AMERICAN INDIAN QUOTATIONS
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AMERICAN INDIAN QUOTATIONS
Compiled and Edited by Howard J. hanger
Greenwood Press Westport, Connecticut • London
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data American Indian quotations / compiled and edited by Howard J. Langer. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-313-29121-7 (alk. paper) 1. Indians of North America—Quotations. 2. Indians of North America—History. I. Langer, Howard. PN6081.4.A43 1996 973'.0497—dc20 95-33151 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 1996 by Howard J. Langer All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-33151 ISBN: 0-313-29121-7 First published in 1996 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. Printed in the United States of America The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Reprinted with permission. 42). (p. 75). renewed and reprinted in 1979 and 1983 by University of South Dakota Press. 6: 384-5. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell (p. 39). Excerpts from "Letter to Howard Langer. courtesy of the New York Public Library Picture Collection. May 18. Black Hawk (p. 63). Quanah Parker (p. Photograph of W. Jr. 35). Kicking Bird (p. courtesy of the Library of Congress. John Ross (p. Ely Parker (p. 1995. Vermillion. 180). Photograph of U. Deloria. and Ira Hayes (p. 156). by Ella C. Excerpts from Speaking of Indians. Osceola (p.S. Dull Knife (p. 66) and the medicine man killed at Wounded Knee (p. Warren. 54). Warren. Paintings and photographs of Cornplanter (p. Photograph of Wilma Mankiller (p. Spotted Tail (p. 95). Washakie (p. 18). 139).Copyright Acknowledgments The editor and publisher gratefully acknowledge permission for use of the following material: Excerpts from "Chief Big Eagle's Story of the Sioux Outbreak of 1862/' in Minnesota Historical Society. Reprinted with permission of Minnesota Historical Society. 57). Sitting Bull (p. 28). 73). 120). 59). Red Cloud (p. 1935. March. Paintings and photographs of The Four Bears (p. Collections. 387 (1894). courtesy of the National Museum of the American Indian.
. 48). and Jim Thorpe (p. Reprinted with permission of David C." by David C. 87). Used by permission of the University of South Dakota Press. courtesy of the National Archives. Captain Jack (p. 12). SD 57069. courtesy of Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell. 175). Excerpts from "Letter to Georgia Governor Wilson Lumpkin. Copyright 1944 by Friendship Press. courtesy of Wilma Mankiller. Richard West. Photographs of Ponca Indians skinning a buffalo (p." Georgia Department of Archives and History. Ouray the Arrow (p. 80). Smithsonian Institution.
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For my grandsons. Alexander and Matthew
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Illustrations Acknowledgments Introduction American Indian Quotations Anonymous Quotations. and Proverbs Author Index Subject and Key Word Index Tribe Index
xi xiii xvii 1 199 221 225 259
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Cornplanter Black Hawk John Ross The Four Bears Osceola Washakie Dull Knife Ouray the Arrow Red Cloud Spotted Tail Ely Parker 39 42
12 18 28 35
48 54 57 59 63 66
Ponca Indians skinning a buffalo Sitting Bull Kicking Bird Captain Jack Quanah Parker 73 75 80 87
Medicine man killed at Wounded Knee Jim Thorpe Ira Hayes 120 139 156 175 180
Ben Nighthorse Campbell W. Wilma Mankiller
Delores McAuliffe. as well as the Huntington Library in the Bronx.Y. Wil Rose of the American Indian Heritage Foundation. Cynthia Harris. Dr. I am grateful to the following individuals: U. Florence. "without whose help this book would not have been possible. I would like to acknowledge the assistance of my wife.S. the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I want to thank Bob Hagelstein.) Public Library.Acknowledgments
First of all.
." It is certainly no exaggeration in this case. N. Marilyn Roberts. Wilma Mankiller. Jim Sabin. Harvey Arden. cheerleader. Daniel Peaches. I worked with the Spring Valley (N. Gaetana DeGennaro. and the Seneca Nation Library. the West Point Library. critic. She has been not only my chief researcher. and best friend. but also my driver. I am grateful to the following organizations: the National Museum of the American Indian (New York City). I am most grateful to the staff of the New City (Rockland County. Ruth Ziolkowski of the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation. Also. Robert Robideau. Senator Ben Campbell. New York. Peter Matthiessen. Duane King. The Ramapo Catskill Library System enabled me to obtain books and documents from many sources. Hap Gilliland of the Montana Council for Indian Education. and especially my editor. Linford of the Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonial Association. Laurance D.) Public Library. It is a cliche to use the phrase. and the National Indian Health Board. the Bureau of Indian Affairs. At Greenwood. and Harold Foster. the Oklahoma Historical Society. In addition.Y. Dr.
. by Duane Champagne (Gale Research. Dee Brown. Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. Dockstader (Van Nostrand Reinhold.
. and Alexander Posey. In addition to the usual encyclopedia sources. 1993). and video cassettes on Native American history. and tribal names were checked out with such sources as Who Was Who in Native American History. a special note of thanks to Tom Maguire. Finally. The Native North American Almanac. Peter Matthiessen. books. 1977). by Frederick J. by Carl Waldman (Facts on File. dates.XIV
Authors who had the greatest influence on me were Vine Deloria. I want to thank all those who sent along newspaper and magazine clippings. 1994). places. Klein (Todd Publications. by Barry T. 1990). Jr. and Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian.
So tractable. undated) (Cheyenne Memories.They will be powerful people. Praeger. they will drain the earth and kill it. yet their manners are decorous and praiseworthy.)
. I should be very glad if your scheme of hunting them down by dogs could take effect. so peaceable. 1973. are these people that I swear to your Majesties there is not in the world a better nation. but the earth will be dead—all the old trees and grass and animals. they will dig under the earth. 1967. Christopher Columbus (Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella. Fred Last Bull (Cheyenne. as well as by every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race. edited by Wayne Moquin with Charles Van Doren. Yale University Press. General Jeffrey Amherst (Letter to a subordinate. and accompanied with a smile. and their discourse is ever sweet and gentle. tough. strong. and though it is true that they are naked. All over the earth they will kill the trees and the grass. by John Stands in Timber and Margot Liberty. they will put their own grass and their own hay. 1493)
You will do well to try to inoculate the Indians by means of blankets in which smallpox patients have slept. They love their neighbors as themselves. They will fly up into the sky. 1732) (Great Documents in American Indian History.
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the Pinta. the stolen lands. When this is said. Movies such as Dances with Wolves. What has been missing from our newly acquired knowledge is the human element: men and women fighting for their values. and the Santa Maria? For years. and Western movies. We remember Patrick Henry choosing "liberty or death. In looking back at our past. If that criticism is valid. There is certainly a greater sensitivity to the major trends in Native American history: the massive invasion from Europe. lurid newspaper accounts." Abraham Lincoln promising "a new birth of freedom. and values. and the violated treaties. their culture. we often think of history in terms of individuals. what can be said about our knowledge of the history of Native American Indians—millions of whom lived here many centuries before Columbus outfitted the Nina. it usually refers to the history of Europeans in America. Invariably. their religion—indeed.Introduction
It is a common complaint that we do not know very much about "American" history. Americans learned about Indians from stereotyped images: so-called Wild West Shows. ideas." Franklin Roosevelt challenging that "this generation of Americans has a rendezvous with destiny. television series on Indian history. the Indian was the bad guy. their very civilization."
. That image has slowly been changing. and the opening of new national Indian museums have created a greater interest and awareness of Native American culture.
American Indians also have their leaders and orators. The dates and places are the ones most historians seem to agree on. For example. others less well-known. and places. and tribal identifications. giving specific reasons for its action. including prayers and proverbs. humorous. their poets and warriors. The sources do not always agree on such facts as dates. rather than the secondary source. political. social. in different regions of the country. their writers and doctors. and subject/key word—will enable the reader to locate quotations by specific individuals about specific topics. among different tribes. sellout versus recognition of inevitability. many famous. places of birth. Several hundred Native Americans are quoted. There is much worth quoting. I have
. with such rare exceptions as Chief Joseph and Will Rogers. This volume is an attempt to fill that void." "ask not what your country can do for you. The most serious problem is one of historical interpretation: good guy versus bad guy. dates. cynical. the Lakota and the Apache nations have different tribes. The quotations in this book represent only a tiny fraction of Indian history—only 450 of at least 10. How do we know they are reasonably accurate? We know because certain themes and viewpoints emerge time and again over several centuries. going back to the mid-sixteenth century. battle victory versus massacre. their historians and satirists. appear in a separate section.000 and possibly 50. An extensive index—broken down by author. tribe. The tribe most commonly identified with the individual is the one given here. The quotes appear in chronological sequence. giving it a relevance and dignity we cannot get from names. A few anonymous quotes do appear in the main section in their chronological sequence. spellings of names. For example. On the matter of quotation source. giving the reader the opportunity to follow Native American history from the appearance of the white man in the New World." "this nation cannot endure half-slave and half-free. Anonymous quotations. These quotes came from organized groups of Native Americans that issued statements as organization viewpoints. the original source is given wherever possible.XV111
Quotations are powerful. literary. Few American Indians. This book is a compilation of some 800 quotations. ever make it into Bartlett's. most of the early quotations are based on the translations of white interpreters. There are loads of books of American quotations: historical. and satirical.000 years in America. They are the building blocks of popular history: "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes." The words breathe life into past history. Because there was no written Indian language until the nineteenth century. "Indians of All Tribes" was the group that occupied Alcatraz Island.
most often just letting the facts speak for themselves. (quod vide) refer the reader to a separate entry for that individual elsewhere in the book. This entry can be found using the author index.INTRODUCTION
attempted to play this as straight as possible. some information was not available as this book went to press.
.v. the letters q. Please Note: Following the name of an individual. Additions and corrections are welcomed for subsequent editions. Although every effort has been made to track down factual information.
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American Indian Quotations
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by John Stands in Timber and Margot Liberty. 1967. But first there will be another animal you must learn to use. whose flesh you will learn to eat. Those far hills that seem only a blue vision in the distance take many days to reach now. but with this animal you can get there in a short time. by Peter Matthiessen. when many things will change. who may have been based on a real person. and their ways are powerful. The buffalo will disappear. Their skins are light-colored. . at last. . You people will c h a n g e : . . They speak no Indian tongue. Yale University Press. but keep your own ways that I have taught you as long as you can.) 3. 1. This animal will carry you on his back and help you in many ways. and will forget all that I am teaching you. Its hoofs are round. 1983. and at last you will do it with them. (Ibid.. There is a time coming . (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. Those people will wander this w a y . It has a shaggy neck and a tail almost touching the ground. a slick animal with a long tail and split hoofs. . you will become crazy. . Strangers called Earth Men will appear among you. They will tear up the earth. . These people will not listen to what you say. they will be looking for a certain stone.) 2. and another animal will take its place. . what they are going to do they will do. Follow nothing that these Earth Men do. When you do. (Cheyenne Memories.)
. so fear him not. Viking.SWEET MEDICINE
Sweet Medicine has been described as a cultural hero of the Cheyenne. .
being their friend. Boston. and.) 5. this might soon be your fate too. Manypenny. Clarke & Co. and not with swords and guns. if you will come in a friendly manner. and to be so hunted that I cannot rest. I insist the guns and swords. above all. and. to have copper hatchets and whatever else I want. in this miserable manner. 1609. the cause of all our jealousy and uneasiness. therefore. 1880. eat. 11th ed. .) 6. exhort you to peaceable counsels. and sleep quietly with my women and children. as to invade an enemy. Virginia. What is the cause of your jealousy? You see us unarmed.. and so. Drake. Why should you take by force that from us which you can have by love? Why should you destroy us. be removed and sent away. and.)
. I am not so simple as not to know that it is better to eat good meat. than to fly from all. 4. to end my miserable life. feed upon acorns and roots . be well. through your rashness..POWHATAN
(1547-1618) Powhatan. by Samuel G. and willing to supply your wants. and then you must consequently famish by wronging your friends. by George W. Virginia
Powhatan was the leader of the Powhatan Confederacy at the time of the first English settlement in America at Jamestown. Biography and History of the Indians of North America. (Ibid. (Our Indian Wards. and fly into the woods. 1841. (Address to John Smith. to lie cold in the woods. Captain Smith. to laugh and be merry with the English.1. ca. or sleep. who have provided you with food? What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions..
who had helped the Pilgrims when they arrived in the New World. I shall treat of peace only with the King. 1674. one in which the Indians would have to turn over their guns. my brother. In 1671 the English colonists in Massachusetts asked King Philip for a new peace treaty.)
( S e v e n t e e n t h century)
Tahajadoris was a Mohawk leader. whom the Mohawks despised. Massachusetts?
King Philip was the son of Massasoit. 8. We patiently bore many injuries from the French. Our patience made the governor of Canada think that we were afraid of him. We assure you that we are resolved never to drop the axe.KING PHILIP
(1620-1676) Wampanoag. (ca. King Philip's War began in January 1675. Your governor is but a subject of King Charles of England. When he comes. and King Philip was killed in battle. but now he is undeceived. and dared not resent the injuries we have so long suffered. before we took u p the axe against them. from one year to another. the French
. spoken to a messenger sent by Governor Winslow to discuss a peace treaty. I am ready. In 1675 King Philip called on other tribes in the area to join in a war against the whites. 7. Many towns were attacked by the Indians. The colonists argued that the Abenakis would ally themselves with the French. I shall not treat with a subject. This was his response. In 1689 he was urged by English colonists in Massachusetts and Connecticut to go to war against the Abenakis.
remarks were made to members of the Governor's Council in Philadelphia. 8. If they shall do this. and promise never to break it.) 9. (Ibid. as to begin a war without just provocation. 1760. We shall never make peace.6
shall never see our faces in peace. As to what you told us of the Owenagungas [Abenakis] and Uragees [Mahicans]. (Report of his trip to speak to other Delaware tribes. or shall join with any of our enemies. New Jersey
Teedyuscung was a Delaware chieftain who. and every one of us cut in pieces. 10. we shall never be reconciled as long as one Frenchman is alive. and formed their hands to our peace. Universe Books. Colonial Records of Pennsylvania. we answer that we were never so proud and haughty. then we shall kill and destroy them. (Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. All their chiefs and all their warriors have made themselves as one man. though our nation should be ruined by it. either French or Indians. but to hold the peace belt fast.)
(17007-1763) Delaware. fought against or negotiated with Indians and whites. He finally supported the British during the French and Indian War. You tell us that they are treacherous rogues—we believe it—and that they will undoubtedly assist the French. vol.)
. by Annette Rosenstiel. at various times. 1983.
. ignorant of every means of living in the woods . and that the Maintenance of our young Men.)
. We are. and make Men of them. Several of our young People were formerly brought up at the Colleges of the Northern Provinces. They asked him to send a dozen Indian boys to the College of William and Mary for formal education. but. We have had some experience of it. (Biography and History of the Indians of North America. we will take Care of their Education.e i g h t e e n t h century)
Conassatego gave this response to a 1744 invitation from Maryland and Virginia commissioners. (Ibid. We know that you highly esteem the kind of learning taught in those Colleges. neither fit for Hunters. they were totally good for nothing. (Ibid. when they came back they were bad Runners. tho' we decline accepting it. 3d ed. while with you. Warriors.CONASSATEGO
(Early t o m i d . 11. would be very expensive to you.) 13. not the less obliged by your kind offer. nor Counsellors. Drake. where they were instructed in all your Sciences. 1834. by Samuel G. if the Gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons. . and we thank you heartily. We are convinced that you mean to do us Good by your Proposal. . Perkins and Hillard. if our ideas of this kind of Education happen not to be the same as yours.. But you. Gray & Co. however. to show our grateful Sense of it.) 12. who are wise must know that different Nations have different Conceptions of things and you will therefore not take it amiss. instruct them in all we know. and.
what you term "civilization" among the Indians. and ought not to be taken from us without our consent. b u t .. (Ibid. while ours are wild and demand not only a larger space for range.. your manners. . yours with sheep. also known as Corn Tassel. . Much has been said of . . They are. He has stocked your lands with cows. . . ours with bears. their whole cry is more land. We do not quarrel with you for the killing of an occasional buffalo or deer in our lands. 1938. as much our property as other animals are yours. nevertheless. You say. Indeed it has seemed a formality with them to demand what they know we dare not refuse. (1780s.) 16. Many proposals have been made to us to adopt your laws. Term. by John P. 14. your religions. and your c u s t o m s .) 15. it is very criminal in our young men if they chance to kill a cow or a hog for their sustenance when they happen to be in your lands.)
. . Old Frontiers.) 17. Brown. The Great Spirit has given you many advantages... . He has given you the advantage that your animals are tame. It is surprising that when we enter into treaties with our fathers the white people. but art to hunt and kill them. . ours with buffalo. but he has not created us to be your slaves. yours with hogs. was a Cherokee chief. Kingsport. "Why do not the Indians till the ground and live as we do?" May we not a s k . . . ours with deer.OLD TASSEL
Old Tassel. "Why do not the white people hunt and live as we do?" (Ibid. (Ibid.
Pontiac and his people lived peacefully in the Great Lakes area when it was largely controlled by the French. 18. During the French and Indian War. as our former Father did. Tis the hunting season of your children.)
(1725-1780) Mingo. Pennsylvania
Logan was a Mingo leader during Lord Dunmore's War. (A meeting with British representatives at Fort Detroit. (1763.) 19. Father. My Father. your children. I request in behalf of all the nations present that you will speak to the traders now here to do the same. formerly used to credit his children for powder and lead to hunt with. In 1769 he either died in a fight or was murdered by a hired assassin. Collections of the Illinois State Historical Society. Pontiac later tried to get help from the British so his people could hunt for food. 1765. Pontiac led an Algonquin force against the British. the French.PONTIAC
(1720-1769) Ottawa. I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin
. vol. be strong and take pity on us. as the support of our families depend upon it. once more I request you will take pity on us. Our Fathers. by Francis Parkman. 1851. and tell your traders to give your children credit for a little powder and lead. I mean to destroy the English and leave not one upon our lands. The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest of Canada. 20. In 1763 France made peace with Britain. 11.
I have sought it. (Address to the Cherokee council. Kincaid.) 23. 1775. 1851. nay.) 22. 25. Whole nations have melted away like balls of snow before the sun. (Ibid. 1947. the last spring. For my country I rejoice in the beams of peace.10
hungry and I gave him not meat. In 1775 he spoke out against a treaty to sell such lands. I have fully glutted my vengeance. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any human creature. The whites have passed the mountains and settled upon Cherokee lands. by Robert L. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one.) 21. The Wilderness Road. "Logan is the friend of white men". Bobbs-Merrill. Colonel [Captain Michael] Cresap. "Tah-Gah-Jute or Logan and Captain Cresap. (Ibid. This called on me for revenge.)
(17307-1792) Cherokee. During the course of the last long and bloody war Logan remained in his hut an advocate for peace. I have even thought to live with you. (Ibid. if ever he came cold or naked and I gave him not clothing. (Ibid. New cessions will be required. (Message to Lord Dunmore." by Brentz Mayer. and the small remnant of my people will be compelled to seek a new retreat in some far distant
.) 24. and said. but do not harbor the thought that mine is the joy of fear. such was my love for the whites. Tennessee
Dragging-Canoe was a Cherokee chief who fought attempts of the whites to buy tribal lands. He will not turn on his heel to save his life.) 26. 1774. Maryland Historical Society. that those of my own country pointed at me as they passed by. but for the injuries of one man. and now wish to have their usurpation sanctioned by the confirmation of a treaty. He sided with the British during the American Revolution. in cool blood and unprovoked cut off all the relations of Logan not even sparing my women and children. Logan never felt fear. I have killed many.
and are satisfied that he will always exert himself to preserve peace and harmony between you and us. vol. (Speech. I hope that you. will fix some person at Fort Pitt to take care of me and my people.CORNPLANTER
wilderness. New York
Cornplanter. and incur all consequences. rather than submit to further laceration of our country? Such treaties may be all right for men too old to hunt or fight. (Ibid.) 28. There they will be permitted to stay only a short while. I have my young warriors about me. (Ibid. (Colonial Records of Pennsylvania.) 29. until they again behold the advancing banners of the same greedy host. In former days when you were young and weak.) 31. 1977. Should we not therefore run all risks. 16. by Frederick J. My reasons for
(17367-1836) Seneca. 1775. Dockstader. On numerous occasions he appeared before the white man's councils to protest mistreatment of Indians. that my present interpreter. Joseph Nicholson. they will proclaim the extinction of the whole race. fought on the French side during the French and Indian War and on the British side during the American Revolution. Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. I used to call you brother. When the whites are unable to point out any farther retreat for the miserable Cherokees. may be the person.) 27. You will find the settlement of this land dark and bloody. We will have our lands. and it is the wish of my people if agreeable to you. as I and my people have a confidence in him. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 30. but now I call you father. the Fathers of the Quaker State. I wish. As for me. (Ibid. He later signed a number of treaties with the white man. a Seneca chief.
not having any person there on whom they can rely to interpret for them and see justice done to them. (Ibid. their canoes and other things are stolen."
"In former days when you were young and weak I used to call you brother. SENECA
wishing an interpreter there. but now I call you father. and they can obtain no redress.)
. are that often times when my hunters and people come there.
notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men. your younger brothers are of opinion you take too much of their land away and confine the hunting of our young men within the limits too contracted. . 7. Indiana
Little Turtle. and the Chippewas to several major victories over the white man. led the Miamis. and that the United States had no such designs. a third sells cloth. . useless to my nation.) 34. and everyone lives by his labor. Gale. . by Duane Champagne.) 33. Therefore. Soon after. useless to the whites. There is something that whispers to me. . . Elder Brother: . One makes shoes. another hats. The Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps [Anthony Wayne]. I should be a piece of furniture. catch fish. 1994. When I walk through the streets I see every person in his shop employed about something.LITTLE TURTLE
(17477-1812) Miami. vol. Think well of it. we have never been able to surprise him. Chronology of Native North American History. it would be prudent to listen to his [Anthony Wayne's] offers of peace. You pointed out to us the boundary line [of the proposed t r e a t y ] . . . This line takes in the greater and best part of your brothers' hunting ground. and
. Later. We have beaten the enemy twice under separate commanders. I say to myself. You have told your younger brothers [the Indians] that the British imposed falsehoods on us when they said the United States wished to take our lands from us. I can make a bow or an arrow. he made peace and signed several treaties. 1794. (Discussion with American officials on the proposed Treaty of Greenville (1795). the day and the night are alike to him.) 36. but none of these is of any use h e r e . and go to war. (Ibid. Ohio.) 35. the Shawnees. kill game. during all the time that he has been marching upon our villages. And. a war chief of the Miamis in the early 1790s. (To the tribal council. which of all these things can you do? Not one. 32. the Indians were decisively defeated in the battle of Fallen Timbers. (Ibid. American State Papers. . We cannot expect the same good fortune always to attend us.
1992. He was an outstanding orator. 1917. 37. Wiley & Putnam. and we shall disappear forever. when we could have trod you under our feet. and come here to enjoy their religion. Extraordinary American Indians. (1797. They called us brothers. we watered and protected you.)
(17587-1830) Seneca. (After a visit to Philadelphia. They found friends and not enemies. and
. 1792. Life and Times of Sa-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha. New York
Red Jacket was so named because of the red coat he wore when he fought on the side of the British during the Revolutionary War. and they sat down amongst us. We gave them corn and meat. We took pity on them.14
useless to myself. by William L. Children's Press. . Yet we did not fear them. They asked for a small seat. who were the tall pine of the forest. Their numbers were small. They told us they had fled from their own country for fear of wicked men. Tidings were carried back. Little Turtle. We gave it to you and afterward. They rise. The evil spirit rides upon the [wind]. Your forefathers crossed the great waters. Brother!. whilst we. and landed on this island. they press upon us. We stand a small island in the bosom of the great waters. Young. and now you have grown to be a mighty tree. (Statement. We took them to be friends. 1797. What marks our extermination? Nothing. We believed them. by Susan Avery and Linda Skinner. and the waves will settle over us. by Calvin M. We first knew you a feeble plant which wanted a little earth whereon to grow. We are mingled with the common elements.) 39. the Great Chief of the Miami Indian Nation. The white people had now found our country. . whose top reaches the clouds. 1841. Who then lives to mourn us? None. Stone. have become a feeble plant and need your protection. and the waters are disturbed. and more came amongst us. Sentinel Printing. They gave us poison in return. ca. We are encircled—we are encompassed.) 38. granted their request. and whose branches overspread the whole land. or Red Jacket.
Englishman! Although you have conquered the French. by B. and we will part with them to none.MINAVAVANA
gave them a larger seat. were left to us by our ancestors. Indian Biography. Extraordinary American Indians. If it was intended for us as well as for you. My leaves are fallen. At length their numbers have greatly increased. Brother! We understand that your religion is written in a book. I am an aged tree. Brother! You have got our country.) 41.)
(Mid t o late eighteenth century)
43. 1841. (Response to missionary. that He—the Great Spirit—and Master of Life— has provided food for us. you have not yet conquered us! We are not your slaves. (Indian Biography. and can stand no longer. like the white people. (1830. They are our inheritance. B. Thatcher. Your nation supposes that we. (Ibid. you ought to know. vol. in these broad lakes. 1805. and pork. Thatcher. 2. but are not satisfied. New York. and I am shaken by every breeze. 1845. cannot live without bread. B. by B.) 40. and upon these mountains. They wanted our country. These lakes. my branches are withered. and beef! But.) 42. You want to force your religion upon us.)
. Avery and Skinner. New York. They wanted more land. why has not the Great Spirit given it to us? (Ibid. these woods and mountains. Soon my aged trunk will fall.
a Choctaw leader. Ibid.) 46. I shall die.) 45.PUSHMATAHA
(1764-1824) Choctaw. Gale. 1994. Chronology of Native North American History. None of my fathers. They have always been friendly.)
. The Great White Father has never violated that treaty and the Choctaws have never been driven to the necessity of taking up the tomahawk against him or his children. by Duane Champagne. our cotton. nor any Choctaw ever drew bow against the United States. He made a number of trips to Washington to confer on Indian matters. our corn. and other wares. . then the Shawnee's experience with the whites has not been the same as that of the Choctaws. O Choctaws and Chickasaws. These white Americans buy our skins. 44. If Tecumseh's [q. but you will return to our brethren They will ask you. We do not take up the warpath without a just cause and honest purpose. 1921. their guns. our baskets. (Statement to friends. was regarded as a friend of the white man who often defended him against other warlike tribes. and other things which the Choctaws need but do not make. .] words be true. It is true we have befriended them. 1824. Congressional Record. our surplus game. or grandfathers. 1824. but who will deny that these acts of friendship have been abundantly reciprocated? (Arguing against Tecumseh's efforts to have the Choctaws fight the white men. He took part in President Andrew Jackson's inaugural parade.v. implements. (Ibid." They will hear the tidings like the sound of the fall of a mighty oak in the stillness of the woods. and they give us in fair exchange their cloth. During its darkest hours. these neighbors whom we are now urged to attack responded generously to our needs. 1811. Mississippi
Pushmataha. their tools. that we are bound in peace to the Great White Father at Washington by sacred word. . they fed our hungry. They doctored our sick. (Statement to the Secretary of War. June 13. Forget not.) 48.) 47. they clothed our suffering. (Ibid. and we doubt them not. "Where is Pushmataha?" and you will say to them "He is no more.
and many gloomy hours obscure it. Pathway to Glory. I am now an obscure member of a nation. The Black Hawk War. Before I set out on my journey to the land of my fathers. whites began occupying Indian lands. Wheeler. Here our village stood for more than a hundred years. How smooth must be the language of the whites. nor hunting grounds better than those we had in possession. (1833. Under an old treaty.) 50. The path to glory is rough. 1991. . . In the 1820s. .. Historical Society of Iowa. Our village was healthy and there was no place in the country possessing such advantages. The rapids of Rock River furnished us with an abundance of excellent fish. ended in the defeat of the Indians. We always had plenty. . and wrong like right. . If a prophet had come to our village in those days and told us that the things were to take place which have since come to pass. that formerly honored and respected my opinions. I have determined to give my motives and reasons for my former hostilities to the whites and to vindicate my character from misrepresentation. the Indians were supposed to move and allow the whites to move in. but Black Hawk decided to fight. none of our people would have believed him. 1975. May the Great Spirit shed light on yours and that you may never experience the humility that the power of the American government has
. when they can make right look like wrong. . our children never cried from h u n g e r .) 52. which began in 1831. . (Native American Wisdom. (Autobiography of Black Hawk as Dictated by Himself to Antoine LeClair. and the land being very fertile. never failed to produce good crops. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Mengleboch. The changes of many summers have brought old age upon me and I cannot expect to survive many moons.) 51. . Carlton Press. Illinois
Black Hawk and his people lived in the rich lands of Illinois and Wisconsin.BLACK HAWK
(1767-1838) Sac. by Robert W. New World Library. during all of which time we were the undisputed possessors of the Mississippi Valley. 1833. 49.
) 56. Drake.) 53. to make them drunk. We lived in danger. . We told them [the white men] to let us alone and keep away from us: but they followed like the snake. adulterers. by Samuel G. hypocrites and liars."
—BLACK HAWK. (Ibid. Boston. was once as proud and bold as yourself. Biography and History of the Indians of North America 11th ed. We were not safe. . We went to our great father. all talkers. SAC
reduced me to. 1841. August 1835. he would be put to death and eat up by the wolves. in his native forests. who. they smile in the face of the poor Indian to cheat him.. lazy drones. and wrong like right. (Ibid. They poisoned us by their touch. to deceive them. they shake them by the hand to gain their confidence. An Indian who is as bad as the white men could not live in our nation.) 55. (Ibid. The white men are bad schoolmasters . when they can make right look like wrong. and no workers. We were becoming like them.) 54. (Statement of surrender. and ruin our wives. His great coun-
. is the wish of him. We were encouraged.18
"How smooth must be the language of the whites.
the springs were drying up. Farewell. but they do worse— they poison—they poison the heart. He has been taken prisoner and his plans are stopped. it is not pure with them. (Ibid. . Brothers—the white people are like poisonous serpents: when chilled. The spirit of our fathers arose and dug up the tomahawk. 59. but the talks failed. his children and friends.) 58. Farewell to Black Hawk. (Tecumseh to the Osage tribe
. He laments their fate. Ohio
Tecumseh united many tribes in the Ohio Valley. they are feeble and harmless. (Ibid. He drank the blood of some of the whites. so that you can't trust them. and our squaws and papooses [were] without victuals to keep them from starving . we called a great council. and built a large fire. Tecumseh fought on the side of the British. The opossum and beaver fled. He is near his end. my nation: Black Hawk tried to save you and avenge your wrongs. He can do no more. The white men do not scalp the head. our knives were ready. His sun is setting and he will rise no more. and the heart of Black Hawk welled high in his bosom when he led his warriors to battle. But he does not care for himself. They will suffer. Black Hawk is a true Indian and disdains to cry like a woman. He feels for his wife. but we got no satisfaction. but invigorate them with warmth. and they sting their benefactors to death.) 57. become like the white men. and he died fighting the Americans. He dreamed of one huge area for Indians from the Great Lakes to Florida. He is satisfied. He will go to the world of spirits contented. There were no deer in the forest. His [Black Hawk's] countrymen will not be scalped.)
(1768-1813) Shawnee. He cares for his nation and the Indians.TECUMSEH
cil gave us fair words and big promises. (Ibid. but they will. During the War of 1812. who made him a brigadier general. . in a few years. He tried to negotiate land claims in the Northwest Territory with Governor William Henry Harrison.
(Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. So live your life that the fear of death can never enter your heart. (Ibid. 1974. 1924. Touch not the poisonous firewater that makes wise men turn to fools and robs the spirit of its vision. 1971. we must smoke the same pipe.20
while lining up support to fight the white man. (Ibid. Accursed be the race that has seized on our country and made women of our warriors. the spirits of the mighty dead complain.) 68. 11.) 66. Hunter. our fathers have killed many of them. he is for us. Brothers—we must be united. Let the white race perish. nor will I give rest to my body feet until I have united all the red men. they trample on the ashes of your dead! Back whence they came. (Indian council meeting in Alabama. They seize your land. Show respect to all men. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Plow. Our fathers from their tombs reproach us as slaves and cowards. the Pokanoket. he will destroy our enemies. Where today are the Pequot? Where are the Narragansett. Will we let ourselves be destroyed in our turn without a struggle. War Resisters League. they corrupt your women. we must love the Great Spirit. (Ibid. London. and many other once powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the advance and the oppression of the White Man. and are good marks to shoot at: they are only men.) 64. no. we are not squaws. 3. It is my determination. and we will stain the earth red with their blood. . (Statement to William Henry Harrison. by Dee Brown. but grovel to none. the Mohican. the graves of our dead and everything that is dear and sacred to us? I know you will cry with me. they must be driven. by John D. Brothers—who are the white people that we should fear them? They cannot run fast.) 60. as snow before a summer sun. The American Indian. August 1929. upon a trail of blood. vol. 1811. "Never! Never!" (Ibid. Their tears drop from the wailing skies. give up our homes.) 61.) 65. (Ibid. Rinehart & Winston. we must fight each other's battles.) 67. I hear them now in the wailing winds . . our country bequeathed to us by the Great Spirit. Holt.)
. and more than all.) 62. and make his red children happy. 1811. Memoirs of a Captivity among the Indians of North America.) 63.
more than fifty years. (Reported in indirect discourse in an interview with Jeremiah Evans. In 1809 he began to set forth a Cherokee alphabet. a Cherokee chief. By 1821 the system was completed." (The name given by Sequoya to his Cherokee syllabary. Originally a hunter and fur trader. (Speech before
. and fair trading. The People's Almanac.) 70. "Talking Leaves. led the group that negotiated the treaty that gave up Cherokee territory east of the Mississippi to the United States. [I] thought that if [I] could make certain things fast on paper. Sequoya was also known as George Gist. a kind of alphabet. Tennessee
Sequoya developed a system of writing for the Cherokees. 69. by David Wallechinsky and Irving Wallace.)
(1771-1839) Cherokee. he was crippled in a hunting accident. I have hunted the deer and turkey here.1 am one of the native sons of these wild woods. Tennessee
Major Ridge. it would be like catching a wild animal and taming it. After the Cherokee removal. He died while on a search for a missing tribe of Cherokees who were reported to be living in Mexico.SEQUOYA
(17707-1843) Cherokee. I have fought your battles. Doubleday. he was assassinated. 1975. 71. have defended your truth and honesty. The giant redwood sequoya trees were named in his honor.
) 73. who have gone before to the happy hunting grounds of the Great Spirit—the eternal land. The Georgians have shown a grasping spirit lately. but I can do them justice in my heart.) 72. (Native American Wis-
. 1835. and all nations and people must obey.22
Cherokee group considering the treaty of cession. (Ibid. We cannot remain here in safety and comfort. They think the Great Father. Cartersville [Ga. December 29. (Ibid.)
Big Elk. one road to future existence as a Nation. 76. advocated peace with the whites.) 74. I would willingly die to preserve them. We obtained the land from the living God above. December 24. They are many. Ibid. but an unbending. Death will come. That path is open before you. is bound by the compact of 1802 to purchase this country for them. Give up these lands and go over beyond the great Father of Waters [the Mississippi]. March 20. the President.. Make a treaty of cession.. 1885. an Omaha chief. (Upon signing the Treaty of New Echota. (Ibid. iron necessity tells us we must leave them. There is but one path left. but any forcible effort to keep them will cost us our lands. they have extended their laws. the turkey and the buffalo will never give out. which harass our braves and make the children suffer and cry. They got their title from the British. and they justify their conduct by the end in view. I know we love the graves of our fathers.. our lives. They are willing to buy these lands on which to build houses and clear fields.] Courant. I know. to which we are unaccustomed. Yet they are strong and we are weak. We can never forget these homes. where the deer. He also led attacks against the Pawnee. I have signed my death warrant. I know the Indians have an older title than theirs. 1835. always out of season.) 75. It is the command of the Great Spirit. and the lives of our children.
8. 1991. we wish to live with the red man and inhabit the same country. and ruin will follow all tribes that go to war with them. was by the Great Spirit originally given to his red children. like the sands of the sea.WILLIAM McINTOSH
(17757-1825) Creek. The armies of the whites are without number. 2. we will give you land for yourselves and
. Our brothers. Later. May 1928. and said. and when the white man said.)
(1775-1859) Potawatomi. No. a British army officer. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Menglehoch. (The American Indian. Our forefathers smoked the pipe of peace and friendship with the forefathers of the white man. his father. he fought on the side of the Americans in the War of 1812. vol. 78. Ohio
Shabonee refused to war against the whites. 77. New World Library. and that which we now remain on. visited us when we were like the trees of the forest. he signed the peace treaty granting Creek land to the United States and was assassinated. The country which you now possess. the white men. we received their presents. Georgia
William Mclntosh's mother was a Creek. despite the efforts of other Indian leaders. welcome. As a Creek chief.
) 83. I have done the white people all the harm I could. ca. Kingston. The Creeks were defeated at the battle of Horseshoe Bend against forces under Andrew Jackson. Jr. cited in Cry of the Thunderbird.. 82. and the red men became like the buffalo. (Speech to the Georgia legislature. (Ibid. Griffith. Once I could animate my warriors to battle: but I cannot animate the dead.)
. we must bow before you. Chicago. by W. 1988.G. University of Oklahoma Press. 1972. by Benjamin W. and held fast to it. but still you are our brothers and friends. fought a bloody series of battles against the whites from 1812 to 1814. Adventures among the Indians. Tallaschatchee. I am a soldier. We became neighbors. and we were brothers. Emuckfaw. I have fought them. I would yet fight. You have promised to replant us in a better soil. Creek Indian Leaders. and Tohopeka.. and to watch over us and nurse us. you have torn us up by the roots. and fought them bravely. by Charles Hamilton. 1825. n.) 79. The white men became numerous as the trees of the forest. Mclntosh and Weatherford. But I have done—my people are all gone—I can do no more than weep over the misfortunes of my nation. Alabama
William Weatherford. and the children of the white man grew up. University of Alabama Press. (Ibid. a Creek chief. I am in your power: do with me what you please.)
(1780-1822) Creek. (Ibid. If I had an army.) 81. We took the white man by the hand. and contend to the last.H. and the children of the red man grew up in the same country. (Surrender to General Andrew Jackson. Friends and Brothers: You are like the mighty storm. we are like the tender and bending tree. My warriors can no longer hear my voice—their bones are at Talladega. (Ibid.) 80.24
for your children.d. 1814.
to this. . I have not surrendered myself thoughtlessly. with as much certainty as . If I had been left to contend with the Georgian army [state militia]. (Statement. They are like the
. . reluctantly agreed and lived out his life on a reservation. But your people have destroyed my nation. and have fought them on the other. the great chief. and for myself. I would have raised my corn on one bank of the river. . (Ibid. Whilst there were chances of success. I never left my post. He was converted by missionaries and later took the name of Noah. sacrifice the last remnant of their country. In 1855 he signed a treaty ceding lands to the white settlers. (Ibid. Whatever they may be. I rely upon your generosity. nor supplicated peace. and.) 88. Chronology of Native North American History. What Seattle says. The son of the white chief says his father sends us greetings of friendship and goodwill. Those who would still hold out. When the governor of Washington told Seattle and other chiefs that they would have to move off their lands and onto a reservation. they must not and shall not. You [Andrew Jackson] are a brave man. 1994. because his people are many.SEATTLE
84. Gale. Seattle. My words are like stars that never set.) 85. Washington
Seattle was chief of the Suquamish tribe throughout what is now the state of Washington. You will exact no terms of a conquered people. some chiefs chose to fight. the return of the seasons.)
(17867-1866) Snquamish. This is kind. (Ibid. 1854. I look back with the deepest sorrow and wish to avert still greater calamities. by Duane Champagne. If they are opposed. it would now be madness and folly to oppose them. and now I ask it for my nation.. can rely upon.) 86. But my people are gone. you shall find me among the sternest enforcers of obedience. for we know he has little need of our friendship in return. but such as they should accede to. however. 87. can be influenced only by a mean spirit of revenge. On the miseries and misfortunes brought upon my country.
But let us hope that hostilities between the red man and his paleface brothers may never return.) 95. This indeed appears generous. (Ibid. protect us with his brave warriors. . given them by the Great Spirit. I will not mouth over our untimely decay. also. and then their cruelty is relentless and knows no bounds. and resemble the scattering trees of a storm-swept plain. We are two distinct races and must ever remain so. a few more winters. may have been somewhat to blame. . There was a time when our people covered the whole land But that time has long since passed away with the greatness of tribes now almost forgotten. (Statement to Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens. (Ibid. . for we are no longer in need of a great country. and disfigure their faces with black paint. There is little in common between u s . (Ibid. . . The great. their hearts. . The Indian's night promises to be d a r k . allow us to live comfortably . The red man has ever fled the approach of the white man as morning must flee the rising sun. white chief sends us word that he wants to buy our land but is willing to allow us to receive enough to live on comfortably. also.26
grass that covers the vast prairies. (Ibid. for the red man no longer has rights that he need respect. Your religion was written on tablets of stone by the iron finger of an angry God.) 92. . and is written in the hearts of our people.) 90. while my people are few. when asked to sign a treaty to remove his tribe to a reservation. . (Ibid. (Ibid. (Ibid..) 94.) 93. a few more moments . and I presume also good. When our young men grow angry at some real or imaginary wrong. . nor reproach my paleface brothers for hastening it. and the offer may be wise. Seattle Historical Society. Our religion is the traditions of our ancestors. lest you might forget it. are disfigured and turn black. . But day and night cannot dwell together. Then our ancient northern enemies will cease to frighten. for we.)
. They will not be many. and the visions of our sachems. It matters little where we pass the remnant of our days. too.) 89.) 91. Our great and good Father [the President] sends us word that if we do as he desires he will buy our lands . The red man could never remember nor comprehend it. 1855. his wonderful ships of war will fill our harbors. and our old men are not able to restrain them.) 96. (Ibid. the dreams of our old men. We would have everything to lose and nothing to gain.
. only a change of worlds. At night when the streets of your cities and villages are silent and you think them deserted. (Letter to Secretary of War Lewis Cass. .. these shores will swarm with the invisible dead of my tribe. There is no death. and the prosperity of our people fixed upon a permanent basis. The treaty providing for removal was ratified by the U. (Statement to Governor Stevens. New World Library. Ross could not prevent the removal of the Cherokee Nation from Georgia. Ross originally tried to keep the Cherokee Nation neutral. During the Civil War. 1991. He first supported the Confederacy. The white man will never be alone. Ross led his people on the 'Trail of Tears" (1838-1839) to "Indian Territory" (Oklahoma). Tennessee
John Ross was an ally of Andrew Jackson against the British during the War of 1812. that he knows our position is an embarrassing one. and that a change is called for by every consideration of present convenience and future security. upon the highway. When the last red man shall have perished. the ship. by which all our difficulties will be terminated. they will throng with the returning hosts that once filled them and still love this beautiful land. but later met with Abraham Lincoln and affirmed his loyalty to the Union. Jr. by Alvin M.) 98. Senate by a single vote. Now That the Buffalo's Gone. they will not be alone.)
(1790-1866) Cherokee. the store. .S. and when your children's children think themselves alone in the field. Knopf.JOHN ROSS
97. and that the Government is desirous of entering into a satisfactory arrangement. however. (Native American Wisdom. and the memory of my tribe shall have become a myth among the white man. When Jackson became President. Josephy. or in the silence of the pathless woods. . 1982. He remained chief of the Cherokees until his death. 1855. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Menglehoch. We are told that the President [Andrew Jackson] looks with great anxiety and solicitation in our situation.
Correspondence on Removal of Indians West of the Mississippi River. either in its immediate or remote consequences.) 100. I have deemed it proper to send you the enclosed papers [see following quotation] from which you will see that the subjects on which they treat are well calculated.S. U.."
— J O H N ROSS. will be injurious. Senate Document 512. (Ibid. if agitated under the influence of political
"lO]ur removal to the country west of the Mississippi. 1833. Yet we are assured that you are well convinced that these objects can only be attained by a cession of our possessory rights in Georgia. that such removal will be injurious.. either in its immediate or remote consequences. CHEROKEE
1833. that you can see no cause of apprehension. as we do.) 101. 1831-1833. and by our removal to the country west of the Mississippi.
1861. American Baptist Historical Society.JOHN ROSS
demagogues and through the prejudices of sectarianism on religiousdoctrinal points. American Baptist Mission Union Papers. 1855. (Letter to Confederate official. Your demand that those people of the [Cherokee] nation who are in favor of joining the Confederacy be allowed to organize into military companies as home guards for the purpose of defending themselves in case of invasion from the North is most respectfully declined. 1984. I cannot give my consent to any such organization. support any person that you may be instructed to by the Mother Lodge for any office in the Cherokee Nation or anywhere else. and of the overwhelming pressure brought to bear upon them. (Letter to Evan Jones. Oklahoma. . in the Cherokee Nation and in other countries? You do solemnly swear you will. Tahlequah.. for the support of Slavery. Our geographical position and domestic institutions allied us to the South. Our relations had long existed with the United States Government and bound us to observe amity and peace alike with all the States. I felt that the interests of the Cherokee people would be best maintained by remaining quiet and not involving themselves in it prematurely. as a different course would have placed all our rights in jeopardy and might have led to the sacrifice of the people. 1861.] You do solemnly swear that you will answer such questions as may be put to you: Are you in favor of supporting slavery in Kansas. June 17. At the beginning of the conflict [the Civil War]. In consequence of the want of protection [from the U n i o n ] . Papers of Chief John Ross. It would be a palpable violation of my position as a n e u t r a l . for the preservation of their Country and their existence. But when there was no longer any reason to believe that the Union of the States would be continued. (Speech to the Cherokee National Assembly. May 5.) 106. Ibid. 1855. . . (Ibid. to create excitement and strife among the Cherokee people..) 104. Neutrality was proper and wise so long as there remained a reasonable probability that the difficulty between the two sections of the Union would be settled.) 103. alluded to in the previous quotation. . University of Oklahoma Press. It will place in our midst organized companies not authorized by our laws who would soon become efficient instruments in stirring up domestic strife and creating internal difficulties among the Cherokee people.) 105.. .) 102. the Cherokees were forced. and to assist any member that may get into difficulty on account of being a Brother of the Secret Society and to keep secret the names of all the Brothers of the Society and other secrets of the Society? (Oath of allegiance of a secret society. there was no cause to hesitate as to the course the Cherokee Nation should pursue. [One enclosure by Ross. to
. October 9.
