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# JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2. 2.1

FORCE AND MOTION ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION

Distance and displacement 1. Types of physical quantity: (i) (ii) 2. Scalar quantity: …………………………………………………………………. Vector quantity: …………………………………………………………………

The difference between distance and displacement: (i) (ii) Distance: ………………………………………………………………………… Displacement: ……………………………………………………………………

3. 4.

Distance always longer than displacement. Example: The following diagram shows the location of Johor Bahru and Desaru. You can travel by car using existing road via Kota Tinggi, or travel by a small plane along straight path. Calculate how far it is from Johor Bahru to Desaru if you traveled by: a. The car b. The plane Kota Tinggi 41 km 53 km

Solution:

Johor 60 km Desaru

Hands-on Activity 2.2 pg 10 of the practical book. Idea of distance and displacement, speed and velocity. Speed and velocity 1. 2. 3. Speed is ..………………………………………………………………………………… Velocity is: ..……………………………………………………………………………... Average of speed: ………………………………………………………………………

4.

Average of velocity: ……………………………………………………………………...

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

5.

Example: An aero plane flies from A to B, which is located 300 km east of A. Upon reaching B, the aero plane then flies to C, which is located 400 km north. The total time of flight is 4 hours. Calculate i. The speed of the aero plane ii. The velocity of the aero plane Solution:

Acceleration and deceleration 1. Study the phenomenon below;

0 m s-1

20 m s-1

40 m s-1

**Observation: ……………………………………………………………………………… 2. Acceleration is, ………………………………………………………………………. Then, a = 3. Example of acceleration; t=2s
**

A B

Or, a = v – u t t=2s

C

0 m s-1

20 m s-1 2

40 m s-1

JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Calculate the acceleration of car; i) from A to B

ii)

From B to C

4.

Deceleration happens ...………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

5.

Example of deceleration; A lorry is moving at 30 m s-1, when suddenly the driver steps on the brakes and it stop 5 seconds later. Calculate the deceleration of lorry.

Analyzing of motion 1. Linear motion can be studied in the laboratory using a ticker timer and a ticker tape. Refer text book photo picture 2.4 page 26. (i) Determination of time:

.

(ii)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Determination of displacement as the length of ticker tape over a period of time.

. x

(iii)

.

.

.

.

.

.

. y

**. . . . . . . . ……………………………………………………………………………………….. . . . . . . . . ...……….…………………………………………………………………………….. . . . . . . . .
**

.…………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Determine the type of motion;

JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(iv)

.

Determination of velocity

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

displacement = ……………………… Velocity, v =

time = ………………………………..

(v)

**Determine the acceleration Length/cm
**

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 u v

The equation of motion 1.

ticks

The important symbols : ……………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.

The list of important formula;

3.

Example 1 : A car traveling with a velocity of 10 m s-1 accelerates uniformly at a rate of 3 m s-2 for 20 s. Calculate the displacement of the car while it is accelerating.

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example 2 : A van that is traveling with velocity 16 m s-1 decelerates until it comes to rest. If the distance traveled is 8 m, calculate the deceleration of the van.

Exercise 2.1 Length / cm Figure 2.1 shows a tape chart consisting of 5-tick strip. Describe 16 the motion represented by AB and BC. In each case, determine the ; 12 A to B acceleration, BC uniform velocity (a) displacement 8 1. (b) average velocity 4 0 Figure 2.1 A B C Time/s

(c)

acceleration

2.

A car moving with constant velocity of 40 ms-1 . The driver saw and obstacle in front and he immediately stepped on the brake pedal and managed to stop the car in 8 s. The distance of the obstacle from the car when the driver spotted it was 180 m. How far is the obstacle from the car has stopped.

