r)
n«rr ¤¸vr «m J¤== +=r= ¤÷·r +«rrn =n¤÷·r)) +t -rt =r=+r=t ¢;
¬tnr =t +r ¬r= «m J=r= ¤÷·r,+r¬) ar=r f<¬r ¬¬r ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 17
¤¬r+ 23 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr J¤== +=r= «m) +t ¤rf·n + f¬v
÷nn=n s= nt= =->r + =r¤ +== +r f=<¤r ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 8 ¤¬r+ 13 =
¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r = +¢r f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t ¤rf·n +r ÷nn=n nt= =->r
+r =r¤ ¢ == =->r = ==t -rf«n J=r=r=r) +r +¤¬ v+ +r= J÷) +=r= ¢
f==+r =-¤r=vr +=+ ===vr +==r ¢; =r =r=r+ +f-n= =¤r= n+ ==r ===vr
+=nr ¢+r ¤rvr -¬r¬ =rnr ¢ == ¤==¬fn ¤r·n ¢rnt ¢; ++¬r ÷ =r= +r =r¤
+r¬ «m +t =r=r=r +r ¢; n«rr «m =r=r=r +r ¤fn¤¬ =¤¬ =¢r=¤¬ ¤rf·n,
f¤= ¤r¤ += +r=rr= = ==+ +r -rr¬ n«rr ¤r=r=t ¬r=r ¬rf=¬r = =-==` ` ` ``-¬ +r
+·a =<r «=r =¢¬r; +¤¬ ==r += ¤rvrt J¤r¤¤v¬) +=nr ¢ ¤¢ <r=r +r ¤=r
-rr¬nr ¢; s== +rs ¤f=¤n= =¢t ¢r =+nr J+¤¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t =r=r=r +==
= ¤r¤ += <v= ==r·n ¢rnr ¢);
s=t +r ¤=rvr ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 5 = +¢nr ¢ f+
+== n= n«rr == «¢n = =-= ¢r ¤+ ¢, n¸ =¢t =r=nr, = =r=nr ¢¸; ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 2 ¤¬r+ 12 = -rt ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¢ n«rr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 2 ¤¬r+ 17 n«rr ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 62, ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 4, 17 = +¤= = +-¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r
J¤==¤¤=) + f¤·r¬ = +¢r ¢ n«rr ¤¢t ¤r=n¤ = +f¤=r¤rt ¤==r-=r ¢; ¤¢t =¤
«mv=r +r =¤=¢r= ¢; ==t +t ¤r=vr = =r= = =-==` ` ` ``-¬ +r =r¬ ¤¸vr ÷¤ =
==r·n ¢r =rv¬r +«rrn ¤¸vr =r=r ¤r·n ¢r =rv¬r;
36
== ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr J=n¤÷·r +«rrn +f¤=r¤rt ¤==¤¤=) + n-¤¬r= n«rr -rf«n
f¤f=r + f¤·r¬ = ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 32 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤==¤¤= +r ¤r·n +== +
f¬v «¢n f¤=n` ` ` ``n =r=r=r+r +r ¬r= =¤¬ ¤==¤¤= = +¤= ==r = ==¬ ¬r= =
+«rrn n-¤¬r= = +¢r f¤= ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34 = +¢r f+ == n-¤¬r= +r
==n ==+r ==n= + f¬v -r-¤<¤rt =-nr +t =rr= +=; f¤= == n-¤<¤rt =-nr
+r f¤== -rr¤ = =v=¤n ¤vrr= +=+ ¤r«r=r ¤¸¤+ ¤¤= +== ¤= ¤ n-¤ ¬r= +r
=r== ¤r¬ n-¤<¤rt =-n nn n-¤¬r= ==rv¬; == ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r + n-¤ ¬r= +r
==n n«rr == ¤ =r=r=r «nr¬ ¤= +=; J¤=rvr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r + 34 = ¢;)
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 1 = 4 = ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r = +¢r ¢ f+ ¬¢ ==r=
==a ¬a+ ¤` ` ` ``=r n=¬ =r=r f==+t =¸¬ nr =¤= +r ¢ n«rr ¤rr=rrv =t¤ +r ¢;
=¤= +r == nr ¤¸ vr ¤==r--rr =r=r n«rr nt=r ¬ vrr J==¬ vr« mr=t,
=n¬vrf¤·vr=t n«rr n=¬vrf¤r¤=t) ÷¤t ¤rr=rrv =r=r; ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r =
+¢r ¢ f+ == n«rr n= s= f¤¤r= +r¬ = +«rrn ¬tnr ¬r= = +r¤+r = ¤¸vr ÷¤
= s= ==rr= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r J=` ` ` ``·at =¤=r) +r ¬r= =¢t «nr =+nr;
«¬rf+ s=+ +rf< n«rr +n = = +¤=tf¤n ¢¸; s= ==rnt ¢s ¬r= ¬-«rt +r
n-¤ ¬r= ÷¤t ¤r=>r ar=r ¢t +rar =r =+nr ¢ +«rrn ==nr =r =+nr ¢; =` ` ` ``·at
=¤=r + f¤·r¬ = n-¤<¤rtJ¤¸vr) =-n ¢t «nr =+nr ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 1
= n-¤<¤rt J¤¸vr) =-n +t ¤¢¤r= «nrn ¢v +¢r ¢ f+ s= ==a ¬a+ ¢v ==r=
÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r + f-r-=2 -rr¬r +r =r =-n «nr¤J=: ¤< f¤n) ¤¢ ¤< + nr-¤¬ +r
=r== ¤r¬r ¢ +«rrn n-¤<¤rt J¤¸vr) =-n ¢; «¬rf+ ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr = nr +¤¬
sn=r ¢t «nr¬r ¢ f+ =¤= +r nr ==J=¸¬) ¢ n«rr =t¤ +r nt=r ¬vr ÷¤t
¤rr=rrv ¢; f¤= +¢r ¢ f+ =n ¤¸vr ¬r= =¢t ¢; =r ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r + =¤ -rr¬r
== =¸¬, n=r, =r=, ¤rr=rrv, ¤+rr +r ¬r= f-r-=2 «nrv == -r-¤<¤rtJ¤¸vr) =-n
=r==r;
¤==¤¤= +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) = =¤¬ +¤= ar=r =¤t =` ` ` ``·at +r ¬r=
f<¬r;
¬«iº, ¬-iº ¤ª·i ¤¬ ¤· r, l·º¬· (i¬i ·iº|
ni·i ·(i ºiiªii r, ¤in ª¤ ¬-iiº||
+` ` ` ``·¬r <=r ==ar ¬a+ ¢v ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r +r f¤>r:
s= ==a ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r +t == nr ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r J¤== +=r= «m +«rrn ¤¸vr
«m,=n¤÷·r) ¢; ==t= = «r¢= n=-n =r f¢==r <` ` ` ``f·a¬r¤= ¢rnr ¢ f== n=r
+¢n ¢ ¤¢ +=r= ¤÷·r J¤=«m) =r=r n«rr =rat =r= +r =r= ¤÷·r J«m,+r¬)
=r=r n«rr =r= +t nt=r ¤rr=rr+r +r ~t «mr=tJ==¬vr), ~t f¤·vr=tJ=n¬vr)
n«rr ~t f¤r¤=tJn=¬vr) ÷¤t nt=r <¤ =r=r n«rr ¤rn ÷¤ = ==r= ==n; +«
iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku
37
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
==n f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr J==r) = =¤ ¤` ` ` ``=r +r ¤r¬= ¢rnr ¢; ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ =. 16 = f¬=rr ¢; <r ¤-r nr s= ¤` ` ` ``«¤t ¬r+ = ¢ J«m +
s«+t= «mv= n«rr ¤=«m + =rn ==r «mv=r +r ¤` ` ` ``«¤t ¤r¬r ¬r+ +¢r =rnr
¢; «¬rf+ ¬¢ =r¤r¤r= ¢) v+ =r= ¤÷·r J«m,+r¬) n«rr <¸==r +=r= ¤÷·r
J¤=«m) n«rr <r=r ¢t ¤-r+r J=r= ¤÷·r n«rr +=r= ¤÷·r) + ¬r+r = <r=r ¤-r+r
+ n«rr s=+ +-n¬n ¤rfvr¬r + =«r¸¬ ¤r=t= nr =r¤r¤r= ¢ n«rr =t¤r-=r
+f¤=r¤rt ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 17 = +¢r ¢ f+ =+r= ¤÷·r J¤r=n¤ = ~·a
¤==r--rr) nr s= J=¤=r«n) =r= ¤÷·r n«rr +=r= ¤÷·r = +-¬ ¢t ¢; =r
¤==r--rrJ¤== +=r= «m) +¢r =rnr ¢ ¤¢t nt=r ¬r+r = ¤¤¤r +=+ =¤ +r
=rr=vr ¤r·rvr +=nr ¢; ¤¢ ¤r=n¤ = +f¤=r¤rt ¤==¤¤= ¢;
=<r¢=vrr«r: == v+ =¸fn nr f=aat +t «=t ¢r =r =¤·a =r¤r¤r= f<=rrs
<nt ¢; f¬=n ¢t a+=2 ¢r =rv¬t; v=t f=«rnt nr =r= ¤÷·r J«m) +t =r=r
n«rr <¸==t =¸fn =at¬Js=¤rn) +t «=t ¢r =r f=aat ¤r¬t =¸fn +t n¬=r = +f=r+
fa+r= ¢; ¤=-n =at¬ Js=¤rn) +r -rt =¬ ¬¬¬r; v+ f<= =·a ¢r =rv¬t; -r¬
¢t ==¬ +f=r+ ¬¬; s=t ¤+r= +=r= ¤÷·r +r -rt +f¤=r¤rt +¢r ¢ ¤=-n ¤r=n¤
= +f¤=r¤rt nr nt==t =rrn =¤vr +t «=t =¸fn ¢rnt ¢ f==+r +-rt f¤=r¤r =¢t
¢rnr; v=t f=«rfn ¤== +=r= «m +«rrn ¤¸vr «m J=n¤÷·r) +t =r=r; ¤¢t
nt==r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r =r ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r +t ==J=¸¬) ¢ =¤ +r ¤r¬= ¤r·rvr +==
¤r¬r ¢; ==t ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t =r=r=r n-¤<¤rt =-n «nrv¬r; s=f¬v ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 4 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¸vr =-nJn-¤<¤rt) + f=¬ =r= + ¤¤¤rn ==
¤==¤¤=J=n¤÷·r) + == =«rr= +t =rr= +==t ¤rf¢v f== =«rr=J=n¬r+) =
=r= + ¤¤¤rn =r=r+ ¤== ¬ra+= ==r= = =¢t +rn +«rrn =-==` ` ` ``-¬ = ¤¸vr
÷¤ = =«n ¢r =rn ¢ n«rr f== +rf< ¤÷·r +«rrn ¤¸vr ¤==r-=rJ=n¤÷·r) =
==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` `` =r +r f¤=nr= ¢+r ¢ +«rrn f=== =¤ «mv=r +t =¤=r +t ¢; =¤¬
¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r = -rt +¢r ¢ f+ = -rt ==t +t ¤r=vr = ¢¸; ==t ¤==r-=r +t
-rf«n f¤¤¤r= + =r«r +==t ¤rf¢v; ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 62 = ¢
f+ ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r f+=t +-¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t +r= =+n += =¢r ¢; +¢r ¢
f+ ¢ +== ! n¸ =¤ -rr¤ = == ¤==¤¤= +t ¤r=vr = =r f==+t +` ` ` ``¤r = n¸ ¤==
¤rrf-n n«rr =n¬r+J¤rr¤¤n =«rr=) +r ¤r·n ¢r¬r; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 64 =
+¢r ¢ f+ ==r ¤¸=¬ <¤ -rt ¬¢t ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r ¢;
f¤¤r·r: =¤=r«n f¤¤=vr = f={ ¢+r f+ n-¤<¤rt +«rrn ¤¸vr =-n ¤¢ ¢ =r
==r= ÷¤t ==a ¤` ` ` ``=r + =¤r¬r +r f-r-=2 f¤¤=vr «nrv; f== ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr
¤-r -rt =¢t =r=nr; ¤¢ f¤¤=vr +r¤ =t = =¤= ¤ar n«rr ==a ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` `` =r
+r f¤>r -rt <=rr; +r¬ ¤a ¤¸vr =-n +t +-¬ ¤¢¤r= n«rr += f=¬ ¤¢ ¤¸vr
38
¤==r-=r f== + f¤·r¬ = ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 62 = ¤ +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 4 =
+¢r ¢;
<r== <r= =r=¤r¬ <r=
iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku
39
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤¸ºr =-n +| ¤;¤r¬ (2)
¬r¬+ =r;¤ ¬| +;n ; :
¬i; ¬n^ª ¤¸ºi ¬ri(| ·i¤ ¬ªªiº ¬i ·i· «ni(||
¤¬ ¬·i( ¤¬ ¬ªii(| ni ¤iºii l·¬ ·iº ¬i(||
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 17 ¤¬r+ 23 = == ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr J=n¤÷·r) +t =r=r=r +r -rt
=+n f<¬r ¢; +¢r ¢ f+ == ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr +t ¤rf·n +r nr +¤¬ ÷nn=n s=
nt= =->r + =r¤ +r f=<¤r ¢; f==+r nt= f¤f=r = ===vr f+¬r =rnr ¢; ¬¢t
=r=r=r =r=r+ == =` ` ` ``·at + ¤r=--r = +=n «r; nt= =->r + ===vr +t f¤f=r
n-¤<¤rtJ¤¸vr) =-n «nrv¬r; «¬rf+ ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¸vr
¤==r-=r + f¤·r¬ = n-¤<¤rt =-n = ¤¸er;
+r= ¤r·< ¬¢ «mJ=r= ¤÷·r) +r =r¤ ¢; nn ¤r·< ¬¢ ¤=«m +r =r¤ ¢;
¬¢r nn ¤r·< =r+fn+ ¢; =r ¬¢ <r= +¤¬ =¤<¤rt +r ¢t «nrv¬r;
+r=÷nn J=r+fn+) f=¬+= =n=r= J<r +=r= +r =->r) «=nr ¢ n«rr =n
¤r·<J=r+fn+) nt==r =->r ¢ s= =r==r= -rt +¢n ¢; s=t +r +rf< =r= -rt
+¢n ¢; =r ¬·n ¢ ==+r ¤¸vr =-n ¢t «nrv¬r =r ===vr +== +r ¢; +r= =->r
+r =r¤ +r¬ J«m) + >vr = =«n +=rv¬r J+r¬ = e=¤rv¬r) n«rr <¸==r
nnJ=r+fn+) ¤=«m +r =->r ¢; f==+r =r¤ ¤=«m + =rn ==r «mv=r +r
¤r= +== +r f+=r¬r ¢; ¬¢ -r¤= ¬¤r n+ ¤¢¤rv¬r +«rrn ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r
f<=rrv¬rJ¬=rrv¬r) n«rr nt==r =->r =r==r= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r + =n¬r+ = =«rrs
+=¬r; f¤= =r=r+ +r =-==` ` ` ``-¬ =<r + f¬v ==r·n ¢r =rv¬r; =n¬r+ = ¤¸vr
¤==r-=r +«rrn =n¤÷·r =r=¤ =<` ` ` `` ¤r +r+r= = ¢; f==+ v+ =r= +¸¤ +t ¤rr-rr
+=r= =¸¬r n«rr sn= ¢t ¤-<=r+r + ¤+r¤r = -rt +f=r+ ¢; =t¤ +r-=r -rt
=r+r= =r=¤ =<` ` ` ``¤r ¤r=t= = =¢nt ¢ n«rr +r-=r + ¤r=t= +r ¤+r¤r =r¬¢ =¸¬r
+ ¤+r¤r + ==r= ¢; +r-=r +¤= =r+r= ¤==r-=r + f== ¤= ¤¤= +=nt
¢J¤=rvr +«t= ¤==¤¤= +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt ¤r·< ´+= ==r <t<r= =¢¬ = ·¬r=r ¢´ =r
=-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬3 + ¤«r= ¤` ` ` ``·a ¤= f¬=rr ¢);
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤-«r n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷ ¤«r ¤r¬ =-nr +r +¢=r ¢ f+ =n¬r+
= nr +¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢t ¤+r¤r ¢; =n¤÷·r f==r+r= ¢; +r-=r =n¬r+ = =r +=
¤==r--rr = v= ==r =rnt ¢ == «¸< ==< = ==r =rnt ¢; ¤==r-=r +r= +r-=r
+r f-r-= +f=n-¤ =¢t =¢nr; =«f+ ¤r=nf¤+nr =¤= ¤fvrn ¢ ¤¢ =¢t ¢ =r
¤==r--rr ¤¸vr «m J=n¤=·r) = =¤¬ «nrs ¢; =n <r= +r +¤=t +` ` ` ``·rr = <¤r=
+=rv ¢;
=¤=r«n =n=r= =r <r +=r= J+r= + nn =r+fn+) + ¬r¬ = «=nr ¢ +r
40
=<r¢=vr =¤¬ ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= J=r ~t =r=r=¬ =¤ ¤rr¢==nr=r =t +
¬= =t ¢; ¤rr¢==nr=r =t = =r==r= =n¬= =-¤r =r<r f===r = =«rrf¤n f+¬r
¢) = ¤=n+ =n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 + ¤` ` ` ``·a 261-262 ¤= f¬=rr ¢; ¤=-n =¤¬ ¬r=
=¢t ¢, ¬«r =r¢« +r ¤=rvr f¬¬r ¢; =r=+ =r¢« +¢n ¢ f+
¬i; ¬n^ª ¤¸ºi ¬ri(, ·i¤ ¬ªªiº ¬i ·i· «ni(| ¤¬ ¬·i( ¤¬ ¬ªii(, ni
¤iºii l·¬ ·iº ¬i(|
f¤= +¢n ¢ ¬ n¸ ¤«¤i ¤l·n «i·i ·i¤ ¬ªªiº ·¤·i(i| ¤ºi(n ·i·¬ ¤¬
¬·ii¤ ¬ ¬º ¬·¤ ¬-i(i| J+rf< ¬= ¬-«r =r¢« ¤` ` ` ``·a 1171)
f¤= +«t= ¤==¤¤= =t +t ¤rvrt +r ¤=rvr f<¬r ¢ : +; +¤|º ¤=rº «¤
-rr=r| ;r¤nr =r== n ¬¤nr ºr=r| J+rf< ¬= ¬-«r ¤` ` ` ``·a 329)
f¤= f¬=rr ¢ : +r= ¤r·<, =r¢ ¤r·<, =n¤r·<
f¤¤r= += : =¤=r«n =>r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t ¤rf·n n«rr =n¬r+ f=¤r= + ¢
f==+r ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t = n«rr ¤f¤>r +=` ` ` ``n ¤rvrt +«t= =r¢« n«rr ¤-r ¤r·n =nr
+t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt = -rt ¤=rvr ¢; ¤=n =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =r==r= =n¬= ¤«r n«rr
=¬¬=<¤ n«rr f<=r< f-r¤r=t +rf< =r=rr=¤r=t ¤r¬ ¤«rr + =nr +r ¬r= =¢t ¢;
=n=r= =r <r +=r= + ¬r¬ = «=nr ¢ == + f¤·r¬ = ¬r¬=r¬ f¬=r f<¬r f+
¬ +r¬ ¤r=«m = ¢ n«rr v+ +=r=J=r==r=) + f¤·r¬ = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤¢ -rt
¤r=«m = f=¬¬r; =¤¬ ¤ ´´=¬rfn f====´´, ´´+r+r=´´, ´´==+r=´´, ´´=r¢´´ n«rr
´´=n=r=´´ ¬ ¤r¤ =r= <n ¢ n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷ =-¤r =r<r ¤r¬ =-n ¤¢¬ nr
¬¢t ¤r¤ =r= <n «r +«, ´´=n¤=·r´´, ´´++r¬ =¸fn´´, ´´¤r·< =¤÷¤t =r=´´ ¬
+-¬ nt= =r= <n ¢; f<=r< f-r¤r=t ¤r¬ nr=r¤-< =t =¢r=r= ¤r¬r ¤«r +¤¬
´´=r=rr=¤r=t´´ =r= <nr ¢, =¤¬ <r +==r= + ¤r=nf¤+ =>r = +¤f=f¤n ¢;
s=f¬v +«t= ¤==¤¤= +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt n«rr ~t =r=+ =t +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt + +r=rr=
= =r <r +=r= +r -r< =¢t =r=nr ¤¢ ¤¸=r ¬= J¤¸vr =n) =¢t ¢; s== f={ ¢+r
f+ =r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r ¤«r n«rr ~t ar+= f=¢, ~t
+` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ n«rr =¬ ¬÷<¤ =«r=r ¤r¬ n«rr f<=r< f-r¤r=t ¤r¬ =r=rr=¤r=t +
=-n =t ¤¸vr =-n =¢t ¢ «¬rf+ ==+r <r +=r= +r ¬r= =¢t ¢;
¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 262 = f¬=rr ¢ =n=r= ¢=r=t =rfn ¢,
=n¤÷·r ¢=r=r =r= ¢, =-¤=rv=J=n¬r+) ¢=r=r <¤r ¢; ¬¢r ¤= =n=r=,
=n¤÷·r, =--r=rv= nt=r +r f-r-=2 «nr¬r ¢; s=t ¤=n+ + ¤` ` ` `` ·a 21 ¤=
=n=r= +r =«rr= +¢r ¢; ¤=n+ =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤«r= -rr¬ + ¤¤= 4 =
=n=r=, =-¤=rv=, =n¤÷·r, =r=¤r·<, =n¤r·< +r v+ «nr¬r ¢; «¬r ¬ f¤¤r=
¤== =-n + ¢r =+n ¢³ [+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` `` ·a 261-262 =
iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku
41
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤rar +r¤t s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 43-44 ¤=)
+=r¸= =r-nr + f¤·r¬ = ¤¸=¬ +«t= ¤==¤¤= =t +¢n ¢:
¬n^ª l«· ¬ir · ¤i¤i ni·i, ¤i ·ii·ii ·i¬ l¬· -¸« l¬¬i·i|
¬n^ª l«· «· ¤« ¬i ¤iºii, ¬-n ·i ¬iº ºr ¬ni·i|
(-n ¬ri ªii¬ ¬ri, l¬¬ l(n ¬i^ ri·i|
¤¬ ¤¬¬ - ¤i;¤, ·i·i l¬¬ ¬i·i|
v+ ==¬ v+ ·¬f«n +t +¤r=+ =` ` ` ``-¬ ¢r ¬s; === «¢n =r=r =r= ==t= =
<«r ==rr «rr; == +r f¤¤=vr v+ «¢tJ¤=) = f¬=rr «rr =r =r+fn+ «rr; ==
·¬f«n = +¤= =+r= + v+ +r= = =f-<= «=¤r ==rr «rr; «¢t = f¬=rr «rr
¤r<=t ¤r<= =rf>r + «r=¢ «= =f-<= + ¬== = =¤ =r= <«r ==rr ¢; ¬=+r =
=r>rt = =f-<= +r ¬== ¤r=r; === +e =¢t ¤r¬r; ==+ f¤nr +r v+ <r=n
<¸== ¬r¤ = =¢nr «rr; «-¤r = ==+r =¤ f¤¤=vr «nr¬r n«rr +¢r f+ f¤nr =t =
n¸a f¬=rr ¢; =f-<= + ¬== = =r= =¢t f=¬r; f¤nr =t + <r=n = == ¬=r +r
¤ar n«rr +¢r f+ +r¤ =f-<= + ¬== +r ¤== f==rvr +=¤rv; =f-<= + ¬==
+r ¤== f==rvr ¢r= + ¤¤¤rn ¤r<=t ¤r<= J¤rf{ ¤n<¤rt) +r =rf>r + «r=¢
«= =¢r ¤= ¬== +t er¬r «rt == =«rr= +r =rr<r ¬¬r nr =¤ =r= f=¬ ¬¬r;
+¤= =<¬-«rr = ¤-r ¬r= +r +¤r= =r= e¤r ¢ =r =r+fn+ ¢; ¤¢ ¤¸vr =n
Jn-¤<¤rt =n) + f«=r f+=t +r =¢t f=¬r; s=tf¬v =r=rr=¤r=t n«rr =r==r=
=n¬÷ ¤r¬ ¤«rr + =-nr = ~{r¬+r +r -rf=n += f<¬r f+ ¤< n«rr ¬tnr +rf<
¤rr=>r nr ·¬«r ¢; +«t= ¤==¤¤= nr +¢n ¢ :
(· ¬n« n¸- ·ri ·ii;, n¸- r ¬i ¬-n ·iri|
-rr¤r«r ¢ f+ ¤< n«rr ¬tnr =t ¤ ++r= n¸a =¢t ¢; =r s-¢ ==n =¢t =+
¤ +¬r=t ¢; =r=rr=¤r=t n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r ¤r¬ ¤«rr + =-n =t
+¢n ¢ f+ ¬tnr ¤ ¤<r = ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¬r= =¢t ¢; =¤¬ ¬r+ ¤<J<n
+«rr+r) + +r=rr= ¤= a= =r=t ¤=n+ =¤ += ¬¬n ¬r= ¤¤r= += =r¬r; +«
~{r¬+r +r ¤rr=>rr +r ¬r= ==nr=r +fa= ¢r =¢r ¢; ¤n=r= = =n <r= +r
¤¸vr ¤==r-=r = +r¤ =¤ ¤-r ¤f=¬r +r e¤r =r= «nr= -r=r ¢; +` ` ` `` ·¬r +f¤¬-«
¤r·n +=; ¤n=r= = <r +=r= = «= ´´=n=r=´´ +r n«rr v+ +=r= ´´=r==r=´´
+r +¤¬ =n <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) ¢t +r <r= +== +r +f=r+r= ¤¸=¬ ¬÷<¤ n«rr
¤==r-=r +«t= =r¢« = =¤¬ ·r<r= f+¬r ¢; =n <r= = f¤==r v+<r ¤r¤r-=rv
nt=r =>rr +r ¤r·n +=+ =¤¬-r¸ ¬÷ «= += =r= <r= +== ¬¬ ¢; ¤ +f=r+r=t
=¢t; =-¢ -r«n ==r= + ¤«+ <¤== =r==r; = nr ¤ =¤¬ ¤r= ¢r =+n ¢ n«rr
= ¢t =-r= =¤<¤r ¤r·n -r«n== ¤r= ¢r =+n ¢; v= ¢t ¬r¬¤t ·¬f«n¬r =
42
¤==r-=r +«t= =t + =r«r -rt =rr=rr f+¬r «rr =r +-rt n+ n-¤¬r= ==n= =
«r=r+ f={ ¢r =¢r ¢; ==+ nr <¤r= +==r -rt ¤r¤ ¢; f==+ f¤·r¬ =
´´¤==¤¤= +r =r= =<¤r´´ ¤=n+ + +=¬r¬ ¤-<¢ = ´´¤r+r ==r=rr= f¤·r¬´´ =
f¤=n` ` ` ``n ¤vr= ¢; v+ ==¬ = =r-n v+ ¢t ¢rnr ¢ ¤¢ ¤¸= f¤¤¤ +r =r= <+= ¤r=
+= =+nr ¢; == ¤==¤¸=¬ +«t= ¤==¤¤= =t +r¤rt = +rv «r == ==¬ ¤¸=
f¤¤¤ = ++¬ ¢t =r= <r= +=n «r; ==+ ¤r=a ¬r=r f¤r·¬ =¤ =r=r + ¢v «r;
+¤= =¢n =-¢r= +rs =+r=rf=r+r=t =¢t «=r¬r «rr; s=f¬v =+¬t =nr =
=r¤=rr= =¢;
f+=n ==¬r ¤r= n«rr f+=n ==¬r e: + ¤=rvrr = +r¤=t +r =¤·a ¢+r f+
¤¸vr =n +t «¬r ¤¢¤r= ¢ ³
''+= |=¬ -rn¤r¬?''
¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =
iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku
43
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
J¤=n+ ´=n=n ¤+r¤r´ -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 261 = ¤rar +r¤t)
44
J¤=n+ ´=n=n ¤+r¤r´ -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 262 = ¤rar +r¤t)
iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku iw .kZ lUr dh igpku
45
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
''+= |=¬ -rn¤r¬?''
=r¤=rr= : =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = ¤r¤ =r= <n ¢; =¬rfn f====, +r+r=,
==+r=, =r¢ +r= =n=r=, s=t ¤«r +t ¤rr=rr =r==r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r f===r
¤r¬ +« nt= =r= 1. =n¤÷·r 2. ++r¬ =¸fn 3. ¤r·< =¤÷¤t =r= n«rr
=¬=r¬¤r¬t ¤r¬ ´´=r-r=r= =n¬÷ n=r ¢t +r==r´´ v+ =r= <n ¢, ¤¢¬ ¤r¤
=r= ¢t <r= f+v =rn «r; f<=r< Jf=¬r f-r¤r=t) ¢f=¬rvrr = ~t nr=r¤-< =t
¤r¬r ¤«r v+ ´´=r=rr =¤r=t´´ =r= <nr ¢ s=t +r =r==r= «nrnr ¢
~t +r=r=r= =t J+¢=<r«r< ¤r¬r) =r¢ =->r +r <r -rr¬r = ===vr +== +r
+¢nr ¢ n«rr +s +-¬ =->r -rt <nr ¢; f== = = ÷¤t +==r= =r=r+ +r =¤¬
¤==r ¢rnr ¢;
1. ¬r¬>rt =->r J+r= -r¸-r¤: ) 2. +r= ==: f¤r¤r¬ 3. +r= ==: -r¬¤n
¤r=<¤r¬ 4.