. The white man seeks to conquer nature.) 108. The white man is a monster who is always hungry and what he eats is land. by Allan W. I cannot express the sadness of my feelings in rambling over the place. 1839-1880. 1992. surrounded by the power and influences that they [faced]. McLoughlin. (Ibid. (1866. other fruits being gone. No other alternative was left them. (September 18. 110.) 111. returning to his home at war's end. Eckert.) 107.. by William G. It is not peace. [I] found a few peaches.v. to bend it to his will and to use it wastefully until it is all gone and then he simply moves on leaving the waste behind him and looking for new places to take. security and fraternity these lately disloyal leaders want.. 1993. and Peggy's cabin.) 112. 1865. As soon as the [Union Army's] Indian Expedition marched into the Country. . Riding through the orchard. Ohio?
Chiksika was the older brother of Tecumseh (q. but if they lose it is called a massacre and bigger armies are raised. (Ibid. (A Sorrow in Our Heart. (Ibid. When a white man kills an Indian in a fair fight it is called honorable.)
(Late e i g h t e e n t h to early n i n e t e e n t h century)
Shawnee. . cited in After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty.30
negotiate a treaty with the Confederate States. referring to the Cherokee leaders who had allied themselves to the Confederacy during the Civil War. Bantam. I . University of North Carolina Press.).1862. hastened to our once lovely home and witnessed the ruins and desolation of the premises—the only buildings standing was [sic] Johnny's chicken house. Papers of Chief John Ross. but when an Indian kills a white man in a fair fight it is called murder. it is political power.)
.) 109. (Letter to Abraham Lincoln. When a white army battles Indians and wins it is called a great victory. the carriage house.. September 16.. the great mass of the Cherokee people rallied spontaneously around the authorities of the United States. . Ibid.
) 115. He was a key spokesman not only in Washington. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Mendleboch. 113.
. (Native American Wisdom. You said that you wanted to put us upon a reservation.) 114. 1991. I was born upon the prairie where the wind blew free and there was nothing to break the light of the sun. New World Library. 116. Great Spirit: I want no blood upon my land to stain the grass. but also at local peace conferences called by whites. to build our houses and make us medicine lodges.)
(17937-1848) Sac. He was also called upon to mediate intertribal disputes. vol. and leave peacefully when they go. that all who go through among my people may find it peaceful when they come. and I wish it so. Since the first time that I have met my white brethren in council. I want to die there. Do not ask us to give up the buffalo for the sheep. Record Group no. took part in peace conferences with white officials.TEN BEARS
Ten Bears. I was born where there were no inclosures and where everything drew a free breath. 1. Illinois
Keokuk was a Sac chief who spoke out on behalf of his tribe. (Ibid. I want it all clear and pure. (Speech at Medicine Lodge Council. National Archives. Proceedings of the Indian Peace Commission. a Comanche chief. 48. I do not want them. 1867.
) 120. . 1837.)
(1797-1874?) Pawnee Loups
Petalesharo. If. . as they are called [missionaries]. among the whites. . and advise you to bore our ears with sticks. and after I have passed to the Good or Evil Spirit from off the wilderness of my present
. that it will be necessary to bore them with iron.) 117. November 4. We have plenty of land. a Pawnee chief. I think their ears are so closed against the hearing of all good. Let the Sioux keep from our lands. . (Ibid. 1951. (Ibid. Great Father [President M o n r o e ] : . . (Niles [III] Weekly Register. . Let us exhaust our present resources before you make us toil and interrupt our h a p p i n e s s . . Turner. It is too soon. another came upon it. We wish you to permit us to enjoy the chase until the game of our country is exhausted. These people [the Sioux] say we are deaf to your advice. 118. to send those good men [missionaries] among us. . and there will be peace.32
I have been told that the red skins must shake h a n d s . to make us work and live like the white people. have proposed to send some of their good people among us to change our habits. a man purchased a piece of land. I have heard your words— they have entered one ear and shall not escape the other. University of Oklahoma Press. . by Katharine C. (Ibid. We are not starving yet.. We have everything we want. My Great Father: Some of your good chiefs. ..) 119. We have also an abundance of horses.. Let me continue to live as I have done. We have plenty of buffalo. my Great Father. I love the manner in which [my people] live. You love the manner in which they l i v e . (Statement at an 1822 conference in Washington. At one time he was a guest of President James Monroe at the White House. was best known for ending the practice of human sacrifice in the tribal ritual. you would drive him off. deer and other wild animals. if you will keep your people off of it. . . . beaver.) 121.. Red Men Calling on the Great White Father.
The Politics of Indian Removal.)
. by Michael D. We crumble and fall. Dockstader. a Creek chief. that they cannot live in the same field with the white man. (Ibid. . (Ibid. Green. . Bowing to what he felt was the inevitable. and was driven out of his land by the Confederate Army. first fought the United States rather than give up tribal lands.)
(17987-1862) Creek. 1982. Let us save our people by educating our boys and girls and young men and young women in the ways of the white man. During the Civil War. Our people yet abhor the idea of leaving all that is dear to them . We Indians are like an island in the middle of the river. he supported the Union. University of Nebraska Press.) 123.OPOTHLEYOHOLO
life the subsistence of my children may become so precarious as to need and embrace the assistance of those good people. (Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. he moved with his tribe to Indian Territory. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Then they may be planted and deeply rooted about us and our people may stand unmoved in the flood of the white man. Georgia
Opothleyoholo.) 124. they have become convinced of their true situation. (1835. 122. The white man comes upon us as a flood. but circumstances have changed their opinions. 1977. by Frederick J.
In 1837 The Four Bears delivered this bitter attack on the whites.)
(Early to m i d . But to die with my face rotten [from the smallpox]. Brothers! We have heard the talk of our great father [President Andrew Jackson]. (Ibid. and rise all together and not leave one of them alive. The Mandans are believed to have been the first inhabitants of what later became North Dakota. (Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. 1983. . sisters. He says he loves his red children. . children. that even the wolves will shrink with horror at seeing me. but today I do pronounce them to be a set of black-hearted d o g s . with their faces all rotten. Listen well to what I have to say. and kindled him a fire to make him comfortable. and when the palefaces
. brothers. as it will be the last time you will hear me.. by Annette Rosenstiel.THE FOUR BEARS
(1800-1837) Mandan.) 126. You know it. Think of your wives. I do not fear death. a disease the white man had brought to America.. Think of all that my friends. my friends. Universe Books. caused by those dogs the whites. He and his tribe had become infected with smallpox. I have never called a white man a dog.n i n e t e e n t h century)
\T7. North Dakota
The Four Bears was a chief of the Mandan tribe. Brothers! When the white man first came to these shores.. 125. . the Muscogees gave him land.
— T H E FOUR BEARS. that even the wolves will shrink with horror at seeing me."1 do not fear death . [b]ut to die with my face rotten..
" (Ibid. He said much. Biography and History of the Indians of North America. their young men drew the tomahawk. His hands grasped the eastern and the western sea." He also said. and protected his head from the scalping knife. Brothers! Will not our great father come here also? [And tell us that] He loves his red children and his tongue is not forked. he became very large. you are too near me.
. He was later assassinated on the same day as his uncle." (Ibid. there is game.. go beyond the Mississippi. 1841.). (1830.36
of the south made war on him. Then he became our great father. D.. But our great father still loved his red children.). and his cousin. (Ibid.v. "Go beyond the Oconee and the Oakmulgee. "It shall be yours forever. Drake. Boston. by Samuel G. He was a member of a Cherokee delegation which went to Washington.) 130. and filled himself with the Indian's hominy. there is a pleasant country. Boudinot returned believing that the Cherokee cause was hopeless. he stopped not for the mountain tops. He loved his red children but said: "You must move a little farther. to speak to President Andrew Jackson about the proposed removal of the Cherokees west of the Mississippi. John Ridge (q.) 129." With one foot he pushed the red man over the Oconee. but it all meant nothing but "move a little farther. and with the other he trampled down the graves of his fathers." Now he says. there you may remain while the grass grows or the water runs. tread on you. But when the white man had warmed himself before the Indian's fire. and his feet covered the plains and the valleys. "The land you live on is not yours. lest I should. and he soon made them another talk. He [President Jackson] said. by accident. Major Ridge (q. 11th ed.)
(18037-1839) Cherokee.C.) 128.v. Georgia
Elias Boudinot was the first editor of the Cherokee Phoenix.
(Address to Colonel John Chivington at Camp Weld. (25th Congress. without any apprehension. (Ibid. . and that we have made peace. He narrowly escaped death Creek massacre of 1864.) 137.
134. 1961. Now. are about to be seized and taken from us. If I really believe there is danger. tell our countrymen our true. Senate Document 121. Colorado. I must act consistently.) 136. 1 have come to the unpleasant and most disagreeable conclusion . In the case under consideration.) 133. I cannot say peace.BLACK KETTLE
. When we came here we came free. and threatened to be shattered to pieces by an approaching tempest. September 28. I cannot ease their minds with any expectation of a calm. We must live near the buffalo or starve. 1864. . I have not come with a little wolf's bark. as a friend of my people. that we may not be mistaken by them for enemies. South Dakota
Black Kettle was a Cheyenne leader who tried to with the white man. Serial 315. 1 want you to give all the chiefs of the soldiers here to understand that we are for peace. took part in discussions icine Lodge Council of 1867. and died in battle a
make peace at the Sand at the Medyear later.)
(18037-1868) Cheyenne. 2d Session.) 132. "immediate and appalling. but have come to talk plain with you. act wisely. by Stan Hoig. situation. (Ibid. when there is no peace.) 135. (Ibid. University of Oklahoma Press. that our lands. peace. and choose a course that will come nearest befitting the nation. not rashly. or what I believe to be our true. or a large part of them. The Sand Creek Massacre. and give alarm. two months later. when the vessel is already tossed to and fro. Chivington would wipe out nearly half of Black Kettle's band at Sand Creek." and it becomes the people of this country to weigh the matter rightly. (Ibid. I am induced to believe there is danger.
horses. and so many absent. During the Second Seminole War. when he was our agent and brought us presents he did not take them into forts and houses. and so will all the different tribes of Indians on the plains. There are so few here it would not look right to make a treaty for the whole nation.38
see you. Since the death of Major Fitzpatrick we have had many agents. and everything else. and he died in captivity. . but it looks so. He was arrested under a flag of truce and was imprisoned. 1971.. . (Ibid. Holt. Major [Thomas] Fitzpatrick. 141. after we have eaten and drunk with them. 1865. and when I go home and tell my people that I have taken your hand and the hands of all the chiefs here in Denver. I once thought that I was the only man that persevered to be the friend of the white man. (Council meeting between Indian leaders and U. Rinehart & Winston. 1865. and I would rather defer making any permanent treaty until the others come. it don't [sic] look right. (Ibid. but would drive his wagons into our villages and empty them there.) 139. . This is the only treaty I will make! (Said as he struck a dagger
. but since they have come and cleaned out our lodges. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. There is but a handful here now of the Cheyenne nation. by Dee Brown. These lands that you propose to give to us I know nothing about. Alabama
Osceola fought the removal of the Seminoles to reservations west of the Mississippi River.S.) 138.S. government representatives. The amount of goods has diminished. Every one would help themselves and feel g l a d . Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. they will feel well. . Osceola led a highly successful guerrilla campaign against the U.) 140. it is hard for me to believe white men any more. Army. negotiating a new treaty.. which began in 1835.)
(18037-1838) Seminole. I don't know as we have been wronged.
. some tribesmen accused him of turning his back on his own people. Minnesota
Little Crow. SEMINOLE
into a treaty document presented in 1835 by American officials. however. a Santee chief. He did.)
(18037-1863) Santee Sioux. Attributed. in 1858 to discuss Indian affairs with the white men. backed the signing of the Mendota Treaty of 1851. he put a dagger through it. take an active part in the Sioux uprising of 1862. When he went to Washington. "This is the only treaty I will make!"
Presented with a treaty to sign. saying.C.. D.
. infatuated Indian deluded by the counsels of [John] Ross and his m i n i o n s . (Ibid. your ears are full of roaring waters. and ten times ten will come to kill you. .)
(1803-1839) Cherokee. whatever it may be.). and he is not a fool! When did he run away from his enemies? When did he leave his braves behind him on the warpath and turn back to his tepee? When he ran from your enemies. your eyes are full of smoke. . You are full of the white man's devil water. The treaty provided for Cherokee removal to territory west of the Mississippi. Elias Boudinot (q. Is Taoyateduta without scalps? .) 144. All three were seen as traitors by the antitreaty forces. You will die like the rabbits when the hungry wolves hunt them in the Hard Moon.). The pro-treaty party was vigorously opposed by a Cherokee group led by John Ross (q.v.. I may yet die some day by the hand of some poor. Behold the scalp locks of your enemies hanging there on his lodgepoles! (Minnesota History. I am resigned to my fate.. 38. (After signing the Treaty of
John Ridge was the son of Major Ridge (q. . ten.. See! The white men are like the locusts when they fly so thick that the whole sky is a snowstorm.. John Ridge was assassinated on the same day as his father and his cousin.v. Shortly after removal.40
142. 145. .). vol. Braves!. September 1962. You cannot see the face of your chief.. Both played key roles in negotiating a treaty between the Cherokee Nation and President Andrew Jackson.v. he walked behind on your trail with his face to the Ojibways and he covered your backs as a she-bear covers her cubs. Taoyateduta [Little Crow] is not a coward. . Braves!. two. .) 143. You are like dogs in the Hot Moon when they snap at their own s h a d o w s . . Kill one.. Taoyateduta [Little Crow] is not a coward: he will die with you. . (Ibid.
.) 149. . . the lives of the whites. Georgia Department of Archives and History. to scour and range in their fastnesses & to search for them in their caves and to suppress their secret meetings. And to cap the climax of this league the ablest lawyers of your own state are retained to defend them if t a k e n . . A Political History of the Cherokee Nation. of this unholy Indian Aristocracy is the banded outlaws who are harbored by the Ross party for the purposes of intimidation or assassination. 1838-1907. . The President has assured me that he will stand by this treaty as the Ultimatum of the Government and no other shall be offered to the Cherokee p e o p l e . The object is procrastination—to outlive Jackson's administration or to compel it to abandon the rights of the Indians to their own keeping and management. Richard the Third never had better instruments to promote tyranny. . in the field. (Ibid. Genl. 1835. The treaty which is now published to the world is the result of our most solemn considerations—it dispenses full & equal justice to all parties in the Nation and to every individual. May 18. Here is a band. . It gives the Indian a home.) 148. and it is to organize a guard of thirty men .JOHN RIDGE
New Echota in 1835. valley & mountain opposing the ratification of i t . The last hold . Five millions of dollars. & their property which sets at defiance your constables & sheriffs & laughs at your Judges & Jurors. 1938. The Ross party disbelieve it.) 146. . . (Ibid. by means of falsehoods. (Letter to Georgia Governor Wilson Lumpkin. but it was reserved to this President to change that most unchristian habit of cupidity! (Ibid. the right of self Government in it & an equal share of the funds accruing from the arrangement.) 147. managed and disbursed by a few of the Halfbreed race & Georgia-Lawyers would be a speculation which the Rothschilds of Europe would be glad to obtain. by Morris Wardell. . . a well organized power against the lives of the friendly Indians. They are. & this party composed as it is of Halfbreed Nullifiers wish to change it and suit themselves—that they might prey upon the last avails of an oppressed race. . . There is a remedy in your [the Governor's] power. Jackson has demonstrated his ancient friendship & truly paternal benevolence to the Cherokees in concluding a treaty of great liberality for their acceptance. Have you not heard of the armed outlaws harbored by the Ross p a r t y . . University of Oklahoma Press. Hitherto a few leading [Cherokee] men were permitted to get all the money & avails of Indian treaties. .)
he was a scout for the military and helped negotiate treaties for them.. was friendly with the white man. myself.. a Shoshone chief. and antelope could be seen. Montana
Washakie. elk. It was never the intention of the Shoshone tribe. SHOSHONE
(1804-1900) Shoshone.. I have. when I look for game. but taught my young men that a war with the Great Father [the President] would be
. At one time. I see only wagons with white tops and men riding upon their horses. 150. to fight the whites. He led battles against the Blackfeet and Crow tribes.. been fired upon by emigrants.."
—WASHAKIE. but he never warred against the white man.42
"Before the emigrants passed through my country. Now. buffalo.
and trader. 153. Kansas. In 1865 he laid out the famous 800-mile cattle trail that bears his name. the tribe was removed from
Jesse Chisholm was a guide. Texas. .)
WILLIAM SHOREY COODEY
(1806-1849) Cherokee?. Before the emigrants passed through my country.) 151. . Cited in a report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.v. to Abilene. I do not propose to fight. interpreter. when I look for game. superintendent of a road being built through Shoshone country. . and antelope could be s e e n . It extended from San Antonio. no.WILLIAM SHOREY COODEY
disastrous. 1008. (Ibid. House Executive Document 108.) 152.
William Shorey Coodey was the nephew of the Cherokee chief John Ross (q. buffalo. 35th Congress. (Named for Jesse Chisholm.). notwithstanding the building of this road which will destroy many of our root grounds and drive off our game. My people are very poor and have fallen back into the valleys of the mountains to dig roots and get meat for their little ones. The Chisholm Trail. . quoted in indirect discourse by Captain Frederick Lander.S. U.)
(1805-1868) Cherokee. In October 1838. elk. (July 1858. I see only wagons with white tops and men riding upon their horses. We will be much injured by the passage of the new road by emigrants. 2d Session. . Now. . (Ibid.
Battle of the Big Hole. 1840. were crackling and falling under a blazing flame.)
Georgia to be taken to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). 155. 1877. In all the bustle of preparation there was a silence and stillness of the voice that betrayed the sadness of the heart. 154. the day was bright and beautiful. (Letter to John Howard Payne. Chicago. D. He refused to surrender and escaped to Canada with a small group. others shaking the hand of some sick friend or relative who would be left behind. the teams were stretched out in a line along the road through a heavy forest. but a gloomy thoughtfulness was depicted in the lineaments of every face.)
White Bird was a chief of the Nez Perce.). Shields. August 13. 1889. (At the battle of Big Hole River. Fight! Shoot them down! We can shoot as well as any of these soldiers. by G. groups of persons formed about each wagon.v. Here Coodey describes the beginning of what became known as the Trail of Tears. The temporary camp covered with boards and some of bark that for three summer months had been their only shelter and home. At noon all was in readiness of moving. he was trapped with Chief Joseph (q. At the end of the Nez Perce War.
156.) 159. . (Ibid.BIG EAGLE
Santee Sioux. Minnesota
Big Eagle was one of the Sioux chiefs who took part in the 1862 uprising in Minnesota.] told some of my band that if I refused to lead them to shoot me as a traitor who would not stand up for his nation. The Indians wanted to live as they did before the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux—go where they pleased and when they pleased. and as the Indians kept no books they could not deny their accounts. 157. Though I took part in the war. . Collections. I knew there was no good cause for it. It was also thought that a war with the whites would cause the Sioux to forget the troubles among themselves and enable many of them to pay off some old scores. 6: 384-5. and did not want to a n y w a y . and when the government payments came the traders were on hand with their books.v. (Ibid. 387.)
. hunt game wherever they could find it. work hard and do as they did—and the Indians did not know how to do that. I was against it. and sometimes the traders got all their money. 1894). he recalled what happened. Many of the whites always seemed to say by their manner when they saw an Indian. (Ibid. ("Chief Big Eagle's Story of the Sioux Outbreak of 1862/' in Minnesota Historical Society. It began to be whispered about that now would be a good time to go to war with the whites and get back the l a n d s . . and I had been to Washington and knew the power of the whites and that they would finally conquer us. . The Indians bought goods of them on credit. (Ibid. . Years later. Then many of the white men often abused the Indians and treated them u n k i n d l y . [T]he Indians did not think the traders had done right. sell their furs to the traders and live as they could. .) 158. .) 160. but had to pay them. . . The whites were always trying to make the Indians give up their life and live like white men—go to farming. and then select another leader in my place. which showed that the Indians owed so much and so much. When the outbreak came Little Crow [q. "I am much better than y o u / ' and the Indians did not like this.
and I will lead you against the long knives and the big men who have come to cheat us and take away our lands and put us in a pen for not helping to rob our women and children. the blood of your fathers talks to you from the graves where we stand. Tonight the blood of the white man shall run like water in the rain. He finally surrendered and was moved to Indian Territory with his tribe. Red Iron was released. Dakotas.] in a pen like a wolf. Dakotas. when the moon goes down behind the hills.v. a Seminole chief. (Speech before Dakota braves.) 163. 1907.LION BEAR
(Early to m i d .) 162. which postponed a confrontation. be ready. by Oliver O. Howard. Florida
Wild Cat. They mean to kill him for saying the big men cheat us out of our lands and the money the great Father has sent us. Dakotas. Cited in My Life and Experiences among Our Hostile Indians.
. Their spirits come up into your arms and make them strong. Shortly afterward.n i n e t e e n t h century)
Lion Bear was a Dakota chieftain. must we starve like buffaloes in the snow? Shall we let our blood freeze like the little stream? Or shall we make the snow red with the blood of the white braves? (Ibid. the big men are here. Dakotas. unsuccessfully staved off white forces during the Seminole wars. and Red Iron shall be with his people. 1862. 161. (Ibid. Worthington & Co.. they have got Red Iron [q.)
He gave me his hand in friendship. by Irwin M. I saw the white man afar off. My horse in fields he took from me. Thomas. enough to plant and live on far to the south—a spot where I could place the ashes of my kindred—a place where my wife and child could live. which resulted in the deaths of three men. he had a snake in the other. The whites make so many they are liable to forget them. I asked for but a small piece of this land. and was told that he was my enemy. 1867. Peithman. I took it. participated in council sessions with white officials to bring about peace.SATANK
164. South Dakota
Satank. and them we remember well. I loved it. It was my home.) 165. a Kiowa chief and medicine man. This was not granted me. (Upon his surrender. New York Daily Tribune. his tongue was forked. yet he came upon me. You no doubt are tired of the much talk of our people. 167. I could not shoot him as I would a wolf or a bear. We make but few contracts. I was in hopes I should be killed in battle.) 168. When I was a boy. Many of them have put themselves forward and filled you with their sayings. Charles C. Broken Peace Pipes. 1964.)
(18107-1871) Kiowa. He said he was my friend. 1867. Van Nostrand Reinhold.)
. We do not break treaties.) 166. Dockstader. I have thrown away my rifle and have taken the hand of the white man. 1977. by Frederick J. and now I say take care of me! (Ibid. (Ibid. and to leave it is like burying my wife and child. I am about to leave Florida forever and have done nothing to disgrace it. but a bullet never reached me. November 30. he lied and stung me. he was shot while trying to escape. In 1871 he led a raid in Texas. (Speech at a Medicine Lodge Council meeting with white officials. (Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. Convicted and sentenced to prison.
Several months later. Montana
Dull Knife and his tribe participated in the battle of the Little Big Horn."I seek no war with anyone."
—DULL KNIFE. An old man. CHEYENNE
(18107-1883) Cheyenne. my fighting days are done. their camp was attacked and
by Edgar Bronson. Cited in Reminiscences of a Ranchman.) 170. An old man. Dull Knife and other members of his tribe fled the reservation. (Ibid. Survivors were sent to an Oklahoma reservation. if he lets us stay here. I seek no war with anyone. but will stay here until the
destroyed by the U.v. We thought it better to die fighting to regain our old homes than to perish of sickness. Washington
Spokane Garry was chief of the Lower Spokane tribe. 1908.S. (Ibid. To stay there meant that all of us would die. explaining why he had been hoping to take his people to Red Cloud's reservation. (Ibid. Dull Knife and a tiny group reached the Red Cloud agency. McClure. Ibid. but they were not allowed to stay there. If the Great Father [the President] will not give me land at this place. December 1878. Those not worn by diseases were wasted by hunger. I will not go to another reservation. Sickness came among us that made mourning in every lodge. We bowed to the will of the Great Father and went far into the south where he told us to go. . .].) 172. heading back to their homeland in the north. my fighting days are done.) 171. We hope the Great Father will let us come to you. They were sent to another reservation in the north.)
(1811-1892) Spokane. 174. 169. Tell him if he tries to send us back we will butcher each other with our own knives.) 173. and to live in peace. Dull Knife's people will hurt no one. There we found a Cheyenne cannot live. Tell the Great Father . Our petitions to the Great Father were unheeded. All we ask is to be allowed to live. and our rations were short. Then the treaty promises were broken.S. Army Captain Wessells. (Statement to U. We thank you for asking us to share your lands. (Statement to Red Cloud [q. Army.
Brown. until there is no more out. and out.) 175. 176. by Robert H. University of Oklahoma Press. 46th Congress. and out. Ruby and John A. 177.50
whites push me out. In the first place the white man wants our land. 1879-80. (Response to an appeal by another chieftain for an uprising against the whites. 1856.)
MARIS BRYANT PIERCE
( N i n e t e e n t h century)
Spokane. by Robert H. Annual Report. and so with the whites it is the same. University of Oklahoma Press.v. 2d Session.). Brown. 1970. New York
Maris Bryant Pierce was an activist. Washington
Polatkin was one of the chiefs of Spokane Garry (q. though their skin is white. in the next place that we shall be better off to remove from the vicinity of the whites and settle in the
. 1970. Secretary of War. Ruby and John A. The Spokane Indians: Children of the Sun. 1878. I love everybody now that I have grey hair. In 1838 Pierce attacked the arguments of the land speculators who wanted to grab Indian lands at bargain prices. (Speech at council meeting. in the next place it is said that the offer for it is liberal. (The Spokane Indians: Children of the Sun. If we cut ourselves the blood will be red.
) 180. in consequence of their "loving kindness or tender mercies" toward us.)
. God made us not as you. (Ibid. 1866.S. 1983. We neither know nor feel any debt of gratitude which we owe to them. in the dry grass.. The fact that the whites want our land imposes no obligation on us to sell it. which . not on beds like you. 1913-1914.)
(1812-1874) Chiricahua Apache
Cochise was an Apache chief. This is why we do as the animals. (Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. by Annette Rosenstiel. nor does it hold forth an inducement to do so. Why is it that the Apaches want to die—that they carry their lives on their fingernails? They roam over the hills and plains and want the heavens to fall on them.) 179.. (Council meeting with General Gordon Granger. Cochise surrendered in 1871 and lived on a reservation until his death three years later. (Ibid. . where the woods flock with game. is never sated. and saw no other people than the Apaches. to their wonted avarice . The Apaches were once a great nation. Kansas State Historical Collections. I would not do as I do.. we were born like the animals. and the streams abound with fishes.. unless it leads them to offer a price equal in value to us. go about of a night and rob and steal. . that should cause us to make a sacrifice of our property or our interest. If I had such things as you have. Afterward. . for then I would not need to do so. and because of this they want to die and so carry their lives on their fingernails. Cochise led a guerrilla campaign against the whites in Arizona for more than ten years. In 1861 he was taken by the U. When I was young I walked all over this country east and west.COCHISE
neighborhood of our fellow red man. 178. Universe Books. Army under a flag of truce and was mistreated by the soldiers. After many summers I walked again and found another race of people had come to take it. they are now but few.
My young men shall never work. You must speak straight so that your words may go as sunlight to our hearts. Morrow. Knopf.) 186. and wisdom comes in dreams. (Ibid.) 185. You ask me to dig for stone! Shall I dig under her skin for her bones? Then when I die I cannot enter her body to be born again.)
Smohalla was a holy man who preached for a return of the Indian religion. Smohalla tried to explain to the white men why the work they suggested for Indians was contrary to Indian values. and be rich like white men! But how dare I cut off my mother's hair? (Ibid. You ask me to plow the ground. Josephy. by Alvin M.52
181.) 184. (Ibid. You ask me to cut grass and make hay and sell it. Tell me.) 182. Shall I take a knife and tear my mother's breast? Then when I die she will not take me to her bosom to rest. (From a late nineteenth-century speech. (Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians. if the Virgin Mary has walked throughout all the land. why has she never entered the wigwam of the Apache? Why have we never seen or heard her? (Ibid. 183.)
(1815-1907) Wanapum. 1972. edited by Jay David. The American Indian: The First Victim. 1982. Men who work cannot dream.
1957. 189. He walked a fine line between cooperating with the whites and defending Indian interests. I do not like the interest part of the agreement. I would rather have the money in the bank. Report. Little. by Marshall Sprague.)
. The agreement an Indian makes to a United States treaty is like the agreement the buffalo makes with his hunters when pierced with arrows. U. a Crow chief. All he can do is lie down and give in.BLACKFOOT
Blackfoot. Secretary of the Interior. We want plenty for them. 1873. Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 1873. (Reply to a proposal for the cession of Ute land. in which the Utes would receive interest on the purchase price. we call him in the Crow language E-so-we-wat-se. Brown. Those mountains are full of mines. September 1873.) 188. 1873. all the mountains. We will sell you a big country. The whites think we don't know about the mines. (Massacre: The Tragedy of White River. 187. You call the Great Spirit Jesus in your language. Now tell us what you are going to give for our mountains.)
OURAY THE ARROW
(18207-1881) Ute/Apache. (Council meeting with white officials.) 190.S. but we do. New Mexico
Ouray the Arrow was a Ute chief. (Ibid. took part in treaty discussions and council meetings with white officials.
Despite many unfulfilled promises made by the white men. We work as hard as you do. 1977. Nebraska
Little Raven was an Arapaho chief. Van Nostrand Reinhold. he led his tribe to a peaceful resolution. cited in Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership.54
"The agreement an Indian makes to a United States treaty is like the agreement the buffalo makes with his hunters when pierced with arrows. Dockstader."
— O U R A Y THE ARROW. by Frederick J. UTE/APACHE
. Did you ever try skinning a buffalo? (Reply to a white dignitary who had called Indians lazy.)
1871. Long ago the Arapahoes had a fine country of their own. New York City. (Ibid. because I have been to see the white man in the big house [the President]. and both have driven us from our lands. I have been wanting many years for Washington to give us our rights.) 194. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow. . (Speech at Cooper Union. (Ibid.)
. We do not want to fight [but] the white man has taken away everything. 1871. The white man came to see them. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.) 193. . think I will look like a white man when I come back. and his ball to hunt with. Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. It is the breath of a buffalo in the winter time. They took the gold and pushed the Indian from his home. 1974. and the Indians gave him buffalo meat and a horse to ride on. (Ibid. We want to have his rifle. After a while the white men found gold in our country. (Ibid.) 195. 197. his powder. My young p e o p l e . War Resisters League. What is life? It is the flashes of a firefly in the night.) 196. and they told him the country was big enough for the white man and the Arapahoes.CROWFOOT
192. too. We want to travel the same road as the white man. The government sent agents and soldiers out there to us.)
Crowfoot was a chief of the Blackfeet Confederacy.
1868. Fort Laramie. It is an insult to the spirits of our ancestors. Wyoming. (Indian Chiefs. You have heard the sound of the white soldier's axe upon the Little Piney. Brown. (Council meeting. Little. the Great Father is building his forts among us. 1918. He went on the warpath after the whites violated solemn treaty obligations. a way for his iron road to the mountains and the western sea.) 199. Our old chiefs thought to show their friendship and good will. Hear ye. but this was later violated by the United States. but to seek for gold in the far west.) 202.) 201. Yet before the ashes of the council fire are cold. June 17. His presence here is an insult and a threat. He won a favorable peace treaty in 1868. Are we then to give up their sacred graves to be plowed for corn? Dakotas. Nebraska
Red Cloud was a medicine man who became an important warrior chief.RED CLOUD
(1822-1909) Oglala Sioux. by Charles A. not to tarry among us. (New York Times.)
. Holiday House.) 200. Eastman. by Russell Freedman. Dakotas! When the Great Father at Washington [the President] sent us his chief soldier to ask for a path through our hunting grounds. I am for war! (Ibid. The Great Spirit made us poor and ignorant. When we see the soldiers moving away and the forts abandoned. Our nation is melting away like the snow on the sides of the hills where the sun is warm. 1987. when they allowed this dangerous snake in our midst. He led many battles against the whites. the most well known of which were the Fetterman Massacre of 1866 and the Wagon Box Fight of 1867. (Omaha Weekly World. Indian Heroes and Great Chieftains. we were told that they wished merely to pass through our country. 1866. while your people [whites] are like blades of grass in the spring when summer is coming. 198. 1870. He made you [whites] rich and wise and skillful in things which we know nothing about. then I will come down and talk. June 10.
Our Indian Wards. We do not want riches.) 204. (Ibid. by George W. we want peace and love. We know that the duty of these soldiers is to follow people that are bad throughout the western country. 1876.RED CLOUD
"When the white man comes to my country he leaves a trail of blood behind him. We see a great many soldiers here in our country. 1880. and leave us alone here with the agent of the interior department. and have them all taken away."
— R E D CLOUD. I want you to have pity on us. (Statement to protest the presence of large numbers of cavalry and infantry troops near the site where peace talks were being held.)
. We do not like to see them here. Manypenny. OGLALA SIOUX
211. I was born Lakota and I have lived as a Lakota and I shall die a Lakota. . (Ibid. and they took it! (American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions.)
(1823-1881) Bride Sioux. in which he stepped aside as chief in favor of his son. and the deer for food and clothing. by Edward Lazarus.) 209. a Sioux chief. Shadows are long and dark before me. I shall soon lie down to rise no more. (Ibid. Rinehart & Winston. He gave us the buffalo. 1993. We were free as the winds and eagle.) 210.) 207. No one put bounds on us. They never kept but one. While my spirit is with my body the smoke of my breath shall be towards the Sun for he knows all things and knows that I am still true to him. My sun is set. They promised to take our land. . Opponents accused him of selling out his tribe for personal gain. The country which we live in is cut up by the white men. the antelope. Darkness is stealing over me. more than I can remember. When the white man comes to my country he leaves a trail of blood behind him. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. National Woodlands. That is the
.) 206. 1991. took part in many negotiating sessions with the white man. My day is done. (Statement to his people. cited in Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation Versus the United States. and he was assassinated. We object to the Powder River road. South Dakota
Spotted Tail. HarperCollins. Holt. We moved on our hunting grounds from the Minnesota to the Platte and from the Mississippi to the great mountains. 1971. and gave us this land we live in.58
205. The Great Spirit made us. by Jack Utter. They [the whites] made us many promises. the Indians. who drive away all the game. 1903. . 1775 to the Present. by Dee Brown. (Ibid.) 208.
do a great many evil things This has come from robbery—from the stealing of our land. Holt. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. (Statement to Peace Commission. and there is no Great Father between me and the Great Spirit. and who. This [Black Hills] war did not spring up here in our land. in our land.) 213. and there is no Great Father between me and the Great Spirit. 1775 to the Present. by Edward Lazarus. 1867. HarperCollins. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Spotted Tail later did visit Washington.SPOTTED TAIL
"My father is with me. Rinehart and Winston."
—SPOTTED TAIL. the President. as told to John G.) 212. Neihardt. My father is with me.)
. 1932. BRULE SIOUX
cause of our troubles. 1991. 1971. this war was brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land from us without price. by Dee Brown. Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation Versus the United States. (1876. Morrow. (Response to a request by other chiefs to accompany them to Washington to see the Great Father.
. and wants me to be an Episcopalian. We are not going to give any children to learn such ways. There is a time appointed to all things. but to change my way of talking to him. 1940). . He talked me out of my old faith. After a while. Wirth Bros. Yale University Press. look upon the snow that appears today—tomorrow it is water! Listen to the dirge of the dry leaves. 215. He knew there was gold in the Black Hills and he made us agree to give up all that country and now a great many white people are there getting out the g o l d .)
Lewis Downing was elected Cherokee chief after the Civil War. . and after a while. thinking that he must know more of these matters than an ignorant Indian. by Annette Rosenstiel. another man came and talked. (Ibid. . . The white people are all thieves and liars. These people don't seem to want to change my belief in the Great Spirit. 1964. I have about made up my mind that either they all lie. (Commenting on educating Indians at the Carlisle Indian School. I joined his church and became a Methodist. and I became a Baptist. Universe Books. We do not want our children to learn such things. Think for a moment how many multitudes of the animal tribes we ourselves have destroyed. and worshipped him in my own way. then another came and talked and I became a Presbyterian. edited by James H. I have always believed in the Great Spirit. The white man is very smart. Some years ago. that were green and vigorous but a few moons before! We are a part of that life and it seems that our time has come.60
214. . (Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. (The Wounded Knee Massacre from the Viewpoint of the Survivors. Battlefield and Classroom. by Richard Henry Pratt. . All these people tell different stories. Now another one has come. 1983. and each wants me to believe that his special way is the only way to be good and save my soul. McGregor. a good m a n .) 217.
..) 216. he went away. came to us. or that they don't know any more about it than I did at the first. .
1839-1880. . . (The Supreme Court.." Cherokee Advocate. . dependent nation. had declared the Cherokees a "domestic. kettle. (History of the Ojibways. . McLoughlin. and Seminole]. Chickasaw. and an author. the five nations [Cherokee. Creek. have not only survived but increased in numbers. During his brief lifetime. by William G. If a man. Choctaw. was descended from a Mayflower pilgrim. portage collar. we owe to our separate national existence and the protection and security afforded by our treaties. . a newspaper writer. his body is placed in a grave. blanket. His father. blanket and kettle. With the articles needed in life for a journey. axe. January 30. they live in a beautiful country interspersed with clear lakes and streams. After camping out four nights. (University of North Carolina Press.)
(1825-1853) Ojibway. All this prosperity under God and His gospel. 1871. accumulated property. facing the west. After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokee Struggle for Sovereignty. . When an Ojibway dies. fire steel. where he finds his relatives accumulated since mankind was first created. the soul arrives in the land of spirits. 220. Based upon Traditions and Oral Statements. . forests and abounding in fruit and game . flint and moccasins.. Warren was an interpreter. a white man. generally in a sitting posture. his gun.)
218. 1993. and traveling each day through a prairie country. Dependence does not destroy sovereignty. Amid the decay of Indian Nations . her moccasins. singing and dancing. all is rejoicing. (1870.) 219.. . years before. 1885. if a woman. Wisconsin
William Warren wrote about Ojibway legends and traditions.. all that the red man most covets in this life. [and] advanced in civilization. a Minnesota state representative.
John Ridge [q. Georgia
John Rollin Ridge was the grandson of Major Ridge (q. 222. In compliance with your request. New York
Ely Parker studied to be a lawyer but was denied certification because. as president. (New York Tribune. Parker was cleared of any wrongdoing. In 1864 General Grant asked Parker for a memorandum on how the Indian problem might be handled. 221. he was not a citizen. Nine years later. .
. Elias Boudinot [q. May 28.).]. Lee. Although he was accused of corruption by Grant's political enemies. During the Civil War. They organized the party of civilization. and their names are upon record as the foremost among those who labored to redeem their people from the savage state. He wrote articles to defend those accused of treachery for supporting the Cherokee removal treaty. . 1866. He became a civil engineer.v. I have the honor to submit the following proposed plan for the establishment of a permanent and perpetual peace .v.JOHN ROLLIN RIDGE
(1827-1867) Cherokee. . and he drafted the surrender document signed by Robert E. His [Major Ridge's] son. followed the path of this aged pioneer [Major Ridge] of Cherokee civilization. as an Indian. he joined the staff of General Ulysses Grant.]. and his nephew. . between the United States and various Indian t r i b e s .v. . Grant appointed Parker the first Indian to become commissioner of Indian affairs.)
First. and some occupying high and responsible positions. In all troubles arising in this manner the civil agents have been totally powerless to avert the consequences. Retaliation generally followed. members of the tribe were inhumanly shot down and the whole treated as mere dogs.) 223. Grant. but in the speeches of men of intelligence. 1st Session. costing lives and much treasure. and when too late the military have been called in to protect the whites and punish the Indians. they found no rights possessed by the Indians that they were bound to respect. (Memorandum to General U. Senate Executive Document No. The faith of treaties solemnly entered into were totally disregarded. 1864. But as the hardy pioneer and adventurous miner advanced into the inhospitable regions occupied by the Indians in search of the precious metals. If any tribe remonstrated against the violation of their natural and treaty rights. and Indian territory wantonly violated. 40th Congress. January 24. lives and property. Agents appointed from civil life have generally been provided to protect their [Indian] rights."
—ELY PARKER. to advocate the policy of their [Indians'] immediate and absolute extermination.ELY PARKER
"It has of late years become somewhat common.S. 13. the transfer of the Indian bureau from the Interior Department back to the War Department.) 224.
. and bloody Indian wars have been the consequence. not only for the press. and to attend to the prompt and faithful observance of treaty stipulations.
the honor of the national character and the dictates of a sound policy guided by the principles of religion and philanthropy. in the beginning.) 229. and precious metals are discovered or found to exist upon it. while civil agents have none of those incentives. although it may be for a limited period. . and to make as much money as possible out of their offices. (Ibid. to advocate the policy of their [Indians'] immediate and absolute extermination. I know of no reason why officers of the army could not make all these payments as well as civilians. in my opinion. the lucky possessor is considered as having already made his fortune.) 228.. the Indians would be more honestly dealt by. or both. . which.64
when if. I think. their rights would not have been improperly molested. Then was the cry raised by all those who believed themselves
. (Ibid. the ruling passion with them being generally to avoid all trouble and responsibility. a prompt and summary check to any further aggressions could have been given. so revolting to every sense of humanity and Christianity. however unenlightened they may be. (Ibid. Indian trading licenses are very much sought after. The expense of agencies would be saved. Most of Indian treaties contain stipulations for the payment annually to Indians of annuities. but in the speeches of men of intelligence. and. and when obtained. Such a proposition. without a cost of untold treasure and lives of her people. not only for the press.000. would urge the adoption of a system to avert the extinction of a people. is a great evil to Indian communities.) 227. besides exposing herself to the abhorrence and censure of the entire civilized world. perhaps. or if disturbed in their quietude by any lawless whites. less than 400.) 225. either in money or goods. I would provide for the complete abolishment of the system of Indian traders. the military had had the supervision of the Indians. which impels him to discharge his duty honestly and faithfully. (Ibid. numbering. (Ibid. the military alone can give the Indians the needed protection and keep the adventurous miner from encroaching upon the Indians until the government has come to some understanding with them. An officer's honor and interest is at stake. and agents are appointed to make these payments whenever government furnishes them the means. it seems to me could not for one moment be entertained by any enlightened nation. The American government can never adopt the policy of a total extermination of the Indian race within her limits. It has of late years become somewhat common. and some occupying high and responsible positions. On the contrary. In cases where the government promises the Indians the quiet and peaceable possession of a reservation.) 226.
) 232. Nebraska
Standing Bear. They were defeated. 231. The U.1 have not wished to give even a part of it [the land] to the Great Father. Army was ordered to take him and his people. refused to move his people to an Oklahoma reservation. (Ibid. this Parker is an Indian genius. (Ibid. a Ponca chief. When people want to slaughter cattle they drive them along until
. interpreted the ruling as applying to Standing Bear and his small group only. by force if necessary.) 233. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. 23. he is grown so great and powerful. 1971. Last Grand Sachem of the Iroquois and General Grant's Military Secretary. I gave up a thankless position to enjoy my declining days in peace and quiet.)
(18297-1908) Ponca. therefore. I wish to die in this land. Rinehart & Winston. In 1879 he was taken into custody. vol. I wish to be an old man here. Buffalo Historical Society. he doth injure our business and take the bread from the mouths of our families and the money from our pockets. however. Though he were to give me a million dollars I would not give him this land.S.) 230. by Dee Brown. so that we may feast as heretofore.STANDING BEAR
injured or unprovided for. Parker. Through the press and sympathetic attorneys who took his case without fee. They made their onslaught on my poor innocent head and made the air foul with their malicious accusations. to the new reservation. "Nay." (From a letter describing the political attacks on him as commissioner of Indian affairs. Holt. If you took me away from this land it would be very hard for me. let us write and put him out of power. 1919. The Life of General Ely S. Standing Bear won a decision declaring that he was a person and could not be taken and transported without his consent. and not to other Indians. but it was no longer a pleasure to discharge patriotic duties in the face of foul slander and abuse. Government officials.
providing virtually all the necessities of life.Ponca Indians skinning a buffalo. The animal was regarded by many tribes as sacred.
that man would try to get it back. the Almighty looks down on me. . my brothers.) 234. As pressure was put on the Cherokees to sell their lands and relocate west of the Mississippi. and then they slaughter them.)
