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Initial volumes cater mainly for the needs of firstyear and some secondyear undergraduates (and other comparable students) in mathematics, engineering and the physical sciences, but later ones deal also with more advanced material. To allow the optimum amount of space to be devoted to problem solving, explanatory text and theory is generally kept to a minimum, and the scope of each book is carefully limited to permit adequate coverage. The books are devised to be used in conjunction with standard lecture courses in place of, or alongside, conventional texts. They will be especially useful to the student as an aid to solving exercises set in lecture courses. Normally, further problems with answers are included as exercises for the reader. This book provides the beginning student in theoretical Fluid Mechanics with all the salient results together with solutions to problems which he is likely to meet in his examinations. Whilst the essentials of basic theory are either explained, discussed or fully developed according to importance, the accent of the work is an explanation by illustration through the medium of worked examples. The coverage is essentially first or secondyear level and the book will be valuable to all students reading for a degree or diploma in pure or applied science where fluid mechanics is part of the course.
fluid mechanics
J. WILLIAMS
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ISBN 0 04 51 9015 1
Problem Solvers Edited by L. Marder
Senior Lecturer in Mathematics, University of Southampton
No. 15
Fluid Mechanics
Problem Solvers
1 2 3
4
ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS  J.
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Heading CALCULUS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES  L. Marder VECTOR ALGEBRA  L. Marder ANALYTICAL MECHANICS  D. F. Lawden CALCULUS OF ONE VARIABLE  K. Hirst COMPLEX NUMBERS  J. Williams VECTOR FIELDS  L. Marder MATRICES AND VECTOR SPACES  F. Brickell CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS  J. W. Craggs LAPLACE TRANSFORMS  J. Williams STATISTICS I A. K. Shahani and P. K. Nandi

Fluid Mechanics
J. WILLIAMS
Senior Lecturer in Appl~ed Mathemat2 Universzty of Exeter 
FOURIER SERIES A N D BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS 
W. E. Williams
*
13 14 15 16
F. Lawden A. R. Wallace FLUID MECHANICS  J. Williams STOCHASTIC PROCESSES  R. Coleman
ELECTROMAGNETISM  D. GROUPS  D .
LONDON . GEORGE ALLEN & UNWIN LTD
RUSKIN HOUSE M U S E U M STREET
First p u b l i s h e d w / This book is copyriiht under the Berne Convention. All rights are reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act 1956, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Inquiries should be addressed to the publishers.
Q George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1974
ISBN
Contents
WV a ate
I
1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13
ntro uction
1.2 The mobile operator DIDt 1.3 Flux through a surface 1.4 Equation of continuity (1 ' 5 of change of momentum
0 04 519014 3 hardback 0 04 519015 1 paperback
//
W e j e m E F'EGZeequation onedimeisional gas dynamics Channel flow Impulsive motion Kinetic energy The boundary condition Expanding  bubbles
Elementary complex potential

_
/





2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 3.1. 3.2 3.3 3.4
Boundary condition on a moving cylinder Kinetic energy Rotating cylinders Conformal mapving Joukowski transformation Kutta condition The ~chwarz~hristoffel transformation Impulsive motion Fundamentals Pressure a & forces in unsteady flow ,Paths of l i q u i d e s Surface waves
T w o  D l p y N s I o a A r u v s r E A o r PLOW*
,
4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
Spherical polar coordinates Elementary results Butler's sphere theorem Impulsive motion Miscellaneous examples List of the main symbols used Some useful results in vector calculus
TABLE 1
Printed in Great Britain by Page Bros (Nonvich) Ltd., Norwich in 10 on 12 pt Times Mathematics Series 569
TABLE 2
INDEX
Chapter 1 General Flow
1.1 Introduction Fluid mechanics is concerned with the behaviour of fluids (liquids or gases) in motion. One method, due to Lagrange, traces the progress of the individual fluid particles in their movement. Each particle in the continuum is labelled by its initial position vector (say) a relative to a fixed origin 0 at time t = 0. At any subsequent time t > 0 this position vector becomes r = r(a, t ) from which the particle's locus or pathline is determined. In general, this pathline will vary with each fluid particle. Thus every point P of the continuum will be traversed by an infinite number of particles each with its own pathline. In Figure 1.1 let A,, A , , A, be three such particles labelled by their position vectors a, ,a,;a,. respectively, at time t = 0. Travelling along their separate
Figure I. I
pathlines, these fluid particles will arrive at P at different times and continue to move to occupy the points A;, A;, A ; , respectively, at some time t = T. These points, together with P, lie on a curve called the streakline associated with the point P. If a dye is introduced at P a thin strand of colour will appear along this streakline PA; A; A j at time t = T. It is obvious that this streakline emanating from P will change its shape with time. A fourth fluid particle A, which at time t = 0 lies on the pathline A,P will, in general, have a different pathline A, A : which may never pass through P. The situation created by the 1,agrangian approach is complicated and tells us more than we normally need to know about the fluid