~t ==rr¤r =t J«+=¤r¬r f<=¬t ¤r¬) ¢f= +r=nn=n +r =r¤ =->r <nr ¢;
~t f¤r¤ -r¬¤r= +r +=r-=r+==+== +«rrn =` ` ` ``-¬=¬ n«rr =¤¤¤= +rf< «nrn
¢; =« f+ ~t <¤t =¢r¤=rvr n«rr f¤r¤ =¢r¤=rvr = ~t f¤r¤ +r =-= =` ` ` `` -¬ f¬=rr
¢;
´´f==+r=t ´´ ¤«r ¤r¬ v+ =r=´´ n¸ ¢t v+ f==+r=; = n=t ¤r=vr =n «==
¬r´´ <n ¢ n«rr ¤==r-=r +r f==r+r= «nrn ¢; =«f+ ¤==r-=r =¤r=t= ¢;
=¤=r«n =->r ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢r= = =r=r <r¬+ =¢t ¢;
´´¢=r <¤r ¤«r´´J~t =n¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= ¤=r«t «r¬ f<=¬t ¤r¬r n«rr ~t ¤=
=r¤n =¤ «r¬¬r¬¤¤= =t =¢=r¬t f<==rt ¤r¬r) ¢= +r =r¤ <r f¢== +=+ =r¤
+== +r <n ¢; s=+r ==ar +=+ =¢ +=+ =r¢ +r -rt <r f¢==r +=+ =r¤
+== +r <n ¢ n«rr +r=r «-< +=+ ¢a ¬r¬ fa¬rv <n ¢ =r ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢
=r=r <r¬+ =¢t ¢;
-rr¤r«r ¢ f+ +r=nnJ=r+fn+) n«rr =nJ=r+fn+) + +fnf=«n =¤
=r=r=r ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ +«rrn ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) ¢; =r ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16
¤¬r+ J=->r) 23 = ·¬«r +¢r ¢ n«rr J¤¬r+) =->r 24 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤==r-=r +t
-rf«n + f¬v ¤rr=>rrJ¤<r) +r ¢t +r=rr= =r=;
=¤=r«n =r=r=r ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ ¢, =r=r <r¬+ =¢t ¢;
+` ` ` ``-¤r ¤a =r=r «r¤+ =r=r¬r :
=¤¤«r= =¤<¤r ¤r·n +== ¤r¬ +r =r=¤ ¤r=t= = «= +=¬r +r =rr¬= +r
=->r =r¤ f<¬r =rv¬r; f=== +r¤+t +v=¬=t ¤rf«n =r¬` ` ` ``n ¢r =rv¬t +«rrn
+=¬ f=r¬ =rv¬; +r¤ +r f>r+at n+ =r= +r =r=nr =r¤ ¢r =rv¬r; =r=¤
46
¤r=t= = +=¬ J¤a) «= ¢; 1. =¸¬ +=¬ = <¤ J=¤r=t) ¬vr¤r =t +r +r¬r¬¬
¢, 2. =¤r< +=¬ = -r¬¤r= J=¤r=t) «mr =t +r +r¬r¬¬ ¢, 3.=rf-r +=¬ =
-r¬¤r=J=¤r=t) f¤·vr =t +r +r¬r¬¬ ¢, 4. ;<¬ +=¬ = -r¬¤r=J=¤r=t) f¤r¤
=t +r +r¬r¬¬ ¢, 5. +va +=¬ = ¤rf«n <¬r +r +r¬r¬¬ ¢; s= ¤r¤r
¤rf«-r¬r + ¤r¤ =r= J=>r) =r¤ + ¢ =r +r¤+r ¤«r= f<v =rv¬; f==+ =r¤ =
+r¤+r +r¬ =r= +r =r=nr f=¬¬r +«rrn +r¤+t +v=¬=t ¤rf«n =r¬` ` ` ``n ¢r
=rv¬t; <¸== ¤r·<r = +r¤+ +=¬ =r¬ =rv¬;J¬r¬t==r = s-¢t +=¬r +r ¢a
¬r¬ = =rr¬= +r ·¬«r ¤¬-= f+¬r;) n« +r¤ f>r+at ¤= ¤¢¤ ¤r+r¬; ¬¢ nr
¤r«rf=+ ¤ars ¢ =r ¤r¤ =r=r +t ¢; +¤¬ «rn «=r= = f+ ¢= nr =t=r f>r+at
= =rn ¢, +rs +r¬ f={ =¢t ¢r¬r;
== ¢= f¤<¤rJ+r¬ ¬r+) = +rv ¢; =¤<¤rJ=n¬r+) =r=r ¢; ¢=r= =¤=
f¤<¤r + +r¬r¬¬r Jf«=¬t¤r=taf¬¤r= +rf<) +r f«¬ «+r¬r ¢ n«rr +e
>vr -rt ¤r·r ¢; ¤«r= >vr =«n ¤=rvr ¤>r ¬= ¢r¬; f¤= +r¤ f>r+at +-n=r·at¬
¢¤rs +== Js-a==¤r¬ v¬= ¤ra) ¤= ¤¢¤ =+n ¢ +-¬«rr =¢t; +r¤ ¬¢r
f¤<¤r J+r¬ + ¬r+) = >vrt ¢r ¬v ¢; +r¤ ¤= «¢n +=r ¢; f== +r=vr =
+r¤+t =¤ =f¤=rrv et=t =r ¤+t ¢; == f«=¬t +r f«¬ = -r== = +=«¤r=
+a =rnr ¢; ¬r-r ==r·n ¢r =rnr ¢; s=t ¤+r= +r¤+ =¤ +r¬ ==a¤=a ¢r
¬v ¢; =n¬÷ +r¤+r ==r=nt J¬r=-a=) «=¬r n«rr ~t «mr =t, ~t f¤·vr =t
n«rr ~t f¤r¤=t +rf< = +r¤+ =¤ ¬r-r ¤== ¤r¬ +=rv¬r; f¤= =¤=r«n ¤r¤r
¤rf«n¬r + =r= =r¤ +t ==<¸=t +=+ +r¤= >vr =«n -rt ¢r=r ¢ n«rr =« n+
s= f¤<¤rJ+r¬ ¬r+) = =¢r¬ =r=rf=+ =f¤=rrv -rt ¤r·n +=n =¢=r ¢; =n=r=
<r +=r= J=->r) + =r¤ J+r= + nn) = v+ +r= J=) +=r= ¢; s= +r= =r= +
=r¤ +t +=rs = «m + s«+t= «mv=r +r >vr ¤+r=r ¢; ¢= ¤¢¬ +r= =r=
+t +=rs =¤¬=¢r=¤¬ = =r¤ +=n =¢; +« ¢= +r= J=) =>r + =r¤ +t ¤¸=r
«m J+r¬) +r < <¬; ¬¢ ¢= er= <¬r; -rr¤r«r ¢ f+ =n=r= + s= v+ +=r=
´´+r=´´ + =r¤ +t +=rs =r=r+ +r +r¬ =r¬ = e=rv¬t; +r¤ =t = ~t =r=+
=t +t ¤rvrt = ¤ar f+ ¤¸=r =-r¬÷ <r +=r= +r -r< «nrv¬r v+ +=r= e=rv¬r
<¸==r nn =->r J=r =r+fn+ ¢) ¤-r +r -r¤= ¬¤r = ¤r=<¤r+ ¤n + ¤r=
=n¬r+ = =n¤÷·r +r ¬=rrv¬r +«rrn <¤r= +=rv¬r;
¬¢ v+ +=r= +r= ¢t «m +«rrn +r¬ +r ¤r=nf¤+ =r¤ +r =->r ¢ +r
¤=rvr ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 8 ¤¬r+ 13 = ¢ f+ ´´+r= sfn v+ +=r== «m
·¬r¢== =r= +=====; ¬ ¤¬rfn -¬== <¢= =: ¬rfn ¤==r= ¬fn=;´´J8,13)
¤r·<r«r : +r¬ «m = +¢r ¢ f+ =r =n «m + v+ +=r= +r=J÷) +r =r¤
dS ls feys Hkxoku \ dS ls feys Hkxoku \ dS ls feys Hkxoku \ dS ls feys Hkxoku \ dS ls feys Hkxoku \
47
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
+f-n= =¤r= n+ +=nr ¢ ¤¢ == ¤r¬t -rf«n +r ¤¸vr ¬r-r ¤r·n +=nr ¢;
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 66 = ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr J+r¬«m) = +¢r ¢ f+ ¬f<
n¸= == ¤==r-=r +t ¤r=vr = =r=r ¢ nr J=¤ =r=r= ¤f=-¬=¬ =r=) == =n= +t
=¤ =rrf=+ ¤¸=rv +«rrn +r= =r= +r =r¤ ¬¬ +rf< =n= er= += Jv+=
¤r=vr=) == v+ =¤¤rf«n=r= +t ¤r=vr = J¤=) =rJ+¢= -¤r =¤ ¤r¤-¬:
=r=rf¬·¬rf= =r ¤r¤:) = nn =¤ ¤r¤r = e=r <¸¬r, n¸ f¤nr =n +=; =« ¢=
¤r=t= -¬r¬ += =n¬r+ +r ¤=«rr= +=¬ n« +r¬J«m) +r +r= J=) =r= +t
+=rs f>r+at ¤= =r¤ <¬; ¬¢ +r¬ ¢= >vr =«n += <¬r J¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +r
f¢-<t +=¤r< +nr+r = ¬¬n +=¤r< f+¬r ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 66 = ¤=
+r +«r +r=r f+¬r ¢ =«f+ ¤= +r +«r =r=r ¢rnr ¢) f¤= ¢= nn =->rJ=r
=r+fn+ ¢) + =r¤ +t +=rs ¤=«m +r < <¬; ¤¢ ¢= +¤= =rn ¤r=r «mv=r
= ¤r= +=+ -r¤= ¬¤r n+ ¤¢¤r <¬r; ¤¢r ¤= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¢= +¤¬
<=rJ¬=r) =+n ¢; == ¤rt¤r + ¤r= ¤=n +r <=rr =r =+nr ¢ ¤r·n =¢t f+¬r
=r =+nr; nn ¤¤¤rn =r==r= + =r¤ +t +=rs -r¤= ¬¤r = ¤r= +=+
=n¬r+ = =«rrs =«rr= ¤r·n +=rv¬t; f¤= +¤=r =-= =` ` ` ``-¬ +-rt =¢t ¢r¬r;
=n¤=·r J¤¸vr ¤==r-=r) +t ¤rf·n ¢r¬t; =n¬r+ = =¤ +r-=r+r +r =r+r=
+-rrfn+ ¤r=t= ¢ =r v+ =¸= -r-¤ = «=r ¢ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r -rt J++r¬=
+¤=rf¤==) +-rrfn+ =¸=t ¤r=t= ¢ ¤=-n +r-=r +r= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r + ¤r=t= +
¤+r¤r +r +-¬f=r+ +-n= ¢ =¤= + +-¬J+¬=r, +¬=, +=r=¬) ¬r+r = =r=
+t -rf«n ¤¢r =n¬r+ = ¤r=--r ¢r¬t; ¤¢r =n¬r+ = +rs +·a =¢t ¢; s=f¬v
=¤= + ¬r+r +t ¤rf·n +t s-er +rs f«=¬r ¢t +=nr ¢;
n-¤ ¬r= + +-rr¤ = =¤ ¤f¤>r f¢-< ==r= n«rr =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =r==r=
=n¬= =-¤r=r<r n«rr +-¬ ¤«rr + ¤f¤>r +r-=r =n n«rr ~{r¬ +¤=r =t¤=
·¬«r += =¢ ¢; =¤ = == f=¤<= ¢ f+ ¤¢ ¤r=nf¤+ <r +=r=J+r= + nn
=r+fn+) +r =>r =r¤ n«rr v+ +=r= =r==r= =n <r= J=¬n ¬÷ n-¤<¤rt
=-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t =¢r=r=) + ¤r= ¢ n«rr s= <r =>r + ¬r¬ = «= =>rJf==
=n=r= +¢n ¢) +t +=rs ¤¸=t ¢r= + ¤¤¤rn +r¤+r =n¤r·< +«rrn =r==r=
=r v+ +=r= +r ¢ f<¬r =rv¬r; f¤= ¤==r-=r ¤rf·n ¢r¬t;
=<r¢=vr : == =¬ +r ¤r·n +== + f¬v =¬ ¬¬r=r ¢rnr ¢; <r +=r= +
=r= +r «r+t ¬¬r=r =r=r; +r= + nn Jf=== nn =>r +-¬ ¢ =r =r=r+ +r
«nr¬r =rv¬r) +r =r¤ =¤r===¤r= = f+¬r =rnr ¢;
+«t= =r¢« =t +¢n ¢ f+ -(i¬÷·-(i¬ - ¬i¤ ¬¤i, ·¤·ii -(i¬ · ªii| ·
¬i· ;¬ -(i¬ ¬i ¬i(· ri ¬ · ri||
48
<r +=r= = «= =n=r= = =¤r===¤r= +t «r+t ¬¬rs =rv¬t =r ¤rs¤ +r
=¬ n+ ¤¢¤rv¬t; f¤= =r==r= ÷¤t ¢= ¤¤ +t =¤rt= ¬¬rs =rv¬t; ==
=r==r= +r -rt ===vr +==r ¢rnr ¢; == ¢= ¤-¤ +t ¢-«rt +r f¢¬rf¢¬r +=
¬fn <t =rnt ¢ n« ¤r=t ¤r·n ¢rnr ¢; s=t ¤+r= =r==r= f¤= v+ ¢t =¢ =rnr
¢ ==+r ===vr +== = =n¤÷·rJ+f¤=r¤rt ¤==r-=r) +t ¤rf·n ¢rnt ¢; ¤f¤>r
¬tnr =t + +=¬r¬ 17 ¤¬r+ 23 = ¬¢ -rt =¤·a f+¬r ¢ f+ +r=nn=n =>r +r
nt= f¤f=r = ===vr f+¬r =rnr ¢; ¬¢ f¤f=r +¤¬ ¤¸vr =-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t
=¢r=r= + ¤r= ¢ f=== nt=r =>rr +r= + nn J=n=r=) ¢ n«rr =n¤r·<J=r
=r==r=) ¢ +r nt= ¤+r= = ¢t ===vr +==r ¢rnr ¢;
+` ` ` ``·¬r <=r n«rr ¤a s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 44 ¤= ¤rar
+t¤t ´´=-n=n ¤+r¤r´´ -rr¬ 4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 262 = f=== nt=r =->rr +r =¤·a ¤vr= -rt
f+¬r ¢ f+ v+ +r= ¤r·< <¸==r =r¢ ¤r·< nt==r =n¤r·<; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤r¬r
+r <r +=r= = «= =n=r= +r n«rr +rf< =r= Jf== =r==r= -rt +¢n ¢) +r
¬r= =¢t ¤ ¤r¤r =r= +r¬ + <n ¢; f==+ f¤·r¬ = n¬=t =r¢« +` ` ` ``n tra
=r=r¬rvr ¤«r= -rr¬ ¤` ` ` ``·a27 ¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤r¤r =r= +r¬ + ¢ s= ¤r¤r = f-r-=
=n=r= n«rr +rf< =r= +«rrn =r==r= ¢; =«+t +rf< ¬-«r =r¢« n«rr +«t= =t
+t ¤rvrt +r ¤=rvr «nr¬r ¢ ¤¢ =¢t ¢ f+ ¤¸=r =-n <r +=r= +r =r=
=r¤J+r=÷nn) «nrv¬r; ¤¢t ¤¸=r =-n ¢r¬r;
~t =r=+ =r¢« =t +t ¤rvrt = =¤·a ¢ f+ ´;¬ ¬ªªiº rlº -· (¬ ·i·¬
rin l·ri¬ f¤= ¬-«r =r¢« + ¤` ` ` ``·a 747 +t ¤rvrt +r ¤=rvr f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤¬
¬ªªiº ¬i ^ª -ªi ¬i¤ ln¬ ¬i l·º-¬ ri;|
=¤=r«n ¤rvrt =¤·a += =¢t ¢ f+ v+ +=r=J=r =r==r= ¢) ¢ ¤¢ -rt ¬÷
==rJ¤¸vr =-n + f¤r·¬) +r =r¤ +==r ¢rnr ¢; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤r¬ s= ¤rvrt +r
+¤=t ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r = =r=n ¢ f+ v+ =r= +-<= === + f¤·r¬ = +¢r ¢
´´v+ +==r= +r =r¤ +=´´ f¤¤r= += =r= +r =r¤ =¢t ¢rnr; ¤¢ nr +¤¬ ==t
=rnt ¢; =r¤ +r =+n v+ =->r =r==r= +t +r= = +t =r= === + f¬v ¢;
¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 261,262 +t ¤rar +r¤t = ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t
= +¢r ¢ f+ <r +=r= ¤r=«m = ¢; f¤= +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¢ v+ +=r= -rt ¤r=«m =
f=¬¬r; +r¤ =¤¬ f¤¤r= += =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + =-n ¬r=t ¢ ¬r +¬r=t;
¤=n ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¤rf·n +t f¤f=r =¤¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +f¤<¤ J+«t=
¤==¤¤=) = «nrs ¢ =r ¤n=r= = ¤¸= f¤¤¤ = +¤¬ ¤¸vr =-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t
=¢r=r= +r ¤r·n ¢; +f¤¬-« n«rr f=:¤r=+ ¤r·n +=; ¬f< +rs =¤=r«n f¤f=r
+r =n <r= J=-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t =¢r=r=) = ¤r·n +=+ =¤¬-r¸ ¬÷ «= +=
=r=<r= +=nr ¢ nr == +=rf=r+r=t =r= += =r¤=rr= =¢; ¤¢ +¤=r n«rr -rr¬
dS ls feys Hkxoku \ dS ls feys Hkxoku \ dS ls feys Hkxoku \ dS ls feys Hkxoku \ dS ls feys Hkxoku \
49
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
~{r¬+r +r =t¤= =r¤r+ ¢; v=2 =¤¬-r¸ =+¬t =-nr = ¤-r =r¬ +r f«¬r=
==rr ¢; f== ==¬ -r«n ==r= +r ¬r= ¢r =rv¬r f+ v= =+¬t ¬÷ =r=¤
=t¤= + f¬v f+n= trr-r+ ¢ n« s= =+¬t ¬÷+r +r e¤= +r =«rr= =¢t
f=¬¬r; ¬¢ =r¬` ` ` `` fn +fn ¤rttr +r= ¤r¬t ¢; =-¢t + f¤r·¬ s= =¤ ¤rr=>rf¤÷{
=r=r=r «nr= ¤r¬ ¬÷+r n«rr =¤¬-r¸ ¬÷+r +r ¤ra+ = =r+¬ nrf+ ¬ ==r=
+r ¬==r¢ = += =+; =¤ -r«n ==r= = ¤r«r=r ¢ f+ n¸a n«rr +¤at ¬÷+r +r
-¬r¬ += =n <r= J=-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t =¢r=r=) = =-¬ =r=r=r f=:¤r=+ ¤r·n
+= ;
+e+ ~{r¬ +¢n ¢ f+ «¬r ¬÷ «<¬= = ¤r¤ nr =¢t ¬¬¬r³ ==
~{r¬+r = f=¤<= ¢ f+ == v+ =r«a=J¤n) = =¤¤r= =¢t ¢rnr ¢ nr <¸==r
=r«a= «<¬= = ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢ ¢rf= =¢t ¢rnt at+ s=t ¤+r= ¬÷ +r =r=r;
s=f¬v ¤rr=>rf¤f=r f¤÷{ ¬r= ¤r¬ ¬÷ +r -¬r¬+= ¤¸vr ¬÷ =rr=vr +==r
f¢n+= ¢; ¤r¤ =¢t +f¤n ¤v¬ ¢; +e ~{r¬ =+r¤ +=n ¢ f+ ¢=r=t nt= ¤·r
+t =r=r=r +r «¬r ¢r¬r³ +« += er=³ == ~{r¬+r = f=¤<= ¢ f+ f¤¤r= +=
f+ +r¤+r f+=t ¤r¢= = =r=r ¢, nt= f+¬r=ta= =r= + «r< ¤nr ¤¬ f+ +r¤
¬¬n =r=n ¤= =r =¢ ¢, nr n=n == =r=r ¤rf¢v; =¢t nr =f=¬ <¸= ¢rnt
=rv¬t; f¤= -rt +rs +¢ f+ ¢= nr nt= f+¬r=ta= =¤= n¬ += ¤+ ¢, +«
+= er= s= =r=n +r³ ¬¢ f¤¤r= nr «r¬+ + ¬r ¤r=r«t + ¢r =+n ¢;
==n<r= nr n=n == =rv¬r; s=f¬v == =r=r=r +r n=n -¬r¬+= ¤r=nf¤+
¤rr=>rf¤f=r +==r= =r=r=r ¬¢vr +=;
=r=¤r¬ <r=

50
iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(¤·r= |+ªn)
(8 =r¤ 2006 +r ¤¬r¤ +=º| = ¤+r|ºrn)
~t +` ` ` ``·vr f=¢ ¬ra= a=at = «nr¬r f+ =n¬r+ +r~= +=r«rr f=. =r¢n+
J¢f=¬rvrr) = =rn f<¤=t¬ =-=¬ 6 =r¤ +r ¤r=--r ¢+r; =r 12 =r¤ 2006
n+ ¤¬¬r; +r¤rt = 120 ¤·r ¬t¬r +=+ == 1518 = =¬¢= =«rr= = =¤r=t=
=n¬r+ =r= + 209 ¤·r «r< s= f<= J¤r=¬= ¤r{t ar<¤rt) +r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r
=n¤÷·r +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) =n¬r+ = ¤¬+= =¤r=t= ¬r¤ e=r=t f=.
n=== J¢f=¬rvrr) = == 1727 = f<= + =«¢ 10 «= =rnr = ¤+a ¢v «r;
=¢r ¤= <= ¤·rt¬ «r¬+ ¬=t«<r= =r¢« =t ¬r¬r +r ¤=r =¢ «r; +s +-¬
«= -¤r¬ -rt «r; v+ +¤r=t ¬r¬ +r <¸=r +¤= +r¤rt¤r< = f=+r¬r; == =¤¬
-rt ¤t¬r n«rr «r¬+ ¬=t« <r= =t +r -rt f¤¬r¬r; =r= <r= +=+ ==+t
+r-=r +r =n¬r+ ¬ ¬v; ¤te = «r¬+ ¬=t«<r= =t +r =` ` ` ``n =r=+= +f-n=
==+r= + f¬v f¤nr ¤= f¬ar f¬¬r ¬¬r «rr; ¬-r-r¬ +ra trva + «r<
¬=t«<r= =t +t +r-=r +r =¤ «mv=r n«rr =n¬r+ +r <¤r= +=r += ¤rf¤=
er= f<¬r; f¤nr ¤= = s+¬rn ¤>r +r =tf¤n <=r += =rnrf¤nr +t =r¤rt
+r fa+r=r =¢t =¢r; ¤=-n +r<=vrt¬ ¬=t«<r= =t =¢r=r= ¤¢¬ ¤r¬t -rr·rr
=¢t «r¬ =¢ «r; ¤ +r=rr <=rr =n¬r+ +r ¢r¬ +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt J<r¢r¬r+rf«n¬r)
+ ar=r «r¬= ¬¬; =r +r= =<¬-«r =r¢« =r= = f¬f¤ «{ ¢; ¬¢t ¬r=
¤== ¤¸=¬ +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt = ¢; s= f<= J¤r=¬= =r=
¤r{t ar<¤rt) +r ¤fn ¤·r +r<=vrt¬ ¬=t«<r= =t + «r=r f<¤= + =¤¬=r =
=n¬r+ +r~= +=r«rr = ==r¬r =rnr ¢; =-=¬ = =¤=r«-r =r=+r=t =-n
=r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =¤ =¬n +r <t n«rr -r«nr +t ¤r+r+r +r ==r=rr=
+=n ¢v =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t ¤=n+r +r ¤< ¤= ¤r=«a= ar=r =¤ +r f<=rr¬r;
=¤ n«¬r +r +r=rr <=r += =¤ =¬n = <rnr n¬ =¬¬t <«rs; =r=rr=¤r=t
¤«r = == =+=r -r«nr = =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =r= =¤<¤r ¤r·n
f+¬r;
+e ~{r¬+r = ¤r+r ·¬«n +t f+ «¬r ¬÷ «<¬= = ¤r¤ nr =¢t
¬¬¬r³ =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = +¢r : == v+ ¤n J=r«a=) = =¤¤r=
=¢t ¢rnr nr <¸==r «<¬ ¬=r f¢n+= ¢rnr ¢; s=t ¤+r= =¤ =` ` ` ``f·a +r
=-==` ` ` ``-¬ +r =r¬ ¬¬r ¢; ¬÷ «<¬= = ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢ ¢rf= =¢t ¢rnt;
51
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
''ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r'' +r =¸¬ |=qrn:
¤==r-=r f==r+r= ¢; ¬÷ ÷¤ = ¤+a =-n ¢t ¤-r +r =r+r= ÷¤ ¢;
=n¬r+J=--r=rv=) = +¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢t ¤+r¤r ¢; +-¬r=t +r ¤r=t=Jtra) = =r
=r= == =¢t ¢ n«rr =r ¤+r¤r f<=rrs <nr ¢ ¬¢t ¤-r ¤rf·n ¢; ¤r¤ =r=r +
=r¤ = ¤r¤ =v=¬r = =r=r+ ¤¢¤ =rnr ¢; =r= s= ¤+r= ¢ =¬rfn f====,
+r+r=, ==+r=, =r¢ n«rr =n=r=; s= =r=r + =r¤ = ¤r·< =r¬nr ¢; =r=
==rs <nt ¢; f== + =¢r= +r-=r =n¬r+ = =r+= f==r+r= =n¤÷·r =
¬t= ¢r =rnt ¢; == ==-< = «¸< f=¬ =rnt ¢; =¤ =¤¬·=rt -rt ¤r=t= +«rrn
f¤v= Jtra) = ¢t =r=n ¢;
´'ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| =|=r-n ¬r¬+rº|''
=r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r +r ¤¤n+ ~t ¢=¸= f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r= +r =r=r =rnr
¢ f==+r =-= +r¬=r ¤r¢= +t =¢=¬r ¤-=r ¬¬t = ~t =a f<¬¤r¬t f=¢ =t
+ tr= =rnr =¢r=r¬r =t +t ¤f¤>r +r=r = 25 +¬=n 1818 J=-¤n 1875
-rr<¤ «<t +·a=t + f<=) +r ¢+r; =¤r=t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r= + =rnrf¤nr
=t ~t n¬=t =r¢« ¢r«r== ¤r¬ =-n =t + -r«n «r; =r ==+ tr= ¤= +rn
=¢n «r; =r == n¬=t <r= ¬r=rs ¤r¬t +r-=r «rt f=== ¤¢¬ ~t =r=¤f=>r
=r== +«rrn =r=r¬vr +r f¬=rr «rrJ¬¢ f¤¤=vr tra =r=r¬vr -rr¬ ¤¢¬r + ¤¢¬
f¬=r s=+ =t¤= ¤f=>r = ¢) ~t n¬=t =r¢« =t ¢r«r== ¤r¬ +r +rs ¬÷
=¢t «rr;
s=t n¬=t =r¢« ¢r«r== ¤r¬ + ¤¤= ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t J=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r
+ ¤«r= =-n) ==r +=n «r; ¤=-n ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t = -rt +rs ¬÷ =rr=vr
=¢t f+¬r «rr; [=¤=r«n f¤¤=vr ¤=n+´´=r= ¤¤= =r=rr =¤r=t´´ === ¬rf=
e-<«-< -r¸f=+r ¤` ` ` ``·a +=r ¤= n«rr ¤=n+ ´´=r= ¤¤= =r=rr=¤r=t J¤rfn+)
-r¸f=+r ¤` ` ` ``·a I-II1¤= ¢;)
~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¤¬ ¢t e: ¤·r +t +r¬ = ¢a¬r¬ fa¬r +=+, «-<
+== = ==n¤r·< +r +-¬r= f+¬r +=n «r; <r<r, nt=nt= f<= n+ «r¢=
=¢t f=+¬n «r; s= ¤+r= ¬¬-r¬ ¤<¢ ¤·r n+ +=n =¢; =¤n 1917 J==
1860) +r 42 ¤·r +t +r¬ = ¤¢¬r =-=¬ f+¬r; ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r f¤¤r¢
-r«n=fn =r=r¬vrt <¤t = ¢+r f== «r< = ´´=r=rr´´ +¢= ¬¬ «r;
¤=rvr: ¤=n+ ´´=¤<¤r =r=rr =¤r=tJ¤+r¤r+ v=. v¬. =r=rt, =aa=t
=r=rr =¤r=t =-=¬ ·¬r= f=. +=` ` ` `` n==, ¤rn ¤=r«) ¤` ` ` `` ·a 30-31 n«rr ¤=n+´´=t¤=
¤f=>r ¤== =n «r«r =¬=¬ f=¢´´ ¬=r+ =n +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ ¤` ` ` `` ·a 56 ¤= ¢;
´´¤¤= +rf=r=t´´ =r =¤n 1935 J1878) +r ¤r=t= er=n ==¬ ~t
f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t = +¤= ==r +=¬ = =--rr=vr f+v;
52
iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr
¤¤= +rf=r=t =. 5 = f¬=rr ¢ f+ +-n ==¬ = =¤ =¬n = +¢r «rr
f+ == «r< ´´=r=rr =t´´ J=r=r¬vrt <¤t) +r == ==r= ==n=r J=r=rr ~t
f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +t ¤-=t «rt)
¤¤= +rf=r=t =. 9-10 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¬` ` ` ``¢=«rt +r=nr + f¬v =r=rr =t ==r
=-r=rf=r+r=t ¢; ¤ =r=rr =t + <¤r= ¤ ¤¸=r +=; =r=r+r + f¬v =-r==r <r=
=t +r a¢=r¬r;
¤¤= +rf=r=t =. 12 = +¤= -rrs ¤nr¤ f=¢ = +¢r ¢ f+ +r¤ «r¬ =
=-=¬ +=r +r= +=r+r;
¤¤= +rf=r=t =. 14 = +¢r ¢ f+ ==r =n nr =n=r= +r= +=r=t +r
«rr +r= =r=rr =¤r=t =n nr =r¬¬=r= +r ¤¬r¬r ¢+r ¢; ==r ¢ ¢t =¢t, s=
-rt ¤¬= <=r; =n=¬ =r=t =¢ +r= =n=¬ ¤¢¬ = «a+= ¢r¬r;
=¤=r«n f¤¤=vr ¤=n+ ´´=r= ¤¤= =r=rr=¤r=t´´ === ¬rf= e-<«-< +t
-r¸f=+r ¤` ` ` ``·a  r = a n+ f¬=rr ¢;
f¤¤r·r f¤¤r=: =¤=r«-r f¤¤=vr = =¤·a ¢+r f+ J1) ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r
+rs ¬÷ =¢t «rr;
J2) ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +=n «r; ¢a ¬r¬ ar=r «-<
+== = <rnt= f<= n+ «a =¢n «r; =r =-n =n + f¤÷{ ¢, «¬rf+ =-n
=n nr =¢= =r¬ ¢; =r =r=r=r ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +=n «r == ===r=rr=vr
=¢t += =+nr;
J3) =¤=r«n f¤¤=vr ¤¤= +rf=r=t = ¬¢ -rt ¤=rfvrn ¢+r f+ ~t
f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t = ~t =¬=¬ f=¢ =t =¢r=r= Jf=-¢r= =r=rr=¤r=t ·¬r= ==r
=r= = ¤«r ¤=r« = ¤¬r¬r) +r =r= <r= +== +r +r<¤r =¢t f<¬r, = ~t
=rf¬¬=r= =t +r =r=<r= +== +r +r<¤r f<¬r; ¬f< =r= <r= +== +r
+r<¤r f<¬r ¢rnr nr +¤¤¬ +rf=r=t ¤¤=r = ¤vr= ¢rnr; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t
¤=n+r = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤«n ¬= + f«=r =t¤ =«n =¢t ¢r =+nr; +` ` ` ``·¬r f¤¤r=
+= f+ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t J=r=rr=¤r=t) n«rr ~t =¬=¬ f=¢ =t J==r «r«r
·¬r=) n«rr ==+ +=¬rs¬r ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t n«rr ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t n«rr
=-¤r =r<r f===r + ¤¤+r+ ~t =r=r=¬ =t =¤ f«¬rf¤=nr=t ¤rr¢ ==nr=r
=t =r ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =r=rr=¤r=t + f¤r·¬ ¢; f=-¢ ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =
+rs =r=<r= +== +r +r<¤r =¢t f<¬r; «¬r ¢r¬r, «¬rf+ =f=r¬r J~t
f¤r¤¬r¬ =t) ¢t ¤«n ¬= =f¢n «r ³
J4) =r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r ¤¬r¬r ¢+r =¢t ¢:
¤¤= +rf=r=t =. 14 = =¤·a ¢ f+ =¤r=t =t =¢r=r= = +¢r ¢ f+ ==r
=n nr =n=r= +r= +=r=t +r ¢; =r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r =r¬¬=r= =t +r ¤¬r¬r
53
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¢+r ¢; ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ = =·r·a =+n f+¬r ¢´´ «f{=r= ·¬f«n +r =+n ¢t
¢rnr ¢;´´
¤r+r J1) v+ ~{r¬ = ¤r+r ·¬«n +t : ¤¤= +rf=r=t =. 14 = ¬¢ -rt
nr f¬=rr ¢ f+ =r=rr =¤r=t =n =r¬¬=r= +r ¤¬r¬r ¢+r ¢; s= -rt ¤¬=
<=r;
¤r+r ==r=rr=: +r¤+ <` ` ` `` f·a+rvr = =r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r +r ¤¬n =¢= +r
+r<¤r ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r= +r ¢ nr -rt =r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r + ¤¤n+ ~t
=r¬¬=r= =t ¢v; f=-¢r= ¤n=r= = =r=rr =¤r=t =r= = ¤«r ¤ +r~= «=rv
¢; ¤ ~t =r¬¬=r= =t + +==r= ¢v = f+ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +; «¬rf+ ~t
f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t = nr +¢r ¢ f+ ==r =n nr =n=r= +r= +=r=t +r ¢
=r=rr=¤r=t +r =¢t ¢;
¤r=nf¤+nr ¬¢ ¢ f+ : ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +t =r=¤-=t ~t=fn =r=r¬vrt
<¤t +r =r=rr +¢n «r n«rr ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r =r=rr +r =¤r=t J¤fn) +«rrn
=r=rr=¤r=t +¢= ¬¬;
=<r¢=vr ==: -r¬¤r= f¤r¤ =t +r ==r =¤r=t -rt +¢n ¢; ==r J¤r¤nt)
+r ¤fnJ=¤r=t) ¢r= = ==r=¤r=t =r= ~t f¤r¤ =t +r ¢t «r=r+ ¢; s=t ¤+r=
´´=r=rr =¤r=t´´ =r= ~t f¤r¤ <¬r¬ =t +r «r=r+ ¢;
~t =r¬¬=r= =t = ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =¢r=r= +r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r =r= +=
=-¢t +t ¤¸=r +r ¤r¤=rr= += f<¬r n«rr =r= =r¤ -rt =r=rr =¤r=t ¢t <r= +==
¬¬r; f==+r ¤=rvr ¤=n+ =r= ¤¤= =r=rr =¤r=t === Je-<«-<) = ¢ f+
''ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¬r= ¬r nr¤ =r; nº''
+-¬ ¤=rvr ¢: f=¬r f-r¤r=t J¢f=¬rvrr) ¬r¤ f<=r< = ~t nr=r¤-< =t
=¢r=r= = ¬¢t =r= <r= f+¬r ¢;
¤¤=: ¤r+r =. 2 : =¤r=t =t = ¬¢ f+=f¬v +¢r f+ ¬¢ =r¬¬=r= +r
¤¬r¬r ¢+r ¢; s= -rt ¤¬= <=r;
=+r=: ¤r+r ==r=rr=: =¤r=t =t =¢r=r= ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r +fn=
==¬ «rr; =-¢r= <=r f¬¬r «rr f+ =r¬¬=r= = ====rt =r¬ ==t +r¬r +
f¤¤f=n ¤¬r f<¬r ¢; ==r +== = -rt =¢t =r=nr ¢; +¢t +f=r+ =r= <=
+ +r=vr ¬¢ f+=t +-¬ =r= = ¤«r = ¤¬r ¬; s=f¬v f¤¤¤nr = +¢r f+
s= -rt +e =n +¢=r, +== <r s= ====rt +r =r +=nr ¢;
=<r¢=vr: v+ ==¬ ~t =r=+ =t =r¢« +¤= f¤r·¬r + =r«r ¬r¤¬r¤
=¬==¬= = -r=vr +=+ =-=¬ += =¢ «r; v+ ¬r¤ = ==+r ¤-«r= =r= n«rr
+-r< ·¬¤¢r= f+¬r; ~t =r=+ =r¢« = +¢r ´´¬¢t «=n =¢r´´ <¸== ¬r¤ =
==+r «¢n +r<= ¢+r n«rr -rr== +rf< +r ¤«-=r ¤= ¤ ~{r = f+¬r ¬¬r;
54
iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr
¤¬n ==¬ ~t =r=+ =t = +¢r ´´+r¤ === =r+r´´
f¤r·¬r = ¤¸er ¢ ¬÷<¤! +r¤= ¤r=r=nt ·¬f«n¬r +r ¬¢t «=n =¢= +r
+r¤rt¤r< f<¬r n«rr =+ ·¬f«n¬r +r ==== +r ~r¤ < f<¬r, +r=vr «¬r ¢³
~t =r=+ =t = =+r= f<¬r : =r ·¬f«-r =+ =¢t ¢ ¤ v+ ¢t =¬= =
=¢ nr +-er ¢; ¬f< +¢t +-¬ =«rr=r ¤= «=¬ nr =-¢ -rt +¤= ==r «=r
<¬; =r =+ ·¬f«n ¢ ¤ f+=t +-¬ =«rr= ¤= =r+= =¢¬ nr +-¬ +r -rt +¤=
==r =+ «=rv¬; s=f¬v s-r+r ==== +r +¢r ¢;
=¤=r«n =<r=¢vr = =¤·a ¢ f+ =n +r +¢= +r <` ` ` ``f·a+rvr +e +-¬
¢t ¢rnr ¢; at+ s=t n=¢ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t = f¤¤¤r ¢r+= +¢r ¢ f+ s=
J=r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r +r) -rt ¤¬= <=r; =¢t nr ¤ =¢t +¢n f+ ==r =n =r=rr
=·rr=t =¢t ¢ ==r =n nr =n=r= +r= +=r=t +r ¢;
¤¤=: ¤r+r 3 : == ¤=n+ ´´=-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬3´´ ¤at ¢ === ~t
=r¤= =t =¢r=r= + =-=¬ ¤¤= ¢ [~t =r¤= f=¢ =t, ~t =¬=¬ f=¢ =t
=¢r=r= + f¤r·¬ n«rr =+r=rf=r+r=t ==r ·¬r= J¤=r«) ¢v ¢;) ¤` ` ` ``·a 76 ¤=
f¬=rr ¢ f+ =n=r= ¬r =¤=rv= ¤r«rr ¬r+ ¢; f¤= ¤` ` ` ``·a =. 79 ¤= ¤r= =r=
+r f¤¤=vr +=n ¢v «nr¬r ¢ f+: ¢+ ºr= «ºrº·r +r ¤cr, «¸=ºr ºr= =¬,
n|=ºr ºr= ¤æ, ¤r·rr ºr= =n¬r= ;, ¤; ¤=¬| ºr= ;|
´´=r= ¤¤= ¤rfn+´´ =r=+ ¤=n+ J-rr¬1) f==+ ¤+r¤r+ ¢ v=. v¬.
