CET 1

:

Stress Analysis & Pressure Vessels

Lent Term 2005

Dr. Clemens Kaminski
Telephone: +44 1223 763135
E-mail: clemens_kaminski@cheng.cam.ac.uk URL: http://www.cheng.cam.ac.uk/research/groups/laser/

Synopsis 1 Introduction to Pressure Vessels and Failure Modes
1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Stresses in Cylinders and Spheres Compressive failure. Euler buckling. Vacuum vessels Tensile failure. Stress Stress Concentration & Cracking

2

3-D stress and strain

Elasticity and Strains-Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio Bulk and Shear Moduli Hoop, Longitudinal and Volumetric Strains Strain Energy. Overfilling of Pressure Vessels Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Thermal Effect in cylindrical Pressure Vessels Two-Material Structures

3

Thermal Effects
3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3

4

Torsion.

Shear Stresses in Shafts - τ/r = T/J = Gθ/L Thin Walled Shafts Thin Walled Pressure Vessel subject to Torque

5

Two Dimensional Stress Analysis
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2

Nomenclature and Sign Convention for Stresses Mohr's Circle for Stresses Worked Examples Application of Mohr's Circle to Three Dimensional Systems Tresca's Criterion. The Stress Hexagon Von Mises' Failure Criterion. The Stress Ellipse

6

Bulk Failure Criteria

7

Two Dimensional Strain Analysis
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Direct and Shear Strains Mohr's Circle for Strains Measurement of Strain - Strain Gauges Hooke’s Law for Shear Stresses

Supporting Materials
There is one Examples paper supporting these lectures. Two good textbooks for further explanation, worked examples and exercises are Mechanics of Materials (1997) Gere & Timoshenko, publ. ITP [ISBN 0-534-93429-3] Mechanics of Solids (1989) Fenner, publ. Blackwell [ISBN 0-632-02018-0] This material was taught in the CET I (Old Regulations) Structures lecture unit and was examined in CET I (OR) Paper IV Section 1. There are consequently a large number of old Tripos questions in existence, which are of the appropriate standard. From 1999 onwards the course was taught in CET1, paper 5. Chapters 7 and 8 in Gere and Timoshenko contain a large number of example problems and questions.

Nomenclature
The following symbols will be used as consistently as possible in the lectures. E G I J R t T
α ε γ η ν σ τ

Young’s modulus Shear modulus second moment of area polar moment of area radius thickness
τορθυε

thermal expansivity linear strain shear strain angle Poisson’s ratio Normal stress Shear stress

A pressure vessel near you! .

Distillation column 2m P = 7 bara carbon steel t = 5 mm 18 m .Ongoing Example We shall refer back to this example of a typical pressure vessel on several occasions.

MRM 1 . This unit will concentrate on the application of stress analysis to bulk failure in thin walled vessels only. Stresses in Cylinders and Spheres Consider a cylindrical pressure vessel L External diameter D internal gauge pressure P r L h wall thickness.1. SAPV LT 2005 CFK. Hoop stress σh all are normal stresses. t The hydrostatic pressure causes stresses in three dimensions. Longitudinal stress (axial) σL 2.g. It is thus important to be able to be able to understand and quantify (resolve) stresses in solids. LPG storage tanks) • cylindrical (e. 1. Radial stress σr 3. distillation columns) Such vessels fail when the stress state somewhere in the wall material exceeds some failure criterion.1.g. Introduction to Pressure Vessels and Failure Modes Pressure vessels are very often • spherical (e. liquid storage tanks) • cylindrical shells with hemispherical ends (e. where (i) the vessel self weight can be neglected and (ii) the thickness of the material is much smaller than the dimensions of the vessel (D » t).g. 1.

The longitudinal stress σL P σ L Force equilibrium π D2 P = π D t σL 4 if P > 0. MRM 2 PD 2t . D L P = 2 σ h L t σh = SAPV LT 2005 CFK. The hoop stress σh P PD 4t σ h σ P h P Force balance.σ r σ r L h L σ h a. then σ L is tensile σL = b.

2t thin walled. so D >> t so σ h . σL ≈ P ( ). MRM 3 . Radial stress σ σ r r varies from P on inner surface to 0 on the outer face σr ≈ o ( P ) σh . σ L >> σ r so neglect σ r Compare terms D d. The spherical pressure vessel P σ h P π D2 P = σh π D t 4 PD σh = 4t SAPV LT 2005 CFK.c.

2. MRM . W σ bulk = W = σY πDt Compressive stresses can cause failure due to buckling (bending instability). A column or strut of length L supported at one end will buckle if π 2 EI W= 2 L Consider a cylindrical column. Compressive Failure: – Bulk Yielding & Buckling – Vacuum Vessels Consider an unpressurised cylindrical column subjected to a single load W.g. The critical load for the onset of buckling is given by Euler's analysis. Bulk failure will occur when the normal compressive stress exceeds a yield criterion.1. A full explanation is given in the texts. e. and the basic results are summarised in the Structures Tables. I = πR3t so the compressive stress required to cause buckling is σ buckle or W π 2 EπD3t 1 π 2 ED 2 = = ⋅ = 2 πDt 8L πDt 8 L2 σ buckle π2 E = 2 8( L D) 4 SAPV LT 2005 CFK.

The mode of failure thus depends on the geometry: σ stress Euler buckling locus σ y Bulk yield Short L /D ratio Long SAPV LT 2005 CFK. MRM 5 .where L/D is a slenderness ratio.