p = p(r. Attention is paid to a point P of the fluid irrespective of the particular particle passing through. sinat = 0. j and k are the unit vectors parallel to the fixed coordinate axes OX. p = p(r. t). Referring to Figure 1. find the streamlines and pathlines. t) = u(r. at every point on the surface. give. the flow is steady with q = ( . the velocity and acceleration of the particle at any instant are given by ar/at and a2r/dt2 respectively. i. In the special case a = 0.t) = constant.1). Since. Eliminating azlat by differentiating. A stream surface. DeJinition. the streamlines are fixed in space and in fact coincide with the pathlines. If these solutions are independent of time t. A stream filament is a streamtube whose crosssectional area is infinitesimally small. w = y sin at.22 = constant. a family of planes. The pathlines are the solutions of u = a x p t = 0. OY and OZ respectively. The solution of (y sin at)dy = (. A line drawn in the fluid so that the tangent at every point is the direction of the fluid velocity at the point is called a streamline. Solution. y2 +z2 . the motion being time dependent. from the + + "3 ay z = +cosat = AsintBcostCcosat at In the special case a = 0. motion is time independent. To obtain the equation of the streamlines or. Figure 1. as they are sometimes called. steady. Its intersection with a second independent solution. The method of solution mainly used is due to Euler. t) respectively where r = OP is the position vector of the point P referred to a fixed origin and t is the time. v(r.2. Discuss the special case a = 0.e. w = azlat = y+ sinat from which we obtain x = constant. v = aylat = z+ cosat. cosat = 1. If. t)i v(r. In this case the solutions for velocity q. pressure p and density p etc are expressed in the form q = q(r. t)j w(r. v = z + cos at. therefore. Also.1. Given any closed curve C. In the Eulerian approach the pathline is replaced by the streamline defined as follows. the normal to the surface is perpendicular to the direction of flow at that point. and y2 +(z= A2 B~ = constant. So the streamlines at any given time t are determined by the equations + One solution is x = F where F is arbitrary. Any integral of these equations must be of the form f (r. t) = constant. the lines of flow we write q(r. the flow is said to be steady. Since also x = constant. let P be any point in the fluid and 6A any infinitesimally small plane area containing the point with PQ = n representing the unit normal from + Problem 1. contains streamlines. Writing q = ui + vj + wk.z+ l ) j yk and the streamlines are fixed circles given by the equations x = constant.22 cos at = G where G is arbitrary.2 . t)k where i. the solution is where A and B are arbitrary constants and C equation for v we have = l/(a . the equation for y is + + + + Since we are given that a # t 1. Definition. i. In unsteady flow these streamlines form a continuously changing pattern. the pathlines are circles coincident with the streamlines in steady flow. C = . t) ~ ( rt). on the other hand.s the streamline at any t. A stream surface drawn in a fluid has the property that.1 Given that the Eulerian velocity distribution at any time t in a fluid is q = i A r + j cos at + k sin at where a is a constant ( # f I). otherwise the flow is unsteady and varies with time at any fixed point in the continuum.motion. Finally.e. Definition. t). Definition. q is parallel to dr = d x i + d y j f d z k we have dx dy dz ~ ( rt) . the required streamlines. When a # 0 these form a continuously changing pattern.z cos at)dz is the family of circular cylinders forming the second system of stream surfaces whose equation is y2 +z2 2y sin at . by definition. Next we consider the concept of pressure in a fluid. The intersections are circles. which is a stream surface. we find that u = 0. g(r. a streamtube is formed by drawing the streamline through every point of C.
If in addition 6F is antiparallel to n and has a magnitude 6F = ( 6 F (which in the limit as 6A+ . in Cartesian terms... t) = X ( x . t ) is some physical (scalar or vector) quantity per unit volume which is carried by the fluid particles in their motion.X ( x . 6z = w 6t (correct to the first order in 6t) where u = u(x.~ 3a3bP3ui )i+ = (2a3b3 . it can now be seen that in terms of this mobile operator the fluid velocity in the Eulerian system is simply When motion is steady p = p(r) instead.f j ~ ~ ~ ~ h and . Problem 1. 6y = v 6t. Y ~. dS).z+6z. is carried by a fluid particle its rate of change would be DTIDt. f = U(2a3b. With . where d F It follows that in taking limits.y. t) where pn = lim FFIGA. t) Hence.2 A fluid flows steadily from infinity with velocity . are the Cartesian components of the velocity q so that 6% = x ( x + u 6 t .7. Finally. such as temperature T. the fluid acceleration f is dA++O Moreover. To evaluate this acceleration we need to find the rate of change of the velocity q momentarily following a labelled particle.If = p.V)q. + The first term on the righthand side is the time rate of change at a fixed point P and the second term (q . 2 = X(r. z .~ if 6Uz(b32a3)a3b7i The maximum value of f = If ( occurs when (dldb) (bP4.3 Flux through a surface Given that % = %(r.t+6t)x(x. D . the volumeflux through S is j q dS. Moreover.Ui past = a. y ..y+6y.x a x +v+wa x a x . the pressure at P is p = p(r. Suppose x = X(r. z .11m= +uDt dt+o 6t dt 2x dy ?Z In vector terms.z. f . z + w 6 t . since here a r p t 1. 1. Choosing 2 = 1. = 9(2/7).2a3b. t ) = 0. Given that the resultant velocity q of the fluid at the fixed sphere J r J any point is q = . t). is an outward normal elemental vector area of S. aq/at does not represent the acceleration of a particle but is simply the rate of change of q at a fixed point r which is being traversed by dgerent particles. when we follow the fluid particle we must write 6x = u6t. since V = i a/ax + j a/ay +k a/az. 0 is independent of the direction of'n. Hence. y. t) etc. = pq. x a.a~~ . y. t + 6 t ) . Solution.t) denotes any differentiable vector or scalar function of r and t then we may write. q = ~ ~ b . q .dS) when % S 8 .1) aq/dx. z . . Differentiating q.U(l + But ar/ax = x/r and ar/dx = i so that at r = = bi aq  ax . if any other quantity. S . At r = bi.1)Ui. the fluid is said to be perfect. we have ~a/a~+~a/a~+w = aq / .U(l + a 3 F 3 ) i +3a3r'xUr. y + v 6 t . V = y a/ax. U2/a. at time 6t later the increase 6% in X is 6 X = x(x+6x. In particular.V)% is the convective rate of change due to the particle's changing position. Similarly.one side 6A+ of 6A into the fluid. the flux (rate of flow) of the quantity outward S through a fixed geometrical (nonsolid) surface S is j %(q. find the acceleration f at any point r = bi (b > a) and evaluate the maximum value of Jfl for variation in b. therefore. Since the motion is steady f = (q. The fluid is defined to be inviscid when 6F has no component in the plane of 6A for any orientation of n. Let 6F denote the force exerted by the fluid on FA . . . = 0 for which b = (72)fa: it is a maximum because (d2/db2)f is negative.t) However. We write this rate of change as Dq/Dt.2 The mobile operator DID2 In the Eulerian system where the velocity q = q(r. the massflux is 1pq dS and the momentum flux is j pq(q . .