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.2

ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

0m 0s

100m 10s

200m 20s

300m 30s

400m 40s

500m 50s

displacement time

The data of the motion of the car can be presented…………………………………. The displacement-time Graph a) displacement (m) Graph analysis: ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… time (s) b) displacement (m) ……………...……………………………………………… Graph analysis: ……..………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… time (s) c) displacement (m) ……….………………………………………………………… Graph analysis: …….…………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… time (s) ..…………………………………………………………………

d)

Displacement (m)

Graph analysis: …………………………….……………………………………… ……………………………………………..………………………

time (s)

……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

e)

displacement (m)

Graph analysis: ………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………..

time (s) ………………………………………………………….. f) displacement (m) A B Graph analysis: ………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………… O The velocity-time Graph a) v/ m s-1 Graph analysis: ………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………… t b) v/ m s-1 t /s Graph analysis: ………………………………………..……………….. ………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………… t t /s ………………………………………………………… C time (s)

c)

v (m s-1)

Graph analysis: …………………………………..…………………. ……………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………

t1

t2

t (s)

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

d)

v (m s-1)

Graph analysis: ...…………………………………..……………….. …………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………… t (s) ……………………………………………………… .……………………………………………………...

e)

v (m s-1)

Graph analysis: ………..…………………………..……………….. ……….…………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………… t (s) ……………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………… Calculate:(i) Velocity over OP, QR and RS (ii) Displacement Solution :

Examples 1. s/m

20

P

Q

10

O R

0 -10

2

4

6

8

S

t/s

2.

v/m s-1

**Calculate:(i) acceleration,a over OP, PQ and QR (ii) Displacement
**

P Q

10 5

O

Solution :

R

0

2

4

6

8

10 t/s

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Excercise 2.2 1. (a) s/m (b) s/m 10 (c) s/m

t/s -5

0 -10

2

4 t/s

t/s

Figure 2.21 Describe and interprète the motion of a body which is represented by the displacement time graphs in Figure 2.21

2.

Describe and interpret the motion of body which is represented by the velocity-time graphs shown in figure 2.22. In each case, find the distance covered by the body and its displacement (a) v/m s-1 (b) v/m s-1 10

t/s -5

0 -10

2

4

t/s

Figure 2.22

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.3

UNDERSTANDING INERTIA

Idea of inertia 1. 2. 3. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Hand-on activity 2.5 in page 18 of the practical book to gain an idea of inertia

4.

Meaning of inertia : …………..…………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Mass and inertia 1. Refer to figure 2.14 of the text book, the child and an adult are given a push to swing. (i) (ii) 2. which one of them will be more difficult to be moved ……………………... which one of them will be more difficult to stop? …………………………….

The relationship between mass and inertia : ……………………………….……………………………………………………………..

3.

The larger mass …………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Effects of inertia 1. Positive effect : ………………………………………………………………………… (i) (ii) (iii) 2. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

Negative effect : …………………………………………………………………………. (i) ……………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………….. (ii) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… (iii) ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… (iv) ………………………………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Execise 2.3 1. What is inertia? Does 2 kg rock have twice the inertia of 1 kg rock? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2.

Figure 2,3 A wooden dowel is fitted in a hole through a wooden block as shown in figure 2.31. Explain what happen when we (a) strike the top of the dowel with a hammer, ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… (b) hit the end of the dowel on the floor. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………

2.4

ANALYSING MOMENTUM

Idea of momentum 1. 2. 3. When an object is moving, …...………………………………………………………… The amount of momentum ...…………………………………………………………… Momentum is defined……………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Conservation of momentum

mg

mb

vb

vg = 0

Momentum = mbvb (mb + mg) Starting position before she catches the ball Receiving a massive ball vb&g

Momentum = (mb+mg)vb&g

vb mb Momentum = mbvb Starting position before she throws the ball

vg mg Momentum = mgvg

Throwing a massive ball

The principle of conservation of momentum : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1. Elastic collision .………………………………………………………………………….. u1 m1 u2 m2 m1 v2 m2

Before collision

after collision

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.