Cylindrical pressure vessels subject to external pressure are subject to compressive hoop stresses ∆PD 2t Consider a length L of vessel . σh = ∆P D L 2 If this force is large enough it will cause buckling. the compressive hoop force is given by.Vacuum vessels. MRM 6 . σh L t = length Treat the vessel as an encastered beam of length πD and breadth L SAPV LT 2005 CFK.

Buckling occurs when Force W given by. MRM 7 . 4π 2 EI W= (π D) 2 b t3 L t3 = 12 12 ∆P D L 4π 2 EI = 2 (π D )2 ∆p buckle 2E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝D⎠ 3 I= = SAPV LT 2005 CFK.

1.3. Tensile stresses can thus cause failure due to bulk yielding or due to cracking. Tensile Failure: Stress Concentration & Cracking Consider the rod in the Figure below subject to a tensile load. and gives the failure criterion for a crack of length a σ π a = Kc where Kc is the material fracture toughness. SAPV LT 2005 CFK. The mechanism of fast fracture involves the concentration of tensile stresses at a crack root. but near XX the stress distribution is complex. including that of cracks. D X d W X There is a concentration of stress at the rod surface below XX and this value should thus be considered when we consider failure mechanisms. MRM 8 . The stress distribution across the rod a long distance away from the change in cross section (XX) will be uniform. The ratio of the maximum local stress to the mean (or apparent) stress is described by a stress concentration factor K K= σ max σ mean The values of K for many geometries are available in the literature.

a SAPV LT 2005 CFK.σ crack = Kc 1 ⋅ √ π √a stress failure locus length of crack. MRM 9 .

Elasticity and Yield Many materials obey Hooke's law σ = Eε σ σ E ε applied stress (Pa) Young's modulus (Pa) strain (-) failure Yield Stress ε Elastic Limit up to a limit. Consider a sample of material subjected to a tensile force F. Hooke's Law ε1 = (σ1 ≡ F / A ) / E 10 .1. deformation is reversible and the material eventually returns to its original shape. Below these limits. 2 F F 1 3 An increase in length (axis 1) will be accompanied by a decrease in dimensions 2 and 3. known as the yield stress (stress axis) or the elastic limit (strain axis). the material behaviour depends on its nature. 3-D stress and strain 2.2. Above these limits.

so for three mutually perpendicular stresses σ1. These effects are additive.ε3 = − ν σ1 E where ν is the Poisson ratio for that material. σ2.30 0.33 0.3 are given by ε2 = −ν σ1 E .35 11 .The strain in the perpendicular directions 2. σ2 σ1 σ3 Giving ε1 = σ1 E − E νσ 2 E + − − E νσ 3 E − ε2 = − ε3 = − νσ1 νσ1 E σ2 νσ 3 E νσ 2 E + σ3 E Values of the material constants in the Data Book give orders of magnitudes of these parameters for different materials. Material Steel Aluminum alloy Brass E (x109 N/m2) 210 70 105 ν 0. σ3.

the volumetric strain resulting from the application of a uniform pressure. E = 210 kN/mm2. In the case of a pressure causing expansion so σ1 = σ 2 = σ 3 = − P −P 1 σ1 − νσ 2 − νσ 3 ] = (1 − 2 ν ) [ E E −3 P ε v = ε1 + ε 2 + ε 3 = (1 − 2 ν ) E E K= 3(1 − 2 ν ) ε1 = ε 2 = ε 3 = For steel.e.3.2 kN/mm2 For a perfect gas. K = 2. giving K = 175 kN/mm2 For water.shear strain 12 . G). The bulk modulus is defined as Puniform = − Kε v i. 10-4 kN/mm2) Shear Modulus definition τ = Gγ γ . K) or shear (shear modulus.2. K = P (1 bara. ν = 0.2 Bulk and Shear Moduli These material properties describe how a material responds to an applied stress (bulk modulus.

υ ) = R D 4tE radial strain εr = δt 3PDυ 1 = σ r .υσ h .υσ L ] = [ t 4ET E [fractional increase in wall thickness is negative!] 13 . longitudinal and volumetric strains (micro or millistrain) Fractional increase in dimension: ε L – length ε h – circumference ε rr – wall thickness (a) Cylindrical vessel: Longitudinal strain εL = σL E - υσ h E - υσ r E = PD δL (1 .2υ ) = 4tE L Hoop strain: εh = σn E - υσ L E = δR δD PD = (2 .2. Hoop.3.

υσ n ) E 1 60 x 10 6 .257 millistrain Thus: pressurise the vessel to 6 bar: L and D increase: t decreases Volume expansion Cylindrical volume: ⎛ πD 2 ⎞ Vo = ⎜ o ⎟ Lo ⎝ 4 ⎠ V = (original) 2 New volume π (Do 4 2 + δD) (Lo + δL) L π Do 2 1 + ε h ] [1 + ε L ] = o [ 4 δV Define volumetric strain ε v = V V .1 Vo 2 = 1 + 2ε h + ε h (1 + ε L ) .1 2 2 εv = 2εh + ε L + εh + 2ε h ε L + ε L ε n ( ) Magnitude inspection: 14 .3)120 x 10 6 9 210 x 10 1.Vo 2 ∴ εv = = (1 + ε h ) ( 1 + ε L) .114 millistrain [ ] ε h = 0.486 millistrain ε r = -0.(0.14 x 10-4 -≡ 0.[ONGOING EXAMPLE]: εL = = = 1 (σ L .