q is the speed and p is the density of the fluid.An alternative form is found by appeal to the identities V (pq) = pV q + (q V)p and aplat + (q V)p = Dp/Dt leading to (1. = k.1. The increase in mass within PQ during the time t is therefore (d/ds)(Apq)Gt6s.. We recall equation 1. In Cartesian coordinates. Solution.0. the mass of fluid which enters at P during the time 6t is Apq 6t and the mass which leaves at Q is Apq 6t + (212s)(Apq 6t)6s. = 0. Adding the contributions of mass change due to density variation within V to the outward flow across S we have Using suffixes to denote partial derivatives (a/&) (ur) = U. z = z. r = J(x2 y2 z2) may satisfy the equation of continuity for a liquid. y = r sin 8. + + + + + + + Problem 1. Since at time t the mass of fluid within PQ is Ap 6s the increase in time 6t is also given by (d/at)(ApGs)6t = (?i?t)(Ap)dsGt. . = ur + ((0. + up +(UP). Solution. since DplDt = p. = k. Writing q = ui+uj+ wk. +u)lr) + From equation 1.k) W. and q = ui +uj wk for all time t we have = V.Hence s = This simplifies to (1.7 for which we evaluate Solution.5 Evaluate the constants a. r + urr etc and since rr = 0.(uzr+vz8+w.q divq = 0 + Whenever this relation is not satisfied. z defined by x = r cos 8.11) Problem 1.4 If A is the crosssection of a stream filament show that the equation of continuity is rp. . + wp. Here we write the velocity q = ur+vO+wk where r. whilst r 0 . where r = xi+ yj +zk. If P is the section at s = s and Q the neighbouring section at s + ds. of points Q. In the absence of sources and sinks the result is true for all subvolumes of V in which case or.8) in the case of an incompressible liquid for which Dp/Dt = 0 because here the density change of an element followed in its motion is zero. the equation of continuity is (aulax) ( 8 ~ 1 8+(aw/az) ~) = 0. + r(up).7 the equation of continuity is where Gauss's theorem has been applied to the surface integral with dz representing an element of volume. 0 are the radial and transverse unit vectors in the plane whose normal is parallel to 02. +upr + (v/r)p. =0 .. Problem 1. the kaxis. It must be satisfied at every point of a sourcefree region 9. = p.. 8. = kr = r. (q V)p + . . + ~(WP). 00 = r (proved in elementary textbooks on vectors) it follows that +k. we have This is called the equation o f continuity or the massconseruation equation. say at a set at every point P E 9. + 1 c(z/r) + . liquid must be inserted or extracted.4 Equation of continuity This states that the total fluid mass is conserved within any volume V bounded by a fixed geometrical surface S provided V does not enclose any fluid source or sink (where fluid is injected or drawn away respectively). b and c in order that the velocity q = {(x ar)i + (y br)j (z cr)k)/{r(x r)). = 0.3 Find an expression for the equation of continuity in terms of cylindrical coordinates r. Using ar/ax = x/r etc. where ds is an element of arc in the direction of flow.
x{l+ 2ux + ef a2 2wz cos 2t c In a continuum this is true for all subvolumes of V in which case we arrive at the equation of motion pDq Dt = tan (t +in)) (sec (t +in) cannot be zero) FpVp . n2a2e' cos (t +$n)b2e' sin (t + in)c2 sec 2t $n2a2b2c2 sin (2t +in) sec 2t = :n2a2b2c2 = constant i. = r(x+r)(r+ax+r+by+r+cz)(x+r){x(x+ar)+y(y+br)+z(z+cr)) .1.y. Hence.Hence.fcosec(t+$n)+cos b2 c2 2 2t 1 = O by an extension of Gauss's theorem (see Table 2).6 Show that the variable ellipsoid x2 y2 z2 += 1 a2e' cos (t +in) b2efsin (t +in) c2 sec 2t 2 tan (t + i n ) = cot (2t +$n) tan 2t = 0 so that the equation of continuity is satisfied on the boundary. with x = 0 = y. If p denotes the pressure and F the force per unit mass we have 2uy sec (t +in)+e 'cosec (t b2 Putting y = 0 = z. we find the third velocity component w = ztan 2t. continuity is satisfied within.tan2 (t +in) + tan 2t + + is a possible form of boundary surface of a liquid for any time t and determine the velocity components u.r{(x r) (x ar) y(y br) z(z cr)) + + + + + + x. v and w of any particle on this boundary. DFIDt = 0 for all y and t if v = 3y (1 cot (t +in)) and finally.z.6) the integrand on the righthand side of this last expression is simply p DQIDt so that DM/Dt = p(DqlDt) dz. t ) = 0 is made up from a timeinvariant set of liquid particles we must have DFIDt = 0 for all points on the boundary at any time t. 1' DF Dt x2 et{sec(t+$n)+ sec(t+$n)tan(t+in)} u2 To obtain an equation of motion we equate this rate of change of momentum to the total force acting upon the particles within V. with z = = 0 + This expression will be identically zero if and only if a = 1 and b = c = 0. Following these particles the rate of change of M is (1 But F(x. For these components on the boundary we find that for all t au a v aw = { 1 + tan(t+$n)) +${I+ cot ( t + i n ) ) + tan 2t ++ax ay a~ Similarly. Problem 1. Deduce that the requirements of continuity are satisfied.5 Rate o e n g e of momentum The momentum M at time r of the particles IFng within a volume V contained by a closed geometrical surfae S is M = pq dr. V2 = = 7 .e. Solution. DFIDt = 0 for all x and t if 2z2 sin 2t c u = I . 1.t) so that E = etsec(t+in)+e Y x2 a2 z2 . Invoking the equation of continuity (1. z. Since any boundary surface with equation F(x. y. Moreover. the total volume within this ellipsoid is V where .