Inelastic collision :………………………………………………………………………... u1 m u2 = 0 m2 v m1 + m2

Before collision

after collision

3.

explosion :

…….....…………………………………………………………………... (m1 + m2), u = 0 v1 v2 m2

Before explosion

after explosion

Example 1 :

Car A

Car B

Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at 20 m s-1 in front of it. Car A and B move separately after collision. If Car A is still moving at 25 m s-1 after collision, determine the velocity of Car B after collision. Solution :

Example 2 : Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at 20 m s-1 in front of it. Car A is pulled by Car B after collision. Determine the common velocity of Car A and B after collision. Solution :

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example 3 : A bullet of mass 2 g is shot from a gun of mass 1 kg with a velocity of 150 m s-1 . Calculate the velocity of the recoil of the gun after firing. Solution :

Exercise 2.4 1. An arrow of mass 150 g is shot into a wooden block of mass 450 g lying at rest on a smooth surface. At the moment of impact, the arrow is travelling horizontally at 15 ms-1. Calculate the common velocity after the impact.

2.

A riffle of mass 5.0 kg fires a bullet of mass 50 g with a velocity of 80 m s-1 .Calculate the recoil velocity. Explain why the recoil velocity of a riflle is much less than the velocity of the bullet.

2.5

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECT OF A FORCE

Idea of force 1. What will happen when force act to an object? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Idea of balanced forces 1. An object is said to be in balance when it is: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Stationary object ……………………………… Stationary object explanation : ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……….…………………………………….. ………………………………………… 3. An object moving with uniform velocity …………………………….. …..……………. …………… explanation : …………………………………………….. …………………………………………….. …………………………………………….. ……………………………… ………..……………………………………. …………………………………………….. …………………………………………….. Idea of unbalanced forces 1. 2. A body is said to be in unbalanced..…………………………………………………… ……………………….. Explanation; ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……… …….. ………………………………………………

Relationship between forces, mass and acceleration (F = ma) Experiment 2.2 page 29. Aim : To investigate the relationship between acceleration and force applied on a constant mass. Experiment 2.3 page 31 Aim: To investigate the relationship between mass and acceleration of an object under constant force.

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

1.

Refer to the result of experiment 2.2 and 2.3, ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 newton (F = 1 N) is defined as the force required to produce an acceleration of 1 m s-2 (a=1 m s-2) when its acting on an object of mass 1 kg ( m = 1 kg) So, ………………………………………………………………………………………… Example 1 : Calculate F, when a = 3 m s-2 dan m = 1000 kg

2.

3.

Example 2 : m = 25 kg F = 200 N

Calculate the acceleration, a of an object.

Exercise 2.5 1. A trolley of mass 30 kg is pulled along the ground by horizontal force of 50 N. The opposing frictional force is 20 N. Calculate the acceleration of the trolley.

2.

A 1000 kg car is travelling at 72 km h-1 when the brakes are applied. It comes to a stop in a distance of 40 m. What is the average braking force of the car?

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.6

ANALYSING IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE

Impulse and impulsive force 1. 2. Impulse is ………………………………………………………………………………. Impulsive force is ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Formula of impulse and impulsive force: Refer, F = ma

Example 1;

v

u

wall If ; u = 10 m s-1 , v = - 10 m s-1 , m = 5 kg Impulse, Ft = and t = 1 s

and impulsive force, F =

Example 2;

v

u

Wall with a soft surface If ; u = 10 m s-1 , v = - 10 m s-1 , m = 5 kg Impulse, Ft = and t = 2 s

and impulsive force, F =

4.

The relationship between time of collision and impulsive force. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 2.6

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

1.

A force of 20 N is applied for 0.8 s when a football player throws a ball from the sideline. What is the impulse given to the ball?

2.

A stuntman in a movie jumps from a tall building an falls toward the ground. A large canvas bag filled with air used to break his fall. How is the impulsive force reduced?

2.7 BEING AWARE OF THE NEED FOR SAFETY FEATURES IN VEHICLES Safety features in vehicles

Importance of safety features in vehicles

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Safety features Padded dashboard

Importance

Rubber bumper Shatter-proof windscreen Air bag Safety seat belt Side bar in doors

Exercise 2.7 1. By using physics concepts, explain the midifications to the bus that help to improve that safety of passengers and will be more comfortable.