086 x 10-3 = 61 Litres Volume of steelo = πDLt = 0.905 x 10 210 x 10 εv = 2ε h + ε L 6 Ignoring second order terms.486 mstrain εrr = -0.υσ r ] = PD (1 . {Continued example} – cylinder εL = 0.257 mstrain εv = 2εn + ε L ∴ new volume = Vo (1 + εv) Increase in volume = π D2 L 4 ε v = 56. (b) Spherical volume: εh = so 1 [σ h .114 mstrain εn = 0.υ ) 4Et E 3 π (Do + δD )3 .Do εv = 6 πD 3 o 6 { } = (1 + εh)3 – 1 ≈ 3εh + 0(ε2) (c) General result εv = ε1 + ε2 + ε3 εii are the strains in any three mutually perpendicular directions.ε max (steel) = σy E 190 x 10 −3 = ∴ small 9 = 0.343 mstrains increase in volume of steel = 0.377 m3 εv for steel = εL + εh + εrr = 0.55 x 1.129 L Strain energy – measure of work done Consider an elastic material for which F = k x 15 .υσ L .

Work done in expanding δx dW = Fδx F work done A=area L 0 x Work done in extending to x1 2 kx1 1 x1 x1 w = ∫o Fdx = ∫o k x dx = = Fx 2 2 1 1 Sample subject to stress σ increased from 0 to σ1: Extension Force: x1 = Lo ε1 ⎫ AL oε 1σ1 ⎬ W = F1 = Aσ 1 ⎭ 2 (no direction here) ALo ε1σ 1 2(ALo ) Strain energy. 16 .2ν (σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3σ 1) 2E 2 2 [ ] Consider a uniform pressure applied: σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = P 3P P ∴U = (1 . U = ⇒ U = Al o ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ε σ ⎜ 2 ⎝ Al o ⎠ 1 1 U = ε1σ 1 2 = σ 12 2E 1 [ε1σ1 + ε2σ2 + ε3σ3] 2 υσ 3 υσ 2 σ etc Now ε1 = 1 E E E In a 3-D system. U = work done per unit volume of material.2 υ) = 2E 2K energy stored in system (per unit vol. U = So U = 1 σ 12 + σ 2 2 + σ 32 .

4 L water extra space 5 p=0 p=6 17 . U stored is proportional to 1/K → so pressure test using liquids rather than gases.0.273) = -15. {Ongoing Example} P – 6 barg . δV = 61 x 10-3 m3 increase in volume of pressure vessel Increasing the pressure compresses the contents – normally test with water.273 mstrains = − ∆V water? ε v (water ) = − K 2. 6 x 10 ∆P = .2 x 109 ∴ decrease in volume of water = -Vo (0.4 x 10 –3 m3 Thus we can add more water: Extra space = 61 + 15.For a given P.4 (L) = 76.

. Thermal Effects 3.5 millistrains (!) Consider a steel bar mounted between rigid supports which exert stress σ Heat σ σ ε = α∆T - σ E so σ = Eα∆T (i.3 x 106 ∆T σy = 190 MPa: failure if ∆T > 82.1.6 K 18 .3. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Definition: coefficient of thermal expansion ε = αL∆T Linear Volume Coefficient of thermal volume expansion εv = αT Steel: αL = 11 x 10-6 K-1 reactor ∆T = 10oC ∆T = 500oC ∴ εL = 11 10-5 εL = 5.e. non buckling) If rigid: ε = 0 ⇒ steel: σ = 210 x 109 x 11 x 10-6 ∆T = 2.

{Example}: steam main. installed at 10oC. ∴ must install expansion bends. The Vessel Wall stresses (tensile) σL = PD = 83. to contain 6 bar steam (140oC) if ends are rigid. σ = 300 MPa→ failure.3 P 4t σn = 2σL = 166.7 P 19 . Temperature effects in cylindrical pressure vessels . 3.2. by ∆T: pressure rises to Vessel P. steel construction L = 3 m . full of water t = 3 mm D=1m Initially un pressurised – full of water: increase temp.

75 x 10-10 P + 11 10 –6 ∆T εv = εL + 2εn = 15.37 bar Now .3 = 210 x 10 ⎬ = 11 x 10 −6 ⎪ ⎭ 9⎪ ⎫ εL = 1.08 x 10-10 P + 33 x 10-6 ∆T = vessel vol.585 x 10-10 P + 11 x 10-6 ∆ T Similarly → εh = 6. The Contents. (water) Expands Contracts due to T due to P increase increase: εv.29 x 106 ∆T ∆σn = 22. H2O = αv∆T – P/K ∴ H2O = αv = 60 x 10-6 K-1 εv = 60 x 10-6 ∆T – 4.55 x 10-10 P Since vessel remains full on increasing ∆T: εv (H20) = εv (vessel) Equating → P = 13750 ∆T per 10°C increase in temp.9 Mpa per 10°C rise in Temperature 20 pressure. Strain vessel expands due to temp and pressure change. σn = 166. rise of 1.7 P = 2.Strain (volume) εL = σ L νσ h + α l ∆T E E υ E α = 0.