For many years. 1829. I want to save myself and my t r i b e . the Land and the People. . he or they shall suffer death.NATIONAL COUNCIL
they get them to a corral. 1.) 238. it seems to me as if I stood in front of a great prairie fire. My brothers. and someone should swindle him. my brothers.) 235. or if I stood on the bank of an overflowing river. Oh. (Ibid. take pity on me. 239.) 236. and knows what I am. (Ibid. I want to go back to my old place n o r t h . (Ibid. . (Cherokee Phoenix. by Addison E. a power. and hears my words. to move you to help me. My children have been exterminated. (Statement made to Federal District Court Judge Elmer Dundy. and help me to save the lives of the women and children.) 237. I would take my people and fly to higher ground. October 29. Nebraska. . Look on me. the National Council of the Cherokee Nation decided to put that law into writing. (Ibid. So it was with us.)
. (Ibid. crowds me down to the ground. I am now with the soldiers and officers. and you would not blame him. . My brothers. May the Almighty send a good spirit to brood over you. If a white man had land. which I cannot resist. 1931. 1879. the unwritten law among the Cherokees forbade the sale of Cherokee land without permission. Lewis. If any citizen or citizens of this [Cherokee] nation should treat and dispose of any lands belonging to this nation without special permission from the national authorities. I would take up my children and run to save their lives. Sheldon. Vol. .
prophet. I and these others are too old now to follow your Jesus road. feeling that my people. within the limits of this nation. rather than diminish as at present. following an early capture. I have several times asked for peace. He finished his life as a farmer on an Oklahoma reservation. in any manner most convenient. and shall refuse.) 244.) 243. and shall not be accountable for the same. and warrior chief of the Chiricahua Apache. would increase in numbers.
. I don't want that any more. Any person or persons who shall violate the provisions of this act. and any person or persons of this nation. The Truth about Geronimo. Yale University Press. He made personal appearances at expositions. When a man tries to do right. But our children are young. Arizona
Geronimo was a medicine man. may kill him or them so offending. (Ibid. If this could be I might die in peace. such stories ought not to be put in the newspapers. 1886. Geronimo was in custody several times and escaped. (Conference with General George Crook.)
(1829-1909) Chiricahua Apache. he finally surrendered for the last time in 1887.68
240. I want to spend my last days there. placed in their native homes. but trouble has come from the agents and interpreters. It [Arizona] is my land. my father's land to which I now ask to be allowed to return. (Ibid. and be buried among those mountains. are hereby declared to be outlaws. He led raids against white settlers in Arizona and New Mexico from 1871 to 1886. by resistance. They should know about the white man's God. 1929. by Britton Davis. (Letter to President Grant.) 242. or abscond. 1877. to appear at the place designated for trial. 241. Very often there are stories put in the newspapers that I am to be hanged. my home. and that our name would not become extinct. President Theodore Roosevelt invited him to ride in his inaugural parade.
Green. chief of the Kiowas. 245. he led forays against settlers.) 246. they make false accounts against us. He was captured and sent to prison.n i n e t e e n t h century)
Tuskeneah was a Creek chief. (Ibid. are in words that we have no possible means to understanding. they swear to lies. . Your white sons and daughters are moving into my country in a band. and are spoiling my lands and taking possession of the Red peoples improvements that they have made with their own labor. 1982. 1992. by Ruth McDonald Boyer and Narcissus Duffy Gayton. University of Nebraska Press.)
Satanta.. Contrary to the consent of the Nation. by Michael D. They steal our property. 1832. where he committed suicide. they sue us in your State courts for what we know nothing of the Laws that.
(Early t o m i d .. (Letter to President Andrew Jackson. These are the kind of [white] characters that settle among us. Your soldiers have refused to prevent it. The Politics of Indian Removal. A fighter as well as a talker.SATANTA
(Apache Mothers and Daughters: Four Generations of a Family. was known as the orator of the plains. University of Oklahoma Press.
) 249. 1971. (New York Times. he that listens to the white man. (Ibid. Rinehart & Winston. (Addressed to General Winfield Scott Hancock. Bureau of American Ethnology. I love to roam over the prairies. and yet I feel safe in your presence. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Has the white man become a child that he should recklessly kill and not eat? When the red men slay game. a war leader of the Cheyenne.)
(1830-1868) Southern Cheyenne
Roman Nose. . they kill my buffalo.) 252. cited in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.) 250. but I don't know how it is with the commissioners. gets nothing. Holt. we grow pale and die. 1971. (Ibid. by Dee Brown. U. Holt. Cheyenne warriors are not afraid. 253. and shield. but when we settle down. I don't want to settle. I have no little lies hid about me.1 love the land and the buffalo and will not part with i t . 1867. but have you never heard of Sand Creek? Your soldiers look just like those who butchered the women and children there. October 26. (Ibid. I have laid aside my lance. bow.70
247.) 251. The good Indian. and when I see that. 17th Annual Report. . 1895-1896. by Dee Brown. my heart feels like bursting. . 1867.S. they do so that they may live and not starve. He died in battle. I have heard that you intend to settle us on a reservation near the mountains. Rinehart & Winston. (Speech at the Medicine Lodge Council before white officials. A long time ago this land belonged to our fathers.) 248. but when I go up to the river I see camps of soldiers on its banks. I have told you the truth. These soldiers cut down my timber. The independent Indian is the only one rewarded. fought attempts by the Union Pacific railroad to go through Indian hunting grounds. There I feel free and happy.
" . cited in Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. She stained them a beautiful red color. When he wrote his autobiography. .) 256. he wrote it first in his native Indian language and then translated it himself into English. Dockstader. According to one account.. . by Simon Pokagon. and wherever she found a few families . opened the boxes one by one. white birch-bark boxes) so as to have them appear to the children as charming as possible.)
. They all began to inquire what kind of eggs they were. Then with a shriek of horror they would let the young reptiles drop. . and from each come forth a little snake squirming and wiggling in their hands. (Queen of the Woods. . and scatter like leaves in a whirlwind. by Frederick J. Ash-taw was . placing them on green moss in "wigwas-si ma-kak-ogons" (small. . . . childlike they would feel of the little beauties with the tips of their fingers. . she . Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1899. (Ibid. "These are ish-kot-e-waw-bo wan-an-og" (whisky eggs). about to hatch. Palmer regarding the Union Pacific railroad. she called the children together to hold a little "pow-wow. renowned as a temperance worker. "Would you like to take some of them?" She would then carefully put into each extended hand some of the charming colored little eggs. .. was a well-known writer on Indian life and culture. when to their great surprise. (Statement to General Innis N.)
(1830-1899) Pottawattami. She always managed to keep on hand a stock of snakes' eggs . Then she would add. there will be scalps of your brethren in the wigwams of the Cheyenne. (and) she would make reply. If the palefaces come farther into our land. . 1977. Michigan
Simon Pokagon. She traveled from place to place. 255. On receiving them. After the children were assembled.. chief of the Pottawattamis. Pokagon's father sold the site of what was to become Chicago to the whites. the frail egg shells would crumble away.SIMON POKAGON
We cannot sell the lives of men and animals. 1876. There are conflicting accounts of his death. under Crazy Horse (q. Later. after a while would be tormented with "mi-chi-gin-e-big" (great big snakes). but they had no chance to fight or run a w a y . The soldiers who were killed were brave men. Army soldiers or Indian police tried to arrest him. We did not go out of our own country to kill them. (Ibid. . and he fled with his people to Canada.). They came to kill us and got killed themselves. either U. For a brief time. he made appearances in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. . The cruel joke impressed their youthful minds with such a loathsome hate against ish-kot-e-waw-bo (whisky) that their very souls ever after would revolt at the sight. who defeated Custer at the Little Big Horn. Some of his supporters came to protect him. this land will be here to give life to men and animals. All my warriors were brave and knew no fear. or even let go of. convincing the children that what they had witnessed was but a slight foretaste of the awful reality. 259. Holiday House. too. 1987. South Dakota
Sitting Bull never signed a peace treaty with the white man.) 258.S. smell. This shrewd woman would then make an application of the strong object-lesson. we cannot sell
. It will last forever.v. or even thought of the deceptive curse.)
(1834-1890) Hunkpapa Lakota. Sitting Bull was against the idea of Indians living on reservations. During the time of the Ghost Dance. As long as the sun shines and the waters flow. which they could not escape.72
257. he returned to the United States and was put on a reservation. and that they who drank.) 260. and Sitting Bull either was deliberately murdered or died in the shootout that followed. . It was his forces. Our land is more valuable than your money. It will not even perish by flames or fire. Indian Chiefs. by Russell Freedman. (Ibid. therefore. (Statement after the battle of the Little Big Horn.
(Ibid. HUNKPAPA LAKOTA
this land. .SITTING BULL
"I hate all the white people. I hate all the white people.) 262. 1891. 1991. You are thieves and liars. What law have I broken? Is it wrong for me to love my own? Is it wicked for me because my skin is red? Because I am Lakota. because I would die for my people and my country? (Life of Sitting Bull and History of the Indian War of 1890-91. It was put here for us by the Great Spirit and we cannot sell it because it does not belong to us. You have
. You are thieves and liars. but only the Great Spirit can count the grains of sand and the blades of grass of these plains. they sent 10. F.000 men to battle. You have taken away our land and made us outcasts. edited by Louis Hooban. What treaty that the white man ever made with us have they kept? Not one. Johnson. by W. You can count your money and burn it within the nod of a buffalo's head. When I was a boy the Sioux owned the world.) 261."
—SITTING BULL. . (The Great American Indian Bible. the sun rose and set on their land. Indian Heritage Council.) 260a. because I was born where my father died. Edgewood Publishing. Where are the warriors today? Who slew them? Where are our lands? Who owns them? .
1934. by Stanley Vestal. All they have to do is to get the signatures of the Indians. cast it away.) 264. Brigham Young University Press. (Indian Affairs. pick it up and take it with you.. December 1890.) 263. edited by John R. I would not go. in Contemporary Native American Address. Why should the Indian police come against me? We are of the same blood. (Ibid. Take the best of the old Indian ways—always keep them. Let the soldiers come and take me away and kill me. cited by Grasping Eagle in New Sources.)
. (Statement to a white audience...) 267. We are all Sioux. Let us [Indians] put our minds together and see what life we can make for our children. 1883. University of Oklahoma Press. ("Spiritual Roots of Indian Success. so he could make a lot of money." by Henrietta V. wherever they like. . . White Hair [Major James McLaughlin. Fall 1994. If the white men want me to die. 1971. Rinehart & Winston. by Dee Brown. (New Sources of Indian History 1850-91. 1976. 268. I am not afraid to die. It is not what the Indians want. They have been proven for thousands of years. Take the best of the white man's road..) 265. they ought not to put up the Indians to kill me. Do not let them die. in charge of Sitting Bull's confinement] wanted me to travel all around [with Buffalo Bill] . . . Association on Indian Affairs. Maestas. Holt. Whitemen. That which is bad leave it alone. The commissioners bring a paper [the treaty] containing what they wish already written out. by Vestal. (After receiving word that he was about to be arrested. and ever since he has had it in for m e . but they never change the document. Sometimes the commissioners say they compromise.74
taken away our land and made us outcasts. but what the commissioners want. . . Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Then I would not join his church. .) 266. Once was enough. Why does he keep trying to humble me? Can I be any lower than I am? (Ibid.
Gale. 269. I am as a stone. first fought the white man and later made peace with him. 1994. (Statement at Medicine Lodge Creek meeting."
—KICKING BIRD. Chronology of Native North American History. by Duane Champagne. broken and thrown away—one part thrown this way.)
"I am a chief no more. KIOWA
Kicking Bird. and one part thrown that way. but that is not what grieves me—I am grieved at the ruin of my people. 1867. but that is not what grieves me—I am grieved at the ruin of my people. a Kiowa warrior. I am a chief no more.
(1835-1874) Tonto Apache
Delshay was a chief during the early years of the Apache wars. He died on a reservation in the state of Washington. and heavily outnumbered. Chief Joseph surrendered. 1971. so that both can travel over the country and have no trouble.) 271. In 1877. Oregon
Chief Joseph was the leader of the Nez Perce tribe. and Montana ended at the Bear Paw Mountains of Montana—only thirty miles from the Canadian border. to avoid being forced onto a reservation. Trapped. 270. and says to him:
. Holt. Suppose a white man should come to me and say. (Ibid. I will keep my word until the stones melt.)
(1840-1904) Nez Perce. my horses suit me. "Joseph. I like your horses. 272. . I will not sell them. Wyoming.1 don't want to run over the mountains anymore. he decided to lead his people to freedom in Canada. I want to make a treaty that will last. The flight of more than a thousand miles through Idaho. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. I want to make a big t r e a t y . There were about 500 people in the party. God made the white man and God made the Apache. and the Apache has just as much right to the country as the white man. . Rinehart & Winston." Then he goes to my neighbor. starving." I say to him. and I want to buy them. by Dee Brown. only a third of whom were warriors. .
I am tired of fighting. vol. Words do not pay for my dead people. They do not pay for my country. and have no blankets. Our chiefs are killed The old men are all dead. They [government officials] all say they are my friends and that I shall have justice. Let me be a free man—free to stop. some of them.S. (North American Review. . "Joseph. free to think and talk and act for myself—and I will obey every law." My neighbor answers. or submit to the penalty. I want to buy them.. U. Good words will not get my people a home where they can live in peace and take care of themselves. You might as well expect the rivers to run backward as that any man who was born a free man should be contented when penned up and denied liberty to go where he pleases. Fayne Porter. but he refuses to sell. free to choose my own teachers.)
. Secretary of War Report 1877. It is the young men who say yes or no. "Pay me the money and I will sell you Joseph's horses. My people.) 274. He who led on the young men is dead. I believed General Miles or I never would have surrendered. 1964. this is the way they were bought. October. by C. now overrun by white men. I have bought your horses and you must let me have them. They cannot tell me. free to work.. 1879. have run away to the hills. (Ibid. Chilton." The white man returns to me. p.) 277. (Ibid. no one knows where they are— perhaps freezing to death. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. It makes my heart sick. Hear me. The little children are freezing to death. 630. General Miles promised that we might return to our own country..) 273. free to follow the religion of my fathers. 128. Good words will not give my people good health and stop them from dying. but while their mouths all talk right I do not understand why nothing is done for my people.) 275. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever. no food. Good words do not last long unless they amount to something. (Statement of surrender to General Nelson Miles. and says. I am tired of talk that comes to nothing. I have heard talk and talk but nothing is done. (Our Indian Heritage: Profiles of 12 Great Leaders. my chiefs! I am tired. free to trade where I choose. I have asked some of the great white chiefs where they get their authority to say to the Indian that he shall stay in one place while he sees white men going where they please.) 276. 1877. . my heart is sick and sad. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many of them I can find. It is cold and we have no blankets. (Ibid.CHIEF JOSEPH
"Joseph has some good horses." If we sold our lands to the government..
and we have been waiting a long time to get our money. We have sold our hunting grounds and the graves of our fathers.RED IRON
(Mid t o late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Red Iron was a tribal chief of the Dakota. His fires are warm. his tepees keep out the cold. We may die because you will not pay us.1 think the way the white men treated us is worse than the wolves. A great many of our people are sick for being hungry. (Ibid. We have no place to bury our dead. by Oliver O. The snow is on the ground. (Statement
. but the soldiers cut down the scaffolds and cut off the hair of the head. Howard. (After making this speech at an 1862 council meeting. We have sold our own graves. Red Iron was briefly imprisoned by the army. and you will not pay us the money for our lands. My Life and Experiences among Our Hostile Indians. We have nothing to eat Our hunting season is past.. Worthington & Co.)
(Mid to late nineteenth century) Yankton Sioux
Palaneapope was a Yankton Sioux chieftain. (Ibid.) 280. We have a way in the winter of putting our dead up on scaffolds up from the ground. and some of them cut off the heads of the dead and carried them away.) 279. We are poor. white Father has plenty. we may die. 281. 278. and if they had good teeth they pulled. but if we do we will leave our bones on the ground where our great Father may see where his Dakota children died. 1907.
If I give up my men that killed the settlers.S. by C.
284. 1964.R. . . . . (Ibid. and will get a bad disease. I want the store moved away a mile.. Before the soldiers came along we had good health. Canby. Shortly after their capture. August.R. because the trader's store is under the floor where my goods are stored. What I have got I have got with my own hands. so that it won't be so handy to our g o o d s . In General and his
Jack was chief of the Modoc tribe during the Modoc the midst of peace negotiations. honestly. . 1873. 39th Congress. will you give up your men that killed our women to let them be tried by our law? (Parley with General E.CAPTAIN JACK
to a commissioner of Indian affairs in South Dakota. Cooke. I think if you will come up to our agency you will laugh in the first place.S.. (Ibid. [I was told] to live like a white man. I . and the squaws being hungry will sleep with them in order to get something to eat. have never gone b e g g i n g . until this war started. by David C.) 285. (Statement at his trial. and did do it. 156. 1966. Dodd.)
(18407-1873) Modoc. Fighting Indians of America. Our Indian Heritage: Profiles of 12 Great Leaders. Senate Report no. I have always lived on what I could kill and shoot with my gun and catch in my trap. he killed U. 2d Session.S. . . . Canby. . Captain Jack warrior chiefs were put on trial and hanged. but once the soldiers come along they go to my squaws and want to sleep with them. California
Captain War. and I have always tried to do it. . Chilton. Fayne Porter. Mead.. to let them be tried by your law. Army E.) 283. 1865. and then turn to their husbands and give them the bad disease. and then be mad to see our storehouse in the same building with the trader's store.) 282.)
1 am not afraid to die. will you give up your men that killed our women to let them be tried by our law?"
—CAPTAIN JACK. (Ibid. to let them be tried by your law. When I die. Rinehart & Winston.)
(18407-1895) Hunkpapa Lakota.1 am the voice of my people. by Dee Brown. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Whatever their hearts are. PONCA
286. Later. South Dakota
Gall was one of the chiefs at the battle of the Little Big Horn. I will not fall on the rocks. he became a judge on the Court of Indian Affairs and a representative for tribal interests in Washington. my enemies will be under me.
. 1971. Holt. that I talk.) 287.80
"If I give up my men that killed the settlers.
and the women who were very heavy with child were also killed. So that there were three general directions in which they took flight.. and they were surrounded by the soldiers. 1868. The men were separated. University of Oklahoma Press.)
(1840-1908) Sioux. . (Ibid. The women as they were fleeing with their babes were killed together. shot right through. 1932. the child not knowing that his mother was dead was still nursing. (Statement of February 11. standing there under a flag of truce.. (Statement at a conference with white officials. the men fleeing in one direction and the women running in two different directions. the military posts on this Missouri River must be removed and the steamboats stopped from coming up here.. upon the women who were in the lodge. 1891. New Sources of Indian History 18501891. and then they [the soldiers] turned their guns. D. . part 2. Then came next the village of the Indians that was entirely surrounded by the soldiers also. When the firing b e g a n . .)
. etc. . Six weeks after the Wounded Knee massacre of 1890. and the women and children . If we make peace. Hotchkiss guns.AMERICAN HORSE
288. South Dakota
American Horse tried to keep peace with the white man. There is one thing I do not like. One of the witnesses was American Horse. The whites run our country. from the women. the commissioner of Indian Affairs questioned witnesses in Washington.) 290. were strewn all along the circular village until they were dispatched. 289. and that especially was a very sad sight. . (Ibid..C. the people who were standing immediately around the young [Indian] man who fired the first shot were killed right together.) 291. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. and of course as soon as they were fired upon they fled. There was a woman with an infant in her arms who was killed as she almost touched the flag of truce. by Stanley Vestal. Right near the flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant. 1896.
(Ibid.) 294a. he fled and was mortally wounded. a chief of the Oglala Sioux. We would live as our fathers did. (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse.82
292.) 295. but we were so hemmed in that we had to fight. we did not get enough to eat. All we wanted was peace and to be left alone. Our first impulse was to escape with our squaws and papooses. Leo Humfreville. (Voices from Wounded Knee 1973. They say we massacred him. Viking. and their fathers before them. After most all of them [the Indians] had been killed a cry was made that all those who were not killed or wounded should come forth and they would be safe. Hartford Publishing. We were no expense to the government. and as soon as they came in sight a number of soldiers surrounded them and butchered them there. Soldiers were sent out in the winter. 1897.) 294. When soldiers came to arrest him. Little boys who were not wounded came out of their places of refuge. We preferred our own way of living. by Peter Matthiessen.) 296. by J. Then "Long Hair" [Custer] came in the same way. 1974. 293.)
. We preferred hunting to a life of idleness on the reservations.)
(18427-1877) Oglala Sioux. was part of Sitting Bull's band which attacked and destroyed the forces of General Custer at the battle of the Little Big Horn. and we were not allowed to leave the reservation to hunt. Twenty Years among Our Savage Indians. Later he surrendered and lived on a reservation. (Deathbed statement at Fort Robinson. South Dakota
Crazy Horse. who destroyed our villages. where we were driven against our will. One does not sell the earth upon which the people walk. (Ibid. (Ibid. "Why do you not become civilized?" We do not want your civilization. At times. Akwesasne Notes. 1983. but he would have done the same to us had we not defended ourselves and fought to the last. Nebraska. You [white men] say. 1877.
George Bent was a Cheyenne warrior. Colorado. started to run. Little Bear told me . without food. (Ibid. University of Oklahoma Press. Bent turned his back on the white world after Sand Creek and regarded himself as a Cheyenne for the rest of his life. Most of the casualties were women and children. It was a terrible march [to safety after Sand Creek]. All the time Black Kettle kept calling out not to be frightened. with arms folded. Black Kettle. singing his death song: Nothing lives long. that after the fight he saw soldiers scalping the dead and saw an old woman who had been scalped by the soldiers walk about.GEORGE BENT
(1843-1918) Cheyenne. . (Ibid.. lay among the dead all day and escaped in the darkness.. were massacred at Sand Creek. Her whole scalp had been taken and the skin of her forehead fell down over her eyes. (The Fighting Cheyennes.1864. led by Black Kettle (q. wounded in the battle. calling out to White Antelope to follow him. but unable to see where to go. The killings were carried out by militia under the command of Colonel John Chivington. George Bent. Then suddenly the troops opened fire. Black Kettle had a large American flag up on a long lodgepole [at Sand Creek] as a signal to the troop that the camp was friendly.) 299. Except the earth and the mountains until he was shot down by the soldiers. Everyone was crying. ill-clad and encumbered with the women and children. 297. most of us being on foot.) 300. and the women and children
.). As we rode into the camp there was a terrible scene..) 298. seeing that it was useless to stay longer. Part of the people were rushing about the camp in great fear. Half-Cheyenne and half-white. but White Antelope refused and stood there ready to die.. 1956.v. hundreds of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. even the warriors. by George Grinnell. that the camp was under protection and there was no danger. On November 29.
Nevada. Chief Sarah: Sarah Winnemucca's Fight for Indian Rights. Hayes. Ibid.)
(18447-1891) Paiute." 301. What I say for my people is so written on my heart that it will never be washed out. After the soldiers had killed all but some little children and babies still tied up in their baskets. ("Forty Years with the Cheyennes. and many of them in their grief were gashing themselves with their knives until the blood flowed in streams. Today the white man owns it all. Many. vol. by Dorothy Natus Morrison. being on the borders of starvation. the soldiers took them also. An active lobbyist for Indian rights. . I well remember the time when the hills surrounding this very camp were swarming with hostile Indians. The Frontier. December 1905. (Incident at the Muddy Lake reservation. (Statement to officers at Fort McDermitt. Nearly everyone present had lost some relatives or friends. and then the officers talked very sweetly to me. have left their houses and wandered we know not where . and educator.) 302. Do you know what did it? Ed-
. she met with the major political figures of her day. we would all much rather be slain and put out of our misery than to be lingering here—each day bringing new sorrows—and finally to die of hunger and starvation. after requesting food and clothing for her tribe.) 303. (Ibid." by George Bent. 1865. Nevada
Sarah Winnemucca was an author.) 305. 6. 1980. A few years ago you owned this great country. (Letter to military authorities on the lack of rations for the reservation. lecturer. Ibid. . including President Rutherford B.84
screaming and wailing. and set the camp on fire and threw them into the flames to see them burn alive. 4. Nevada. no. She was called the "Indian Joan of Arc. and you own nothing. never while I live upon this cruel world. I am quite willing to throw off the garments of civilization I now wear and mount my pony. Atheneum.) 304.
1964. You have brains same as the whites. There is only one tribe that knows much. . old and young. Now we look back. We are afraid if we part with any more of our lands the white people will not let us keep as much as will be sufficient to bury our
. a visitor to the Carlisle school.)
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Doublehead was a Creek chief. asking for support of her Indian school. addressed the students. to it. We other Indians belonging to the different tribes are blind. Ibid. Your parents have done something that is wonderful to send you here [Carlisle Indian School] to be educated.)
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Kushiway. California. They have men today equal to the Great Father: they are educated. (Ibid. our old parents did not know anything. your children have brains. that are like the white people—that is the Cherokee. they are wise. that time is all passed away. I entreat you to get hold of this [Indian-run] school.) 306. . 309. by Richard Henry Pratt.) 308. (Letter to the Indians of Inyo. 307. Yale University Press. . and when they grow up to manhood and womanhood they will bless you.DOUBLEHEAD
ucation. (Battlefield and Classroom. (Ibid. and give your support by sending your children.
edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Mengleboch. New World Library.)
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Eagle Wing was a Sioux chief. Out of our languages we have given names to many beautiful things which will always speak of us. We have been guilty of only one sin—we have had possessions that the white man coveted.86
dead.C. Harsha. (Ploughed Under. 1991. by William J. the Story of an Indian Chief Told by Himself. (Native American Wisdom. Texas
Quanah Parker. D. (Ibid.)
(1845-1911) Comanche. Seneca will shine in our image. My brothers.
. the Indians must always be remembered in this land. a Comanche war chief. Mississippi will murmur our woes. 310. Later.) 311. he became the chief spokesman for the Comanches in Washington. 1881. The broad Iowa and the rolling Dakota and the fertile Michigan will whisper our names to the sun that kisses them. Minnehaha will laugh of us. fought to prevent the slaughter of the buffalo.
It is only good for red ants. (Indian Chiefs. We love the white man but we fear your success. Holiday House. but you see how dry it is now. This was a pretty country you took away from us.QUANAH PARKER
"This was a pretty country you took away from us. and cattlemen."
— Q U A N A H PARKER. COMANCHE
312. and cattlemen. coyotes.)
. but you see how dry it is now. by Russell Freedman. coyotes. 1987. It is only good for red ants.
Some of the soldiers were down on their knees. started toward the river. All along the bugler kept blowing his commands. we ride fast. One man all alone ran far down toward the river. At last about a hundred men and five horsemen stood on the hill all bunched together. The smoke was like a great cloud. some standing. He wore a buckskin shirt. Then a bugle sounded. and they all got off horses. and horses fall on them. Indians keep swirling round and round. Then the Sioux rode up the ridge on all sides. Officers all in front. Then a chief was killed. but he would fall. and some soldiers led the horses back over the hill. I hear it was Long Hair [Custer]. I couldn't tell whether they were officers or not. Two Moon described the battle to Hamlin Garland. we shoot again. and then five horsemen and the bunch of men. We circled all round him—swirling like water round a stone. Pop— pop—pop very fast. Then the soldiers rose all at once.. Many soldiers fell.) 315. 313. At last all horses killed but five.) 314. Then the shooting was quick. but a Sioux fired and hit
. and had long black hair and mustache. He was a brave man. like this [he put his fingers behind each other to indicate that Custer appeared marching in columns of fours] with a little ways between. but one man rides up and down the line—all the time shouting. While I was sitting on my horse I saw flags come up over the hill to the east like that [he raised his finger-tips]. His men were all covered with white dust.TWO MOON
Two Moon. I don't know. quick. riding very fast. and everywhere the Sioux went the dust rose like smoke. may be so forty. Soldiers in line drop. (Ibid. We shoot. shouting all the time. then round up over the hill. The Cheyennes went up the left way. led his forces against General Custer at the battle of the Little Big Horn. I thought he was going to escape. Once in a while some man would break out and run toward the river. and the soldiers killed only a few. a Cheyenne chief. The man on the sorrel horse led them. all on horses. He fought hard with a big knife. He was very brave too.. (McClure's Magazine. Soldiers drop.. September 1898. I don't know who he was. More than twenty years later.
There were 39 Sioux and seven Cheyennes killed. Next day four Sioux chiefs and two Cheyennes and I.) 321. He wore braid on his arms [sergeant]. Despite his cynicism about whites and their values. (Ibid. This bothered us a good deal until we saw that the white man did not take his religion
. (Ibid. When we came to dead men. We were sorrowful. he willed his property to the American people for a public park. to make sure they were dead. they thought nothing of breaking them themselves.) 317. We had no dance that night. yet they made it themselves and traded it to us for furs and robes. Some white soldiers were cut with knives. (Ibid. but when we tried to understand it we found that there were too many kinds of religion among white men for us to understand. and the war women had mangled some.) 316. 320. by Frank B. and the bodies were stripped. we took a little stick and gave it to another man. Their Wise Ones said we might have their religion. Two Moon. and that scarcely any two white men agreed which was the right one to learn. Chief of the Crows. After that no one could tell which were officers. (Plenty-Coups. Most of them were left just where they fell. but we soon learned that although they expected us to keep them. went upon the battlefield to count the dead. 1962. One man carried a little bundle for sticks.PLENTY-COUPS
him in the head. Montana
Plenty-Coups was a Crow chief. They [the whites] spoke very loudly when they said their laws were made for everybody. (Ibid. He was the last man.) 318.)
(1848-1932) Crow. There were 388. Linderman. so we counted the dead.) 319. (Ibid. All the soldiers were now killed. They told us not to drink whisky. and about a hundred wounded. University of Nebraska Press.
If the Great Spirit wanted men to stay in one place he would make the world stand still. 1991.)
. (Ibid. 1947.90
any more seriously than he did his laws. (Firewater and Forked Tongues. Trail's End Publishing Company. spoke out on behalf of the rights of Indians. a writer. like Helpers. and that he kept both of them just behind him. . a Sioux chief. . History. editor. easy to m o v e . I. cool in summer. Carolrhoda Books. the first Indian woman to become a medical doctor. McCreight. 322. fought in several Indian wars. He also battled General Custer at the battle of the Little Big Horn.S. warm in winter. and lecturer. She was the oldest sister of Susan LaFlesche Picotte (q. The tipi is much better to live in: always clean. I often wonder if there is anything in your [white] civilization which will make good to us what we have lost. .). 323. (Native American Doctor: The Story of Susan LaFlesche Picotte. by M. to use when they might do him good in his dealings with strangers. by Jeri Ferris. a Sioux Chief Interprets U.)
(1854-1903) Ponca/Omaha.v. Nebraska
Susette LaFlesche. South Dakota
(1852-1931) Oglala Sioux.
Some soldiers acted with crazy minds. voices seemed calling. (Contrasting the sparse environment of Indian Territory with his boyhood home. escaping bullets. No mountains. arrows. Dockstader. (Ibid. clubs. Army attack on an Indian encampment at the Big Hole River. Yellow Wolf and a small group fled to Canada when Chief Joseph surrendered. they returned to the United States and were sent to a reservation in Indian Territory. Van Nostrand Reinhold. what Power he must use. Caxton. 324. 1977. Told much that is not true. of the blue water lake. Enters that he may defend himself. (Describing a U. Not my living self. of my own country when only the Indians were there. wide meadows with horse and cattle herds. no clear running rivers. I felt as dreaming. The air was heavy with sorrow. cited in Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership.) 329. only the worst deeds of the Indians.) 327. or knives. Ibid. has the white man told. (Ibid. Only then are these things told—what Power has been given the warrior.) 328. no springs. Later.)
.).) 325. 1877. (Yellow Wolf: His Own Story. 1940.) 326. Only his own best deeds. To escape with life through the battle. by Lucullus McWhorter. Told it to please themselves. you will die! This story will be for the people who come after us. a sure scout. For them to see and know what was done here. (Ibid. Only when approaching the enemy ready to fight life for life can you hear and learn from fellow warriors. From the mountain forests.S. The Wolf-Power I was given made me a great hunter. Thoughts come of the Wallowa where I grew up. of tepees along the bending river. The whites told only one side.v. spears. I am telling you true! I will die. by Frederick J. It is at such time the guard Spirit enters into the warrior's head.YELLOW WOLF
Yellow Wolf was one of the warriors of Chief Joseph (q.
) and Susan LaFlesche Picotte (q. to use the proper and conventional term of relationship when speaking to another. and never to address anyone by his personal name. (Describing experiences at a Presbyterian missionary school for Indians.) 332.) 333. To us there seemed no end to the things we were obliged to do and to the things we were to refrain from doing. Small. was a staff member of the Smithsonian Bureau of American Ethnology. No native American can cease to regret that the utterances of his fathers have been continually belittled when put into English.) 331. Nebraska
Francis LaFlesche.v. that their thoughts have frequently been travestied. Maynard. an author and anthropologist. (Ibid.)
. (Ibid. (Ibid.). particularly at strangers. to say "thank you" when receiving a gift or returning a borrowed article. We were also forbidden to pass in front of persons sitting in the tent without first asking permission. and their native dignity obscured. 1900. Among my earliest recollections are the instructions wherein we were taught respect and courtesy toward our elders. and we were strictly enjoined never to stare at visitors. The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School.v. Son of an Omaha chief. 330. he was a half-brother of Susette LaFlesche (q.FRANCIS LaFLESCHE
Bureau of Indian Affairs. and that the dead would rise. (Famous Indians. We are chiefs of the plains. but rich. a Collection of Short Biographies. 1975. a medicine man.)
. leading to the Wounded Knee massacre of 1890. The Odyssey of Chief Standing Buffalo. Coyote Books.) 335. by Mark Diedrich.)
(1858-1932) Paiute. or lie. Many Indians came to believe that the dance would protect them from the white man's bullets. Our country is wherever the buffalo range. 334. and not fight or steal. He gave me this dance to give my people.STANDING BUFFALO
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Standing Buffalo was a Sisseton chief. the buffalo and other game would come back. This may have contributed to major misunderstandings on both sides. The dance spread across the plains. (1871. When the sun died [was eclipsed] I went up to Heaven and saw God and all the people who had died a long time ago. Nevada
Wovoka. 1988. we are not poor. and have plenty of horses and robes. God told me to come back and tell my people they must be good and love one another. (Ibid. Wovoka said Indians should prepare for these miracles by performing the Ghost Dance. 336. He said that God had told him that Indian lands would be restored. had a vision in 1888.
We studied the habits of animals just as you study your books. (Native American Wisdom. (From the Deep Woods to Civilization. His books on Sioux life were extremely popular. 1991. among the fragments of burned tents and other belongings we saw the frozen bodies lying close together or piled one on another.) 340.) 338. (Ibid. I have forgotten this grace since I became civilized. and from this point on we found them scattered along as they had been relentlessly hunted down and slaughtered while fleeing for their lives. he found himself treating the survivors of Wounded Knee.D. [The Indian] sees no need for setting apart one day in seven as a holy day. As a child I understood how to give. every growing tree an object of reverence.) 341. Now I worship with the white man before a painted landscape whose value is estimated in dollars! Thus the Indian is reconstructed as the natural rocks are ground to powder and made into artificial blocks which may be built into the walls of modern society. from Boston University. Fully three miles from the scene of the [Wounded Knee] massacre we found the body of a woman completely covered with a blanket of snow. When we reached the spot where the Indian camp had stood [at Wounded Knee]. Brown.CHARLES A. He became a popular writer and advocate for Indian causes. Eastman helped set up dozens of YMCA units for Indians throughout the country. I counted eighty bodies of men who had been in council and
. Any pretty pebble was valuable to me then. Houghton Mifflin. whereas I now live the artificial. edited by Kent Neirburn and Louise Mendleboch. EASTMAN
Santee Sioux. Minnesota
Charles Eastman was one of the first Indians to graduate as a medical doctor. Little. I lived the natural life. Just a month after he received his M. 337. 1911.) 339. (The Soul of an Indian. since to him all days are God's. 1916. New World Library. What boy would not be an Indian for a while when he thinks of the freest life in the world? We were close students of nature.
Medicine man killed at Wounded Knee. and from this point on we found them scattered along as they had been relentlessly hunted down and slaughtered while fleeing for their lives. SANTEE SIOUX
. "[W]e found the body of a woman completely covered with a blanket of snow."
— C H A R L E S A. EASTMAN.
(Statement. The operations of our government have been paralyzed by the incursions of an overwhelming force. but their own comrades who stood opposite them. Our legitimate protection.)
(Mid-nineteenth century) Cherokee
Thomas Pegg was a Cherokee tribal leader during the Civil War. (Ibid. McLoughlin. killing not only unarmed men. After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty. and immediately the troops opened fire from all sides. 1839-1880. every military post in our vicinity abandoned. by William G. the government of the United States. was far away and every channel of communication cut off. University of North Carolina Press. for the camp was entirely surrounded.) 343. (Ibid. . Our wisest men knew not what to do. 342.. This war has been disastrous in its effect on the welfare of our people.96
who were almost as helpless as the women and babes when the deadly fire began. . A reckless and desperate young Indian had fired the first shot when the search for weapons was well under way. and children. women. The Cherokee Nation was pressured by both the Union and the Confederacy to join their respective sides.)
. for nearly all their guns had been taken from them. 1863. 1993.
This took place following the Sioux uprising of 1862. (Report to Cherokee council regarding the issue of the right to define Cherokee citizenship.OOCHALATA
Oochalata became chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1875. . Cherokee Records.) 345.. after the expiration of 92 years from date of that contract or treaty and without the consent of [the other] party It is a dangerous doctrine to which I can never agree. ... .)
Winnebago. to add to it a new clause... . 344.. and more peremptorily required to abandon our right to selfgovernment guaranteed to us by treaty and ours by nature. . the Commissioner [of Indian Affairs]. While we lived in Minnesota we used to live in good houses. We are then berated as unfit for self-government . suspended the law of the United States and the operation of Treaties in relation to i n t r u d e r s . 1877. His d e p a r t m e n t . . November 13. [This means] a new doctrine construing treaty or contracts in writing. . Minnesota
Little Hill was one of the Winnebago chiefs when the tribe was removed from Minnesota. I have received a communication from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs which staggered my belief. and
. Oklahoma City. From which we are to infer that the Government of the United States have adopted the rule to not observe any Treaty that clashed with the individual opinion of the Secretary of Interior or his subordinate. (Ibid. 346. Oklahoma Historical Society.
While we lived in Minnesota another tribe of Indians committed depredations against the whites.98
always took our Great Father's [the President's] advice. that we could not live there. not many could sell their ponies and things they h a d . 1880. by Edward Lazarus. by George W. . after a while. with their stoves and household things in them. it was all dust. Whenever we cooked anything it would be full of dust. It [the new Winnebago area] was not a good country. Manypenny. (Ibid.) 348. HarperCollins. but you have always made away with them—broken them. Clarke. Nebraska. I will always sign any treaty you will ask me to do. (Ibid. . . Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. 1991. (Statement to a member of Congress at Dakota City.)
Iron Shell was a Sioux chief. (Upon signing the Treaty of 1868. We had but four days notice. We found. 349. Some left their houses just as they were. 1865.) 347. and did whatever he told us to do. We used to farm and raise a crop of all we wanted every year. and then we were compelled to leave Minnesota We were compelled to leave so suddenly that we were not prepared. Our Indian Wards. 1775 to the Present.
which had been started by Wovoka (q. Marquis. that they are now marching to join you. Army and was named to the Indian Court.S. by James McLaughlin. led by the Messiah who came once to live on earth with the white men. Kicking Bear toured with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. I spent my scout pay for whiskey. . a Warrior Who Fought Custer. by Thomas B.).) 352. 1910. After the movement ended. University of Nebraska Press. .v. . 1890. but later he moved to Montana. Houghton Mifflin.KICKING BEAR
Kicking Bear was a leader in the Ghost Dance movement. 351. South Dakota
Wooden Leg was encamped at the Little Big Horn where General Custer was to make his last stand. (Speech to an Indian council meeting. Yes. it is pleasant to be situated [on the reservation] where I can sleep soundly at night without fear . I wish I could live again through
. (Wooden Leg. I learned to drink whiskey at Fort Keogh . but was cast out and killed by them. For a long time we did not do much except to drill and work at getting out logs from the timber. 1957. My Friend the Indian. 350.)
(1858-1940) Cheyenne. 1 bring you word from your fathers the ghosts. Wooden Leg was sent to Oklahoma following the battle. He was an Indian scout for the U. .
From Kaw Tepee to Capitol: The Story of Charles Curtis. Senate. to become loafers and beggars. 1977. where he closed down the speakeasies under state prohibition laws.S. and I am thankful to the delegates for their expression of confidence in me. but I saw what liquor dealers had done and were doing to all sorts of men. how liquor broke them down physically. but it is gratifying indeed to have been nominated by this great convention. Kansas
Charles Curtis. Seitz.)
(1860-1936) Raw. (Explaining his role as prosecuting attorney in Shawnee County. Ibid. by Frederick J. There were no high moral principles involved. Stokes. I came to Kansas City hoping to receive the nomination for the Presidency. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. When the result was announced I gladly bowed to the will of the majority and was ready to begin work for the success of the nominee. Secretary Hoover. trained as a lawyer. by Don C. as vice president under Herbert Hoover. U. finally. (Acceptance speech after his nomination as vice president in 1928. My friends made a gallant fight for me and remained loyal until the last and I cannot find words sufficient to express my gratitude to them. I was not a candidate for Vice President and did not seek the nomination. Kansas. 1928. Frederick A. took away their pride and made them hang around racing stables.) 355. Dockstader.100
some of the past days of real freedom.)
.) 354. 353. (Ibid. and. (Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. entered politics and served as a member of the House of Representatives.
. Chilton. 1964. Waterman. Berkeley. California
Ishi was the last survivor of the Yahi. Fayne Porter. a California tribe believed to have been extinct at the time of his emergence. University of California anthropologists Thomas Waterman and Alfred Kroeber arranged for him to stay at the Museum of Anthropology. 357. After General Custer was defeated at the Little Big Horn. They were later forced back onto reservations. Black Elk appeared in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. theorizing that Ishi might be a survivor of the Yahi. . .)
(1863-1950) Oglala Sioux. California. It is a bad way to live. he dictated his memoirs. He was called the "Wild Man" and had apparently been in hiding for years.ISHI
(18627-1916) Yahi. Black Elk fled into Canada with his people. . Everything an Indian does is in a circle and that is because
. in August 1911. . for there is no power in a s q u a r e . Ishi is the Yahi word for "man. by C. Siwini! Siwini! [Yellow pine! Yellow pine!] (Our Indian Heritage: Profiles of 12 Great Leaders. Many years later. read a list of Yahi words—and below is the one to which Ishi first responded." 356. He staggered into the town of Oroville. Wyoming
Black Elk was a medicine man and mystic. and they are square. where he could be studied. He was at Wounded Knee shortly after the 1890 massacre. [On the reservation] we made these little gray houses of logs .
The east gave peace and light. the west gave rain. She devoted herself to the welfare of her people. I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud [of Wounded Knee].)
. and the circle of the four quarters nourished it. 1932. 1 hope to go into their homes and help the women in their housekeeping. In the old days when we were a strong and happy people. 1985. as told to John G. cited in "Dr.)
SUSAN LaFLESCHE PICOTTE
(1865-1915) Omaha. and was buried in the blizzard. edited by L. all our power came to us from the sacred hoop of the nation. It was a beautiful dream The nation's hoop is broken and scattered. (Ibid. teach them a few practical points about cooking and nursing. and the north with its cold and mighty wind gave strength and endurance. Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. University of New Mexico Press. I did not know then [at the time of Wounded Knee] how much was ended.102
SUSAN LaFLESCHE PICOTTE
the Power of the World always works in circles. the south gave warmth.) 360. the people flourished. The flowering tree was the living center of the hoop.) 359. Susan LaFlesche Picotte: The Reformed and the Reformer. G." by Valerie Sherer Mathes. (Ibid. There is no center any longer and the sacred tree is dead. in Indian Lives: Essays on 19th and 20th Century Native American Leaders. I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still young. 361. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age. (Black Elk Speaks. Nebraska
Susan LaFlesche Picotte was the first Indian woman to become a doctor of medicine. (1886. (Ibid. and especially about cleanliness.) 358. Moses and Raymond Wilson. Morrow. A people's dream died there. and everything tries to be round. Neihardt. and so long as the hoop was unbroken.
(The Buffalo War: The History of the Red River Indian Uprising of 1874. to keep whites out of the sacred Black Hills. (Ibid. It is our only resource with which to buy what we need and do not receive from the government. Doubleday.RED DOG
362. so it makes us feel to see others killing and stealing our buffaloes. and my work I hope will be chiefly in the homes of my people.) 364. (Native American Wis-
. 363. by James L. for the home is the foundation of all things for the Indians. We are all poor because we are all honest. He took part in the Red River War of 1874-1875. The buffalo is our money.)
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Red Dog fought. I feel that as a physician I can do a great deal more than as a mere teacher. Haley. which are our cattle given to us by the Great Father above to provide us meat to eat and means to get things to wear. (Ibid. Just as it makes a white man feel to have his money carried away. 1976. 365. but eventually he ended his days on a reservation. We love them [the buffalo] just as the white man does his money.)
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Bull Bear was one of a group of military chiefs known as the Dog Soldiers. unsuccessfully.
was elected chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1872. And yet those who most loudly wail over such things in the Indian Country are most familiar with them at home. . There is no undue proportion of unpunished crime in the Cherokee N a t i o n . 1991. In Missouri. (Ibid. (Statement to House Committee on Territories. There are murders and outrages committed in the Cherokee Nation. it is stated in the issue of a single paper. . (Ibid. Arkansas offers rewards for wanted [criminals]. New World Library. . ROSS
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
William P. . plunder or murder their passengers.104
WILLIAM P.) 369.v. Litton Transcripts. white and colored. . on our borders.) 367.) 370. had its Benders [gang]. Ross. This was in response to proposed legislation aimed at the Cherokee Nation by neighboring states complaining about crime.) 368. Life and property are as secure as anywhere else in the surrounding states. the Knights of the Hood. Alas. nephew of John Ross (q. Kansas. and its shootings along the line of its railroads and border towns. (Ibid. February 8. and individual acts of violence which occur in the swamps and mountains of that state.). 1874. in broad daylight cause the gate keepers in city fairs to stand and deliver.)