=r=rt, =aa=t, =r=rr =¤r=t ·¬r= ==r «r«r =¬=¬ f=¢, f=. +=` ` ` ``n==J¤=r«)
¢; ¤=n+ +t -r¸f=+r = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ´´=r= ¤¤= ¤rfn+´´ ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t
=¢r=r= J~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t)+ ¤¤=r +r =¬¢ =r «r< = ¤=n+ + ÷¤ =
e¤¤r¬r ¬¬r n«rr == 1902 = «r«r =¬=¬ f=¢ ar=r ¬===rt ¬t¤t J¤=r«t)
= e¤¤r¬r;
¤` ` ` ``·a =. 3 ¤= ¤¤= =. 4 = f¬=rr ¢: J-rr¬1) J=¬r +r -¬r ¬=r)
(4) ¤¤ ==¤¬r ¤r|;¢ +| ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤« ªr¤= =¤r =+r= ; ¤rº ¤;|
¬r= +¬ =r|¬+ ¤rº =--r =r|;¤, ¤rº =-¤ =r«r +r ; ¤rº ;= =+r= =
«r ª·rr¬ ¬|¤ =n¬r= +r =+r= ; |+ |¬=+r =nr ¬ =n¬r+ ¤rº =-¤=rº=
¤rº =rººr·« ¤rº =nºr·« ¤rº =n¬r= ¤rº =n¤=·r +º+ ·¤r¬ |+¤r ;|
¤` ` ` ``·a 5 ¤= ¤¤= =. 7 = f¬=rr ¢ J=¬r +r -¬r ¬=r)
=¤º |¬+º ;¤r ; |+ =n¬r= ª·rr¬ |¬=+r =n¬r+ ¤rº =--r=rº= -r|
+;n ;|J¬=r ==r·n) f¤= ¢=r= +r ¤r¤ =r= J=¬rfn f====, +r+r=,
==+r=, =r¢ n«rr =n=r=) f<v ¢; s== =->r ÷¤ = =n=r= =r¤ +== +r
-rt f<¬r ¢; = «t= ¤·r = s= =r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r = ==r ¢¸; = ¬¢ =¢t ==n
¤r¬r ¢¸ f+ =n=r= «¬r ¤t= ¢³ =n=r= =«rr= ¢ ¬r -r¬¤r= ¢ ¬r =->r +r
55
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
=r¤ ¢ ¬r +rs ¤¤r ¤=rt ¢; =¤= + ¤¤= =. 7 = f¬=rr ¢ =n=r= +r =«rr=
f==+r =n¬r+ +r= =-¤=rv= -rt +¢n ¢; f¤= ¤¤= 4 = f¬=rr ¢
=r=¤r·<=n¤r·<=n¤÷·r +r= =n=r= -rt s=t +r +¢n ¢; f¤= ¤¤= =. 4
= ¢t v+ «r= nr f¬=rr ¢ =r=rr=¤r=t ¤< =«= =¤r =+r= J=«rr=) ¢; f¤=
n=-n ¢t f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¬¢ =r= =-¤ =rf¬+ +r ¢; == +rs +¢ f+ f<=¬t
«¢n +-er =«rr= ¢; s=t +r ¤=rr==->rt -rt +¢n ¢; s= n=¢ +t <r n=¤r
«rn +« ==n = +r= ¬¬t ¢; =« +r¤ + ar=r f¬=rt ¤=n+ ´´¤==¤¤= +r
=r= =<¤r´´ n«rr ´´¬¢=t === ¬tnr =´´ n«rr +r¤ ar=r ==r¤r= ¤>rr = f¬=r
¬=rr +r ¤a+= =¬r= = =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t ¤=n+r +r f¤= ¤ar =r ¤` ` ` ``·a +r¤=
f¬=r «r; == +r f=¬r= f+¬r ¤ +« ==n = +rv; =¤=¤ ¢=r= =r«r =rr=rr
¢r =¢r ¢³ =ra : +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤ra+ ¤` ` ` ``-< ¤a ¤rar +r¤t =¤=r«-r ¤=n+r = ¤¤=
=. 4 n«rr 7 s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 57-58 ¤= n«rr =¤¬
f=vr¬ +=;
=-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =¤ =¬n +r +¤¬n +=r¬r f+ : =r=rr=¤r=t
¤«r ¤r¬ == +r= n¸a «r¬ =¢ ¢ f+: =n=r= =«rr= f==+r =n¬r+ +r=
=--r=rv= -rt +¢n ¢ «¢n =¤r ¢ +r= =nr +r <=«r= ¢ +r= ==+ =¤= nt=
=«rr= +r= ¢ f==+r f+=t =-n = =¢t =rr¬r +« =r=rr=¤r=tJ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t)
= =rr¬r ¢; s-¢t +t ¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬1 = ¤«r= ¤` ` ` `` ·a ¤= ¢t ¤¸=¬
+«t= ¤==¤¤= +t +=` ` ` ``n ¤rvrt = v+ ¤r·< f¬=rr ¢ ´´+= ==r f<<r= =¢¬ =
·¬r=r ¢´´ =r 32 +¬t +r ¢; f==+r +=¤r< ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r=J=r
~t =¬=¬ =t =¢r=r= ==r ·¬r= ¤r¬ + =-r=rf=r+r=t «r) = +=¤r< f+¬r ¢;
== ¤r·< = =¤ =«rr=r ¤ ¬r+r +r ¤vr= f-r-=2 ¢; =r ¤rvrt ¤==¤¤= +«t=
=n¤÷·r +t =r=rr=¤r=tJ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t) + =-= = -rt ¤r= =r ¤·r ¤¸¤ +t
f¬=rt ¢s ¢;
s== =¤·a ¢ f+ ¤==¤¤= +«t= =n¤÷·r =t +t ¤rvrt +r ¤=r += +¤=t
¤r«a =f¢=r «=rs ¢; f==+t +« ¤r¬ =r¬ ¬s ¢; ¤=n+ =r=¤¤= =r=rr=¤r=t
¤rfn+ + ¤` ` ` ``·a 5 ¤= ¤¤= 7 = =¤·a ¢ f+ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r ¢t =r=rr=¤r=t
+¢r ¬¬r ¢; «¬rf+ ¬¢ ¤=n+ ´´=r=¤¤= ¤rfn+´´ +t -r¸f=+r = f¬=rr ¢ f+
s= ¤=n+ = ¢== =t =¢r=r= f¤r¤ <¬r¬ =t + ¤¤=r +r =¬¢ +=+ f¬=rr
¢; s= ¤¤= 7 = +¢r ¢ f+ =r=rr=¤r=t =t = -r< =rr¬r ¢ ¬f< =r=rr=¤r=t J~t
f¤r¤<¬r¬ =¢r=r=) +r +¤=r +=-r¤ ¢rnr nr =¤=r«-r ¤=n+ + ¤rar +r¤t
= =¤r«rs J+¢t +t sa +¢t +r =r=r) ¬r= =¢t «r¬n;
¤r+r ==r=rr= : ¤r=n¤ =
J¤r·r f¤=)
56
iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr
f=·+·r : =¤=r«n ¤rar +r¤t ¤=n+ ´´=n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬3 + ¤` ` ` ``·a
76 ¤ 79 + +¤rr +t ¢; f==+ ¬=r+ =n =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= ¢;
=¤=r«n ¬=rr = ¤nr ¤¬nr ¢ f+ =-n =r¤= f=¢ +r =-n=n +r +rs ¬r=
=¢t «rr; =-¢ ¬¢t =¢t ¤nr «rr f+ ´´=n=r=´´ «¬r ¢; ¤` ` ` ``·a 76 ¤= =n=r=
+r =-¤=rv= J=n¬r+) «nr¬r ¢ ¤` ` ` ``·a 79 ¤= =n=r= +r ¤r«rr =r= «nr¬r ¢
n«rr ¤r¤ =r=r = =n=r= +r =r¤ +r =->r «nr¬r ¢; ¬¢t f¤¤r= =r=rr=¤r=t
¤«r + ¤==r ¢=¸= =r¢« f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¤ =r=rr=¤r=t =t + ¢ =r ¤=n+
=r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 3 ¤ 5 ¤= f¬=r ¢ == +t ¤rar +r¤t +` ` ` ``·¬r s=t ¤=n+
J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 57-58 ¤= ¢;
J¤=n+ =n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬3 + ¤` ` ` ``·a 76 +t ¤rar +r¤t)
J¤=n+ =n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬3 + ¤` ` ` ``·a 79 +t ¤rar +r¤t)
57
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
J¤=n+ =r=¤¤= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤rfn+ + ¤¤= ==¬r 4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 3 +t ¤rar
+r¤t)
58
J¤=n+ =r=¤¤= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤rfn+ + ¤` ` ` ``·a 5 ¤¤= ==¬r 7 +t ¤rar +r¤t)
iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr iz Fke fdLr
59
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r -r|
ºr=rrª¤r=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(|øn|¤ |+ªn)
(12 =r¤ 2006 +r ¤¬r¤ +=º| = ¤+r|ºrn)
-r«n +` ` ` ``·vr f=¢ ¬ra= a=at = «nr¬r f+ =n¬r+ +r~= +=r«rr = =n
¬=t«<r= =t =¢r=r= + «r=r f<¤= + =¤¬=r = ¤¬ =¢ =rn f<¤=t¬ =-=¬
==r=r¢ = =¬n ¬= n-¤<¤rt =n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = ~{r¬+r +t ¤r+r+r
+r ==r=rr= f+¬r n«rr ¤rr=>rr = e¤t =-¤rs +r n«rr +-¬ =nr ¤ ¤«rr +t
¤=n+r +r ¤r=«a= + ar=r ¤< ¤= f<=rr += ~{r¬+r +r =-¬ = +¤¬n
+=r¬r;
¤r+r ==r=rr= : ¤r=n¤ = +r<=vrt¬ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r= J=r=rr=¤r=t)
=t ¤¸¤ =-= + -rf«n ¬«n ¤v¬ +r-=r «r; ¤n=r= = =-¢ ¤rr=>r +=+¸¬ =-¬
-rf«n =¢t f=¬t; f== +r=vr = ¤ +¤=t ¤¸¤ =-= +t +=rs + +r=rr= = ¢t
-rf«-r + ·¬r= «r; 5-6 ¤·r +t +r¬ = «-r¤= = ¢t =¤¬ ==rf=r=«r ¢r =rn
«r; +¤=t ¤¸¤ =-= +t +=rs +r ==r·n += ¬v s=f¬v +¤=t f¤¬ f¤r·¬r
««+t = ¤¤¤r ¢r += «rn +=n «r; ~t ¤nr¤ f=¢ =t = ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸=
=¤r=t =t =¢r=r= ¤` ` ` ``·a 54-55-56 ¤¤= 65 = f¬=rr ¢ f+ = J¤nr¤ =t) n«rr
~t =r¬¬=r= =r¬ =r¢« -rt +s «r= === +r<¤r ¤r·n +=n «r; f¤= ««+t
+ ==r = =¤r=t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t + ¤r·n +r<¤r +r ¤r¬= +=n «r; s== f={
¢ f+ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t J=r=rr=¤r=t) ¢t +¤=t f¤¬ f¤r·¬r ««+t = ¤¤¤r J¤+a)
¢r+= «r¬n «r; == +r<¤r +r ¤r¬= ~t =r¬ =r¢« =r¬¬=r= =t Jf===
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤¬r¬r) n«rr ~t ¤nr¤ f=¢ =t J=r ¢=¸= =¤r=t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t
+ =¬ -rrs «r) +=n «r; +` ` ` ``·¬r <=r ¤rar +r¤t ¤` ` ` ``·a 54-55-56 ¤¤= =. 65
J=t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r=) s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) +
¤` ` ` ``·a 66 = 69 ¤=;
=¤=r«n ¤¤= 65 +t ¤rar +r¤t = =¤·a ¢ f+ J1) =¤r=t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t
+¤=t f¤r·¬r ««+t = ¤¤¤r J¤+a ¢r) += -r«n=fn ««+t + ==r ar=r +r<¤r
<n «r n«rr =` ` ` ``-¬ + ¤¤¤rn -rt ¢«+r ¤ -rr¬ +t =¤r +¤=t f¤r·¬r ««+t =t
ar=r ¬¢vr +=n «r +r= ««+t =t = ==+t =` ` ` ``-¬ n+ ¤+a J¤¤¤r) =¢;
J2) =¤r=t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t ¢«+r ¤tn «r; f¤¤r= += : v=t f=«rfn nr
f¤n=r n«rr ¤nr +t ¢rnt ¢; f+=t -rt =r=r ¤r·n =n + sfn¢r= = =¢t
60
f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr
f=¬nt; =« f== ¤«r + =f=r¬r ¢t f¤+r= =¢t -¬r¬ =+ nr +-¬ +=¬rs +=
f¤+r= =f¢n ¢r =+n ¢; s=f¬v == ¤«r + -rf«n =r¬ = =r=r ¤rf·n +t «rn
+¢=r ¢t ·¬«r ¢;
== s-r¤a= +t «at ¤r== ¢rnt ¢ ¤¢ =¤ ¬r-rJ¤=rr ¤¬r <nt ¢, «=«
=¬r <nt ¢) <nt =¢nt ¢; ¬f< ¤r== at+ =¢t ¢rnr ¢ nr =t=¤r= ¢r= +
¤¤¤rn ¤¢ ¬r-r =¢t <nt; s=t ¤+r= ¤¸¤ =-= +t -rf«n = =-¤-= ¢v -r«n
¤n=r= = +-e =r=r+ ¬¬n ¢; ¤=-n =r=r=r ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢r= + +r=vr -rf¤·¬
+t -rf«n +=rs = ¤f¤n =¢ =rn ¢; f¤= ¤ f¤n= ¬r ¤n «= =rn ¢; f¤=
+-¬ + ¤r=t= = «r¬n ¢;
¬¢r =n¬r+ +r~= +=r«rr = «¢n = ·¬f«n ¤nr = ¤tf=n -rt +rn ¢;
¤ =r= ¤r·n +=+ =¤=«r ¢r =rn ¢ n«rr ==+r +r--r+=¬rvr -rt ¢r =rnr ¢;
¤¤=: v+ ~{r¬ = ¤¤= ¤¸er n«rr v+ tra=r +r ¤vr= f+¬r; -r«n =
«nr¬r f+ ==r ¤r¤r -r¬r ·¬f«-r «rr; =«¢¤rr= <r<r trva f=-¬ =r=r=r +=nr
«rr; =` ` ` ``-¬ + ¤¤¤rn ¤¢ +¤=t ¤>r¤=r = «r¬nr «rr; =« +rs +r¤f+r +rnt nr
=== ¤¸en «r +r= =r ==r=rr= «nrnr «rr ¤¢ =¢t ¢r =rnr «rr; =` ` ` ``-¬ = ¤¸¤
==r ¤r¤r ¢«+r ¤tnr «rr n«rr ¤¸==r Jtrt, =rrv=, =rat = «=r¬r =rnr ¢) =rr¬r
+=nr «rr; =r == «¢n ¤=< «rr; ==+t ¤>r ¤=r¸ ¤fnf<= ==+ +== =
Jf=== ¤¢ =r=r=r f+¬r +=nr «rr) ¢«+r -r= += ==rnt «rt n«rr ¤¸==r -rt «=r
+= ==rnt «rt; ¤¢ =¤¬ ¢«+r ¤tnt n«rr ¤¸==r =rrnt «rt; =« +-rt =¢t ==r
¤rnt «rt nr ¤¢ == + ==r = «r¬nr n«rr +-¬ +r +¢nr «rr n-¢r=t sa =
sa «=r <¸¬r; f¤= ¢= ==n v=r +=n «r; +s «r= ¢=r= tr= = ¢r= ¤r¬t
¬r-r¢rf= +r +¤=t ¤>r ¤=r¸ = ¤+a J¤¤¤r) ¢r+= ¤¸¤ ¢t «nr <nr «rr; ¤¢
=-¬ ¢rnt «rt; v+ «rmvr = «nr¬r «rr f+ ¤¢ f¤n= «=r ¢+r ¢; +« +r¤=
=¤<¤r ¬= + ¤¤¤rn ¤ter e¸ar ¢; ==r ¤r¤r =t -rf«n -rt +=nr «rr f¤= -rt
f¤n= ¬r ¤n «= ¬¬r; «¬r +r=vr ¢ ³
=+r=: =r ¤v¬r-=r ¤¸¤ =-= = f+=t =-n +t ¤r=vr = =-¬ =r=r=r f+¬r
+=nr «rr; ¤¢ +e -rf«n +=rs nr =¤¬ = ==r·n += <nr ¢; ¤r·r ¤v¬r +
+r=rr= = == =r=¤ ¤r=t= ¤r·n ¢r =rnr ¢; =r=¤ =-= = -rt ¤¸¤ =-= +t
+=rs + ¤-rr¤ = -rf«n +t ¤=vrr = ¤¢ ·¬f«n =r=r=r +¤¤¬ +=nr ¢;
¤rr=>rf¤f=r =f¢n =r=r=r +== + +r=vr ==+t ¤¸¤ =-= +t ¤r·r +=rs =r=¤
=-= = =r=r·n ¢r =rnt ¢; f== +r=vr = ¤¢ =r=r+ =` ` ` ``-¬ =¤=r-n f¤n= ¬rf=
+r ¤r·n ¢rnr ¢ f¤= ¤n ¬rf= = =rnr ¢; f¤= ==+ n«rr +-¬ ¤rfvr¬r +t
¬rf=¬r -rr¬nr ¢; ¬¢ ¤-r +r f¤=rr= ¢;
s=f¬v ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +=¬r¬ 16 ¤¬r+ 23 = +¢r ¢ f+ =r ·¬f«n
61
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vrJ¤¸=r) +=nr ¢; == = nr +rs ==r ¤r·n
¢rnr ¢ = ==+t ¬fn ¢rnt ¢ = +rs f={t +«rrn ¤-r ¤rf·n +r +r¬ -rt f={
=¢t ¢rnr;
f¤= ¤¬r+ 24 = +¢r ¢ f+ -rf«-r =r¬ +t =r=r=r ¬¢vr +== n«rr
-¬r¬= + f¬v ¤rr=>rr +r ¢t +r=rr= =r=, f+=t =-n + +¢= =r>r = f¤¤¤r=
= +=;
¤r+r ¤¤= : +r¤= ¤«r= f+=n = f¬=rr ¢ f+ =r=rr =t ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬
=t +t =r= ¤-=t «rt; +r¤+ ¤r= «¬r ¤=rvr ¢ ³ ¢= nr «nr¬r ¬¬r ¢ f+ =r=rr
==n +r +¢n ¢ n«rr =¤r=t ¤r·< +r;
=+r= : f¤¬ ~{r¬ +r¤= ¤¤= ==¬r 4 = ¤ar; f=== f¬=rr ¢ f+
=r=rr=¤r=t =«= =¤r =«rr= ¢; f¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¬¢ =rf¬+ +r =r= ¢; f¤=
f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¬¢ ¬r =+r= ¢ +«rrn =«rr= -rt =¢t +¢ =+n; +r¤ ¢t f¤¤r=
+= f+ s=+t +r==t «rn +r =-¬ =r=r¬; +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤ar ¤=rvr ¤=n+ ´´=¤<¤r
=r=rr=¤r=t´´, ¤+r¤r+ v=.v¬. =r=rt, =aa=t =r=rr=¤r=t =-=¬, ·¬r=, f=¬r
+=` ` ` ``n== J¤=r«) +t ¤rar +r¤t ¤` ` ` ``·a 30-31 n«rr ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¤=n+ ´´=t¤=
¤f=>r «r«r =¬=¬ f=¢ =t´´, ¬=r+ ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t + ¤` ` ` ``·a 56 +t ¤rar
+r¤t s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 68 ¤= +r= =¤¬ f=vr¬ +=
=-¬ +r= +=-¬ +r;
¤r+r ¤¤= : +r¤= ¤«r= f+=n = ¬¢ -rt f¬=rr ¢ f+ n¬=t =r¢« ¢r«r==
¤r¬ = ¤r¤r =r= +r¬ + +¢ ¢; «¬r ¤=rvr ¢ ³ ¬f< =¤=¤ v=r ¢ nr ¢=r=
=r«r =rr=rr ¢+r ¢;
=+r= : f¤¬ ~{r¬ +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤ar ¤rar +r¤t tra =r=r¬vr ¤f¢¬r -rr¬ ¤` ` ` ``·a
27 +t; s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 70 ¤= f=== =¤·a f+¬r
¢ f+ ¤r¤r =r= nr +r¬ + ¢; s= ¤r¤r =r=r = f-r-= <r =r= +-¬ ¢ 1.
+rf<=r= f== =r==r= -rt +¢n ¢; ¤¢ +rs +r= =->r ¢ =r =¤<¤rt +r ¬=
ar=r f<¬r =rnr ¢; <¸==r =n=r= ¢; J=n=r= +¢n ¢ =-¤ =r= +r;
=n=r==n=r= =r¤ +== +r =¢t ¢;) f== <r=r =r=r +rf<=r= +«rrn
=r==r= n«rr =n=r= J=r <r =>rr +r ¬r¬ ¢) +r =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =r==r=
=n¬= +«rrn =-¤r =r<r ¤«r ¤r¬ =nr +r ¤nr =¢t ¢; s=f¬v nr ¤=n+
=r= ¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 3 ¤= =-=¬ ¤¤= 4 = =¤¬ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r=
J=r=rr=¤r=t) =n=r=, =r=¤r·< +«rrn +rf<=r= n«rr =n¤r·<, =n¤=·r, =n¬r+
+r v+ «nr¬r ¢; ¬¢ -rt +¢r ¢ f+ =r=rr=¤r=t ¤< =«= =¤r =+r= J=«rr=)
¢; ¬¢t =-¤ =rf¬+ +r =r= ¢; s= ¬r =+r= f==+r +rs =«rr= -rt =¢t
+¢ =+n f¤= f¬=rr ¢ s=t +r +¢n ¢; f¤¤r= : f¤¬ ¤ra+ =¤¬ f¤¤r= +=;
62 f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr
«¬r ¬¢ ¤¸= =nr + f¤¤r= ¢³ ¬¢ nr v=r ¢ == f+=t = =t¤= = +-rt =
+r= <=rt, = ¤ar¬, = ¤r¢=, = ==+ +r= = =rs¤= +r ¬r= ¢r; ¤¢ +¢ f+
= +r= +t =r¤r=t +== ¤r¢= = =rnr ¢¸; ¤¢ ¤ar¬ ¤ =rs¤= = ==+ ¤=
¤¬nt ¢;
f¤= +¢ +r= ¤¬nt «rr= ¢t ¢; +r= «nr= f+= +¢n ¢; +r= +r
¤ar¬, =rs¤=, ==+ n«rr ¤r¢= +¢r =rnr ¢; ¤r=n¤ = +r= ¢ ¢t =¢t f==
+r= +¢r =rv; v= f¤¤r= ¢ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r= J=r=rr=¤r=t) =t +
s== f={ ¢ f+ =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«rr n«rr =r==r= =n¬= ¤ =-¤r =r<r ¤«r +
==¬ =r¬ <¤r+ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =tJ=r=rr=¤r=t) +r -rf«n +r +=r -rt ¬r= =¢t
«rr nr ==+ +=¬rs¬r +r «¬r ¢r¬ ¢r¬r ³ f== +t «¬¸=t ¢t at+ =¢t ¢ nr
¤«at+¬ += at+ ¢r =+nr ¢³ ==+r f¬f=rn +=-r¤ ¢t +¢t +t sa +¢t
+r =r=r ¢ nr =r=r=r -rt ·¬«r ¢;
¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r= ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t J=r=rr=¤r=t) +r +rs ¬= =¢t
«rr; +` ` ` ``·¬r <=r ¤rar +r¤t ¤=n+ ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r=´´
¬=r+ ¤nr¤ f=¢ =t + ¤` ` ` ``·a 19 ¤= ¤¤= ==¬r 31 s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r=
-r¬¤r=2) = ¤` ` ` ``·a 70 ¤=;
f¤¤r·r f¤¤r=:=¤ ¤ra+r = ¤r«r=r ¢ f+ =¤ ¤=rvrr +r ¤a n«rr f=·¤=r
f=vr¬ +=; =-¬ =r=r=r +¤¬ =n <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) + ¤r= ¢; ¤n=r= =
¬¢ =r=r=r f+=t + ¤r= =¢t ¢;
=r=rr=¤r=t n«rr =-¤r =r<r f===r n«rr =¬=r¬¤r¬t J=r-r =r= =n¬÷)
¤r¬ +¢n ¢ f+ ¢=r=r ¬r= nr ¬tnr =t n«rr ¤<r = -rt +r¬ ¢ ¤< n«rr ¬tnr
¬r= +r ¢= =¢t =r=n;
f¤¤r= +=: ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t ¤ ¤f¤>r ¤<r +r ¬r= «m n+ +t =r=r=r +r
~·a ¬r= ¢ s= v=r =r=r == <=¤t +=rr n+ ¤ra¬a= ¢; === ¤<J+«t=
¤rvrt) ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr +t -rf«-r +r ~·a ¬r= ¢; ¬¢ -¬r=¢¤t +=rr = v=. v.
n«rr ¤t. v¤. =t n+ +r =-¤¸vr ¤ra¬a= +r ¬r= =r=r;
=r +rs +¢ f+ ¢= nr =t=r v=. v. +t ¤ars += =¢ ¢; ¢= <=¤t n+
+t ¤=n+r +r =¢t =r=n; ¢= <=¤t +=rr ¤r= +== +t +r¤¤¬+nr =¢t ¢;
«¬r ¤¢ ·¬f«-r at+ f¤¤r= ·¬«n += =¢r ¢ ³ ¬¢t <¤rr =r=rr=¤r=t n«rr ==+t
¤rr=rr+r J=r= =r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r) +t ¢; ¤ra+r +r ¤«r= f+=n ´´=r=rr=¤r=t
¤«r +t +¢r=t=-¢t +t =«r=t´´ = ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ J=r=rr=¤r=t) + =-=¬ ¤¤=r
+t ¤rar +r¤t = =¤·a ¢+r f+ == ¤«r = «¬r ¬r= ¤¤r= f+¬r =r =¢r ¢;
==+r +¤=r ¬r= =¤ f==r=rr= ¢; ¬tnr =t n«rr ¤<r + ¬r= +r =¤t+r= =¢t
+=n =¤ +=¬rs¬r +r =t¤= ·¬«r += =¢ ¢; =r «rr=r «¢n ¬r-r ¢¤= ¬¬
63
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
J<¤rt trt +t =¬rfn =r =¤ tr=r = =¬rs =rnt «rt) = ¢rnr «rr; ¤¢ -rt «<
+=¤r <t n«rr +¢n ¢ f+ ¢= nr ¤r=t= Jf¤v=) = ¤r=nf¤+ =¬rfn =¬rn ¢;
«r¢= +t =¬rfnJ¢¤=) +t +r¤¤¬+nr =¢t;
s= ¤+r= + f¤¤r= ¤+a +=+ =¤ +=¬rs¬r +r ¤v¬¢t= «=r =¢ ¢;
f¤¬ ~{r¬, =n=nr =¤¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) =t =
¤¬r¬r ¢; ~t n¬=t =r¢« ¢r«r== ¤r¬ = ¤==¤¤= +«t= =t +t ¤rvrt +r
¤ar; f¤= +¤=t ¤n=rs = f=·+·r f=+r¬ += =n¬r+, +rf< ¬r+r +r ¤vr=
+== ¬¬r; ´´tra =r=r¬vr´´ =r ==+ ar=r f¬=rt ¢ -rr¬ ¤¢¬r ¤` ` ` ``·a =. 30
¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤r=t=Jtra) +«rrn f¤v= = ¢t =r¬¢ ar= ¢; =¤ ¤=n =r <=rt
¢ ¤ f¤v=Jtra) = ¢t ¢; =«f+ ¤¸=¬ +«t= ¤==¤¤= =t ¤r·< ´´+= ==r f<<r=
=¢¬ = ·¬r=r ¢´´ +t +¬t =. 31-32 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¬¢ =r f¤v=Jtra) = f<=rrs
< =¢r ¢; ¬¢ =+¬t =n¬r+ +rf< ¢; ¬¢ nr =r¬r = =¤= + ¬r+r +t =+¬
+t ¢, =r n¸at ¢; ¢=r=r ¤r=nf¤+ =n¬r+ +rf< nr f¤v=Jtra,¤r=t=) +«rrn
+v= = ¤r= +«rrn «r¢= ¢ J¬¢ ¤r·< +r¤+ ¤«r +t ¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r
-rr¬1 = ¤«r= ¤` ` ` `` ·a ¤= f¬=rr ¢);
Jf== «mrv= -rt +¢n ¢ «¬rf+ v+ «mrv= +r f¤>r ¤r=t= +«rrn f¤v=
= ¢; «mv= +r +r+r= +v= =r=r ¢; s=f¬v «mv= +r ¢t +v= +¢r =rnr
¢; =« +t =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤r¬ f¤v= +¬¬ «nrn ¢ «mrv= +¬¬ «nrn ¢ n«rr
+v= f-r-= «nrn ¢)
f¤¤r=vrt¬ «rn ¢ f+ ~t n¬=t =r¢« ¢r«r== ¤r¬ +t +r-=r ¤¸¤ =-=
= ¤¢t «rt f=== f>r¬r+t -r¬¤r= =r=¤-< =t +t =t¤=t ´´=r=¤f=>r =r==´´
+«rr-r ´´=r=r¬vr´´ ÷¤ = f¬=rt «rt; s=f¬v ~t n¬=t <r= ¢r«r== ¤r¬ +r
=n¬r+ +rf< +r ¬r= += ¢r =+nr ¢ ³ =«f+ ==+r +rs ¤«n ¬÷ -rt =¢t
¢; f¤= f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r= = -rt ~t n¬=t =r¢« ¢r«r== ¤r¬r + f¤¤r=
== ¢; ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r=J=r =r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r + =f=r¬r ¤ ¤¤n+ +¢
=rn ¢) +r -rt +rs ¬÷ =¢t ¢; s=f¬v s=+r -rt =n¬r+ ¤ =n¤÷·r +r
¬r= =¢t ¢r =+nr; f¤= +-¬ =r¬¬=r= +rf< +r nr =-«= ¢t +¢r ¢r =+nr
¢ f=-¢r= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤¬r¬r ¢;
=r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r = ¤r¤ =r= <r= +=n ¢; f== ¤r¤r =r=r +r ~t
n¬=t<r= ¢r«r== ¤r¬ -rt +r¬ + =r= «nrn ¢ n«rr s== +fnf=«n <r
=n=r= n«rr =n¤r·< = ¢t =n¬r+ =r= +t f¤f=r «nrs ¢ =r ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬
=t J=r=rr=¤r=t) +r ¬r= =¢t; «¬rf+ =·r¬ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =tJ=r=rr=¤r=t) +r
¬¢t ¤nr =¢t f+ =n=r= +rs =«rr= ¢ ¬r =n¬r+ ¢ ¬r =n¤÷·r ¢ ¬r
=n¤r·< ¢ ¬r =r=¤r·< ¢; s=f¬v =n¬r+ =r= +t f¤f=r = =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r
64
f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr
¤r¬ ~{r¬ ¤¸vr ÷¤ = ¤f¤n ¢; ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t + f¤r·¬ ~t =¬=¬ f=¢
=t =¢r=r= ¢ Jf=-¢r= =r=rr=¤r=t ==r ·¬r= f=. +=` ` ` ``n== ¤=r« = =«rrf¤n
f+¬r ¢)~t =¬=¬ f=¢ =t + =-r=rf=r+r=t ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= ¢v ¢;
~t =r¤= f=¢ = <r +-¬ =r=rrv f=+¬t ¢; v+ =-¤r =r<r f===r :
~t =r=r=¬ =¤ f«¬rf¤=nr=t ¤rr¢ ==nr=r =t, =r ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r=
+ f¤r·¬ «r; f=-¢ ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t ar=r =r= <r= +r +r<¤r =¢t f<¬r ¬¬r;
«¬rf+ =-n +¤¬ v+ ¢t =-r=rf=r+r=t «=rn ¢ =r ~t =¬n f=¢ +r +¤=r
=n=rf=r+r=t ~t =r¤= =t f=¢ =t = «=r f<¬r «rr; ~t =r=r=¬ =¤
¤rr¢==nr=r =t = «¬ =r=, f===r = +¬¬ =r= = ¤«r =«rrf¤n += f<¬r; ¬r=
~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t ¤r¬r ¢t ¢; ¤¢t ¤r¤ =r= <n «r; «r< = ~t =n=r= <r=
=t = nt= =r= <r= +== ¤r=--r += f<v =r ~t ¤rr¢==nr=r =t +t +r¬r +r
=¬tr= ¢; =r= ¢ : 1.) =n¤=·r, 2.) ++r¬ =¸n, 3.) ¤r·< =¤÷¤t =r= ¬ nt=
=r= f+=t =-n + sfn¢r= = =¢t ¢;
<¸==t ¤rr=rr : ~t =r¤= +` ` ` ``¤r¬ ÷¢r=t f=¤r= f<=¬t = ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢
=¢r=r= = =«rrf¤n f+¬r =r ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t + f¤r·¬ «r; ¤=n =+r=rf=r+r=t
= «=r= + +r=vr =¤¬ ¢t +¬¬ ¤rr=rr =rr¬ ¬t; ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t +r ~t
=r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= +t +r= = =r=<r= +r +rs +r<¤r =¢t «rr; J«¬rf+
=n +¤¬ v+ ¢t =n=rf=r+r=t «=rn ¢;)
nt==t ¤rr=rr : ==r ·¬r=, ¤=r« = ~t =¬n f=¢ =¢r=r= +r =+r=rf=r+r=t
«=r¬r; ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t + f¤r·¬ ~t ar+= f=¢ = +¬¬ ¤rr=rr ¤¬rs; ¤¢t
¤r¤ =r= ¢t <r= +=n ¢ f==+r ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t =¢r=r= +t +r= =
=r=<r= +== +r +r<¤r =¢t «rr; +r¬=r = f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t ¤r¬t ¤=-¤=r = ~t
tr¸=¬r¬ =t + f¤r·¬ = ´´=¬ ¬=<¤´´ =r= = =«r=r = +-¬ ¤«r +t =«rr¤=r
+t; ~t tr¸=¬r¬ =t ¤r¬r =«r=r = =¬¬÷<¤ ¤«r + =-n -rt ¤¢t ¤r¤ =r=<r=
+=n ¢;
=ra : s== f={ ¢+r f+ J1) =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r, ==r ·¬r= ¤=r« J2) ~t
+` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t ¤r¬r =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r f<=¬t ¤r¬r J3) ~t ar+= f=¢ =t ¤r¬r
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =¬¬=<¤ =«r=r =; =¤ ¤rr=>r f¤f=r +==r= =r=r=r =
¤f¤n ¢ n«rr ¬÷ =¬r<r +t =rf==¬r ==rn ¬v ¢; +¤=t2 ==t = =v2
=«rr=r ¤= f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t ¤r¬r +¢t +t sa +¢t +r =r=r +«rrn ==tr=n ¬r=
¤¤r= f+¬r ¢; =r=<r= -rt +r¬ n+ + <n ¢; =n=r=, =r==r=, =r=¤r·<
+r +rs ¬r= =¢t f==+ f«=r =n¬r+ ¤r= n«rr =n¤=·r +t ¤rf·n =¢t ¢r
=+nt; +=r=r +t ==¬r = ~{r¬+r + +==r¬ =t¤= +r ««r< += =¢ ¢;
¬¢ -rt f={ ¢+r f+ =-¤r =r<r f===r n«rr =r==r= =n¬= ¤«r =¬=r¬ ¤r¬t
65
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
f=¬r f===r ¤r¬ -rt =n¬r+ n«rr =n¤=·r +t ¤rf·n +t f¤f=r = ¤f¤n ¢;
«¬rf+ =¬=r¬¤r¬t = ==== =r¢« =r= = ¤f={ =n =t = +¬¬ = =¤¬
¢t ¤«r ¤¬r f¬¬r =r ¤¸vr ÷¤ = =-¬ =r=r=r = ¤f¤n ¢;
+r¬=r + =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = v+ ~t =r=f=¢ =t +=¬r¤+ + f¤r·¬ ~t
nr=r¤-< =t = f-r¤r=t f=¬ + f<=r< ¬r¤ = =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t +¬¬ =
=«rr¤=r += ¬t; +¤¬ v+ =r= ´´=r=rr=¤r=t´´ <r= f+¬r =rnr ¢ =r ¤¸vr ÷¤
= ¤rr=>r f¤={ ¢; ¤==r-=r ¤rf·n +r =¢t ¢; ¬¢ =r=rr=¤r=t =r= nr
f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r =r=r =r ¤n «= += +¤=t f¤r·¬r ««+t = ¤¤¤r ¢+r; =r=rr
=¤r=t =r= +r =¤ nr v+ ¤n +r =r¤ ¢+r; +-¬ fa¬rv -rt == +r= «<
+=+ =r= ===r, +r=r «< +=+ ¢a ¬r¬ +==r n«rr ¤+r¤r <=r=r ¤¢t ¢ =r
=n=n + f¤={ ¢;
+«t= ¤==¤¤= +¢n ¢ ¬i; ¬n^ª ¬n ¬ri(, ¬i ··· ¬¬ªi ¬ªii(|
¬iªi ·i -¸·, ¬i· ·i ª·i ·i ¬·r· ·¬ni(| ¬i ¬r¬ ¬-i·ii «ni(||
==tr=n ¬r= ¤ ¤rr=>r f¤f=r =f¢n =r=r=r «nr+= -rr¬-rr¬ ~{r¬+r +
+==r¬ =t¤= + =r«r f=r¬¤r= f+¬r =r =¢r ¢; ¤r=nf¤+ -rf«n f¤f=r
=n¬r+ n«rr =n¤=·r ¤rf·n +t ¤rr=>rr==r= =n <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) + ¤r=
=¤¬·=r ¢, +` ` ` ``·¬r f=:¤r=+ n«rr +f¤¬-« ¤r·n += n«rr +¤=r =r=¤ =t¤=
=¤¬ +=; n¸a ¬= +r -¬r¬ <= = +rs ¤r¤ =¢t ¢rnr; == v+ ¤n J=r«a=)
= s¬r= =¢t ¢r =¢r ¢ nr == -¬r¬ += +-¬ ¤n = s¬r= +=¤r=r f¢n+=
¢rnr ¢; v= ¢t ¤rr=>r f¤f=r f¤÷{ =r=r=r «nr= ¤r¬ ¬= +r -¬r¬ += ¤¸vr
=n = =¤<¤r ¤r·n +==r ¬r-r<r¬+ n«rr -¬r¬ =¬n ¢;
¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =
66
f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr
J¤=n+ ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r= Jf¤r¤<¬r¬ =t) ¤` ` ` `` ·a 54
+t ¤rar +r¤t)
67
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
J¤=n+ ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r= Jf¤r¤<¬r¬ =t) ¤` ` ` ``·a 55
+t ¤rar +r¤t)
68
f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr
J¤=n+ ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r= Jf¤r¤<¬r¬ =t) ¤` ` ` ``·a 56 +t
¤rar +r¤t)
69
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
J¤=n+ ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r «r«r =¬=¬ f=¢ =t´´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 56 +t ¤rar +r¤t)
J¤=n+ ´´=¤<¤r =r=rr=¤r=t´´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 30 +t ¤rar +r¤t)
J¤=n+ ´´=¤<¤r =r=rr=¤r=t´´ ¤` ` ` `` ·a 31 +t ¤rar +r¤t)
70
J¤=n+ ´´tra =r=r¬vr´´ ¤¢¬r -rr¬ + ¤` ` ` ``·a 27 +t ¤rar +r¤t)
J¤=n+ ´´=t¤= f¤=>r ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r=´´ ¬=r+ ¤nr¤ f=¢ =t +
¤` ` ` ``·a 19 ¤= ¤¤= =. 31+t ¤rar +r¤t)
f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr f}rh; fdLr
71
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r -r|
ºr=rrª¤r=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(n|=º| |+ªn)
(26 =r¤ 2006 +r ¤¬r¤ +=º| = ¤+r|ºrn)
(nnr+ = ¤rn)
¤¤=: +r¤+ ar=r f¬=r ¬=r ==r¤r= ¤>r <f=+ ¤=r« +==t = ¤a;
´´=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t +¢r=t =-¢t +t =«r=t´´ f+=n 1 n«rr 2 +r ·ra +=
=r¬¸= ¢+r f+ =¤=¤ =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + =-nr = nr <¸==t +=rr +r f¤nr«rt
-rt +e +-er f¬=r =+nr ¢; ¤=-n =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤ s=+t ¤rr=rr+r J=r==r=
=n¬÷=-¤r =r<r +rf<) = ¬r=rr +t ==¬r = +=¬rs ¢; «¬r =¤ =¸=r ¢³
s= ==«rr = «¢n f¤rf=rn ¤¬ -rt ¢ f=== +rs.v.v=., +rs.¤t.v=. n«rr ¤+t¬
¤ =f==aa -rt == ¢; «¬r =-¢r= =¢t ¤ar ¢r¬r³ +« == ¤=n+r +r ¤an
¢ nr =r=r +rnr ¢ == 20 ·r·r ·¬«r += f<¬ +« = «¬r +÷ ³ tr= +r =¢r
= trra +r ==t +r¬ 65 ¤·r ¢; +« =-nr = f¤¤¤r= =a ¬¬r;
=+r=: f¤¬ ~{r¬ =r f¤rf=rn ¤¬ ¤ =-¤ +f=r+r=t ¬vr =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r