MORAL: Always leave a space in a liquid vessel. (εv.∴ Failure does not need a large temperature increase. Very large stress changes due to temperature fluctuations. gas = αv∆T – P/K) 21 .

3.3. different materials with different thermal expansivities can cause difficulties. 22 . The Bimetallic strip controllers a= 4 mm (2 + 2 mm) b= 10 mm temperature a d Cu Fe L = 100mm b Heat by ∆T: Cu expands more than Fe so the strip will bend: it will bend in an arc as all sections are identical. Two material structures Beware. {Example} Where there is benefit.

Cu Fe The different thermal expansions. set up shearing forces in the strip. we will obtain a straight beam and Cu Fe F F can then calculate the shearing forces [and hence the BM]. which create a bending moment.α Fe ) ∆T bd ⎩ E cu E Fe ⎭ 23 . Shearing force F compressive in Cu Tensile in Fe Equating strains: α cu ∆T - F F = α Fe ∆T + bdE cu bdE Fe So 1 ⎫ F ⎧ 1 + ⎨ ⎬ = (α cu . If we apply a sagging bending moment of equal [: opposite] magnitude.

ML2 δ= 2 EI This is the principle of the bimetallic strip.bd = 2 x 10-5 m2 Ecu = 109 GPa EFe = 210 GPa αcu 17 x 10-6 k-1 αFe = 11 x 10-6 K-1 ∆T = 30°C F = 387 N (significant force) F acts through the centroid of each section so BM = F. 24 ./(d/2) = 0.774 Nm Use data book to work out deflection.

so will generate a TENSILE stress in the steel and a compressive stress in the copper. Data: αcu > αFe Balance forces: Tensile force in steel Stress in steel “ “ copper |FFe| = |Fcu| = F = F/AFe = σFe = F/Acu = σcu εFE = αFe ∆T + σFe/EFe Steel strain: (no transvere forces) = αFe∆T + F/EFeAFe copper strain εcu = αcu∆T – F/EcuAcu 25 . increase ∆T : copper expands more than steel.Consider a steel rod mounted in a upper tube – spacer Analysis – relevant to Heat Exchangers Cu Fe assembled at room temperature .

26 .Strains EQUAL: ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⇒ F⎢ + = AFe E Fe Acu Ecu ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 144 4 2444 3 sum of strengths (α cu .α Fe ) ∆T ∆d So you can work out stresses and strains in a system.

Torsion – Twisting – Shear stresses 4.1.4. Shear stresses in shafts –τ/r = T/J = G θ/L Consider a rod subject to twisting: Definition : shear strain γ ≡ change in angle that was originally Π/2 Consider three points that define a right angle and more then: Shear strain A γ = γ1 + γ2 [RADIANS] γ1 A B C B γ 2 C Hooke’s Law τ=Gγ G – shear modulus = E 2(1 + υ) 27 .

B B θ B B γ L Plane ABO was originally to the X-X axis Plane ABO is now inclined at angle γ to the axis: tan γ ≈ γ = Shear stress involved τ = Gγ = rθ L Grθ L 28 . T. T 2r Hold one end and rotate other by angle θ .Now consider a rod subject to an applied torque.

Torque required to cause twisting:

τ
r dr

τ

.δT = τ 2Π r.δr r
T = ∫ τ 2Π r 2 dr
A

or
2

∫ τ r.dA
A

Grθ ⎫ ⎧ ⎨τ = ⎬ ⎩ L ⎭

T

= =

Gθ L

∫r

dA
so

Gθ {J} L

T Gθ τ = = J L r

cf

M E σ = = I R y

DEFN: J ≡ polar second moment of area

29

Consider a rod of circular section:
J = ∫ 2π .r r 2 dr =
o R

π
2

R4

y r x

J=
Now r2 = x2 + y2 It can be shown that J = Ixx + Iyy

πD 4
32

[perpendicular axis than]→ see Fenner

this gives an easy way to evaluate Ixx or Iyy in symmetrical geometrics:

Ixx = Iyy = πD4/64 (rod)

30

Rectangular rod:

d

b

I xx

I yy

bd 3 ⎫ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎬ 3⎪ db = ⎪ 12 ⎭

J=

bd 2 b +d2 12

[

]

31

141 rad = 8.1° Say shaft rotates at 1450 rpm: power = = = Tω 291 x 2π x 1450 60 45 kW 32 .Example: steel rod as a drive shaft D = 25 mm L = 1.6 x 10 = ⇒ From L J 1.5 m Failure when τ = τy = 95 MPa G = 81 GPa τ max rmax Now J= πD 4 32 T 95 x 10 6 ⎫ = = ⎪ J 0.0125 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ so T = 291 Nm = 383 x 10 −8 m 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Gθ T 81 x 109 θ 9 = ⇒ 7.5 ( ) θ = 0.

Thin walled shafts (same Eqns apply) Consider a bracket joining two Ex.0254} τy rmax 6 32 ⎛ T ⎞ 95 x 10 x 2 291 =⎜ ⎟⇒ = 4 D π D .2.0254 ⎝J⎠ ( ) D4 – 0.025m What is the minimum value of D for connector? rmax = D/2 J = (π/32){D4 – 0.4. Shafts: T = 291 Nm D min 0.15 cm 33 .0.24 x 10-5 D D ≥ 4.0254 = 6.