i.. curl q Figure 1 . can be made simply connected :or solids. is the contribution to 6u from the local rate of strain (change of shape) of the element whereas 6uR is the contribution due to the local angular velocity o = curl q. The vorticity vector 5 is defined by 5 = 2 0 = curlq.V)rr(V. by inserting barriers to prevent circuits having access to 9 3 . in general.6y Hence 6u = j.) . Assuming the velocity field is continuous the corresponding velocity at Q will be of the form q+6q where 6q = 6ui + 6vj +6wk 1 + m1 (nu = .i + ay az az ax ax ay oy= j o where o = = k.r)' = ( o . the vortexfree space by 9. + .V(p/p) = k.e.o)+@. . if the element were frozen it would rotate with this angular velocity o which varies throughout the medium with the velocity curl. y + 6y. the remainder 9 : = W W Vis the space occupied by particles possessing ' : and 4 = 0 when P E W. is reducible is said to be simply connected.. F = 0. 3 6u. Hence .o6zk. y. finally.202r Moreover. A region Wvfor which every circuit %? E 9. = $ curl q + and oy6zw.d(p/p) = d(iq2) d ( o r)' . since 0 2 r 2(a. Let Q be a neighbouring point whose coordinates are (x + 6x. r) o ..o Taking the scalar product with dr . Motion is said to be irrotational when the vorticity 5 is zero in which case the local angular velocity o is zero.is said to be reducible if it can be conIf in the contraction tracted to a point without passing out of the region W. assuming that flow is steady with q = o A r where o is a constant vector. Denoting the whole of fluid space by W. z 6z).(o~6r) = (6r~i).r) = 20 V ( h 2 )+ 2 0 A (oA r) = V ( h 2 ) 2(o. o . z) etc. 6us 6uR where + (@~otion of n fluid element Let (x. A circuit (closed curve) V E W. since curl q o. ? intersects W. = = (aw av) (au aw) j+ (av a. we have.Problem 1. In fact.V(p/p) dr = .r)' + constant A r1 = lqI2 = q2. where Now (4.. or empty space the circuit is termed the circuit % irreducible. Solution Since aqjat and = 0 and p = constant.(o.V)q where = V(h2)~A(VA~) V A =~V ~ ( o r \ r ) E (r.7 By integrating the equation of motion find an expression for p when p = constant. A region W. or a solid.V)o(o. or. The rest of physivorticity.d(02r2) Integrating p/p = tq2 + 0 2 r 2.*. C # 0 when P E 9 cal space may either be empty or occupied by solids.z) denote the Cartesian coord~nates of a v d at which point the velocity is q = ui+ vj+wk where u = u(x.y.o6y i.
If the area enclosed by C has negligible dimensions. To discuss vortex fields we first define a vortex line by the property that its tangent at every point is parallel to the vorticity vector 5 at the same point. we have qp = vcp i. Equating the two evaluations of J q . OBP. both in 9. For the given reducible circuit % the circulation r is zero. the integrals are scalar functions of the point P only.The necessary and sufficient condition for the irrotationality of a region 9. The circulation r in % is defined by r = Jw q. . and construct a surface S in 9.qp = . is the existence of a scalar point function cp from which the velocity can be derived by grad cp = q.4 Proof.5) enclosed by the sections whose boundary curves are C and C' jq. The condition is evidently sufficient for.dr = J q. J OAP q. it is also single valued and the ensuing fluid motion is termed acyclic.dS = 0 on the vortex (curved) surface so that the circulation r* around C satisfies r* = Lq. However. By Stokes's theorem applied to % and its spanning surface S. through the independence of the paths OAP.e. To prove that the condition is also necessary. We assume also that B. simply connected. replaced by the Cartesian components of 6. let 0 be a fixed point (Figure 1.dr = j 4 . i. PQ q. we have shown that the condition is necessary.dr = cp(OP) Figure 1. when cp exists with q = grad cp.dr.J q. This function cp is called the velocity potential.dr. Q close to P with PQ = q (Iq( = 1.dr = f OBP q.E q. The equation of this line will be of the same form as equation 1. Applying r = l q. A vortex tube of finite crosssection with boundary C at some station is constructed by drawing a vortex line through each and every point of C (if they exist).dr = cp(OQ)+cp(OP) + 1 Stokes's theorem to the vortex space 9: within the vortex tube (Figure 1. Vcp 0(s2) Allowing E+O with q arbitrary. E q.5 because.a S = 0 Hence.dr= E ~ . by construction.dr.dS C 0AQ 0A P PQ Eq. the tube becomes a vortex filament. This circuit OAPBO is denoted by % and is reducible.4) and P variable in the in which curlq = 0. we find that + 0 Figure 1. It follows that every particle on this line is instantaneously rotating about an axis coincident with the tangent. is vortexfree region 9. S is the area A' enclosed by C ' plus the vortex surface between C and C'. having the circuit OAPBO as rim. S < A' . curl q = curl grad cp r 0. If now we choose a second point 1) provided PQ E W.dr = J {qp+O(&)}.dr = cur1q. t ) etc.dr % = l cur1q.B = j<. ~ ~ + o ( E ~ ) = PQ pQ I S where S spans C. In a simply connected region 9" not only does cp exist. Join 0 to P by two paths OAP. We can show that vortices cannot originate or terminate anywhere other than on fluid boundaries or else they form closed circuits.1 with u(r. on which curlq = 0. on PQ we can write q = qp + O(E) so that J q.Vcp+O(E2) Denoting the fluid velocity at P by qp. OBP.e.