n«rr == +t ¤rr=rr+r J=r==r= =n¬÷=--rr =r<r, =¬ ¬÷<¤) = == ¢; ¤
=¸=r =¢t ¢ +f¤n ¤-r ¤=t ¤ =+ ¢; =r ¤ars ¤a += ¤ =--rf=r+r=t «= ¢;
== ¤ars = +=¬rf-=+ ¬r= +r +rs =¬ =¢t ¢; == ¤nJ=r«a=) + ¤r=
=r¬t =rnr ¢ ¤¢ == ¤n + ar=r <t ¬s <¤rs + f¤·r¬ = =¢t =r¤nr f+
¬¢ at+ ¢ ¬r ¬¬n; ¤n + ¤r= ¤r¢ +rs.v.v=. ¤r¢ ¤t.v¤.=t. ¤r¬r -rt =rv
nr -rt =r«a= +t <¤rs +r =¢t ¤==r =+nr; =r«a=J¤n) ¤r¬t ¤ars f-r--r
¢rnt ¢; == +r +-¬ ¤nJ=r«a=) ¢t ¤==r =+nr ¢;
=r +« =n <r=J=r=¤r¬ <r=) ar=r ¤==rt ¬s ¢ =r =r=r=r f¤f=r +-¬
=-nr n«rr ¤-«rr ar=r -r«n ==r= +r «nrs ¬s ¢ ¤¢ ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢, s=f¬v
·¬«r ¢; +n: +r¤ =¤ +r ¤rf¢v f+ ¤== f¤¤r= += n«rr =¤¬ ¤rr=>rr +r =n
<r= ar=r «nrv n=t+ = ==n +r= n¬=r +=; +r=r=t = f=·+·r f=+¬
=rv¬r; =¢t «rn ¬r=rr +t ==¬r = ==tra ¢r= +t ¬¢ =« v+ <== +t <=rr
<=rt ¬¬ ¢;
== ¬¢ <r=J=r=¤r¬ <r=) ~t ¢==r= =t +t =r=r=r +=nr «rr;
=r==«rr= ¤rn + -r¸÷ f=¬r + ¬r¤ =r¬r== = ¤fn¤·r ¤¸=r + f¬v =rnr «rr;
¤¢r <=rnr «rr f+ +rs =r==«rr= ¤rn +r =>rt ¤¸=r + f¬v +r¬r ¢rnr, +rs
72
rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr
¢f=¬rvrr ¤r-n +r =>rt ¤¸=r + f¬v +r¬r ¢rnr «rr; ¬r=rr +t ==¬r = +-¬
~{r¬ ¤¸=r + f¬v =rn «r; == «= ·¬f«n¬r +r n«rr +f=r+ ==¸¢ +r <=r
+= =n·a ¢r =rnr «rr f+ =« ¬¢r ¤= sn= «=«= =>rt =t n«rr +-¬ =a
¬r¬ +rn ¢ nr ¢=r=t =r=r=r =¢t ¢;
¤=-n =« ¤¸vr =-n f=¬r =¤ ¤rr=>rr +r +=¬¬= f+¬r nr ¬¢ <r= =n·=r
=¢ ¬¬r; ¤¸= ¤f¤>r f¢-< ==r= +r +¤= =<¬-«rr J¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t, ¤f¤>r ¤r=r
¤<r n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤=rvr) + f¤¤=tn ¬r= ¤r·n ¢ n«rr =r=r=r -rt ¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬
+= ===r=r +r¤=vrJ¤¸=r) += =¢ ¢; +-rt n+ ¤f¤>r f¢-< ==r= +r ¬¢ =¢t
¤nr «rr f+ ~t «mr =t, ~t f¤·vr =t n«rr ~t f¤r¤=t + =rnr f¤nr +r= ¢;
s-¢ +==r+===` ` ` ``-¬=¬=¤ ¬r+r + =¤=¢r= +¬ + ++rr ¢t «nr¬r =rnr =¢r
¢; =«f+ ¤f¤>r <¤t =¢r¤=rvrJnt== =+<) n«rr ¤f¤>r f¤r¤¤=rvr = ÷< =f¢nr
6 n«rr 7 +=¬r¬ = =¤·a f¬=rr ¢ f+ =<rf¤r¤ +«rrn +r¬÷¤t «m nr s=+r
f¤nr ¢ n«rr <¬rJ¤+` ` ` ``fn) s=+t =rnr ¢; nt=r = =¤¬ +¢r ¢ f+ ¢=r=r nr
+rf¤-rr¤ +«rrn =-= n«rr fn=r-rr¤ +«rrn =` ` ` ``-¬ ¢rnt ¢; ¢= +f¤=r¤rt =¢t ¢;
¬¢ -rt f¬=rr ¢ f+ ==¬vr «mr =t ¢, =n¬vr f¤·vr =t n«rr n=¬vr f¤r¤=t
¢; ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +=¬r¬ 7 ¤¬r+ 12 = 15 = nt=r -r¬¤r=rJ==¬vr «mr =t,
=n¬vr f¤·vr =t n«rr n=¬vr f¤r¤ =t) +t ¤¸=r +== ¤r¬r +r =¸=r +¢r ¢;
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 14 ¤¬r+ 3 = 5 = =¤·a f¬=rr ¢: ¤+` ` ` ``fnJ<¬r) nr =¤ ¤rfvr¬r
+t =rnr ¢ +r= = «mJ+r¬,=r= ¤÷·r) =¤ +r f¤nr ¢¸; ¤+` ` ` ``fnJ<¬r) = nt=r
¬vr J==¬vr «mr, =n¬vr f¤·vr n«rr n=¬vr f¤r¤) =-¤-= ¢v ¢; ¬ nt=r ¤-r
=t¤r-=r +r ¤r=t= = «r=rn ¢ +«rrn =«n =¢t ¢r= <n;
=ra: ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t ¤f¤>r ¤r=r ¤<r +r =r=r¤r ¢ s=f¬v s= =
=r+fn+ ¤r·<r +r ¤¬r¬ -rt +f=r+ ¢;
¬f< «¢ ==¬r ¬r =--r f¤r=rr¬«n ·¬f«n¬r ¬r =-¤ ¤< +r <=r +=
¢t =-¬ =r=r=r +r ¤=rvr =r=r =rv nr ¤f¤>r f¢-< ==r= +t ====¬r ¬¬-r¬
=+r= +=r= ¢ n«rr ¤=rr==->rt n«rr == n+ f¢-< -rt ¬r+ ¤< +==r= +«rrn
¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬+= ===r=r +r¤=vrJ¤¸=r) += =¢ ¢; «¬rf+ +=¬rf-=+ ¬r=
=¤ f¤r=rr+r = f-r-= ¢; s=f¬v +=¬rf-=+ ¬r= +r ==n= + f¬v ¤rr=>rr +r
¢t +r=rr= =r=r =rnr ¢ =r +r= -rt =r=rt ¢; ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤<r
= -rt =n¬r+ +r f¤¤=vr f¤=n` ` ` ``n ¤fvrn ¢ ¤=-n +rs =¢t ==n =+r; +¤¬
=n¬r+ =r= n«rr =n¤÷·r ¤rf·n +t f¤f=r ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤<r =
¤fvrn =¢t ¢; ¤¢ ¤==¤¤= +«t= =r¢« =t = +¤=t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt = «nrs ¢ f¤=
-rt =r=¤r·< ¬·n ==rr «rr =r +« =n +r «nr¬r ¢;
73
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
s=f¬v ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16 ¤¬r+ 23-24 = =¤·a f+¬r ¢ f+
¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vrJ¤¸=r) +==r ·¬«r ¢ n«rr =-¬ =r=r=r =r
+==t ¤rf¢v n«rr +=-¬ =r=r=r =r -¬r¬=t ¤rf¢v ==+ f¬v ¤rr=>rr +r ¢t
+r=rr= =r=; f+=t =-n f¤¤r·r + +¢= =r>r = ¢t =r=r=r =¤t+r= = +=; ¤f¤>r
f¢-< ==r= + ~{r¬+r +r ==nr=r +fn +r=r= ¢ «¬rf+ ¤ ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t
n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤<r n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤=rvrr +r =-¬ =r=n ¢; +« ¤=rvr <=r+= =n
<r=J=r=¤r¬ <r=) ar=r «nrv -rf«n =r¬ +r =¤t+r= += =¢ ¢; ¤=-n
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤ «r n«rr s=t +t ¤rr=rr+r J=r==r= =n¬ ÷=-¤r =r <r=¬
¬÷<¤ar+= f=¢ ¤r¬r ==¸¢) + =-nr = nr +=¬rs ~{r¬+r +r +¢t +r
=¢t er=r; =-n== +¢n ¢ f+ ¢= ¬tnr n«rr ¤<r +r =¢t =r=n «¬rf+
¢=r=r ¬r= nr s= = =¤= +r ¢; +«t= =r¢« =t +¢n ¢:
¬·¤i ¬º¬i ¤¬i, ªi¬ ·i¤i · n¬
f¤¬ ~{r¬ +` ` ` `` ·¬r ¤a =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr ==+t ¤rr=rr+rJ=r==r=
=n¬÷=-¤r =r<r =¬ ¬÷<¤ =«r=r ¤r¬+` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ n«rr ar+= f=¢ +rf<)
+ ¤«r= ¤== =-n ¤===r=t ¢=¸= =¤r=t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =tJ=r=rr=¤r=t =t) +r ¬r=
=r ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤<r = -rt «a+= ¢ ¬r +r=r +¬r= ¢;
=r=rr=¤r=t +rs =«rr= ¢ ¬r -r¬¤r= ¢ ¬r =n¤÷·r ¢ ¬r =r= =->r ¢
¬r +rs =-n ¢³ +r=r +¬r= ¢ :
+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤=n+ ´´=r= ¤¤= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤rfn+´´ ¤¢¬r -rr¬ n«rr <¸==r
-rr¬ J¤+r¤r+: v=.v¬. =r=rt =aa=t =r=rr=¤r=t =-=¬ ·¬r=, ==r «r«r ==¬
f=¢, f=¬r+=` ` ` ``n== ¤=r«) + -r¸f=+r ¤` ` ` ``·a 1 n«rr ¤¤= =. 1, 3, 4, 12, 28,
52, 67- -rr¬2 + ¤¤= 31 +t ¤rar +r¤t; s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2)
¤` ` ` ``·a 80 = 82 ¤=;
¤=n+ =r= ¤¤= ¤rfn+ +t -r¸f=+r = f¬=rr ¢: ¬¢ ¤=n+ ¢=¸= =¤r=t
=t =¢r=r=Jf¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¤ =r=rr=¤r=t) =t + =-=¬ ¤¤=r +r =¬¢ ¢ =r
==+ ==r +=¬ = f=+¬ ¢; f==+r «r< = ¤=n+ =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ + ÷¤
= e¤¤r¬r ¬¬r; f== +r ¤r-r =r= =a f¤r¤<¬r¬ f=¢ =t «rr =rnr =t +r
=r= =¢r=r¬r =t n«rr f¤nr =t +r =r= =a f<¬¤r¬t f=¢ =t «rr; ¤rar +r¤t
s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 80 ¤=;
¤¤= 1 = f¬=rr ¢: =t¤r-=r +«rr-r ==n +r ÷¢ +¢n ¢ ¬¢ =«= =¤
=«rr= ¬r=t =n=r= +r= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤< = =n=t ¢Js== =r=rr=¤r=t n«rr
=n=r= +r =«rr= +¢r ¢) ¤rar +r¤t s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) +
¤` ` ` ``·a 80 ¤=;
¤¤= 3 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤r¤¤t =f=¬ =n=r= n«rr +ra¤t =f=¬ =r=rr=¤r=t
74
rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr
Js== -rt <r=r +r =«rr= +¢r ¢) ¤rar +r¤t s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2)
+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 80 ¤=;
¤¤= 4 = =r=rr=¤r=t ¤< +r =«= =¤r =«rr=J=+r=) -rt +¢r ¢ n«rr
-r¬¤r= -rt +¢r ¢; f¤= +-n +t ¤f«n¬r = +¢r ¢ f+ =r=rr=¤r=t ¬r =+r=
¢ f== =«rr= -rt =¢t +¢ =+n f¤= f¬=rr ¢ s=t +r +¢n ¢; s=t ¤¤= 4
= =n=r= + f¤·r¬ = f¬=rr ¢ =r=rr=¤r=t =«rr= = <r =«rr= er=+= =n=r=
+r =«rr= ¢; f¤= =n=r= +r= =n¤r·< +r= =r=¤r·< +r= =n¬r+ +r=
=n¤÷·r +r v+ «nr¬r ¢J-r¬¤r==«rr==r=¤r·< v+ += f<¬r); ¤rar +r¤t
s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 80 ¤=;
s= ¤¤= =. 12 = v+ «r= f¬=rr ¢ =n=r= +r =«rr= =n¬r+
¤+r¤r¤r= ¢ =¢r=r<=n¤r·<=n¤÷·r +r= +rf< ¤÷·r -rt s=t =n¬r+ +r
+¢n ¢; f¤= +¢r ¢ f+ =-n s=t ¤÷·r +r ÷¤ ¬r=t +¤nr= ¢; ¬¢ =«rr=
<¬r¬ ¤÷·r +r ¢; s= =«rr= = +-¬f=r+ +r-=rv +«rrn -r«n f-r-=2 at¤r =
«=n ¢ n«rr =n¤÷·r +r <¤r= +r-=< ¬n ¢; =r=r=r =n¤÷·r =r=rr=¤r=t +t
«nrs ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤rar +r¤t s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 81
¤=;
f¤¤r= +=:=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +r f={r-n ¢ f+ =n¤÷·r f==r+r= ¢;
=n¬r+ = =n¤÷·r =r+r= =¢t ¢; +¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢t ¤+r¤r ¢; =n¬r+ = =r=
¤r¬t ÷¢ ¤==r-=r = v= ==r =rnt ¢ =r= ==< = «¸<; ¬¢r ¤¤= 12 =
=n¤÷·r =r+r= f¬=rr ¢ +¢r ¢ f+ +r-=rv =n¬r+ = =n¤÷·r +r <¤r=
+=nt ¢; ¬¢ -rt f¬=rr ¢ f+ =-n s=t =n¬r+ =«rr= + +¤nr= ¢; f¤=
=n¤÷·r =r=rr=¤r=t v+ f¬=r f<¬r;
+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤=t ¤ra+ =¤¬ f=vr¬ += «¬r ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t J=r=rr=¤r=t) +r
¤-r ¤rf·n ¢s ¢r¬t ³ f==+r ¬¢t ¤nr =¢t =n=r= «¬r ¢³ =n¤÷·r f+=
+¢n ¢³ =r=¤r·< «¬r ¢³ =r==r= «¬r ¢³
=n=r= nr =r= =r¤ ¢, =r <r =->r +r ¢; f=== v+ ÷ =->r ¤ <¸==r
nnJ=r =r+fn+ ¢ ¬¢ <r= +¤¬ =¤<¤rt +r «nrv¬r) =->r ¢; =n¬r+ ¤¢
=«rr= ¢ =¢r ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr =¢nr ¢; =n¤÷·r +«rrn ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r =r+r= ¢;
=r==r= -rt =r¤ +== +r ¢ ¬¢ -rt =r+fn+ ¢;
¤¤= 28 = =n¤÷·r n«rr =r=rr=¤r=t +r v+ «nr¬r ¢ n«rr s= =-n ÷¤
= ¤+a ¢r+= =t¤ ={r= +== ¤r¬r «nr¬r ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤rar +r¤t s=t
¤=n+ J=-¤=rv= +r =<¤r) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 95 ¤=;
¤¤= 52 = f¬=rr: == =-n ÷¤ = +rv =n¤÷·r =r=rr=¤r=t + «nrv
=r¬ = =r=r+ ´´=«rr= =n¤÷·r =r=rr=¤r=t´´ = ¤¢¤ =rnr ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤rar
75
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
+r¤t s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 82 ¤=;
f¤¤r= +=: ¤r¢ = ¬tnr n«rr ¤<r = ~·a ¬r= <= ¤r¬r ! v= ¤¤= nr
+rs -rr¬ + =¤r = «r¬ =+nr ¢; v= f¤¤r= ¤==r-=r ¤r·n =-n + =¢t ¢r
=+n; ¬ f¤¤r= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + =¤r¤=t =¢r-=r ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t f== ¢t
=r=rr=¤r=t =r= = =r=r =rnr «rr + ¢;
¤¤= 67 n«rr 31 +r f=·+·r : ¤¤= 67 = f¬=rr ¢ f+ =-¤r =rf¬+
=n¤÷·r =r=rr=¤r=t ¢ =r ¤r=«m = -rt ¤= ¢ +«rrn «=r ¢; f¤= ¤¤= 31
= +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¢ ¤r=«m ¤==r-=r =-n=n¬÷ ÷¤ =rr= += =t¤r +r =n=r¬
«nrnr ¢; ¬¢r ¤= =n¤÷·r =r=rr=¤r=t n«rr ¤r=«m v+ «nr¬r ¢, ¤¤= 67
= ¤r=«m = -rt ¤= +«rrn «=r +¢r ¢; f¤= ¤¤= 67 = ¢t +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¢
=n¤÷·r =r=rr=¤r=t =-n ÷¤ = +r¬r ==t = ´´=r=rr=¤r=t´´ =r= ¤+a f+¬r
=r s= =r= ´´=r=rr=¤r=t´´ +r =r¤ =r=rr=¤r=t +t ¤r=vr ¬+= =r¤ +=nr ¢ ¬r
=r= ==nr ¢ ==+r =ar= ¢r =rnr ¢; ¤¢ J¤¤= 52 + +==r=) ´´=«rr=
=n¤÷·r =r=rr=¤r=t´´ = ¤¢¤ =rnr ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤rar +r¤t s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n
+r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 82 ¤=;
f¤¤r= +=: =¤=r«n f¤¤=vr = +¢t nr =r=rr=¤r=t =r= =r¤ +r +¢r ¢;
+¢t =-n, +¢t =«rr= +¢r ¢, +¢t +¬ =rf¬+ +¢r ¢; f¤= ¬¢ -rt +¢r ¢
f+ =r=rr=¤r=t = =r=rr=¤r=t =r= ¤+a f+¬r; =r=rr=¤r=t +r =r¤ +== ¤r¬r
=«rr= =n¤=·r =r=rr=¤r=t = ¤¢¤ =rnr ¢; ¬¢ nr v=r f¤¤=vr ¢ == +rs +¢
f+ =r¢n+ ¤r¢= +¤= =«rr= =r¢n+ = =n «= += +r¬r ¢, =r¢n+ ¤r¢= =
+¤=r =r¢n+ =r= ¤+a f+¬r =r =r¢n+ +t ¤r=vr ¢r+= =r¢n+ =r= =r¤
+= ¤¢ =«rr= =n =r¢n+ = ¤¢¤ =rv¬r;
¤r¢ = =-n =n +r =r¤r +== ¤r¬ f¤ar=r! =r¸« =¸=r «=r¬r -rr¬
~{r¬+r +r; f¤= +¢r ¢ f+ =r=rr=¤r=t =r= +r ¤r¢ =r¤ +=¬, ¤r¢ =r= ==
¬, v+ ==r ¢t ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢;
f¤¤r= +=: =n=r= +«rrn =-¤ =r= Jf== =r= +«rrn ¤r=nf¤+ =r= ¢
=r <r +=r=,=->r +r ¢rnr ¢) +r =r¤ nr ==<¸=t +=+ =r= +t +=rs +==t
¢rnt ¢ n«rr =r= nr =r= + =r¤ = ¤+a ¢rnt ¢ =r =r= +t ==¸<=t +r ¤¬
¢;
¬f< +rs +¢, ¤r¢ nr ==<¸=t +=¬, ¤r¢ ¤r·n =r= +r <=rnr =¢ ¤¢
+¤¤¬ =r=t ¢r =rv¬r; «¬r v= f¤¤r= ==n<r= ·¬f«n + ¢r =+n ¢³
=¤=r«n f¤¤=vr = =¤·a ¢ f+ ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =tJ=r=rr=¤r=t) +r +e -rt
¬r= =¢t «rr; ==t + f¤¤r=r ¤= +r=rrf=n =r==r= =n¬÷=--rr =r<r, ~t
+` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ f<=¬t ¤r¬ ~t ar+= f=¢ ¤r¬ n«rr =¬¬÷<¤ =«r=r ¤r¬r ¤«rr
76
rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr
+ +=¬rs ¢; =r =¤ +¤= =r=¤ =t¤= +r ·¬«r += =¢ ¢;
f=·+·r : ¤r=n¤ = ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +t =r=¤-=t +r =r= =r=r¬vrt <¤t
«rr; ==t +r =¤ =r= ´´=r=rr´´ «rr; =r=rr =t +r ¤fn J=¤r=t) ¢r= + +r=vr
~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r =r=rr=¤r=t +¢= ¬¬; == ==r J¤r¤nt) +r ¤fn J=¤r=t)
¢r= + +r=vr -r¬¤r= f¤r¤ ==r=¤r=t +¢¬rn ¢; =¢r -rt f¤r¤¤=rvr =
==r=¤r=t ¤r·< +rnr ¢ nr ~t f¤r¤ =t +r «r=r ¢rnr ¢; s=t ¤+r= =r=rr=¤r=t
-rt ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ +r ¢t «r =r+ ¢ ; ~t =r¬¬=r= =t = ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬
J=r=rr=¤r=t) +r ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr =r= += s-¢t + =r= = ¤«r ¤¬r f<¬r; s=
¤=n+ =r= ¤¤= ¤rfn+ = +r= ¬¤r= f¬=r ¢; ¤ra+r = f+=n2 = ·rar f+
~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =tJ=r=rr=¤r=t) ¢«+r ¤tn «r n«rr ¢a¬r¬ =r=r=r +=n «r =r
=-n =n + f¤÷{ ¢; ¤rr=>rf¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +=n «r;
~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r +rs ¤«n ¬÷ =¢t «rr; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +r ¤== f={r-n
¢ f+ ¤«n ¬÷ f«=r =r=r +-rt =¢t ¢r =+nr; f== +r=vr ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t
=r=r = ¤f¤n =¢ ¬v; s=f¬v =` ` ` `` -¬ ¤¤¤rn +¤=t f¤r·¬r ««+t = ¤¤¤r +=+
f¤n=r ¤ -r¸nr +t n=¢ «r¬ += +r<¤r <n «r n«rr ««+t + =r=¬= = ¤fnf<=
¢«+r ¬¢vr +=n «r +«rrn ««+t =t + ==r = ¢«+r ¤tn «r n«rr =rr= +t
-rt =¤r ¤¢¬ +t n=¢ ««+t + ==r ar=r ¬¢vr +=n «r; ««+t + ¤r=t= =
==+ +f-n= =¤r= n+ ¤¤¤r =¢;
¬¢ f¤¤=vr ¤¤= =. 65, 31 =t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r= +r¬=r
= ¤+rf¤rn = ¢ =r +r¤= <¸==t f+=n = s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2)
+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 59-60 ¤= n«rr ¤rar +r¤t ¤` ` ` ``·a 66. 70 ¤= ¤ar «rr;
f¤¤r= +=: «¬r ¬ =r=r ¤r·n ¤rvrt + ¬=rvr ¢r =+n ¢³ ~t =r¬¬=r=
=t == ====rt ·¬f«n¬r = v+ +=r¸= ¬r= ¬«n ·¬f«n +r ¤== =r=t ¤==
¤÷·r «nr+= ¬r=rr -rr¬-rr¬ ~{r¬+r +r ¬==r¢ += f<¬r; nt=nt= ¤tfa¬r
+r ==+¬r=t +=r f<¬r; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r, =r==r= =n¬= =-¤r =r<r ¤«r n«rr
¤rr=rr+r +r f={rn ¢ f+ ¤==r-=r v+ ¢; ¤¢ =n¬r+ = nr f==r+r= ¢,
+¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢; ¤¢t ¤==r-=r =« ==r= = ==·¬ ÷¤ = +rnr ¢ nr =t¤
={r= +=nr ¢;
f¤¤r= += : ~t =r¤= f=¢ + «r< nt= ¤==r-=r ¢r ¬v; ¤rr¢==nr=r =t
«¬ =r= f===r =, ~t +` ` ` `` ¤r¬ f=¢ =t f<=¬t = n«rr ~t =¬n f=¢ =t +r=
==+ «r< ~t ¤=vr f=¢ =t ·¬r= =; nt=r ==+r¬t= «r ¤-¬+ ~{r¬ +¤=
¬==t +r ==·¬ ÷¤ = ¤==r-=r +r¬r =r=nr ¢ ¬¢ ¬r= ¬tnr =t = ~·a ¢
¬r +r=r +¬r= ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r ~{r¬ =¤¬ f=vr¬ +=; ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ J=r=rr=¤r=t)
=t n«rr +-¬ +=¬rs¬r J=r= =r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r=¬¬÷<¤, +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢
77
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤r¬r ¤«rar+= f=¢ ¤r¬r ¤«r) +r =n¬r+ n«rr =n¤÷·r +t -rf«n +r +=r
+r -rt ¬r= =¢t; ~{r¬ s-¢ ¤¸vr =-n¤¸vr =r=t =r= += +rf~n ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r +«
f¤rf=rn ==r= ¢ =¤¬ f=vr¬ += =+nr ¢; == + f¬v +` ` ` ``¤r <r ¤=n+ :
1. ´´¬¢=t === ¬tnr =´´ f=== 552 ¤` ` ` ``·a ¢ n«rr
2. ´´¤==¤¤= +r =r= =<¤r´´ f=== 770 ¤` ` ` ``·a ¢ =¤n ¤r·n += <r=r
¤=n+r +r =r+ =r¤ +¤¬ 35 ÷¤¬ ¤=n+ ¬n ==¬ =rf+v +r <= ¢r¬,
¤r= ar=r +¤=r ¤nr f¬=r¤rv ¤=n+ +r¤+ ¤r= ¤¢¤ =rv¬t;
=-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= +t ¬r= ¬«n ¤=n+r = +r¤+r +==r¬ ¬r=
¤a= +r f=¬¬r;
f¤rf=rn ¤¬ = ¤r«r=r ¢ f+ =-¬ +r <=r+= +r-= +=¬rvr +r =r¬ ¬¢vr +=
n«rr =n <r= +r ¤-r +«t= =t +r -r=r ¢+r ++rr =r=r =r +r¤ -rf«n =r= +
=rf=¬r +r =¬r= + f¬v -rr+ =¢r ¢; +r¤ + =r=¤ =t¤= ÷¤t =r= +t ¢rf= ¢r
=¢t ¢; -r«n ==r= +--r+vr ¤r¬t =t< =r =¢r ¢ = =r= +« =r¬¬r;
n-«r=r =¤= ¬r ¤r=r«=r= +rf< =¤= ¤-r -rf«n +r =r«r2 =·a +=nr ¢;
== <¤rt trt +r ¢¬¤r «=r+= === «r¬ =n -rt =r¬ f<¬r =rv nr ¤¢ ¢¬¤r
=r=r« ¢r ¬¬r; s=t ¤+r= =r=r=r +=+ n-«r=r¤r=r«=r= =¤= -rf«n =r¤r+ ¢;
¬f< =¤=r«n ¤=rvrr +r ¤a += -rt ·¬f«n =r¤=rr= =¢t ¢rnr nr ¤¢ -rf«n
¤r¢= ¤r¬r =¢t ¢;
+e ~{r¬ s= =¤+r= + +r¬ +r f=-<r +¢n ¢; ¬¢ nr v=r ¤¬-= =r=r
== ==+r= = v+ ==¬ ¤r¤ =r ÷¤¬ + =+¬t =ra ¤+= «r; =+¬t n«rr
+=¬t =rar +r ==r¤r= ¤>rr = er¤+= =-rnr +r =+¬t+=¬t +t ¤¢¤r= «nrs
«rt; ==+r= f=-<r =¢t += =¢t «rt; +f¤n =¢r =¤+r= f+¬r «rr; ¬¢t ¤¬-= =n
<r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) +r ¢; <¸== ¤r·<r = =n <r= +r v=r ¤¬-= =r=r == v+
=¬ +t ¤a=t ¤·rr = a¸a ¬s «rt; v+ =+¸¬ + 12 ·r·r + «-¤ = <=rr f+ ¤a=t a¸at
¤=t ¢; =¬ ¬r=t +r =¢t ¢ ; = =r= f+n= ¬rf>r¬r +t =r= =rv¬t; ¬=+ =
+¤=r +=t= f=+r¬r, =r=2 = f¢¬rn ¢v =+n +== ¬¬r; «f{=r= ¤r¬+
«rr; === «-¤ +t ¬fnf¤f=r +r ==nr n«rr =¬ ¬r=t +r =r+r n«rr «--r = +r=vr
¤¸er nr ¤nr ¤¬r f+ -r¬+= <tra=r a¬ ¬s ¢; at+ ¬¢ <r=J=r=¤r¬ <r=) +r¤
=t +r =+n += =¢r ¢; f== =r= =r= +t ¬r=t = +r¤ «a ¢ ¤¢ at+ =r=n =¢t
=r =¢t ¢; +r¤+r =t¤= ·¬«r ¢r =¢r ¢; =¤ =-nr n«rr ¤«rr + =¤r¬+rJ=rs¤==)
= ¤r«r=r ¢ +` ` ` ``¤r +¤= ¤«r +t ¤=n+r +r =r ¤rr=>r +==r= ¬r=¬«n =¢t ¢; ==
¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¬r= +rJa¸at ¤a=t +r) =n= += == <=r ¬; +r¤ +t ¬r¤=¤r¢t =
¬r=rr ·¬f«n¬r +r =t¤= =·a ¢r =rv¬r; +r¤ =¤¬ -rt =¤<¤r =n <r= = ¤r·n
+= n«rr +=¬rs¬r +r -rt ==nrv; =¢t nr +r¤ =¢r¤r¤ + ¤r>r «=r¬; ¤¢¬ =r
78
rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr
-rt ¢r ¤+r ¢ == -r¸¬, =v f== = ¬r= n«rr =¤<¤r ¤r·n +=+ +¤=r =r=¤
=t¤= =¤¬ «=rv; =n +¤=r <r= ¬r erar«=r -rrs =r=+= +f¤¬-« f<=rr
¤r·n +=; +r= ¤` ` ` ``«¤t ¤= ¤¸vr ¬r= ¤¸vr ¤==r--rrJ=n¤÷·r) +r =n <r= + ¤r= ¢
=r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +f¤<¤ =tJ+«t= ¤-r =t) n«rr == ¤¸=¬ ¬÷<¤ +t +=t= +` ` ` ``¤r
= ¤r·n ¢; == =r==t¬ ¤=rr= =->rt ¬r =r==t¬ =r·a¤fn =t +r -rt +rs =r¬ ¢r
=rnr ¢ nr +¤= +=¤r=t =r«a= = =¤¤r= +=rn ¢; ==+r =r= =¢t tranr
+f¤n =t¤= ==rr ¢rnt ¢; at+ s=t ¤+r= +r¤ =¤ +rJ~t «mr, ~t f¤·vr n«rr
~t f¤r¤ =f¢n) =-==` ` ` ``-¬ +r =r¬ ¬¬r ¢; s=+t v+ =r>r +r·r=rtJ=-¬=r= n«rr
=r==r=) =n <r= + ¤r= ¢; +¤=r =¤¤r=J=-===vr + =r¬ +r f=¤r=vr)
+=¤rv; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t ¤=n+ =n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 261-262 ¤= =r=+
=r¢« =t +t ¤rvrt n«rr ¤==¤¤= +«t= =t +t ¤rvrt +r ¤=rvr < += +¢r ¢ f+
¬i; ^ª ¤¸ºi ¬ri(, ·i¤ ¬ªªiº ¬i ·i· «ni(| ¤¬ ¬·i( ¤¬ ¬ªii(, ni ¤iºii
l·¬ ·iº ¬i(|| ¬ n¸ ¤«¤i ¤l·n «i·i, ·¸¤ ¬-iº ·¸¤ ·i(i|
¬«iº ¬i ¬i (iºii ÷ ¬r ¬«iº ¬-iº ·¤ ·iiªi| ri¤^i ªi¬- n ¬¤^i ºiªi||
=¤=r«n ¤rvrt = =¤·a ¢ f+ =f«n + f¬v <r¬ +=r= +r =r= =r¤ ¢; ¤¢
=n=r= =>r ¢; =n=r= = <r +=r= ¢ v+ = + nn =r =r+fn+ ¢; +¤¬
=¤<¤rt +r «nr¬r =rv¬r; f¤= =r==r= -rt ¬=<¤ ar=r f<¬r =rnr ¢; +r= =>r
«m J+r¬,=¬rfn f====) +r >vr =«n +=r += earv¬r n«rr nn =r=
¤==r-=r n+ ¤¢¤rv¬r +r= =r==r= ¤==r-=r f=¬rv¬r; =¤=r«n ¤rvrt = ¬¢ -rt
=¤·a ¢ f+ ¤¸=r ¬= ¢t ¬¢ <r +=r= +r -r< «nrv¬r;
f¤¤r= += : ¬¢ =>r =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤ ==+t ¤rr=rr+r + ¤r= =¢t ¢;
+e+ ~{r¬ +¢n ¢ f+ ¬÷ «<¬= = ¤r¤ nr =¢t ¬¬¬r³ == ~{r¬+r =
f=¤<= ¢ f+ == v+ =r«a=J¤n) = =¤¤r= =¢t ¢rnr ¢ nr <¸==r =r«a= «<¬=
= ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢ ¢rf= =¢t ¢rnt; at+ s=t ¤+r= ¬÷ +r =r=r; s=f¬v
¤rr=>rf¤f=r f¤÷{ ¬r= ¤r¬ ¬÷ +r -¬r¬+= ¤¸vr ¬÷ =rr=vr +==r f¢n+= ¢; ¤r¤
=¢t ¤¸v¬ ¢; +e ~{r¬ =+r¤ +=n ¢ f+ ¢= nt= ¤·r = =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = ==
¢ +« nt= ¤·r +t =r=r=r +r «¬r ¢r¬r³ +« += er=³ == ~{r¬+r = f=¤<=
¢ f+ f¤¤r= += f+ +r¤+r f+=t ¤r¢= = =r=r ¢, nt= f+¬r=ta= =r= + «r<
¤nr ¤¬ f+ +r¤ ¬¬n =r=n ¤= =r =¢ ¢ nr n=n == =r=r ¤rf¢v; =¢t nr
=f=¬ <¸= ¢rnt =rv¬t; f¤= -rt +rs +¢ f+ ¢= nr nt= f+¬r=ta= =¤= n¬
+= ¤+ ¢, +« += er= s= =r=n +r³ ¬¢ f¤¤r= nr «r¬+ + ¬r ¤r=r«t + ¢r
=+n ¢; ==n<r= nr n=n == =rv¬r; s=f¬v == =r=r=r +r n=n -¬r¬+=
¤r=nf¤+ ¤rr=>rf¤f=r +==r= =r=r=r ¬¢vr +=;
+«t= ¤==¤¤= +¢n ¢ f+:
79
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
n¸- ^ª ¬i -¤i^· - nl·¬ · ¬i( (iº| ,iº · ¤i( ºi·· ¬i ·i-¬
,iº÷,iº|
+` ` ` ``·¬r f=¤r+r¤ +=r= ¬÷ +r -¬r¬ < n«rr ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤r=vr ¬¢vr +=;
<r== <r= =r=¤r¬ <r=
¤¤=: ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤¢¤r= += +=³ =¢r -rt =rn ¢ ¤¢ =-n ¤¸vr ¬¬nr ¢;
=+r=:
J¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =)
80
rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr
¤=n+ =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 2 ¤¤= 3 +t ¤rar +r¤t
¤=n+ =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 3 ¤¤= 4 +t ¤rar +r¤t
¤=n+ =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 1 ¤¤= 1 +t ¤rar +r¤t
81
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤=n+ =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 8 ¤¤= 12 +t ¤rar +r¤t
¤=n+ =r= ¤¤= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 15 ¤¤= 28 +t ¤rar +r¤t
82
¤=n+ =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` `` ·a 31 ¤¤= 52 +t ¤rar +r¤t
´´¤=n+ =r= ¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 45-46 ¤¤= 67 +t ¤rar +r¤t´´
´´¤=n+ =r= ¤¤= ¤rfn+ -rr¬ 2 ¤` ` ` ``·a 54-55 ¤¤= 31 +t ¤rar +r¤t´´
rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr rhljh fdLr
83
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r -r|
ºr=rrª¤r=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(¤r·r| |+ªn)
(8 ¤¤¬ 2006 +r ¤¬r¤ +=º| = ¤+r|ºrn)
( nnr+ = ¤rn)
¤¤=: ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤¢¤r= += +=³ f== -rt =-n + f¤¤r= ==n ¢
¤¢ ¤¸vr ¬¬nr ¢;
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = nr ¢= «nr¬r ¢ f+ =n¬r+ +«rrn =n=r= = =n¤÷·r
f==r+r= ¢; +¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢t ¤+r¤r ¢; +r-=r +r =n¤÷·r = f¤¬t= ¢r =r=r ¢t
=r=r ¢; =r= ===r ¢t =-r¤÷·r ¤rf·n ¢; == 4 = 8 trva n+ +-¬r= += + <=r
f¬¬r +rs =v=¬ f<=rrs =¢t f<v; =r ¤+r¤r ¤ =r= +e f<= «r< f<=r= n«rr
=== ¬¬r «rr ¤¢t ¤¬ =¢r ¢, +r= -rt =r=r« ¢r ¬v, ¤=r = -rt +==r=t +r ¬s
¢; +r¤ + ar=r f¬=rt ¤=n+r ´´¤==¤¤= +r =r= =<¤r´´ n«rr ´´¬¢=t === ¬tnr
=´´ = nr +r=r =rr¬ <t ¢; ==r¤r= ¤>rr = +r¤ + ¬=r ¤a= = ¬¬ =¢r ¢ f+
¤rr¬< ¤==r-=r f¤= = f=+a +r =¢r ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤=rfvrn ¤¢¤r=
«nrv;
=+r=: ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤¢¤r=J1): =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + ¤«r= =-n =r= =r= ¤r¬
~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¤ =r=rr=¤r=t =t +r ¬r= ¢t =¢t f+ =n=r= «¬r ¤=n ¢; ~t
f¤r¤ <¬r¬ =t n«rr ==+ +=¬rs =r=r ¤r·n ¢t =¢t += =+n; ¤ =n=r= +r
=«rr= -rt +¢n ¢ +¢t ¤= +¢r ¢ =n=r= ¢=r=t =rfn ¢, +¢t ¤= =n¤÷·r +¢n
¢, +¢t ¤= =r==r= +¢n ¢, +¢t ¤= =n¬r+ +¢n ¢ n«rr ¤r¤ =r= =n=r= +r
=r¤ -rt ¢; =« +t =n=r= <r +=r= +r =->r ¢; f=== v+ +r= n«rr <¸==r
nnJ=r =r+fn+ ¢ +¤¬ =¤<¤rt +r ¢t «nr¬r =rv¬r) n«rr s= <r +=r= +
=n=r= +t +=rs +== + ¤¤¤rn v+ =->r +r= f<¬r =rv¬r =r =r==r= J=n
¤r·<) +¢r =rnr ¢;
+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤¢¤r= : == =r=r +r =f¤=rr= ¢; v= ¢t ¤f¤>r
¤rr=>r ¤==r-=r +r =f¤=rr= ¢ =r f+=t ·¬f«n f¤¤r·r +r «=r¬r ¢+r =¢t ¢; =¤¬
¤-r ¤<+r ¢; ¤f¤>r ¤r=r ¤< «m =` ` ` ``f·a + +rf< ¬-«r ¢ =r «mJ+r¬ +«rrn
=¬rfn f====) ar=r «r¬ ¬v ¢; s-¢t ¤r=r ¤<r +r =r=r¤r ¤f¤>r ~t=<-r¬¤n
¬tnr =t ¢ =r +r¬ -r¬¤r-rJ«m,=r= ¤÷·r) ar=r ~t +` ` ` ``·vr =t = ¤¤¤r +=+ «r¬r
84
pkS Fkh fdLr pkS Fkh fdLr pkS Fkh fdLr pkS Fkh fdLr pkS Fkh fdLr
¬¬r +=` ` ` ``n ¬r= ¢; f=== +r¬ ¤-r +t -rf«n n+ +r ¬r= ¢ n«rr ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r
J=-r¤÷·r) +r n«rr =n¬r+ +r -rt ¬r= ¢; ¤=-n -rf«n f¤f=r +¤¬ +r¬ «m
J=r= ¤÷·r) n+ +t ¢t ¢ ¤=-n ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t =r=r=r n«rr n-¤ ¬r= +r f+=t
n-¤<¤rtJ¤¸vr) =-n = =r== +r +¢r ¢ J¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34); «¬rf+
¤f¤>r ¤r=r ¤< n«rr ¤f¤>r ~t =<-r¬¤n ¬tnr =t +r v=r ¬r= =r=r == <=¤t
+=rr n+ +r ¤ra¬a=; ¤r¤¤r ¤< f== =¤== ¤<J=¸== ¤<) +¢n ¢ f===
¤r=r ¤< n«rr ¬tnr =t n«rr s== =¤= +r -rt ¬r= ¢; ¤¢ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +«rrn
=n¤÷·r +f¤<¤J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) = =¤¬ =n¬r+ = +r+= +r¬ ¬r+ = +¤=t
+=` ` ` ``n ¤rvrtJ+«t= ¤rvrt) ar=r =¤¬ ¤+a f+¬r ¢; =r +r¬ -r¬¤r=J=r= ¤÷·r) =
==r·n += f<¬r «rr; == f+=t +¤=r=r +t =rr=r + f¤·r¬ = ¤r¤ ¤+t¬ +¤=r2
=n ·¬«n += =¢ ¢; v+ +¢nr ¢ s= +¤=r=r ¤= =f¤=rr= +t =rr=r 304 ¬¬¬t,
<¸==r +¢nr ¢ 307 ¬¬¬t, nt==r +¢nr ¢ 305 ¬¬¬t, ¤r«rr +¢nr ¢ 376
¬¬¬t, ¤r¤¤r +¢nr ¢ 311«t ¬¬¬t; ¤ ¤r¤r ¤+t¬ at+ =¢t ¢r =+n; +r=