D4 ] + ...3. = [8D t + 24 D t 32 π 4 D 3t 2 2 ] ≈ so τ2 D = 4T πD 3 t τ= 2T πD 2 t 34 . Thin walled pressure vessel subject to torque τ T = r J now cylinder J= [(D + 2t ) 32 π π 3 4 .4.

Obviously the physics of the problem must not depend on the choice of axis. For example. whether a pressure vessel will explode can not depend on how we set up our co-ordinate axes to describe the stresses acting on the 34 . Components of Stress/ Mohr’s Circle 5. j = 1. SAPV 5.1 Definitions Scalars tensor of rank 0 Vectors tensors of rank 1 r r F = ma hence : F1 = ma1 F2 = ma2 F3 = ma3 or : Fi = mai Tensors of rank 2 pi = ∑ Tij q j j =1 3 i.3 or : p1 = T11q1 + T12 q2 + T13 q3 p2 = T21q1 + T22 q2 + T23 q3 p3 = T31q1 + T32 q2 + T33 q3 Axis transformations The choice of axes in the description of an engineering problem is arbitrary (as long as you choose orthogonal sets of axes!).2.CET 1.

However it is clear that the components of the stress tensor will be different going from one set of coordinates xi to another xi’.CET 1.. How do we transform one set of co-ordinate axes onto another. where aij are the direction cosines Forward transformation: xi ' = ∑ aij x j j =1 3 “New in terms of Old” Reverse transformation: xi = ∑ a ji x j j =1 3 “Old in terms of New” We always have to do summations in co-ordinate transformation and it is conventional to drop the summation signs and therefore these equations are simply written as: xi ' = aij x j xi = a ji x j 35 . keeping the same origin? x1 x1 ' a11 x2 ' a21 x3 ' a31 x2 a12 a22 a32 x3 a13 a23 a33 . SAPV vessel..

CET 1. how do we find the corresponding tensor Tij’ in the new co-ordinate frame xi’. such that: pi ' = ∑ Tij ' q j ' = Tij ' q j ' (in short form) j We can find this from a series of sequential co-ordinate transformations: p' ← p ← q ← q' Hence: pi ' = aik pk pk = Tkl ql ql = a jl q j ' Thus we have: 36 . if we have a situation where pi = ∑ Tij q j = Tij q j (in short form) j where Tij is the tensor in the old co-ordinate frame xi.e. SAPV Tensor transformation How will the components of a tensor change when we go from one coordinate system to another? I.

SAPV pi ' = aik Tkl a jl q j ' = aik a jl Tkl q j ' = Tij ' q j ' For example: Tij ' = ai1 a jl T1l + ai 2 a jl T2l + ai 3 a jl T3l = ai1 a j1 T11 + ai1 a j 2 T12 + ai1 a j 3 T13 + ai 2 a j1 T21 + ai 2 a j 2 T22 + ai 2 a j 3 T23 + ai 3 a j1 T31 + ai 3 a j 2 T32 + ai 3 a j 3 T33 Note that there is a difference between a transformation matrix and a 2nd rank tensor: They are both matrices containing 9 elements (constants) but: Symmetrical Tensors: Tij=Tji 37 .CET 1.

SAPV 38 .CET 1.

then these are called PRINCIPAL STRESSES. p3 = T3 q3 The diagonal T1. If T1. SAPV We can always transform a second rank tensor which is symmetrical: Tij → Tij ' such that : ⎡T1 0 Tij ' = ⎢ 0 T2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ T3 ⎥ ⎦ Consequence? Consider: pi = Tij q j then p1 = T1 q1 . 39 . T2.CET 1. T2. p2 = T2 q2 . T3 is called the PRINCIPAL AXIS. T3 are stresses.

Since the cuboid is of infinitesimal size. SAPV Mohr’s circle Consider an elementary cuboid with edges parallel to the coordinate directions x.CET 1.y. Fxz. Similarly. the force on the opposite side will not differ significantly. y Fxy y face Fx x z face z x face Fxz Fxx The faces on this cuboid are named according to the directions of their normals. There are thus two x-faces. one facing greater values of x. σ yy . on the y-face: τ yx . Fxx. On the x-face there will be some force Fx. Fxy. as shown in Figure 1 and one facing lesser values of x (not shown in the Figure). The force Fx can be divided into its components parallel to the coordinate directions.z. τ yz 40 . Dividing by the area of the x-face gives the stresses on the x-plane: σ xx τ xy τ xz It is traditional to write normal stresses as σ and shear stresses as τ.

σ zz There are therefore 9 components of stress. ⎡σ xx τ xy ⎢ σ ij = ⎢τ yx σ yy ⎢ τ zx τ zy ⎣ τ xz ⎤ ⎥ τ yz ⎥ σ zz ⎥ ⎦ Note that the first subscript refers to the face on which the stress acts and the second subscript refers to the direction in which the associated force acts.CET 1. σ yy y x τyx τ xy σ xx σ xx τ xy τ yx σ yy But for non accelerating bodies (or infinitesimally small cuboids): and therefore: ⎡σ xx τ xy τ xz ⎤ ⎡σ xx τ xy τ xz ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ σ ij = ⎢τ yx σ yy τ yz ⎥ = ⎢τ xy σ yy τ yz ⎥ ⎢ τ zx τ zy σ zz ⎥ ⎢ τ xz τ yz σ zz ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Hence σij is symmetric! 41 . τ zy . SAPV and on the z-face we have: τ zx .