2.8

UNDERSTANDING GRAVITY

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Carry out hands-on activity 2.8 on page 35 of the practical book. Acceleration due to gravity. 1. 2. 3. An object will fall to the surface of the earth because………………………………... The force of gravity also known ………………………………………………………... When an object falls under the force of gravity only, ………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. 5. The acceleration of objects falling freely ……………………………………………… The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity depends ………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Gravitational field 1. 2. 3. 4. The region around the earth is …………………………………………………………. The object in gravitational field ………………………………………………………… The gravitational field strength is defined …………………………………………….. The gravitational field strength, g can be calculate as;

5.

At the surface of the earth, …………….………………………………………………………………………………..

6.

This means ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

7.

Example 1. Can you estimate the gravitational force act to your body? mass = 60 kg, g = 9.8 N kg-1, F = ?

Example 2, A satellite of mass 600 kg in orbit experiences a gravitational force of 4800 N. Calculate the gravitational field strength.

Example 3,

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

A stone is released from rest and falls into a well. After 1.2 s, it hits the bottom of the well. (a) What is the velocity of the stone when it hits the bottom? (b) Calculate the depth of the well.

Weight 1. 2. The weight of an object is defined …………………………………………………….. For an object of mass m, the weight can be calculate as :

Example :

The mass of a helicopter is 600 kg. What is the weight of the helicopter when it land on the peak of a mountain where the gravitational field is 9.78 N kg-1?

Exercise 2.8 1. Sketch the following graphs for an object that falling freely. (a) (b) (c) Displacement-time graph, Velocity-time graph Acceleration-time graph

2.

The following data was obtained from an experiment to measure the acceleration due to gravity.

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Mass of steel bob = 200 g, distance covered = 3.0 m, time of fall = 0.79 s. Calculate the acceleration due to gravity of steel bob. Give the explanation why your answer different with the constant of gravitational acceleration, g = 9.8 m s-2.

2.9

IDEA OF EQUILIBRIUM FORCES

An object is in equilibrium when : 1. 2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

stationary object

An object moving with uniform velocity

Addition of Force 1. Addition of force is defined as ...……………………………………………………..

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Examples : the forces are acting in one direction F1 = 10 N F2 = 5 N Resultant force, F

Example : the forces are acting in opposite directions F1 = 10 N F2 = 5 N Resultant force, F

Example : the forces are acting in different directions

F2 = 5 N 500 F

F1 = 10 N

Parallelogram method: 1. 2. Draw to scale. Draw the line parallel with F1 to the edge of F2, and the line parallel with F2 to the edge of F1 3. Connect the diagonal of the parallelogram starting from the initial point.

4.

Measure the length of the diagonal from the initial point as the value of the resultant force.

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

F2 F

F1 Triangle method 1. 2. 3. Draw to scale. Displace one of the forces to the edge of another force. Complete the triangle and measure the resultant force from the initial point.

Example 1:

During Sport Day two teams in tug of war competition pull with forces of 6000 N and 5300 N respectively. What is the value of the resultant force? Are the two team in equilibrium?

Example 2:

A boat in a river is pulled horizontally by two workmen. Workmen A pulls with a force of 200 N while workmen while workmen B pulls with a force of 300 N. The ropes used make an angle 250 with each other. Draw a parallelogram and label the resultant force using scale of Determine the magnitude of resultant force. 1 cm : 50 N.

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Resolution of a force 1. Resolution of a force is …………………………………………………………………

θ

Refer to trigonometric formula:

Example :

The figure below shows Ali mopping the floor with a force 50 N at an angle of 600 to the floor.

F = 50 N

**Example of resolution and combination of forces
**

F=?

200 N 400

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Problem solving 1. 2. When a system is in equilibrium, ………………………………………………………. If all forces acting at one point are resolved into horizontal and vertical components, …………………………………………………………………………… 3. Example 1; Show on a figure; a) the direction of tension force, T of string b) the resultant force act to lamp c) calculate the magnitude of tension force, T

T

700

700

a) T

b) T’

mlamp = 1.5 kg

Exercise 2.9 1. Two force with magnitude 18 N and 6 N act along a straight line. With the aid of diagrams, determine the maximun possible value and the minimum possible value of the resultant force.

2.

A football is kicked simultaneously by two players with force 220 N and 200 N respectively, as shown in Figure 2.9. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant force.