=t =rr=r at+ ¢ ¬¢ f=vr¬ <¤r + =f¤=rr= = ¢t ¢r¬r; =f¤=rr= = f¬=rr f¤¤=vr
+f-n= n«rr =-¬ =r-¬ ¢rnr ¢;
at+ s=t ¤+r= ¤==r-=r + ¬r= n«rr -rf«-r =r¬ +t =r¤ + f¬v ¤f¤>r
=<¬-«rr +r ¢t +r=rr= =r=r =rv¬r; ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t = n«rr ¤f¤>r ¤r=r ¤<r =
n«rrJ¤r¤¤ ¤<) +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) +t +=` ` ` ``n ¤rvrt = =¤ ¬r= n«rr -rf«n
f¤f=r =¤·a f¬=rt ¢; ¤¢¬ ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +r +r=rr= =r= += ¬r= ¬¢vr +=n ¢;
¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t = nt=r ¤-r+r [«m J=r= ¤÷·r,+r¬) n«rr ¤=«m J+=r= ¤÷·r)
n«rr ¤¸vr «m J¤== +=r= ¤÷·r +«rrn =n¤÷·r)) +t -rt =r=+r=t ¢;
¬tnr =t +r ¬r= «m J=r= ¤÷·r,+r¬) ar=r f<¬r ¬¬r ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 17
¤¬r+ 23 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr J¤== +=r= «m) +t ¤rf·n + f¬v
÷nn=n s= nt= =->r + =r¤ +== +r f=<¤r ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 8 ¤¬r+ 13 =
¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r = +¢r f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t ¤rf·n +r ÷nn=n nt= =->r
+r =r¤ ¢ == =->r = ==t -rf«n J=r=r=r) +r +¤¬ v+ +r= J÷) +=r= ¢
f==+r =-¤r=vr +=+ ===vr +==r ¢; =r =r=r+ +f-n= =¤r= n+ ==r ===vr
+=nr ¢+r ¤rvr -¬r¬ =rnr ¢ == ¤==¬fn ¤r·n ¢rnt ¢; ++¬r ÷ =r= +r =r¤
+r¬ «m +t =r=r=r +r ¢; n«rr «m =r=r=r +r ¤fn¤¬ =¤¬ =¢r=¤¬ ¤rf·n,
f¤= ¤r¤ += +r=rr= = ==+ +r -rr¬ n«rr ¤r=r=t ¬r=r ¬rf=¬r = =-==` ` ` ``-¬ +r
+·a =<r «=r =¢¬r; +¤¬ ==r += ¤rvrt J¤r¤¤v¬) +=nr ¢ ¤¢ <r=r +r ¤=r
-rr¬nr ¢; s== +rs ¤f=¤n= =¢t ¢r =+nr J+¤¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t =r=r=r +==
= ¤r¤ += <v= ==r·n ¢rnr ¢);
s=t +r ¤=rvr ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 5 = +¢nr ¢ f+
85
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
+== n= n«rr == «¢n = =-= ¢r ¤+ ¢, n¸ =¢t =r=nr, = =r=nr ¢¸; ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 2 ¤¬r+ 12 = -rt ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¢ n«rr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 2 ¤¬r+ 17 n«rr ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 62, ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 4, 17 = +¤= = +-¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r
J¤==¤¤=) + f¤·r¬ = +¢r ¢ n«rr ¤¢t ¤r=n¤ = +f¤=r¤rt ¤==r-=r ¢; ¤¢t =¤
«mv=r +r =¤=¢r= ¢; ==t +t ¤r=vr = =r= = =-==` ` ` ``-¬ +r =r¬ ¤¸vr ÷¤ =
==r·n ¢r =rv¬r +«rrn ¤¸vr =r=r ¤r·n ¢r =rv¬r;
== ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr J=n¤÷·r +«rrn +f¤=r¤rt ¤==¤¤=) + n-¤¬r= n«rr -rf«n
f¤f=r + f¤·r¬ = ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 32 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤==¤¤= +r ¤r·n +== +
f¬v «¢n f¤=n` ` ` ``n =r=r=r+r +r ¬r= =¤¬ ¤==¤¤= = +¤= ==r = ==¬ ¬r= =
+«rrn n-¤¬r= = +¢r f¤= ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34 = +¢r f+ == n-¤¬r= +r
==n ==+r ==n= + f¬v -r-¤<¤rt =-nr +t =rr= +=; f¤= == n-¤<¤rt =-nr
+r f¤== -rr¤ = =v=¤n ¤vrr= +=+ ¤r«r=r ¤¸¤+ ¤¤= +== ¤= ¤ n-¤ ¬r= +r
=r== ¤r¬ n-¤<¤rt =-n nn n-¤¬r= ==rv¬; == ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r + n-¤ ¬r= +r
==n n«rr == ¤ =r=r=r «nr¬ ¤= +=; J¤=rvr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r + 34 = ¢;)
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 1 = 4 = ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r = +¢r ¢ f+ ¬¢ ==r=
==a ¬a+ ¤` ` ` ``=r n=¬ =r=r f==+t =¸¬ nr =¤= +r ¢ n«rr ¤rr=rrv =t¤ +r ¢;
=¤= +r == nr ¤¸ vr ¤==r--rr =r=r n«rr nt=r ¬ vrr J==¬ vr« mr=t,
=n¬vrf¤·vr=t n«rr n=¬vrf¤r¤=t) ÷¤t ¤rr=rrv =r=r; ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r =
+¢r ¢ f+ == n«rr n= s= f¤¤r= +r¬ = +«rrn ¬tnr ¬r= = +r¤+r = ¤¸vr ÷¤
= s= ==rr= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r J=` ` ` `` f·a =¤=r) +r ¬r= =¢t «nr =+nr;
«¬rf+ s=+ +rf< n«rr +n = = +¤=tf¤n ¢¸; s= ==rnt ¢s ¬r= ¬-«rt +r
n-¤ ¬r= ÷¤t ¤r=>r ar=r ¢t +rar =r =+nr ¢ +«rrn ==nr =r =+nr ¢; =` ` ` ``f·a
=¤=r + f¤·r¬ = n-¤<¤rtJ¤¸vr) =-n ¢t «nr =+nr ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 1
= n-¤<¤rt J¤¸vr) =-n +t ¤¢¤r= «nrn ¢v +¢r ¢ f+ s= ==a ¬a+ ¢v ==r=
÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r + f-r-=2 -rr¬r +r =r =-n «nr¤J=: ¤< f¤n) ¤¢ ¤< + nr-¤¬ +r
=r== ¤r¬r ¢ +«rrn n-¤<¤rt J¤¸vr) =-n ¢; «¬rf+ ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr = nr +¤¬
sn=r ¢t «nr¬r ¢ f+ =¤= +r nr ==J=¸¬) ¢ n«rr =t¤ +r nt=r ¬vr ÷¤t
¤rr=rrv ¢; f¤= +¢r ¢ f+ =n ¤¸vr ¬r= =¢t ¢; =r ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r + =¤ -rr¬r
== =¸¬, n=r, =r=, ¤rr=rrv, ¤+rr +r ¬r= f-r-=2 «nrv == -r-¤<¤rtJ¤¸vr) =-n
=r==r;
¤==¤¤= +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) = =¤¬ +¤= ar=r =¤t =` ` ` ``f·a +r ¬r=
f<¬r;
¬«iº, ¬-iº ¤ª·i ¤¬ ¤· r, l·º¬· (i¬i ·iº|
ni·i ·(i ºiiªii r, ¤in ª¤ ¬-iiº||
86
pkS Fkh fdLr pkS Fkh fdLr pkS Fkh fdLr pkS Fkh fdLr pkS Fkh fdLr
+` ` ` ``¤r <=r ==ar ¬a+ ¢v ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r +r f¤>r:
s= ==a ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r +t == nr ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r J¤== +=r= «m +«rrn ¤¸vr
«m,=n¤÷·r) ¢; ==t= = «r¢= n=-n =r f¢==r <` ` ` ``f·a¬r¤= ¢rnr ¢ f== n=r
+¢n ¢ ¤¢ +=r= ¤÷·r J¤=«m) =r=r n«rr =rat =r= +r =r= ¤÷·r J«m,+r¬)
=r=r n«rr =r= +t nt=r ¤rr=rr+r +r ~t «mr=tJ==¬vr), ~t f¤·vr=tJ=n¬vr)
n«rr ~t f¤r¤=tJn=¬vr) ÷¤t nt=r <¤ =r=r n«rr ¤rn ÷¤ = ==r= ==n; +«
==n f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr J==r) = =¤ ¤` ` ` ``=r +r ¤r¬= ¢rnr ¢; ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ =. 16 = f¬=rr ¢; <r ¤-r nr s= ¤` ` ` ``«¤t ¬r+ = ¢ J«m +
s«+t= «mv= n«rr ¤=«m + =rn ==r «mv=r +r ¤` ` ` ``«¤t ¤r¬r ¬r+ +¢r =rnr
¢; «¬rf+ ¬¢ =r¤r¤r= ¢) v+ =r= ¤÷·r J«m,+r¬) n«rr <¸==r +=r= ¤÷·r
J¤=«m) n«rr <r=r ¢t ¤-r+r J=r= ¤÷·r n«rr +=r= ¤÷·r) + ¬r+r = <r=r ¤-r+r
+ n«rr s=+ +-n¬n ¤rfvr¬r + =«r¸¬ ¤r=t= nr =r¤r¤r= ¢ n«rr =t¤r-=r
+f¤=r¤rt ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 17 = +¢r ¢ f+ =+r= ¤÷·r J¤r=n¤ = ~·a
¤==r--rr) nr s= J=¤=r«n) =r= ¤÷·r n«rr +=r= ¤÷·r = +-¬ ¢t ¢; =r
¤==r--rrJ¤== +=r= «m) +¢r =rnr ¢ ¤¢t nt=r ¬r+r = ¤¤¤r +=+ =¤ +r
=rr=vr ¤r·rvr +=nr ¢; ¤¢ ¤r=n¤ = +f¤=r¤rt ¤==¤¤= ¢;
=<r¢=vrr«r: == v+ =¸fn nr f=aat +t «=t ¢r =r =¤·a =r¤r¤r= f<=rrs
<nt ¢; f¬=n ¢t a+=2 ¢r =rv¬t; v=t f=«rnt nr =r= ¤÷·r J«m) +t =r=r
n«rr <¸==t =¸fn =at¬Js=¤rn) +t «=t ¢r =r f=aat ¤r¬t =¸fn +t n¬=r = +f=r+
fa+r= ¢; ¤=-n =at¬ Js=¤rn) +r -rt =¬ ¬¬¬r; v+ f<= =·a ¢r =rv¬t; -r¬
¢t ==¬ +f=r+ ¬¬; s=t ¤+r= +=r= ¤÷·r +r -rt +f¤=r¤rt +¢r ¢ ¤=-n ¤r=n¤
= +f¤=r¤rt nr nt==t =rrn =¤vr +t «=t =¸fn ¢rnt ¢ f==+r +-rt f¤=r¤r =¢t
¢rnr; v=t f=«rfn ¤== +=r= «m +«rrn ¤¸vr «m J=n¤÷·r) +t =r=r; ¤¢t
nt==r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r =r ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r +t ==J=¸¬) ¢ =¤ +r ¤r¬= ¤r·rvr +==
¤r¬r ¢; ==t ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t =r=r=r n-¤<¤rt =-n «nrv¬r; s=f¬v ¬tnr
+=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 4 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¸vr =-nJn-¤<¤rt) + f=¬ =r= + ¤¤¤rn ==
¤==¤¤=J=n¤÷·r) + == =«rr= +t =rr= +==t ¤rf¢v f== =«rr=J=n¬r+) =
=r= + ¤¤¤rn =r=r+ ¤== ¬ra+= ==r= = =¢t +rn +«rrn =-==` ` ` ``-¬ = ¤¸vr
÷¤ = =«n ¢r =rn ¢ n«rr f== +rf< ¤÷·r +«rrn ¤¸vr ¤==r-=rJ=n¤÷·r) =
==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` ``=r +r f¤=nr= ¢+r ¢ +«rrn f=== =¤ «mv=r +t =¤=r +t ¢; =¤¬
¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r = -rt +¢r ¢ f+ = -rt ==t +t ¤r=vr = ¢¸; ==t ¤==r-=r +t
-rf«n f¤¤¤r= + =r«r +==t ¤rf¢v; ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 62 = ¢
f+ ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r f+=t +-¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t +r= =+n += =¢r ¢; +¢r ¢
f+ ¢ +== ! n¸ =¤ -rr¤ = == ¤==¤¤= +t ¤r=vr = =r f==+t +` ` ` ``¤r = n¸ ¤==
87
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤rrf-n n«rr =n¬r+J¤rr¤¤n =«rr=) +r ¤r·n ¢r¬r; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 64 =
+¢r ¢ f+ ==r ¤¸=¬ <¤ -rt ¬¢t ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r ¢;
f¤¤r·r: =¤=r«n f¤¤=vr = f={ ¢+r f+ n-¤<¤rt +«rrn ¤¸vr =-n ¤¢ ¢ =r
==r= ÷¤t ==a ¤` ` ` ``=r + =¤r¬r +r f-r-=2 f¤¤=vr «nrv; f== ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr
¤-r -rt =¢t =r=nr; ¤¢ f¤¤=vr +r¤ =t = =¤= ¤ar n«rr ==a ==r= ÷¤t ¤` ` ` `` =r
+r f¤>r -rt <=rr; +r¬ ¤a ¤¸vr =-n +t +-¬ ¤¢¤r= n«rr += f=¬ ¤¢ ¤¸vr
¤==r-=r f== + f¤·r¬ = ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 62 = ¤ +=¬r¬ 15 ¤¬r+ 4 =
+¢r ¢;
<r== <r= =r=¤r¬ <r=
''¢+ ~ør¬ +| ¤r-= +·rr''
¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =
88
ika poh fdLr ika poh fdLr ika poh fdLr ika poh fdLr ika poh fdLr
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r -r|
ºr=rrª¤r=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(¤r¤¤| |+ªn)
(18 ¤¤¬ 2006 +r ¤¬r¤ +=º| = ¤+r|ºrn)
( nnr+ = ¤rn)
''¢+ ~ør¬ +| ¤r-= +·rr''
= =r=-< <r= 200-«t ¤f¤¤= f«¢r= v«=a-¤r= =s f<=¬t63 +r =¢=
¤r¬r ¢¸; == =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + =-n ¤=vrf=¢ =t =¢r=r=J==r «r«r ==¬ f=¢
·¬r= f=. +=` ` ` ``n== ¤=r«) = == 1980 = =r= <r= f¬¬r; ¬÷ =t + «nrv
+==r= 2:30 trva =«¢ n«rr 2:30 trva ¤rr= =r=r=r ¤r÷ +t +-¬r= «arn2
+f=r+ ==¬ +== ¬¬r; == <r=r +=¢ -rt ¤t=r +== ¬¬ =rn «r; f¤= -rt
¤==r--rr ¤rf·n +t n=¤ = +·a +r =¢= +=n ¢v =r=r=r +t; +e ¤+r¤r
-rt f<=rrs <nr «rr n«rr +e +r¤r= -rt =-r= ¬¬t; +¤= ¤«r +t =r=r=r +r
=¤r-¤ =r=+= +-¬ +t «rn =¢t ==nr «rr; ¤r=t= = +·a, tr= = f==r=nr
«ant ¬s; +rs +r¬ f={ =¢t ¢rnr «rr; =¢r ¤=¤rr=t +r =t¤= =tnr =¢r;
¬÷ ¤=vr <r= =t =-=¬r = +¢n «r f+ ¤r=·=r +r += -rr¬ nr =t¤ +r -rr¬=r
¢t ¤=nr ¢; s= <` ` ` ``f·a+rvr = +¤= =¢r+·a=¬ =t¤= +r =t =¢r «rr;
v+ f<= +r=«rr at.¤t. ¤¬= ¤= =-n =r=¤r¬ <r= +r~= +=r«rr f=.
=r¢n+ +r =-=¬ ==r nr =n «¢n ¬==r +r¬r n«rr =r¤r ¬¢ nr ¢=r= ¤«r
+t f=-<r += =¢r ¢; = ¤r¢n ¢v -rt <=rnr =¢r; =« =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =
¢=r= ¢t ¤«r +t ¤=n+r +r at.¤t. ¤= f<=rr¬r n«rr +-¬ ¤rr=>rr = n¬=r +t
«nr¬r f+ ~t =r¤= f=¢ =¢r=r= = ~t =¬n f=¢ =t +r =+r=rf=r+r=t f=¬«n
+= f<¬r; nt= ¤·r ¤¤¤rn ~t =¬n f=¢ =t +r f==r= ¢r ¬¬r ==+ ¤¤¤rn
~t =r¤= f=¢ + f¤r·¬ ~t ¤=vr f=¢ =t =r =rn = ~t =r¤= f=¢ + ¤r>r
«r +r ·¬r= ¬<<t ¤= f=¬«n f+¬r ¬¬r; ~t ¤=vr f=¢ +r ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t
= =r= <r= +r +r<¤r -rt =¢t f<¬r «rr; ¬f< +¢ f+ ~t =¬n f=¢ =t =
+r<¤r f<¬r nr ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t +r f¤r·¬ =¢t =¢r; ~t ¤=vr f=¢ =t n«rr
~t =¬n f=¢ =t ¬= -rrs «r; v+ f¤r·¬ <¸== f¤r·¬ +r +r<¤r =¢t < =+nr;
== v+ f=¤r¢t <¸== f=¤r¢t +r f=¤r¢t f=¬«n =¢t += =+nr; ¬¢ ¤=rvr
<=r += =n +=a ==r ¬¬r f+ =¤=¤ =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +r ¬r= n«rr =r=r=r
¤¸vr ÷¤ = ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢; ¤¢ +r¬a= +r=«rr at.¤t. ¤= «-< ¢r ¬¬r; +e
==¬ =¤=r-n v+ ==r¤r= ¤>r ¤ar === -rt =-n =r=¤r¬ =t = =¤ ¤=n+r
89
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
+r n«rr ¤` ` ` ``·ar +r ¢¤r¬r <+= ¬=r f¬=rr «rr;
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t =r=r=r +=n2 -rt tr= n«rr ¤f=¤r= ¤ +r=r«r= =
+-¬f=r+ ¤=¤rrf=¬r + +r=vr ¤r=r« n«rr n-«r=r +r +r<t -rt ¢r ¬¬r «rr; ==
==r¤r= ¤>r +r n«rr ==+ =-«f-=rn ¤=n+r +r ¬+= = ·¬r= ==r =r=rr=¤r=t
¤=r« = ¬¬r n«rr =-n =r=¤r¬ <r= ar=r «nrs ¬s >rfa¬r + ==r=rr= + f¬v
~t =r¢nr= ¤-< «¢¬ =t n«rr ¤f=¤= +«rr ¤r¤+ ~t =r=r=r =t = f=¬r;
==+r n¬=t =r¢« ¢r«r== ¤r¬ ar=r =f¤n tra =r=r¬vr -rr¬ ¤¢¬r + ¤` ` ` ``·a 27
¤= f<=rr¬r; f=== f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤r¤r =r= +r¬ + ¢; s== f-r-= +rf< =r=
n«rr =n=r=J<r =r=) ¢; === ¢t +r¬ =r¬ = ea+r=r ¢r =+nr ¢; ¤r <r
=r= ¢= =¢t f=¬ nr += +r¬ =r¬ = ea¬; +«t= =r¢« =t +t ¤rvrt f<=rrs
´´¤r·<´´ ´´=-nr ¤r·< ¤r·< «=rr=r, ¤r·< ¤r= ¤¤rr =« +rs ¤r·< =¢t
¤¢¤r=r; ¤«r= ¢t «mJ+r¬) =¤s-er = ¤r¤r ¤r·< =-¤r=r, =r¢, =rn
f====, ==+r=, ¤rf«n +r= +r+r=r;´´ =« ¬¢ ¤=n+ f<=rrs nr <rnr n¬
=¬¬t <«rs; ¤=-n +¤=t ¤n=nr f<=rrs +t ea¤r =r= +-<= =¬r= =
f=¬¬r; == ¤¸er n¬=t =r¢« nr +¢ =¢ ¢ f+ <r =r= +r= ¢ =r ¤r¤r =
+-¬ ¢; +rf< =r= n«rr =n=r=; f¤= =rn¤r +¢r f=¬¬r³ s= «rn ¤= =-¢r=
+¢r +r¤ ¬÷ =tJ=-n ¬÷s-< f=¢ =t) = f=¬ += ¤¸er; == +¢r f=¬r+r
=n ¬÷ =t =, ar¬n ¢v +¢r f+ +=r=r f¤r·¬ ¢ ¬÷ =t +, f+=2 =
f=¬¬; +r¤ ¤>r ar=r ==r=rr= ¤r·n +==r; = =rnr ¢+r ¤rf¤= f<=¬t +r
¬¬r; ¤>r =r¬r; ==+r =¤r« f=¬r, =r «n+r «rr, +¢r «rr +r¤ +-¬r= +r=
«arn =r+r +¤= +r¤ ¢t =« =->r f=¬ =rv¬;
==r ·¬r= + =+r= = +rs =-nf·a =¢t ¢s; ==+ ¤¤¤rn =-n
=r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= + «nrv +==r= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t ¤=n+r +r ¤ar nr
=r=r +r= ¬¬r; ¬¢ «¬r ==r+ += ==rr ¢;
1. ¢=¸= =¤r=t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t +r +rs ¬÷ =¢t «rr;
2. =¤r=t =t ¢«+r ¤tn «r;
3. =¤r=t =t ¤n +t n=¢ +¤=t ¤== f¤r·¬r ««+t = ¤¤¤r ¢r+=
«r¬n «r; =` ` ` ``-¬ =¤=r-n -rt ««+t + ==r = ¢«+r ¤tn «r n«rr -rr== -rt ¬¢vr
+=n «r; =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤¤= 4 = +¢r ¢ f+ =n=r= +r =n=r=, =r==r=,
=n¤r·<, =n¬r+, =n¤÷·r -rt +¢n ¢;
+rf< ·¬r=¬r+r +r ¤a += =r=r +r¬r; «¬r +÷³ +¢r =r=³ =-n
=r=¤r¬ <r= =t =¢r=r= = «nr¬r f+ ¢a ¬r¬ =-n =r¬ =¢t ¢; ¢a ¬r¬ +r
¤=rvr ÷¢r=t ¤¸¬ ¤=n+ ¤` ` ` ``·a82 ¤= ~t ==¬ f=¢ =t =¢r=r= +-¬r= =
+r¬= +r= ¤= +¤= ¤r=t= ¤= «n =r=n «r n«rr ¢=¸= =¤r=t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t
=¢r=r= +s2 f<= n+ «-< +== = ¢a ¬r¬ = =r=r=r +=n «r =r f+=t -rt
90
ika poh fdLr ika poh fdLr ika poh fdLr ika poh fdLr ika poh fdLr
=-n + sfn¢r= = =¢t ¢; =-n =r=+ =t ¢¬ ¤¬rn «r n«rr ===vr -rt +=n
«r, =-n =f¤<r= =t =¸n «=r= +r +r¬ -rt +=n «r n«rr ===vr -rt +=n «r
n«rr ¤==¤¤= +«t= =t = ¬t¬r +=+ f<=rr¬r +t =¬r¢ +r +r¬ +=n2 -rt
¤-r =r= +r ===vr += =+n ¢; =-n ¬=t« <r= =tJe=r=t ¤r¬) ¢¬ -rt
¤¬rn «r n«rr ===vr -rt +=n «r; ¢a ¬r¬ +== = ~t n¬=t<r= =r¢« ¢r«r==
¤r¬ + <r=r ¤= +== = =t¤ =-= ¢r ¬v «r J+=r=¬ ¢r ¬¬r «rr) ==+ f¤r·¬
¤r¬f+¬r = «ar += ¬ =rn «r J¤=n+ =t¤= ¤f=>r n¬=t =r¢« ¤` ` ` ``·a 7 ¤=
¤=rvr ¢); ¬¢ =r=r=r ===r=rr=vr =¢t += =+nr n«rr ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢r= +
+r=vr ·¬«r ¢; ¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a126 ¤= ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t
= f¬=rr ¢ f+ +-¬r= = +r--rr f==a += +r=rr + ¤te ¤¬t =rnt ¢ ¤r=t=
=r =rnr ¢ nr ¬¢ ¤r=t= =<r f<=rrs <nr ¢; ¬¢t =tf¤n ===r ¢;
=¤=r«n ¤=rvrr +r +r=rr <=r += ==J=r=-< =) ¤== =-n =r=¤r¬
<r= =t =¢r=r= = =¤<¤r ¬¢vr += f¬¬r; == =¤ +r¬ f={ ¢r ¬v n«rr
=¤ =¤rr e¸a ¬¬r; == ¤r=t= +r =r¬ -rt ==r·n ¢r ¬¬r;
==t =¤ -r«n ==r= = ¤r«r=r ¢ f+ =-¬ +r +r=rr <=r += =-n
=r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =r= <r= ¬+= +¤=r =r=¤ =t¤= =¤¬ «=rv;
+r¤+r +¤=r
=r=-< <r=
+e+ ~{r¬ +¢n ¢ f+ «¬r ¬÷ «<¬= = ¤r¤ nr =¢t ¬¬¬r³ ==
~{r¬+r = f=¤<= ¢ f+ == v+ =r«a=J¤n) = =¤¤r= =¢t ¢rnr ¢ nr <¸==r
=r«a= «<¬= = ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢ ¢rf= =¢t ¢rnt; at+ s=t ¤+r= ¬÷ +r =r=r;
s=f¬v ¤rr=>rf¤f=r f¤÷{ ¬r= ¤r¬ ¬÷ +r -¬r¬+= ¤¸vr ¬÷ =rr=vr +==r
f¢n+= ¢; ¤r¤ =¢t +f¤n ¤¸v¬ ¢; +e ~{r¬ =+r¤ +=n ¢ f+ ¢=r=t nt= ¤·r
+t =r=r=r +r «¬r ¢r¬r³ +« += er=³ == ~{r¬+r = f=¤<= ¢ f+ f¤¤r= +=
f+ +r¤+r f+=t ¤r¢= = =r=r ¢, nt= f+¬r=ta= =r= + «r< ¤nr ¤¬ f+ +r¤
¬¬n =r=n ¤= =r =¢ ¢, nr n=n == =r=r ¤rf¢v; =¢t nr =f=¬ <¸= ¢rnt
=rv¬t; f¤= -rt +rs +¢ f+ ¢= nr nt= f+¬r=ta= =¤= n¬ += ¤+ ¢, +«
+= er= s= =r=n +r³ ¬¢ f¤¤r= nr «r¬+ + ¬r ¤r=r«t + ¢r =+n ¢;
==n<r= nr n=n == =rv¬r; s=f¬v == =r=r=r +r n=n -¬r¬+= ¤r=nf¤+
¤rr=>rf¤f=r +==r= =r=r=r =n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = ¬¢vr +=;
+` ` ` ``-¤r ¤¸ºr ªr-n +| ¤-¤ ¤;¤r¬ (2) = ¤a :
=r=+ =r¢« +¢n ¢ f+
¬i; ^ª ¤¸ºi ¬ri(, ·i¤ ¬ªªiº ¬i ·i· «ni(| ¤¬ ¬·i( ¤¬ ¬ªii(, ni ¤iºii
l·¬ ·iº ¬i(|
¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =
91
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r -r|
ºr=rrª¤r=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(ea| |+ªn)
(23 ¤¤¬ 2006 +r ¤¬r¤ +=º| = ¤+r|ºrn)
( nnr+ = ¤rn)
¤¸ºr =-n +| ¤;¤r¬ (2)
¬r¬+ =r;¤ ¬| +;n ; :
¬i; ¬n^ª ¤¸ºi ¬ri(| ·i¤ ¬ªªiº ¬i ·i· «ni(||
¤¬ ¬·i( ¤¬ ¬ªii(| ni ¤iºii l·¬ ·iº ¬i(||
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 17 ¤¬r+ 23 = == ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr J=n¤÷·r) +t =r=r=r +r -rt
=+n f<¬r ¢; +¢r ¢ f+ == ¤¸vr ¤==r--rr +t ¤rf·n +r nr +¤¬ ÷nn=n s=
nt= =->r + =r¤ +r f=<¤r ¢; f==+r nt= f¤f=r = ===vr f+¬r =rnr ¢; ¬¢t
=r=r=r =r=r+ == =` ` ` ``f·a + ¤r=--r = +=n «r; nt= =->r + ===vr +t f¤f=r
n-¤<¤rtJ¤¸vr) =-n «nrv¬r; «¬rf+ ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 4 ¤¬r+ 34 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¸vr
¤==r-=r + f¤·r¬ = n-¤<¤rt =-n = ¤¸er;
+r= ¤r·< ¬¢ «mJ=r= ¤÷·r) +r =r¤ ¢; nn ¤r·< ¬¢ ¤=«m +r =r¤ ¢;
¬¢r nn ¤r·< =r+fn+ ¢; =r ¬¢ <r= +¤¬ =¤<¤rt +r ¢t «nrv¬r;
+r=÷nn J=r+fn+) f=¬+= =n=r= J<r +=r= +r =->r) «=nr ¢ n«rr =n
¤r·<J=r+fn+) nt==r =->r ¢ s= =r==r= -rt +¢n ¢; s=t +r +rf< =r= -rt
+¢n ¢; =r ¬·n ¢ ==+r ¤¸vr =-n ¢t «nrv¬r =r ===vr +== +r ¢; +r= =->r
+r =r¤ +r¬ J«m) + >vr = =«n +=rv¬r J+r¬ = e=¤rv¬r) n«rr <¸==r
nnJ=r+fn+) ¤=«m +r =->r ¢; f==+r =r¤ ¤=«m + =rn ==r «mv=r +r
¤r= +== +r f+=r¬r ¢; ¬¢ -r¤= ¬¤r n+ ¤¢¤rv¬r +«rrn ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r
f<=rrv¬rJ¬=rrv¬r) n«rr nt==r =->r =r==r= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r + =n¬r+ = =«rrs
+=¬r; f¤= =r=r+ +r =-==` ` ` ``-¬ =<r + f¬v ==r·n ¢r =rv¬r; =n¬r+ = ¤¸vr
¤==r-=r +«rrn =n¤÷·r =r=¤ =<` ` ` `` ¤r +r+r= = ¢; f==+ v+ =r= +¸¤ +t ¤rr-rr
+=r= =¸¬r n«rr sn= ¢t ¤-<=r+r + ¤+r¤r = -rt +f=r+ ¢; =t¤ +r-=r -rt
=r+r= =r=¤ =<` ` ` ``¤r ¤r=t= = =¢nt ¢ n«rr +r-=r + ¤r=t= +r ¤+r¤r =r¬¢ =¸¬r
+ ¤+r¤r + ==r= ¢; +r-=r +¤= =r+r= ¤==r-=r + f== ¤= ¤¤= +=nt
¢J¤=rvr +«t= ¤==¤¤= +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt ¤r·< ´+= ==r <t<r= =¢¬ = ·¬r=r ¢´ =r
=-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬3 + ¤«r= ¤` ` ` ``·a ¤= f¬=rr ¢);
92
NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤-«r n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷ ¤«r ¤r¬ =-nr +r +¢=r ¢ f+ =n¬r+
= nr +¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢t ¤+r¤r ¢; =n¤÷·r f==r+r= ¢; +r-=r =n¬r+ = =r +=
¤==r--rr = v= ==r =rnt ¢ == «¸< ==< = ==r =rnt ¢; ¤==r-=r +r= +r-=r
+r f-r-= +f=n-¤ =¢t =¢nr; =«f+ ¤r=nf¤+nr =¤= ¤fvrn ¢ ¤¢ =¢t ¢ =r
¤==r--rr ¤¸vr «m J=n¤=·r) = =¤¬ «nrs ¢; =n <r= +r +¤=t +` ` ` ``·rr = <¤r=
+=rv ¢;
=¤=r«n =n=r= =r <r +=r= J+r= + nn =r+fn+) + ¬r¬ = «=nr ¢ +r
=<r¢=vr =¤¬ ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= J=r ~t =r=r=¬ =¤ ¤rr¢==nr=r =t +
¬= =t ¢; ¤rr¢==nr=r =t = =r==r= =n¬= =-¤r =r<r f===r = =«rrf¤n f+¬r
¢) = ¤=n+ =n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 + ¤` ` ` ``·a 261-262 ¤= f¬=rr ¢; ¤=-n =¤¬ ¬r=
=¢t ¢, ¬«r =r¢« +r ¤=rvr f¬¬r ¢; =r=+ =r¢« +¢n ¢ f+
¬i; ¬n^ª ¤¸ºi ¬ri(, ·i¤ ¬ªªiº ¬i ·i· «ni(| ¤¬ ¬·i( ¤¬ ¬ªii(, ni
¤iºii l·¬ ·iº ¬i(|
f¤= +¢n ¢ ¬ n¸ ¤«¤i ¤l·n «i·i ·i¤ ¬ªªiº ·¤·i(i| ¤ºi(n ·i·¬ ¤¬
¬·ii¤ ¬ ¬º ¬·¤ ¬-i(i| J+rf< ¬= ¬-«r =r¢« ¤` ` ` ``·a 1171)
f¤= +«t= ¤==¤¤= =t +t ¤rvrt +r ¤=rvr f<¬r ¢ : +; +¤|º ¤=rº «¤
-rr=r| ;r¤nr =r== n ¬¤nr ºr=r| J+rf< ¬= ¬-«r ¤` ` ` ``·a 329)
f¤= f¬=rr ¢ : +r= ¤r·<, =r¢ ¤r·<, =n¤r·<
f¤¤r= += : =¤=r«n =>r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t ¤rf·n n«rr =n¬r+ f=¤r= + ¢
f==+r ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t = n«rr ¤f¤>r +=` ` ` ``n ¤rvrt +«t= =r¢« n«rr ¤-r ¤r·n =nr
+t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt = -rt ¤=rvr ¢; ¤=n =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =r==r= =n¬= ¤«r n«rr
=¬¬=<¤ n«rr f<=r< f-r¤r=t +rf< =r=rr=¤r=t ¤r¬ ¤«rr + =nr +r ¬r= =¢t ¢;
=n=r= =r <r +=r= + ¬r¬ = «=nr ¢ == + f¤·r¬ = ¬r¬=r¬ f¬=r f<¬r f+
¬ +r¬ ¤r=«m = ¢ n«rr v+ +=r=J=r==r=) + f¤·r¬ = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤¢ -rt
¤r=«m = f=¬¬r; =¤¬ ¤ ´´=¬rfn f====´´, ´´+r+r=´´, ´´==+r=´´, ´´=r¢´´ n«rr
´´=n=r=´´ ¬ ¤r¤ =r= <n ¢ n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷ =-¤r =r<r ¤r¬ =-n ¤¢¬ nr
¬¢t ¤r¤ =r= <n «r +«, ´´=n¤=·r´´, ´´++r¬ =¸fn´´, ´´¤r·< =¤÷¤t =r=´´ ¬
+-¬ nt= =r= <n ¢; f<=r< f-r¤r=t ¤r¬ nr=r¤-< =t =¢r=r= ¤r¬r ¤«r +¤¬
´´=r=rr=¤r=t´´ =r= <nr ¢, =¤¬ <r +==r= + ¤r=nf¤+ =>r = +¤f=f¤n ¢;
s=f¬v +«t= ¤==¤¤= +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt n«rr ~t =r=+ =t +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt + +r=rr=
= =r <r +=r= +r -r< =¢t =r=nr ¤¢ ¤¸=r ¬= J¤¸vr =n) =¢t ¢; s== f={ ¢+r
f+ =r=rr =¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r ¤«r n«rr ~t ar+= f=¢, ~t
+` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ n«rr =¬ ¬÷<¤ =«r=r ¤r¬ n«rr f<=r< f-r¤r=t ¤r¬ =r=rr=¤r=t +
=-n =t ¤¸vr =-n =¢t ¢ «¬rf+ ==+r <r +=r= +r ¬r= =¢t ¢;
93
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` `` ·a 262 = f¬=rr ¢ =n=r= ¢=r=t =rfn ¢,
=n¤÷·r ¢=r=r =r= ¢, =-¤=rv=J=n¬r+) ¢=r=r <¤r ¢; ¬¢r ¤= =n=r=,
=n¤÷·r, =--r=rv= nt=r +r f-r-=2 «nr¬r ¢; s=t ¤=n+ + ¤` ` ` ``·a 21 ¤=
=n=r= +r =«rr= +¢r ¢; ¤=n+ =r=¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤«r= -rr¬ + ¤¤= 4 =
=n=r=, =-¤=rv=, =n¤÷·r, =r=¤r·<, =n¤r·< +r v+ «nr¬r ¢; «¬r ¬ f¤¤r=
¤== =-n + ¢r =+n ¢³ [+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 261-262 =
¤rar +r¤t s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 95-96 ¤=)
+=r¸= =r-nr + f¤·r¬ = ¤¸=¬ +«t= ¤==¤¤= =t +¢n ¢:
¬n^ª l«· ¬ir · ¤i¤i ni·i, ¤i ·ii·ii ·i¬ l¬· -¸« l¬¬i·i|
¬n^ª l«· «· ¤« ¬i ¤iºii, ¬-n ·i ¬iº ºr ¬ni·i|
(-n ¬ri ªii¬ ¬ri, l¬¬ l(n ¬i^ ri·i|
¤¬ ¤¬¬ - ¤i;¤, ·i·i l¬¬ ¬i·i|
v+ ==¬ v+ ·¬f«n +t +¤r=+ =` ` ` ``-¬ ¢r ¬s; === «¢n =r=r =r= ==t= =
<«r ==rr «rr; == +r f¤¤=vr v+ «¢tJ¤=) = f¬=rr «rr =r =r+fn+ «rr; ==
·¬f«n = +¤= =+r= + v+ +r= = =f-<= «=¤r ==rr «rr; «¢t = f¬=rr «rr
¤r<=t ¤r<= =rf>r + «r=¢ «= =f-<= + ¬== = =¤ =r= <«r ==rr ¢; ¬=+r =
=r>rt = =f-<= +r ¬== ¤r=r; === +e =¢t ¤r¬r; ==+ f¤nr +r v+ <r=n
<¸== ¬r¤ = =¢nr «rr; «-¤r = ==+r =¤ f¤¤=vr «nr¬r n«rr +¢r f+ f¤nr =t =
n¸a f¬=rr ¢; =f-<= + ¬== = =r= =¢t f=¬r; f¤nr =t + <r=n = == ¬=r +r
¤ar n«rr +¢r f+ +r¤ =f-<= + ¬== +r ¤== f==rvr +=¤rv; =f-<= + ¬==
+r ¤== f==rvr ¢r= + ¤¤¤rn ¤r<=t ¤r<= J¤rf{ ¤n<¤rt) +r =rf>r + «r=¢
«= =¢r ¤= ¬== +t er¬r «rt == =«rr= +r =rr<r ¬¬r nr =¤ =r= f=¬ ¬¬r;
+¤= =<¬-«rr = ¤-r ¬r= +r +¤r= =r= e¤r ¢ =r =r+fn+ ¢; ¤¢ ¤¸vr =n
Jn-¤<¤rt =n) + f«=r f+=t +r =¢t f=¬r; s=tf¬v =r=rr=¤r=t n«rr =r==r=
=n¬÷ ¤r¬ ¤«rr + =-nr = ~{r¬+r +r -rf=n += f<¬r f+ ¤< n«rr ¬tnr +rf<
¤rr=>r nr ·¬«r ¢; +«t= ¤==¤¤= nr +¢n ¢ :
(· ¬n« n¸- ·ri ·ii;, n¸- r ¬i ¬-n ·iri|
-rr¤r«r ¢ f+ ¤< n«rr ¬tnr =t ¤ ++r= n¸a =¢t ¢; =r s-¢ ==n =¢t =+
¤ +¬r=t ¢; =r=rr=¤r=t n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r ¤r¬ ¤«rr + =-n =t
+¢n ¢ f+ ¬tnr ¤ ¤<r = ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¬r= =¢t ¢; =¤¬ ¬r+ ¤<J<n
+«rr+r) + +r=rr= ¤= a= =r=t ¤=n+ =¤ += ¬¬n ¬r= ¤¤r= += =r¬r; +«
~{r¬+r +r ¤rr=>rr +r ¬r= ==nr=r +fa= ¢r =¢r ¢; ¤n=r= = =n <r= +r
¤¸vr ¤==r-=r = +r¤ =¤ ¤-r ¤f=¬r +r e¤r =r= «nr= -r=r ¢; +` ` ` `` ·¬r +f¤¬-«
¤r·n +=; ¤n=r= = <r +=r= = «= ´´=n=r=´´ +r n«rr v+ +=r= ´´=r==r=´´
94
NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr
+r +¤¬ =n <r= J=r=¤r¬ <r=) ¢t +r <r= +== +r +f=r+r= ¤¸=¬ ¬÷<¤ n«rr
¤==r-=r +«t= =r¢« = =¤¬ ·r<r= f+¬r ¢; =n <r= = f¤==r v+<r ¤r¤r-=rv
nt=r =>rr +r ¤r·n +=+ =¤¬-r¸ ¬÷ «= += =r= <r= +== ¬¬ ¢; ¤ +f=r+r=t
=¢t; =-¢ -r«n ==r= + ¤«+ <¤== =r==r; = nr ¤ =¤¬ ¤r= ¢r =+n ¢ n«rr
= ¢t =-r= =¤<¤r ¤r·n -r«n== ¤r= ¢r =+n ¢; v= ¢t ¬r¬¤t ·¬f«n¬r =
¤==r-=r +«t= =t + =r«r -rt =rr=rr f+¬r «rr =r +-rt n+ n-¤¬r= ==n= =
«r=r+ f={ ¢r =¢r ¢; ==+ nr <¤r= +==r -rt ¤r¤ ¢; f==+ f¤·r¬ =
´´¤==¤¤= +r =r= =<¤r´´ ¤=n+ + +=¬r¬ ¤-<¢ = ´´¤r+r ==r=rr= f¤·r¬´´ =
f¤=n` ` ` ``n ¤vr= ¢; v+ ==¬ = =r-n v+ ¢t ¢rnr ¢ ¤¢ ¤¸= f¤¤¤ +r =r= <+= ¤r=
+= =+nr ¢; == ¤==¤¸=¬ +«t= ¤==¤¤= =t +r¤rt = +rv «r == ==¬ ¤¸=
f¤¤¤ = ++¬ ¢t =r= <r= +=n «r; ==+ ¤r=a ¬r=r f¤r·¬ =¤ =r=r + ¢v «r;
+¤= =¢n =-¢r= +rs =+r=rf=r+r=t =¢t «=r¬r «rr; s=f¬v =+¬t =nr =
=r¤=rr= =¢;
f+=n ==¬r ¤r= n«rr f+=n ==¬r e: + ¤=rvrr = +r¤=t +r =¤·a ¢+r f+
¤¸vr =n +t «¬r ¤¢¤r= ¢ ³
''+= |=¬ -rn¤r¬?''
¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =
95
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
J¤=n+ ´=n=n ¤+r¤r´ -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 261 = ¤rar +r¤t)
96
J¤=n+ ´=n=n ¤+r¤r´ -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 262 = ¤rar +r¤t)
NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr NBh fdLr
97
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r -r|
ºr=rrª¤r=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(=rn¤| |+ªn)
( nnr+ = ¤rn)
''+= |=¬ -rn¤r¬?''
=r¤=rr= : =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = ¤r¤ =r= <n ¢; =¬rfn f====, +r+r=,
==+r=, =r¢ +r= =n=r=, s=t ¤«r +t ¤rr=rr =r==r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r f===r
¤r¬ +« nt= =r= 1. =n¤÷·r 2. ++r¬ =¸fn 3. ¤r·< =¤÷¤t =r= n«rr
=¬=r¬¤r¬t ¤r¬ ´´=r-r=r= =n¬÷ n=r ¢t +r==r´´ v+ =r= <n ¢, ¤¢¬ ¤r¤
=r= ¢t <r= f+v =rn «r; f<=r< Jf=¬r f-r¤r=t) ¢f=¬rvrr = ~t nr=r¤-< =t
¤r¬r ¤«r v+ ´´=r=rr =¤r=t´´ =r= <nr ¢ s=t +r =r==r= «nrnr ¢
~t +r=r=r= =t J+¢=<r«r< ¤r¬r) =r¢ =->r +r <r -rr¬r = ===vr +== +r
+¢nr ¢ n«rr +s +-¬ =->r -rt <nr ¢; f== = = ÷¤t +==r= =r=r+ +r =¤¬
¤==r ¢rnr ¢;
1. ¬r¬>rt =->r J+r= -r¸-r¤: ) 2. +r= ==: f¤r¤r¬ 3. +r= ==: -r¬¤n
¤r=<¤r¬ 4.
~t ==rr¤r =t J«+=¤r¬r f<=¬t ¤r¬) ¢f= +r=nn=n +r =r¤ =->r <nr ¢;
~t f¤r¤ -r¬¤r= +r +=r-=r+==+== +«rrn =` ` ` ``-¬=¬ n«rr =¤¤¤= +rf< «nrn
¢; =« f+ ~t <¤t =¢r¤=rvr n«rr f¤r¤ =¢r¤=rvr = ~t f¤r¤ +r =-= =` ` ` `` -¬ f¬=rr
¢;
´´f==+r=t ´´ ¤«r ¤r¬ v+ =r=´´ n¸ ¢t v+ f==+r=; = n=t ¤r=vr =n «==
¬r´´ <n ¢ n«rr ¤==r-=r +r f==r+r= «nrn ¢; =«f+ ¤==r-=r =¤r=t= ¢;
=¤=r«n =->r ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢r= = =r=r <r¬+ =¢t ¢;
´´¢=r <¤r ¤«r´´J~t =n¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= ¤=r«t «r¬ f<=¬t ¤r¬r n«rr ~t ¤=
=r¤n =¤ «r¬¬r¬¤¤= =t =¢=r¬t f<==rt ¤r¬r) ¢= +r =r¤ <r f¢== +=+ =r¤
+== +r <n ¢; s=+r ==ar +=+ =¢ +=+ =r¢ +r -rt <r f¢==r +=+ =r¤
+== +r <n ¢ n«rr +r=r «-< +=+ ¢a ¬r¬ fa¬rv <n ¢ =r ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ ¢
=r=r <r¬+ =¢t ¢;
-rr¤r«r ¢ f+ +r=nnJ=r+fn+) n«rr =nJ=r+fn+) + +fnf=«n =¤
=r=r=r ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ +«rrn ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) ¢; =r ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 16
¤¬r+ J=->r) 23 = ·¬«r +¢r ¢ n«rr J¤¬r+) =->r 24 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤==r-=r +t
98
lkroha fdLr lkroha fdLr lkroha fdLr lkroha fdLr lkroha fdLr
-rf«n + f¬v ¤rr=>rrJ¤<r) +r ¢t +r=rr= =r=;
=¤=r«n =r=r=r ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ ¢, =r=r <r¬+ =¢t ¢;
+` ` ` ``-¤r ¤a =r=r «r¤+ =r=r¬r :
=¤¤«r= =¤<¤r ¤r·n +== ¤r¬ +r =r=¤ ¤r=t= = «= +=¬r +r =rr¬= +r
=->r =r¤ f<¬r =rv¬r; f=== +r¤+t +v=¬=t ¤rf«n =r¬` ` ` `` n ¢r =rv¬t +«rrn
+=¬ f=r¬ =rv¬; +r¤ +r f>r+at n+ =r= +r =r=nr =r¤ ¢r =rv¬r; =r=¤
¤r=t= = +=¬ J¤a) «= ¢; 1. =¸¬ +=¬ = <¤ J=¤r=t) ¬vr¤r =t +r +r¬r¬¬
¢, 2. =¤r< +=¬ = -r¬¤r= J=¤r=t) «mr =t +r +r¬r¬¬ ¢, 3.=rf-r +=¬ =
-r¬¤r=J=¤r=t) f¤·vr =t +r +r¬r¬¬ ¢, 4. ;<¬ +=¬ = -r¬¤r=J=¤r=t) f¤r¤
=t +r +r¬r¬¬ ¢, 5. +va +=¬ = ¤rf«n <¬r +r +r¬r¬¬ ¢; s= ¤r¤r
¤rf«-r¬r + ¤r¤ =r= J=>r) =r¤ + ¢ =r +r¤+r ¤«r= f<v =rv¬; f==+ =r¤ =
+r¤+r +r¬ =r= +r =r=nr f=¬¬r +«rrn +r¤+t +v=¬=t ¤rf«n =r¬` ` ` ``n ¢r
=rv¬t; <¸== ¤r·<r = +r¤+ +=¬ =r¬ =rv¬;J¬r¬t==r = s-¢t +=¬r +r ¢a
¬r¬ = =rr¬= +r ·¬«r ¤¬-= f+¬r;) n« +r¤ f>r+at ¤= ¤¢¤ ¤r+r¬; ¬¢ nr
¤r«rf=+ ¤ars ¢ =r ¤r¤ =r=r +t ¢; +¤¬ «rn «=r= = f+ ¢= nr =t=r f>r+at
= =rn ¢, +rs +r¬ f={ =¢t ¢r¬r;
== ¢= f¤<¤rJ+r¬ ¬r+) = +rv ¢; =¤<¤rJ=n¬r+) =r=r ¢; ¢=r= =¤=
f¤<¤r + +r¬r¬¬r Jf«=¬t¤r=taf¬¤r= +rf<) +r f«¬ «+r¬r ¢ n«rr +e
>vr -rt ¤r·r ¢; ¤«r= >vr =«n ¤=rvr ¤>r ¬= ¢r¬; f¤= +r¤ f>r+at +-n=r·at¬
¢¤rs +== Js-a==¤r¬ v¬= ¤ra) ¤= ¤¢¤ =+n ¢ +-¬«rr =¢t; +r¤ ¬¢r
f¤<¤r J+r¬ + ¬r+) = >vrt ¢r ¬v ¢; +r¤ ¤= «¢n +=r ¢; f== +r=vr =
+r¤+t =¤ =f¤=rrv et=t =r ¤+t ¢; == f«=¬t +r f«¬ = -r== = +=«¤r=
+a =rnr ¢; ¬r-r ==r·n ¢r =rnr ¢; s=t ¤+r= +r¤+ =¤ +r¬ ==a¤=a ¢r
¬v ¢; =n¬÷ +r¤+r ==r=nt J¬r=-a=) «=¬r n«rr ~t «mr =t, ~t f¤·vr =t
n«rr ~t f¤r¤=t +rf< = +r¤+ =¤ ¬r-r ¤== ¤r¬ +=rv¬r; f¤= =¤=r«n ¤r¤r
¤rf«n¬r + =r= =r¤ +t ==<¸=t +=+ +r¤= >vr =«n -rt ¢r=r ¢ n«rr =« n+
s= f¤<¤rJ+r¬ ¬r+) = =¢r¬ =r=rf=+ =f¤=rrv -rt ¤r·n +=n =¢=r ¢; =n=r=
<r +=r= J=->r) + =r¤ J+r= + nn) = v+ +r= J=) +=r= ¢; s= +r= =r= +
=r¤ +t +=rs = «m + s«+t= «mv=r +r >vr ¤+r=r ¢; ¢= ¤¢¬ +r= =r=
+t +=rs =¤¬=¢r=¤¬ = =r¤ +=n =¢; +« ¢= +r= J=) =>r + =r¤ +t ¤¸=r
«m J+r¬) +r < <¬; ¬¢ ¢= er= <¬r; -rr¤r«r ¢ f+ =n=r= + s= v+ +=r=
´´+r=´´ + =r¤ +t +=rs =r=r+ +r +r¬ =r¬ = e=rv¬t; +r¤ =t = ~t =r=+
=t +t ¤rvrt = ¤ar f+ ¤¸=r =-r¬÷ <r +=r= +r -r< «nrv¬r v+ +=r= e=rv¬r
<¸==r nn =->r J=r =r+fn+ ¢) ¤-r +r -r¤= ¬¤r = ¤r=<¤r+ ¤n + ¤r=
99
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
=n¬r+ = =n¤÷·r +r ¬=rrv¬r +«rrn <¤r= +=rv¬r;
¬¢ v+ +=r= +r= ¢t «m +«rrn +r¬ +r ¤r=nf¤+ =r¤ +r =->r ¢ +r
¤=rvr ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 8 ¤¬r+ 13 = ¢ f+ ´´+r= sfn v+ +=r== «m
·¬r¢== =r= +=====; ¬ ¤¬rfn -¬== <¢= =: ¬rfn ¤==r= ¬fn=;´´J8,13)
¤r·<r«r : +r¬ «m = +¢r ¢ f+ =r =n «m + v+ +=r= +r=J÷) +r =r¤
+f-n= =¤r= n+ +=nr ¢ ¤¢ == ¤r¬t -rf«n +r ¤¸vr ¬r-r ¤r·n +=nr ¢;
¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 66 = ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr J+r¬«m) = +¢r ¢ f+ ¬f<
n¸= == ¤==r-=r +t ¤r=vr = =r=r ¢ nr J=¤ =r=r= ¤f=-¬=¬ =r=) == =n= +t
=¤ =rrf=+ ¤¸=rv +«rrn +r= =r= +r =r¤ ¬¬ +rf< =n= er= += Jv+=
¤r=vr=) == v+ =¤¤rf«n=r= +t ¤r=vr = J¤=) =rJ+¢= -¤r =¤ ¤r¤-¬:
=r=rf¬·¬rf= =r ¤r¤:) = nn =¤ ¤r¤r = e=r <¸¬r, n¸ f¤nr =n +=; =« ¢=
¤r=t= -¬r¬ += =n¬r+ +r ¤=«rr= +=¬ n« +r¬J«m) +r +r= J=) =r= +t
+=rs f>r+at ¤= =r¤ <¬; ¬¢ +r¬ ¢= >vr =«n += <¬r J¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +r
f¢-<t +=¤r< +nr+r = ¬¬n +=¤r< f+¬r ¢; ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 18 ¤¬r+ 66 = ¤=
+r +«r +r=r f+¬r ¢ =«f+ ¤= +r +«r =r=r ¢rnr ¢) f¤= ¢= nn =->rJ=r
=r+fn+ ¢) + =r¤ +t +=rs ¤=«m +r < <¬; ¤¢ ¢= +¤= =rn ¤r=r «mv=r
= ¤r= +=+ -r¤= ¬¤r n+ ¤¢¤r <¬r; ¤¢r ¤= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¢= +¤¬
<=rJ¬=r) =+n ¢; == ¤rt¤r + ¤r= ¤=n +r <=rr =r =+nr ¢ ¤r·n =¢t f+¬r
=r =+nr; nn ¤¤¤rn =r==r= + =r¤ +t +=rs -r¤= ¬¤r = ¤r= +=+
=n¬r+ = =«rrs =«rr= ¤r·n +=rv¬t; f¤= +¤=r =-= =` ` ` ``-¬ +-rt =¢t ¢r¬r;
=n¤=·r J¤¸vr ¤==r-=r) +t ¤rf·n ¢r¬t; =n¬r+ = =¤ +r-=r+r +r =r+r=
+-rrfn+ ¤r=t= ¢ =r v+ =¸= -r-¤ = «=r ¢ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r -rt J++r¬=
+¤=rf¤==) +-rrfn+ =¸=t ¤r=t= ¢ ¤=-n +r-=r +r= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r + ¤r=t= +
¤+r¤r +r +-¬f=r+ +-n= ¢ =¤= + +-¬J+¬=r, +¬=, +=r=¬) ¬r+r = =r=
+t -rf«n ¤¢r =n¬r+ = ¤r=--r ¢r¬t; ¤¢r =n¬r+ = +rs +·a =¢t ¢; s=f¬v
=¤= + ¬r+r +t ¤rf·n +t s-er +rs f«=¬r ¢t +=nr ¢;
n-¤ ¬r= + +-rr¤ = =¤ ¤f¤>r f¢-< ==r= n«rr =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =r==r=
=n¬= =-¤r=r<r n«rr +-¬ ¤«rr + ¤f¤>r +r-=r =n n«rr ~{r¬ +¤=r =t¤=
·¬«r += =¢ ¢; =¤ = == f=¤<= ¢ f+ ¤¢ ¤r=nf¤+ <r +=r=J+r= + nn
=r+fn+) +r =>r =r¤ n«rr v+ +=r= =r==r= =¬n ¬÷ n-¤<¤rt =-n =r=¤r¬
<r= =t =¢r=r= + ¤r= ¢ n«rr s= <r =>r + ¬r¬ = «= =>rJf== =n=r= +¢n
¢) +t +=rs ¤¸=t ¢r= + ¤¤¤rn +r¤+r =n¤r·< +«rrn =r==r= =r v+ +=r= +r
¢ f<¬r =rv¬r; f¤= ¤==r-=r ¤rf·n ¢r¬t;
=<r¢=vr : == =¬ +r ¤r·n +== + f¬v =¬ ¬¬r=r ¢rnr ¢; <r +=r= +
100
lkroha fdLr lkroha fdLr lkroha fdLr lkroha fdLr lkroha fdLr
=r= +r «r+t ¬¬r=r =r=r; +r= + nn Jf=== nn =>r +-¬ ¢ =r =r=r+ +r
«nr¬r =rv¬r) +r =r¤ =¤r===¤r= = f+¬r =rnr ¢;
+«t= =r¢« =t +¢n ¢ f+ -(i¬÷·-(i¬ - ¬i¤ ¬¤i, ·¤·ii -(i¬ · ªii| ·
¬i· ;¬ -(i¬ ¬i ¬i(· ri ¬ · ri||
<r +=r= = «= =n=r= = =¤r===¤r= +t «r+t ¬¬rs =rv¬t =r ¤rs¤ +r
=¬ n+ ¤¢¤rv¬t; f¤= =r==r= ÷¤t ¢= ¤¤ +t =¤rt= ¬¬rs =rv¬t; ==
=r==r= +r -rt ===vr +==r ¢rnr ¢; == ¢= ¤-¤ +t ¢-«rt +r f¢¬rf¢¬r +=
¬fn <t =rnt ¢ n« ¤r=t ¤r·n ¢rnr ¢; s=t ¤+r= =r==r= f¤= v+ ¢t =¢ =rnr
¢ ==+r ===vr +== = =n¤÷·rJ+f¤=r¤rt ¤==r-=r) +t ¤rf·n ¢rnt ¢; ¤f¤>r
¬tnr =t + +=¬r¬ 17 ¤¬r+ 23 = ¬¢ -rt =¤·a f+¬r ¢ f+ +r=nn=n =>r +r
nt= f¤f=r = ===vr f+¬r =rnr ¢; ¬¢ f¤f=r +¤¬ ¤¸vr =-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t
=¢r=r= + ¤r= ¢ f=== nt=r =>rr +r= + nn J=n=r=) ¢ n«rr =n¤r·<J=r
=r==r=) ¢ +r nt= ¤+r= = ¢t ===vr +==r ¢rnr ¢;
+` ` ` ``·¬r f+=n =. 6 = ¤+rf¤rn ¤rar +t¤t ´´=-n=n ¤+r¤r´´ -rr¬ 4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 262
= ¤a f=== nt=r =->rr +r =¤·a ¤vr= -rt f+¬r ¢ f+ v+ +r= ¤r·< <¸==r =r¢
¤r·< nt==r =n¤r·<; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤r¬r +r <r +=r= = «= =n=r= +r n«rr
+rf< =r= Jf== =r==r= -rt +¢n ¢) +r ¬r= =¢t ¤ ¤r¤r =r= +r¬ + <n ¢;
f==+ f¤·r¬ = n¬=t =r¢« +` ` ` ``n tra =r=r¬rvr ¤«r= -rr¬ ¤` ` ` ``·a27 ¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+
¤r¤r =r= +r¬ + ¢ s= ¤r¤r = f-r-= =n=r= n«rr +rf< =r= +«rrn =r==r= ¢;
=«+t +rf< ¬-«r =r¢« n«rr +«t= =t +t ¤rvrt +r ¤=rvr «nr¬r ¢ ¤¢ =¢t ¢ f+
¤¸=r =-n <r +=r= +r =r= =r¤J+r=÷nn) «nrv¬r; ¤¢t ¤¸=r =-n ¢r¬r;
~t =r=+ =r¢« =t +t ¤rvrt = =¤·a ¢ f+ ´;¬ ¬ªªiº rlº -· (¬ ·i·¬
rin l·ri¬ f¤= ¬-«r =r¢« + ¤` ` ` ``·a 747 +t ¤rvrt +r ¤=rvr f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤¬
¬ªªiº ¬i ^ª -ªi ¬i¤ ln¬ ¬i l·º-¬ ri;|
=¤=r«n ¤rvrt =¤·a += =¢t ¢ f+ v+ +=r=J=r =r==r= ¢) ¢ ¤¢ -rt ¬÷
==rJ¤¸vr =-n + f¤r·¬) +r =r¤ +==r ¢rnr ¢; =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ¤r¬ s= ¤rvrt +r
+¤=t ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r = =r=n ¢ f+ v+ =r= +-<= === + f¤·r¬ = +¢r ¢
´´v+ +==r= +r =r¤ +=´´ f¤¤r= += =r= +r =r¤ =¢t ¢rnr; ¤¢ nr +¤¬ ==t
=rnt ¢; =r¤ +r =+n v+ =->r =r==r= +t +r= = +t =r= === + f¬v ¢;
¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 261,262 +t ¤rar +r¤t = ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t
= +¢r ¢ f+ <r +=r= ¤r=«m = ¢; f¤= +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¢ v+ +=r= -rt ¤r=«m =
f=¬¬r; +r¤ =¤¬ f¤¤r= += =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + =-n ¬r=t ¢ ¬r +¬r=t;
¤=n ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¤rf·n +t f¤f=r =¤¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +f¤<¤J+«t=
¤==¤¤=) = «nrs ¢ =r ¤n=r= = ¤¸= f¤¤¤ = +¤¬ ¤¸vr =-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t
101
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
=¢r=r= +r ¤r·n ¢; +f¤¬-« n«rr f=:¤r=+ ¤r·n +=; ¬f< +rs =¤=r«n f¤f=r
+r =-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t =¢r=r= = ¤r·n +=+ =¤¬-r¸ ¬÷ «= += =r=<r=
+=nr ¢ nr == +=rf=r+r=t =r= += =r¤=rr= =¢; ¤¢ +¤=r n«rr -rr¬ ~{r¬+r
+r =t¤= =r¤r+ ¢; v=2 =¤¬-r¸ =+¬t =-nr = ¤-r =r¬ +r f«¬r= ==rr ¢;
f== ==¬ -r«n ==r= +r ¬r= ¢r =rv¬r f+ v= =+¬t ¬÷ =r=¤ =t¤= +
f¬v f+n= trr-r+ ¢ n« s= =+¬t ¬÷+r +r e¤= +r =«rr= =¢t f=¬¬r; ¬¢
=r¬` ` ` ``fn +fn ¤rttr +r= ¤r¬t ¢; =-¢t + f¤r·¬ s= =¤ ¤rr=>rf¤÷{ =r=r=r «nr=
¤r¬ ¬÷+r n«rr =¤¬-r¸ ¬÷+r +r ¤ra+ = =r+¬ nrf+ ¬ ==r= +r ¬==r¢ =
+= =+; =¤ -r«n ==r= = ¤r«r=r ¢ f+ n¸a n«rr +¤at ¬÷+r +r -¬r¬ +=
=-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =t =¢r=r= = =-¬ =r=r=r f=:¤r=+ ¤r·n +=;
+e+ ~{r¬ +¢n ¢ f+ «¬r ¬÷ «<¬= = ¤r¤ nr =¢t ¬¬¬r³ ==
~{r¬+r = f=¤<= ¢ f+ == v+ =r«a=J¤n) = =¤¤r= =¢t ¢rnr ¢ nr <¸==r
=r«a= «<¬= = ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢ ¢rf= =¢t ¢rnt at+ s=t ¤+r= ¬÷ +r =r=r;
s=f¬v ¤rr=>rf¤f=r f¤÷{ ¬r= ¤r¬ ¬÷ +r -¬r¬+= ¤¸vr ¬÷ =rr=vr +==r
f¢n+= ¢; ¤r¤ =¢t +f¤n ¤v¬ ¢; +e ~{r¬ =+r¤ +=n ¢ f+ ¢=r=t nt= ¤·r
+t =r=r=r +r «¬r ¢r¬r³ +« += er=³ == ~{r¬+r = f=¤<= ¢ f+ f¤¤r= +=
f+ +r¤+r f+=t ¤r¢= = =r=r ¢, nt= f+¬r=ta= =r= + «r< ¤nr ¤¬ f+ +r¤
¬¬n =r=n ¤= =r =¢ ¢, nr n=n == =r=r ¤rf¢v; =¢t nr =f=¬ <¸= ¢rnt
=rv¬t; f¤= -rt +rs +¢ f+ ¢= nr nt= f+¬r=ta= =¤= n¬ += ¤+ ¢, +«
+= er= s= =r=n +r³ ¬¢ f¤¤r= nr «r¬+ + ¬r ¤r=r«t + ¢r =+n ¢;
==n<r= nr n=n == =rv¬r; s=f¬v == =r=r=r +r n=n -¬r¬+= ¤r=nf¤+
¤rr=>rf¤f=r +==r= =r=r=r ¬¢vr +=;
¢+ ºr=rrª¤r=| ¤·r| = nr¬ ¤¤r :
¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =
102
vkBoha fdLr vkBoha fdLr vkBoha fdLr vkBoha fdLr vkBoha fdLr
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r -r|
ºr=rrª¤r=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(¤ra¤| |+ªn)
( nnr+ = ¤rn)
''ºr=rrª¤r=| ¤·r| = nr¬ ¤¤r''
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«rt -r«n <¬rf=¢J¬r¤ erar f=¬¤=r f=. =r¢n+, ¢=¬rvrr)
= ¬r= ¤¤r ¢s =r f=-= ¢;
-r«n <¬rf=¢ =t = =-n ~t <¤r= f=¢J=r¤= +` ` ` ``¤r¬ ÷¢r=t f=¤r= f<=¬t)
= == 1983 = =¤<¤r ¤r·n f+¬r; ==+ ar=r «nrv -rf«n =r¬ ¤= +a¸a ~{r =
¬¬r «rr;
=n <r=J=r=¤r¬ <r=) +r == 1988 +r =r= <r=Jv+ ¤== =-n +«t= ¤«rt
=¤r=t =r=<¤r-r-< =t =¢r=r= =) ¤r·n ¢+r; == 1993 +r =n <r= +r ¤¤r=
n«rr ¤ra +t +r¬r ¤<r= ¢s n«rr 1994 +r =r=<r= +== +t +r¬r =<¬÷
=r=<¤r=-< =t = ¤r·n ¢s;
-r«n <¬rf=¢ + f=¤n<r= = =n <r= = =r= ¤r·n ¢; === +¤=t
«¢=Jf==+t ¤rr<t -r«n <¬rf=¢ + ¬=+ = ¢s ¢) + tr= ¬r¤ erar f=¬¤=r =
=-=¬ ¤ ¤ra +=¤r¬r == ==¬ -r«n <¬r f=¢ =t = ¬r= ¤¤r ¢s; =-=¬ +
¤¤¤rn -r«n <¬rf=¢ =t = ¤r+r ·¬«n +t;
¤¤= : =¢r=r= =t == =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = =r=<r= ¤r·n ¢; ¢=r= =¢r=r= =t
nr +¢n ¢ f+ =n¬r+ = +¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢t ¤+r¤r ¢; =n¤÷·r f==r+r= ¢; ¤¢t
=n¤÷·r =« =-n ÷¤ =r= += +¤=r ¬r= <= +rnr ¢ n« ==·¬ ÷¤ = ¤+a
¢rnr ¢ n«rr f¤= ¤rf¤= =n¬r+ =n=r= = =r+= v= ==r =rnr ¢ == «¸<
==-< = ==r =rnt ¢; =r ==+ ¬r= +==r= -rf«n +=nr ¢ ¤¢ +r-=r -rt
=-¤=rv=J=n¬r+) = v= ¢t ==-< = «¸< +t n=¢ ==r =rnt ¢; ¤¢r ¤=
¤==r--rr n«rr +r-=r v+ ¢r =rn ¢; ¬¢ <=rr =¢r=r= <¤r= f=¢ =t + ar=r
f<¬r f==¬ ¬r=; ¬¢ +¢ += == ¤v¬r-=r <¬rf=¢ =t = ¤=n+: =t¤= ¤f=>r
«r«r ==¬f=¢ ¬=r+ +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t, =r ~t <¤r= f=¢ =t + ¤¸=¬ ¬÷ =t ¢
n«rr ¤=n+ ´´¤==r-=r +r =r=rr-+r=´´ f=== ~t <¤r= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= +
=-=¬ ¤¤= ¢, f<=rrs;
¤=n+ =t¤= ¤f=>r «r«r ==¬f=¢ ¤` ` ` ``·a 102,103 ¤= =` ` ` ``f·a =¤=r f¬=rt ¢:
+` ` ` ``¤r ¤a ¤rar +r¤t 102,103 f=== f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤==r-=r ¤¢¬ f==r+r= «rr;
103
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤¢t +=r= ¤-r =r+r= ¢+r nr =¤= + nt= =v=¬ +¬= ¬r++¬=r ¬r+ +r=
=n=r= J¬ =-n =n¬r+ +r =n=r= -rt +¢n ¢) «= ¬¬r; =¬rfn =¤÷¤ ¢r ¬¬r
n«rr =r= ¢r ¬¬r;
f¤= s=t ¤=n+ + ¤` ` ` ``·a 20 ¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤==r--rr = s=r= «=rv;
¤==r-=r = s=r= +r +¤= ÷¤ + +==r= «=r¬r;
+` ` ` ``·¬r <=r ¤=n+ =t¤= ¤f=>r «r«r ==¬f=¢ ¤` ` ` ``·a 20 = ¤rar +r¤t
=¤=r«n ¤=n+r = ¢t -r«n <¬r f=¢ =t +r ==nr¬r f+ ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤r¬ = =` ` ` ``f·a =¤=r = +¢r ¢ f+ =n¤÷·r f==r+r= ¢ f¤= +¢r ¢ f+
¤==r-=r = ==·¬ +r +¤= ÷¤ + +==r= «=r¬r ¢; f== = ¤==r--rr ==·¬ ==
¤r=t= +r f={ ¢+r; +¤= f¤¤r=r +r +r¤ ¢t ¬¬n f={ f+¬r ¢;
+` ` ` ``·¬r <=r ¬=r+ <¤r= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«rt +t ¤=n+
´´¤==r-=r +r =r=rr-+r=´´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 1,2 = ¤rar +r¤t; s=t ¤=n+ + ¤` ` ` ``·a 109 ¤=;
f=== v+ «r= nr f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¢= ¤==r-=r +r <=r =+n ¢ n«rr v= «rn
+= =+n ¢ == +r¤ +r= ¢= «rn += =¢ ¢; s= f¤¤r= = -r¬¤r= +r =r=¤
==r f={ f+¬r ¢; f¤= +¢r ¢ f+ ¤==r-=r +r+r= =f¢n ¢; ¤==r-=r +¤¬
¤+r¤r ¢ ¤==r-=r +r ¤+r¤rJ=¬rfn ¤=) +¤vr=t¬ ¢; f¤= +¢r ¢ ¤rr=>rr =
«nr¬r ¢ f+ ¤==r-=r + v+ =r= +t ¤rr-rr +=r= =¸¬r n«rr ¤-<=r+r +t
f=¬t=¬t =r¤r=t = -rt +f=r+ n=r=¬ ¢;
f¤¤r= +=: =¤=r«-r f¤¤r= nr f«=+¬ +«r=r «r¬+ ¢t ·¬«n += =+nr ¢;
== +rs ¤¤= += +t =¸¬ +=r ¢³ =+r= f=¬ f==r+r= ¢; +¤¬ ==+r
¤+r¤r ¢t <=rr =r =+nr ¢; f¤¤r= += =¸¬ f«=r ¤+r¤r f+=+r <=rr³
¤==r-=r +r ¤+r¤r +¤vr=t¬ +¢r ¢ nr ¤==r-=r f«=r ¤+r¤r, f+=+r
<=rr³ ¤==r-=r + =r= + ¤+r¤r +t ¤rr-rr +r ¤vr= f+¬r ¢ s== -rt ¤==r-=r
==·¬ =<` ` ` ``¤r f={ ¢+r; =r= = ==·¬ == +r+r= +r ¤=rvr ¢;
¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 264 ¤= -rt ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r=J=r
~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t + ¬÷ =t «r) = +¢r ¢ f+ =r=t s-<=fn +«t= =r¢« +t
f¤r·¬r «rt; ¤¢¬ +«t= =r¢« ¤==r-=r + =¸= = ==rv «r< = s-<=fn ¤==r--rr +
=¸= = ==rs; s-<=fn = +«t= =r¢« +r ++r¬¤÷·r +«rrn =n¤÷·r ÷¤ = <=rr
n« +¢r f+ =n =¢t ¤nr «rr f+ +r¤ ¢t =n¤÷·r +«rrn ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r ¢; +r¤=
¤¢¬ «¬r =¢t «nr¬r;
+` ` ` ``·¬r <=r ¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 264 = ¤rar +r¤t; s=t ¤=n+
J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2) + ¤` ` ` ``·a 124 ¤= ;
~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =-¤rs +r e¤r =¢t =+; -r¬ ¢t =-¢r= +¤= f¤¤r=r +t
¤f·a +== +r -rt ¤¬-= f+¬r ¢ f+ =n¬r+ = ¤==r-=r f==r+r= ¢ +¤¬ ¤+r¤r
104
¢t ¤+r¤r ¢; ¬f< +«t= =r¢« ¤==r-=r + =¸= = ==r ¬v ¢rn n«rr s-<=fn -rt
¤==r-=r + =¸= =J==-< = «¸< +t n=¢) ==r ¬s ¢rnt nr v+ <¸== +r =n¬r+
= += <=rn³ ¤r=n¤ = ¤==r-=r =r+r= ¢; ¤¢ =r=¤ =<` ` ` ``¤r ¤r=t= ¬«n ¢; ==
+r ¤r=nf¤+ =r= +f¤<¤J+«t= <¤) ¢; =n¬r+ = =n¤÷·r ¤r¬t =¤r=rt ¤r¬
¤r=t= + v+ =r= +t =r¤r=t +=r= =¸¬r n«rr sn= ¢t ¤-<=r+r +t =r¤r=t = -rt
+f=r+ ¢; ¬¢r +r¬ ¬r+ = ¤¢t ¤==r-=r +¤= n=r=¬ ¤r=t= ¤= ¢=+ ¤+r¤r +r
+-¬ =rr¬J¤r¬r) =r¬ += +rnr ¢; == «=« + =¤= +rs ·¬rf=a+ +r =rr¬
¤ar f<¬r =rv nr =r¤r=t =r= =r>r =¢ =rnt ¢; at+ s=t ¤+r= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r
+«t= =t +t f=«rfn ¢; ¤ =¤r=t= +rn ¢ =¤r=t= =rn ¢ n«rr =n¬r+ = ¤ =¤=
+ +-¬J+¬=r ¬r+, +¬= ¬r+ n«rr +=r=t ¬r+) ¬r+r = -rt =¤¬ ¢t +-¬
n=r=¬ ¤r=t= =rr=vr += ¬n ¢;
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr s=+t ¤rr=rr+r +r ¬r= f«=+¬ =t=rJ¤r-¬) ¢; +=r=r
·¬f«¬r + +==r¬ =r=¤ =t¤ +r ·¬«r += =r¬r; +« -rt ==¬ ¢ -r«n ==r=
=r¤=rr= ¢r += f¤¤r= += n«rr =-¬ =r=r=r =n <r=J=r=¤r¬ <r=) + ¤r= ¢
+f¤¬-« ¤ f=:¤r=+ ¤r·n +=;
-r«n «¤r |=; «r=(ºr=rrª¤r=| ¤·r|) +| ¤r-=+·rr :
¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =
vkBoha fdLr vkBoha fdLr vkBoha fdLr vkBoha fdLr vkBoha fdLr
105
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r -r|
ºr=rrª¤r=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(¬r¤| |+ªn)
( nnr+ = ¤rn)
-r«n «¤r |=; «r=(ºr=rrª¤r=| ¤·r|) +| ¤r-=+·rr
= <¬r f=¢ ¬r¤ erar f=¢¤=r f=. =r¢n+ +r =¢= ¤r¬r ¢¸; ==
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = ~t <¤r= f=¢ =t =¢r=r=Jf<=¬t ¤r¬) = == 1983 = ¤r¤
=r=r +r =¤<¤r f¬¬r; =-n <¤r= f=¢ =t + «nrv +==r= =r=r=r +t =r=
=-r= + f¬v +s+s trvar +r=+r=r «< +=+ =r=r=r +=nr =¢r; +e =r=
nr ==t ¤=-n +r= =r=r« ¢r ¬¬; «¢n += ==nr ¢; == f=¤n<r= = =-n
=r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= =n¬r+ +r~= +=r«rr = =r= =¤<¤r ¬ ==rr «rr; ¤¢
=n= +¢nr «rr f+ =r=r =t +r¤ -rt ¢=r= ¬÷ =t = =r= ¬ ¬r; +r¤+t
=r=r=r n«rr =r= ¬¬n ¢; = +¢nr «rr; ¤r¢ =t ¤r¢! «¬r «rn +=nr ¢;
¢=r=J=r=rr=¤r=t) ¤«r = ¬r=rr +t ==¬r = =¬n ¢; f=== +=¬ =r¢«,
+f=¤== =r¢«, n¢=t¬<r= =r¢«, =f==aa =r¢« n«rr ¤+t¬ =r¢« -rt
=¤<¤r f¬¬ ¢; «¬r ¤ =¸=r ¢ ³ == = f¤= =n +¢=r ¬÷ «<¬= +r;
+e f<= «r< ==r v+ ¤>r a«a= ¤¬r =¢r «rr =¬ +t ¬rs= ¤r= +==
¬¬r == ==+ ¤= =¬ +t ¤ra+ =¢t ¬¬t «rt; =¬¬r=t = a+=r+= =` ` ` `` -¬ +r