Consider a cylindrical vessel subject to shear. in a given situation we find this frame we can apply all our stress strain relations that we have set up in the previous lectures (which assumed there were only normal stresses acting). Imagine we are in the coordinate frame xi where we only have principal stresses: 0⎤ ⎡σ 1 0 0 σ2 0 ⎥ σ ij = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 σ3⎥ Transform to a new co-ordinate frame xi’ by rotatoin about the x3 axis in the original co-ordinate frame (this would be. So if. SAPV This means that there must be some magic co-ordinate frame in which all the stresses are normal stresses (principal stresses) and in which the off diagonal stresses (=shear stresses) are 0. in our example. σr). z-axis) 42 . We are usually interested in shears and stresses which lie in the plane defined by the vessel walls. and normal stresses (σh. σl.CET 1. Is there a transformation about zz which will result in a shear Would really like to transform into a co-ordinate frame such that all components in the xi’ : σ ij → σ ij ' So stress tensor is symmetric 2nd rank tensor.

SAPV The transformation matrix is then: ⎛ a11 ⎜ aij = ⎜ a21 ⎜a ⎝ 31 a12 a22 a32 a13 ⎞ ⎛ cos θ ⎟ ⎜ a23 ⎟ = ⎜ − sin θ ⎜ a33 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 0 sin θ cosθ 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 1⎟ ⎠ Then: σ ij ' = aik a jl σ kl ⎛ cos θ ⎜ = ⎜ − sin θ ⎜ 0 ⎝ sin θ cosθ 0 0 ⎞⎛ cos θ ⎟⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ sin θ ⎜ 1⎟ ⎠⎝ 0 − sin θ cosθ 0 0 ⎞ ⎡σ 1 0 0⎤ ⎟⎢ 0⎟ 0 σ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎟ 1 ⎠⎢ 0 σ3⎥ ⎣0 ⎦ ⎡ σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ ⎢ = ⎢− σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ ⎢ 0 ⎣ σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ σ3⎥ ⎦ 43 .CET 1.

CET 1. SAPV Hence: σ 11 ' = σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ 1 1 = (σ 1 + σ 1 ) − (σ 2 − σ 1 ) cos 2θ 2 2 σ 22 ' = σ 1 sin 2 θ + σ 2 cos 2 θ = 1 1 (σ 1 + σ 1 ) + (σ 2 − σ 1 ) cos 2θ 2 2 σ 12 ' = −σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ = 1 (σ 2 − σ 1 ) sin 2θ 2 44 .

Yield conditions.z plane 1 . Tresca and Von Mises Mohrs circle in three dimensions. y z x Shear stresses τ y. y plane normal stresses σ x.z plane x.

BULK FAILURE CRITERIA Materials fail when the largest stress exceeds a critical value.We can draw Mohrs circles for each principal plane. σL. σ3) or (σn. 6. σ2. τ) 2 .5 σ y = 95 Mpa for steel We wish to establish if a material will fail if it is subject to a stress combination (σ1. 0) τmax = 0. 0. Normally we test a material in simple tension: P P σy = Pyield A τ σ = σ σ σ=σ This material fails under the stress combination (σy.

0.1. 0) τ -σ 3 .Failure depends on the nature of the material: Two important criteria (i) (ii) Tresca’s failure criterion: brittle materials Cast iron: concrete: ceramics Von Mises’ criterion: ductile materials Mild steel + copper 6. Case (i) Material subject to simple compression: σ1 σ1 Principal stresses (-σ1. the yield shear stress τy. The Stress Hexagon (Brittle) A material fails when the largest shear stress reaches a critical value. Tresca’s Failure Criterion.

0). Fails when 2 = τ max = τy = σy 2 i. when σ1 . ( 0.0) .σ2 M.. 4 .M.0) σ1 τ max σ1 τmax = σ1/2 occurs along plane at 45° to σ1 Similarly for tensile test.C.σ2 = σy material will not fail.e. (σ1.C: mc passes through (σ1. Case (ii) σ2 < 0 < σ1 τ -σ σ σ2 σ 1 σ1 .

5 .Lets do an easy example.

τ σ3 σ σ σ 1 2 6 .2 Von Mises’ Failure Criterion. C = 1 [σ + σ2 + σ 3 ] 3 1 1 ⎧ 2 ⎨σ + 2E ⎩ 1 1 = (σ1 12G UD = { 1 ⎫ 2 σ2 3C 2 + 6 υC 2 ⎬ 2 + σ 3 + 2υ (σ1σ 2 + σ 2 σ 3 + σ 3σ 1 ) ⎭ 2E .σ 2 ) + (σ 2 . The stress ellipse (ductile materials) Tresca’s criterion does not work well for ductile materials.6. UD.σ1 ) 2 2 2 } [ ] M. exceeds a critical value. UD = difference in strain energy (U) due of a compressive stress C equal to the mean of the principal stresses. Early hypothesis – material fails when its strain energy exceeds a critical value (can’t be true as no failure occurs under uniform compression).C. Von Mises’: failure when strain energy due to distortion.σ 3 ) + (σ 3 .

σ) .σ2 )2 + (σ2 + σ3 )2 + (σ3 . τb. simple tensile test – failure Failure if 1 2 2 (σ1 .σ ) 1 2 2 + (σ 2 + σ3 ) + (σ3 .Tresca → failure when max (τI) ≥ τy) Von Mises → failure when root mean square of {τa.σ1 )2 > 1 σ2 y + 0 + σy 12G 12G { } { } {(σ . σ. τc} ≥ critical value τ σ σ y Compare with (σy.σ1 ) > 2σ 2 y 2 2 } 7 .