WILLIAM P. to say nothing of the proceedings of mobs.)
. Oklahoma Historical Society. there a r e . its mob at Lacygne. for fourteen murders. ROSS
dom. mobs stop railway trains. 366. edited by Kent Nerburn and Louise Mendleboch. (Ibid. . shoot down the officers of the law in order to hang men who have been consigned to imprisonment. Oklahoma City.
(Mid t o l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century)
Standing Elk was a Sioux chief. "Yes! Yes! Yes!"—and when we don't agree at once to what you ask of us in council you always say. 1991. (Washakie. 1775 to the Present. 372. 371. by Grace Raymond Hebard. "You won't get anything to eat! You won't get anything to eat!" (1876.v.)
. by Edward Lazarus. Cited in Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. Your words are like a man knocking me in the head with a stick.)
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Dick Washakie was the son of Washakie (q. commissioners who threatened to cut off rations if a proposed Black Hills treaty was not signed. our Father above. we are expected to say. spoken to U. What you have spoken has put great fear upon us. wherever we go.). The reason the Indian seems to worship the sun to some people is because the Indian believes the sun is a gift from God. Whatever we do. Arthur H.S. HarperCollins. 1930. to enlighten the world and as the sun appears over the horizon they offer up a prayer in acceptance of our Father's gift. Clark. the Shoshone chief.
. friends buried or held prisoners. brother of Chief Joseph (q. With us it was worse.v. When the red man speaks.). (Statement to Secretary of the Interior John Noble. You do not care if you die. 1952.)
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Young-Man-Afraid. after her husband had been killed and Chief Joseph had surrendered. Our going with heavy hearts. Idaho. This was her recollection of how she felt in October 1877. It was lonesome.WETATONMI
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Wetatonmi was the widow of Ollokot. a Sioux chief. Black Hills White
. (Hear Me My Chiefs!. But we would be f r e e . broken spirits. Husband dead. You know how you feel when you lose kindred and friends through sickness—death. I felt that I was leaving all that I had but I did not cry.) and was part of a delegation that visited Washington. We had asked to be left in our own homes. All lost. . the Government and the army see that we obey. we walked silently on into the wintry night. by Lucullus V. in 1891 to present Indian grievances. Strong men. Caldwell. . the leaving.v. When the white man speaks. the homes of our ancestors. 373. it goes in one ear and out the other.. D. was a friend of Crazy Horse (q.C. well women and little children killed and buried. 374. McWhorter. They had not done wrong to be so killed.
by Dee Brown. 1971.)
(Mid t o l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century) Sioux
Baptiste Good was a Sioux chief. Holt. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux versus the United States. I will kill the first chief who speaks for selling the Black Hills. The chief of all thieves [General Custer] made a road into the Black Hills last summer.)
. and I want you to get them out just as quick as you can. 1991. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.LITTLE BIG MAN
Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. Why were our rations cut down a million pounds? Why have not our winter annuities come? (Ibid.)
LITTLE BIG MAN
(Mid to late n i n e t e e n t h century) Sioux
Little Big Man was a Sioux chief. The white man is in the Black Hills just like maggots.) 376. 1991. 377.] (Ibid. HarperCollins. HarperCollins. 1775 to the Present. 1775 to the Present.) 375. Why was the Sioux nation called to account for dancing a religious dance? [The Ghost Dance. and I want the Great Father to pay the damages for what Custer has done. 378. Rinehart & Winston. by Edward Lazarus. by Edward Lazarus.
He does not have to do things for himself. Any man. and the only reform is to let my people g o . Clark. which he despised. that hinders our people's freedom. You will find them there. It cannot be done for him.CARLOS MONTEZUMA
(18677-1923) Yavapai Apache. yellow. (Ibid. committing crimes worse than I could tell you. brown—or white—can do it [achieve] against obstacles. (Ibid. It is the same with Indians as with all other people. The guiding policy seemed to be that the Indian must be cared for like a little child.) 383. 379. he would be cheated out of his property and would starve. idlers. vicious. no. . (Congressional Record. 64th Congress.. despite an orphaned childhood of want and neglect. The Indian Bureau [Bureau of Indian Affairs] is the only obstacle that stands in the way. The Indian Bureau system is wrong. Arizona
. if he will. .. . 23. Montezuma. red. 2. May 12. ("Dr. The only way to adjust wrong is abolish it. There is only one way to achieve: do things for yourself. Montana: The Magazine of Western History. But he must do it himself. 1st Session. It is perhaps easy to let someone else take care of you. The feeling was general that if he were allowed to look out for himself. (Ibid. Apache: Warrior in Two Worlds/' by Neil M. I could have done it. 1916.) 381. This rule is not abridged for the Indian because his skin is brown or red. And what has it done for them? Go to the reservations.. vol..) 382. Why? Because the Indian is taken care of.. gamblers. He turned down an offer made by President Theodore Roosevelt to head the Bureau of Indian Affairs. April 1973. I defy you to do that for anyone and expect him to achieve things that are worthwhile.. Thousands of my people have been forced to do it.) 380. black. put himself through college and became a doctor. By doing away with the Indian Bureau you stop making paupers and useless beings and start the making of producers and workers.
It was the first railroad train of the Union Pacific Railroad. or w a r r i o r . wise. undoubted truthfulness. This caused much excitement. . To us it was tame. The great brave was a man of strict honor. He was one of the first to attend the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania.) 385. In the natural course of events. When the very animals of the forest began fleeing from his approach. Only to the white man was nature a "wilderness" and only to him was the land "infested" with "wild" animals and "savage" people. Not only must he have great physical bravery and fighting prowess. 1933. To become a great brave was . and unprogressive people suffering the fate of all oppressed. The Lakotas are now a sad.) 386. . Houghton Mifflin. . Soon after I was born.) 387. and unbounded generosity. of the man that once was. (My People. helpful and benevolent conqueror bring this situation about? Can a real. every Lakota boy became a hunter.LUTHER STANDING BEAR
(1868-1939) Oglala Sioux. . Not until the hairy man from the east came and with brutal frenzy heaped injustices upon us and the families that we loved was it "wild" for us. by Chief Standing Bear. Did a kind. . genuinely superior social order work such havoc? (Ibid. silent. When I reached young manhood. and acted in motion pictures. wrote several books about Indian life and government policy. a chief of his people. . .) 388. Close observation revealed the fact that a stream of smoke was following the supposed snake. 1928. one of our scouts came into camp one day. Earth was bountiful and we were surrounded with the blessings of the Great Mystery. by Chief Standing Bear. Today you see but a shattered specimen. . (Ibid. the warpath for
. a caricature . Boston. scout. South Dakota
Luther Standing Bear. but he must meet the severest tests of character. (Land of the Spotted Eagle. then it was that for us the "Wild West" began. performed in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. the Sioux. and very excitedly stated that a big snake was crawling across the prairie. He wrote. lectured. . . true. 384. the highest aspiration [of a young m a n ] .
so have animals. water.)
(1869-?) Hidatsa. Wyoming
Edward Goodbird became a successful farmer after game became scarce in his area. The sky has a spirit. We Indians did not believe in one Great Spirit.) 391. that they may help us in our need. grass. everything. who first taught my people to till their fields. and for this reason they were always heeded. Old-Woman-Who-Never-Dies. and . trees. and we pray to them and give them offerings. stones. our elder creator. . Sometimes a man fasted and tortured himself until
. edited by Gilbert L. (Ibid.110
the Lakota was a thing of the past. the spirit of the prairie wolf." he said. We did believe that certain gods were more powerful than others. My father explained this to me. or spirits. the clouds have spirits. Anyone could pray to the spirits. "have souls. all dreams were thought to be from the spirits." (Goodbird the Indian. It was good for the skin to touch the earth and the old people liked to remove their moccasins and walk with bare feet on the sacred earth. Wilson. the sun and moon have spirits. the war scout had lost his calling. . These spirits are our gods.) 392. . His Story. 390.) 389. The victory songs were sung only in the memory of the braves and even they soon went unsung under a cruel and senseless ban of our overseers. "All things in this world. and our faith in these spirits and our worship of them made our religion. Indeed. Of these was . We Hidatsas believed that this world and everything in it was alive and had spirits. as white men seem to think all Indians do. (Ibid. The hunter had disappeared with the buffalo. 1914. receiving answer usually in a dream. . (Ibid. especially those that came by fasting and suffering. and the warrior had taken his shield to the mountain-top and given it back to the elements. The old people came literally to love the soil and they sat or reclined on the ground with a feeling of being close to a mothering power.
In ancient times it was prophesied by our forefathers that this land would be occupied by the Indian people and then from somewhere a White Man would come. or he will come after he has abandoned that great Life Plan and fall into a faith of his own personal ideas which he invented before coming here. It was known that the White Man is an intelligent person. or medicine. he kept as his sacred object. a man who knows how to influence people because of his sweet way of talking and that he will use many of these things upon us when he comes. come to pledge him protection.) 397. (Ibid. 1957. the bird or beast was not a flesh-and-blood animal. edited by George Yamada.) 394.t w e n t i e t h century)
Dan Katchongva was in his eighties when he testified before a Congressional committee. we called this a vision. Usually this god was a bird or beast or it might be the spirit of someone dead.DAN KATCHONGVA
he fell into a kind of dream while yet awake.)
( M i d . his parents would say. every Indian hoped that one of them would come to him and be his protector.n i n e t e e n t h t o m i d . or a part of it. Believing as he did that the world was full of spirits. especially in war. The Great Resistance: A Hopi Anthology. (Ibid. Whatever he saw in his vision was his god. an inventor of many words. (Ibid. privately printed. 1955. (Ibid. He set out to kill an animal like that seen in his vision. "You are now old enough to go to war but you should first go out and find your god!" They meant by this that he should not risk his life in battle until he had a protecting spirit. When a lad became about 17 years of age. He will come either with a strong faith and righteous religion which the Great Spirit has also given to him. (Congressional testimony.) 393.) 395. but a spirit. 396.)
. (Ibid. and its dried skin. for in this sacred object dwelt his god.
even as a special creation. G. because it is here the Great Spirit lives. We knew that this land beneath us was composed of many things that we might want to use later such as mineral resources. the rivers. You know. (Akwesasne Notes. the mountains. by John Walter Grant MacEwan. if you take all your books. Nobody tries to make coyotes act like beavers or the eagles behave like robins. and let the snow and rain and insects work on them for a while. 399. that he will use many good ideas in order to obtain his heart's desire. Civilized people depend too much on man-made printed pages. Walking Buffalo of the Stoneys. there will be nothing left. These things we were warned to watch. Perhaps the principles of brotherhood which the world needs so urgently come more easily to the Indian. But the Great Spirit has provided you and me with an opportunity for study in nature's university. I turn to the Great Spirit's book which is the whole of his creation. and we today know that those prophecies were true because we can see how many new and selfish ideas and plans are being put before us. (Tatanga Mani. Christians see themselves as set apart from the rest of the animal and plant world by superiority. 400. You can read a big part of that book if you study nature. lay them out under the sun. 1969). Mohawk Nation. M. and the animals which include us. (Ibid. Hurtig. and we knew that if he had strayed from the Great Spirit he would use any means to get what he wants.)
Tatanga Mani was a member of the Stoney Nation.112
. We knew that the White Man will search for the things that look good to him. the forests. We knew that this is the wealthiest part of this continent. We know that if we accept these things we will lose our land and give up our very lives.
(Ibid. he was had to call himself John Smith.) 403. he wrote satirical articles about serious issues. many of the Indian songs and poems would rank among the greatest poetic productions of all time. far more formal in style. were just as effective in their own way.) 405. If [the literary works of Indians] could be translated into English without losing their characteristic flavor and beauty.ALEXANDER POSEY
(1873-1908) Creek. Tookpafka Micco he say he was druther had a deed to his land than a big name in the newspaper.) 404. Oklahoma
Alexander Posey. Big Man say Injun name like Sitting Bull or Tecumseh was too hard to remember and don't sound civilized like General Cussed Her or old Grand Pa Harry's Son. 1903. So. Big Man at Washington was made another rule like that one about making the Injun cut his hair off short like a prize fighter or saloon keeper. focusing on the foibles of the white man and his relationship with the Indian. wrote both humorous and serious pieces about Indian life. Hogan he say the Big Man's rule was heap worse than [land] allotment. and journalist. a poet. (Philadelphia Press. In his newspaper column. (Ibid. (Indian Journal. if the Injun's name is Wolf Warrior. November 1900. Well.) 402. Posey took on the Washington bureaucracy for trying to "Americanize" Indians. These columns were written in the dialect of the time. His serious essays. Some of them are masterpieces. April 24. and Crazy Snake he say he hear white man say all time you could take everything away from a him but you couldn't steal his good name. so. essayist. 401. gorgeous
. Guess so thata was alright 'cause they was nothing to a name nohow if you can't borrow some money on it at the bank. so nobody else could get his mail out of the post office. They [Indian literary works] have splendid dignity. Big Man he was say this time the Injun was had to change his name just like if the marshal was had a writ for him. or maybe so Bill Jones.
" The Atlantic Monthly. March 1900. In his own tongue it is not difficult for the Indian to compose. The Indian talks in poetry. but the free and untrammeled poetry of nature. when a hidden rage took me to the small white-walled prison which I then called my room.)
GERTRUDE SIMMONS BONNIN
(1876-1938) Yankton Dakota.)
. I unknowingly turned away from my one salvation. She founded the National Council of American Indians. Trembling with fear and distrust of the palefaces. In the process of my education I had lost all consciousness of the nature world about me. "Impressions of an Indian Childhood. the sky. ("An Indian Teacher among Indians. the river. After teaching initially. South Dakota
Gertrude Simmons Bonnin was a writer and Indian activist. at a missionary school for Indians. I crept noiselessly in my soft moccasins along the narrow hall. and reproduce with magic effect every phase of life in the forests—the glint of the fading sunshine falling on the leaves. she began writing for major national magazines. (Arriving. he does it instinctively. 407. January 1900. keeping very close to the bare wall." The Atlantic Monthly. supporting studies of social and economic conditions of American Indians.) 408. the faint stirring of the wind. Words seem hard. the poetry of the fields. age eight.114
GERTRUDE SIMMONS BONNIN
word pictures.) 406. (Ibid. No detail is too small to escape observation and the most fleeting and evanescent of impressions are caught and recorded in the most exquisite language. poetry is his vernacular. Thus. I was as frightened and bewildered as the captured young of a wild creature. and it is to these things that I attribute the failure of the civilized Indian to win fame in poetry. the sun and the stars. (Ibid. but in attempting to write in English he is handicapped. my teeth chattering from the chilly ride. the whirring of the insects. not necessarily the stilted poetry of books. She pushed for reforms during the Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt administrations. form mechanical.
(1879-1935) Cherokee. David McKay.) 411. Wallach's painting of Custer's Last Stand. by Donald Day. no. What's wrong with this world? There ain't but one word will tell
. 1962. . His career was cut short by a tragic plane crash. (Ibid. 1876-1938: 'Americanize the First American. A Biography. we must acknowledge him. in the movies. But alive. . Alone in my room. and over radio. The time is here w h e n .) 414. 412. Nevertheless. J. He also wrote a popular newspaper column. My ancestors .) 413. Revoke the tyrannical powers of Government superintendents over a voiceless people and extend American opportunities to the first American—the Red Man.) 415. I wished my heart's burdens would turn me to unfeeling stone.' " by David L. My ancestors did not come over on the Mayflower—they met the boat. vol. Oklahoma
Will Rogers was the foremost humorist of his day. would have showed better judgment if they had not let yours land. Johnson and Raymond Wilson. It's the only time my people got the best of it. 1.WILL ROGERS
409. in which he commented mostly on politics. I was destitute! (Ibid. American Indian Quarterly.) 410. ("Gertrude Simmons Bonnin. referring to W. (Ibid. the American Indian is our fellow man. I like that picture. . They're as unreliable as a political promise. (Ibid. Ancestors don't mean a thing in the human tribe. 12. He performed on the stage. .) 416. I saw like the petrified Indian woman of whom my mother used to tell me. (Remark. (Will Rogers. It is a tragedy to the American Indian and the fair name of America that the good intentions of a benevolent government are turned into channels of inefficiency and criminal neglect. in my tomb.
It would certainly come in handy right now.) 417.)
(Late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Four Guns was an orator. and I never go through a day that I am not sorry for the idea I had of how to go to school and not learn anything. by Natalie Curtis. Kendall-Hunt. 420. and it was till they struck oil. but the earth is our mother. (Ibid. and healing plants she gives us likewise. She nourishes us.116
you what's wrong. that which we put into the ground she returns to us. I have regretted all my life that I did not take a chance on the fifth grade. by Hap Gilliland.)
(Late n i n e t e e n t h century)
Big Thunder was a Wabanakis chief. The Indian needs no writing. They sent the Indians to Oklahoma. (The Indian's Book. it don't say anything about oil. 1928. 419. Then the government took us again. 1907.) 418. They had a treaty that said. Words that are true sink deep into
." (Syndicated column. "You shall have this land as long as grass grows and water flows. and that's selfishness. (Teaching the Native American. February 5. If we are wounded. They said the treaty only refers to "water and grass. we go to our mother and seek to lay the wounded part against her. to be healed. Harper and Brother." It was not only a good rhyme but looked like a good treaty. 1992. The Great Spirit is our father.
by Eve Ball. The Governor of Arizona said that if a train carrying them reached the border
.) 424. Speeches and Poems. our concept of Him is much like the ancient Hebrews' Jehovah. for they grovelled in the earth and invoked the wrath of the Mountain Gods by seeking gold. Denali Press. 422. Native American Reader: Stories. unless there were writings about him in a great book. We had been hunted through the forests and plains of our own land as though we were wild animals. and sacred to Him. Most Apaches believe that the body will go through eternity in the condition in which it leaves the earth. 1990.) 425. Until I was about ten years old I did not know that people died except by violence. Blanche. (Ibid.)
(?-1963) Warm Springs Apache. New Mexico
James Kaywaykla was only a child in 1886 when. edited by Jerry D. (Speech. (Ibid. He never forgets them. the metal forbidden to man. of Ussen Himself. if the white man loses his paper. Literally the meaning of Ussen is Creator of Life.) 423. (Ibid. he was forcibly removed from New Mexico and transported to Florida. he is helpless. It was the prospectors and miners whom we considered the most objectionable. 1891. 1970.JAMES KAYWAYKLA
his heart where they remain. (From the Days of Victorio: Recollections of a Warm Springs Apache. I once heard one of their preachers say that no white man was admitted to heaven. University of Arizona Press. On the other hand. . with the remnants of his tribe.) 421.) 427. As nearly as I can judge.) 426. My people wanted very much to return to the Southwest. . It is a symbol of the Sun. (Ibid. The White Eyes returned in hordes [following the Civil War] to take our land from u s . and for that reason they abhor mutilation. . (Ibid.
JOHN STANDS IN TIMBER
of Arizona Territory it would be dynamited, that Apaches were as dangerous as the rattlesnakes upon which they fed. Of course no Apache ever ate the flesh of any snake. (Ibid.)
JOHN STANDS IN TIMBER
John Stands in Timber was born eight years after his grandfather was killed fighting General Custer at the battle of the Little Big Horn. Early in his youth, he became determined to keep track of the oral literature of his people. The book Cheyenne Memories, coauthored with Margot Liberty, was published just after his death. 428. An old storyteller would smooth the ground in front of him with his hand and make two marks in it with his right thumb, two marks with his left, and a double mark with both thumbs together. . . . Then he touched the marks on the ground with both hands and rubbed them together and passed them over his head and all over his body. That meant the Creator had made human beings' bodies and their limbs as he had made the earth, and that the Creator was witness to what was to be told. (Cheyenne Memories, by John Stands in Timber and Margot Liberty, Yale University Press, 1967.)
Red Fox, at the age of six, heard the sounds of gunfire at the battle of the Little Big Horn. His uncle, Crazy Horse (q.v.),
was in the process of destroying General Custer's command. During a crowded lifetime, Chief Red Fox met presidents and kings, and he performed at Wild West shows and in the movies. 429. Among the American Indians there was a single concept of religion regardless of tribe or geographic location. They believed that the finite and infinite were expressions of one universal, absolute being that furnished guidelines for their morals and conduct, and motivated every living thing. They called this the Great Spirit. (The Memoirs of Chief Red Fox, McGraw-Hill, 1971.) 430. American history, as taught in school textbooks, pictures the development of a nation from the arrival of Columbus to the present in star-spangled language. Censorship has eliminated all malevolent and mischievous behavior from the pages of our past. The Indian is depicted as a savage and the White man as a good Samaritan. (Ibid.) 431. It is true Indians of some tribes painted for war. Many tribes did not. The paint was used for many different things. It was used to show happiness, sorrow, peace, what tribe you belonged to, where you lived, marriage. (Ibid.)
(1888-1953) Sac/Fox, Oklahoma
Jim Thorpe was probably one of the greatest all-around athletes of all time. He was a star athlete while attending Carlisle. During the 1912 Olympics held in Stockholm, Sweden, he won a number of medals in pentathlon and decathlon events. He was stripped of his medals, however, when it was reported that he had been paid for playing professional baseball during the summer, causing him to lose his amateur status. Thorpe went on to play professional baseball and football. In 1982, nearly thirty years after his death, the International Olympic Committee reversed its original ruling, and Jim Thorpe was officially recognized as the winner of the events he had won in 1912.
"[King Gustav] said to me: 'Sir, you are the greatest athlete in the world.' That was the proudest moment of my life."
—JIM THORPE, S A C / F O X
432. Someone started a story that when King Gustav sent for me [during the Olympics], I replied I couldn't be bothered to meet a mere King. .. . The story was not true. I have pictures showing King Gustav crowning me with the laurel wreath and presenting me with the trophies and it is no fabrication that he said to me: "Sir, you are the greatest athlete in the world." That was the proudest moment of my life. (Pathway to Glory, by Robert W. Wheeler, Carlton Press, 1975.) 433. Sure! I played baseball in 1909 and 1910 in the Carolina League but I had no idea I was a pro. I got $60 a month for expenses and that's all. I wouldn't even have tried for the Olympic team had I thought I was a pro. (New York Telegram, July 21, 1948.)
(1889-1971) Sioux, South Dakota
Ella Deloria, an anthropologist, studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict. She wrote about the Dakota language and culture. In her 1944 book Speaking of Indians, she dealt with the future of Indians who, during World War II, had gone off to fight or to work in defense plants. 434. Their [American Indian] life has been separated by a wide gulf from that of all other Americans. To quote John Stuart Mill, "a state which dwarfs its men that they may be more docile instruments in its hands even for beneficial purposes will find that with small men no great thing can really be accomplished." The italics are mine. (Speaking of Indians, by Ella Deloria, Friendship Press, 1994. Reprinted by University of South Dakota Press.) 435. In a way, I believe that this is what has happened to the Indian people. They have always been so supervised and so taken care of that it has been hard to "try their wings" without self-consciousness. And they have been so remote from general American life that they don't always know what to try. (Ibid.) 436. Paternalism and protection and gratuity have left their mark. That is not so strange, nor is such a result peculiar to Indians. Have we not
in our own time seen how spoiled and weakened people may become with a little of that sort of thing? (Ibid.) 437. They [Indians] have something to bestir themselves about at last— what a pity it had to be a war! And it has called forth all those dormant qualities that had been thought killed long ago—initiative, industry, alertness. And they had generally retained their innate patience, sympathy, gentleness, religious devotion, tolerance, showing an amazing lack of bitterness—amazing, because they have had plenty to be bitter about. (Ibid.)
(Late n i n e t e e n t h to early t w e n t i e t h century)
Chief Meninock was tried in 1915 by the state of Washington for violating the state's code on salmon fishing. He was found guilty. Below are excerpts from his testimony. 438. God created this Indian country and it was like He spread out a big blanket. He put the Indians on it. They were created here in this country, truly and honestly, and that was the time this river started to run. Then God created fish in this river and put deer in these mountains . . . and made laws through which has come the increase of fish and game. (The Washington Historical Quarterly, July 1928.) 439. Then the Creator gave us Indians life; we awakened and as soon as we saw the game and fish we knew that they were made for us. (Ibid.) 440. For the women God made roots and berries to gather, and the Indians grew and multiplied as a people. (Ibid.) 441. When we were created, we were given our ground to live on, and from that time these were our rights.. .. We had the fish before the missionaries came, before the white man came. (Ibid.) 442. I was not brought from a foreign country and did not come here. I was put here by the Creator. We had no cattle, no hogs, no grain, only berries and roots and game and fish. We never thought we would be
It seemed that most of them were soldiers. I advocate the assimilation of Indians into the general citizenship wherever and whenever such course is feasible. government agents.S... Indian Service. I grew up believing that Whites are wicked. founded in 1944.)
DON C. and that quite a few were Two-Hearts... (ca. He served as Vice Chief Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court from 1955 until 1965.JOHNSON
(1891-1974) Cherokee. deceitful people. Simmons. JOHNSON
troubled about these things. Johnson was the first president of the National Congress of American Indians. 444. Conn. edited by Leo W. The time is here for the establishment of a planned program for the progressive liquidation of the U. . by migration of Indians away from reservations into the
NAPOLEON B. A plan [should be evolved] which leads the American Indians down the road to independence and complete absorption into general citizenship. 1942. when he was impeached for bribery. Talayesva was a Hopi chief. New Haven. 1900. TALAYESVA
(Late n i n e t e e n t h t o early t w e n t i e t h century)
Don C. it is not wrong for us to get this food. and I tell my people . .NAPOLEON B. Oklahoma
Napoleon B. 443. or missionaries. This is being accomplished through intermarriage. (Ibid. Sun Chief: The Autobiography of a Hopi Indian.
my face got as tough as a saddle. Celia [Dempsey's mother] had a strain of Cherokee Indian on her mother's side. . 1977. August 1954.)
Sam Ahkcah attended a government Indian school. Colorado
Jack Dempsey was the world heavyweight boxing champion from 1919 to 1926. doctors. war plants. dentists. Harper & Row.
. (Dempsey. by Jack Dempsey with Barbara Piattelli Dempsey. (Ibid. . I bathed my face in beef brine to toughen the s k i n . and by association with non-Indians in the armed forces. At least that's what we thought when we were children. and other industries. Eventually. .124
(1895-1983) Cherokee.) 446. I wouldn't bleed. From 1946 to 1954 he was chairman of the Navajo Tribal Council. We need thousands of young lawyers. . Later we realized she was just smart. 447. 445. They are our future. . We must encourage our young people to go on in education. He worked as a mine foreman and rancher before entering Navajo politics. (The Rotarian. . If I ever got cut. which enabled her to see and hear things the rest of us couldn't.
Ruth Muskrat Bronson. .. 1947. nurses and secretaries. who are dominated by the "get rich and get out" psychology that is a relic of the gold-rush days.) 450.) 451. 449.)
. and there are many of them. . in Navajo Biographies. (Ibid." by Broderick Johnson and Virginia Hoffman. .RUTH MUSKRAT BRONSON
RUTH MUSKRAT BRONSON
(1897-1982) Cherokee. helped Indian youth to appreciate and understand their own culture and heritage. Rough Rock Demonstration School. an educator. . January 23. We don't want them to get an education and take jobs off the reservation. They often have to endure the same kind of exclusions and discriminations. 1947. They are despised and unwanted by those Alaskans. They are despised and unwanted because they own property which this element in Alaska wants and intends to get at any cost.) 448. . January-April. Alaska is full of possibilities of Federal chicanery yet to be perpetrated on Indians. 1970. We need young men and women who have majored in business administration. Indian Truth. The danger of another Teapot Dome did not pass away with the apprehension of Albert F a l l . (Speech to the Indian Rights Association. The natives of Alaska are today in much the same predicament the Indians of the United States faced a century and a half ago. One educated Tlingit told me that the "natives of Alaska" occupy a position in many respects no better than that of the Negro in the States. ("Sam Ahkcah. We need them here! (Ibid.
(Quoting a relative training a young warrior-to-be. Once father must have sensed my curiosity regarding the ancient traditions. She was a founder of the reservation's museum.)
(1900-1990) Brule Sioux. Now. 452. I would have no puberty ceremonial. by Anna Moore Shaw. The devil will get them. He campaigned for better conditions for
. He called my brother and me to him and said. Even as a little child I learned to love Jesus and tried to practice the Golden Rule.) 453. But sometimes I envied the old way of life. South Dakota
Ben Reifel was a Congressman who represented South Dakota from 1961 to 1971. the old dances were dying out. and Circle and Name-Calling dances were almost things of the past. "Willie and Annie. Those who go to these events are sinners. University of Arizona Press... Ibid. As a resident of the Salt River Reservation. she taught kindergarten classes on Pima language and culture.) Pima. Arizona
Anna Moore Shaw has written two books on the Pimas.) 454. She served on the Mutual Self-Help Housing Commission." (Ibid. you must always remember that the white pahl (preacher) has said that tribal dances and festivals. 1974. are not for Christians to attend. under the influence of the missionaries.ANNA MOORE SHAW
(1898. when Pima children didn't have to go to school and could look forward to colorful tribal dances and festivals. A warrior must be brave and die with a silent throat. (A Pima Past.
(Early t o m i d . you [Lakota] and all people will die like dogs. by Edward Lazarus. Ho. he had worked in the Bureau of Indian Affairs. with tears running. Children's Press. Earlier. 455. We want a modern standard of living the same as whites. A day will come in your lifetime when the earth. When will Indians and whites have respect for each other? I think the time is coming. (Shadows of the Buffalo.BEN CALF ROBE
American Indians. 456. by Susan Avery and Linda Skinner. Remember this. 1983. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States.)
. We cannot go back to the buffalo economy. It will be here when we all have the same color of skin. and we are slowly coming to be that way. 1991. to save her. In 1929 he took part in a sun dance ceremony and made the following prophecy. Morrow.)
BEN CALF ROBE
( T w e n t i e t h century)
Ben Calf Robe is an elder of the Blackfeet tribe. by Adolf Hungry Wolf and Beverly Hungry Wolf. People ask me if we will ever get along. your mother. 457. 1992. will beg you.t w e n t i e t h century)
Hollow Horn was a Sioux medicine man. (Extraordinary American Indians. 1775 to the Present. if you fail to help her.
raping someone's culture and heritage. He later wrote of his experiences in the book. now deceased. Beyond Words. In exchange for all he's taken from us. 458. University of Minnesota Press. What kind of legacy is that? We reject it. (Wisdomkeepers: Meetings with Native American Spiritual Elders.) 462. (The People Named the Chippewa. all White Man gives us back is "welfare. 461. the poison-producers. by Gerald Vizenor. 1990. He had been taken from the White Earth reservation as a young boy and sent to a boarding school in South Dakota to unlearn Indian ways.)
(Twentieth century) Chippewa. (Ibid.) 459.) 460. We want no part of it. Generations to come will look back and see how 20th-century Americans were the garbage-makers. many generations influenced and shaped the existence of my ancestors.
.HARRIETT STARLEAF GUMBS
( T w e n t i e t h century)
Shinnecock . Red World and White: Memories of a Chippewa Boyhood. (Ibid. 1984. by Steve Wall and Harvey Arden. That's rape—raping someone's way of life. I had learned to love the primitive life which had for so many. Her eyes sparkled as the sun on laughing waters.
Harriett Gumbs is an elder of the Shinnecock tribe. the carcinogen-creators. Minnesota
John Rogers. raping the land and raping the sea." and even for that little bit he forces our men to leave their homes so their children can get food to eat. was a Chippewa chief.
the lakes and the river.) 463. I could gain knowledge from my daily walks under the trees where the shadows mixed with the shifting sunlight and the wind fanned my cheek with its gentle caress or made me bend. He wanted the Bureau of Indian Affairs to become a service or-
.LOUIS R.. to its mighty blasts.)
LOUIS R. These days people seek knowledge. I could learn much more from the smiling. as it did the trees. (Ibid. 466. New York
Louis R. (Ibid. Beyond Words. Knowledge is of the past. rippling waters and from the moss and flowers than from anything the teachers could tell me about such matters.) Mohawk/Sioux.) 464. I could read more in the swaying of the trees and the way they spread their branches and leaned to the wind than I could read in any books that they had at school.)
Vernon Cooper was an elder of the Lumbee tribe. wisdom is of the future. formerly known as the Croatoan. (Ibid.) 465. (Ibid. Bruce served as commissioner of Indian affairs. BRUCE
. not wisdom. (Wisdomkeepers: Meetings with Native American Spiritual Elders. . 1990. by Steve Wall and Harvey Arden. Nothing the white man could teach me would take the place of what I was learning from the forest. BRUCE
Having grown up in the Navajo country.130
ganization to help Indians. Dodd Mead.) Independent. 467. 468. I have always felt that the traditional [Indian] school of painting is traditional to the Plains Indians. a Navajo artist. Arizona
Carl Gorman. Art offers them an opportunity to do creative work. They need training and help.1 want to help my Navajo people preserve their beautiful arts and crafts. The life of the Navajo is harsh and cruel. by Marion E. but not to the Navajos. Indian art is dying out and we Navajo people must do something to prevent this great loss. uses tribal motifs in his work. I am keenly aware of this and try to bring out some of this feeling as well as the desire to portray the culture of my people. and living in an Indian-managed economy. which are rapidly vanishing. (Ibid. University of New Mexico Press. and that I can better express my cultural heritage and myself by using whatever means and technique will best bring out whatever I want to say. by Henry Greenberg and Georgia Greenberg.)
(1907) Na\ajo. Our young Navajo people do not realize the valuable heritage they have. (Ibid.)
. I want to see Indians buying cars from Indians on reservations. rather than a management organization to tell them what to do. talking on Indian-owned telephone systems.) 470. driving on Indian-planned and Indian-built roads. 1972. Gridley.) 471. (Ibid. Ibid.) 472. (Carl Gorman's World. a constant battle with nature. and at the same time their earnings can be enough to support them if they have the initiative and the industry. and buying food in Indian-owned stores. 1984. (Interview in the Gallup (N.) 469.M. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders.
he headed the National Association of Manufacturers. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. Dodd Mead. (Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians. 1982.)
(1910.). He was elected to the Oklahoma Hall of Fame. 1972. Josephy.WILLIAM W. Texas
William W. KEELER
(1908-1987) Cherokee. Jr. President Harry Truman appointed him principal chief of the Cherokee Nation.)
. Even the strongest person cannot carry such a burden for long. she was a leader in the unsuccessful fight to prevent the Army Corps of Engineers from moving an Indian cemetery in Pennsylvania. We Indians have a spiritual tie with the earth. a reverence for it that whites don't share and can hardly understand. is a descendant of Cornplanter (q. Gridley. In the mid-1960s. 474.. by Alvin M. The white man views land for its money value. by Marion E.) Seneca. Forgive the past and remove resentment from your hearts. Pennsylvania
Harriet Pierce. a member of the Seneca Bear Clan. 473. Knopf. Keeler was president of the Phillips Petroleum Company.v. At one time. He was later elected to the post by the tribe.
(1913. vol. To offset the second-class role. 3." by Shirley Hill Witt. She was the daughter of the last tribal chief and first tribal chairman of the Navajo. 475. 477. Annie Dodge Wauneka.) Tlingit. She has been honored for her work by the Alaska State Council on the Arts and the Alaska Governor's Award in the Arts. "Interview with Dr. no. Fall 1981. an advocate for political and social causes. a deeply religious member of the Pentecostal Church. The basic reason for discrimination against Indian women stems from the Federal government's intervention in Indian affairs. Indian women must become more active in politics and become aware of the educational opportunities open to Native American women. My grandfather
.) 476.ANNIE DODGE WAUNEKA
(1910. Ever since the development of political machinery and bureaucratic organizations among Indians. there has been a sudden perspective of women—and the roles of women—as second-class citizens. in Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. among others. 6. University of Colorado. is regarded as one of the finest beadworkers in Alaska. (Speech at the first Southwest Indian Women's Conference. Alaska
Emma Marks.) Navajo
Dr. (Ibid. was the first Native American to win the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Annie Dodge Wauneka.
Allan Houser was a sculptor. not just I n d i a n s . His early works appeared at San Francisco's Golden Gate Exposition and the New York World's Fair in 1939. I feel that way towards all people. edited by Nora Marks Dauenhauer and Richard Dauenhauer. 1983. By the 1990s. and muralist. 478.V. Phoenix. 1990. In my work. this is what I strive for— this dignity.) 479. (1982. still very small. . we smaller children would sit in a row. All my life I've worked to emphasize the values that Indians have held for centuries. (Houser and Haozous: A Sculptural Retrospective. . I hope I am getting it across. when I try talking with my children they watch T. In 1949 he received the first of two Guggenheim Fellowships. .)
(1914-1994) Chiricahua Apache. If I am. . But now. Human dignity is very important to me. Yes. The Heard Museum. this goodness that is in man. then I am doing what I have always wanted. When he was going to tell stories none of us could get up and run. Especially ideas or concepts of living in harmony with
. for Healing Our Spirit: Tlingit Oratory. he was being acclaimed as the patriarch of American Indian sculpture. University of Washington Press..ALLAN HOUSER
when I was a child. Haa Tuwunaagu Yis.
When whites coming from the East Coast wanted Indian land. Each night at 6:30 I walk the perimeter and bless the land with tobacco and sage. where faculty housing is planned.v. This country is recognizing Indians at last. another way is to take off on your own and then try to master whoever you are. Robert Haozous (q. and what we can contribute. December 1993-January 1994. Winter 1995. . (Ceremony at presentation of a sculpture for the forthcoming National Museum of the American Indian. In order to survive. the State of California offered bounties for dead I n d i a n s . . (Referring to the sacred Indian site on the California State University campus at Long beach.)
. She has been a community worker with the Long Beach (California) Unified School District. Our ancestors must know we haven't forgotten them. One way of learning art is to choose a master and then try to copy that master. 1993. In the 1850s. (Ibid. in Modern Maturity. cited in "Allan Houser. 482." by Ken Wibecan.) Akagchemem. I do this to erase the negativity and to let the land know it's not forgotten. (Remark to son.134
LILLIAN VALENZUELA ROBLES
nature. many of my people had to call themselves Mexicans. quoted in "Voices of My People. in Native Peoples. .)
LILLIAN VALENZUELA ROBLES
(1916.) 483.)." by Barbara Perlman. Ibid. (Ibid.) 480.) 481. they would kill the Indians and take their land. California
Lillian Valenzuela Robles is an elder activist.
. Alaska is my talisman. 1972. my strength.)
(1918. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. I belong to a minority with seniority. fertile. Mead. my spirit's home. because I am unique. for being one gives me an advantage that others do not have. I am an Indian and I am also an American. University of Nebraska Press. First. has been an advocate on behalf of Native American causes. (I Tell You Now. a former executive with Hughes Aircraft. Dodd. Colorado
Joseph C. and magical. I was here yesterday. a good American. Vasquez. VASQUEZ
(1917. by Marion Gridley. Despite loss and disillusion. Alaska
Mary TallMountain is an author and poet. 485. edited by Brian Swarm and Arnold Krupat. 484. I do not regret being an Indian. 1987. I count myself rich.JOSEPH C. I am here today. I will be here tomorrow.) Koyukon Athabascan.) Apache/Sioux.
In those instances where it has been expressed. frequently reflecting the advance of the frontier in terms of the so-called "conquest" of the Western area. not sacrifice the very quality of Indianness that gives him expression and identity. As long as the Indian is relegated to the production of knickknacks and tourist souvenirs. and in so doing. express them through his art work in a manner which will be acceptable to the Western World. Museum of the American Indian. (Ibid. (Indian Art of the Americas. The greatest problem the younger Indian artist has today is that of being able to select from his Indian background those qualities which are important to him.)
Clyde Warrior was president of the National Indian Youth Council.) 488. author. (Ibid.) 489.FREDERICK DOCKSTADER
(1919. the treatment is largely sentimental or romantic. 486. California
Frederick Dockstader is an anthropologist. and artist. (Ibid. 1973. Only recently has there been any genuine interest in the esthetic product of the Native American. Heye Foundation.) 487. Even in those specialized institutions devoted to Indian materials or interested in the American West.) Oneida/Navajo. his art will never be other than a curiosity occupying a minimum role in the art world. it is largely as souvenir or exotic curiosity products rather than a truly developed appreciation of the esthetic quality.
As you know." (Ibid. It cannot be packaged programs wheeled into Indian communities by outsiders which Indians can "buy" or once again brand themselves as unprogressive if they do not "cooperate. people who feel themselves to be unworthy and feel they cannot escape this unworthiness turn to drink and crime and self-destructive acts. It is not hard for sophisticated administrators to sell tinsel and glitter programs to simple people—programs which are not theirs. Only then can we become competent and prosperous communities.) 495. alienation of individuals. 1974. (Ibid. If America is so good. if America is so charitable. Even by some stroke of good fortune. 1967. not of our own making or choice. . Community Development. we must be free men and exercise free choices. over-institutionalization. Our children are learning that their people are not worthy and thus that they individually are not worthy.CLYDE WARRIOR
490. As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow. if America is so great. War Resisters League. exploitation of p e o p l e . prosperity was handed to us "on a platter. February 2. then why are we forcing people to where the only thing they can do is come out with volcanic eruptions of violence? (Ibid. For the sake of our psychic stability as well as our physical wellbeing. Community development must be just what the word implies. (Statement to President Lyndon Johnson's National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty.) 493. . .) 492. We must be free in the most literal sense of the word—not sold or coerced into accepting programs for our own good.) 491. I believe that what is at the heart of this Indian revolution is bureaucracy out of control." that still would not soften the negative judgment our youngsters have of their people and themselves. which they do not understand and which cannot but ultimately fail and contribute to already strong feelings of inadequacy. And American Indians are fed up with this. (1967. We must be able to learn and profit by our own mistakes.)
. (Ibid. Unless there is some way that we as Indian individuals and communities can prove ourselves competent and worthy in the eyes of our youngsters there will be a generation of Indians grow to adulthood whose reaction to their situation will make previous social ills seem like a Sunday School picnic.) 494. Too much of what passes for grassroots democracy on the American scene is really a slick job of salesmanship. We must make decisions about our own destinies.
Marine who achieved fame during World War II as one of the men photographed by Joe Rosenthai raising the flag over Iwo Jima. by Robert W. Wheeler. In my case. and indeed. he died of alcoholism and exposure. Pathway to Glory. Most of our Indian people are torn between the two cultures. (Ibid.)
(1922-1955) Pima. Hayes never got used to being a celebrity. the suicide rate and the alcoholism problem.1 believe a lot of the frustration of our people. Carleton Press. the Indian people look at me as a white. Oklahoma
Grace Thorpe. Wheeler. a new commissioner of Indian Affairs and a new director for the Department of Interior are appointed and we have absolutely no continuity.) 498. 496. (Personal interview with Robert W. Arizona
Ira Hayes was a U.) 497. an Indian activist. while the white people say I'm an Indian. What has happened to our people all along is that when a change occurs in the Federal Administration. is based on removing them from their Indian world and putting them into the other [white world] without adequate preparation. (Ibid.GRACE THORPE
(1921. This leads me to believe that more of our Indian people need to retain their culture.). language. their Indianness.S. which continued in civilian life. was the daughter of Olympic champion Jim Thorpe (q.)
. After drifting from job to job. 1975.v.
1944. 1962.) 500. fought together. and getting all the publicity and glory. (Ibid. . just for raising a flag. There were a few guys who went all through the battle of Iwo with me. a Pima.)
. New American Library. (Attributed. and were scared most of the time together. That I could not see. The Hero of Iwo Jima and Other Stories. February 16. (Letter to family. by William Bradford Huie. but they did not die in vain.) 502. We accomplished our missions. Surprising how much a picture can do. June 1945. And they were back here while I was in the States. We lost some of our dear buddies. We saw a lot of action. I've known them for a year.1 am back again [overseas with his outfit instead of stateside promoting war bonds] . (Letter to family. I have a reason for coming back I have not been over here twice for nothing. February 22.
Ira Hayes. The Arizona Republic.1965.) 501. pointing to himself taking part in the flag-raising at Iwo Jima. which isn't a very good thing to remember. I wish that guy had never taken that picture. and I like it better this way. .
let it be for me. A World War II veteran. Maine. (Tribal Assets: The Rebirth of Native America. Soon they will respect us as a people. he represents his tribe in the Maine legislature.) 504. 505. In 1987 he helped inaugurate the opening of Passamaquoddy Homes Incorporated. a joint venture of the Passamaquoddy tribe of northern Maine and a Finnish company. And we didn't receive any G. for himself." You do not hear the Anglos pray that way. Maine
Joseph Nicholas is director of the Waponahki Museum and Resource Center in Pleasant Point. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow." we did have Passamaquoddy Homes Incorporated. and it belongs to us. so we were stuck with our cold homes which were sub-standard. 1974. he prays for what he wants. benefits. I'd fought for this country and [after the war] I couldn't even vote. White. We shall keep it our way. When the Indian prays he prays for other people. 1990.I. When the white man prays.JOSEPH NICHOLAS
. War Resisters League. After years of seeing other people's business signs around here saying "Passamaquoddy This" and "Passamaquoddy That. by Robert H. 503.) Passamaquoddy. NonIndians are beginning to respect Passamaquoddy money. Henry Holt. (Ibid. It is our way. The last words of the Indian prayer are these: "If there is anything left.)