220 N 900

200 N

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.10

UNDERSTANDING WORK, ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY

Work 1. Work is done, …………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. WORK is the product.……………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. The formulae of work;

4.

Example 1; Force, F s

Example 2;

80 N 600 s= 5m

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example 3;

Example 4;

F = 600 N

S = 0.8 m

Energy 1. 2. 3. Energy is ................................................................................................................. Energy cannot be .................................................................................................... Exist in various forms such as …………………...…………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Example of the energy transformation; ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 5. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Example : ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Work done and the change in kinetic energy Force, F

s 1. 2. Kinetic energy is ………………………………………………………………………… Refer to the figure above, Through, v2 = u2 +2as u=0 and, as = ½ v2

3.

Example 1;

A small car of mass 100 kg is moving along a flat road. The resultant force on the car is 200 N. a) What is its kinetic energy of the car after moving through 10 m? b) What is its velocity after moving through 10 m?

Work done and gravitational potential energy

h = 1.5 m

1.

Gravitational potential energy is………………………………………………………... ………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.

Refer to the figure above;

3.

Example; If m = 10 kg

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Principle of conservation of energy Carry out hands-on activity 2.10 on page 38 of the practical book. To show the principle of conservation of energy. 1. Energy cannot be ……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Example : a thrown ball upwards will achieve a maximum height before changing its direction and falls

3.

Example in calculation : A coconut falls from a tree from a height of 20 m. What is the velocity of coconut just before hitting the earth?

Power 1. Power is …………………………………………………………………………………

2.

A weightlifter lifts 180 kg of weights from the floor to a height of 2 m above his head in a time of 0.8 s. What is the power generated by the weightlifter during this time? g = 9.8 ms-2)

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Efficiency 1. 2. Defined……..……………………………………………………………………………. Formulae of efficiency :

3.

Analogy of efficiency;

Device/ mechine

Energy transformation 4. Example; An electric motor in a toy crane can lift a 0.12 kg weight through a height of 0.4 m in 5 s. During this time, the batteries supply 0.8 J of energy to the motor. Calculate (a) The useful of output of the motor. (b) The efficiency of the motor

Carry out hands-on activity 2.11 on page 39 of the practical book to measure the power.

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Exercise 2.10 1. What is the work done by a man when he pushes a box with a force of 90 N through a distance of 10 m? State the amount of energy transferred from the man to the force.

2.

A sales assistant at a shop transfers 50 tins of milk powder from the floor to the top shelf. Each tin has a mass of 3.0 kg and the height of thee top shelf is 1.5 m. (a) Calculate the total work done by the sales assistant.

(b)

What is his power if he completes this work in 250 s?

2.11

APPRECIATING THE IMPORTANCE OF MAXIMISING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEVICES

1.

During the process of transformation the input energy to the useful output energy,……………………………………………………………………………………..

2. 3.

.…………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Example of wasting the energy; ………..………………… Input enegy from the petrol output energy

…………………… ……………. ……………… ……………………. ..………………….. ..………………….. …………….. ………………….. ……………………. ……………. …………………. …………………….

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Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

4. 5.

The world we are living in face acute shortage of energy. It is very important that a device makes …………………………………………………………………

Ways of increasing the efficiency of devices 1. Heat engines ……………………..……………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Electrical devices. ...……………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Operation of electrical devices 1. 2. 3. The electrical devices increase the efficiency………………………………….…… Proper management ….....……………………………………………………………… …………..……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.12

UNDERSTANDING ELASTICITY

Carry out Hands-on activity 2.12 page 40 of the practical book. 1. Elasticity is ……………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Forces between atoms ………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Forces between atoms in equilibrium condition

Force of attraction Force of repulsion Force of repulsion

Explanation : ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Forces between atoms in compression compressive force Force of repulsion Explanation ; ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 5. Forces between atoms in tension force of attraction compressive force Force of repulsion

stretching force Explanation ;

stretching force

……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Carry out Experiment 2.4 on page 41 of the practical book To investigate the relationship between force and extension of a spring Hooke’s Law 1. Hooke’s Law states ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Elastic limit of a spring is defined………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. The spring is said to have a permanent extension,...………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. The elastic limit is not exceeded,…………………………………………….………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

5.