¤r·n ¢+r; == f=¤n<r= = =n f¤= ==nr¬r -r =¢t =r=r ¤=-n == +-¬
¤f=¤r= + =¤ =<=¬r = =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =¤<¤r ¬ f¬¬r; = -rt
==+ =r«r =n¬r+ +r~= = =r= ¬¬r; =¤t+= + =r«r «a+= +r= ¬¬r +=
=-=¬ ==nr «rr; =r >rfa¬r =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= ¢=r= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +t
¤=n+r = «nrn «r; == ¤=n+r +r =r= n«rr ¤` ` ` ``·a ¤ ¤¤= ==¬r =ra += ¬nr
f¤= tr= =r+= f=¬r= +=nr nr =-=¬ = «nr¬r f¤¤=vr =-¬ f=¬nr n«rr a=
=r=t >rfa¬r =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + =f=r¬r ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r=J=r=rr=¤r=t) =t
+ ¤¤=r = f=¬t; f==+r +rs f==¤= =¢t ¢; ¤=n+ =r=¤¤= =r=rr=¤r=t
¤rfn+ ¤` ` ` ``·a3 ¤¤= 4 = =n=r= + =«rr= + f¤·r¬ = f¬=rr ¢; ==tJ=n=r=)
+r =n¤r·< +r= =r=¤r·< +r= =n¬r+ +r= =-¤=rv= +r= =n¤÷·r +r=
=n=r= -rt +¢n ¢; =r=rr=¤r=t + f¤·r¬ = f¬=rr ¢ f+ =r=rr=¤r=t =«= =¤r
=+r=J=«rr=) ¢; ¬¢t =r= =-¤ =rf¬+ +r ¢; s= =«rr= -rt =¢t +¢ =+n,
s= +¢n ¢;
106
ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr
=-n =r=¤r¬ =t + =-=¬ ¤¤=r + +r=rr= = ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸=
=¤r=t =t =¢r=r=´´ ¤=n+ + ¤¤= 31 = <=rr ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r=
J=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + ¤¤n+) +r +rs ¬÷ =¢t «rr; ¤¤= 65 = <=rr ¤ ¢«+r
¤tn «r; =-¢r= f+=t +rJ==¬ f=¢ =t =¢r=r= ¬r =r¬¬=r= =t +rf< +r)
=r=<r= +== +r +r<¤r =¢t f<¬r «rr; ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= +r ~t
==¬ f=¢ =t =¢r=r= + «r< ==r ·¬r= ¤=r« +t ¬<<t ¤r·n ¢s; ~t =r¤=
f=¢ =t =¢r=r= + f¤r·¬ ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ =t «r; ~t +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ +r =r= <r=
+r +f=r+r= =¢t «rr; s=t ¤=n+ ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r ¢=¸= =¤r=t =t =¢r=r=´´ ¤¤=
65 = <=rr f+ ¤ +¤= f¤r·¬r ««+t = ¤¤¤r +=+ ¤n «=+= «r¬n «r; =` ` ` ``-¬
¤¤¤rn -rt ««+t + ar=rJ««+t + ==r =) ¢«+r ¤tn «r n«rr -rr== -rt =rrn
«r; ««+t = ==+ =t¤= ¤¬-n ¤¤¤r =¢; s= n=¢ + ¤=rvr <=r+= ==J<¬r
f=¢ <r= =) -rt =r-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =r=<r= ¬ f¬¬r; == ¤r=t= =
¬¬n =r=r=r ¢a¬r¬ ar=r +== = +s =r¬ ¢r ¬¬ «r; f=== «¢n ¤=¤rr=
=¢nr «rr; =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =¤<¤r ¬= + ¤¤¤rn =¤ =r¬ -rt
==r·n ¢r ¬¬; ¢=r= +r =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = =n¤÷·r f==r+r= «nr¬r =rnr «rr
n«rr ¤r=·=r += +r <:=r ¬r ==r -rr¬=r ¢t ¤=¬r, -rf«n +=n =¢r =n¬r+
¤¢¤ =r+r¬; =-n=n -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 125,126 ¤= ~t =r¤= f=¢ =¢r=r= = =¤·a
==r f+¬r ¢ f+ =n¬÷ +r +r= f+=t +t f«=r=t ¢ar=r +«rrn +·a <¸= +==r
=¢t ¢; =-n =r=¤r¬ =t = ¤=rvr f<=rrv +t =r= ¤¤= ¤rfn+ ¤=n+ =r ~t
f¤r¤<¬r¬ =tJ=r=rr=¤r=t) ar=r =-=¬ ¤¤=r +r =¬¢ ¢ = -rr¬ ¤«r= ¤¤= 12
f¬=rr ¢ f+ =n¬r+ = ¬v -r«n =n¤÷·r +r <¤r= +=n ¢; f==r+r= +r
<¤r= +=r³ +¤= f¤¤r=r +r +r¤ ¢t ¬¬n f={ f+¬r ¢;
=-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = «nr¬r f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +«t= =t +¤=
=r=r+ + ¤r=·=r + ¤r¤ += = ¢r= ¤r¬ +·a +r f=¤r=vr += <nr ¢; ¬f<
f+=t + ¤= = +rar ¬¬r ¢r; == +rs +¢ f+ +rar nr f=+¬ =¢t =+nr
+r¤ =¸n ¤¢= ¬r -rf¤·¬ = +rar =¢t ¬¬¬r; +rar ¬¬ ¤= = =¸nr ¤¢=r =¢t
=r =+nr; ¤¢¬ +rar f=+¬ f¤= =¸nr ¤¢=r =rv¬r; f¤= +-rt =¸n =¢t
f=+r¬¬r == == =¢¬r +¢t f¤= +rar = ¬¬ =rv; s=t ¤+r= =r=r+ +r
<:=r ÷¤t +rar f=+¬¬r +«rrn +·a f=¤r=vr ¢r¬r nr ¤¢ f¤= +f=r+ =r=r=r
+=¬r; +·a f=¤r=vr =¢t ¢+r nr -rf«n = ÷f-r ¢t =¢t «= =+nt;
== ¤¸vr =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = ¤¤= f+¬r :¢ =¢r=r= ! = =r
+r=r «< +=+ +e ¤+r¤r <=rnr «rr ¤¢ «¬r ¢³ =¬n ¬÷ =r=¤r¬ =t
=¢r=r= = =+r= f<¬r : == =<t + =r== = =r=r f¬=nt ¢; =¸¬ +r ¤+r¤r
=r= =r>r f<=rrs <nr ¢; ¤=-n =¸¬ f<=rrs =¢t <nr; =¸¬ =r=r = =¤= =r+r=
107
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤=+ =¢r ¢rnr ¢ ==t +r ¤+r¤r =r=r +r ¤r= +=+ =t¤ +r =¢r ¢rnr ¢ +rs
+¢ f+ == =¸¬ +r ¤+r¤r <=rr; ¤=-n =¸¬ f==r+r= ¢, «¬r ¬ f¤¤r= ==n<r=
·¬f«n + ¢r =+n ¢³ ¤r=n¤ = ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +«rrn =n¤÷·r =r=¤ ==
n=r=¬ ¤r=t= = =r+r= ¢ n«rr ==t ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r + ¤+r¤r +r ¤fnf«f-«n
¤+r¤r +r +¤r ¢t +r¬J«m) + s«+t= «mv=r = f<=rrs <nr ¢; s=
«mfv=¬ ¤+r¤r +r f¤v=J¤r=t=) = <=r=r ¤==r-=r ¤rf·n =¢t ¢; +f¤n
+r¬J«m) ar=r ¤¬r¬r f=«¬r -r= =r¬ ¢; == =¸¬ +r ¤+r¤r =¬ ¤= f¬=r,
=¬ = ¤fnf·r-« f<¤r= ¤= ¤=r; f<¤r= ¤= =¸¬ f<=rrs =¢t <nr +¤¬ ¤+r¤r
f<=rrs <nr ¢; s=t ¤+r¤r =n¤÷·r +r ¤+r¤r ¤=«m n«rr «m + +-¬ ¬r+r
= v= f<=rrs <nr ¢ == f<¤r= ¤= =¸¬ + ¤+r¤r +r =¬ = «=r ¤fnf«-«
¢rnr ¢; =¤=r«n ¤=rvrr = f={ ¢ f+ =r ¤==r-=r +r f==r+r= +¢n ¢ ¤
+¢n ¢ f+ +¤¬ ¤+r¤r <=rr =r =+nr ¢ n«rr ¬÷ ÷¤ = ¢t =-¬¤÷·r +
<¤r= traJ¤r=t=,f¤v= =) +==r ¤==r-=r ¤rf·n ¢ n«rr ¤r=t= = =r= =-r=r ¢t
¤-r ¤rf·n +r ¤nt+ ¢, ¤ f=«¬r -rr·rt ¢; ==+r ¬r= ¤ =r=r=r ¤rr=>r f¤÷{
¤ ==tr=n ¢; «¬rf+ ¤r=t= Jf¤v=) = ==t =r= ¤r¬t =r= nr +r¬ + ¬r+
+t ¢; =n¬r+ +t ¤r=nf¤+ =r= nr f¤v=J+v=) + ¤r= ¢ f==+r ¤=rvr ¤r·<
´´+= ==r <t<r= =¢¬ = ·¬r=r ¢´´ +t 31-32 +¬t = ¢;
=¤=r«n ¤=rvrr +r <=r+= n«rr =n =r=¤r¬ =t = n-¤ ¬r= +r
==+= +¬=r =¢ +r +r= ¬¬r; ¢ ¤-r ! f+n= ¤·r =rr f<v =r<r=r + ¤a
=; =¤ ¤r+r+r +r ==r=rr= ¢r= ¤= =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= +r =¤<¤r ¤r·n
+=+ +rf-=+ ¤rrf-n ¤r·n ¢s n«rr ¤r=t= +r ==r, =r= ¬r-r n«rr ¤f=¤r= =
==r ¤¸vr ÷¤ = ¤r·n ¢;
==t =¤ ¤=t ¤ra+r = f¤== f=¤<= ¢ f+ +r¤ -rt ¤=rvrr +r =¤¬
<=rr n«rr =-¬ +r =r=+= +¤=r =t¤= =¤¬ +=; +fn¤rttr =-n =r=¤r¬ =t
=¢r=r= = =¤<¤r ¬¢vr +=;
=n¬= ¤=vrr +r <r=
-r«n <¬r f=¢ <r=
+e+ ~{r¬ +¢n ¢ f+ ¬÷ «<¬= = ¤r¤ nr =¢t ¬¬¬r³ == ~{r¬+r =
f=¤<= ¢ f+ == v+ =r«a=J¤n) = =¤¤r= =¢t ¢rnr ¢ nr <¸==r =r«a= «<¬=
= ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢ ¢rf= =¢t ¢rnt; at+ s=t ¤+r= ¬÷ +r =r=r; s=f¬v
¤rr=>rf¤f=r f¤÷{ ¬r= ¤r¬ ¬÷ +r -¬r¬+= ¤¸vr ¬÷ =rr=vr +==r f¢n+= ¢; ¤r¤
=¢t ¤¸v¬ ¢; +e ~{r¬ =+r¤ +=n ¢ f+ ¢= nt= ¤·r +t =r=r=r +r «¬r ¢r¬r³
+« += er=³ == ~{r¬+r = f=¤<= ¢ f+ f¤¤r= += f+ +r¤+r f+=t ¤r¢= =
=r=r ¢, nt= f+¬r=ta= =r= + «r< ¤nr ¤¬ f+ +r¤ ¬¬n =r=n ¤= =r =¢ ¢,
108
ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr
nr n=n == =r=r ¤rf¢v; =¢t nr =f=¬ <¸= ¢rnt =rv¬t; f¤= -rt +rs +¢ f+
¢= nr nt= f+¬r=ta= =¤= n¬ += ¤+ ¢, +« += er= s= =r=n +r³ ¬¢
f¤¤r= nr «r¬+ + ¬r ¤r=r«t + ¢r =+n ¢; ==n<r= nr n=n == =rv¬r;
s=f¬v == =r=r=r +r n=n -¬r¬+= ¤r=nf¤+ ¤rr=>rf¤f=r +==r= =r=r=r ¬¢vr
+= ;
+«t= ¤==¤¤= +¢n ¢ f+:
n¸- ^ª ¬i -¤i^· - nl·¬ · ¬i( (iº| ,iº · ¤i( ºi·· ¬i ·i-¬
,iº÷,iº|
+` ` ` ``·¬r f=¤r+r¤ +=r= ¬÷ +r -¬r¬ < n«rr ¤¸vr =-n +t ¤r=vr ¬¢vr +=;
=¤ ¤æº=r +r ¤ºr¬ :
¤r·r +¬¬ ++ =
109
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤=n+ ´´¤==r-=r +r =r=rr-+r=´´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 1-2 = ¤rar +r¤t; JI)
110
¤=n+ ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r «r«r ==¬ f=¢´´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 102,103 = ¤rar +r¤t JII)
¤=n+ ´´=t¤= ¤f=>r «r«r ==¬ f=¢´´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 20 = ¤rar +r¤t; JIII)
¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 264 = ¤rar +r¤t; JIV)
ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr ukS a oha fdLr
111
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
ºr=rr ª¤r=| ¤·r +| +;r¬|=-;| +| ¬¤r¬| : ¬nn n=
(=r¬=r¬ =nn=, =-¤r =r«r, +` ` ` ``¤r¬ |=;, ar+º |=; n·rr
|«¬r« |-r¤r¬| ¤r¬ ¤·r n·rr ¬¤ n=«¤ ¤·r
-r| ;=| +| ºrr=rr¢ ;)
(«=¤| |+ªn)
( nnr+ = ¤rn)
=¤ ¤æº=r +r ¤¸ºr |¤¤ººr n·rr +;r ;? +=r ;? n·rr +r¬ ;
-rn¤r¬? : ¤«r= ++¢ ¬r+, <¸==r +¬= ¬r+, nt==r +¬=r ¬r+ +r= ¤r«rr
=n¬r+ ¢; =¤=r«n ¤r=r ¬r+r = ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=)
+«rrn ¤== +=r= «m ¢t f-r-=2 ÷¤ =rr=vr +=+ ==·¬ ÷¤ = =r+r=
f¤=r==r= ¢; ==t ¤==r-=r + =¤=r-=+ =r= +«rrn ¤<¤t + =r= ¢; +=r=t
¤=·r, +¬= ¤=·r, +¬=r ¤=·r n«rr =n¤=·r;J== <¤r + =r==t¬ ¤=rr= =>rt
=t + ¤r=t= +r =r= nr +-¬ ¢rnr ¢ n«rr ¤=rr= =>rt ==+r ¤<¤t +r =r=
¢rnr ¢; ¤=rr= =>rt +s f¤-rr¬ +¤= ¤r= ==rnr ¢ nr ·¬f«n ¤¢t ¢rnr ¢ ¤=n
¤< f-r-=2 ¢rn ¢ f¤= ¤¢t ·¬f«n ¬` ` ` ``¢ =>rt, ==rr =>rt +rf< +¢¬rnr ¢ n«rr
¤-¬+ +r¬r¬¬ = ==+t ¤rf«n f-r-= ¢rnt ¢) =t¤ =rn ¤r=r «mv= +=r=
¤=·r J¤=«m) + ¢ n«rr f¤= s«+t= «mv= =r= ¤=·r J«m,+r¬) + ¢; nt=
¤>r «m J+r¬) n«rr <¬r = =-¤-= ==¬vr «mr =t, =n¬vr f¤·vr =t n«rr
n=¬vr f¤r¤=t +¤¬ +r¬J«m) + v+ «mv= = v+2 f¤-rr¬ + =¤r=tJ¤-r)
¢; =r=¤ ¤r=t= +r f¤v= -rt +¢n ¢; s=t f¤v= = v+ «mv= +r =«¤rr
J=r=f¤>r) ¢; «mv= +r +r+r= +v= ==r ¢; s=f¬v s= +v= -rt +¢n ¢;
nt= f=«rfn =¢t ¢; == =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr ¤rr=rr ¤«r =r==r= =n¬÷ =-¤r
=r<r ¤r¬ =nr = +v=f¤v= n«rr «mv= +r f-r-=2 «nr += «n+r =r= =r=r
¢;
¤r=n¤ = =n¬r+ ¤¢ =«rr= ¢ =¢r ¤= =n¤=·r =¢nr ¢; =n=r= <r +=r=
+r =>r ¢ f=== v+ +r= n«rr <¸==r nn ¬¢ -rt ¬·n ¢ n«rr =r==r= J=n¤r·<)
¢ =r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r = ¤¸vr ÷¤ = ¬·n ==rr ¢; =r +« =n <r= +r f<¬r ¢;
=r=¤r·< == +a¬ ¤¤= ¤rf«n¬«n ==«r ¤==r-=r +r =r= ¢ f=== =¤ =-¤fn
+¤= ¤r·<J¤¤=) = +t ¢ s=f¬v == ¤r·< =¤÷¤ =r= -rt +¢n ¢; ==+r nr
¤r·n +==r ¢; ==r f+ +r¤ =t = s=t ¤=n+ + ¤` ` ` ``·a 4950 ¤= =rn¤t f+=n =
=¬ ar=r =¬ ¤r·n +== +t f¤f=r = ¤ar; +¤¬ =n¤=·r, ++r¬ =¸fn, ¤r·<
112
nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr
=¤÷¤t =r= +¢= = ¤==r-=r ¤rf·n =¢t ¢; ¬¢ nr v+ ¢t ¤rf«n + ¤¬r¬¤r¤t
=r= ¢; =n¤=·r +r +«r ¢ +f¤=r¤rt ¤-r, ++r¬ =¸fn +r +«r -rt ¢ f+ f==
=fnJ=r+r= =¤÷¤) +r =r¤r = ¢r +«rrn +f¤=r¤rt ¤-r, n«rr ¤r·< =¤÷¤t =r= +r
-rt +«r ¢ +f¤=r¤rt ¤-r; ¤r·< +f¤=r¤rt ¢ =r ¤==r-=r +t +a¬ +r<¤rr-=+
+r¤r= ¢ s=f¬v == ¤==r-=r +r ¤r= + =->r +r =r=¤r·< -rt +¢n ¢; ¤¢
=r==r= =r¤ +== +r ¢ n«rr =r=r-=+ ¤r·< +«rrn +=¢< =r= +-¬ ¤=n ¢ ¤¢
¤==r-=r =¢t ¢; +¤¬ =¬¤r=t=t= +¢= = =¬ =¢t f=¬¬r; =¬ ¤rf·n +t
f¤f=r f-r-= ¢ =r ¤r¤¤t f+=n = ¤fvrn ¢; ¬= ¬-«r =r¢« ¤` ` ` `` ·a 721 ¤= =¢¬r
¤¢¬r = =¤·a f+¬r ¢ f+ J+¸= +=nr=) ¤r·< =¤÷¤t =r= +«rrn +f¤=r¤rt
¤-rJ¢«+r +«t=) =n +«t= ¢; ¬¢t ¤=rvr =¢¬r ¤¢¬r +t ¤rvrt ¤` ` ` ``·a 24 ¤=
f¬=rr ¢ ´=rrvr+ ÷¤ =¢r +=nr=´; =¤¬ ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t =¢r=r= =r=rr=¤r=t
¤«r ¤r¬ -rt =¤t+r= +=n ¢ f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +«rrn ++r¬ ¤÷·r +«t= =r¢« =t
¢; ¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬ 4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 264 ¤= ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t = f¬=rr ¢ f+
+«t= =r¢« +r s-<=fn =r=t = =n¬r+ = ++r¬ ¤÷·r ÷¤ <=rr nr +¢r f+
=n =¢t ¤nr «rr f+ +r¤ ¢t ++r¬ ¤÷·r +«rrn ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r ¢r; +` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤rar
+r¤t ¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a264, s=t ¤=n+ J-rf«n +r= -r¬¤r=2)
+ ¤` ` ` ``·a 116 ¤=;
f¤¤r= +=: =r=rr=¤r=t =r==r= =n¬÷=-¤r =r<r f===r ¤«r ¤r¬
=n¬r+ = +¤¬ ¤+r¤r ¢t +¢n ¢ n«rr =n¤÷·r +r f==r+r= ¢t «nrn ¢ n«rr
=r=r ¤r·n +r-=r ¤==r-=r = ==-< = «¸< +t n=¢ ==r =rnt ¢, f-r-= =¢t
=¢nt; s-<=fn =r=t = nr =¤= =n¬r+ = +«t= =t +r =n¤÷·rJ++r¬ ¤÷·r)
÷¤ = f-r-= <=rr «rr +«rrn +«t= ¤==r-=r +r =n¬r+ = s-<=fn =r=t =
=r+r= = <=rr «rr; s= = <r «rn f={ ¢s :
J1) ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r J=n¤÷·r) +«t= =t +r¤rt ¤r¬r =¬r¢r ¢;
J2) =n¤÷·r =r+r= ¢ ==·¬ ==r ¢ =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + =-n +¤= f={r-n
+r +r¤ ¢t ¬¬n += =¢ ¢; =r ¤r=n¤ = ¬¬n ¢t ¢;
=r=rr=¤r=t =n +r f={r-n ¢ f+ =r=r ¤r·n +r-=r =n¬r+ = =r+=
f==r+r= ¤==r-=r =n¤÷·r = v= ==r =rnt ¢ == «¸-< ==r =rnt ¢ ==-< =;
¬f< +«t= =t ¤¢¬ =n¤÷·r = ¬t= ¢r ¬v «r n«rr «r< = =r=t s-<=fn =n¤÷·r
= ¬t= ¢s «rt J==r ¤=n+ =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬ 4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 264 = f¬=rr ¢) nr
f-r-=2 =¢= +r ¤¤= ¢t =¢t =anr; ~t =r¤= f=¢ =¢r=r= =-n=n ¤+r¤r
-rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 264 ¤= n«rr -rr¬ 5 ¤` ` ` ``·a 223 ¤= =¤·a +¢ =¢ ¢ f+ s-<=fn =r=t =
=n¬r+ = +«t= =t +r ++r¬ ¤÷·r +«rrn =n¤÷·r ÷¤ = <=rr; ¬f< ¬t= ¢r
=rnt nr «¸< ==-< = f=¬= + ¤¤¤rn +¬¬ +f=n-¤ =¢t =¢nr; ¤r=nf¤«nr ¬¢t
113
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¢ f+ =n¤÷·r +«t= ¤==¤¤= ¢ n«rr =r=¤ =<` ` ` ``¤r ¤r=t= = ¢; ¬¢ f¤¤=vrJ=r
s-<=fn =r=t +r ¢) +«t= =r¬= = f¬=rr ¢, =r =-¬ ¢; =n¬r+J=--r=rv=) =
=n¤÷·rJ¤== +=r= «m) ==·¬ =<` ` ` ``¤r =r+r= ¢; v+ n-¤ = «=r -r¸=t ¤r=t= ¢;
f== + v+ =r= +¸¤ +t ¤rr-rr +=r= =¸¬r n«rr +=r= ¤-<=r+r + ¤+r¤r = -rt
+f=r+ ¢; s=t ¤+r= =r=r ¤r·n +r-=rv n«rr +-¬ ¤¸¤ =` ` ` ``f·a ¤r¬t +r-=rv -rt
=r=¤ =<` ` ` ``¤r =r+r= ¢; ¤=-n =n¬r+ = =¢= ¤r¬t +r-=r+r + ¤r=t= +t ¤rr-rr
=r¬¢ =¸¬r + ¤+r¤r n=¬ ¢; ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¤f¤>r ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 5 =->r 1 n«rr 32
= ¢ =->r 1 = +¢r ¢:J+-=:) ¤==¤¤=Jn=¸:) =¤r=t=J+f=) ¢; J-¤r) ==
Jf¤·vr¤) =¤ ¤r¬= +nr =¤¤¤=J=r==¬) +== ¤÷·r +r +«rrn =n¤÷·r +r
Jn=¸:) ¤r=t= J+f=) ¢; =->r 32 = f¬=rr ¢ J+f¤=trrf==f=) ¤r¤ +r ¤r>r +«rrn
¤r¤ =r¤r+ +f¤<¤J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) ¢; ¤¢tJ«--rrf==f=) «-=r=r +r ¤r>r +«rrn
«-<t er= ¢; =rJ>n=rr=r +f=) =n¬r+ = =¢= ¤r¬r ¢; ¤¢ J=¤=¬rfn:) =¤¬
¤+rf¤rn ¢; +«rrn n=r=¬ ¤r=t=¬«n ¢; ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¤f¤>r «rs«¬ = =-¤fn
¬-«r = ¤` ` ` ``·a 2 ¤= 1:20, 2:5 ¤rvrt =. 26 = 28 = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤==¤¤= = ==·¬
+r +¤= =¤÷¤ + +==r= «=r¬r ¢;Js= = f={ ¢+r f+ ¤==r-=r -rt ==·¬
=<` ` ` ``¤r ¤r=t= ¬«n =r+r= ¢;) ¬¢ -rt f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤==¤¤= = e: f<= = =` ` ` ``f·a
=¤=r +t n«rr =rn¤ f<= n=n ¤= f¤~r= f+¬r; ¬¢t ¤=rvr ¤f¤>r ++r= ¤r=t¤
= ==n ¤+rf= =. 25 +r¬n =. 58,59 = f¬=rr ¢ f+ +«t= =r=+ ¤==r--rr e:
f<= = =` ` ` ``f·a =¤+= =rn¤ f<= n=n ¤= =r f¤=r=r;J¤f¤>r + +r = ¤r=t¤ =
¬¬-r¬ ¤r¬t= ¤ fn¤rn f¤¤=vr ¤f¤>r «rs «¬ ¤r¬r ¢ ) +r¬n = . 58,59 = ¬¢
-rt ¤ =rvr ¢ f+ + +r = ¤r=t¤ +r ¬r= <rnr ¤ -r +¤= ¤ ¬-«=J+¤nr=) ¢==n
= ¢-=< =t +r +¢ =¢r ¢ f+ =r ¤==r-=r n n f=-<r =r=r + ÷¤ = f=¬r «rr
¤¢t ¤r=n¤ = +f¤=r¤rt n«rr ¤r¤r +r =r=rJ=r¤r) +== ¤r¬r ¢ ; ==+t =r«=
f+=t «r=r«= = ¤¸ er +«rr n n-¤<¤rt J¤¸ vr ) =-n = ¤¸ er ; = J+ +r = ¤r=t¤ ¬r=
<rnr) =¢t =r=nr;
=¤=r«n <r=r =<¬-«rrJ¤f¤>r «rs«¬ n«rr ¤f¤>r ++r= ¤r=t¤) = =¬f=¬
+= f={ += f<¬r f+ ¤==r-=r ==·¬ =<` ` ` ``¤r ¤r=t= = =r+r= ¢; ==+r =r=
+=¬r¢ ++«= +«rrn ¤==r-=r +«t= ¢;
¬¢t ¤=rvr +rf< ¬-«r =¢¬r ¤¢¬r +t ¤rvrt ¤` ` ` `` ·a 721 ¤= ~t =r=+ =r¢«
=t = f<¬r ¢ +¢r ¢ f+J+¸= +=nr=) ¤r·< =¤÷¤t ¤==r--rrJ¢«+r +«t=) =n
+«t= ¢; +rf< ¬-«r ¤` ` ` ``·a 24 ¤¤= 29 = =¢¬r ¤¢¬r +t ¤rvrt = ~t =r=+ =r¢«
= ¬¢ -rt ¤=rfvrn f+¬r ¢ f+ ¤¢t =n+«t= +r¤rtJ«=r==) = =rrvr+J=¬r¢r)
÷¤ = ¤+a «rr;
+«t= ¤==r-=r +r =n¬r+ = <=r= + ¤¤¤rn ~t =r=+ =t = ¤«r=
114
nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr
=<r=t ¤r¬t ¬r>rr = «=r==J+r¤rt) = =rrvr+J=¬r¢r) ÷¤ = <=r += +¢r «rr:
¤i; ¬¸ºn -¬¸l¬ (ºi÷ ;r -^(i·i -^i ·ºi ªiºi l¬¤iºii «rni ·iiº÷·iiºi¬
ª¤ ºri ¬ºniº|
=¤f=«rn ·¬f«n¬r = ~t =r=+ =t = +¢r «rr f+ ¬¢ == +r +r+` ` ` ``f·rn +==
¤r¬r ¤¢=r =¢r =rnr ¢ ¤¢r ¤=t ¢t ¤¤r-r¸·rr «=r ¬nr ¢;J«¬rf+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r
+«t= =t ~t =r=+ =t +r «s =<t ¤= v+ f=-<r =r=r + ÷¤ = f=¬ «r;
=n¬r+ = =n¤÷·r ÷¤ = n«rr f¤= +r¤rt = =rrvr+ ÷¤ = n« =¤=r«n ¤rvrt
+¢t «rt) =¤=r«n =¤ ¤f¤>r =r=r + ¤f¤>r =<¬-«rr = f={ ¢+r f+ =¤ =` ` ` ``f·a
=¤=¢r=J+=nr=) =r=¤ =<` ` ` ``¤r ¤r=t=¬«n =r+r= ¢ n«rr ==+r =r= +«t= ¢; ¬¢
¤¢t =n+«t= ¢ =r +r¤rt = =¬r¢rJ=rrvr+) +t ¬t¬r +=+ =¤r=t= =n¬r+ ¤¬r
¬¬r «rr; ¬¢t +r¤rt = =¬r¢J=rrvr+) +t ¬t¬r +== ¤r¬r +«t= ++r¬ ¤÷·r
== 1727 = +r<=vrt¬ ¬=t«<r= =t =¢r=r=J¬r¤ e=r=t f=¬rn===, ¢=¬rvrr
¤r¬) +r f=-<r =¢r-=r + ÷¤ = =¤r=t= f=¬r «rr; =« ¬=t« <r= =t =¢r=r=
+t +r¬ <= ¤·r +t «rt n«rr =¬¬ = ¬=v ¤=r =¢ «r; ¤-¬=r <` ` ` ``·ar +s +-¬ «=
-¤r¬ -rt «r; == =«rr= ¤= v+ ¬r<¬r= -rt «=t ¢; ~t =r=+ <¤ =t +t n=¢
¤==¤¤= +«t= =t = «r¬+ ¬=t« <r= =t +r -rt =n¬r+ + <¤r= +=r + ¤rf¤=
er=r «rr; n« ¬=t« <r= =t = -rt =n¬r+ n«rr +-¬ ¬r+r ¤ «mv=r +r +r=rr
<=rr ¢r¬ +¤=t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt = ¤vr= f+¬r ¢;
¬=t« r- ¬¬ni·i ·i·¬ niº, ·i· ¬i ·¤·ºi l·¤i|
¬iln ¬¬iri ·i· · ¤i¤i, ¬iºii -iri ¬«iº r¬i||
l¬··i ¬i^i ¬^n ^ª, -il¬¬ -º¬i· ¤iº|
·i·i ·i· n^·i -·¤i, ¤i¤i ·ri ºiºiº||
¬·i·n ¬i-i «sº· ¬i, ¤¬ ºni ·ri ·iiº|
¬n^ª ¤ª·i ¬«iº r, ¬¬ ¬ l¬º¬· riº||
=¤=r«n ¤rvrt = =-n ¬=t« <r= =t =¢r=r= = «nr¬r ¢ f+ ¢= +«rrn
=J¬=t« <r=) n«rr +«rf¢= =¬nr= =t n«rr =r=+ =t n«rr <r< =t +rf< =«
+r +«t= ¤==¤¤= = ¤r= f+¬r; ¤¢ =¬n ¬÷ +¬ +r =rf¬+ f=-<r ÷¤ = =n
f=¬r n«rr ¤¢t +r¤rtJ«=r==) = =¬r¢J=rrvr+) ÷¤ = v+ =r «t= ¤·r ¬t¬r
+=+ =¬¢= =«rr= = =¤r=t= ¤¬r ¬¬r; ==+r ¤r=t= =¢t f=¬r «rr +¤¬ =¬f=rn
¤·¤ ¢t f=¬ «r; == +r +rs =¢t ==n =+r;
=¤=r«n =<¬-«rr n«rr +r=rr <=r= ¤r¬ =nr, ¬¤r¢rJ=rf=r¬r) = =¤·a ÷¤
= f={ += f<¬r f+ =¤ =` ` ` ``f·a =¤=¢r= =¤ +r ¤r¬= +nr n«rr ¤r¤ =r¤r+, ¤¸vr
=r=r <r¬+ +r¬ +t +r=r¬r= = e=r= ¤r¬r «-<t er=, n=r=¬ ¤r=t= ¬«n
=n¬r+ = n«rr ¤` ` ` ``«¤t ¬r+ +rf< = ¬t¬r +== ¤r¬r =n¤÷·r +«rrn +f¤=r¤rt
115
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤==r-=r +r¤rt ¤r¬r =¬r¢r +«t= ¢; s== f={ ¢ f+ =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr
=r==r= =n¬÷ ¤«r n«rr +-¬ ¤rr=rr ¤«rr +r ¬r= =¢t =¢t ¢ n«rr -rf«n f¤f=r -rt
¤rr=>r f¤÷{ ===r=r +r¤=vrJ¤¸=r) ¢ =r ¬r-r<r¬+ =¢t ¢;
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr =r==r= =n¬÷ ¤«r ¤ ¤rr=rr+r + =-nr = ~{r¬+r +r
==at ¤ars ¤ar ==rt ¢ f+ =-n ¬÷ ÷¤ =rr= += +rnr ¢ ¤¢t =` ` ` ``== ¢r= ¢;
¤=-n =n¬r+ = ¤==r-=r f==r+r= ¢ +¤¬ ¤==r-=r +r ¤+r¤r ¢; +r¬ ¬r+ =
-rf«n =r¬ <¤r= +=+ =-n ¬÷ n«rr =r=r+ =n¬r+ = ¤==r-=r + ¤+r¤r = v=
==r =rn ¢ == «¸-< ==r =rnt ¢ ==-< =; ¤¢r =n¬r+ = +r-=r n«rr
¤==r-=r +r +¬¬ +f=n-¤ =¢t =¢nr; =«f+ ¤r=nf¤+nr s= + ¬r+¤<
f==+rJ<-n +«rr) + f¤¤f=n ¢ =r =¤= ¤fvrn ¢; f==+r ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t
=¢r=r= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«rt -rt =-n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 264 ¤= =¤t+r= +=n ¢
f+ +«t= =t +r ==+t f¤r·¬r s-<=fn = =n¬r+ = ++r¬ ¤÷·r + ÷¤ =
<=rr; s== =¤f={ ¢ f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +«t= ¢ ¤¢ =¤r=t= ¢ n«rr +r--rr n«rr
¤==r-=r +t f-r-=2 f=«rnt ¢; ´´¤r·<´´ ´´+= ==r <t<r= =¢¬ = ·¬r=r ¢´´ =
+«t= ¤==¤¤= +t ¤rvrt ¢ f== ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t = =rr¬r ¢ f¬=rr ¢ f+
=n¬r+ = +r-=r +r ¤+r¤r =r¬¢ =¸¬r + ==r= ¢r =rnr ¢ n«rr ¤==r-=r + v+
=r= +r ¤+r¤r +=r= =¸¬r n«rr sn= ¢t ¤-<=r+r + ¤+r¤r = -rt +f=r+ ¢; s=
·¬r=¬r = -rt =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r +r f={r-n ¬¬n f={ ¢r =rnr ¢;
s== f={ ¢+r f+ =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r n«rr ==+t ¤rr=rrv =r==r= =n¬÷=--rr
=r<r, =¬¬÷ <¤ =«r¸=r ¤r¬r, f<=r< f-r¤r=t ¤r¬r ¤ +` ` ` ``¤r¬ f=¢ f<=¬t ¤r¬r
¤«r ¤¸vr ÷¤ = f==r=rr= f={r-n ¤= fa+r ¢; s= ¤«rr + ¤f¤>r +r--rr =-n n«rr
~{r¬ +=¬r¬t +¤=r +==r¬ =t¤= ·¬«r += =¢ ¢; === +=«{ ¤r«r=r ¢ f+
av= f<=r¬ = f¤¤r= += n«rr =n <r=J=r=¤r¬ <r=) +r ¤¸=¬ +«t= ¤==¤¤=
=t +r -r=r ++rr =r= =r =¤ ¤-r ¤r¢= ¤r¬ ¤==r--rr =r= + =rf=¬r +r =¬r= +
f¬v -rr+ =¢r ¢; =r =r¬ =rv¬r ¤¢ ¬r-r =arv¬r; +` ` ` ``·¬r =n <r= +r +¤=r