( T w e n t i e t h century)
Andy Abieta was governor of the Isleta Pueblo in New Mexico.
1775 to the Present.LUTHER CLEARWATER
( T w e n t i e t h century)
Luther Clearwater is a Rosebud leader.)
. In the Navajo religion and culture. They stay out too long.) 508. HarperCollins. So many of these nationists get militant and go away and say they talk for their people. (New York Times. but I also feel an unbelievable link to something larger—call it God or whatever— a universal spiritual connectedness. 1991. Everything has to be measured. (Ibid. so busy actin' Indi'n. What an amazing and rare thing it is to actually work inside another human being. 506. I may be stressed or scared. They don't know how to be Indi'n. At the time.)
(Mid t o late t w e n t i e t h century)
Lori Cupp is the first Navajo woman to become a surgeon. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. by Edward Lazarus. weighed and harmonious. We call it nizhoni—walking in beauty—and I believe what I do as a surgeon fits into this philosophy. February 17. We're gettin' pushed back enough without help! Get ever'body killed or dyin' off. there is an emphasis on how you relate to everything around you. I know my actions directly alter the course of people's lives. 507. The Indi'n militants keep wantin' to put things way back a hundred years ago. 1994. away from home. runnin' around crazy and shootin'—that's white man.
women. .ROBERT BURNETTE
(1926.. powerless.) Standing Rock Sioux. Considered to be heathens. A warlike struggle. . is still being fiercely waged. who extolled the burning alive of a townful of Indian men. the Indian is losing. surrounded by thieves. the Indians were fair game for bloodthirsty missionaries and clergymen. is tragically true. as usual. He served as executive director of the National Congress of American Indians from 1960 to 1963. and. cattle. in positions of influence. an indifferent or malicious Bureau of Indian Affairs. have gone over to the paleface's side. He was also president of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and director of the Sioux Tribe's Economic Development Administration. fishing.. ignored. and other interests. an organization dealing with the civil rights of Native Americans. and grubbed w h a t . (Ibid. by Robert Burnette. and children. North Dakota
Robert Burnette has long been active in the fight for Indian rights. Faced with corrupt leadership. lived and died impoverished. his capacity to fight effectively is weak indeed. is at even less of an advantage than he was a century ago. hunting.)
.) 511. 509. literally and figuratively. the Indian has no weapons. though. . such as Cotton Mather. (Ibid. (Ibid. The Indian. mean subsistence he could. Since he laid down his guns. He directed American Indians and Friends. A number of his own. timber.) 510.) 513. (Ibid. . He no longer had to die on the battlefield. with the Indians as one of the antagonists and the white man as the other. and the absence of any legal remedy for wrongs committed against him. Thus his struggle to retain his heritage and to survive as an individual may seem foolhardy.. 1971. Prentice-Hall. drifted demoralized into alcoholism. General Sherman's definition of a reservation as a place where Indians live. (The Tortured Americans. As I grew up on the reservation .) 512. now he wasted away from tuberculosis. oil. surrounded by greedy real estate. I became aware that not very much had changed for the Indian in several centuries.
1990. (Statement to Congress. There has never been a private sector on most reservations because they have no precedent for accumulating personal wealth for investment.PHILLIP MARTIN
(1926) Choctaw. Schools run by federal bureaucrats produce little bureaucrats. Ibid. (Ibid. The tribal government is thus the only source of venture and investment capital. you would now find the vast majority of those jobs gone to Mexico or Taiwan. Mississippi
Phillip Martin is chief of the Mississippi band of Choctaws. He later drew on that experience to push for Choctaw business enterprises.)
. Economic development in Indian Country is more than just capitalization of businesses. White. 514. by Jack Utter.) 515. National Woodlands. 1993. Although the American philosophy of separation of business from government is sacred (whether the separation is actual or not). by Robert H. (Tribal Assets: The Rebirth of Native America. I can tell you with some certainty that if we had not developed those manufacturing jobs in our tribal enterprise. he had been impressed by the will of the Europeans to rebuild.) 517. it makes little sense to Indian people. As a member of the Air Force in postwar Europe." (American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions.) 516. To us. Henry Holt. the situation with the Bureau [of Indian Affairs] is that "we can't live with it and we can't live without it.
We utilize for grazing a land base that was originally too small. our Yellow brothers and our Brown brothers will recognize their charge that we must live in harmony within the Universe.. he had served twenty-seven years in the U. winning not only reelection. Arizona
Peter MacDonald was one of the Navajo code talkers who served in the U. Our population has increased from 60.
(1928-1989) Quapaw/Seneca. He worked for several years with Hughes Aircraft. Army where he rose to the rank of major.JAKE L. And to do so.S. Jr. Thus if we are to retain our culture and remain as a tribal entity on our traditional lands. but also an unprecedented third term. 519. (Address to the Colorado
. JR. He was first elected head of the Navajo Tribal Council in 1970. our White brothers.1 truly believe that some day. Marines during World War II. we need our share of the water. and it has not expanded with our population. Oklahoma
Jake L. Most of this population lives in a traditional pastoral economy.)
(1928) Navajo.000 in the last 30 years. National Indian Health Board. one with another and that all rights be recognized and we treat our fellow man the same way we want to be treated. December 1993. Whitecrow. was an administrator with the National Indian Health Board. Previously. (NIHB Health Reporter. WHITECROW.S. and Black brothers. 518. we must make a rapid transition to a modern agricultural and industrial economy.000 to 130.
The time for division and dissension is over. New Mexico
Eugene R. Iwo Jima. (Ibid. 1990. 1981. 523. We must claim what is ours—actively and aggressively. We must seek unity within..WILSON KEEDAH.
. We must dare to dream great dreams—and then we must dare to put them into action. (Ibid. come together and unite. Army soldiers who thought I was Japanese. now deceased. and Okinawa.S. January 1979. We must reach out to each other. by Kenji Kawano. He served in the Solomons. December 1972.) 520. CRAWFORD
(Mid to late t w e n t i e t h century)
Navajo. by Peter Iverson. He served on Guadalcanal. Sr.
River Water Users Association. and Iwo Jima. SR.
(Mid to late twentieth century) Navajo
Wilson Keedah. Okinawa. Greenwood Press. Northland. The Navajo Nation. SR. Crawford. (Third inaugural address. they made it impossible for the enemy to break the code. At one p o i n t .)
EUGENE R. (Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. . .) 521. We must assert our rights and continue to press for what is due us. was one of the Marine code talkers of World War II.) 522. I was captured by U. was a Marine code talker during World War II. Ibid.)
WILSON KEEDAH. By using the Navajo language.
he served in the Pacific. Arizona
(Mid to l a t e t w e n t i e t h century)
Navajo. by Kenji Kawano.146
TEDDY DRAPER.) Chippewa.)
TEDDY DRAPER. It is why you are here. but that's not true. (Ibid. and Barry Weinstock. A lot of folks have the idea that all Indians are noble savages.1 participated in the bloody battle of Iwo Jima They told us to secure communications and telephone wire under combat conditions on the island within three days. The path of power is different for every individual. Minnesota
Sun Bear is an author. (Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. Sr. 525. He has also been a movie actor and a consultant on several television series about the old West. (Warriors: Navajo Code Talkers. Wabun. Northland. and founder of the Bear Tribe Medicine Society. but it took about a month. SR.1 went to war because there were no jobs on the reservation. 1990. Northland. it represents the course one should follow through life in order to fulfill his or her purpose on the Earth Mother. and an equal amount of ding-a-lings. lecturer.. was one of the Marine code talkers of World War II. 1983. 1990. Prentice Hall.) 527.)
. by Kenji Kawano. (The Path of Power.)
(1929. 526. I think the Great Spirit distributed an equal amount of good people among the races. SR.
524. by Sun Bear.
American Heritage." by Mark Stevens..JANET McCLOUD
528. 1974. (Ibid. Jr. Henry [a friend] and I heard people talking and crying. Josephy. it is their textbook for living. Native people have always watched nature. It later became a national historical site. She was one of the early members of the Survival of American Indians Association. 529.) surrendered. 1994. 1971.)
Jim Earthboy. August 8.)
Janet McCloud took part in the fishing rights demonstrations held in Washington State in the mid-1960s.)
. Red Power: The American Indians' Fight for Freedom. You know. by Alvin M. (Spoken to his wife. a veteran of World War II. 530. "Annals of the West: Chief Joseph's Revenge." They have never stopped! (Statement following the "fish-in" confrontations in Washington State. became interested in the battlefield where Chief Joseph (q.v. in The New Yorker. as long as the battlefield's been there nobody has ever done anything. Something happened up there at the battlefield. The history books are wrong when they talk about "the last Indian wars.
532. not only for our rights. 531.)
(Mid-twentieth century) Sioux
Peter Dillon served as chairman of the Black Hills Sioux Nation Council during World War II. 1944. (Letter.DAISY ALBERT
(Mid-twentieth century) Hopi
Daisy Albert was an Arizona housewife when she was asked by a national magazine for her thoughts on Indian problems. Some misinformed whites call the real Hopis. but for the rights of this continent. by Edward Lazarus. 1775 to the Present. The council spoke out on behalf of Sioux claims to the Black Hills. fail. August 1954. who are fighting for what is just and right. HarperCollins. (The Rotarian. All past history shows that a conquered people has to take what the conqueror gives. just or unjust. 1991. but the present will be worse if the boys who are now at the front. those who are sincerely religious and determined to keep the good things given them by the Supreme Being. Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. "hostiles." The real "hostiles" are the whites who are trying to destroy us.
Poverty is a stigma of disgrace. Poverty is a noose that strangles humility and breeds disrespect for God and man. It is inexcusable in a land. (Ibid. At one point. to have and to hold all they could possess. representatives of some fifty-six different tribes from all over the United States came to the state to demonstrate their support for those fighting for Indian fishing rights. founder of the National Indian Youth Council. (Ibid. having more than plenty. They have it now. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow. especially in this glorious land of ours." American Indian family life on reservations is an example of "progressive" poverty brought about by the powers of force. America the beautiful and the bountiful.
. War Resisters League. Indians fished in those areas from which they had been barred by state law. 1974.) 535. 533. which have left generations to brood over their inability to stem the overwhelming tide of greedy fortune hunters. and of a people. became its executive director. A pointing finger of shame on those who govern and regulate "progress.)
(Mid t o l a t e t w e n t i e t h century)
Herbert Blatchford. He headed the group during the fish-ins held in the state of Washington.WILBUR RIEGERT
(Mid t o late t w e n t i e t h century)
Wilbur Riegert was a Sioux leader during the War on Poverty of the late 1960s.) 534.
It is our responsibility. of the fish that swim. he is a chief of the Turtle Clan of the Onondaga Nation. 1968. LYONS
536. Lyons is publisher of Daybreak. It was the first full-scale intertribal action since the Indians defeated General Custer on the Little Big Horn. they can do no wrong. speaking the truth on behalf of people.) Onondaga. Buffalo. It is only we. . . We forget and we consider ourselves superior. Native American Reader: Stories. And we must continue to understand where we are. Harper & Row. He has also represented Indian interests at the United Nations. edited by Jerry D. of the four-footed. of the world. (The New Indians. and the birds. The elements and the animals. (Speech at United Nations conference in Geneva. Lyons is an associate professor of American studies at the State University of New York. the national Indian news magazine. of the winged.) 539. the two-leggeds.)
OREN R. They are absolute. I do not see a delegation for the four-footed. New York
Oren R. they live in a state of grace. 1977. Blanche. (Ibid.) 538. by Stan Steiner. A distinguished artist.150
OREN R. Wisdomkeepers: Meetings with Native American Spiritual Elders. I see no seat for the eagles. We come here . (Ibid.) 540. 1990. Someone must speak for them. as part and parcel of the Creation. that can do this. . since we have been given the minds to take care of these things. There's only common sense. (Remarks to two non-Indian journalists who were interviewing Native American elders. . Speeches and Poems. And we stand between the mountain and the ant. I can tell you right now there are no secrets. LYONS
(1930. Denali Press. 1990.. but we are after all a mere part of the Creation.)
. somewhere and only there. There's no mystery. Switzerland. by Steve Wall and Harvey Arden. 537. So what is it you guys want from the Elders? Secrets? Mystery? . Beyond Words Pub.
in Esquire. the fundamental law of natural life. Their feet are always moving.OREN R. . The West didn't get wild until the white people got there...) 542. by clear cutting the forests without reseeding. you can't buy a judge or beg your way out of it.) 544. but they're not going anywhere. February 1994.. and they're still there looking at you. LYONS
541. We can see Western occupation above the surface and visible. . (Ibid. your own included. The land is here and we're still here.) 546. and the law that destroys in exact ratio to transgressions that challenge it. Mohawk.I. The aboriginal peoples' time is below the surface and invisible. "You have our land. These histories can be likened to an iceberg. there's no lawyers or courts. (Commencement address at Syracuse University. it's got to be hard.) 545.) 547." in Exiled in the Land of the Free. edited by Oren R. Lyons and John C. you kill the life that depends on it. you get hit.000 years of aboriginal occupation.) 548.. ("The American Indian in the Past. There's no judge and jury. There's
. ("R. (Ibid. New York." (Ibid. ." and we're just saying. the Creator's law. and they're saying. We call it Natural l a w . [B]y killing the salmon in their spawning grounds. (Ibid. We haven't disappeared. If you violate it. 1993. Clear Light Publishers. It is my observation that we are suffering from the attitudes that come from the Christian doctrine of manifest destiny—that one people will rule the world. That's Natural law. . Tonto. . This 500-year occupation by Western man contrasts with the conservative estimate of 12. "We'll do this and that with this program.) 543.P. which means putting up your towns by water so you can watch your garbage float away. When you've taken something from somebody. 1992. The history of humankind in North and South America can be divided into two parts: the history of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere prior to the landfall of Western man. It's also common sense. The law that is absolute and merciless. Inherent in this is the idea that a chosen people have a divine right—nay mission—to dominate the world. We have been seasoned in suffering and no one can refute the history of holocaust visited upon the indigenous peoples of the hemisphere. There's another law. You break Man's law and you pay a fine or go to jail—maybe. . and the history of North and South America after the voyages of Columbus. by polluting fresh water that all life needs for survival. [S]even-eighths lie beneath the surface of the water." by Robert Lipsyte. (Ibid. If you kill the water. The law that provides life endlessly if we abide.. you have broken the great cycles of regeneration.. The white man's religion talks about mastering the earth.) 549.
LaDonna Harris is the founder of Americans for Indian Opportunity. (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. by Marion E.)
(1931. 550. 1983. followed by inaction or worse.152
LEONARD CROW DOG
no such word as wild in the Indian languages. 551.) Comanche. an organization dedicated to improving Indian education and economic opportunity. (Ibid. for two centuries. many Indians are still having a barbedwire attitude—I try to teach my children and my people to get rid of the barbed-wire mind. Dodd. Viking. She is the wife of former U. The closest we can get to it is the word free. And even on the reservation. 1972. We were free people. Gridley. by Peter Matthiessen.)
. Senator Fred Harris of Oklahoma. A reservation Indian is already well-prepared to go to the penitentiary.S.)
LEONARD CROW DOG
(Mid t o l a t e t w e n t i e t h century)
Leonard Crow Dog was the medicine man for the American Indian Movement during the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973. Indians have been the victims of fine rhetoric. Before he gets there he has already practiced being in prison. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. Swift action is what is needed.
) 556. We don't sit around doing beadwork and making baskets all the time. and tribal ideas of progress may be radically different from Euro-American ideas. such as Wounded Knee. from lullabies and love songs to tribal ceremonial songs. Denali Press. not as "an Indian. not just as mere individuals or as amorphous "Indians." (Statement. At the moment there is a veritable renaissance going on in tribal America as we come to terms with who we are as tribal people in contemporary society. Speeches and Poems. Ballard is a composer whose works have dealt with many aspects of Indian history. We [Indians] are not a homogeneous group. Native American Reader: Stories." One is a Comanche. etc. Blanche. my creative ex-
. (Ibid. Oklahoma
Louis W. (Ibid. BALLARD
552. to both the national community and to global society. the Northern Cheyenne count as "progress" their ability to maintain environmental quality. For example. Because I identify with my Indian background. (Ibid. 1988. We are bringing tradition along with us into the future rather than "going back to tradition" and maintaining ourselves like rigid museum pieces.LOUIS W. One cannot be "an Indian. 557. according to our group identity. rather than the development of their coal resources.) 554. (Ibid.) 553. edited by Jerry D." but as a Comanche. a Hopi. 1990. We progress as communities. BALLARD
LOUIS W.) Quapaw/Cherokee.) 555. an Oneida. White ideas about Indians are completely phony and I am seeking ways to correct them. One can be self-determining. His work reflects Indian culture. our particular understanding. We want to maintain ourselves as communities. not as individuals. He has been responsible for music education at all federal Indian schools. We want to maintain ourselves as we are so we can contribute our differences. an Oneida.
) 559. New York
Lorraine Canoe teaches a course on conquered peoples in America at Hunter College.1 was five years old the last time I heard the mountain lion scream. The church is a crutch. New York. 1995. ("Yearning to Breathe Free. by Marion E.154
pression has been enhanced and extended to others. 561.)
(1932) Mohawk. founded the Chariton Review Press. (Ibid. And it's not easy trying to find someone I can talk Mohawk with. but the supermarkets do not stock deer meat or boiled corn bread. It is a white man's religion. Dodd. 1972.) 560." by N. a professor of comparative literature at Northeast Missouri State University. R. Oklahoma
Jim Barnes. After living in New York City for thirty-five years. Kleinfield.)
(1933) Choctaw. You can find all kinds of things. but the reservation is my home. New York is very exciting. New York Times.
. Mead. (Ibid. 558. They brought it here to conquer us and civilize us. In no borough are regular Mohawk ceremonies held for each of the year's 13 moons. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. January 3. she described to a reporter what life was like for a Mohawk in the city. Gridley.
small concrete dams were blocking nearly every stream. But a year later. while all about him the land suffered. vol. Tenoshtitlan. Previously. It is estimated that more than ten million people. . not separate from.  will be a year to celebrate the accomplishments of a man who was a product of an emerging industrial society. Spring 1992. 1987. was not only inhabited when Columbus arrived. representing the state of Colorado.)
BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL
(1933) Northern Cheyenne. or accidental—perpetrated on Indian people by the conquering culture.S. The great cities of Machu Picchu. (I Tell You Now.BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL
That was in Oklahoma. edited by Brian Swann and Arnold Krupat. California
Ben Campbell was elected to the U. .) 563. For many people around the world. In 1995 he switched from the Democratic to the Republican party. when times were hard and life was good— and sacred. possessing an understanding that humans exist together with. and the village cities of the Anasazi reflect industrious and prosperous societies that lived in harmony with Mother Nature. 562. the natural world that ensures survival. The Government was caring for its p e o p l e . he had served in the House of Representatives and the Colorado State Legislature. (Ibid." in Journal of Legal Commentary. 1938. inhabited North America when Columbus arrived. University of Nebraska Press. but also shared and cultivated by ethnically diverse peoples who had prospered in every region of these vast "new" lands for many thousands of years. and his discovery of what was to him an unknown hemisphere. however. 1992. A man could eat again. ("Reflections on the Quincentenary.) 564. the ancestors of present-day Indian tribes. the WPA had done its work: roads were cut. Senate in 1992. and later by the very government that assumed
. Kahokia. This land. 7: 517. . It is difficult to comprehend the magnitude of the atrocities—intentional. neglectful. burial mounds were dug.
) 565. about two million people are enrolled members of recognized tribes and another ten million Americans claim some Indian ancestry. By 1900. to an estimated 100. Today. (News conference. and my standing in the polls began to climb. September 13. announcing his switch in political parties. the Indian population had dwindled because of imported disease. SENATOR BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL. S . money started to pour in. "Democrats Lose Senate Seat with Switch by Coloradan.156
BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL
"It is difficult to comprehend the magnitude of the atrocities—intentional. or accidental—perpetrated on Indian people by the conquering culture. I began feeling better. 1995. Just like that. 1993. neglectful. slavery. after members of his Cheyenne tribe persuaded him to carry the tuft of an eagle feather and paint parts of his body. It [not having a family] made me very self-reliant and indepen-
. I've always been considered a moderate. although I certainly agree with many of the things that Democrats stand for. I can no longer represent the agenda that is put forth by the [Democratic] party.) 568. March 4. (Ibid. Newsweek. (Describing what happened at the end of his 1992 campaign.000. and outright genocide. New York Times.) 567."
— U . forced relocation. I imagine my continued modderacy [sic] will be now to the consternation of the right wing of the Republican Party. Seelye. (Ibid.) 566." by Katharine Q. to the consternation of the left wing of the Democratic Party. NORTHERN CHEYENNE
responsibility for their protection.
" Other groups have difficulties.
Some of us broke out laughing when we realized that our fathers undoubtedly died trying to keep those Pilgrims from stealing our land. he is the author of many books on Indian rights. (The New Indians." (Custer Died for Your Sins.
(1933. We simply want the power. The former executive director of the National Congress of American Indians. and history at the University of Colorado. Traditionally we Indians have had a "plight.VINE DELORIA. to run our own lives in our own way. (Book title.) 573.. (Ibid. If you have nobody to rely on.) Standing Rock Sioux. political science. (Statement to biographer.) 571. One day at a conference we were singing "My Country 'Tis of Thee" and we came across the part that goes:
Land where our fathers died Land of the Pilgrims' pride. 1969. South Dakota
Vine Deloria.. One of the finest things about being an Indian is that people are always interested in you and your "plight.)
VINE DELORIA. problems. . then you have got to do it yourself. by Vine Deloria. religious studies. Macmillan. Jr. Jr. quandaries. JR.) 572. 569. Ibid. is a professor of law. 1968.
dent. JR. . Red Power means we want power over our own l i v e s .. Harper & Row. Boulder. . the political and economic power. 1969..) 570. predicaments. It has been said of missionaries that when they arrived they had
. Custer Died for Your Sins. by Stan Steiner. or troubles.
." he remarked. The images portrayed in the movies. "what did you do to the land when you had it?" I didn't understand him until later when I discovered that the Cuyahoga River running through Cleveland is inflammable. recall the stereotypes of western history. as poor as they ever were. but that there was good reason for it. uranium mines. 1991. (Ibid. by Edward Lazarus. With the distribution of funds [if allocated to individual Indians rather than to the tribe as a whole]. You Listen.. JR. He [a non-Indian] said that he was really sorry about what had happened to Indians. subservient subspecies of Anglo-Saxon whose duty was to do the bidding of the all-wise white hero. Tonto represented a silent.158
VINE DELORIA.) 575. now we have the Book and they have the land. whether of noble red man or bloodthirsty savage. and the occupation of public buildings and reservation hamlets almost seem to speak of another group altogether and it is difficult to connect the two perceptions of Indians in any single and comprehensible reality.) 578. 1970. March 8. land claims.. The continent had to be developed and he felt that Indians had stood in the way and thus had had to be removed. will return to normal lives. Jr. (Ibid. (New York Times Magazine. had much less vocabulary. It just seems to a lot of Indians that this continent was a lot better off when we were running it. will come the drug dealers. (Amer-
. Newspaper stories dealing with oil wells.) 579. Like the Negro butler and the Oriental gardener. How many Indians could have thought of creating an inflammable river? (We Talk. Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. (Ibid. Tonto [the "faithful Indian companion" of the Lone Ranger] was everything that the white man had always wanted the Indian to be. (Comment on the possible outcome of a 1980 Supreme Court decision to compensate the Sioux for the Black Hills. used car dealers.) 577. He was a little slower. One great spasm of spending will occur and then the people.
only the Book and we had the land. "After all.) 580. HarperCollins.. The typical white attitude is that Indians can have land as long as whites have no use for it. a little dumber. Somehow Tonto was always there. bootleggers.) 576. 1775 to the Present. Macmillan. by Vine Deloria.) 574. and appliance salesmen who would normally cross the street to avoid saying hello to an Indian. and rode a darker horse. (Ibid.1970. American Indians seem an enigma to most other Americans.
. I cannot accept money for the Black Hills because land is sacred to m e . available to all other Americans. Jr. To be a traditional person is to believe in our own culture.)
SEVERT YOUNG BEAR
(Mid t o late t w e n t i e t h century) Sioux
Severt Young Bear is a Sioux activist. (Exiled in the Land of the Free. Clear Light Publishers. and Clifford M. Literature on Indians provides no clues to understanding the present or remembering the past. 584. edited by Oren R. (Ibid. and the courts have deferred to this assertion of naked authority. . (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States: 1775 to the Present. (Ibid. Austin. [The whites] are trying to change our value system. but this act only served to extend some Bill of Rights protection to tribal members in their relationship with Indian governments. The protections of the Bill of Rights. American Justice. Nothing was authorized that would protect American Indian nations or individuals against the arbitrary actions of the Federal government. was passed..) 583. 1991. the American Indian Civil Rights A c t . HarperCollins. University of Texas Press. Much contemporary literature is a thinly disguised romanticism that looks at Indians as the last and best spiritual hope for a society disheartened and disorganized. he spoke out against the ruling. . Not only have the federal courts studiously avoided considering the application of these protections. Lyons and John Mohawk.) 581. is to believe in yourself as a Lakota person. 1983. . then you cannot sell the land. by Edward Lazarus. In 1968. . by Vine Deloria.)
. Lytle. but Congress and the executive branch have frequently acted as if there were no limitation whatsoever in their power to deal with Indians. 1991. protection that both states and individuals enjoy.SEVERT YOUNG BEAR
lean Indians.) 582. have not been available for American Indians. Following the 1980 Supreme Court decision to compensate the Sioux for the Black Hills.
Fishing on the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland or running the rapids of the St. 1991.)
(Mid to l a t e t w e n t i e t h century)
Darren Bonaparte. The police don't understand how serious we are about history and our claims to the land. comments on casino gambling. even buffalo in the woods that stretch across New York and into Canada. 587.)
. The police look at us and see six square miles and a bunch of crazies talking shit. Las Vegas in your hometown. They don't understand that we are a lost nation trying to restore the dignity of our past. Lawrence.MARK MARACLE
(Mid t o late t w e n t i e t h century)
Mark Maracle is a militant who backs sovereignty for the Mohawk Nation. by Rick Hornung. It was like. or hunting bear and moose. 585. Gentlemen's Quarterly. This is our history and we were raised with it as you were raised with the Pilgrims and the Mayflower. all of a sudden. (On casino gambling on a Mohawk reservation in upstate New York. (One Nation under the Gun. Pantheon." by Daniel D'Ambrosio. "Incident at Akwesasne. a Mohawk reservation resident. We look at all of the northeast and see our people. (Ibid.) 586. They think we are just a bunch of funny colored men with long hair who talk about weird dances and hunting or fishing when we drink too much. November 1993.
Why don't you call it AIM. whittled it down to nothing.)
(Mid to late t w e n t i e t h century)
Chippewa. you keep saying that you aim to do this. Stole our land. is a veteran of the Korean War. who came from a family of twelve children. Penthouse Magazine. Outside governments have screwed us left and right every chance they got. the American Indian Movement?" That's how we got our name. which he established. cigarettes. basically.
. South Dakota
Tim Giago. including a beauty salon and an import firm. He is the editor and publisher of the Lakota Times. lived on the reservation until he was fifteen. "Well.
(1934. They couldn't use that! So a couple of older. CIA. We're living on a pillowcase. whatever. He operated some small businesses for a time.TIM GIAGO
588. and finally. a militant organization fighting for Indian rights. (Interview by Richard Ballad. drugs. because of the white man's greed for gambling. his addictions. we're able to make a profit on their misery. Giago writes the weekly column. guns.) Oglala Sioux. July 1973). They were going to call the organization the Concerned Indian Americans. you aim to do that. cocaine. born on the Pine Ridge reservation. (Ibid. Minnesota
Vernon Bellecourt. respected women said. In 1968 he helped form the American Indian Movement (AIM). 589. suddenly.
How can a Sacred Land ever be called a concentration camp? (Notes from Indian Country. essayist. "If you remove 'self and 'de' from the beginning of the word.162
N. 1984." A number of these columns have been compiled in book form. In
.' " This is a genuine concern among many reservation Indians. Reservations have become the Mecca for urban Indians. present and future is embedded in the lands of our ancestors. Keith Cochran. Our past. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1969 for his novel House Made of Dawn." "Custer wore Arrow shirts. with wonder and delight into the natural world." (Ibid. (Ibid.) 593. 590. ) Oklahoma
N. They read: "Red Power. and poet. The native vision. SCOTT MOMADAY
"Notes from Indian Country. the land base that bespeaks what lies ahead.) 591. is informed by a certain attitude of reverence and respect. which told the story of a World War II veteran who tried to recover his spirit in the white world. Without the reservations. SCOTT MOMADAY
(1934Kiowa/Cherokee. (Ibid." or "Remember Wounded Knee. 1. It takes a lifetime of education to even begin to understand them. Is self-determination a prelude to termination? Many Indians look at the very word "self-determination" and they say among themselves. the gift of seeing truly. Other honors include the Academy of American Poets Prize and the Native American Literature Prize. vol.)
N. The issues and the problems that confront Indian people on a day-to-day basis are extremely complex. It is a matter of extrasensory as well as sensory perception. Scott Momaday is a novelist. You can still see the bumper stickers on the highway. 594.) 592." "Hands off my natural resources. you end up with 'termination. It is something the traditional reservation Indian has always known. there will be no more Indians.
addition to the eye, it involves the intelligence, the instinct, and the imagination. It is the perception not only of objects and forms but also of essences and ideals. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders, by Marion Gridley, Dodd Mead, 1972.) 595.1 have done three large paintings . . . of what I call the Columbian triad. Each of these is a portrait of Columbus. One is a skeletal, skulllike portrait with a mermaid above it, titled "Admiral of the Ocean," and then there is one of a dark full-face portrait called "Palos," which is the port from which Columbus set sail. The third one is "San Salvador," a depiction of Columbus in a full figure adjacent to an Indian child. Columbus is an emaciated, death-like figure, and the child is pure, innocent, small and naked. It's a confrontation of the old world and the new world. ("Confronting Columbus Again," from "View from the Shore: American Indian Perspectives on the Quincentenary," Northeast Indian Quarterly, edited by Jose Barreiro, vol. 7, no. 3, Fall 1990.) 596. Once in his life a man ought to concentrate his mind upon the remembered earth, I believe. He ought to give himself up to a particular landscape in his experience, to look at it from as many angles as he can, to wonder about it, to dwell upon it. He ought to imagine that he touches it with his hands at every season and listens to the sounds that are made upon it. He ought to imagine the creatures there and all the faintest motions of the wind. He ought to recollect the glare of noon and all the colors of the dawn and dusk. (The Way to Rainy Mountain, University of New Mexico Press, 1976). 597. We are what we imagine. Our very existence consists in our imagination of ourselves.... The greatest tragedy that can befall us is to go unimagined. (First Convocation of American Indian Scholars; Indian Voices, edited by J.H. Casto, Indian Historian Press, 1974.)
(1934- ) Chippewa, Minnesota
Gerald Vizenor is a novelist with a background in journalism. He has taught literature and American studies in Minnesota and California.
598. Anthropologists have invented culture; it doesn't have anything to do with I n d i a n s . . . . I think they're interesting in their collection of data and the way they sort it and scramble it and reinvent it, but it doesn't have anything to do with tribal people. It never will. (Interview in Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak, by Laura Coltelli, University of Nebraska Press, 1990.) 599. The methodologies of the social sciences separate people from the human spirit. (Ibid.)
(1937- ) Chippewa, Minnesota
Dennis Banks spent fourteen years attending Indian boarding schools. He served several years in the U.S. Air Force. In 1968 he helped found the American Indian Movement (AIM). One of AIM's militant actions was the occupation of Wounded Knee, the site of the 1890 Indian massacre. 600. We have a completely different value system than that of the larger society.... We will introduce evidence of how we've had to go underground in order to maintain our traditional religion, our traditional philosophy. (Testimony relating to charges arising out of the Wounded Knee occupation by AIM, February 12, 1974.) 601. We believe that all living things come from our sacred mother earth, all living things, the green things, the winged things of the air, the four-leggeds, the things that crawl and the two-leggeds.... But the important thing in our philosophy is that we believe we're the weakest things on earth, that the two-legged is the weakest thing on earth because we have no direction.... Now, because we are the weakest things on earth, we do not have license to exploit or manipulate our brothers and sisters and we also know, because of our role in life, that the buffalo and all other relatives of ours teach us, and so we built our civilization. (Ibid.) 602. There is another way [to express our manhood]. That is to grab the bottle, drink it, go down to the other bar and fight your brothers and
sisters just to say, "Look, I'm a man," or take the bottle again and go home and mistreat your wife and tell her, "Look, I'm a man." (Ibid.) 603. And there is another way, the way that we will prove that the United States of America in its genocidal policies against Indian people, forced us to be red-white people. That is the other way. It is to cut our hair, put on the ties and become facsimiles of the white man. (Ibid.) 604. There has been . . . a new way to express our manhood, and that's been the American Indian Movement to express our Indianness.... I was an accountant by trade in Cleveland, Ohio, and in the Dakota way, if you cut your hair, that means you're in mourning. And it is our contention that a lot of Dakotas now who are misguided cut their hair because they're mourning, because they lost their Indianness. (Ibid.) 605. When I had my hair cut, I was mistaken for a Chicano, for an Arab, a Hawaiian, a Pakistanian, everything but an American Indian. I'm very proud to be Dakota, and when I walk down the street, I want people to know I'm Indian. (Ibid.) 606. They call us the New Indians. Hell, we are the Old Indians, the landlords of this continent, coming to collect the rent. (Lakota Woman, by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes, Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.)
(1938) Sioux, South Dakota
Billy Mills won the gold medal for the 10,000-meter race at the 1964 Olympics held in Tokyo, Japan. Later, he set other track records. In 1970 he became an information officer for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 607. My Indianness kept me striving to take first and not settle for less in the last yards of the Olympic race. I thought of how our great chiefs kept on fighting when all of the odds were against them as they were against me. I couldn't let my people down. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders, by Marion E. Gridley, Dodd, Mead, 1972.)
ROXANNE DUNBAR ORTIZ
(1938- ) Cheyenne, Oklahoma
Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz is a professor of Native American studies at California State University, Hayward. Her book, The Great Sioux Nation: Sitting in Judgment on America, published in 1977, deals with the case of the Wounded Knee occupation of 1973. The defendants argued before the Federal District Court in Lincoln, Nebraska, that under the terms of the Treaty of 1868, the federal government had no jurisdiction over them. The court ruled against them. 608. The Sioux, like other Indian peoples, are now going beyond bare survival and are asserting sovereignty which is leading to drastic changes in United States-Indian relations. The People see two roads available: Nationhood or genocide. The people are choosing nationhood. (The Great Sioux Nation: Sitting in Judgment on America, by Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz, American Indian Treaty Council Information Center/Moon Books, 1977.) 609. In asserting sovereignty, the Sioux join other colonies and former colonies all over the world who have been subjected to European and United States colonialism, in declaring integrity as a separate Nation. (Ibid.) 610. No historian would accept accounts of Nazi officials as to what happened in Nazi Germany because those accounts were written to justify that regime. Yet American historians are still subjective about their own history with a few exceptions. They try to justify and rationalize what happened, give excuses or lay blame on a few exceptionally cruel generals or wild frontiersmen. There were too many massacres for them to be accidental. There were too many buffalo for them to become extinct in a period of five years. Genocide is colonial policy, not accident. (Testimony before U.S. District Court, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1974.)
(1939) Paiute, Nevada
Melvin Thorn, who founded the National Indian Youth Council, served as its president during the "fish-ins" held in Washington State. In the mid-1960s, Indians demanded their treaty rights to fish in designated areas, and did so despite state laws against it. 611. The Indian never fought back before. He just folded his arms and went away angry. In the past he was defeated before the fight began. That's changed. We changed that. Little tribes you hardly ever heard of are still fighting by themselves. They just stay in there and keep fighting. (The New Indians, by Stan Steiner, Harper & Row, 1968.)
PAULA GUNN ALLEN
(1939) Laguna/Sioux, New Mexico
Paula Gunn Allen, poet and author, has lectured at universities in California and New Mexico. Since 1990 she has been a professor of literature at the University of California, Los Angeles. 612. There is no America without the death of an Indian. And there can be no America without acknowledgment of one of its major sources. (Interview with Franchot Ballinger and Brian Swann, MELLUS, Summer 1983.) 613. Every time you flush the toilet, some Navajo goes without water. You understand that. Staying in this hotel in L.A. means that those folks out on the reservation] are in trouble because we have all these goodies. And that's true across the board, for every aspect of American life. (Ibid.)
614. There is no American that is not deeply wedded to the Indian. So, you know, exploitation, what does that mean? We've been exploited right out of house and home. (Ibid.)
(1939- ) Sisseton-Wahpeton Dakota, South Dakota
Jerry Flute is the executive director of the Association on American Indian Affairs. 615. During Operation Desert Storm, U.S. troops were ordered not to destroy sacred sites of the Iraqi. Yet the same U.S. government continues to destroy sacred sites of Native Americans. (Testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, Portland, Oregon, February 1993.)
(Mid to l a t e t w e n t i e t h century)
Gail Small is a Native American rights activist. 616. Only a dime of every dollar appropriated by Congress for Indians ever reaches the reservations. Most of the moneys are eaten by the massive bureaucracy of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ("War Stories: Environmental Justice in Indian Country," Daybreak, vol. 4, no. 2, 1994.) 617. Promises of overnight wealth to impoverished tribes serve to divide and conquer the people, as federal agencies, energy corporations, and private speculators seek to dump nuclear waste or get rich off Indian land. By necessity, then, Indian tribes are major players in the environmental justice movement. (Ibid.)
618. There are no coal mines on my reservation yet, and no coal leases have been signed. But every year, the tribe debates again whether we can afford to continue refusing the offers of the coal companies. (Ibid.)
(1940- ) Navajo, Arizona
Daniel Peaches, a former Arizona state representative, is a Navajo tribal administrator. 619. The policy of the Interior Department regarding the Indians for the 80's should be one of (1) protecting federal trust responsibilities to the Indian people (federal treaties), (2) protect tribal resources, and (3) promote economic development on Indian reservations. (Letter, February 2, 1982; The Bureau of Indian Affairs, by Theodore W. Taylor, Westview, 1984.) 620. All federal agencies should allocate funds directly to the Indian tribes, bypassing state governments. (Ibid.) 621. The President's [Reagan's] policy of returning most of the federal responsibilities back to the states would be a disaster for the Indian people. There is simply no mechanism by which states and Indian tribes can have a mutual relationship. (Ibid.)
(1940- ) Oglala Sioux, South Dakota
Russell Means, actor and activist, is chairman of the American Indian Anti-Defamation Council. In 1968 Means joined Dennis
Banks (q.v.) and others in the American Indian Movement (AIM). AIM's purposes are to regain land from the United States and to reestablish an Indian nation. Some of its more radical activities included a sit-in at the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the occupation of Wounded Knee, site of the massacre of Indians in 1890. 622. [Columbus] makes Hitler look like a juvenile delinquent. (Mankiller: A Chief and Her People, by Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis, St. Martin's Press, 1993.) 623. Right now, today, we who live on the Pine Ridge Reservation are living in what white society has designated a "National Sacrifice Area." What this means is that we have a lot of uranium deposits here, and white culture (not us) needs this uranium as energy production material. (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse, by Peter Matthiessen, Viking, 1983.) 624. The cheapest, most efficient way for industry to extract and deal with the processing of this uranium is to dump the waste by-products right here at the digging sites. Right here where we live. (Ibid.) 625. It is genocide to dig uranium here and drain the water—no more, no less. (Ibid.) 626. I understand that every living thing comes from one mother, and that is our Mother Earth. It has been said by the old people that only the white man rapes his mother. (Testimony before U.S. District Court, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1974.) 627. We are all brothers and sisters. That includes every living thing, the green things, the winged of the earth, the four-legged, the things that crawl and swim, the mountains, the streams, the rain, the clouds. (Ibid.) 628. They [the U.S. Government] brought in the law enforcement agencies to protect buildings rather than protect people's rights out here. And the end result—Wounded Knee. (Voices from Wounded Knee, Akwesasne Notes, 1974.) 629. The President of the United States [Jimmy Carter], to show you what a racist he is, can talk about human rights when my people are suffering genocide not only in the United States but in the entire [Western] hemisphere. (Speech before a United Nations conference in Geneva, Switzerland, 1977; cited in Native American Reader: Stories, Speeches and Poems, edited by Jerry D. Blanche, Denali Press, 1990.) 630. There is only one color of mankind that is not allowed to participate in the international community. And that color is the red. The black, the white, the brown, the yellow all participate in one form or another. (Ibid.)
d. (Walk in Peace. n.)
(1940) Blackfeet/Gros Ventre. Warriors. Montana
James Welch. and the universe is our relative.
ELIZABETH A. our traditional values are based on order. But what if we don't feel honored? They say. the law of the universe. 632. poet and novelist. What harm is it?" The harm is. endow us with the knowledge that our life is our religion." Well. thank you. the gift of healing. September-October 1995)." by John Edgar Wideman. by Elizabeth A. dedicated to the homeless street Indian. Wells. Racism in America against Indian people is so institutionalized and pervasive as to be almost unrecognizable—especially the vicious kind attached to sports teams with names like Indians. published his first collection of poetry in 1971. New Mexico
Elizabeth A. the gift of the Great Spirit. we're lumped in by the Eurocentric male mind with animals that he puts in zoos and that he kills and hunts for sport. 631. People say. okay. WELLS
(1940) Mescalero Apache. "We're honoring you. Other programs and ceremonies are held on behalf of young adults and children. Wells is the founder and director of the Orre Drumrite Walking Heritage. in Modern Maturity. okay? We're lumped in with the lions and tigers. this land is our church. ("MM Interview: Russell Means. wisdom. Remember. "C'mon. and health. decency.JAMES WELCH
630a. Braves. I have seen poems about Indians written by whites and they are
. the law of humankind.
Indians are very good at puns. . (Ibid. . an Oglala Sioux. That's a lot of Indian humor—teasing . University of Colorado. recalls old values systems. vol. by Laura Coltelli. 9.) 635.. There are exceptions. . vol. plays on words. I grew up learning these values. but for the most part only an Indian knows who he is . 2. (South Dakota Review. these things the Indians had. no.. giving. When I came to college. Never Give a Bum an Even Break. . 1990. and practicing t h e m . every person [was] for himself or herself. . experiencing them. Generosity. 6.)
. Summer 1971. University of Nebraska Press.) 633. Fall 1981. " Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies.) 634. (Title of poem. no. 3. 636.. .. . . .. ("I Remember When We Used to Eat Wild Grapes . these things the Indians practiced.)
SHIRLEY BLACK STONE WESTON
(Mid to late t w e n t i e t h century)
Shirley Black Stone Weston. (Interview in Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak. .172
SHIRLEY BLACK STONE WESTON
either sentimental or outraged over the condition of the Indian. and hopefully he will have the toughness and fairness to present his material in a way that is not manufactured by conventional stance. and sharing.
A system which is based upon relationships with all things is not efficient within the workings of the American social system. personally. Native American poets who speak from a tradition of resistance against oppression are speaking for land and life.) 640. (Ibid. Boise State University. Indian oral history has not been acceptable to American society not because it has been unwritten but because the Indian system of moral value has not been accepted. and that is a political stand when it is against what will take away life.) 638.) 639. we were expected to identify with white American images of Dick and Jane and Spot and Puff and homes with white picket fences. I've tried to consider most importantly my life as a Native American who is absolutely related to the land and all that means culturally. I learned [in school] there were no Indians. (Ibid. they were visages of the historical past who rode painted ponies and attacked wagon trains . Poetry is a way of engendering life. . 1977.SIMON ORTIZ
(1941. after all.) Acoma Pueblo. 1986.. 1 read [in school] whatever was available as I loved reading which was.) 642. in Simon Ortiz. (The Great Sioux Nation: Sitting in Judgment on America.. an extension of my love of language.. by Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz. American Indian Treaty Council Information Center/ Moon Books. politically. their poems. 637. are political.) 641. A value system that is all inclusive—in the Indian sense. . by Andrew Wiget. personal and social. As a writer. (Always the Stories. (Cited in Creative Process. this inspiration has been labelled dangerous in many cases—and unliterary and unpoetic as well—because it challenges the established oppressive ruling powers that be. Naturally. Nothing is separate from me in that
. New Mexico
Simon Ortiz is an author and poet whose writings reflect the culture and behavior of Native Americans. speaking of a responsibility for all the universe—is unwieldy according to the precepts of the American system which is conveniently exclusive and finds useful only those parts which gain precedence and dominance over others.
as an attorney in an Indian-owned law firm in Albuquerque. Previously.174
W. (Ibid. (Ibid. JR.)
L. New Mexico. RICHARD WEST.) Mohawk. We want [museum] visitors to come away with a better appreciation of what they've seen. you can't just have the predictable glass case of 500 viewing options. It's estimated that of the 500 or 600 distinct cultures that dwelled within the borders of what is now the United States before 1492.)
W. at least 300 remain. RICHARD WEST. but also with a more informed and sophisticated sense of Indian cultures in general. and I am included with the earth and all its aspects and details. It seems to me that the guiding set of esthetics in Indian art is inextricably tied to a shared concept of nature and a belief that life exists in things others might see as inanimate. Richard West.