8 .

Lets do a simple example. 9 .

2 m.005 m) is subject to an internal pressure of 50 barg.τ) σ τ 50 s (50. 10 .−τ) 100 Circle construction s = 75 N/mm2 t = √(252+τ2) The principal stresses σ1. t' = 0.Example Tresca's Failure Criterion The same pipe as in the first example (D = 0.2 = s ± t Thus σ2 may be positive (case A) or negative (case B). What torque can it support? Calculate stresses PD = 50 N / mm 2 4 t' PD σh = = 100 N / mm 2 2t' σL = and σ3 = σr ≈0 Mohr's Circle (100. Case A occurs if τ is small.

−τ) Case B τ σ3 100 σ1 (100.Case A (100.−τ) We do not know whether the Mohr's circle for this case follows Case A or B. Case A.τ) τ σ2 50 s (50. determine which case applies by trial and error. 'minor' principal stress is positive (σ2 > 0) Thus failure when 2 τ max = 1 2 σ y = 105 N / mm 11 .τ) 2β σ2 σ3 50 s 100 σ1 σ (50.

98 N / mm2 σ1. We now have τmax as the radius of the original Mohr's circle linking our stress data. σ 2 = −60 N / mm2 Case B.7 N / mm 2 σ1 = 210 N / mm2 .23° .9° 12 . tan(2 λ ) = 102 ⇒ 2 λ = 76. σ 2 = −30 N / mm 2 Thus Case B applies and the yield stress is 101. Thus τ max = 252 + τ 2 = 105 ⇒ Principal stresses τ = 101.2λ ⇒ β = 6. 75 2β = 90 .For Case A.2 = 75 ± 105 ⇒ σ 1 = 180 N / mm2 . The torque required to cause failure is T = πD2 t' τ / 2 = 32kNm Failure will occur along a plane at angle β anticlockwise from the y (hoop) direction. τ max = ⇒ ⇒ Giving σ1 2 = 1 2 [75 + (252 + τ 2 )] τ 2 = 135 − 252 τ = 132.98 N/mm2.

Example More of Von Mises Failure Criterion From our second Tresca Example σ h = 100 N / mm 2 σ L = 50 N / mm 2 σ r ≈ 0 N / mm2 What torque will cause failure if the yield stress for steel is 210 N/mm2? Mohr's Circle (100.−τ) 100 Giving σ1 = s + t = 75 + 252 + τ 2 σ 2 = s − t = 75 − 252 + τ 2 σ3 = 0 1 (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + ( σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + ( σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 } { 12G At failure UD = 13 .τ) σ τ 50 s (50.

Tresca is more conservative.Or (σ1 − σ 2 ) 2 + ( σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + ( σ 3 − σ1 ) 2 = ( σ y )2 + (0)2 + (0 − σ y ) 2 4 t 2 + (s − t )2 + ( s + t ) 2 = 2σ 2 y 2 2 s 2 + 6t 2 = 2 σ y s 2 + 3t 2 = σ 2 y ⇒ 752 + 3(252 + τ 2 ) = 210 2 The tube can thus support a torque of τ = 110 N / mm 2 πD2 t' τ T= = 35kNm 2 which is larger than the value of 32 kNm given by Tresca's criterion . 14 .in this case.

Strains 7. ε yy = δ yy ly . εxy represents rotation of the vector through the small angle γ1 where.7. so that. Let it be subjected to a small strain. Similarly we can define strains εyy and εyx = γ2 by.1.e. δx δxx δxy Figure 1 ε xx = δ xx . if the left hand end is fixed the right hand end will undergo a small displacement δx. lx ε xy = δ xy lx εxx is the direct strain. γ1 ≅ tan γ1 = δ xy l x + δ xx ≅ δ xy lx = ε xy Thus in the limit as δx→ 0. This need not be in the x-direction and so will have components δxx in the x-direction and δxy in the y-direction. ε yx = δ yx ly 1 . γ1 → εxy. i. Direct and Shear Strains Consider a vector of length lx lying along the x-axis as shown in Figure 1. the fractional increase in length in the direction of the original vector. γ1 lx We can define strains εxx and εxy by.

where i. τ yx A τ xy A' B C Figure 3a B' C' Figure 3b Positive values of the shear stresses τxy and τyx act on an element as shown in Figure 3a and these cause distortion as in Figure 3b. Thus it is sensible to take γxy as +ve when the angle ABC decreases. Thus.2. in general terms: ε ij = δ ij li . in our example (Figure 2 above): γ xy = ( γ 1 + γ 2 ) = ε xy + ε yx or γ xy = − (γ 1 + γ 2 ) depending on sign convention. In particular γxy is the change in the angle between lines which were originally in the x. j = 1. Thus 2 .δ yx Figure 2 δ yy δy ly γ 2 as in Figure 2. γ1 lx Or.and ydirections.3 The ENGINEERING SHEAR STRAIN is defined as the change in an angle relative to a set of axes originally at 90°.