Any circuit %' (Figure 1. q = grad cp = f (r)grad x .6a) which lies outside both arms of the = /I< + i)q. cp+01" crossing the barrier. i. Alternatively. and does not cross the barrier B.. with primes denoting differentiation with respect to r. = 0.dr 9 ' %'t+ B . therefore the &c_uhtio_n_& 2 ' = 0= BT + j +B +j & )q. We have stated that the necessary and sufficient condition for irrotational motion is the existence of a scalar point function cp such that grad cp = q. B. When cp = xf (r). Hence. can be made simply connected by the insertion of a barrier B with two sides B. Given that the liquid speed q+Oas rt co. TPe motion is termed c clic It should be noticed that we obey the right.bridging C with %' as shown in Figure 1.x grad f (r). is any scalar point function.6b representing a plan through %. dS is constant along the vortex tube and is referred to as the strength o f the tube. writing q = gradcp 3 q.r grad(xj'/r) . using b r i d ~ e sL G ~ M it % bq..16) and div q = .(xf '/r)div r .t + C J + B + J { j+ j '(1 This is precisely what should have been expected since Z is a reducible circuit whose circulation is therefore zero. jq. Figure b # shaped obstacle is irreducible since the circuit cannot be contracted beyond (inside) C without moving outside 9Pv. s .8 Show that cp = xf(r) is a possible form for the velocity potential of an incompressible liquid motion.dr Plan Figure 1.6a) which encircles a vortex ring or similarly ?ex ring consequently the circulation I" in %' is r+rl= r * . when it exists. Consequently. satisfies Laplace's equation.dr = d$. of t ~ ~ r c u l a t i _ othe ~ ?circuits ~ f ~ %' and %' is vgre ring without threading either arm.dr = gradcp. dr is zero. Consider the circuits 9made up as follows 9 =_ is zero.f(r) (1.an screw rule for the sense of integration for the line integral over C in relation to the sense of direction of 5. for the circuit C' on the other arm of the vortex ring  1 + . Hence the circulation in %' is 1 .div f i .e.grad cp.r * seen that We note also that the = o. The shaded area A enclosed by C is the intersection of the vortex ring with the plane..j c. This region 9. 9E 9.= constant.(rg [dcp = [cp]z. Writing q = w A r + q. where r * is the vortex strength.dr// CJ In the limit when B+ coincides with B.15) If on the other hand t = constant then curlq = constant = 2 0 (say). where cp. This result implies that 5 Since the section C' is arbitrary A' we have cannot vanish in the interior of the fluid space 9. Hence.the sum of the contributions bf these bridge passages to q . since curl w A r = 20. &tion. When the fluid is incompressible the equation of continuity for a sourcefree region is divq = 0 so that cp. q = fixf'rlr f . therefore q = o A r .Problem 1.60 Suppose Z is a circ6t (Figure 1. cp increases by T* in d i c h case w is n o u te d for an irreducible circuit. we find that curl q. div grad cp E V2cp = 0 (1.deduce that the surfaces ofconstant speed are (r2+ 3x2)r..dr = .
and div q. consequently. (i) cp = m/r.dS = ma3 Jr.~ ) l .: Examine the liquid motions for which cp the velocity ~otential. 0 except at r = = r . we have for constant m I 1 1I The flux is independent of the radius a. f = .16.7 1I and q2 = q. C is a surface enclosing a volume S2 containing both Vl and 5. r2.. be two nonintersecting spheres centred .dS dS = (r/a)dS r=a (ii) In Figure 1.. this fact follows directly from the equation of continuity for J q . It follows that this flow corresponds to a source of output 4nm.i+) 6rxr . Hence by equation 1. r d S = mad2 jdS = 4nm.q = g(l 9r6 _. (iii) When t = 1 ~ is 1 very small.l l 42 = = m2(rr2)1rr213 = Using the results proved in (i)..me. c r because V2 c r r but V l $ r = .Bi so that B = 0 leaving Figure 1.r r3 .grad(m/r) = mr/r3. neglecting t2.. at r.3r.% r (r2+2r. and V 2 at r = r . m€. Motion is irrotational everywhere except at r = 0 and the equation of continuity is satisfied everywhere except at r = 0.  Problem 1. = = because V .For an incompressible liquid div q = 0. Hence q 2 = constant when r . div q. Moreover. Integrating Integrating.7 let S. r)/r5 = 0.. the flux of volume flow across the sphere Irl = a equals Q = J q. and S . and r = r. i 9x2rZ r4 .We have q = gradq = q l + q 2 where q1 = m l ( ~ l ..8(r2 + 3x2) = constant. are constant vectors. m. i 1 divq ds = 4nm2 " 2 r. div q = m(3r2. 0 except at r = r. and a source of output 4xm2 at r.~)+ r d and m = p/t. m. this source is said to be of strength negative the source becomes a sink of strength . v. and r. Solution. . q + . div q dz = 4xm. but V2$ r r.p are constant scalars and r.~ When r t a.. = ma4 j r .~ l ) / J ~ 3r.m. . again f ' = A F 4 where A = constant. respectively and enclosing volumes V respectively. Axr 4=( $ .fArP3+ B where B = constant. then N  . Velocity is radial from r = 0 with magnitude q = (ql + 0 as r + cc and q + cc as r + 0. : hence. q = . v (i) Thus cp = mlr corresponds to the liquid motion induced by a source . d S = Sdivqdz v _m IT+€( 0 ifV $ r = 0 forthendivq = Oforall V 4xm if V c r = 0 (just proved) Now put E = m m m _ . of output 4xm at r = 0. equals : m m m ( i ) ( i i ) l + A (iii) IrrlI Irr2I2 ax r where m.