(1943. Gale. New York
W. by Jane Hoehner. 1992. Navy and then received his formal education at the State University of New York and
. he represented Indian interests in court cases and before Congress. 1994. 643. You need direction.) Cheyenne/Arapaho..DAVID JACOBS
(1943. Jr.) 645.) 644. To accomplish that. David Jacobs served in the U.S. (New York Times. September 13. JR. is the director of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. (Native North American Literature.
"It seems to me that the guiding set of esthetics in Indian art is inextricably tied to a shared concept of nature and a belief that life exists in things others might see as inanimate. RICHARD WEST."
— W .. JR.
I try to deal honestly and directly with reality in my art and that reality encompasses both ugliness and beauty.) 650. (Houser and Haozous: A Sculptural Retrospective. California
Robert Haozous. Regis Mohawk Tribe. Washington and Albany want us to go on our own. In Canada. Phoenix.) 649. An educator and psychologist. Poverty is our biggest problem. with the rights that we have as American citizens. the son of artist Allan Houser (q. 648. he turned to tribal politics in the late 1980s. The Heard Museum. Let Ottawa or Quebec keep dishing out grants and subsidies. 1991. That's their problem.)
. A major sculptor in his own right. (One Nation under the Gun. by Rick Hornug. I love the land and I love people and I hope that my work symbolizes this in my own individual way. On this [American] side of the border. 646. They've brought jobs here. (Ibid. And I'm choosing to stay with the Americans. and we have to figure out a way to enrich ourselves in accordance with the law. but it can work if we do it right. The gamblers brought money here. he has his own studio outside Santa Fe. Pantheon. (Ibid. took on the original spelling of the family name (Ha-o-zous). the government won't allow gambling.). A chief of the St.176
the University of Utah. the law gives us a chance to start our bingo and gambling businesses and we should. And it's hard. 1983. he favors casino gambling run by the reservation.) 647. (Ibid. My art is contemporary because I live in the present—but also adhere to the belief that one should be inner-directed and that art should reflect its pure source—the soul of its creator. The Americans and the Canadians have two separate approaches to our problems.v.)
(1944. . The state [of Washington] has only one a i m . by Peter Matthiessen. he has been an executive of the Survival of American Indians Association. Most recently. and led the Indian delegation to Hanoi during the Vietnam war. Dodd. has fought for Indian fishing rights.)
(1944. 652. In 1977. by Marion E. Mead.) OjibwaJSioux. It is not a new development for white society to steal from nonwhite peoples. in 1968. following a highly controversial trial. . Treaties are abstract for the most part. But when the colonized Indians of North America meet to stand and resist we are called criminals. 1972. 651.) Assinibonne/Sioux. he was found guilty of murdering two FBI agents during a shootout. and save the fish for the white men.) 653. chase us off the rivers. Montana
Henry Adams. Viking. When white society succeeds it's called colonialism.. What could be more clear than that to treat us as criminals is a farce? (In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. almost meaningless except
.C. When white society's efforts to colonize people are met with resistance. it's called war. an Indian rights activist. 1983. (Contemporary American Indian Leaders. He was an organizer of Indian participation in the Poor People's March on Washington. North Dakota
Leonard Peltier was a leader in the American Indian Movement. Gridley. It intends to destroy our fishing equipment. D. .
(Ibid. . . One of these is our sovereignty. New Mexico
John Echohawk is a lawyer who works on behalf of Indian rights.) 654.178
SANDRA J. . . by Hap Gilliland. 655.) Pawnee. (Teaching the Native American. Kendall-Hunt.
SANDRA J. He became executive director of the Native American Rights Fund in 1977. FOX
for a few essential elements. I will continue to p r o t e s t .)
(1945. no matter what the "Uncle Tomahawks" and "red apples" say. until matters are righted. the fishing right gives the Indian people that type of tribal community which is necessary. The selfgovernment part of treaties is the most basic of a l l . (Ibid. 1992. The majority of Indian students are "holistic" learners. South Dakota
Sandra J. FOX
(1944. Fox has 25 years of experience in Indian education with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Education Resource Centers. then learn the details as a part of the whole.) (Editor's note: These derogatory terms are equivalent to the AfricanAmerican terms "Uncle Tom" and "Oreo cookie. She has written extensively on this subject. They learn more easily if they see the whole picture first.) Oglala Sioux.
Native Americans regard their names not as mere labels. Although it is so crucial for us to focus on the good things— our tenacity.) 661. . 1993.S. One hundred years ago. government to stamp out the ancient Native religious practices of reservation Indians. Oklahoma
Wilma Mankiller was the first woman to be elected chief of the Cherokee Nation.S. (Ibid.) 657. She later won reelection on her own. (Ibid. (Ibid. She first succeeded to the post when her predecessor resigned. government policy to assimilate the tribes into "mainstream" American society. our language and culture. it was the policy of the U. January/February 1994. St. by Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis. It was indeed our holocaust. 659. . A native person's name is as vital to his or her identify as the eyes or teeth. ("Native Americans Then and Now. [Sequoya] was always fascinated with the white people's ability to communicate with one another by making distinctive marks on paper—what some native people referred to as "talking leaves.S. (Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. The Alcatraz experience [when Indians occupied the island] nur-
.) 662.S. U. but as essential parts of their personalities.WILMA MANKILLER
656. as part of U. the revitalization of tribal communities—it is also important that we never forget what happened to our people on the Trail of Tears.)
(1945. forest service bulldozers [clearing away Native American religious sites] accomplish today what U.) 660. troops did in the 1890s.) Cherokee. Martin's Press. Recent Supreme Court decisions have denied protection for Native religious practices.) 658. . The lack of legal protection for Native American religious practices has plagued Indian tribes since Columbus brought European religious intolerance to the New World." Earth Journal." (Ibid.
tured a sense among us that anything was possible—even. New York
(1945. (Ibid..) 663. (Ibid. perhaps. The book which became our Indian manifesto [was] Custer Died
for Your Sins. is an assistant professor in the American Studies Department at the State University of New York.JOHN MOHAWK
"The Alcatraz experience [when Indians occupied the island] nurtured a sense among us that anything was possible—even. justice for native people. perhaps. Buf-
—WILMA MANKILLER. justice for native people.
I don't recall much. He is the editor of Daybreak.) 666. Granny lived to the ripe old age of 90. I am one-quarter Choctaw. and her high cheekbones were a constant reminder. noticing the poor conditions the proud Choctaws were living in.)
. and to a considerable degree remains. as a child. Legitimate Indian governments could not have been destroyed because legitimate Indian governments never existed. but I do remember sadness. She was a grand." in Exiled in the Land of the Free. She was instrumental in not only instilling family values. My mother's mother was a fullblooded Choctaw. ("Indians and Democracy: No One Ever Told Us. The identity offered to the Indian was and remains a Catch-22 because there has never been an offer of unequivocal legitimacy. The very identify of the Indian in European and Euro-American eyes was.) Choctaw. a businessman. proud woman. He is a member of the Seventh Generation Fund and chairperson of the board of the Indian Law Resource Center. a formula leading to oblivion. Although Granny seldom mentioned her ancestry. Mississippi. WARREN
falo. but in helping us become so proud of our Indian heritage. Mother was the seventh. Warren. 665. who bore nine children. sells computer software. 1991. her dark eyes. (Personal letter.DAVID C.)
DAVID C WARREN
(1945. edited by Oren Lyons and John Mohawk. Mississippi
David C. I was constantly aware of it—her straight jet-black hair. (Ibid. Her name was Marie Pierce Dallas. March 1995. By the same token genocide could not have taken place because the peoples and populations who were killed or allowed to expire under oppression were never legitimate peoples. I remember visiting the reservation in Philadelphia. Clear Light Publishers. a national American Indian news publication. 664.
(Ibid. by any extension of the imagination.MICHAEL DORRIS
(1945. is about as descriptive a term as nondefinition non-Native American literare not Native Americans. 670. Washington
Michael Dorris writes novels. poetry. Native American literature Native American literature. (Ibid.)
668. He became a professor of anthropology and Native American studies at Dartmouth. fine. The government's intention all along was to get us to assimilate into the mainstream of America and to a large extent we have. essays. 1 think what [Louise Erdrich] and I do is either within the tradition of a particular tribe or reservation or it is within the context of American literature. an author. short stories. where he met Louise Erdrich (q. was brought up on the Coeur d'Alene and Yakima reservations. We all
. If by ature is about and by people who that doesn't tell you a great deal.). California
Janet Campbell Hale. 1 don't think that either of us. Winter 1987.v. They married and have coauthored many literary works. except (North Dakota Quarterly. could presume or even dare to speak for or write about themes that were important for Navajos or for Iroquois or for people from other regions or other tribal backgrounds.) 669.)
JANET CAMPBELL HALE
(1946.) Modoc. 667.) Coeur dAlene. and nonfiction.
In the practice of fiction. 1992.) 673. poetry.. Tribal women have the lowest wages in the country. (Ibid. our home. Bloodlines: Odyssey of a Native Daughter. from essay "Autobiography in Fiction. Random House. answer troublesome questions. She teaches American Indian studies and creative writing in Colorado. though. (Ibid. make clear to the dreamer that which was clouded. There is nothing but what was and is and we're all stuck with that and have to struggle to do our best with the hand we've been dealt. (Ibid. . Dreams. articles. at this point.) 674. to get rid of us. Only the reservation is our landbase.")
(1947) Chickasaw. If Irish or Italian culture dies in America it really isn't that big a deal. Approximately one-third . and often because of that poverty. and we don't want to let go of it. and reviews. . ("Native American Women: Our Voice. Colorado
Linda Hogan writes novels. Not so with us. North America is our old country. They will still exist in Italy and Ireland.) 672. symbols both personal and universal. artists speak not only to the self but to others as well. from introduction. 1993. 675. Fiction and dreams spring from a common well.
.) 671. What if does not exist. Indian women are aware of the difficult position of being female and minority. short stories. than to abolish the reservations and get all our tribes to disband. Indian children are removed from homes and communities more often than children of any other background.. (During a talk to pupils at the Coeur d'Alene Tribal School. There is no other place. The government would like nothing better.LINDA HOGAN
speak English today and we go to school and we work and pay taxes. Fiction speaks in symbolic language. (Ibid. are removed from homes and placed in foster care or adoptive placement. speak to the individual—draw attention to suppressed needs.
will stand for future generations of Americans as a symbol of understanding. education and tolerance.) 677. but this m u s e u m . In 1994 Hayward announced a donation of $10 million to the National Museum of the American Indian. (Interview in Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak. But we have survived. . Ours is a small tribe. Connecticut. October 24. 1990. and we now flourish.) 676. have to develop humor or die of despair. HAYWARD
the Air. 6. There is obviously no way to turn back the pages of history. including the slaughter of the Pequots in 1637." Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. There have been many historic injustices perpetrated on indigenous people of North America. People who are in poverty. HAYWARD
(1947. JanuaryFebruary 1995.184
RICHARD A. . the largest single cash donation made in the history of the Smithsonian. vol.) Mashantucket Pequot. I'd say there's more racism toward Indian people than toward blacks. Connecticut
Richard A. people who are in very difficult situations and in pain. University of Colorado.) 679. Fall 1981. 1994.)
RICHARD A. but we have a keen sense of our own history and that of Native America generally. (Announcing a $10 million donation to the National Museum of the American Indian. In the great tradition of Native Americans everywhere. Smithsonian Runner. Hayward is the chairman of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Council. we believe that it is critical to make a commitment back to Native Americans through this donation. 3. University of Nebraska Press. The tribe owns and manages the Foxwoods Casino and Resort in Mashantucket. (Ibid. 678. (Ibid.)
. no. by Laura Coltelli.
) 682. [The centaur reflects] my hybrid status . It is my greatest but probably futile hope that some day those of us who are ethnic minorities will not be segregated in the literature of America. All those languages. Mexican. We are mixed bloods—Laguna. white—but the way we live is like M a r m o n s . She was the former editor of the American Indian Quarterly. .) Hopi/Miwok. . I am of mixed-breed ancestry. and novelist. What Happened When the Hopi Hit New York. (Songs from This Earth on Turtle's Back. (Book title. all
.) 684. Houghton Mifflin. edited by Dexter Fisher.) Laguna. teaches American Indian studies in California. edited by Joseph Bruchac.WENDY ROSE
(1948. a poet. My family are the Marmons at Old Laguna on the Laguna Pueblo reservation where I grew up. . short story writer. . 680. She is an English professor at the University of Arizona. . 1975. by Kenneth Rosen. I have always felt misunderstood and isolated—whether with Indians or with non-Indians. (The Man to Send Rain Clouds. but what I know is Laguna. Random House. 1980. Greenfield Review Press. New Mexico
Leslie Silko is a poet. 683.) 681. California
Wendy Rose. like the centaur. 1982. (The Third Woman.
my storytelling rise out of this source.)
(1948. (Statement to the National Marine Fisheries Service.. (Ibid. The American public has difficulty believing. In 1990. My poetry. Before long the runs will disappear and you will have accomplished nothing.) 685.)
. The mainstem dams have transformed that mighty [Snake] river into a series of slackwater pools. by Alvin M. In 1994. Their biological window cannot afford to travel the lower river. by Kenneth Rosen. and have slowed the fish's critical journey by a factor of more than seven.. (Ibid. Josephy. he was defeated in his race for governor. Politics can't alter sound biology. 1982. 1991. Our origin is unlike any other.. This is not the case.186
those ways of living are combined. Viking. however. Jr. and they die by the millions—victims not of low flow but of poor river velocity. Knopf. but there was disagreement on the major cause of the chinook decline. (Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians. [that] injustice continues to be inflicted upon Indian people because Americans assume that the sympathy or tolerance they feel toward Indians is somehow "felt" or transferred to the government policy that deals with Indians. (Ibid.) 688. the bureau was placing the Chinook salmon on the endangered species list.) 689. and we live somewhere on the fringes of all three. 687. 1975. Wyoming
Larry Echohawk is a political figure in Idaho. He was first a member of the state's House of Representatives. he became the first Native American to be elected to a statewide executive office.) 686. when he was elected attorney general. (Voices of the Rainbow.) Pawnee. August 7. If you attempt to depend on Idaho water to increase flows without addressing the real killer—the mainstem dams—you will have done what a false prosecution does: put an innocent man in jail and let the real killer go free.
(The New York Times. My great-grandfather was known for his bravery. (Ibid. I believe in the promise of America. as long as men and women labor for bare subsistence. I urged the state to impose a conservation closure—just as it had earlier closed the sport fishery. So long as we defile our sacred mother earth. I never knew [my great-grandfather] Echo Hawk. I asked the tribes to forego exercise of their treaty fishing rights. if you are an American. but word of his courage "echoed" throughout the village. 1994. The Iroquois have a saying . That's what we have to look at. and the promise is unfulfilled.LARRY ECHOHAWK
690. but he was also known as a modest and quiet man. (Ibid.) 695. .) 694. because we know the faces of our further generations are looking up at us from beneath the ground. "In our way of life. New York City.) 692.) 697." (Ibid. They refused. as long as the elderly go without health care. we always keep in mind the Seventh Generation to come. you are part Indian in your roots. I know how much that ceremonial fishery means to them. I told the tribes when I ran for attorney general that I could not be the tribal attorney in the Statehouse. . We are. and for all people. arguing—rightly—that they didn't cause the problem and shouldn't have to suffer while downstream neighbors continued to fish. (Com-
. 1992. (Address to the Democratic National Convention. I was raised with Indian values and the strongest of those is family. No matter which continent your ancestors came from.) 693. My political credo is very simple: to return something for what you have received. with every decision we make. Then they were marched to a small reservation in Oklahoma. My name "Echo Hawk" is the English translation of the name given my great-grandfather in the mid-1880s. . . but with the sure knowledge that it was right. We can be proud of those before us and those among us who have made the world better—for people of color. Y e t .. the hawk is a symbol of a silent warrior. (Ibid. the Seventh Generation of Democrats. making the family strong. The Pawnee used to have 23 million acres of land. To the Pawnee. by the reckoning of the years since our party began.) 696. And so he was. . September 5. As the former Chief Counsel to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes.) 691. He did not speak of his own deeds." . in our government. (Ibid. almost all of Nebraska. Without pleasure. "Echo Hawk. the pain goes on. I care very deeply about their issues. When we walk upon the earth we always plant our feet carefully. but I can imagine what it must have been like to be removed to Oklahoma.
(Ibid. 700. Ibid. despite the fact that it could result in economic gains among the Indian tribes. camera viewpoints. and screenwriter. Oklahoma
Joy Harjo is a poet.188
menting on why he opposed casino gambling in the state. University of Nebraska Press. artist. One goal I h a v e . (Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak.) Creek. In 1992 he helped found American Indian Telecommunications to make available modern communications technology to Native Americans. everything. viewpoint. by Laura Coltelli.) 699. A lot of people like to romanticize.)
George Baldwin is on the Plan Faculty of California University at Monterey Bay. not on the scale I would like to do it. 698. He was formerly chairman of the Sociology Department at Henderson State University in Arkansas. 1990. . . angles.)
(1951. television scriptwriter. is to create a film with a truly tribal vision. hold Indians to that image of
. You're dealing again with the translation of emotions into images. in terms of story. It hasn't been done. Screenwriting is definitely related to poetry.
as a couple. Her first husband.)
MARY BRAVE BIRD
(1956." by A.J. Love Medicine. 702. is American Indians. Rayl.) 703. whom she married in a tribal ceremony. 1984. but it's gone beyond blankets to information. Omni. For instance. (Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak. was
. really take in the work. by Laura Coltelli. editor. 1990.) Chippewa. and knowledge live. South Dakota
Mary Brave Bird was born on the Rosebud reservation. cheap edition everywhere.MARY BRAVE BIRD
weaving blankets for sale by the side of the road. laugh. Minnesota
Louise Erdrich is an author.) 701. My first audience that I would write for. She has also coauthored many literary works with her husband. The Information Age is here. (Ibid. (Title of novel. August 1993.) 704. University of Nebraska Press. our languages. and we're weaving all right. that [Michael Dorris and I] write for.S.v. hoping that they will read. (Ibid. One of the problems is the distribution of literature. cry. One of our hopes was to have it available in a nice. and with these technologies. how many Indians can afford to buy Love Medicine right now? It's pretty expensive and it's the way publishing unfortunately goes on. and poet.) Sioux. traditions.).)
(1954. Michael Dorris (q. ("New Technologies. Ancient Cultures.
(Ohitika Woman. but just being Indian. were places without hope where the bodies and souls were being destroyed bit by bit. by Mary Brave Bird with Richard Erdoes. If you plan to be born. more powerful culture. the half-blood oppresses the fullblood. little cats. and everybody takes out their anger. Drunk. dramatic things so much that get us down. (Ibid. The men [on the reservation] have a good and an evil side." (Ibid. The sun.) 707.) 711. licking the hand that whipped them. It means doing what you want when you want it. nature was our clock.) 709. trying to hang on to our way of life. telling us that every star in this flag represented a state stolen from Indians. wildcats. . the moon.. Racism breeds racism in reverse. It is not the big. 1991. they are angels. and feeling of helplessness on the women. HarperCollins. Indian time means never looking at the clock. 1990. Sober.. Jobs were almost nonexistent on the reservation. who scratch if you step on their tails. . and outside the res whites did not hire Indians if they could help it. their evil side comes out. 705. The white man oppresses the half-blood. and values while being surrounded by an alien. despair.. He [a speaker from the American Indian Movement] had himself wrapped up in an upside-down American flag.v. 1775 to the Present. and the seasons were our timekeepers and that way of looking at time
. but cats who can't be tamed. bobcats. female friends. by Edward Lazarus.) 713. Lakota Woman. Grove. language. (Ibid. by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes. who can be beaten and keep on wagging their tails. 1993. and they are drunk a good part of the time. (Describing life on the Rosebud reservation of her childhood. Woman beating is part of everyday life on the reservation. Grove Weidenfeld. (Ibid. There is Indian time and white man's time. (Ibid. mountain lions. (Ibid. An old medicine man once told me: "Us Lakotas are not like dogs who can be trained.). make sure you are born white and male. We are like cats. big cats. and relatives.190
MARY BRAVE BIRD
Leonard Crow Dog (q.) 710. (After describing a life of violence and abuse upon herself.) 706. The little settlements we lived i n .) 712. .) 708. In the old days . Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. It doesn't matter what kind.) 714. . Her first child was born during the Wounded Knee occupation.
to take his or her pain upon yourself. (Ibid. Ancient Cultures.) 716. the eagle. p e y o t e . of the sun. Omni..)
(1961) Sixty-seven Tribes
In 1961 more than 400 Indians from sixty-seven tribes met at the University of Chicago and issued a Declaration of Indian Purpose.) 715. That was a misrepresentation. It is legal for us to get it. It is not an initiation rite or a way to prove one's courage as was shown in the movie A Man Called Horse.
. August 1993. California
John Castillo is the executive director of the Southern California Indian Center." by A. (Ibid.. It is a self-sacrifice. but do not forget your Indian ways. provided we have a license and can prove that we are tribally enrolled Indians and members of the Native American Church. Rayl. the buffalo. .)
(1956.) Apache. "Go and learn in the white man's world. It [the sun dance] is the foremost. It is a celebration of life.INTER-TRIBAL MEETING
is still in our subconscious.S. (Ibid. . 717. the most sacred of all our rituals. Frequently we traveled south across the Mexican border to gather our sacred medicine. . a suffering for someone you love. There used to be a saying in the 1800s: "Forget the blanket and learn the white man's ways. There is not even a word for time in our language." ("New Techniques. the most solemn.J. Now our elders are saying..
718. HarperCollins. The white waitress who wouldn't take an order. Arizona
Gaetana DeGennaro. Atlantic Monthly Press. 719. works at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York City. But it's almost like Indians can easily survive the big stuff. loss of language and land rights. 1775 to the Present.)
(1966. they are not referring only to the loss of some millions of acres in real estate. and loved. 1991. They have in mind that the land supported a universe of things they valued. except for the parcels they still retain. With that continent gone.) Spokane/Coeur dAlene. but they mean to hold the scraps and parcels as earnestly as any small nation of ethnic groups was ever determined to hold to identity and survival. including alcoholism. by Edward Lazarus. the Washington Redskins. Much of his work deals with contemporary problems on the reservation. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. (The Lone langer and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. [Indians] have a way of surviving.
Sherman Alexie is a poet and short story writer. the basis of life is precariously held.) Tohono O'odham. 1993. When Indians speak of the continent they yielded. who obtained a degree in anthropology from Hunter College. Tonto. Mass murder.)
(1967. It's the small things that hurt the most.
the population approached a thousand. killed off the creatures of nature. 1994. 2d Session.. several declarations were made by the occupiers. The museum will help open up people's minds to the stereotypes of Indian people and get rid of those stereotypes. It [the museum] will let people know we're still living. At one point. (Ibid.) 724.Y. . We are quite serious in our demand to be given ownership of this island.) 721. Excerpts follow. eighty-nine Indians took possession. and instituted a program to annihilate the many Indian tribes of this land by theft.) 722." by Laura Incalcaterra. During the two occupation periods. (Referring to the George Gustav Heye Center at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York. represent many tribes of I n d i a n s . Rockland [N. and socalled relocation and assimilation. October 30. We feel that this request is but little to ask from a government which has systematically stolen our lands. 97th Congress. (Ibid. they offered to "purchase" the island for $24 worth of trinkets. (February 1970. prejudice. quoted in "Telling the Truth about Native Americans. We have a living culture. Alcatraz. Indians of all tribes greet our brothers and sisters of all races and tongues upon our Earth Mother. We feel that the island is the only bargaining power that we have with the federal government. .. 723.)
"INDIANS OF ALL TRIBES"
(1969-1971) "All Tribes.] Journal-News. termination. Congressional Record. We here on Indian land. . During that time. polluted air and water. fourteen Indian activists occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay and held the abandoned prison for nineteen hours. They held the island for nineteen months before the federal government retook it. ripped open the very bowels of our earth in senseless greed. . destroyed a once beautiful landscape. This is who we are. It is the only way we have to get them to
. suppression. 1969."INDIANS OE ALL TRIBES"
On November 9. On November 20.
but we will not be forgotten. . We are going to maintain our occupation. (The American Indian: The First Victim. . We know that $24 in trade goods for these 16 acres is more than was paid when Manhattan Island was sold.) 727. . no health care facilities . William Morrow. . by Edward Lazarus. . By this we mean that this place resembles most Indian reservations in that: It is isolated from modern facilities . soil is rocky and unproductive .) 728. entering the Golden Gate. Further. HarperCollins. . .) 726. . population has always been held as prisoners. no educational facilities . . it would be fitting and symbolic that ships from all over the world. (Ibid. to be held in trust by the American Indian Affairs and by the Bureau of Caucasian Affairs to hold in perpetuity—as long as the sun shall rise and the rivers go down to the sea. . Proclamation to the Great White Father and all his People: We feel that this so-called Alcatraz Island is more than suitable for an Indian Reservation. Otherwise. and thus be reminded of the true history of this nation.) 725. no industry . by Jay David. We will give to the inhabitants of this island a portion of that land for their own. until the island which is rightfully ours is formally granted to us. 1991. no oil or mineral rights . (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. . inadequate sanitation . no fresh running water . re-claim the land known as Alcatraz Island in the name of all American Indians by right of discovery. . (Ibid. . a precedent set by the white man's purchase of a similar island about 300 years ago. Ibid. the way they always have.)
. the native Americans. . and hereby offer the following treaty: We will purchase said Alcatraz Island for twenty-four dollars ($24) in glass beads and red cloth. .194
'INDIANS OF ALL TRIBES"
notice us or even want to deal with us. but we know that land values have risen over the years. (November 1969. 1775 to the Present. they will forget us. To the Great White Father and All His People We. (Ibid. unemployment .) 729. This tiny land would be a symbol of great lands once ruled by free and noble Indians. as determined by the white man's own standard. . . We wish to be fair and honorable in our dealings with the Caucasian inhabitants of this land. 1972.. would first see Indian land.
(Late t w e n t i e t h century)
Janice LaFountain specializes in Indian education. uncles. 730. by Hap Gilliland. (Teaching the Native American. cousins. 731. (Teaching the Native American. aunts. Kendall-Hunt. One of the greatest strengths of American Indian cultures is the extended family. 1992. We must learn to appreciate diversity. It is not uncommon to find grandparents.)
(Mid to late twentieth century) Crow
Jeanne Bearcrane is an authority on Indian education. How devastating to think of a world in which everyone is the same. by Hap Gilliland. not suppress it. Kendall-Hunt. or even friends of the family rearing the Indian child. 1992.
Our tribe has been in a tumult because of the issue of gambling.)
WALLACE WELLS. Marty.)
. January 21. 733. As a tribal leader. 732. (Commenting on young whites who attempt to copy Native American rituals. I have never been bothered so much in my life by people who want to invest in our tribe—for gambling. . is a tribal leader. June 1-8. Such as power-hungry leaders who have sold themselves out to g r e e d ..) Santee Sioux.
(Late twentieth century) Crow Creek Sioux
Wallace Wells. (Letter to the editor. ." by Martin E. quoted in "Borrowers and Wannabes: Impure Faith. JR. . It has brought out the worst in people. Jr. 1992. Christian Century. Spiritual genocide.JOHN LaVELLE
(I960. Lakota Times. Iowa
John LaVelle directs the Center for Support and Protection of Indian Religions and Indigenous Traditions (Center for the SPIRIT). 1994.
Josephy. Knopf. by Alvin M.. 1982. California
Fred Coyote is a writer and public speaker. 734. Jr.)
.1 will die an Indian! (Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians.FRED COYOTE
(Mid to l a t e t w e n t i e t h century)
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Prayers.Anonymous Quotations. and Proverbs
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Oxford University Press. (Sovereignty and Symbol.)
. 1988. Landsman. Boys and girls. the sermon today is do not call yourselves "tribes" and your land "reservations.)
736. A moving island. by James Axtell." Stand on your own two feet and insist that you are a NATION and that your land is your TERRITORY. After Columbus: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. 1988. (Describing the first sight of a French ship. by Gail H.ANONYMOUS
735. University of New Mexico Press.
Why cannot my people be more independent? Why can they not take care of themselves? Why is it necessary to throw meat to them as to dogs? Surely the best way is for all the children.) 740. Why do you not clothe yourselves in skins. Worthington & Co.) to spur other tribes to join in a war against the whites. somehow to learn and practice self-support. 1907. the trees. and because I love you. lakes. kettles.ANONYMOUS
An anonymous student of Carlisle Indian School. by Albert Britt. live as your wise forefathers lived before you. and the stone-pointed lances.) 739. (Ibid. as they did. and what is worse you have drunk the poison firewater. and use the bows and arrows. 737. I am the Maker of heaven and earth. My children. rivers. Howard.)
. knives. (My Life and Personal Experiences among Our Hostile Indians. (Ibid. (Great Indian Chiefs.)
A Delaware medicine man reported what he had been told at the top of a magic mountain by the Master of Life. Fling all these things away. 1938. Why do you suffer the white man to dwell among you. which turns you into fools. 738. which they used? You have bought guns. until you can no longer do without them. you have forgotten the customs and traditions of your forefathers. I am the Maker of mankind. by Oliver O.. The account was used by Pontiac (q. and blankets from the white men. and all things else.v. The land on which you live I have made for you and not for others. you must do my will. McGraw-Hill.
any violation of the treaties." 742. 5. Landsman. We shall resist by every means any suggestion. (Ibid. and his arm it is strong in the fight. any disturbance of our people in the free use and enjoyment of our land. ye spirits! of water. any usurpation of our sovereignty. (Ibid. which never misses its prey.) 745. both piercing and bright. by Gail H. by Henry R. (Information Respecting the History of the Indian Tribes of the United States. repeating the same. My love is tall and graceful as the young pine waving on the hill. and dark as the blackbird that floats through the air. His arm is as sure in the fight and chase. and echo. 1857. and encroachment and oppression. while I sing in his praise. Ah. Schoolcraft. University of New Mexico Press.)
"The Maiden to the Brave. 1988. it is fearless and great. like the eagle's.) 743. (Ibid. and his fame shall be spread throughout the land. and his name shall be known beyond the lakes. (Sovereignty and Symbol. and swift in his course as the noble. as the hawk. as this bow made of iron-wood which he easily bends. his heart.)
. shall cause it to swell in the breadth of the wind. and of sky. it shall ring through the sky.. his hair is flowing.) 744. . of earth.ANONYMOUS
741. stately deer. vol. my voice shall be heard. His eyes. and me.
which is better than the old life so long led by our race in the past. then with your smiles comes the sun. Earth smiles—the waters smile—even the sky-of-clouds smiles—but I. your breath is their fragrance at evening in the moon-of-falling-leaf. When you are beside me my heart sings. (Ibid. by Charles Hamilton. When you look upon me I am satisfied. University of Oklahoma Press. I know I express the minds of our people when I give you this welcome to our life of a higher civilization. . When you frown upon me. This would be to our mutual benefit and good. would be safer if all our race were united together here. (Ibid. Awake! flower of the forest." 746.)
749. translated by Charles Fenno Hoffman. (Statement of a U. the shadows of clouds darken. Myself! behold me! blood of my beating heart. which I believe would be the greatest benefit of all. I lose the way of smiling when you are not near. The breath of your mouth is the fragrance of the flowers in the morning. a branch it is. Awake! awake! wonderful fawn-eyed One. That is my earnest wish. sky-treading bird of the prairie. Awake! awake! my beloved. which is best suited to our peculiar necessities. my heart grows dark .ANONYMOUS
"The Brave to the Maiden. and what is still better. cited in Cry of the Thunderbird.) 748. . (Path of the Rainbow. dancing before the Wind-spirit in the moon of strawberries. as flowers that drink dew. christianized.S. We believe our right to our soil and our government.) 747. commission investigating the potential removal of
. Then I think the rising generation could be educated and civilized. 1972. beloved. dancing.
Indian tribes to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). 751. Clarke. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. We think that the American Indian Movement is not only an advocate for Indian people. It carries the spirituality of our ancient people and of our elder people. Our Indian Wards. 1880. 1982. So now the American Indian Movement relies very.)
. by Edward Lazarus. very heavily on the traditional leaders and the holy men of the various tribes—to give them the direction they need so they can best help the Indian people. Jr. Manypenny.. It is the spiritual rebirth of our [Indian] nation. Knopf. by George W.)
Anonymous graduate of Carlisle Indian School. Josephy. 1775 to the Present. 1876. HarperCollins. 1991. Most girls [who graduated from Carlisle] found their life's work in city kitchens and most boys who [did] not drift back to the reservation lost their identity in a shop. by Alvin M. (Now That the Buffalo's Gone.)
A leader in the American Indian Movement. 750.
All these things the buffalo offers to the ones who heed
. [otherwise] our little boys will grow up as slaves. Arizona. as soon as they are large enough. The marrow. who can make many things from the buffalo for use in war. What follows are the feelings of one of the chiefs. will be diseased prostitutes to get money for whoever owns them. in a language we know nothing of. so long as you will stand by us and defend us. by George W. so that a skilled woman can make many different kinds of food and the family does not eat the same thing each day. 1871. but I will live to show these people that all they have done. bones. 752. Our Indian Wards. It is so also with the man. (Ibid. nor never shall see.)
754.) 753. and our girls. and pleasure. my women and children have been killed before my face. The buffalo gives food from his flesh and clothing from his hide. Manypenny. The lieutenant was removed from this command and transferred to another post. Most Indians in my place would take a knife and cut his throat. Vigilantes from Tucson carried out the attack. and the horns can be used by the people. Clarke. hunting. an American army officer who had tried to warn the Indians of the impending civilian raid. to a great governor we never have. shall not make me break faith with you. Get them [the Indians taken captive] back for us.1 no longer want to live. and all they can do. and I have been unable to defend them. 1880. sinew.ANONYMOUS
In 1871 hundreds of Indians were massacred at Camp Grant. (Statement to Lieutenant Whitman.
while other lands were opened up for white settlement. but it was left for unfortunate Indian Territory to be afflicted with the worst scourge of the 19th century. and hoping that soon they'd go back to their Earth. 755. so stop crying. the white men. Asiatic countries their cholera. 756. He said nothing for a long time. Its job was to end tribal government among the Cherokees. . . . When the white man landed on the moon. (Native American Testimony. the Dawes Commission. Certain lands were allotted to each tribe.)
. Then he said our spirits were there. where they make so many people unhappy. Viking Penguin.)
(Late nineteenth century) Oklahoma Creek. I told him there weren't any Indians on the moon. Oklahoma
The Dawes Commission.)
Psychiatrist Robert Coles reported this view of the moon landing. was also known as the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes. France its Jacobins. (The Assiniboines. Norman. Memphis had the yellow f e v e r . Chickasaws. told to him by a young Indian boy. . my father c r i e d .ANONYMOUS
the talks of the old men and the old women who know that the lives of the people and the growth of children depend on the buffalo. 1975. by Peter Nabokov. Kennedy. (New York Review of Books. March 20. England its black plague. and where they don't know what to do next. and Seminoles. and trying to hide. edited by Michael S. 1961. Choctaws. established in 1893 by President Grover Cleveland. . too—and he was sure Indians were crying up there. Egypt had its locusts. 1991. Oklahoma. Creeks.
it is the voice of the deceased returning to tell of a coming catastrophe. 758. University of Arizona Press. The [Ghost Dance] visions varied at the start. (A Pima Past. hand me my sharp knife. like a chorus describing a great encampment of all the Dakotas who had ever lived. but they ended the same way. In war. where all were related and therefore under-
.) what he remembered about it. Mother.)
(Late 1880s) Pine Ridge Sioux
Many years after the time of the Ghost Dance.ANONYMOUS
757. an oral historian told anthropologist Ella Deloria (q. hand me my sharp knife! 759. Here come the buffalo returning— Mother. do come back! My little brother is crying for you— My father says so! 760. Mother. including some of the Ghost Dance songs. Mother. do come back Mother.v. you should give the owl hoot as a sign to warn of enemy warriors hiding in the thicket. however. The hooting of an owl is a bad omen. by Anna Moore Shaw. 1974. hand me my sharp knife.
1965. (Referring to an Indian cemetery in Pennsylvania.)
762. by Alvin M. cited in Now That the Buffalo's Gone: A Study of Today's American Indians. Bearded men should come & take away their Country & that there should none of the original Indians be left. Reprinted by University of South Dakota Press. where the buffalo came eagerly to feed them. 761. Our Arlington. Other scholars point out that since the Native Americans had no written language. Charlottesville. by Ella Deloria. Knopf.) (Editor's note: Historians disagree over similar predictions supposedly made before the Europeans came to the New World. Some scholars point out that such predictions were not recorded until after the Europeans arrived. (Speaking of Indians.. Josephy.)
A shaman's prediction. and there was no sorrow but only joy.)
. edited by Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley. Va.ANONYMOUS
stood each other. 1944. (The Reverend John Clayton: His Scientific Writings and Other Related Papers. Friendship Press. where relatives thronged out with happy laughter to greet the newcomer. Jr. In 1964 the Army Corps of Engineers moved its 300 Indian graves to a new location to make way for the floodwaters of a new dam. the predictions could not have been recorded any earlier. 1982. within an hundred & fifty years..
. Ferris and edited by Paul C.) 766. Nothing could equal our wonder and delight.)
. instead of an overwhelming force of their enemies. But we w e r e . 1940. . and which sometimes showed us our own faces.ANONYMOUS
Describing a meeting with members of the Lewis and Clark expedition in the northern Rockies in about 1805. fairer than ourselves. 763. for we soon discovered that they were in possession of the identical thunder and lightning [firearms] that had proved in the hands of our foes so fatal to our happiness. This opinion was strengthened by a request they made for us to go and meet their friends. who treated them with great kindness. A. They were unlike any people hitherto seen. and who might protect us. [He] induced most of our warriors to follow him and accompany the strangers to their camp. Many of our people were now exceedingly terrified. . Upon arriving at the strangers encampment. and coming jointly to destroy us. .) 765. We thought them the children of the Great Spirit. . the account was given to a fur trader named Warren Ferris in 1831. a few strangers like the two already with them. They gave us things like solid water. (Ibid. and clothed with skins unknown to us. (Ibid.) 767. This state of tranquil happiness was interrupted by the unexpected arrival of two strangers. again overwhelmed with fear. . making no doubt but that they [the white strangers] were leagued with our enemies the Blackfeet. Our beloved chief. by W.. (Ibid. and gave them many things that had not existed before even in their dreams or imaginations. they found. (Ibid. Phillips. which were sometimes brilliant as the sun. (Life in the Rocky Mountains.) 764. The Old West Publishing Company. convinced us that it was best to conciliate if possible the favor of a people so terribly armed.
by Edward Lazarus. . 1991. (Ibid.) 770. . When we were on our old reservation there came to us men from the government. There were wood and game in abundance and shelter from the storms of the plains. The [Teton] named these hills the Sapa. 1775 to the Present.) 771. This was the response of one of the chiefs. wagon and harness. HarperCollins. they would give us each a house. will we not be treated this way again? (Spokane (Wash. and the government has given us nothing. According to a tribal legend these hills were a reclining female figure from whose breasts flowed life-giving forces and to them the [Teton] went as a child to its mother's arms. 1897. fence. the Spokanes were asked by the government to move to a new reservation. or Black Hills. (Ibid. We have no houses and we have no wagons. 768. In the wooden recesses were numberless springs of pure water and numerous small lakes.ANONYMOUS
In the late 1890s. on account of their color. (Black Hills White Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United States. The slopes and peaks were so heavily wooded with dark pines that from a distance the mountains actually looked black. We came to this place and gave up our old lands. October 31.) Spokesman-Review.)
769. perhaps. Of all our domain. . we loved. We gave up all that we had. who spoke as you have spoken. If we do as you say. They told us that. They talked well and we believed them. They told us that we would be treated r i g h t . seed. if we would move to this place. the Black Hills the most.
("The Winnebago Tribe." a chapter by Paul Radin in the 37th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. For if you do not do so you will find yourself different from other men. and as a consequence she has been taken away from you. My son. You thought too much of a woman and in worshiping her you humbled yourself. The more you worship her. and no one will want to marry you again. my son. the more will she want to be worshipped. For these reasons.)
"What Every Young Woman Should Know. With work you will always be able to retain your
. 1916. (Ibid. Women can never be watched. If you ever get married. (Ibid. My son. If you marry a man and you want to be certain of always retaining him. It is not good to be enslaved by a woman.) 774. After a while you will become so jealous of your wife that she will leave you and run away." 776. All the other women will know of this. this also I will tell you. do not make an idol of your wife. All your relatives will scold you and your own sisters will think little of you. if you keep on listening to your wife. Steel yourself against them.) 773. Everyone will consider you a very bad man. (Ibid. I warn you against the words of women. If you try to watch them you will merely show your jealousy and your female relatives will also be jealous. You yourself will be to blame for this.) 775. my son. after a while she will never let you go to any feast at all. work for him.ANONYMOUS
"What Every Young Man Should Know/' 772.
If a wife has no real interest in her husband's welfare and possessions she will bestow on him no more than any other woman. for he will treat you in the same manner. When you visit your husband's people do not go around with a haughty air or act as if you considered yourself far above them." But they chop it down and cut it up. (Ibid. Kindness will be returned to you if you obey your husband. kill everything. Do not act as though you are married to a number of men at the same time.) 780. (Freedom and Culture. Your parents were instrumental in getting you your husband. (The Winnebago Tribe. If you do your work to the satisfaction of your husband. he will never leave you. If you do not listen to what I am telling you and you are unfaithful to your husband. (Ibid. do it. We only use dead wood. all the men will jeer at you. as likewise for the fact that they raised you. by Dorothy Lee. The tree says. Remain faithful to your husband. If. Try to get them to like you. and the world will ridicule her. Prentice-Hall. pull down the trees. Lead a chaste life. They will say whatever they wish to [and no one will interfere]. Whatever he tells you to do.)
781. Don't hurt me. 1959. If you are good-mannered you will be placed in charge of the home at which you happen to be visiting.)
hold on men. (Ibid. a chapter by Paul Radin. (Ibid. Then your parents-in-law will tell your husband that their daughter-in-law is acting nicely to them. But the white people plow up the ground.) 779. Let your husband likewise take care of your parents. your parents will leave you. I am sore. 37th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. We don't chop down the trees. for they depend on him. on the other hand. Do not act haughty to your husband.) 778. you pay more attention to your husband than to your parents. 1916. "Don't. so remember that they expect some recompense for it.) 777.
At the foot of the pole stood the missionary calling the Indians to come into the light. (Ibid. and had a great desire to go in.. for they were all in the d a r k . and it led down hill. and from the foot of this pole there were two paths: one was a broad road. 1965. it is sore. They saw up the trees. the man spoke to me and said. That hurts them. a high pole set in the ground. . You must go back and tell all your nation. . . Berkhofer.)
785. 784.1 seek strength. I lay down to sleep. One night. the other was a narrow one. . When I came up to the gate. for there is no other that leads here. and on the top of that pole there was a white child fastened and it gave light to all around in a circle. and led up a hill. . How can the spirit of the earth like the white man? . by Finley. cited in Salvation and the Savage. . University of Kentucky Press. (Ibid. but to fight my
. . not to be greater than my brother. and dreamed that I s a w . but the white people destroy all. Jr. The spirit of the land hates them [the white people]. . "You cannot go in now. Everywhere the white man has touched it. . The Indians never hurt anything." (History of the Wyandot Mission. . . . after being at m e e t i n g . .)
The impact of missionaries is indicated in this report of a dream by a Wyandot woman shortly after a prayer meeting. .. I went.214
782. I heard in that house [at the top of the hill] the most delightful singing I ever heard before. that if they want to get to heaven they must take this narrow road. by Robert F.) 783.
1961. Come snow in plenty. Let me win against my enemies. Ivan Obolensky. Grant me thy aid. compiled by Alfonso M. diNola. Wakanda. War Resisters League. diNola. 1974. 1961. edited by Patrick O'Connor.PRAYER
greatest enemy—myself. have pity on me—for I am poor. compiled by Alfonso M. Give me what I need.)
787. that the planting may yield abundance.)
786. (As Long as the Rivers Shall Flow. That I might steal many horses. Hasten clouds from the four world quarters. (The Prayers of Man. edited by Patrick O'Connor. cover the fields. Ivan Obolensky. (The Prayers of Man. that water may be abundant when summer comes. Come ice.)
Morning Star! when you look down upon us. (The Prayers of Man. We are all your children and ask these things with good hearts. diNola. give us peace and refreshing sleep. Ivan Obolensky. Then it is done. (The Prayers of Man. Great Spirit! bless our children. friends. May our trails lie straight and level before us. I promise thee a calico shirt and a dress.)
790. I will also give you a blanket if you grant that I return whole and well to my fireside after having killed a Pawnee. no matter how brave its warriors nor how
Great Plains Indians
789. edited by Patrick O'Connor. O Wakanda. A nation is not conquered until the hearts of its women are on the ground. compiled by Alfonso M. compiled by Alfonso M. Let us live to be old. and visitors through a happy life. edited by Patrick O'Connor. diNola.PRAYER
788. 1961. Ivan Obolensky.
strong their weapons. (Lakota Woman, by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes, Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.)
791. A beautiful tepee is like a good mother. She hugs her children to her and protects them from heat and cold, storm and rain. (Lakota Woman, by Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes, Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.)