Graf F against x F/ N

Q E P

0

R

x (cm)

6.

Spring Constant, k F/N 0.8

0

8

x/cm

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example 1;

A spring has an original length of 15 cm. With a load of mass 200 g attached, the length of the spring is extend to 20 cm. a. Calculate the spring constant. b. What is the length of the spring when the load is in increased by 150 g? [assume that g = 10 N kg-1]

Example 2;

F (N) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Q

**Graph F against x of spring P and spring Q
**

P

The graph shows the relationship between the stretching force, F and the spring extension, x. (a) Calculate the spring constant of P and Q. (b) Using the graph, determine the stretching force acts to spring P and spring Q, when their extension are 0.5 cm

x (cm)

Elastic potential energy 1. Elastic potential energy ……………………………………………………………….. spring with the original length F compression x spring compressed F x x = compression F spring extended x = extension F, extension Other situation where the spring extended and compressed x x

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

**Relationship between work and elastic potential energy
**

F/N F x

Graph F against x

x / cm

Example ;

5 kg

15 cm

8 cm

Factors that effect elasticity Hands-on activity 2.13 on page 42 the practical book to investigate the factors that affect elasticity.

Type of material Diameter of spring wire Diameter of spring Length of spring

different same same same

same different same Same

same same different same

same same same different

Summarise the four factors that affect elasticity Factor Length Change in factor Effect on elasticity

Diameter of spring

Diameter of spring wire Type of material

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Exercise 2.12 1. A 6 N force on a spring produces an extension of 2 cm. What is the extension when the force is increased to 18 N? State any assumption you made in calculating your answer.

2.

If a 20 N force extends a spring from 5 cm to 9 cm, (a) what is the force constant of the spring?

(b)

Calculate the elastic potential energy stored in the spring.

Reinforcement Chapter 2 Part A : Objective Questions 1. When a coconut is falling to the ground, which of the following quantities is constant? A. B. C. D. 2. Velocity Momentum Acceleration Kinetic energy 3. Calculate the weight of a stone with mass 60 g on the surface of the moon. (The gravitational acceleration of the moon is 1/6 that of the Earth.) A. B. C. D. E. 4. 0.1 N 0.2 N 0.4 N 0.6 N 0.8 N

In an inelastic collision, which of the following quantities remains constant before and after the collision? A. B. C. D. Total acceleration Total velocity Total momentum Total kinetic energy

The momentum of a particle is depend on A. B. C. mass and acceleration weight and force mass and velocity

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

5.

Which of the following diagrams shows a body moving at constant velocity? A. B. C. D. 2N 12 N 12 N 20 N 2N 7N 14 N 17 N

8. 5m

m = 0.3 kg

What is the momentum of the stone just before it hits the ground? A. B. C. D. E. 0.15 kg m s-1 0.3 kg m s-1 1.5 kg m s-1 3.0 kg m s-1 15.0 kg m s-1

6.

**The graph below shows the motion of a trolley with mass 1.5 kg. Velocity / ms 4
**

-1

Solution :

0 2 4 6 Time / s Calculate the momentum of the trolley from t = 2s to t = 4s. A. B. C. D. E. 7. 1.5 kg m s-1 3.0 kg m s-1 4.0 kg m s-1 6.0 kg m s-1 7.5 kg m s-1

9.

A big ship will keep moving for some distance when its engine is turned off. This situation happens because the ship has A. B. C. D. great inertia great acceleration great momentum great kinetic energy An iron ball is dropped at a height of 10 m from the surface of the moon. Calculate the time needed for the iron ball to land. (Gravitational acceleration of the moon is 1/6 that of the Earth and g = 9.8 N kg-2) A B C D E 0.6 s 1.4 s 1.7 s 3.5 s 12.0 s

This figure shows an aircraft flying in the air. Lift

10.

Thrust

Air friction

Weight The aircraft above accelerates if A. B. C. D. Lift > Weight Thrust > Lift Lift > Air friction Thrust > Air friction

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Part B : Structure Questions 1.