. DpIDt and VH are all identically zero. = V A A Vp. Problem 1. At constant entropy.19) J' dp/p + tq2 + 52 = constant Problem 1. Interpret this result.)vp . From the equation of motion deduce that when H = aq/dt Adplat x.v~Vp+ V A A Vp or. \ I constant leading to Bernoulli's (1. and In steady motion q A 5 = VX in which case the surfaces x = constant contain both streamlines and vortex lines. This limit is termed a doublet of strength p with its axis parallel to i.20 reduces to VH = 0. a/&(. Integrating acp A(t). VH = 0 so that for each instant of time H is constant along a vortex line.21.V(Dp/Dt) and deduce that D3. Also. = V ( h 2 )q A (V A q) we have 1 ~A~=FV($~P ~ ) .18) at For steady motion acplat = 0.. from the identity V A VH = 0._or using we have 1. vnq Now. Using the equation of motion from Section 1.13 the equation of motion is Solution. F = grad 52. . A and p are independent scalar point functions of position. similarly we have DAlDt = 0 and equation 1.11 An opentopped tank of height c with base of length a and width b is quarter filled with water. Show also that C. The tank is made to rotate with uniform angular velocity w about the vertical edge of length c.7 in the form aq/at . From q = Vq+AVp.The righthand side is the limit as 6 + 0 of a source of strength p/6 at r = 4 together with a sink of equal strength p / ~ at r = 0. . Thus H is a function of time t only and any surface p = constant or A = constant contains the same fluid particles. this line is contained at the same time in the surface p + Dp /Dt = A which is possible only if DplDt = 0. VH = Vp(DA/Dt) . Show that vortex lines are at the intersections of surfaces A = constant with p = constant.q A 5 = . since V A Vp is identically zero. When flow is irrotational I: = curl q = 0 so that q = grad cp. + 1 then We have already shown that vortex line lies on a surface p = A = constant but.A vp) (9. since 5 = V A A Vp. and x = dpIp +iq2. < = V A =~V A ( A V ~= ) i. r G.acp/ai+ x) = 0.Vcp) = VX or V (.since and q A 5 = q A (vl./. To ensure that there is no spillage show that w must not exceed :{cg/(a2 + b2))*. a ~.!lt.(q v). which leads to the fact that any vortex line also contains the same fluid particles as it moves throughout the fluid. A(t)isarbitrary (1.Vr~= . by equation 1./Dt) = 0 = (. V)q aq at = (q vp)vI.VX.I0 The velocity q at any point is expressed by q = Vcp AVp where cp. If also F is derivable from a potential 52.VA(Dp/Dt) and prove that H is constant along a vortex line. A(t) equation = nr Multiplying scalarly in turn by Vp and V A we have . V(Dl. . This means that vortex lines lie at the intersections of the surface A = constant with p = constant. we have 6.7 Pressure equation From equation 1. p is a function of p only so that Vp/p = V 1dplp.
dp/p Integrating. (iii)this cylinder has a vertical axis and crosssectional area a(< 1 ) times the area of the hole. The body force F = gk so that the equation of motion becomes . Take axes O X and OY along the base edges of lengths a and b respectively with OZ along the vertical axis of rotation. Assuming that in the steady motion any liquid particle at ( x . The ensuing jet has area aza2/n2at level 21 . Hence.i. 1 2 2 p/p = ~o ( x y2).0 2 ( xdx + y dy) = .A = 0 ' / 2 ~ .e. H = $c+$A(a2+b2) To prevent spillage H d c. But volume V = aabc zdxdy .gz = constant = B (say) The minimum value of z(= h) on this surface will occur on the axis at L where x = y = 0 and the maximum value of z (= H)will be reached when x2 +y2 is maximum. solution.12 A shell formed by rotating the curve ay = x2 about a vertical axis OY is filled with a large quantity of water. on the vertical edge x = a.Solution.?(a2 + b2)} = 0 Since V = aabc and h = H .0 2 R where R = xi+yj.l(a2+ b2). dx Ib { h+ i ( x 2 +y2)}dy 1"{(h+ i x 2 ) b+j.e.9 =k where A is the base of the tank.8 Multiplying throughout scalarly by d r = dxi + dy j + dzk and using V p d r = dp we have . + + eu Figure 1. hence . in which case its equation is $02(x2 + y 2 ) . A small horizontal circular hole of radius aln is opened at the vertex and the water allowed to escape.gh = $w2(a2 f b2).Vplp V = = 1 .lb3)dx ab{h+ $. show that the time taken for the depth of water to fall from h to $h when h is very large is approximately Figure 1..gz A where A = constant because motion is steady. Assuming that (i) the flow is steady. On the liquid surface p = the constant atmospheric pressure. z ) at some instant describes a horizontal circle with centre on O Z and radius R = J ( x 2 + y2). the constant B = .y. i. (ii) the ensuing jet becomes cylindrical at a small depth c below the hole.0 2 R = gk.gH. We can evaluate H and h in terms of w using the condition that volume is conserved in the absence of spillage. the liquid acceleration DqlDt = . l= 02/2g d 9c/{8(a2 + b2)) or o d ${cg/(a2+b2))f Problem 1. Since the radius of the hole H is a/n it is cut at a height y = (~/n)~ = /a a/n2 above the vertex. z = h + A(x2+ y2).g dz . y = b.
$ p ~ 2 a a)).( i h c)' .V 2 ) . Applying the equation of continuity at levels S and J we have nx2v = ana2u/n2 The pressures at levels S and J are equal to the atmospheric pressures Problem 1.The force on the body is. the surface will remain plane and fall steadily with vertical speed v = .3c(h + + ' ) c 3aaJ(2g) + + 6c($h + c)' j 1. +  2n2 { ( h c)' . a depth c below H. At the same instant at J. Equating this force to the momentum flux we have PAP'(Aa)F = ~ V ~ ( A . Solution. Hence Bernoulli's equation gives I7/p jv2 gy = l7/p ++u2. Given that the area of the section of the body tends asymptotically to a show that the force on the /(~ body is U ( P.~ ) . the vertical speed is u.J.aln2) 2 (n2z+ a)' . In this case we may neglect any component of velocity perpendicular to OX compared with the parallel component u = u(x) so that q = u(x)i.e.8 Onedimensional gas dynamics We assume that a gas moves steadily in an axisymmetric tube with O X as axis and A = A ( x ) is the normal circular crosssectional area of the tube at any station x. assuming y is great enough.c/ J ( z + c) and neglecting the term O(n) we have.19 becomes .23) . parallel to the common axis. When the upper surface S of water is at a height ya/n2 above the hole. equation 1.F where the first two terms are the contributions from the upstream and downstream pressures respectively. where the exist jet becomes cylindrical. the air density will be neglected in comparison with the liquid density p.F so that the total force on the liquid is P A .P1(Aa).(puA) = 0 a dplp +$u2 = constant or dp+ pu du = 0 ( 1. Using primes to denote differentiation with respect to x we also assume that A'(0) = 0 . by Bernoulli's equation the pressure downstream tends to P' = p+$p(U2.a ) V . by symmetry. To solve any problem we need the following equations : (i) Equation of continuity.22) ax (ii) Bernoulli's equation. From equation 1. approximately. From the equation of continuity the liquid speed downstream will tend to a value V where AU = ( A . For steady flow with zero body force.dyldt.13 A liquid of constant density p flows steadily with speed U under constant pressure P through a cylindrical tube with uniform circular section of area A. Henceforth we shall refer to such a tube as a Lava1 tube. A semiinfinite axisymmetric body is placed in the cylinder with its axis along the axis of the tube. i.a2a2)+ dz where z = ya/n2 = { Using z / J ( z c) = J ( z + c).12 when flow is steady we have or mass flux puA = constant = Q (1. at those levels and we shall assume they are the same.~ U % Using V = AU/(A a)andP1 = P+ 3u2. A f ( x ) / x > 0 for all 1x1 > 0 with A1(x)everywhere small.g(c . If F denotes this force in the downstream direction the reaction force on the liquid is . Eliminating u we have Hence the time from y =  1 +h+nfn2 h+ a/n2 to y = :h + a/n2 is T where n4y2a2a2 2qa2a2(y + c . Moreover.v2)= P +$u2[1 .{A/(Aa))'] we have.a/n2) + + where I Z is the common atmospheric pressure.