792. You cannot judge another person until you have walked a mile in his moccasins. (Traditional.)
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The author index includes groups (for example, "Indians of All Tribes" and the National Council of the Cherokee Nation) as well as individuals. Biographical or background information about an author can be found in the paragraph immediately preceding that author's first quotation. All numbers refer to quote numbers. Abieta, Andy, 505 Adams, Henry, 652-654 Ahkcah, Sam, 447-448 Albert, Daisy, 531 Alexie, Sherman, 719 Allen, Paula Gunn, 612-614 American Horse, 289-292 Anonymous, 735-784 As-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha. See Red Jacket Baldwin, George, 700-701 Ballard, Louis W., 557 Banks, Dennis, 600-606 Barnes, Jim, 561 Bearcrane, Jeanne, 730 Bedagi. See Big Thunder Bellecourt, Vernon, 589 Bent, George, 297-300 Big Eagle, 156-160 Big Elk, 76 Big Thunder, 419 Black Elk, 357-360 Blackfoot, 187-188 Black Hawk, 49-58 Black Kettle, 134-140 Blatchford, Herbert, 536 Bonaparte, Darren, 587-588 Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons, 407^411 Boudinot, Elias, 131-133 Brave Bird, Mary, 705-716 Bronson, Ruth Muskrat, 449-451 Bruce, Louis R., 467 Buck Watie. See Boudinot, Elias Bull Bear, 363-364 Burnette, Robert, 509-513 Calf Robe, Ben, 457 Campbell, Ben Nighthorse, 562-568 Canoe, Lorraine, 558-560 Captain Jack, 284-287
161-163 Little Big Man. 499-502 Hayward. See Brave Bird. 656-658 Echohawk. 456 Houser. 687-697 Erdrich. 731 LaVelle.. 7 Kintpuash. 422-427 Keedah. 154 Cooper. 293-296 Crow Dog. 125-126 Four Guns. 310-311 Earthboy. Luther. 11-13 Coodey. Robert. 615 Flying Hawk. William Shorey. 486-489 Dorris.. Dan. 732 Lion Bear. Charles A.. Fred. 646-647 Johnson. 569-583 Delshay. 466 Cooweescoowe. John. 734 Crawford. Edward. Mary. Sr. John. 218-219 Dragging-Canoe. Jr. Eugene R. Joy. 241-244 Giago. Louise. 478-481 "Indians of All Tribes. Francis. 420-421 Fox. Sandra J. 30-31 Corn Tassel. Gaetana. 590-593 Gist. See Captain Jack Kushiway. Jack. George. Lori. 356 Jacobs. Michael. 458-460 Hale. See Spokane. 655
AUTHOR INDEX Gall. 675-677 Hollow Horn. 525 Dull Knife. 116-117 Kicking Bear. 720-722 Deloria. See Major Ridge Katchongva. 272-277 Chiksika. 524 Keeler.. William W. Mary Crowfoot. 309 Downing. Janice. 523 Crazy Horse. Napoleon B. 322 The Four Bears. 698-699 Harris. Peter. James. Jesse. John. Leonard. 323 LaFountain. 110-112 Chisholm. 377 Goodbird.. Vernon. 270-271 Dempsey. Susette. Jerry. 670-674 Haozous. Sr." 723-729 Inter-Tribal Meeting. 288 Garry. See Captain Jack Krentpoos. 197 Cupp. Linda. 678-679 Hogan. Frederick. See Sequoya Good. See Old Tassel Coyote. Teddy. 718 Iron Shell. 25-29 Draper. 473 Keokuk. Ella. 468-472 Gumbs. 390-395 Gorman... 529 Eastman. Vine. 550 Crow Dog. 378
. Charles. 349 Ishi. Allan. 667-669 Doublehead. 178-182 Conassatego. Tim. David L. 153 Clearwater. 507-508 Curtis. Janet Campbell.. 434-437 Deloria. Baptiste.222 Castillo.. 330-333 LaFlesche. 396-398 Kaywaykla. Lewis. 269 King Philip. 551-556 Hayes. Harriett Starleaf. 532 Dockstader. See Ross. 506 Cochise. Jim. 445-446 Dillion. 350 Kicking Bird. LaDonna. Carl. John Cornplanter.. Ira. Larry. 717 Chief Joseph. Wilson. Richard A. 307-308 LaFlesche. 337-341 Echohawk. 444 Joseph. 702-704 Flute. Garry Geronimo. 648-650 Harjo. 353-355 DeGennaro. See Chief Joseph Kah-nung-cla-geh. 169-173 Eagle Wing.
Wendy. Wilma. Ely. William. 127-130 Spokane. 608-610 Ortiz. 371 Stands in Timber. 222-230 Parker. 189-191 Palaneapope. 594-597 Montezuma.AUTHOR INDEX Little Crow. Anna Moore. 176 Pontiac. 616-618 Smohalla. 342-343 Peltier. Lillian Valenzuela. 192-196 Little Turtle. 253-254 Rose. Major. Leonard. John. 174-175 Spotted Tail. 651 Petalesharo. Tim Nicholas. William P. Oren R. 211-217 Standing Bear. 428
. 514-517 McCloud. 477 Martin. 519-522 Mankiller. 259-268 Small. John Rollin. Simon. 14-17 Oochalata. 255-258 Polatkin. 680-682 Ross. 167-168 Satanta. 141 Ouray the Arrow. 69-70 Shabbona. 585-586 Marks. 221 Ridge. 683-686 Sitting Bull. 198-210 Red Dog. 637-642 Osceola. 533-535 Robles. 312 Peaches. See Seattle Obeale. Alexander. Simon. John. Roxanne Dunbar. Will. 320-321 Pokagon. 231-238 Standing Bear. 4-6 Prayers. 32-36 Logan. 365 Red Fox. 537-549 MacDonald. Janet.. Joseph. 145-149 Ridge. 366-370 Satank. Daniel. 247-252 Seattle. 239-240 Nawica Kjici. 87-98 Sequoya. John. See Giago. Luther. Susan LaFlesche.. 401-406 Powhatan. 43 Mohawk. 438-442 Mills. 346-348 Little Raven. 474 Pierce. 177 Pizi. Phillip. 785-789 Proverbs. See Eastman. 361-362 Pierce. John. 429-431 Red Iron. 455 Ridge. 607 Minavavana. 334-335 Standing Elk. 790-792 Pushmataha. 384-389 Standing Buffalo. Peter. 664 Momaday. 118-121 Picotte. Old Tassel. 452-454 Silko. 344-345 Opothleyoholo. See Shabonee Shabonee. John. 122-124 Ortiz. Leslie. 461-465 Rogers. 18-19 Posey. Billy. 278-280 Red Jacket. 503-504 Noah. 622-630a Meninock. 77 Shaw. Ben. 659-663 Maracle. 183-186 Speckled Snake. N. 379-383 National Council. 99-109 Ross. 142-144 Little Hill. Mark. 412-418 Roman Nose. 78-81 Means. See Cornplanter Ohiyesa. Russell. 530 Mclntosh. Wilbur. 281-283 Parker. Quanah. 482-483 Rogers. Gail. 44-48
Red Cloud. Thomas. Carlos. See Gall Plenty-Coups. 619-621 Pegg. Maris Bryant. 37-42 Reifel. Scott. Charles A. 20-24 Lyons. Garry. Emma. 71-75 Riegert. Harriett.
Dick. 665-666 Warren. James. 1-3 Tahajadoris. William. 484 Vizenor. Mary. 351-352 Wovoka. Don C .. Jr. 8-9 Talayesva. 59-67 Teedyuscung. See Tatanga Mani Warren. Shirley Black Stone. Gerald. See Bonnin. See Crazy Horse Tecumseh. 643-645 Weston. Jim. 443 TallMountain. David C . Jr. Joseph C . 632-635 Wells. Sarah. 432-433 Tuskeneah. William. See Ridge. 373 White Bird. 636 Wetatonmi. 113-115 Thorn. 733 West. 164-166 Wilson. 399^00 Taoyateduta. 485 Tatanga Mani. 518 Wild Cat. 526-528 Sweet Medicine. Elizabeth A.. Jake L. Severt.. 374-376 Zitkala-Sa.224 Sun Bear. 10 Ten Bears. 150-152 Washakie. 155 Whitecrow. W. 490-495
AUTHOR INDEX Washakie. Grace. 372 Wauneka. John Weatherford. 301-305 Wooden Leg. Melvin. John Rollin Yellow Wolf. 475-476 Wayquahgishig. 631 Wells. Jack. Clyde. 584 Young-Man-Afraid.. Gertrude Simmons
. Jr. Annie Dodge. 220 Warrior.. Richard. 598-599 Walking Buffalo. 82-86 Welch. See Rogers. 245-246 Two Moon. 611 Thorpe. Wallace. 496-498 Thorpe. 313-319 Vasquez. See Wovoka Winnemucca. 324-329 Young Bear. See Little Crow Tashunka Witko. 336 Yellow Bird.
143 (bio) Alaska (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 772-775 Advice to Young Women (Anonymous Winnebago). 662 Alcohol
. Lyons). or pp. 220 Agents (Ely Parker). 723-729. For example. David Jacobs). Scott Momaday). 162 (bio) Achieve (Carlos Montezuma). 6 (bio). 223-224. 485 Albany (L." Page numbers are preceded by p. p. p. Many may also be found by a key word in the quotation. only one way to achieve. 226 Aging (Polatkin).Subject and Key Word Index
All quotations are listed by subject matter. Chief Joseph's famous quotation. 343 Abenakis (Tahajadoris). 647 Alcatraz ("Indians of All Tribes"). 728 (Wilma Mankiller). All other numbers refer to quote numbers." as well as under the key words "fight" and "sun. 176 Agreement (Ouray the Arrow). I will fight no more forever. 776-780 Afterlife (William Warren). 9 Aboriginal history (Oren R. 380 Advice to Young Men (Anonymous Winnebago). agreement the buffalo makes with his hunters. Alaska is my talisman. 449-451 (Mary TallMountain). "From where the sun now stands." can be located under the subject "surrender. 543-544 Abundance (Black Hawk). 49 Academy of American Poets (N. Abandonment (Thomas Pegg). more than suitable for an Indian reservation. 189 Air Force (Phillip Martin). p.
. 210 (bio) (Harriett Pierce). 648. we stand between the mountain and the ant. 206 (bio) (Geronimo). government's intention . 762 Arm (Anonymous Ojibway). 445 Animal (Sequoya). . 650 (Allan Houser). like the sands of the sea. 468-172. 142 (bio) American Revolution (Cornplanter). Our Arlington. 513 Allocation (Daniel Peaches).).). 188 (bio) American Indians and Friends (Robert Burnette). 538 Anthropologists (Gerald Vizenor). The armies of the whites are . Jr. . 146-147 Ant (Oren R. 708 (Leonard Crow Dog). reality in my art . 751 (Dennis Banks). 471 (Robert Haozous). . Ross).226 (Charles Curtis). p. 620 (Vine Deloria. 368 Arlington (Anonymous Seneca). p. 427 Arkansas (William P. 10 (bio) Americans for Indian Opportunity (LaDonna Harris). 152 (bio) Anasazi (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). to get us to assimilate. p. Indian art is dying out. 169 (bio) American Indian Civil Rights Act (Vine Deloria. . 589 (Mary Brave Bird). the ashes of my kindred. 77 Arms (Pontiac). . 131 (bio) Art (Frederick Dockstader). 170 (bio) American Indian Telecommunications (George Baldwin). like catching a wild animal and taming it. Lyons). p. the Almighty looks down on me. 481 Ashes (Wild Cat). Anthropologists have invented culture. 152 (bio) (Russell Means). p. 486-489 (Carl Gorman). art should . his arm is strong in the fight. p. 19 Army Corps of Engineers (Anonymous Seneca). p. 2 Animate (William Weatherford). p. 236 Alphabet (Sequoya). p. Jr. 583 American Indian Movement (AIM) (Anonymous AIM Leader). . 670 Assimilation (Anonymous Carlisle Graduate). 83 Annuity distribution
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (John Ridge). I cannot animate the dead. 164 (bio) (Vernon Bellecourt). 412-414 Ancestry (Jack Dempsey). 69 Animals (Sweet Medicine). p. reflect the soul of its creator. 579 Almighty (Standing Bear). 749
. 69-70 American Indian Anti-Defamation Council (Russell Means). 165 Assimilate (Janet Campbell Hale). 598 Arizona (Anonymous Apache). p. 563 Ancestors (Will Rogers). 241 (Kaywaykla). encompasses both ugliness and beauty. 11 (bio) (Dragging-Canoe). p. 743 Armies (Shabonee). . 750 (Anonymous Creek). 712 (Robert Burnette). 353 Alcoholism (Mary Brave Bird).
584 Black Hills Sioux Nation Council (Peter Dillon). greatest athlete in the world. 507 Believe (Black Kettle). 579 (Little Big Man). 752 (George Bent). 703 Avarice (Maris Bryant Pierce). 724 Battle (Black Hawk). p. 771 (Baptiste Good). Ruth (Ella Deloria). Dennis (Russell Means). 103 (bio) (Spotted Tail). to believe white men. these Black Hills were a reclining female figure. . . 289-292 (Anonymous Apache). 377 (Vine Deloria. Jr. 582. 657 (Napoleon B.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Big Eagle). my first audience . 576 Big Hole River (White Bird). named . 156 (John Echohawk). the Black Hills the most. 8 Banks. p. 367 Benedict. p. walking in beauty. never to drop the axe. 378 (Red Dog). 432 Atrocities (American Horse). . p. on account of their color. is never sated. pp. Jr. 168 (bio) Athlete (Jim Thorpe). 213. we loved . 19 Association on American Indian Affairs (Jerry Flute). . . is American Indians. 509 Better Off (Vine Deloria. Ross). 410 Betrayal (Robert Burnette). 371 (Severt Young Bear). 770. 169-170 (bio) Barbed-wire mind (Leonard Crow Dog). hard . .). p. 140 Benders gang (William P. 301 Audience (Louise Erdrich). this continent a lot better off. 146 (bio) Beauty (Lori Cupp). wonted avarice .). 166 Beadwork (LaDonna Harris). hopes I should be killed in Battle. 748 Axe (Tahajadoris). .). . 17 (bio) Black Hills (Anonymous Teton). 85 (Ira Hayes). 769. p. 148 (bio) Blackfeet (Anonymous Shoshone). We don't sit around doing beadwork. 444 Assistance (Pontiac). 121 (bio) Benevolent (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 21 (Sarah Winnemucca). 766 Blackfeet Confederacy (Crowfoot). 155 (Yellow Wolf). 499-500 (Wild Cat). . p. Jr. 550 Bargaining power ("Indians of All Tribes") only bargaining power that we have. 583 Black Hawk War (Black Hawk). 177 Awake (Anonymous Ojibway). 217 (Standing Elk). Johnson). 55 (bio)
. Awake! Awake! my beloved. . p. 56 Battle Tactics (William Weatherford). 325 Bill of Rights (Vine Deloria. 298 (Logan). I cannot accept money for the Black Hills. 76 (bio) Bear Tribe Medicine Society (Sun Bear). 552 Bear Paw Mountains
227 (Chief Joseph). good intentions of a benevolent government.
627 Buffalo (Anonymous Assiniboine). ever drew bow against the United States. 364 (William Mclntosh). 30 Brotherhood (Jake L.S. p. 399 Born (Mary Brave Bird). the blood is red. the Great Spirit's book which is the whole of his creation. 162 (Logan). U. the buffalo is our money. 518 Brothers (Russell Means). 297. . 299 Blind (Kushiway). there runs not a drop of my blood. 121 (bio) Bones (Red Iron). when you were young and weak. 308 Blood (Lion Bear). 705 (Cochise). . 205 (Spokane Garry). . 80 (Ouray the Arrow). are our cattle. none . you have brains. make the snow red with the blood of the white man. 42 (bio) Black Kettle (George Bent). 22 (Red Cloud). 94 (bio) Boudinot. 60 (Ten Bears). 114 Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (Black Elk). same as the whites. . . stain the earth red with their blood. . 175 (Tecumseh). . p. . 113 Brother (Cornplanter). 72 (bio). The buffalo gives food . 191 (Standing Buffalo). Jr. I want no blood on my land. 758 (Black Kettle). we other Indians . California offered bounties for dead Indians. 178 Boston University (Charles A.). troops did.S. 109 (bio) (Sitting Bull). . . 268 Bulldozers (John Echohawk). give up the buffalo for the sheep. 306 Brave (Luther Standing Bear). ever try skinning a buffalo. and clothing. Franz (Ella Deloria). what U.228 Blackfoot (Washakie). 259 Breath (Ten Bears). we will leave our bones on the ground. p. p. 387 Bravery (Anna Moore Shaw). 101 (bio) (Kicking Bear). 454 (Sitting Bull). make sure you are born white and male. 221 Boundaries (Little Turtle). we are all brothers. . 99 (bio) (Luther Standing Bear). pp. 47 Brains
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Sarah Winnemucca). . 83 (bio). 658
. p. 115 Boas. I used to call you brother. if we cut ourselves. Whitecrow. 279 Book (Tatanga Mani). p. trail of blood. 754 (Anonymous Sioux). 136 (Bull Bear). wherever the buffalo range. 483 Bow (Pushmataha). we are born like the animals. 334 (Ten Bears). where everything drew a free breath. p. are blind. Eastman). Elias (John Rollin Ridge). the red men became like the buffalo. to become a great brave. here come the buffalo returning. 363. forest service bulldozers accomplish . buffalo . our country . 35 Bounties (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). we must live near the buffalo.
682 Center for Support and Protection of Indian Religions and Indigenous Traditions (John LaVelle). p. 216 (Jim Thorpe). Lewis (John Ross). soldiers look . 85 (bio). 188 (bio) Camp Grant Massacre (Anonymous Apache). 108 (bio). useless beings. 165 Carlisle (Anonymous Carlisle Graduate). 126-127 (bio) (Gail Small). 750 (Kushiway). pp.R. the identity offered to the Indian was and remains a Catch-22. p. p. . 109 (bio) Carter. p. 752 Care (Wild Cat). p. p. 309 Butcher (Dull Knife). we will butcher each other. the Cherokee. . p. Fox). . 706 Cemetery (Anonymous Seneca). p. p. 592 Bureau of Caucasian Affairs ("Indians of All Tribes"). 727 Bureau of Indian Affairs (Louis R. never give a bum an even break. 496 Bureaucracy (Clyde Warrior). cession of our possessory rights in Georgia. pp. p. 100 Change (Sweet Medicine). 253 California State University at Long Beach (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). 196 (bio) Cession (John Ross). p. take care of me. 284 Captives (Anonymous Apache).S. 498 Chariton Review Press (Jim Barnes). [the centaur reflects] my hybrid status. 99 Catch-22 (John Mohawk). 206 (bio). will not let us keep oland] . 71 (bio)
. pp. . 307 (Spotted Tail). 494 Burial (William Warren). 178 (bio) (Phillip Martin). like those who butchered. p. 517 (Russell Means).
229 (Captain Jack). 129-130 (bio) (Robert Burnette). General E. . 616 (Grace Thorpe). 482 California University at Monterey Bay (George Baldwin). only one tribe that knows much . 220 Bury (Doublehead). Jimmy (Russell Means). by doing away with the [BIA] you stop making . 762 Centaur (Wendy Rose). 1-3 (Grace Thorpe). 752 Canada (L. 383 (Ben Reifel). 119 (bio) Carlisle School (Luther Standing Bear). 169-170 (bio) (Billy Mills). . p. 647 (Mark Maracle). 308 Cherokee Phoenix (Elias Boudinot). 510 (Sandra J. 173 Butchered (Roman Nose). Bruce). 629 Cass. 586 Canby. . 634 Bumper Stickers (Tim Giago). we are like cats. bureaucracy out of control. 154 (bio) Cherokee (Kushiway). 79 (bio). . David Jacobs).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Bum (James Welch). 165 (bio) (Carlos Montezuma). 664 Cats (Mary Brave Bird). 36 (bio) Chicago (Simon Pokagon). sufficient to bury our dead.
656 (Oren R. 651 Color (Ben Calf Rove). 457 (Russell Means). p. 106 (bio) (White Bird). Sr. what life we can make for our children. p. Christians see themselves as . p. Robert (Anonymous Indian Boy). 129-130 (bio)
. 147 (bio) (Wetatonmi). 335 Children (Sitting Bull). I am a chief no more. party of civilization. Sr. 544 Christians (Tatanga Mani). p. 140 Cleanliness (Susan LaFlesche Picotte). 622 (N. 303
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Crazy Horse). throw off the garments of civilization. 269 Chiefs (Standing Buffalo). p. 153 Chivington. the power of the world always works in circles. 207 (bio) Colonialism (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). Bruce). 27 (bio). p. 609 (Leonard Peltier). Lyons). p. the church is a crutch. 145 (bio) (Teddy Draper. 144 (bio) Coles. 221 (Sarah Winnemucca). tribal dances . not for Christians. p. 400 (Anna Moore Shaw). when we all have the same color of skin. 145 (bio) (Peter MacDonald). 595 (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 630 Columbus. 44 (bio) (Yellow Wolf). 618 Code talkers (Eugene R.). . . 96 (bio).230 Chief Joseph (Jim Earthboy). 146 (bio) (Wilson Keedah. 122 Coal mining (Gail Small).) p. 293 Civilized (Anonymous Creek). Lyons). Crawford). we do not want your civilization. 357 Civil War (Opothleyoholo). 33 (bio) (Thomas Pegg). p. horses. Columbus brought European religious intolerance. p. 430 Commissioner of Indian Affairs (Louis R. Colonel John (George Bent). we must claim what is ours. 749 Claim (Peter MacDonald). 105-108. Scott Momaday). 560 Circles (Black Elk). 452 Church (Lorraine Canoe). and everything else. 109 Civilization (Old Tassel). p. 543 (Russell Means). 361 Co-existence impossibility (Opothleyoholo). 562564 (Red Fox). Christopher (John Echohawk). rising generation could be educated and civilized. 520 Cleaned out (Black Kettle). 687 Chisholm Trail (Jesse Chisholm). p. we are the chiefs of the plains. 134 Chosen People (Oren R. p. 83 (bio) (Black Kettle). Columbus makes Hitler look like a juvenile delinquent. 264 Chinook (Larry Echohawk). . cleaned out our lodges. a special creation. . 342-343 (John Ross). 15 (Susette LaFlesche). 91 (bio) Chief (Kicking Bird). 323 (John Rollin Ridge).
our lives. the creator has made human beings' bodies . pp. nobody makes coyotes behave like beavers. my art is contemporary because I live in the present. 749 (Anonymous Wyandot). p. 400 Crazy (Sweet Medicine). p. to slaughter cattle . the blades of grass. 106 (bio) Creation (Meninock). travel over the country and have no trouble. Michael (Logan). 103. 118-119 (bio) (Sitting Bull). . . 247 Cooper Union (Little Raven). the country was big enough for the white man and the Arapahos. 73 Count (Sitting Bull). 80 (bio) Cowardice (Little Crow). . . we have absolutely no continuity. they get them to a corral.). p. as he had made the earth. p. but only the Great Spirit can count . 696 Cresap. . 20-21 Crime
. so-called // conquest . 496 Conversion (Anonymous Creek). you will become crazy and will forget all that I am teaching. 142 Coyotes (Tatanga Mani). 260a Country (Little Raven). p. 72 (bio) (Young-Man-Afraid). will cost us our lands./ of the Western area. p. 579 Concentration Camp (Tim Giago). 487 Contemporary (Robert Haozous). 40-41 (Sitting Bull). Jr. 192 Coping
231 (Sherman Alexie). . 784 (Red Jacket). 193 (Delshay). a universal spiritual C. p. 428 Credit (Big Eagle). 650 Continuity (Grace Thorpe). 233 Cost (Major Ridge). 215 Cooperation (Satanta). 131 (bio) Corral tanding Bear). 72 Compensation (Vine Deloria. 109 (Thomas Pegg). 438 Creator (John Stands in Timber). 719 Cornplanter (Harriett Pierce). . 268 (Spotted Tail). 27 (bio). 96 (bio) Confederate Army (Opothleyoholo). . 3 Crazy Horse (Red Fox). 62 (bio). p. you can count your money . 790 Conqueror (Peter Dillon). 222 Common Sense (Oren R. a nation is not conquered until the hearts of its women are on the ground. 590 Confederacy (John Ross). 157 Credo (Larry Echohawk). too. 508 Conquered (Cheyenne Proverb). 105106. a conquered people has to take what the conqueror gives. 33 (bio) Connectedness (Lori Cupp). 540-542 Compact of 1802 (Major Ridge). 271 Court of Indian Affairs (Gall). 532 Conquest (Frederick Dockstader).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Ely Parker). Lyons).
673 Death (Paula Gunn Allen). 763-767 Culture (Carl Gorman). 740 (Anonymous Shoshone). 570 (Flying Hawk). p. p. Eastman). 88 (bio). General George (Geronimo). 722 Custer. 663 (Wooden Leg). 95 Days (Charles A. 76 (Red Cloud). 741
. the invisible dead of my tribe. 98 (Tecumseh). 612 (Big Elk). I have signed my death warrant. as the noble. 377 (Red Fox). 90 (bio) (Baptiste Good). stately deer. 100 (bio) (Crazy Horse). life of the Navajo is harsh and cruel. 468 Crying (George Bent). 672 (Lorraine Canoe). . do our best with the hand we've been dealt. 326 Death Penalty (National Council). 468-469 Qanet Campbell Hale). swift . 760 Dallas. 279 (Seattle). 742 Defiance (Anonymous Mohawk). 756 Day (Seattle). 118 (bio) (Two Moon). 536 (Black Elk). 239-240 Death Song (George Bent). 209 (Red Iron). . 300 (Jim Earthboy). day and night cannot dwell together. p. death . George (Herbert Blatchford). 97 Dealt (Janet Campbell Hale). we have a living culture. 189-190 (bio) Cruel (Carl Gorman). 296 (Vine Deloria. Death will come. 373 (Yellow Wolf). 72 (bio) (John Stands in Timber). 366-370 Criminals (Leonard Peltier). Ross). p. 688-689 Danger (Elias Boudinot). 558 (Gaetana DeGennaro). p. Jr. "immediate and appalling/' 133 Dartmouth (Michael Dorris). 182 (bio) Dawes Commission (Anonymous Creek). p. 66 (Wetatonmi). p. 529 Cultural interaction (Anonymous Delaware). Marie Pierce
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (David C. 651 Crook. to stand and resist we are called criminals. 337 Dead (Seattle). 118-119 (bio) (Sitting Bull). 82 (bio). Warren). no America without the death of an Indian. 315 (Will Rogers). 415 (Wilma Mankiller). pp. . Custer died for your sins. 299 Death Warrant (Major Ridge). 75 Deception (Black Hawk). Leonard (Mary Brave Bird). 54 Deer (Anonymous Ojibway). 99 (bio) Dakotas (Anonymous Sioux). 42 (bio) Crow Dog. everyone was crying even the warriors.232 (William P. . people talking and crying. all days are God's. p. 242 Crow (Washakie). pp.). 665 Dams (Larry Echohawk). fear of death. there is danger. but a change of worlds. p.
38 Disarmament (Powhatan). die with a silent throat. we shall disappear forever. 18 (Anonymous Wintu). 703 Dream (Black Elk). 248 (Anna Moore Shaw). 172 (Fred Coyote). 454 (Standing Bear). like the rabbits when the hungry wolves hunt them. Dependence does not destroy sovereignty. Michael (Louise Erdrich). p. 566567 Dependence (Lewis Downing). . 219 Desolation (John Ross). 439-440 Dogs (Little Crow). 144 (Satanta). 734 (Geronimo). 674 (Peter MacDonald). I will die an Indian. 392 (Janet Campbell Hale). 183 Dundy. 378 (Osceola). . reaches the reservations. 287 (Dull Knife). speak to the individual. 143 Die (Captain Jack). a people's dream died. die in peace. you will die. 65 Deloria. 451 Disease (Palaneapope). Ella (Anonymous Pine Ridge Sioux). 782 Destroyed (Tecumseh). 554
233 Dignity (Allan Houser). 478 Dime (Gail Small). like dogs in the Hot Moon. we must learn to appreciate diversity. only a dime of every dollar . strive for . p. Dreams . not afraid to die. . white people destroy all. . 691 Democratic Party (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). better to die fighting. 208 (bio). Alcatraz . 141 (Tecumseh). . 65 Devil Water (Little Crow). we grow pale and die. claim . I mean to destroy the English. 282 Diversity (Janice LaFountain). 760 Demagogues (John Ross). 36 (Meninock). . I wish to die in this land. 101 Democratic National Convention (Larry Echohawk). . contribute our differences. 360 Dreams (Edward Goodbird). . 189 (bio). 231 Differences (LaDonna Harris). 241 (Little Crow). 719 (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 108 Destroy (Pontiac). all dreams were thought to be from the spirits.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Little Big Man). Judge Elmer
. by right of discovery. 143 Dog Soldiers (Bull Bear). 725 Discrimination (Sherman Alexie). wisdom comes in dreams. dare to dream great dreams. 731 Division of Labor (Little Turtle). when we settle down. 522 (Smohalla). 616 Disappear (Red Jacket). . 103 (bio) Dorris. will we let ourselves be destroyed. dignity. . 5 Discovery ("Indians of All Tribes"). p.
124 (John Rogers). Lyons). 766 (Captain Jack). 408 (John Castillo). 692. 447-448
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Anonymous Carlisle Graduate). 717 (Conassatego). 305 Emigrants (Washakie). good for the skin to touch the earth. 389 (Anonymous Wintu). 467 (Pushmataha). 83 Encampment (Anonymous Sioux). 514 (Opothleyoholo). 476 (Sarah Winnemucca). living in an Indian-managed economy. 251 (Yellow Wolf). your ears are full of roaring water. 537-542 Economy (Louis R. 456 (Oren R. Lyons). 783 (Jim Barnes). 287 Enemy (Wild Cat). Bruce). 164 (Anonymous Prayer). 417 (Spotted Tail). Lyons). 458 (Oren R. 462-465 (Will Rogers). 329 Environmental Justice (Gail Small). 330-332 (Tatanga Mani). to save her. leagued with our enemies. 312 (Satanta). 399 (Phillip Martin). 144 Earth (N. no seat for the eagles. 474 (Crazy Horse).). 374 Environment (Vine Deloria. 542-547 (Quanah Parker). 750 (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). the earth. 537 Ear (Petalesharo). Scott Momaday). my greatest enemy—myself. Indian tribes are major
. one does not sell the earth. 695 Ecology (Anonymous Wintu). 11-13 (Tim Giago). 760 Encroachment (Tuskeneah). . . 116 (Little Crow). a great encampment of all the Dakotas who had ever lived. 294 (Hollow Horn). will beg you . 792 Emuckfaw (William Weatherford). in one ear and out the other. 348 Eagles (Oren R. 216-217 (Annie Dodge Wauneka). how can the spirit of the earth like the white man. Jr. 458 (Hollow Horn). a man ought to concentrate his mind upon the remembered earth. entered one ear and shall not escape. 455 Education (Sam Ahkcah).234 (Standing Bear). 245-246 Enemies (Anonymous Shoshone). 687-690 (Harriett Starleaf Gumbs). 593 (Kushiway). 561 (Larry Echohawk). 307-308 (Francis LaFlesche). 456 Echo Hawk (Larry Echohawk). 783 (Harriett Pierce). 577 (Harriett Starleaf Gumbs). your mother. 781-782. 235 Dust (Little Hill). 118 (Young-Man-Afraid). 150-152 Empathy (Proverb). it was all dust. my enemies under me. 596 (Luther Standing Bear). 44 (Ben Reifel). Indians have a spiritual tie with the earth. 374 Ears (Keokuk). 785 Enforcement (Young-Man-Afraid).
668 Ethnically diverse (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 746 FBI Agents' Murders (Leonard Peltier). 228 (Red Jacket). 730 Exterminated (Standing Bear). 145 Father (Big Thunder). 210 (bio) Fetterman Massacre (Red Cloud). 143 (bio) Evans. 27 Eyes (Anonymous Ojibway). I will fight no more forever. 450 Fallen Timbers (Little Turtle). 612-614 Exploited (Paula Gunn Allen). 37 (Speckled Snake). 240 Expansion (Red Jacket). 295 Exploitation (Paula Gunn Allen). p. 69 Evil spirit (Petalesharo). Jeremiah (Sequoya). 675 Farewell (Black Hawk). Louise (Michael Dorris). 177 (bio) Fear (Logan). eyes like the eagle's. Warren (Anonymous Shoshone). who are the white people that we should fear them?. . 144
235 (John Rogers). we were no expense to the government. 745 Family (Linda Hogan). p. for many thousands of years. the Great Spirit is our Father. Albert (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). . my children have been exterminated. 128-129 Expense (Crazy Horse). 617 Erdrich. your eyes are full of smoke. ethnically diverse peoples who had prospered . 562 Europe (Phillip Martin). never felt fear. 60 Ferris. 56 (bio) Fiction (Janet Campbell Hale). 23 (Tecumseh). p. 674 Fight (Chief Joseph). 461 Faithfulness (Anonymous Winnebago).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX players in the environmental justice movement. give up these lands and go over the great Father of Waters. her eyes sparkled as the sun's laughing waters. proclaim the extinction of the whole race. treaties may be
. 743 (Little Crow). 32 Fame (Anonymous Ojibway). 182 (bio). 273 (Dragging-Canoe). 121 Execution (Big Eagle). p. 38 Extinction (Dragging-Canoe). from where the sun now stands. 614 Extended Family (Jeanne Bearcrane). 777 Fall. 419 Father of Waters (Major Ridge). Fiction and dreams spring from a common well. We've been exploited right out of house and home. 160 Executioners (National Council). 74 Fawn-Eyed One (Anonymous Ojibway). p. piercing and bright. 234 Extermination (Ely Parker). I am resigned to my fate. 58 Fate (John Ridge).
Fight.236 all right for men too old to . . 130 Fort Keogh (Wooden Leg). p. 68 (Anonymous Delaware). 138 Five civilized tribes (Lewis Downing). the past days of real freedom. p. 746 Flush (Paula Gunn Allen). the Great Spirit . 6 (bio). white man comes upon us as a flood. p. 765 Firewater (Tecumseh). 11 (bio) (Pontiac). . my fighting days are done. every star in this flag represented a state stolen from Indians. carry their lives on their fingernails. in front of a great prairie fire. 352 French (Tahajadoris). p. the first American—the Red Man. 207 Freedom (Chief Joseph). Keeler). . 708 Flag-raising photo (Ira Hayes). some Navajo goes without the water. 184 (bio) Free (Red Cloud). 21 Friendship
. 9 (bio) (Teedyuscung). we must fight each other's battles. . 740 Forest (William Mclntosh). 277 (Satanta). 235 Firearms (Anonymous Shoshone). mountains. 473 Forked Tongue (Speckled Snake). 690 (Meninock). before the white man came. has provided food for us in these . p. p. 441^42 Fish-ins (Herbert Blatchford). every time you flush the toilet. 297 (Mary Brave Bird). 180 Fire (Standing Bear). . . 500-502 Flood (Opothleyoholo). 740 First American (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 530 Fishing rights (Henry Adams). 78 Forgiveness (William W. we had the fish . poisonous firewater. 43 Forefathers (Anonymous Delaware). 218 Flag (George Bent). you have drunk the poison firewater. 123
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Florida (James Kaywaykla). 441 Fish-in demonstrations (Janet McCloud). live as your wise forefathers lived. 149 (bio) (Melvin Thorn). 303 Foxwoods Casino (Richard A. 6 (bio) Friend (Logan). 138 (bio). 8-9 French and Indian War (Cornplanter). 167 (bio) Fitzpatrick. 652-653 (Larry Echohawk). . Hayward). 439. flowers that drink dew. . 613 Food (Minavana). p. 411 Fish (Meninock). 117 (bio) (Wild Cat). the friend of white men. free as the winds and eagle. Thomas (Black Kettle). lakes and . p. 351 Fort McDermitt (Sarah Winnemucca). we were like the trees of the forest. 28 (Tecumseh). . 170 Fingernails (Cochise). 61 Fighting (Dull Knife). p. 165 Flowers (Anonymous Ojibway). . 248 (Wooden Leg).
gets nothing. 449 Good Indian (Satanta). p. 194 Golden Gate Exposition (Allan Houser). 647 (Wallace Wells. 498 Gambling (Darren Bonaparte). forced relocation. David Jacobs). 336 (Young-Man-Afraid). 20 Genocide (Dennis Banks). 267 Grass
. Hamlin (Two Moon). p. p. When I look for game. 758-759 GI benefits (Joseph Nicholas). Ulysses (Geronimo). 603 (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 62 (bio) Grasping Eagle (Sitting Bull). 594 Glory (Black Hawk). 610 Georgia Legislature (William Mclntosh). path to glory is rough. a state of grace. the gift of seeing truly. 732 (Russell Means). p. benefits. 88 (bio) Garry. 50 (bio) Generation Gap (Emma Marks). Lyons). 424 (Little Raven). 241 (Ely Parker). didn't receive any G. 78 Georgia Militia (William Weatherford). watch your garbage float away. Lyons). relic of the gold-rush days. imported disease. 625 (John Mohawk). not accident. 500 Gold (James Kaywaykla). 684 Frustration (Grace Thorpe).). 247 Good luck charm (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 52 (Ira Hayes). our government has been paralyzed. 151 Garbage (Oren R. 564 (John LaVelle). 85 Ghost Dance
(Kicking Bear). 547 Garland. 376 Ghost Dance Songs (Anonymous Sioux). 407 Fringes (Leslie Silko). the good Indian . General Gordon (Cochise). and outright genocide. 565 Good Spirit (Petalesharo). the metal forbidden to man. Scott Momaday). I see only wagons with white tops. 44-45 Frightened (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 121 Government (Thomas Pegg). Jr. p. 72 (bio) (Wovoka). frightened and bewildered as the young of a wild creature. 664 (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). 350 (Sitting Bull). 697 (L. 587-588 (Larry Echohawk). . we live somewhere on the fringes. Genocide is colonial policy.I. 539 Granger. slavery. publicity and glory. 503 Gift (N. 93 (bio). 178 Grant. 99 (bio). 133 (bio) Gold-rush (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 477 Generosity (Logan). spiritual genocide. p. gold.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Pushmataha). p. 733 Game (Washakie). nationhood or genocide. . Spokane (Polatkin). 342 Grace (Oren R. 608.
taken your hand. 169. 52 (Edward Goodbird). 346 (Red Cloud). 173 (Little Hill). be removed. . there is no Great Father between me and the Great Spirit. 512
. the hawk . 429 (Sun Bear). . . 177 Graves (Red Cloud). 201 (Seattle). William Henry (Tecumseh). I insist the guns and swords . 84 (bio) Healing (Big Thunder). 262 Haughty (Anonymous Winnebago). 518 Harris. 198-199 (Spotted Tail). I hate all the white people. never misses its prey. 145 (bio) Guggenheim Fellowship
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Allan Houser). prairies. p. 148 Hancock. 391 (William Mclntosh). 79 Haozous. 129 Gratitude (Maris Bryant Pierce). 419 Heart (Sarah Winnemucca). (Sarah Winnemucca). 152 (bio) Harrison. 67 Guadalcanal (Wilson Keedah. 186 (Speckled Snake). 778 Hawk (Anonymous Ojibway). Sr.. we neither know nor feel any debt of gratitude. p. his people . 76 (Black Hawk). we have sold our own graves. 764 (Big Elk). 5 Hair (Alexander Posey). 19 (bio). 401 Hair cutting (Dennis Banks). p. do not act haughty toward your husband. we Indians did not believe in one Great Spirit. 604-605 Halfbreed race (John Ridge). 63 Hate (Sitting Bull). 507 (Jake L. sacred graves to be plowed for corn.238 (Red Cloud). 72 Harmony (Lori Cupp). 171. 65 Grief (George Bent). p.). 774 Hayes. . 481 Happy Hunting Grounds (Major Ridge). 253 Hand (Black Kettle). . Whitecrow. 78 (Red Fox). grovel to none. took our Great Father's advice. your people are like blades of grass. 133 (bio) Guns (Powhatan). 88 (Smohalla). General Winfield Scott (Roman Nose). 527 (Tecumseh). 137 (William Mclntosh). written on my heart. Fred (LaDonna Harris). Rutherford B. Robert (Allan Houser). while the grass grows or the river runs. we took the white man by the hand. 212 Greatness (Seattle). 280 Great Father (Dull Knife). children of the Great Spirit. . 374-376 Grovel (Tecumseh). 90 Great Spirit (Anonymous Shoshone). are like the grass that covers the . Jr. the greatness of tribes now almost forgotten. . 61. 304 Heathens (Robert Burnette). 300 Grievances (Young-Man-Afraid). harmony within the Universe. 199 (Red Iron). p.).
24 (bio) Hostiles (Daisy Albert). 776-780 Hypocrisy (Plenty-Coups). p. 752 Henderson State University (George Baldwin). 545 (Wilma Mankiller). . 35 Hunting Rights (Old Tassel). 423 (Powhatan). as though we were wild animals. 357-358. 32 (bio) Humble (Sitting Bull). the nation's hoop is broken. 610 (Janet McCloud). the greater and best part of your brothers' hunting ground. 709
239 Horseshoe Bend (William Weatherford). these histories can be likened to an iceberg. the flowering tree was the living center of the hoop. p. unless there are writings . . . admitted to heaven . 635 Hunted (James Kaywaykla). 366 Houser. 660 Home (Susan LaFlesche Picotte). p. the history of holocaust visited upon the indigenous peoples. . in a great book. Allan (Robert Haozous). 16-17 Husband (Anonymous Winnebago). 6 Hunter College (Lorraine Canoe). p. p. 100 (bio). 320-321 Iceberg (Oren R. . 176 (bio) Hughes Aircraft (Peter MacDonald). Trail of Tears was . p. 738 (Four Guns).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Heaven (Anonymous Wyandot). trying to humble me. 268 Humor (Linda Hogan). . p. 144 (bio) (Joseph C. 192 (bio) Hunting (Pontiac). no white man . 677 Games Welch). . 622 Holistic education (Sandra J. 691 (Carl Gorman). Warren). 531 House Committee on Territories (William P. from the sacred hoop. 430 (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). Vasquez). Lyons). . 543 Ideas
. 188 (bio) Heritage (Larry Echohawk). Adolph (Russell Means). p. Herbert (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 472 (Red Cloud). 421 Helplessness (Anonymous Apache). hunted . 114 (bio) (Charles Curtis). our power came . 530 Hitler. 358. Ross). 784 (Anonymous Delaware). develop humor or die of despair. Lyons). I am the Maker of heaven and earth. . 355 Hope (Mary Brave Bird). p. places without hope. 252 Hunting Ground (Little Turtle). 665 History (Red Fox). 19 (Satanta). the home is the foundation. to be so hunted that I cannot rest. 135 (bio) Human Sacrifice (Petalesharo). 655 Holocaust (Oren R. . Fox). 362 Hoop (Black Elk). 360 Hoover. p. our holocaust. 208 (David C. 154 (bio) (Gaetana DeGennaro). . the real hostiles are the whites. . history books are wrong.
525 (Ira Hayes).). 633 Indian agent (Black Kettle). 644 Indian Law Resource Center Gohn Mohawk). 497 Indian police (Sitting Bull). Sr. we preferred hunting to a life of idleness. 146-148 Gohn Ross). 82-86
. 434 Indianness (Frederick Dockstader). 161 Indian (Luther Clearwater). 127-128 Injustice (Vine Deloria. Crawford). no precedent for . 726-728 Iroquois (Larry Echohawk). 119 (bio) Interpreter (Cornplanter). 138 (bio) (Wilson Keedah. we are what we imagine. Jr. 497 (Joseph C. 145 (bio) Jackson. 36 (bio) (Pushmataha). 582-583 (Leslie Silko). Scott Momaday). p. new and selfish ideas. 127-130 (Tuskeneah). 38 Iwo Jima (Eugene R. the quality of Indianness. p. guiding set of esthetics in Indian art.). 489 (Billy Mills). . Andrew (Elias Boudinot). 449
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Information Age (George Baldwin). p. so busy actin' Indi'n. 44 Interior Department (Grace Thorpe). 40 (bio). 116-117 Intruders (Oochalata). 720 (LaDonna Harris). p. 633 Idleness (Crazy Horse). Vasquez). Jr. 496 International Olympic Committee Gim Thorpe). p. we stand a small island. 181 (bio) Indian life (Ella Deloria). 31 Inter-tribal disputes (Keokuk). historic injustices perpetrated on indigenous people. p. 693 Island (Red Jacket). 16 (bio) Gohn Ridge). 686 Injustices (Richard A.). 294a Images (Simon Ortiz).). 398 Identity (Anonymous Carlisle Graduate). Hayward). 553 (Inter-Tribal Meeting). 344 Investment (Phillip Martin). 24 (bio). 267 Indian Rights Association (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). Sr. 138 Indian art (W. 718 (Simon Ortiz). 245 (William Weatherford). don't know how to be Indi'n. 515 Irony ("Indians of All Tribes"). 639 Imagine (N. only an Indian knows who he is. . 607 (Grace Thorpe). determined to hold to identity. 27 (bio). 145 (bio) (Teddy Draper. p. 506 Games Welch). 639 (Grace Thorpe). Richard West. 750 (Gaetana DeGennaro). 99 (Speckled Snake). 597 Imprisonment (Lion Bear). investment. images of Dick and Jane. p. p. p. 678 Interaction (Pushmataha). 484 Qames Welch). 701 Ingratitude (Speckled Snake).240 (Dan Katchongva).
the Lakotas are now a sad. Ross). 72 (William Mclntosh). p. 101 Jurisdiction (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). Evan Gohn Ross). 718 (Robert Haozous). 541 Kahokia (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). KnickKnacks and tourist souvenirs.). gain knowledge from my walks. Jr. 4 (bio) Japanese (Eugene R. Ross). 78 (Old Tassel). I love the land and I love people. 309 (Inter-Tribal Meeting). . 249 Land (Anonymous Cherokee). 488 Knights of the Hood (William P. you call the Great Spirit Jesus. p. p. 523 Jealousy (Anonymous Winnebago). . 101 (bio) Labrador (Mark Maracle). thought I was Japanese. p. 84 (bio) Jobs (Phillip Martin). 110 (Cornplanter). 92 (bio) Lakotas (Luther Standing Bear). 187 (Geronimo). 649 (Oren R. jobs gone to Mexico or Taiwan. 369 Knowledge (Vernon Cooper). . Knowledge is of the past. 466 Gohn Rogers). I have laid aside my lance. your land is your territory. we obtained the land from the living God. p. we will give you land for yourselves and for your children. Lyons). you have our land. 516 Johnson. 775 (Powhatan). 5 (bio) Knick-Knacks
241 (Frederick Dockstader). 367 LaFlesche. 244 Joan of Arc (Sarah Winnemucca). and unprogressive people. 31 (Oren R. let the soldiers . . 548 (Major Ridge). Crawford). 386 Lance (Satanta). silent.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Jamestown (Powhatan). the land supported a universe of things they valued. p. 586 Lacygne (William P. . their cry is more land. 14 (Simon Ortiz). 367 Kill (Sitting Bull). 267 Killer (Larry Echohawk). 563 Kansas (William P. too old . I have made for you. 4 Jesus (Blackfoot). . 465 Kroeber. Susette (Francis LaFlesche). 7 King Gustav Gim Thorpe). to follow your Jesus road. 490 Jones. 432 King Philip's War (King Philip). 284 (Chiksika). the land . Kill me. 736 (Anonymous Delaware). Alfred (Ishi). related to the land
. 688 King Charles (King Philip). let the real killer go free. 578 (Doublehead). Lyndon (Clyde Warrior). Lyons). 739 (Cochise). 166 (bio) Justice (Captain Jack). Ross). 179 (Vine Deloria.