Note that the TENSOR SHEAR STRAINS are given by the averaged sum of shear strains: 1 1 1 1 γ ij = (ε ij + ε ji ) = (γ 1 + γ 2 ) = γ ji 2 2 2 2 7.2 Mohr’s Circle for Strains The strain tensor can now be written as: ⎡ ⎢ ε 11 ⎢1 ε ij = ⎢ y 21 ⎢2 ⎢1 y 31 ⎢ ⎣2 1 y12 2 ε 22 1 y32 2 1 ⎤ ⎡ y13 ε 11 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 1 y 23 ⎥ = ⎢ y12 2 ⎥ ⎢2 1 ε 33 ⎥ ⎢ y13 ⎥ ⎢2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 y12 2 ε 22 1 y 23 2 1 ⎤ y13 2 ⎥ ⎥ 1 y 23 ⎥ 2 ⎥ ε 33 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ where the diagonal elements are the stretches or tensile strains and the off diagonal elements are the tensor shear strains. and: 3 . Thus our strain tensor is symmetrical.γ xy = +( γ 1 + γ 2 ) Or. we have γij = γji. in general terms: γ ij = (ε ij + ε ji ) and since τij = τji.

ε ij = ε ji This means there must be a co-ordinate transformation. such that: ε ij ' → ε ij such that : ⎡ε 1 0 ε ij = ⎢ 0 ε2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦ we only have principal (=longitudinal) strains! Exactly analogous to our discussion for the transformation of the stress tensor we find this from: ε ij ' = aik a jl ε kl ⎛ cos θ ⎜ = ⎜ − sin θ ⎜ 0 ⎝ sin θ cosθ 0 0 ⎞⎛ cos θ ⎟⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ sin θ ⎜ 1⎟ ⎠⎝ 0 − sin θ cosθ 0 0 ⎞ ⎡ε1 0 ⎟ 0 ⎟⎢ 0 ε 2 ⎢ 1⎟ ⎣0 0 ⎠⎢ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ε 1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ ⎢ = ⎢− ε 1 cosθ sin θ + ε 2 cosθ sin θ ⎢ 0 ⎣ And hence: ε 1 cosθ sin θ + ε 2 cosθ sin θ ε 1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦ 4 .

ε11 ' = ε1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ 1 1 = (ε1 + ε1 ) − (ε 2 − ε1 ) cos 2θ 2 2 ε 22 ' = ε1 sin 2 θ + ε 2 cos 2 θ = 1 1 (ε1 + ε1 ) + (ε 2 − ε1 ) cos 2θ 2 2 ε12 ' = γ 12 ' = −ε1 cos θ sin θ + ε 2 cos θ sin θ 1 (ε 2 − ε1 ) sin 2θ 2 1 2 = For which we can draw a Mohr’s circle in the usual manner: 5 .

are easy to measure.1 45° Strain Rosette Three direct strains are measured ε C εB θ εA principal strain ε1 Mohr’s circle for strains gives 6 . This stems from the fact that the engineering shear strains differs from the tensorial shear strains by a factor of 2 as as discussed. at least those on a surface.3 Measurement of Stress and Strain . that on this occasion we plot half the shear strain against the direct strain.Strain Gauges It is difficult to measure internal stresses. In practice. 7. Strains. • Glue a piece of wire on to a surface • Strain in wire = strain in material • As the length of the wire increases. strain gauge _ _ _ 45° 120° Strain rosettes are employed to obtain three measurements: 7.3. its radius decreases so its electrical resistance increases and can be readily measured. to measure direct strains. however. multiple wire assemblies are used in strain gauges.Note.

ε A = s + t cos(2θ ) ε B = s + t cos(2θ + 90) = s − t sin( 2θ ) ε C = s − t cos(2θ ) 3 equations in 3 unknowns Using strain gauges we can find the directions of Principal strains γ/2 ε 7 .γ/2 B 2θ εB εC A ε εA C radius t so we can write circle. centre s.

4 Hooke’s Law for Shear Stresses St. Consider a 2-D element subject to pure shear (τxy = τyx = τo).−γ ) xy ε xx = 0 − γ xy 2 =− τo E (1 + ν ) 8 . ε pp = ε1 = = σ1 E − νσ 2 E τo E (1 + ν ) σ2 E − ε qq = ε 2 = νσ1 E = −τ o (1 + ν ) E and the Mohr’s circle for strain is thus γ/2 Y Q P the Mohr’s circle shows that ε εqq εpp X (0. y τo τo The Mohr’s circle for stresses is Y Q τo P τo x X where P and Q are principal stress axes and σ pp = σ1 = τ o σ qq = σ 2 = − τ o τ pq = τ qp = 0 Since the principal stress and strain axes are coincident.7. Venant’s Principle states that the principal axes of stress and strain are co-incident.

strain and stress. ε1 = σ1 E − E νσ 2 E + − − E νσ 3 E − ε2 = − ε3 = − νσ1 νσ1 E σ2 νσ 3 E νσ 2 E + σ3 E 9 .So pure shear causes the shear strain γ τo τo γ/2 γ/2 γ= 2τ o (1 + ν ) E But by definition τo = Gγ so and G= τo E = γ 2(1 + ν ) Use St Venants principal to work out principal stress values from a knowledge of principal strains. Two Mohrs circles.

So using strain gauges you can work out magnitudes of principal strains. Using Tresca or Von Mises you can then work out whether your vessel is safe to operate. ie below the yield criteria 10 . You can then work out magnitudes of principal stresses.

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