(i) Car A Diagram 1.1

(ii) Car B

Diagram 1.1(i) and (ii) show two methods used by the mechanic to move a breakdown car. A constant force, F = 500 N is used to push and pull the car in method A and B. (a) (i) Which method is easier to move the car? ……………………………………………………………………………… (ii) State a reason for your answer in (a)(i). ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… (b) The frictional force acting between the car and track surface in both methods is 200 N. Calculate, the (i) horizontal resultant force in method A.

(ii)

horizontal resultant force in method B.

(iii)

acceleration of the car in method B.

(c)

Suggest a method to move Car B so that the acceleration produced is equal to that of method A. ……………………………………………………………………………..……….. ………………………………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.

ceiling

Tin P (i) a) Q

water Diagram 2.1

M

N R (ii)

hand

Diagram 2.1(i) shows tin P that is empty and tin Q that is filled with water. A student find difficult to pushed tin Q. Write the inference about the observation. ……………………………………………………………………………………… Diagram 2.1(ii) shows a tin being released from the different positions M and N. The hand of a student at position R needs greater force to stop the motion of the tin falling from position M. Explain this observation. ………………………………………………………………………………………

b)

c)

……………………………………………………………………………………… Based on the observation (i) and (ii), state two factors that affect the magnitude of the momentum of the object. ……………………………………………………………………………………… If water flows out from a hole at the bottom of the tin Q, how would the inertia of Tin Q depends on time ? ……………………………………………………………………………………

d)

3. P

2 ms-1 iron ball ( 2 kg ) S 3.0 m smooth surface 1.0 m Q Diagram 3 R Rough surface 2.0 m T

The figure shows a iron ball that is rolled through PQRST. The rough surface of QR has frictional force of 4 N. a) Calculate (i) the kinetic energy of the iron ball at P.

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JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(ii)

the potential energy of the iron ball at P.

(iii)

the total of energy of the iron ball at P.

b) c)

(i) (ii)

Calculate the total of energy of the iron ball when it reaches at Q ? Calculate the work done against friction along QR.

d)

Calculate the total kinetic energy of the iron ball at S.

e)

Calculate the speed of the ball at position T.

Part C : Essay Questions 1.

(i)

(ii)

Diagram 1.1 Diagram 1.1(i) shows the condition of a car moving at high velocity when it suddenly crashes into a wall. Diagram 1.1(ii) shows a tennis ball hit with racquet by a player. a) (i) What is the meaning of momentum? (ii) Based on the observations of Diagram (i) and (ii), compare the characteristics of car when it crashes into the wall and the tennis ball when it is hit with a racquet. Hence, relate these characteristics to clarify a physics concept, and name this concept. 42

JPN Pahang

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

b) c)

Explain why a tennis player uses a taut racquet when playing. In launching a rocket, a few technical problems have to be overcome before the rocket can move upright to the sky. By using appropriate physics concepts, describe the design of a rocket and the launch techniques that can launch the rocket upright.

2.

Properties Brand

Reaction time / s 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.6

Mass / kg 1.5 1.8 0.9 2.5

A B C D

Engine thrust force / N 10.0 12.5 6.5 16.0

Resistance force /N 4.0 2.4 2.2 6.5

In a radio-controlled car racing competition, 4 mini-cars branded A, B, C and D took part. The information of the 4 cars is given in the table above. Details of the above information are given as below; Reaction time - Duration between the moment the radio-controlled is switched on and the moment the car starts moving. Resistance - Average value of opposing forces includes the friction between wheels and track, and air resistance. (a) What is the meaning of acceleration? (b) Draw a graph of velocity against time that shows a car moving initially with constant acceleration, then moving with constant velocity and followed by constant deceleration until it stops. (c) Explain the suitability of the properties in the above table in constructing a radiocontrolled car racing purpose. Hence, determine which brand of car will win the 50-metre race. (c) If Car B in the above table is moved up the plane at the angle of 30o to the horizon, (i) Show that the car is able to move up the plane. (ii) Determine the acceleration of the car.

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