+ Solution. As Q = puA./P (1.24) p = RpT.23. the speed is sonic.l)+$u2 a2/(y 1) +iu2 = constant = A i.30 partially with respect to x we have (PU). by equation 1.17 Investigate the variation of fluid speed u for steady flow along a Laval tube. (d/dx)ln(puA) = 0.l)u = Solution. Again. Problem 1.28 to u times equation 1. p = p(x.l)a2 or aZ = 2ag/(y 1). From equation 1.pu du = a2dp so that pf/p = .27 with u = a.8) then a2p/at2 = (a2/ax2)(p pu2). and p + po.he mass flux density j = pu is maximum when the fluid speed Solution.29) PIf ( P ) .26) p = kpY (k = constant. Finally.14 Find an expression for the local acoustic speed in terms of the fluid speed. The condition is expressed by u2 < az or u2 < 2 a i / ( + ~ I). either u' = 0 (an extreme value of u) or u = +a.. +uux = P.(iii) Thermodynamic equations. is slowly increased from zero. p. j = pu is a maximum jmax when u = a. the fluid speed is sonic. Since a2 = dpldp = yplp = ykpY' (p = kpY. From Bernoulli's equation and the definition of a. For unit mass of gas (1. t) and p = p(x. kpY. a 2 = a. If a = a.e. In steady flow we can regard pu as a function of u. the stagnation values.27) Problem 1. Solution.the equations of motion and continuity are U. Substituting we have where M = u/a is the local Mach number. pt/p + u'lu + A1/A = 0 where primes denote differentiation with respect to x. Prove that this maximum in terms of stagnation values is poao{2/(y+ l))f(Y+ . With suffixes denoting partial differentiation.+ (pu2+PI. at the throat.e..').29 we have (1. = .e. At the throat of the tube x = 0 where A1(x)= 0.P I . = (PU). In this tube we have u = u(x. 1dplp +:u2 = constant = 1kypy2dp +iu2 = kyp~'/(y . in terms of the stagnation values. i. = . t). we would have u < a for all x (flow is entirely subsonic). In this case.28) (1.30) (w). a2 = dpldp = kypY' = Y P ~ P Also. when u = 0.k = constant). hence. R = gas constant = cpc.22. the constant mass flux (as far as variation in x is concerned).1) and 2 = a2 o '( 2~ . t). c. x = azL( 0 Z Y 1)u where A' = 2 =0 0 the only possible root is .29 partially with respect to t and equating with the result of differentiating equation 1. i. is sonic. are the specific heat capacities at constant pressure and constant volume respectively. (1.16 Deduce that for a steady isentropic flow of a gas in a Laval tube t. we have dp = ..u u'/a2. i.e. = 0 Differentiating equation 1. Problem 1. = 0 Adding p times equation 1.15 Prove that if a gas moves unsteadily in a Laval tube (described in Section 1. a2/ai = (p/po)Yl so that jmax = pa = poa x (a/ao)2i(Yl). y = cp/cv) Such a flow is said to be isentropic. u + 0 (*A + co)so that p . we have For an extremum either p = 0 (ignored) or u = a. When p + Problem 1.(P+ pu2).25) If entropy is constant along a line of flow then p and p are related by the adiabatic law (1. using equation 1. A = at/(y. where cp. The acoustic speed is a where a = J(dp/dp) (1. It is convenient to assume that when x < 0. $(y . initially. differentiating and using Bernoulli's theorem in the form dp + pu du = 0. Since d(pu)/du is positive or negative according as u is < or > a.