<r= ¬r erar«=r -rrs =r= += +r-= +=¬rvr +=rv; f=== +r¤ +r =-===vr
+r <ttr =r¬ ==r·n ¢r¬r n«rr =« n+ s= ==r= = =¢r¬ +r¤ +r ¤r=t= =¤=«r,
=r= ¬r-r, ¤f=¤r= = ==r =<r «=r =¢¬r;
¤-r ¤=t ¤ra+r +r =¤=r«n f¤¤=vr = =¤·a ¢r ¬¬r f+ +¢r ¢ +=r ¢ ¤
+r= ¢ -r¬¤r= ³
=-n =r=¤r¬ <r= =¢r=r=
116
J¤=n+´´=-n=n ¤+r¤r´´ -rr¬4 ¤` ` ` ``·a 264 = ¤rar +r¤t)
nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr nloha fdLr
117
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
''-r«n «|¤+ «r= + ¤|º¤rº +| ¤r-= +·rr''
¤-«| er= =nn= ºr=¤r¬ ¬| =;rºr¬ +| «¤r
==r =r= <t¤+ <r= ¤>r «¬=tn f=¢, ¬r¤ =¢¬r=r f=¬r =r=t¤n ¢;
¢= nt= ¤tat¬r = =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r ==r «r«r ==¬ f=¢ = =r= =¤<¤rt «r;
=«= ¤¢¬ ==t <r<t =t +t =rnr =t ¬rf= == f¤nr =t +t =r=t =t =
=r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = =r= =¤<¤r ¬ ==rr «rr; ==+ «r< == <r<r<r<t =t +r=
f¤= == =rnrf¤nr =t = -rt =r= f¬¬r ¢+r «rr; ¢= -rt ¬÷f¤-< =t =¢r=r=
+r ¤¸vr ¤÷·r =r=n «r n«rr s= ¤«r = ¤¸vr ~{r ¬¢ =r¤ += ==rn «r f+ ¬¢
==r= = ¤-r ¤rf·n +r ~·a ¤«r ¢ +r= ==+ f¤¤rr¬ == +r= f¤¤rr¬ =¬n
==¸¢ +r <=r+= f¤¤r·r +r+f·rn «r +r= =¤r +== + f¬v ==r «r«r ==¬ f=¢
·¬r= J¤=r«) = n«rr e+r=¤= ¤¸=r =r= f<=¬t -rt =rn =¢n «r; ¬f+= s= ¤«r
= == f¤¤r·r = =r= f<¬r =rnr ¢ s=f¬v +-rt = s= ¤r>rnr + f¬v +¬r-¬
«rr;
== =rnrf¤nr f== f<= e+r=¤= = =r= ¬= + f¬v ¬¬ ¢v «r ==t f<=
== era -rrs J== 5) + ¢r«r = ¤=r= + v+ «-¤ +t +r=r = +rs ·r=n
+==r= = ¬¬ ¬s; =« ¤rr= +r =r= =¤<¤r ¬+= == =rnrf¤nr ¤rf¤=
+rv; ==t f<= = ¢=r=r ¤ ¢=r= ¤=rf=¬r +r ¤= ¢r ¬¬r f+ +r¤+ «a =
¢=r= «a +t +r=r = =r=«¸n += ¤ra =r=t ¢ +r= ==t f<= = ¢=r= =¤=
<:=rr +r ¤¢r= a¸a ¤=r;
==t <r=r= == <r<r =t +r f«=r=t + +r=vr <¢rn ¢r ¬¬r =« == <r<r
=t +r ¤rf«r+ ¤r=t= <¸== +== = ==rr ¢+r «rr nr == ==¬ ==t <r<t =t,
f==+r <¢rn ¢v 12 ¤·r ¢r ¤+ «r,==t «+r ¤=¤nt = ¤n +t n=¢ ¤¤¤r +=+
«r¬t;J==t <r<t = -rt =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r = ¤r·n ¤r¤ =r=r +t «¢n =¬r<r =r=r=r
+= ==rt «rt; ¤ f=¬f=n ÷¤ = nt= «= ¢t ¤ f<= = -rt -r== ¤ ==== +==
+ f¬v «a =rnt «rt +r= trvar =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + «nr¬ =r= +r =r¤ ¤ +-¬r=
f+¬r +=nt «rt;) f+ +r= n-¢r= <r<r =t +r =t¤= ==+r= =r=r·n ¢r ¬¬r
s=f¬v = n-¢ =-rr¬= +rs ¢¸; ==t <r<t =t +r =tf¤n +¤=«rr = =r= +t
f«=r=t + +r=vr =rr=t =¢nt «rt «r=¢ =r¬ + «r< =¬r +t -¬r ¢t =rr= =¢t
«rt; n« ¢== ¤¸er f+ <r<t =t +r¤ nr «¢n <:=rt f<=rrs < =¢t ¢r «¬r +r¤
=n¬r+ =¢t ¬s; n« ==t <r<t = +¢r f+ «ar == ¬¬n =r=r=r + +r=vr
+¤=r +==r¬ ==·¬ =t¤= ·¬«r += f<¬r n«rr +« =` ` ` ``-¬ + ¤¤¤rn -r¸n ¬rf=
= +·a =ar =¢t ¢¸; = +¢t =n¬r+ = =¢t ¬s; nr f¤= ==t =rnr =t = ¤¸er
f+ =r «¬r +r¤+r ¬÷=t ¤=vr f=¢ =t =¢r=r= = =-rr¬r ¬r =¢t³ nr ==t
118
HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk
<r<t = +¢r f+ =-¢r= ==t +rs =-rr¬ =¢t f+ +r= = +r= -rt v= ¢t <=rt
¢r =¢t ¢¸;
== tra=r + <r =r¬ «r< v+ f<= ==t <¸==t «+r +=¬r + +<= ==
<r<r =t ¤n¤n ¤¤¤r += + «r¬ +r= +¢r f+ = nr «¢n <:=rt ¢¸ n«rr ==t
+rs ¬fn =¢t ¢s; = =¢r=r ¤r¢nr ¢¸ nr ==t =rnr =t = <:=r ¤ +r¤¤¬ =
+¢r f+ +r¤ nr =n¬r+ = ¬v «r «¬r ¤¢r ¤= =¢r= + f¬v ¤r=t -rt =¢t
¢³ f¤= ==t =rnr =t == <r<r =t J=r ==t «+r = ¤n «= + tr= ¢+r «rr)
+r =¢¬r= ¬¬t nr ¤¢ +¢= ¬¬r f+ «at = +¤= +r¤ =¢r ¬¸¬r nr ==t =rnr
=t = ¢r¬rf+ ¤¢ ==t «+r =t = ¤¤¤r «rr s=f¬v «+r ¤r¬ +¤= ¢t ¤¢=r
f<¬ nr ==r <r<r «r¬r «= «at ==t =rrnt ¬ +r+r = «r=r ¬¸¬r; ==t =rnr
=t = v= ¢t v+ ¤<<= ¤+=r <t =r =-¢r= +¤=r + =¤= = ¢t ¬¤a ¬t;
f¤= +¢r f+ == f¬v ¤r¬ «=r+r +r= ==<t~ = ¢t ¤r¬ ¤t ¬t; == ¤¸er f+
<r<r =t +r¤ =n¬r+ =¢t ¬v nr === +¢r f+ «ar = nr «¢n +·a = ¢¸;
==t =rnr =t = f¤= ¤¸er f+ +r¤ nr =r=rr=¤r=t ¢=¸= ¤=vr f=¢ =t =¢r=r=
= =r= =¤<¤rt «r -rf«-r -rt +=n «r «¬r =-¢r= +r¤+t +rs =-rr¬ =¢t +t³
n« +¢r f+ =-¢r= ==t +rs =-rr¬ =¢t +t +r= = nr v= ¢t =r«+ =rrnr f¤=
=¢r ¢¸;
==t <r=r= ==t +r=r -rt s-r=t +==r= ¢r ¬s f+ += f<=rrs <= ¬¬
¬¬r «rr +r= ¤¤=r «r= «r= «<¬¤r=r ¤=r «rr; = v+ <r=n + =r«r ¤a= +
f¬v ==+ ¤r= =rnr «rr ¤¢r ¤= -r«-r =n=r= = =n ¤¸vr «m + +¤nr=
=n¬÷ =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= +t =f¢=r ==rs n«rr +¢r f+ +r¤ =n¬÷
=r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =r= =¤<¤r ¬r +r¤+t +r=r at+ ¢r =rv¬t n«rr +¢r
f+ s-¢t +·ar +r= <=rr = ¢= =t¤r +r f=+r¬= + f¬v ¤==¤¤= +«t= =r¢«
=n +r ÷¤ =rr=vr +=+ +rn ¢; == +¢r f+ == =rnr f¤nr =t = =r=rr=¤r=t
¤«r = =r= =¤<¤r ¬ ==rr ¢; -r«n =n=r= = +¢r f+ ¤¢ ¤«r ¤¸vr =¢t ¢
==+t -rf«n =r=r=r = = nr =n¬r+ ¤rf·n ¢r¬t = ¢t =t¤= = +-rt += +t
=r= a¬ =+¬t == nr f=¤ +«t= =r¢« +r ==rs<r =n ¢t ar¬ =+nr ¢;
== f¤nr =t +r =r= +t f«=r=t «rt <= +<= ¤¬= ¤= ¢t «¢r¬ ¢r =rn
«r, =r= +t f«=r=t + +r=vr <= ¤¸¬= ¬¬nr «rr ¢rs +r= ¬r ·=r= ¤¤r= +t
-rt f«=r=t «rt; == f¤nr =t +r s=r«¤r= =¬¸at + <r=r= ¢ra +a+ ¢+r ¤=
+= ==+r= ¤¤r ¤ «¤ ¬¬; ¬f+= n« -rt ¢= ¬¢ =r¤n =¢ f+ ¬÷f¤-< =t
=¢r=r= = ¢ra +a+ = «¤r f¬¬r +r= «=t ==r +t +r= ¢== nr =f<¬r +t
v+v+ =rn = +¤= f¤nr =t +r v+v+ =r= a¸an <=rr ¢, f«=+¬ =` ` ` ``n ¤r¬
¢r =rn «r +r= f=¤r¬ «a += =r= + ¢= +e =¢t += ¤rn «r «¬rf+ <¤rs¬r
119
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
+r -rt +rf=r= +r ¤+r «rr, =r«a= f=n=t =¬r<r = =¬r<r =r=r <¤rs +t «ar
=+n «r «ar ¤+ «r s== =¬r<r ¤ =r=r+ +r =¢t «ar =+n «r; ==t =rnr
=t == «r«r ==¬ f=¢ = ¬r¬r ¢+r ¤¤rr< =-¢ f=r¬rnt +r= =r=rr=¤r=t
¬÷f¤-< =t =¢r=r= +t =¸fn + =r== «a += ¤r«r=r +=nt +r= =rnt; ==t
==¬ == era -rrs +r +r¤= +t f¤r+r¬n =¢= ¬¬t ¤¢ =rn +r ¤=+ += =a
=rnr «rr n«rr +¢nr «rr f+ ==r ¤= ¤+= += +rs =rt¤ =¢r ¢, =r= =¢t <
=¢r ¢, ¤¢ -rt «¢n f«=r= =¢= ¬¬r; == 8 +«n¸«= 1998 +r =n¬÷ =r=¤r¬
=t =¢r=r= = =r= =¤<¤r f¬¬r; nr «t= f<= + +<= ¢t ¤¸vr ¤==¤¤= =n
=r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= +t <¬r = ==r ¤¤=r -rt =n= ¬¬r n«rr == <¤rs =rr=r
-rt er= <t; =n =n¬÷ =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= ¤= ¤¸=r f¤¤¤r= ¢r ¬¬r «rr; -r«n
=n=r= = tr= ¤= +r+= == =rnr f¤nr =t +r -rt ==nr¬r f+ +r¤ ¤¸vr
¤==r-=r +«t= =r¢« + ==rs< =n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =r= =¤<¤r ¬r
+r¤+ =¤ +·ar +r f=¤r=vr ¢r =rv¬r;
==+ «r< == -rt +¤= =rnr f¤nr +r ==nr¬r nr ¤ «r¬ ¢= ¤¢¬ nr
=r=rr=¤r=t «r +« =-n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= = =r= =¤<¤r ¬¬; <f=¬r «¬r
+¢¬t³ n« == +¢r f+ v+ =r«a= = s¬r= =¢t ¢r =¢r nr «¬r <¸==r =r«a=
=¢t «<¬n³ ¤=-n <:=rt «¢n «r +e ==¬ «r< ¤==¤¤= +t ¤r=vr = +r ¬¬
+r= =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + == ¤r¤ =r=r +r -¬r¬ +=+ ¤¸vr =n =r=¤r¬ =t
=¢r=r= = =r= =¤<¤r ¬ f¬¬r;
=n¬÷ +«t= =r¢« +¢n ¢ ´¤r=vr ¤= +r ¬÷ =-rr¬ =r= + «r¬+
-rr¬r =´ =r= ¤f=¤r= + =r= ¬= + «r< = ¢t ¢=r= f<= f¤= ¬¬; == -rrs
+r +r¤=r at+ ¢r ¬¬r f¤nr =t +r =¤r=«¬ f«=+¬ at+ ¢r ¬¬r +r= ¤¢¬
¤ <= +<= =¢t ¤¬ =+n «r +« v+ +r<=t + =r«r ¬¬ += ¤t=t +t «r=t
+r =ar <n ¢; ¢=r=r ¤f=¤r= +r= ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r + +¤nr= =n¬÷ =r=¤r¬
=t =¢r=r= +t ¤r=vr = ==+t <¬r = ¤¸vr ==rt ¢;
¤=-n ¢=r= <r<r<r<t ¤ f¤nr =t +t =r=t =t + ==·¬ =t¤= +r =r
=+=r= ¢+r ==+t -r=¤rs f+=t -rt ¤+r= = =¢t ¢r =+nt; ¬f< f+=t
+r<=t +t =r= «¤r= + f¬v ¬r=rr +r= +=r=r ÷¤¬ =r¤ += f<v =rv +r=
¤¢ «¤ =rv nr == == ¤= +r +rs =¬r¬ =¢t ¢rnr f+ ¤¬r =r= nr «¤t;
¬f+= +r= ¤r¢ f+n=t -rt +t=n ¤+r= ¤= -rt == <r<r<r<t +r =t¤= =r
¬¬n =r¬<¤r= = f«=+¬ ·¬«r ¤¬r ¬¬r J¤ -r¸n +r= f¤n= +t ¬rf=¬r = +·a
-rr¬ =¢ ¢), ¤rf¤= =¢t +r =+nr; =r ftr=r=r ==r+ ¬ =+¬t =-n +r= ¤«r
=¤ ==r= + =r«r += =¢ ¢ «¬rf+ ¤r=r=t ¬r=r ¬rf=¬r -rr¬= + ¤¤¤rn
f=¬= ¤r¬ +==r¬ ==·¬ =t¤= +r =r ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¤r·n +== +r
120
v+=r>r =r=r= ¢ == «=«r< += =¢ ¢; s= =¢r=rfn +t +r¤¸fn f+=t -rt
+t=n = ¤¸=t =¢t +t =r =+nt;
¢ «<t er= =n¤÷·r ÷¤ =n¬÷ =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= +r¤= «=t <¬r f+
¢= n-e =t¤r ¤= =r +¤=r =-¬ ¬r= <+= +¤=t ¤r=vr = «¬r f¬¬r +-¬«rr
¢= -rt ¤tat <= ¤tat = ¤r·n s= +f¤f=r¤¸¤+ =r=r=r = +¤= ==·¬ =-= +r
==r·n +=+ +¢t -r¸n +r= f¤n=r +t ¬rf=¬r = ¤¬ =rn +r= s= ¤rr=>rf¤f=r¬«n
=n-rf«n = ¤f¤n =¢ =rn;
=¤ «f{=t¤t ==r= = ¤r«r=r ¢ f+ +-rt -rt ==¬ ¢; s= =-¬ ¬r= +r
==n n«rr f=·¤=r ¢r+= f=vr¬ +=; «-<t er= =n¬÷ =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= +
¤=vrr = +r+= =n-rf«n ¤r·n +=+ +¤= ==·¬ =t¤= +r +=¬rvr +=¤rv;
=n =r¢«
=n¬= ¤=vrr +r <r=
<t¤+ <r=
HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk HkDr nhid nkl ds ifjokj dh vkRe dFkk
121
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
nr¤>r| =->r «¤r ; ? ;=+ ¬r¤ = «¤r ¬r-r ; ?
¤; +;r = n;ºr ;¤r ? : ¬nn n=
(30 ¤¤¬ 2006 +r ¤¬r¤ +=º| = ¤+r|ºrn)
¤¤= : = ¤fnf<= ¬r¬>rt =->r J+r= -r¸-r¤: =¤: ) + v+ =r +ra =r¤
+=nr ¢¸; «¬r ¬¢ =r=r=r =r=r <r¬+ =¢t ¢ ³
=+r= : ¤< ¬r= = +¤f=f¤n ¤n= ·¬f«-r¬r = ¬r¬>rt =->r + =r= =
¤¬r+ +r= -r¸-r¤: =¤: nn =f¤n= +r =r¤ +== = =r=r «nr += -rr¬
~{r¬+r +r +==r¬ =t¤= ·¬«r +=¤r f<¬r; s= + f¤·r¬ = ¬r+ ¤< J<-n
+«rr) +¢r =rnr «rr f+ ¬¢ =->r ¤r=r ¤<r = f=+r¬r ¬¬r f=·+·r ÷¤ =->r
¢; s=t = =r=r ¬r-r ¢rnr ¢; =«f+ ¬¢ nr ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 36 +r =->r =.
3 ¢; f¤¤r= +=, «¬r f+=t =<¬-«r + +¤¬ v+ =->r J¤¬r+) +r =¡r ¬¬r=
J+r¤` ` ` ``f+r +==) = +r-= +=¬rvr =--r¤ ¢ ³ +«rrn =¢t;
=<¬-«rr + =->rr J¤¬r+r) = ¤==r-=r +t =f¢=r ¢ n«rr ==+r ¤r·n +==
+t f¤f=r -rt ¢; =« n+ == f¤f=r +r ¬¢vr =¢t +=¬ n« n+ +r-= +=¬rvr
+«rrn s¤¤=t¬ ¬r-r ¤rf·n +=--r¤ ¢; == ¤f¤>r ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 17 =->r
J¤¬r+) 23 = +¢r ¢ f+ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t ¤rf·n +r nr +¤¬ ÷nn=n =->r
¢, s=+r nt= f¤f=r = ===vr +=+ =r=r ¤rf·n ¢rnt ¢; +r= J÷) =>r «m
+«rrn =r= ¤÷·r +r =r¤ ¢, nn =>r J=r+fn+ ¢ =r =¤<¤r ¬= ¤r¬ +r
«nr¬r =rv¬r) ¤=«m +«rrn +=r= ¤÷·r +r =r¤ ¢ n«rr =n =->r J=r+fn+
¢ s= =n ¤r·< +«rrn =r==r= -rt +¢n ¢; ¬¢ -rt =¤<¤r ¬= ¤r¬ +r «nr¬r
=rv¬r) ¤¸vr «m +«rrn ¤== +=r= ¤÷·r J=n¤÷·r) +r =r¤ ¢; s= J÷nn=n)
+ =r¤ +t f¤f=r -rt nt= ¤+r= = ¢; s=t = ¤¸vr =r=r =--r¤ ¢; +r¬ ==r=
¤¤+r+ ~t <¬r=-< =t == ¤< ¬r= ¢t= ·¬f«n¬r +r ¬¢ -rt =¢t ¤nr «rr f+
¬¢ ¤r«¬ f+= ¤< +r ¢; ´´=-¬r«r ¤+r¤r´´ J<¬r=-< =a <t=r=¬= ¤=r« =
¤+rf¤rn) ===¬r= nt= = ¤` ` ` ``·a 38-39 ¤= s=t =->r J-r¸-r¤: =¤: nn ) +r
+=¤r< +=n ==¬ f¬=rr ¢ f+ -r¸: -r¤ =¤: ¬¢ nt= ¤¤= nf+r=t¬ +r=v¬+
+ ¢, =->r + ¤r·r -rr¬ Jnn =f¤n: ) + f¤·r¬ = +e =¢t f¬=rr ¢ f+ +¢r
= f¬¬r ¬¬r ¢; =¤r=t <¬r=-< =t = ´´=-¬r«r ¤+r¤r´´ = f+v s=t =->r +
+=¤r< = n«rr ¬=¤< = f+v s= =->r J-r¸ -r¤: ) + +=¤r< = f¤¤f=n
+«r f+¬r ¢; nf+r=t¬ +r=v¬+ nr v+ =¤f=·r< ¢ f=== f+=t >f·r +r
+¤=r +=-r¤ ¢; =«f+ ¤< ¤-r ¤<n ¬r= ¢; ¢== ¤< ¤= +r=rrf=n ¢r=r ¢
= f+ f+=t >f·r ar=r =f¤n +¤= +=-r¤ +t ¤=n+ ¤=; ¬f< ´=-¬r«r ¤+r¤r´
¤=n+ +t ¤r¬ = =r¬nt nr +e f<=r «r< ¬¢ -rt v+ =¤f=·r< +r ÷¤ =rr=vr
122
xk;=h eU= D;k gS \ xk;=h eU= D;k gS \ xk;=h eU= D;k gS \ xk;=h eU= D;k gS \ xk;=h eU= D;k gS \
+= ¬nr; +r= ¤r¬ ==¬ = +-¬ ¤=n+r +t =¤=r +=n ==¬ ´=-¬r«r ¤+r¤r´
+ +¬r= +r ==«r= ¬n n«rr s== -rt +f=r+ +¬r= ¬«n ¤=n+r +t =¤=r
¢r =rnt;
== ¬= ¬-«r =r¢« = ~t =r=+ =r¢« =t +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt n«rr ¤== ¤¸=¬
+«t= ¤==¤¤= =t +t +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt ¤< ¬r= ¬«n ¢ n«rr ¤<r = +r¬ +r -rt ¬r=
f¤n=r= ¢; ¤=n =r=rr=¤r=t ¤«r + ¤«r= =n ¤ ¤¤n+ =r= =r= ¤r¬ ~t
f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¤ =r=rr=¤r=t =t + +¬r= ¬«n ¤¤=r = =¤t ¤=n+ ´=r=
¤¤= === ¤ ¤rfn+´ +r v+ ¤=rfvrn ¤rr=>r =r= += ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t
=¢r=r= = J=r ~t =r=r=¬ =¤ ¤rr¢==nr=r =t + ¤¸=¬ ¬= =t «r; ~t
¤rr¢==nr=r =t = ¢t «¬ =r= f===r = =r==r= =n¬==-¤r =r<r ¤«r +t
=«rr¤=r +t ¢) ¤=n+ ´=r= ¤¤= === ¤ ¤rfn+´ ¤r¬ f¤¤=vr +r ==«r= ¬+=
´=n=n ¤+r¤r´ ¤=n+ + +s -rr¬r +t =¤=r += =r¬t, f=== =<¬-«rr +
f¤÷{ +r=r +¬r= -r=r ¢; == ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t = =¤=r«n ¤=n+r = ¤¤=4
= +¢r ¢ f+ =n=r= +r =r==r=, =r=¤r·<, =n=r=, =n¬r+ n«rr =n¤÷·r
+¢n ¢;
s=t +r=rr= = ~t =r¤= f=¢ =t = =n=n ¤+r¤r -rr¬3 ¤` ` ` ``·a76 ¤= +¢r
¢ f+ =n=r= +r =n¬r+ +¢n ¢; f¤= ¤` ` ` ``·a79 ¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+ =n=r= ¤r«rr
=r= ¢, ¬¢ +=¬t =r= ¢; ~t f¤r¤<¬r¬ =t =¢r=r= + ¤¤=r + +r=rr= =
~t =n=r= f=¢ =t fant¬ ¬«t=¤rt= ==r =r==r= =n¬÷ =--rr =r<r f===r
¤r¬ = ¤=n+ ´=-¤=r= +t ==+´ ¤` ` ` ``·a 226 ¤= f¬=rr ¢ f+ =n¬r+
=¢r¤+r¤r¤r= ¢; s=t +r =n=r=, =r==r=, =r=¤r·< -rt +¢n ¢;
=¤=r«n ¬r= = =¤·a ¢ f+ s= ¤«rr + =-nr +r +rs ¬r= =¢t «rr;
f==+t f¬f=rn +¢rf=¬r ¢t ¬¬n ¢ nr fa¬rv -rt ¬¬n ¢; f==+t «¬¸=t ¢t
¬¬n ¢ nr ¤«at+¬ -rt ¬¬n ¢; ¢== ¤f¤>r +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt ~t =r=+ =r¢« =t
n«rr +=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt ¤== ¤¸=¬ +«t= ¤==¤¤= J+f¤<¤) =t n«rr f== =nr +r
+f¤< ¤ J+«t= ¤ -r ) =¤¬ f=¬ n«rr n-¤¬r= = ¤f=f¤n +=r¬r ==+t
+=` ` ` ``n¤rvrt +r +r=rr= =r= += =-¬ +r ¬¢vr +==r ¢ n«rr +=-¬ +r ¤f=-¬r¬
+==r ¢;
=<r¢=vr : == +rs ¬fvrn + ¤¤= +r ¢¬ += =¢r ¢ +r= ¤¢ =¢t =¢t
¢r ¤r =¢r ¢ nr ==+r =¢t ¢¬ a¸a= + f¬v ==¬ ·¬r=¬r +r ¢t +r=rr= =r=
+= ¤== ¤ar =rnr ¢; n« ¤¢ ¤¤= ¢¬ ¢r =rnr ¢; ¬f< ¬¬n f+v ¢v ¤¤=
+ ¢¬ +r ¢t +r=rr= =r= += ¤¬-= +=n =¢¬ nr ==r=rr= +=-r¤ ¢; s=t
¤+r= ¤¸¤ =nr ¤ >f·r¬r ar=r f¬=rt +¤= +=-r¤ +t ¤=n+r + =«rr= ¤=
=<¬-«rr +r ¢t +r=rr= =r= += ¤== ¤a= ¤ =-¢t + +r=rr= = =r=r=r +==
123
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
= ¢t ¤-r ¤rf·n ¤ =r=r =-r¤ ¢; ¬tnr =t = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¢ +== ! =« n=t
«f{ =r=r ¤+r= + -rf=n +== ¤r¬ ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ ¬r= = ¢a += v+ ¤rr=>r
+r=rrf=n n-¤ ¬r= ¤= f=«r= ¢r =rv¬t n« n¸ ¬r¬t J-r«n) «=¬r; -rr¤r«r ¢
f+ n« n=t -rf«n ¤r=--r ¢r¬t;
== ¤f«r+ ¬n·¬ =«rr= +t +r= = =r += +-¬ f<¤rr +r =r =¢r ¢r ==+t
¤¢ ¬r>rr +=r¬ +t ¢; === ¤¢ +¤= f== =«rr= ¤= =¢t ¤¢¤ =+nr; =«
¤¢ +=r¬ -¬r¬ += =n =r¬ ¤= ¤¬¬r n« ¢t ==+ f¬v =f=¬ ¤r·n +==r
=-r¤ ¢;
s=f¬v ~{r¬+r = ¤r«r=r ¢ f+ =« +r¤ ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ =r=r=r = ¢a +=
¤rr=>rr==r= =r=r=r ¤= ¬¬r¬ n« +r¤+r =n -rf«n =r¬ ¤r=--r ¢r¬r;
f¤¤r·r f¤¤r= : ¤f¤>r ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 36 =->r 3 Jf== ¬r¬>rt =->r +¢r
¢) +t =a=r ¬¬r=r J+r¤` ` ` ``f+r +==r) nr +¤¬ ¤==r-=r + ¬vrr = ¤f=f¤n ¢r=r
=r>r ¢; == ¤==r-=r +t ¤rf·n +t f¤f=r f-r--r ¢; ¤f¤>r ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 40
=->r 10 = n«rr ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t +=¬r¬ 4 =->r J¤¬r+) 34 = +¢r ¢ f+ n-¤
¬r= +r ==n= +«rrn ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¤r·n +== + ¬r= +r n-¤<¤rt =-nr
= ¤¸er; ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t ¤rf·n +t f¤f=r +r ¤< ¤ ¬tnr ¬r= <rnr ¤-r -rt =¢t
=r=nr; +¤¬ +¤=t =r=r=r J«m =r=r=r) +r ¬r= ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 8 =->r
J¤¬r+) 13 = n«rr ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 40 =->r J¤¬r+) 15 = +¢r ¢; +r= J÷)
=r= +r =r¤ ++¬r +==r ¢rnr ¢ f+=t ¤r«¬ + =r«r ¬¬r += +== = =r=r
¤rf·n =¢t ¢rnt; s=tf¬v ¬tnr +=¬r¬ 8 =->r J¤¬r+) 13 = +¢r ¢ f+ =n
«m +r nr +¤¬ v+ +r= J÷) +=r= ¢ +-¬ =¢t ¢, ==+r =-¤r=vr +=+
===vr +==r ¢; ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 36 =>r J¤¬r+) 3 = -rt +r= J÷) =>r =¢t
¢; ¬¢ nr ¤rr=>r f¤÷{ =r=r=r «nr= ¤r¬r = =r=r ¢ =r +=f¤n ¢; ¤-r +t
+r¬r +t +¤¢¬=r ¢; ¬f< +rs +¬r=t ·¬f«n f+=t =ra= ¬r=t + f¤=a= +
=r«r =a ¤== += + +¢ f+ ¬¢ f¤=a= +f=r+ =¤¬r¬t ¢ nr «¬r ¤¢ ·¬f«n
s-=tf=¬= ¢ ³ ¬¢t <¤rr +¬r=t >f·r¬r n«rr =-nr +t ¢ =r +r= J÷) +=r=
+r f+=t ¤r«¬ + =r«r ¬¬r += +¢n ¢ f+ +« ¬¢ =->r +f=r+ =¤¬r¬t «=
¬¬r ¢; =r ¤rr=>r f¤={ ¢r= = ===r=r +r¤=vr J¤¸=r) ¢; ¤f¤>r ¬tnr =t
+=¬r¬ 16 ¤¬r+ 23-24 = f¬=rr ¢ f+ ¤rr=>r f¤f=r -¬r¬ += ===r=r
+r¤=vr J¤¸=r) +== ¤r¬ =r=r+ +r = nr ==r ¢rnr ¢, = +r¬ f={ n«rr =
==+t ¬fn ¢rnt ¢; s=f¬v -rf«n + f¬v ¤rr=>rr +r +r=rr= =r= += =-¬ +r
¬¢vr +=, +=-¬ +r ¤f=-¬r¬ +=;
=<r¢=vr : == f¤nn + ¬vr ¢ f+ f«=¬t ¤=rr ¤¬rnt ¢, +=r= +r
==r¬ = «<¬ <nt ¢, +rar ¤t= <nt ¢ +rf<+rf<; s= ¤r«¬ +r «r=~ =a=
124
xk;=h eU= D;k gS \ xk;=h eU= D;k gS \ xk;=h eU= D;k gS \ xk;=h eU= D;k gS \ xk;=h eU= D;k gS \
= f«=r¬t + =¤=r«n ¬vrr +r ¬r-r ¤r·n =¢t ¢r =+nr; f«=¬t +r +=«¤r=
¬=r ¢rnr ¢; +=«¤r= ¬= +t f¤f=r =¤=r«n =f¢=r = f-r-= ¢; f«=¬t +r
+=«¤r= ¬= + «r< =¤=r«n =¤ ¬r-r f«=¬t = =¤n: ¤r·n ¢r =rv¬;
s=t ¤+r= =<¬-«rr + +=` ` ` ``n ¬r= = ¤==r-=r +t =f¢=r +r ¬r= ¢rnr ¢;
== v+ «r= ¤a ¬r =r «r=; ¬f< ¤==r-=r = ¬r-r ¤r·n +== +t f¤f=r ¤¸vr
=r-n = ¤r·n =¢t +t nr =¤ ¬r= ·¬«r ¢; == +rs +¢ f+ ´´=rr¬ = +r·rf=r
=¤=«r ¢r =rv¬r´´ s=t +t =a=r ¬¬rnr =¢ J+r¤` ` ` ``f+r +=nr =¢) +r= +r·r=rt =rrv
=¢t nr =¤=«r =¢t ¢r =+nr; ¤¸vr ¤n = +r·rf=r ¬+= =rr= = ¢t =r¬ =«n
¢r =+nr ¢; s=t ¤+r= ¤¸vr =-n = ¤¸vr =r= =r¤ f¤f=r ¤r·n +=+ ¬÷ =¬r<r
= =¢ += =r=r=r +== = ¢t ¤¸vr =r=r =--r¤ ¢;
¤¢ ¤¸vr =r=r <r¬+, ¤r¤ f¤=r¤r+ ¤rr=>rr=+¸¬ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +t -rf«n f¤f=r
=¬n ¬÷ n-¤<¤rt =-n =r=¤r¬ <r= + ¤r= ¢ =r ¤-r ¤<+r ¢; +` ` ` ``·¬r
f=:¤r=+ ¤ +f¤¬« ¤r·n +=; +¬r=t =-nr ¤ >f·r¬r ar=r «nrs ¤rr=>rf¤f=r
=f¢n =r=r=r = +¤=r +==r¬ =r=¤ =t¤= = ¬¤rv; +«t= ¤==¤¤= J+f¤<¤)
= +¢r ¢ ! -i·( ¬·- ·-i·i r, l-¬ · «iº·«iº|
¬¬ nº(º ¬ ¤-ii -¸- l^º, «rº · ¬^ni ·iº||
J+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤ra+ == ¤a +r= f¤¤r= += +r= f+n= ¤r=t = ³)
+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a : ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 36 =->r 3 +r -rr·rr -rr·¬ +«rrn f¢-<t +=¤r<
=n =r=¤r¬ =t =¢r=r= ar=r f+¬r ¢+r;
¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 36 =->r 3 : ·i¸·i( -( n-¬l(n(ºº¤ ·i^i ·(-¤ ·ii-ri ·ii¤i
¤i · ¤¤i·¤in|
=f=re< : ·i¸÷·i(÷-(÷ nn÷ ¬l(-i÷ (ºº¤-÷·i^÷·(-¤÷·ii-ri÷·ii¤÷
¤÷·÷ ¤¤i·¤in|
+=¤r< : ¤< ¬r= <rnr «m +¢ =¢r ¢ f+ J=¤:) +¤= f== ==r=¬
J-r¤:) +-nf==r +«rrn =n¬r+ ¤ +=r=¬ ¬r+ = J-r¸:) =¤¬ ¤+a ¢r= ¤r¬r
¤¸vr ¤==r-=r ¢; ¤¢t J=f¤n:) =¤ ==r <r¬+ =¤ +r =-¤-= +== ¤r¬r
¤==r-=r ¢ Jnn) == ¤=r=r +«rrn +·¬«n =r+r= J¤=v¬=) =¤~·a J-r¬:)
n=r=¬ ¤r=t= ¬«n =¤ =` ` ` ``f·a =¤=¢r= J<¤=¬) ¤==¤¤= +t J=rt=¢t) ¤r«r=r,
=¤r==r ¤rr=>rr=+¸¬ +«rrn «f{=nr = =r¤ ==n += += J¬:) =r ¤==r--rr
=¤ +r ¤r¬= ++rr ¢ ¤¢ J=:) ¢= +r -r= =f¢n J=rt¬:) ¤rr=>rr=+¸¬ =-¬ -rf«n
«f{=nr +«rrn =<-rr¤ = +== +t J¤¤r<¬rn) ¤=vrr +=;
-rr¤r«r : s= =->r =. 3 = ¬=¤< +. 40 =->r 8 +r ==«r= ¢ f+ =r
J+f¤==t·rt) ¤¸vr f¤ar= +«rrn -r¸n, -rf¤·¬ n«rr ¤n=r= +t =r== ¤r¬r
+f¤<¤ J+«t= ¤==¤¤=) ¢ ¤¢ ¤r¤ n-¤ + ¤r=t= =f¢n ¢ J=¤¬-r¸: ¤f=-r¸:) =¤¬
125
HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku& HkfDr vkS j Hkxoku&2
¤+a ¢r= ¤r¬r ¤==r--rr ¢ ¤¸vr ¤==r-=r +r ¤r=t= v+ n-¤ = «=r ¢ s=f¬v
== ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 1 =->r 15 n«rr +=¬r¬ 5 =->r 1 = +¢r ¢ f+ J+-=:)
¤==¤¤= +r =¸=t +«rrn n=r=¬ Jn=¸:) ¤r=t= J+f=) ¢; == =¤ ¤rf«-r=r=
<¬r¬ ==r=¬ ¤==r-=r +t -rf«n =-¤ ;<¬ = ¤rr=>rr=+¸¬ +=; ¤¢ ¤¸vr
¤==r-=r =¤= =n¬r+ = ¤+a ¢rnr ¢; == = f¤=¬ ¢ f+ ¤¢ ¤-r =¤
¤rfvr¬r +r ¤rr=>rr=+¸¬ =r=r=r + f¬v ¤f=n +=;
¤¤r= ¤=r= =f=fn,
=n¬r+ +r~= +=r«rr,
f=¬r =r¢n+124001 J¢f=¬rvrr);
+` ` ` ``·¬r ¤a ¤rar +r¤t ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 36 =->r 3 +r -rr·rr -rr·¬ +«rrn f¢-<t
+=¤r< +r¬ ==r= ¤¤n+ =¢f·r <¬r=-< ar=r f+¬r ¢+r; f==+r +rs f==
¤= =¢t ¢;
J=¢f·r <¬r=< ar=r +=¤rf<n ¬=¤< +=¬r¬ 36 =>r 3 +t ¤rar +r¤t)
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