I have no little ties. 587 Law (Oren R. 642 (Petalesharo). one of the problems is the distribution of literature. Abraham Gohn Ross). p. Eastman). my love of language. Robert E. 320 Laws (Tuskeneah). . 82 (bio). . 325 (Wooden Leg). 740 Literature (Vine Deloria. we have plenty of land. white men are like the locusts. are in words that we have no possible means to understanding. . . Margot Gohn Stands in Timber). 667 (Louise Erdrich). 260 Land purchase (Chief Joseph). 296 (Dull Knife). 338 Lincoln. 441 Land sale (National Council).242 . 356 Las Vegas (Darren Bonaparte). 606 Lands (Elias Boudinot). 120 (Red Cloud). personally. 239 Landlords (Dennis Banks). culturally. 664 Lewis and Clark expedition
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Anonymous Shoshone). Native American literature is about as descriptive a term as non-Native American literature. 210 Land claims (Mark Maracle). 272 Land rights (Meninock). .. 197 (Charles A. 210 (bio) Liberty. p. we are the landlords of this continent. Las Vegas in your hometown. the language of the whites. . Lyons. p. p. politically. Much contemporary literature is thinly disguised romanticism. 55 Lee. 62 (bio) Legitimacy Gohn Mohawk).). p. . 313-314. 90 (bio) (Gall). p. 541 (Plenty-Coups). 118 (bio) (Sitting Bull). 581 (Michael Dorris). p. 80 (bio) (Herbert Blatchford). p. harass our braves. 132 Language (Black Hawk). 118 (bio) (Red Fox). 298 Little Big Horn (Crazy Horse). 27 (bio) Liquor (Anonymous Delaware). p. 250 Life (Crowfoot). how smooth . 704 Little Bear (George Bent. coming to collect the rent. 50 (Simon Ortiz). 143 Long Beach (Calif. 48 (bio) (Flying Hawk). p. . 72 Laziness (Black Hawk). 638 Language recognition (Ishi). p. 99 (bio) Little Crow (Big Eagle). our lands . Laws that . I lived the natural life . now I live the artificial.) School District
. Jr. p. 585 Land ownership (Sitting Bull). are about to be seized. (Ely Parker). 246 (Major Ridge). 118 (bio) Lies (Satanta). 316-319. . 536 Gohn Stands in Timber). 160 Locusts (Little Crow). laws which . 72 (bio) 259 (Two Moon). . .
663 Manners (Francis LaFlesche). 585 (Will Rogers). 412 (William Warren). p. 704 Loves (Speckled Snake). when a white army loses . 716 Manhattan ("Indians of All Tribes"). . 268 Medicine (Edward Goodbird). 434
Machu Picchu (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 742-748 Lumpkin. p. p. Wilson (John Ridge). p. 506 Military supervision (Ely Parker). 602. . their sons . 544 Manifesto (Wilma Mankiller). 563 Mahicans (Tahajadoris). 92 Lost (Wetatonmi). everything to lose and nothing to gain. 395 Medicine Lodge (Kicking Bird). 176 Love Medicine (Louise Erdrich). 134 (bio) Lord Dunmore (Logan). 127. John Stuart (Ella Deloria). 13 Messiah (Kicking Bear). it is called a massacre. 9 Maine Legislature Goseph Nicholas). 373 Love (Polatkin). 512 Mayflower (Mark Maracle). . in order to survive . General Nelson (Chief Joseph). Lyons). 5 (bio) Mather. Major James (Sitting Bull). but he would have done the same. loves his red children. walk a mile in his moccasins. had to call themselves Mexicans. . . 275 Militants (Luther Clearwater). 167 (Satanta). 61 (bio) McLaughlin. 111 Massacred (Crazy Horse). p. the Christian doctrine of manifest destiny—that one people will rule the world. They say we massacred him [Custer]. I love everybody now that I have grey hair. 20 Lose (Seattle). militants keep wantin' to put things way back a hundred years. 9 (bio). 772-780 A Man Called Horse (Mary Brave Bird). 269 Medicine Lodge Council (Black Kettle). . my ancestors did not come over on the Mayflower. 222-226 Mill. 483 Mile (Proverb). 702. 792 Miles. . send us . p. our Indian manifesto. all lost.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). 296 Massasoit (King Philip). . 37 (bio) (Satank). 140 (bio) Male-female relationships (Anonymous Winnebago). 146
243 (Chiksika). 248 Men (Conassatego). 604 Manifest Destiny (Oren R. 726 Manhood (Dennis Banks). 273. we walked silently on into the wintry night. . 330-332 Massacre
. . 130 Love songs (Anonymous Ojibway). Cotton (Robert Burnette). 350 Mexicans (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). make men of them. and we will .
302 Misrepresentation (Black Hawk).). 281 Names (Eagle Wing). lived in harmony with Mother Nature. 425 (Palaneapope). 112 Moon (Anonymous Indian Boy). 188 Mining (Smohalla). p.244 Million (Standing Bear). the earth is our mother. 129 Missouri (William P. 101 (bio) Music (Louis W. 346-347 Minority Goseph C. 24 Mourning (Dull Knife). James (Petalesharo). 792 Modoc War (Captain Jack). those mountains are full of mines. 626 Mother Lodge Gohn Ross). put out of our misery. defile our sacred Mother Earth. 95 Mother (Big Thunder). 683-685 Moccasins (Proverb). 32 (bio). make a profit on their misery. morning must flee the rising sun. 79 (bio) Mohican (Tecumseh). 51 Missionaries (Vine Deloria. 190 Monroe. p. mourning in every lodge. 557 Mutilation Games Kaywaykla). I belong to a minority with seniority. Ballard). 64 Money (Bull Bear). were he to give me a million dollars. 3 Minnesota (Little Hill). we have given names to many beautiful things. 573 (Petalesharo). Jr. walk a mile in his moccasins. 121 Missionary (Anonymous Wyandot). money in the bank. 119. vindicate my character from misrepresentation. 301 Muscogees (Speckled Snake). 310
. when the white man landed on the moon. 563 Mourn (Logan). 363
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Ouray the Arrow). Ross). the buffalo is our money. 118 Monster (Chiksika). 484 Misery (Darren Bonaparte). 784 Mississippi (Speckled Snake). the white man is a monster who is always hungry. 185 (Sweet Medicine). 171 Muddy Lake Reservation (Sarah Winnemucca). 419 Mother Earth (Larry Echohawk). 127 Museum of Anthropology (Ishi). p. 755 Morning (Seattle). 398 Mines (Blackfoot). Vasquez). who is there to mourn. 102 Mother Nature (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 755 Moon landing (Anonymous Indian Boy). 369 Missouri River (Gall). 232 Mineral resources (Dan Katchongva). 694 (Russell Means). 288 Mixed ancestry (Leslie Silko). 588 (Sarah Winnemucca).
when the Hopi hit New York.). shared concept of nature. p. 681
. iron necessity. p. . no better than that of the Negro. p. 124 (bio) (Peter MacDonald). 112 (Charles A. names [are] essential parts of . 123 (bio) National Council of American Indians (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 162 (bio) Native American Rights Fund Gohn Echohawk). .). 479 (W. p. p. I am one of the native sons.). p. Richard West. 71 Nature (Chiksika). Whitecrow. nature . 610 Nebraska (Larry Echohawk). . unbending. Scott Momaday). 687 National Museum of the American Indian (Gaetana DeGennaro). 645 National Sacrifice Area (Russell Means). p. 720-722 (Richard A. 695 Necessity (Major Ridge). Eastman). 586 New Mexico Games Kaywaykla). we are a lost nation. personalities.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Wilma Mankiller). 157 (bio) (Napoleon B. Jr. 339 (Allan Houser). 644 Navajo Tribal Council (Sam Ahkcah). inefficiency and criminal neglect. Keeler). . 200 Negro (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 144 (bio) Nazi Germany (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). Nationhood or genocide. 5 (bio) New York (Mark Maracle). 167 (bio) (Clyde Warrior). 114 (bio) National Indian Health Board Gake L. 401-403 Narragansett (Tecumseh). 451 Neutrality Gohn Ross). p. . 528 (W. Johnson). p. 678-679 (Allan Houser). 184 (bio). 149 (bio) (Melvin Thorn). p. a position . 243 New World (King Philip). 117 (bio) Newspaper stories (Geronimo). 144 (bio) National Indian Youth Council (Herbert Blatchford). Richard West. 142 (bio) (Vine Deloria. 131 (bio) National Congress of American Indians (Robert Burnette). 64 Nation (Mark Maracle). p. 104-105 Newfoundland (Mark Maracle). 410 Negotiations (Red Cloud). Hayward). p. p. 479 (Sun Bear). 623 Nationhood (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). is their textbook for living. 174 (bio). p. Jr. Jr. 608 Native American Literature Prize (N. . 586 National Association of Manufacturers (William W. . 192 (bio). 136 (bio) National Marine Fisheries Service (Larry Echohawk). 659 (Alexander Posey). . almost all of Nebraska. p. 586 (Wendy Rose). Jr. p. living in harmony with nature. p.). 73 Neglect (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). we were close students of nature. the Pawnee used to have . p. 178 (bio) Native sons
(Major Ridge). the white man seeks to conquer nature.
Crawford). 374 Northeast Missouri State University Gim Barnes). disfigure their faces with black paint. 145 (bio) Oklahoma (Dull Knife). The Indian's night promises to be dark. Joseph (Cornplanter). 48 Oakmulgee (Speckled Snake). 431 (Seattle). 49 (bio) (Will Rogers). tidings like the sound of the fall of a mighty oak. General Innis N. 154 (bio) New York World's Fair (Allan Houser). 672 Ollokot
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Wetatonmi). p. p. p. hooting of an owl is a bad omen. Indian oral history has not been acceptable. 133 (bio) Nez Perce War (White Bird). 615 Oral history (Simon Ortiz). you . orator of the plains. 174 Outcasts (Sitting Bull). North America is our old country. 757 Paint (Red Fox). 171 (bio) Ottawa (L. p. . Wells). Keeler). the child not knowing . 129 Oconee (Specked Snake. Johnson). 142 Okinawa (Eugene R. until there is no more out.). 435-436
. p. 149 Owl (Anonymous Pima). 69 (bio) Origin (Leslie Silko). 128-129 Oil (Will Rogers). 44 (bio) Nicholson. 154 (bio) Northern Cheyenne (LaDonna Harris). 31 Night (Seattle). have made us outcasts. p. David Jacobs). banded outlaws . 757 Operation Desert Storm Gerry Flute). John (Young-Man-Afraid). 254 Parents (Anonymous Winnebago). 418 Oklahoma Hall of Fame (William W. . 119 (bio). for the purposes of intimidation or assassination. 637 Orator (Satanta). p. 291 Oak (Pushmataha). 418 Ojibways (Little Crow). 432-433 Omen (Anonymous Pima). 262 Outlaws Gohn Ridge). 780 Passamaquoddy Homes Incorporated Goseph Nicholas). 91 Palmer. p. 140 (bio). 131 (bio) Oklahoma Supreme Court (Napoleon B.246 New York City (Lorraine Canoe). his mother was dead was still nursing. 123 (bio) Old country (Janet Campbell Hale). Sr. p. 647 Out (Spokane Garry). 555 Nursing (American Horse). our origin is unlike any other. p. p. 504 Paternalism (Ella Deloria). p. 165 (bio) Gim Thorpe). (Roman Nose). p. 106 (bio) Olympics (Billy Mills). . 685 Orre Drumrite Walking Heritage (Elizabeth A. p. p. hooting of an owl is a bad omen. . . 96 Noble. 145 (bio) (Wilson Keedah. .
are political. 132 (Dull Knife). 64 Policy (Leslie Silko). 5 (bio) (Mark Maracle). . poems about Indians written by whites. 723 Peyote (Mary Brave Bird). p. 742 Pine Ridge Reservation (Russell Means). Susan LaFlesche (Francis LaFlesche). Eastman). we shall never make peace. 7 (Little Turtle). Great Spirit made us poor. 22 (bio) Peace (Black Kettle). any pretty pebble was valuable. 715 Philadelphia (Little Turtle). poor because we are all honest.). their poems. p. 169 (Gall). . 572 (King Philip). 117 (King Philip). 19 Plight (Vine Deloria. p. 641 Games Welch). 202 (bio) ' Poor (Red Cloud). take pity on us. 288 (Keokuk). 134 (Elias Boudinot).). to live in peace. p. Mississippi (David C. 335 Poor People's March
. Poetry is a way of engendering life. 362 Picotte. 34 (Red Cloud). 404-405. 131 (bio) Physician (Susan LaFlesche Picotte). 92 (bio) (Susette LaFlesche)." 571 Plow (Smohalla). 619-621 Political attacks (Ely Parker). there is no peace. 406 Pokanoket (Tecumseh). 36 Philadelphia. graceful as the young pine. 365 (Standing Buffalo). Warren). 86 Pebble (Charles A. 203 (Tahajadoris). Jr. 202 (Red Dog). as a physician I can do a great deal more. 666 Phillips Petroleum (William W. 229-230 Politics (Larry Echohawk). 90 (bio) Pilgrims (Vine Deloria. 379-381 Pawnee (Big Elk). p. your children.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Carlos Montezuma). 10 Peace plan (Ely Parker). Jr. 686 Policy issues (Daniel Peaches). I shall treat of peace only with the King. 687 Pontiac (Anonymous Delaware). Politics can't alter sound biology. personal and social. prudent to listen to . offers of peace. 585
Pine (Anonymous Ojibway). Keeler). plow the ground. we are not poor but rich. 623 Pipe (Tecumseh). 61 Pity (Pontiac). p. 338 Pequot (Tecumseh). we are for peace. 640 (Alexander Posey). 184 Poems (Simon Ortiz). the Indian talks in poetry. Indians have had a "plight. we must smoke the same pipe. 8 (Teedyuscung). 632 Poetry (Simon Ortiz). 64 Persecution ("Indians of All Tribes"). 222 Peace terms (William Weatherford).
211 Power (Big Eagle). 535 Powder River Road (Spotted Tail). . 99 Prostitutes (Anonymous Apache). 788 Prays (Andy Abieta). no idea I was a pro. 734 Primitive Gohn Rogers). 201 Poverty (L. 593 Progress (LaDonna Harris). 177 (bio) Population (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 768 (Chief Joseph). 787 (Sioux Prayer). Poverty is our biggest problem. the prosperity of our people fixed upon a permanent basis. power of the whites. p. 534. 676 (Russell Means). 132 (bio) Presidential politics (Charles Curtis). . . 241 Populations (Red Cloud). . 53 Qualities (Ella Deloria).248 (Henry Adams). . is a stigma of disgrace. a power which I cannot resist. 564 (Geronimo). David Jacobs). 789 (Osage Prayer). force. for other people. 550 Pro Gim Thorpe). will be diseased prostitutes. 707 (Linda Hogan). 526 Prayer (Andy Abieta). for himself . . 462 Prison (Leonard Crow Dog). Poetry is a noose that strangles. 753 Protection (Edward Goodbird). the white man prays . 505 (Great Plains Indians). . 238 (Sun Bear). has already practiced being in prison. Scott Momaday). 647 Racism (Mary Brave Bird). Poetry . 354-355 Pride (Fred Coyote). 437 Quebec (L. the path of power is different for every individual. . 210 Propaganda (Yellow Wolf). 396. Racism breeds racism in reverse. 786 (Pueblos Prayer). 162 (bio) Punishment (Black Hawk). I had learned to love the primitive life. 398 (Sweet Medicine). 159 Gohn Ross). 505 Predictions (Anonymous Powhatan). 533. 555 Promises (Anonymous Spokane). 646 (Wilbur Riegert). . 109 (Standing Bear). 433 Problems (Tim Giago). . . more racism toward Indian people. . 456 (Dan Katchongva). 324 Prophecy (Hollow Horn). . 393-394 (Seattle). Racism in America
. the Indian prays . p. 761 Presidential Medal of Freedom (Annie Dodge Wauneka). 1-3 Prosperity Gohn Ross). our girls . tribal ideas of progress. dormant qualities that had been thought killed long ago. "progressive" poverty brought about by . p. 94 Pulitzer Prize (N. David Jacobs). . 274-275 (Red Cloud). reservation
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Indian .
531 (Anonymous Delaware). 396. dangerous as the rattlesnakes upon which they fed. . . 21 (bio) Gohn Ross). 511 Oanet Campbell Hale). 630a Rapes (Russell Means). the white man's religion talks about mastering the earth. . 783 (Lorraine Canoe). renaissance going on in tribal America. 480 Red ants (Quanah Parker). 626 Raping (Harriett Starleaf Gumbs).). Red Power . 556 Republican Party (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). . 321 (Red Jacket). 547 (Plenty-Coups). Scott Momaday). the reservation is my home. 336 Remembrance (N.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX against Indian people . . 39-41. you want to force your religion upon us. means power over our own lives. the reservation is our landbase. 463 Reagan. 473 Reservation (Anonymous Spokane). coyotes. 347 (John Ridge). p. surrounded by thieves. 621 Recognition (Allan Houser). 728 (Wilson Keedah. 388 Regeneration (Oren R. 40 (Anna Moore Shaw). 113 (David C. 671 (Lorraine Canoe). . 100 Renaissance (LaDonna Harris). 656-658 (Geronimo). and cattlemen. 169 Red Iron (Lion Bear). 49 (bio). no jobs on the reservation. p. such removal will be injurious. p. . 381 (Satanta). institutionalized and pervasive. 352
. 244 (Edward Goodbird). 560
249 Gohn Echohawk). 596 Removal (William Shorey Coodey). remove resentment from your hearts.). 567 Resentment (William W. 40 (bio) (Major Ridge). 312 Red Cloud (Dull Knife). 154 (Little Hill). 460 Rattlesnakes (Kaywaykla). 738 (Anonymous Wyandot). a . 97 Red Power (Vine Deloria. 95. Lyons). Ronald (Daniel Peaches). 452-453 (Wovoka). raping someone's way of life. reservation . 103 (bio) Redundancy (Luther Standing Bear). read more in the swaying of the trees. 524 (Carlos Montezuma). 163 Red man (Seattle). 390-395 (Dan Katchongva). the red man has ever fled the approach of the white man. p. 546 Religion (Daisy Albert). 550 ("Indians of All Tribes"). Warren). Sr. 248 (Ten Bears). 427 Read Gohn Rogers). 398 (Oren R. 569 Red River War (Bull Bear). Lyons). 27 (bio). 161. only the white man rapes his mother. Jr. Keeler). the white man did not take his religion any more seriously than he did his laws. p. . when the last red man shall have perished. [the land] is only good for red ants. the fundamental law of natural life. 559 (Leonard Crow Dog). 666 (Wooden Leg). you have broken the great cycles of regeneration. 768 (Robert Burnette).
creating an inflammable river. Ross). p. 152 Rock River (Black Hawk). 203 Ridge. p. 145. p. will destroy many of our root grounds and drive off our game. to abolish the reservations. 235 Rivers (Chief Joseph). 591 (Janet Campbell Hale). 577 (Standing Bear). p. John (Elias Boudinot). this called on me for revenge. p. 86 Revolution (Clyde Warrior).). in this sacred object dwelt his god. a mean spirit of revenge. p. p. 457 Responsibility (Simon Ortiz). 395 Sacred sites Gerry Flute). 49 Roosevelt. 62 (bio). 138 (bio) Ross. 148149 (William P. 174 (Melvin Thorn). 189 (bio). respect for each other. there will be no more Indians. 44 (bio) Gohn Ridge). on the bank of an overflowing river. 104 (bio) Rothschilds Gohn Ridge). government would like . p. iron road. the red man no longer has rights. Joe (Ira Hayes). Theodore (Geronimo). 360 Sacred object (Edward Goodbird). without the reservations. . Major (Elias Boudinot). 14 (bio) Riches (Red Cloud). 198 (Washakie). 148 Ruin (Kicking Bird). 36 (bio) (John Rollin Ridge). 615 Saddle
. grieved at the ruin of my people. we do not want riches. 269 Sacred (Black Elk). 22 (William Weatherford). learning to respect Passamaquoddy money. p. p. 294a (Tim Giago). no rights possessed by the Indians that they were bound to respect. . 494 Revolutionary War (Red Jacket). Jr. 40 (bio) Gohn Rollin Ridge). 221 Rights (Ely Parker). the sacred tree is dead. 114 (bio) Roosevelt. you might as well expect the rivers to run backwards. 223 (Seattle). . p. 221 Ridge. 36 (bio) Gohn Ridge). 40 (bio). John (William Shorey Coodey). 108 (bio) Rosebud Reservation (Mary Brave Bird). p. 68 (bio) (Carlos Montezuma). responsibility for all the universe.250 Reservations (Crazy Horse). 277 Road (Red Cloud). . Franklin (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). 709 Rosenthal. 428
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX River (Vine Deloria. 504 (Ben Calf Robe). 89 Ritual Gohn Stands in Timber). 637 Revenge (The Four Bears). building of this road . p. 611 Respect Goseph Nicholas). 670 Resistance (Spokane Garry). 126 (Logan). idleness on the reservations.
680 Self-determination (Tim Giago). 493 Salt River Reservation (Anna Moore Shaw).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Gack Dempsey). . 142 (Roman Nose). 168 Scalp (Black Hawk). 38 (bio) Secret society
251 Gohn Ross). Screenwriting is . Shadows are long and dark. Indian depicted as a savage. settlement of this land dark and bloody. 126 (bio) Sand Creek (Roman Nose). 490-492 Selfishness (Will Rogers). settle old scores. 756 Screenwriting Goy Harjo). 59 Settlement (Dragging Canoe). 101-102 Segregated (Wendy Rose). 416 Self-reliance (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). p. 83 (bio). 591 (Clyde Warrior). 430 Gohn Rollin Ridge). 57 Scalping (George Bent). 446 Sadness (William Shorey Coodey). 693 Seventh Generation Fund Gohn Mohawk). 298 Scalps (Little Crow). segregated in the literature of America. . 615 Sequoya (Wilma Mankiller). 221 Savages (Sun Bear). 154 Salesmanship (Clyde Warrior). selfishness. 297-300 (Black Kettle). 21 (bio) Serpents (Tecumseh). the idea that all Indians are noble savages. 159 Scourge (Anonymous Creek). 698 Second Seminole War (Osceola). 379-382 Self-sufficiency (Anonymous Carlisle Student). 254 Scores (Big Eagle). we cannot sell this land. What's wrong with this world? . worst scourge of the 19th century. Bruce). redeem their people from their savage state. slick job of salesmanship. p. p. white people are like poisonous serpents. 353 She-bear
. 568 (Carlos Montezuma). . p. related to poetry. sadness of the heart. 260 Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs Gerry Flute). 467 (Captain Jack). . 29 Seventh Generation (Larry Echohawk). 661 Sequoya redwoods (Sequoya). filled you with their sayings. 492-493 Self-government (Oochalata). white men do not scalp. p. 285 Sell (Sitting Bull). Kansas (Charles Curtis). 344 Self-image (Clyde Warrior). they poison. 527 Sayings (Satank). 37 (bio) Satire (Alexander Posey). 181 (bio) Shadows (Red Cloud). berated as unfit for self-government. 401-403 Savage (Red Fox). 209 Shawnee County. p. my face got as tough as a saddle. 253 Sand Creek Massacre (George Bent). there will be scalps. 737 (Louis R.
as a she-bear covers her cubs. 338 Soldiers (Red Cloud). 746 Slaughter (Richard A. a big snake crawling across the prairie. duty of these soldiers is to follow people who are bad. 599 Society (Charles A. 55 (Luther Standing Bear). Eastman). . 33 Smallpox (The Four Bears). Is it wicked for me because my skin is red?. 184 (bio) (Francis LaFlesche). souvenir or exotic curiosity products. 475 Souvenir (Frederick Dockstader). John (Powhatan). 255 Snakes (Simon Pokagon). air was heavy with sorrow. p. 102 Slaves (Anonymous Apache). as snow before a summer sun. p. 145 (bio) Sorrow (Yellow Wolf). . 39 (bio) (Little Hill). p. we are not your slaves. 201 (Tecumseh). 164 Snake eggs (Simon Pokagon). Crawford). 741
. 311 Sioux Uprising of 1862 (Big Eagle). 45 (bio). 17 Sleeps (Little Turtle). Our nation is melting away like the snow. 384 (Red Cloud). our little boys will grow up as slaves. 97 (bio) Site desecration (Lillian Valenzuela Robles). 25 (Red Cloud). 92 (bio)
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (W. 4-6 Smithsonian (Richard A. 735 Shoot (White Bird). 753 (Minavavana). they followed us like the snake. p. methodologies of the social sciences. dangerous snake in our midst. 174 (bio) Snake (Black Hawk). 125-126 Smiles (Anonymous Ojibway). 34 (bio). William (Robert Burnette). 142 Sherman. 155 Sin (Eagle Wing) we have been guilty of only one sin. 325 Southern California Indian Center Gohn Castillo). artificial blocks which may be built into the walls of modern society. p.). 511 Ship (Anonymous Montagnais). slaughter of the Pequots. p. Hayward). chief who never sleeps. he had a snake in the other . Richard West. shoot as well as any . p. 261 Sky-treading bird (Anonymous Ojibway). p. with your smiles comes the sun. 191 (bio) Southwest Indian Women's Conference (Annie Dodge Wauneka). 486 Sovereignty (Anonymous Mohawk). Hayward). 198 (Wild Cat). not created us to be your slaves. 43 (Old Tassel). Jr. 204 Solomons (Eugene R. 64 Social sciences (Gerald Vizenor). whole nations have melted away like snow. 258 Snow (Dragging-Canoe). 747 Smith. 678 Slavery Gohn Ross). 482 Skin (Sitting Bull). 159-160 (Little Crow).252
(Little Crow). 256. p. soldiers.
have souls or spirits . 579 Gohn Echohawk). 336 Sun Dance (Mary Brave Bird). keep my word until the stones melt.). stereotypes of western history. 261 (Ten Bears). 716 Sunday School Picnic (Clyde Warrior). 60 St. 159 (bio)
. his sun is setting. 630a Square (Black Elk). I am as a stone. Talayesva). . . whisper our names to the sun that kisses them. 580 (LaDonna Harris). 727 (Red Cloud). . there is no power in a square. 491 Superiority (Big Eagle). 206 (Sitting Bull). starve like buffaloes in the snow. 443
253 Stevens. 658 (Severt Young Bear). 162 State responsibility (Daniel Peaches). we are not squaws. you are like the mighty storm. The sun is a gift from God. 721 (Vine Deloria. 219 Speak (Cochise). the sun rose and set on their land. 639 (Red Fox). 585 (Simon Ortiz). these spirits are our gods. 97 Stone (Kicking Bird). 113 (Dick Washakie). 269 Stones (Delshay). 310 ("Indians of All Tribes"). 288 Stereotypes (Sherman Alexie). 58 (Chief Joseph). . 430 Starvation (Red iron). racism . 218. but we fear your success.). open up people's minds to stereotypes. 312 Sun (Black Hawk). 428 Striving (Billy Mills). 270 Storm (William McIntosh)m. Jr. Jr. p. speak straight. from where the sun now stands. 181 Special Interests (Robert Burnette). 357 Squaws (Tecumseh). 158 Supreme Court (Vine Deloria. . 81 Storyteller Gohn Stands in Timber). all things . whose reactions to social ills will seem like a Sunday School picnic. 586 Star-spangled language (Red Fox). Dependence does not destroy sovereignty. 607 Success (Quanah Parker). when the sun died. . 94. 510 Spirits (Edward Goodbird). 719 (George Baldwin). . . attached to sports teams with names like Indians. 575. 273 (Eagle Wing). 390 Spiritual (Anonymous AIM leader). my sun is set. 700 (Gaetana DeGennaro). nothing to break the light of the sun. spiritual rebirth of our [Indian] nation. striving to take first and not settle for less.SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Lewis Downing). 621 Steamboats (Gall). 278 Starve (Lion Bear). 430 (Don C. in star-spangled language. 372 (Wovoka). 552 (Mark Maracle). Lawrence (Mark Maracle). We love the white man. 751 Sports teams (Russell Means). as long as the sun shall rise. I will fight no more forever. Isaac (Seattle). American history .
157 (Palaneapope). 450 Technology (George Baldwin). abolishment of the system of Indian traders. dug up the tomahawk. if a white man had land. . presume or even dare to speak for or write about themes . tribal backgrounds. 679 ("Indians of All Tribes"). 55 Talking (Dan Katchongva). 164 Tonto (Sherman Alexie). 168 Talkers (Black Hawk). all talkers and no workers. and someone should swindle him. 669 Thieves (Baptiste Good). his tongue was forked. tired of the much talk. p. 56 Tomb (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin). p. 237 Syllabary (Sequoya). 30 (bio) (Pushmataha). symbol of understanding. 275 (William Weatherford). 83 Tallaschatchee (William Weatherford). symbol of great lands once ruled by free and noble Indians. 574-575 Traders (Big Eagle). . 214 Tipi (Flying Hawk). . Jr. 147 (bio) Survivor (Ishi). 409 Tongue (Wild Cat). p. sweet way of talking. p. Indian time and white man's time. 507-508 Surrender (Black Hawk). Jim (Grace Thorpe). chief of all thieves. important for people from other . 397 Talking leaves (Wilma Mankiller). 70 Symbol (Richard A. . 729 Talk (Satank). 70 Talladega (William Weatherford). 58 (Chief Joseph). 563 Tepee (Sioux Proverb). 713. education and tolerance. 83 Teapot Dome (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). 83 Tomahawk (Black Hawk). 227
. 700-701 Tecumseh (Chiksika). 255-258 Tenoshtitlan (Ben Nighthorse Campbell). 719 (Vine Deloria. 138 (bio) Threat (Standing Elk). 283 (Ely Parker).254 Surgery (Lori Cupp). 791. 44
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Temperance lesson (Simon Pokagon). 661 (Sequoya). 371 Time (Mary Brave Bird). 82-86 Survival of American Indians Association (Henry Adams). 101 (bio) Swindle (Standing Bear). 273. in my tomb. 377 Thorpe. there is a time appointed to all things. 714 (Spotted Tail). I was destitute. Hayward). 451 Tohopeka (William Weatherford). 177 (bio) (Janet McCloud).). 322 Tlingit (Ruth Muskrat Bronson). not even a word for time in our language. p. See also Tipi Themes (Michael Dorris).
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Tradition (Lorraine Canoe). 717 (Michael Dorris). 556 Trail of Tears (William Shorey Coodey). . 789 Traitor (Big Eagle). thoughts have frequently been travestied. may our trails lie straight and level. p. within the tradition of a particular tribe. bending tree. Eastman). 254 United Nations (Oren R. 521 (Tecumseh). 333 Treaties (Henry Adams. p. 150 (bio). 195 Travestied (Francis LaFlesche). 699 Trouble (Geronimo). create a film with a truly tribal vision. p. 37 (William Mclntosh). 270-271 (Dragging-Canoe). 139 Treaty of 1868
255 (Iron Shell). p. 74-75 Gohn Ross). 338 (Red Jacket). 141 (Pushmataha). p. 61-62 (Teedyuscung). ever growing tree an object of reverence. 96 (bio) (John Ross). 781-782 Tribal Goy Harjo). 653 (Lewis Downing). 384 (Roman Nose). 167 Treaty (Delshay). 33 (bio) (Thomas Pegg). 27 (bio) Trails (Great Plains Indians). 263 Treaty negotiation (Black Kettle). 46 Gohn Ridge). 156 Treaty-making (King Philip). 75 Treaty of Traverse Des Sioux (Big Eagle). p. 35 Treaty of New Echota (Major Ridge). 404. . . 21 (bio). only treaty I will make. security afforded by our treaties. 160 Translation (Francis LaFlesche). I am an aged tree. p. travel the same road as the white man. bringing tradition along with us into the future. 558 Gohn Castillo). 406 Travel (Little Raven). we are like the . p. you have grown to be a mighty tree. 166 (bio) Treaty of Greenville (Little Turtle). p. 81 Trees (Anonymous Wintu). 333 (Alexander Posey). 536 (Peter MacDonald). 42. 10 University of Arizona (Leslie Silko). 242 Truman. treaty. 145. 148 (Major Ridge). 660 Gohn Ross). p. 70 (bio). p. 7 Tree (Charles A. 27 (bio). 185 (bio) University of California at Los Angeles (Paula Gunn Allen). 344-345 (Satank). 44 (bio) (Wilma Mankiller). shoot me as a traitor. trouble has come from the agents and interpreters. 537 Unity (Herbert Blatchford). 349 (Red Cloud). . 105-107 Union Pacific Railroad (Luther Standing Bear). 668 (LaDonna Harris). p. p. usurpations sanctioned by . 218 (Oochalata). 27 (bio) (Sitting Bull). 261. Lyons). Harry (Opothleyoholo). 56 (bio) (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). 167 (bio)
. 26 (Osceola).
back to the War Department. 636 Vengeance (Tecumseh). . given the warrior. 140 (bio) War (Edward Goodbird). 156-159 War cry (Red Cloud). 426 Utterances (Francis LaFlesche). I was raised with Indian values. the Indian bureau . p. Warren). 77 (Spotted Tail). went to war because . 62 Victims (LaDonna Harris). . a vision. 600 (Larry Echohawk). 62
. to begin a war without just provocation. 56 (bio) Waponahki Museum Goseph Nicholas). meaning of Ussen is Creator of Life. 551 Victory songs (Luther Standing Bear). 222 War of 1812 (William Mclntosh). p. 479 (Little Turtle). 27 (bio) (Tecumseh).256 University of Chicago (Inter-Tribal Meeting). 637 (Harriett Pierce). 495 Virgin Mary (Cochise). 182 Vision (Edward Goodbird). a kind of dream while yet awake we called . . 333 Values (Dennis Banks). 594
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Voice (Captain Jack). transfer . . . 183-186 (David C. 78 (John Ross). power .). made women of our warriors. is a matter of extrasensory as well as sensory perception. . 286 Wagon Box Fight (Red Cloud). 265-266 (Smohalla). 9 (Washakie). . 524 (Shabonee). 62 War Department (Ely Parker). a war with the Great Father would be disastrous. p. that people died except by violence. . 213 (Tahajadoris). 15 (Simon Ortiz). 697 (Allan Houser). 19 (bio) War on poverty (Wilbur Riegert). . 388 Vietnam War (Henry Adams). 199 (Tecumseh). 422 (Clyde Warrior). volcanic eruption of violence. 191 (bio) Uranium (Russell Means). Indians have been the victims of fine rhetoric. 327 Warriors (Tecumseh). war brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land. the voice of my people. 665 (Elizabeth A. 631 (Shirley Black Stone Weston). utterances belittled when put into English. 623-624 Ussen (Kaywaykla). 177 (bio) Violence Games Kaywaykla). p. Wells). 36 (Old Tassel). p. Sr. no jobs. 392 (N. Scott Momaday). . . 393 (Wilson Keedah. 150 War causes (Big Eagle). 474 (Sitting Bull). the native vision . . 46 Warrior (Yellow Wolf). p. we do not take up the warpath without a just cause. p. 6 Warpath (Pushmataha). 149 (bio) Warning (Powhatan).
647 Washington Redskins (Sherman Alexie). think I will look like a white man. 149 (bio) Ganet McCloud). 351 "Whiskey eggs" (Simon Pokagon). 719 Washington State (Herbert Blatchford). 530 Washakie (Dick Washakie). 356 Water rights (Peter MacDonald). wolves will shrink with horror. Lieutenant (Anonymous Apache). cry like a woman. 216 Whites (Gall). 285 (Dan Katchongva). 459 Wessells. 113 Wisdom (Vernon Cooper). Lyons). 164 Wolf's bark (Black Kettle). p. p. women must be-
. 125 Woman (Anonymous Winnebago). 196 White people (Spotted Tail). 675 (Annie Wauneka). I spent my scout pay for whiskey. p. the white man has taken away everything. 752 Wife (Anonymous Winnebago). 255 White Antelope (George Bent).SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX Wars Ganet McCloud). Anthony (Little Turtle)." 385 William and Mary College (Conassatego). p. 790 (Linda Hogan). 466 Wisest (Thomas Pegg). 105 (bio) Washington. 7 (bio) Wind (Ten Bears). 135 Wolf-Power (Yellow Wolf). 343 Wolf (Wild Cat). could not shoot him as I could a wolf. Only to the white man was nature a "wilderness. D. p. (L. 33-34 Welfare (Harriett Starleaf Gumbs). tribal women have the lowest wages. 299 White man (Captain Jack). 288 Whitman. where the wind blew free. 711 Women (Cheyenne Proverb). 772 Wild
257 (Oren R. not good to be enslaved by a woman. 774 Woman beating (Black Hawk). 119 (bio) Wilderness (Luther Standing Bear). p. 101 (bio). the last Indian wars. a nation is not conquered until the hearts of its women are on the ground. white people are all thieves and liars. 396-398 (Little Raven). David Jacobs). 57 (Mary Brave Bird). 328 Wolves (The Four Bears). Wisdom is of the future. 101 (bio) "Wild West" (Luther Standing Bear).C. do not make an idol of your wife. 173 Whiskey (Wooden Leg). the whites run our country. our wisest men knew not what to do. live like a white man. 192. 549 Wild Man (Ishi). no such work as wild. Thomas (Ishi). 385 Wild West shows (Red Fox). 519 Wayne. Captain (Dull Knife). woman beating is part of everyday life. 530 Waterman. we have not come with a little wolf's bark.
p. Ballard). 164 (bio). men who work cannot dream. p. 81 (bio).. p. 101 (bio). p. 189-190 (bio) (Leonard Crow Dog). p. p. 147 (bio) (Wilson Keedah. 148 (bio) (Teddy Draper. p. 93 (bio) Wounded Knee Occupation (Dennis Banks). p. 140 (bio) Wounded Knee Massacre (American Horse). 476. . 152 (bio) (Russell Means). gorgeous word pictures. 121 (bio) (Peter Dillon). Eastman). good words will not get my people a home where they can live in peace. 420 YMCA (Charles A. 169-170 (bio) (Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz). 628 Wovoka (Kicking Bear). 340-341 (Russell Means). the Indian needs no writing. 475 Word (Alexander Posey). Sr.). 99 (bio) WPA Gim Barnes). Eastman). my words are like stars that never set. 405 Words (Dan Katchongva). p. women . . p. 359-360 (Charles A. p. 94 (bio).258 come more active in politics.). 289292
SUBJECT AND KEY WORD INDEX (Louis W. p. p. 183 World War II (Eugene Crawford). 87 Work (Smohalla). p. 144 (bio) Goseph Nicholas). second-class citizens. 153 (bio) (Dennis Banks). 83 (bio) (Ella Deloria). 145 (bio) (Peter MacDonald). 146 (bio) (Jim Earthboy). 600 (Mary Brave Bird). 169-170 (bio). p. p. p. p. 561 Writing (Four Guns). an inventor of many words. p. p. Sr. 94 (bio)
. p. 276 (Seattle). p. 166 (bio) (Wovoka). 164 (bio) (Black Elk). 397 (Chief Joseph).
259-268. 457. 349. 44-48. 69-70. 529 Creek. 11-13 Isleta Pueblo. 153. 648-650. 482-483 "All Tribes/' 723-729 Apache. 561.Tribe Index
All numbers refer to quote numbers. 551-556 Cree. 178-182. 632-635 Hidatsa. 461-465. 134-140. 675-677 Chippewa. 670-674. 122-124. 161-163. 309. 665-666 Coeur d'Alene. 189-191. 526-528. 680-682 Hunkpapa Lakota. 594-597. 752-753 Arapaho. 197. 131-133. 717. 484. 600-606. 320-321. 738-740 Gros Ventre. 99-109. 154. 390-395 Hopi. 449-451. 192-196. 288 Iroquois. 342-343. 632-635 Brule Sioux. 505
. 731 Crow Creek Sioux. 351-352. 25-29. 1-3. 211-217. 514-517. 145-149. 344-345. 444. 730. 401-406. 529. 412-418. 396-398. 749 Croatoan. 113-115. 478^81 Choctaw. 598-599. 643-645. 473. 702-704 Chiricahua Apache. 736 Cheyenne. 733 Dakota. 245-246. 366-370. 218-219. 698-699. 455 Cherokee. 221. 14-17. 637-642 Akagchemem. 363-364. 78-81. 43. 313-319. 82-86. 71-75. 589. 312. 187-188. 719 Comanche. 531. 790-792 Chickasaw. 754 Blackfeet. 10. 297300. See Lumbee Crow. 169-173. 557. 239-240. 428. 643-645 Assiniboine. 445-446. 608-610. Acoma Pueblo. 278-280 Delaware. 241-244. 652-654. 127-130. 443. 659-663.
509-513. 594-597 Koyukon Athabascan. 523. 499-502. 590-593. 587-588. 496-498 Santee Sioux. 719. 222-230. 656-658. 164-166 Seneca. 486-489. 420-421. 651. 757 Pine Ridge Sioux. 310-311. 585-586. 447-448. 293-296. 474. 353-355. 557
TRIBE INDEX Sac. 76. 384-389. 270-271 Tulalip. 584. 467. 467. 616-618 Oglala Sioux. 651. 30-31. 330-333. 781-783 Wyandot. 324-329. 32-36 Mingo. 536. 37-42. 786 Ottawa. 503-504 Pawnee. 458-460 Shoshone. 648-650 Nez Perce.260 Kaw. 189-191 Wabanakis. 636. 569583 Stoney. 615 67 Tribes. 110-112 Shinnecock. 678-679 Mescalero Apache. 350. 231-238. 763-767 Sioux. 750. 466 Mandan. 562-568. 118-121 Pima. 323. 506. 156-160. 741 Montagnais. 735 Navajo. 142-144. 361-362 Oneida. 456. 272-277. 718 Southern Cheyenne. 407-411 Yankton Sioux. 612-614. 507-508. 373 Northern Cheyenne. 336. 253-254 Spokane. 519-522. 141. 20-24 Miwok. 7 Wanapum. 475-476. 761 Pueblos. 646-647. 183-186 Warm Springs Apache. 356 Yakima. 434-437. 732 Seminole. Apache. 758-760 Ponca. 174-175. 524. 307-308. 167-168. 281-283 Yavapai. 422-427 Winnebago. 742-745. 762 Shawnee. 379-383
. 18-19 Paiute. 372. 125-126 Mashantucket Pequot. 756 Omaha. 301-305. 346-348. 432-433. 490-495 Potawatomi. 700-701 Kiowa. 87-98 Teton. 664. 419 Wailaki. 155. 198-210. 322. 337341. 247-252. 530 Ute. 532. 550 Lumbee. 631 Miami. 746-748 Oklahoma Creek. 289-292. 371. 518. 4-6. 59-67. 429-431. 468-472. 284-287. 485 Laguna. 377-378. 255-258 Powhatan. 537-549 Osage. 683-686 Lakota. 652-654. 558-560. 49-58. 607. 176. 784 Yahi. 77 Pottawattami. 680-682 Modoc. 365. 220. 791 Sisseton. 787 Quapaw. 374-376. 323. 518. 334-335 Sisseton-Wahpeton Dakota. 788. 769-771 Tlingit. 768 Standing Rock Sioux. 477 Tohono O'odham. 269. 438-442 Yankton Dakota. 116-117 Sac/Fax. 484. 535. 525. 720-722 Tonto Apache. 611 Passamaquoddy. 734 Wampanoag. 772-780 Wintu. 687-697 Pawnee Loups. 612-614. 700-701. 8-9. 150-152. 705-716. 452-454. 655 q i b w a y . 622-630a. 177. 619-621. 667-669 Mohawk. 399-400 Suquamish. 486-489 Onondaga. 357-360.
he now works as a free-lance writer and college journalism instructor.About the Editor HOWARD J. and director of publications. LANGER is the author of several articles and three books.
. including Who Puts the Print on the Page? (1976) and Directory of Speakers (1981). editor. Having worked in publishing as a reporter.