the equation of continuity states that the volume flux Q parallel to i. the direction of flow. Therefore.2c/(l.24 with a2 = yplp. Deduce that (i) y2 = iy.M:) The corresponding expression for the temperature is found by combining equation 1.27. into still water of depth y.t ( 2 + ( y .~ : ) ) (i) u = u. is (gy1)*. exceeds unity. where A and 6 will each be of order c so that.)~. 2 a2+i(y . = 2by2u2 The mean hydrostatic pressure at a crosssection of area 2by. d2 compared with unity.31) By equation 1.i with constant depth y. The channel is now choked because Q has reached its maximum p.(2b~ = ~pQu2 ) P Q ~ . < 1 (the motion is defined as subsonic). Neglecting 6' and A2. If.y. (iii)the speed of a tidal bore ofamplitude y2 . on the other hand. c(0) = 0 about the axis OX. is (1. A hydraulic jump causes this stream to attain a greater height y2 and uniform velocity u2i.M:). by u2 < u i < As Q is further increased urnwill increase until urn = a (for u = a can occur only when A' = 0). M < 1 (subsonic) in x > 0. F = U(gL)I plays a dominant role. u' < 0. For this region A' > 0 so that u'(M2. Using (iii) prove that the speed of infinitesimal waves on shallow water of depth y. Finally if the external pressure cannot be adjusted to the correct value in terms of the shape of the tube the continuous flow will break down and shocks will occur. k = constant. the s u f f i 1 denoting their values at x = 0.9 Channel flow In problems of shallow channel flow with gravity the nondimensional Froude number. A = .1)u2 = constant = a: +$(y . subject to M. 26a: A(y . to a firstorder approximation.1) where F l = ul(gyl)*. "u 1 aZKY . Hence 6 = cM:(y  1)/(1. With liquid density p everywhere constant. suffix t denoting values at the throat). we may neglect A2. is {:(gy.{l2t/(lMi)).1)u: = 0 1. (ii)the downstream Froude number F2 = u2(gy2)* as a consequence is less than unity. Find also an expression for the temperature.)(A A2)}+where A = y2/yl. Neglecting secondorder terms prove (ii) M = M 1 { 1 .(2b~. If M > 1 (supersonic) u' > 0.16. Hence a 2 = yRT or Problem 1.e. We write u = ul(l +A) and the acoustic speed a = a l ( l + 6).u.l)u. = $pgy1whereas downstream the corresponding area and pressure values are 2by2 and p2 = tpgy2 respectively. + + 26 + A(y . i. u increases with x while (from Bernoulli's equation) p and p decrease. The momentum flux equation is therefore p. For x > 0 the flow will be supersonic (u > a) or subsonic (u < a) according to the exit pressure.18 A perfect gas flows steadily with subsonic speed in an ./a. Solution.1 ) ~ ~ ) / ( 1 .{(l+ 8F:)*.e. since u' and A' have opposite signs (because u < a) this extreme value of u is a maximum urn. the upstream Froude number. Moreover. u2 = u:(l+2A) so that a:(l+ 26)+$(y .22. normal to the flow upstream is p.31. From equation 1.1)(1+ 2A)u: = a: +i(y .A. + Neglecting secondorder terms. = u. Upstream the flow has uniform velocity u.. where u and M are the fluid speed and Mach number respectively at any point. p' > 0 and p' > 0."(1 + 2c)u = constant = Solution. The two following problems serve as illustrations.19 An openchannel flow is confined between two vertical planes z = fc and a horizontal bed y = 0. 1 +A+2€+26/(y1) = 1 Solving for 6 and A using equation 1. (1.32) Q = 2by.1) > 0. Problem 1. aZ = a:(l+26).u.1)u: i.u' = 0. the equation of continuity is puA = constant where A = ny2 = n(1+2c) neglecting c2. .1 ) ~ = : 0 where M. << 1 axisymmetric tube formed by rotating the curve y = 1 + ~ ( x ) It(x)l for all x. This subsonic regime is ensured 1). (see Problem 1. Also a2 = yplp = kypY'.
33 resulting in y. from which it appears that y' is undefined when Q2 this critical flow profile % by y = yc(x) where = 4gb2y3. Using equation 1.the Froude number F = 1. b(x) = a(1. of which y. Eliminating u we have.. = $ y .I = 4(A2+ A ) .v.y. > u. Thus for all points on %. where A = y. = y . 6 4 1 when Ix 1 < 1 . +y2)y2 = 2 u : ~ .h) is the sectional area normal to the flow at a station x. The different shapes are generated by varying the upstream or downstream values of y and u. > 1.37) I Solution. (1+8F:)%1 < 2 giving F . To prove (iii) we first find an expression for u . to a first approximation.. If this discontinuity in height moves it is called a tidal bore. u .h') ) =o where y' so that y2 > y./y3) = y. which is the required differential equation of the profiles. 10Plan Figures 1.~ for 1x1 < 1 or. { ( l + 8 F : ) f . In the given canal for which QZ = 108ga5.. and y. in equation 1. We can rewrite equation 1.e. < 1. For steady flow p+gy+$u2 = constant while on the free liquid surface y = y(x).33 we have 8F1 = 8u2 A= 22+1 gy1 = dyldx etc. when F . It is assumed that the curvatures of both b(x)and h(x)are negligible and that water flows steadily in this canal with a velocity which. Y: = Q2/(4gb2) (1. yc = a(3+2tcos$ix) for I x I < 1 with yc = 3a otherwise. we interchange y. OZ horizontal and OY vertically upwards. Furthermore. QZ = 4b2uZy2= 4b2u:y2 or F2 = u2/gy = (yc/y)2.11 (not drawn to scale) illustrate the plan and elevation respectively of the canal for 1x1 < 1.t c o s f ~ ? c ) . = { $ ( g y . )' . unacceptable negative root we have + Differentiating +8(y . To evaluate the downstream Froude number F./y. the pressure p has a constant atmospheric value so that y + u2/2g = constant. If h(x) = O for all x ( . > y. where Q is the volume flux and S ( x ) = 2b(y . an open waterway is cut with vertical sides defined by the equations z = b(x) and possesses an almost level bed y = h(x) z 0 for all x.)f which is then the speed of an infinitesimal wave on water of constant depth y.Find the differential equation for the surface profiles and discuss these profiles when h(x) = 0 . i.or. (provided that this depth is small compared with the wavelength). + (gy. using the preceding expressions. is Su = constant = Q.36) For this profile u = uc where uz = Q2/S2 = Q2/(4b2yz)= gyc SO that uc is the wave speed referred to in the last problem.20 Choosing axes OX. the broken line %%' in the latter is . A + 1 and u .t cos i n x ) .We denote Problem 1. tends to zero. . The equation of continuity for steady motion Figure I.l ) . is one solution representing the case of uniform flow without discontinuity. b(x) = a when I x 2 1 given that the flux of volume flow is J(108ga5).yf = 27a3(1. if the height y. n 2 x This is a cubic equation in y. correct to the first order in c . is the speed of progress of a bore into still water. ) ( ~ + 2 A))* and represents the upstream speed relative to a stationary hydraulic jump.b'/(y2b) (1. is everywhere parallel to OX and has speed u = u(x). For the jump solution the . From the equation of continuity at any fixed i. ify > y c a n d F > l i f y < y c .. u .10 and 1.h)'g = constant 2(y1 .e. Since y.35 in the form + ~ ' (1 . and y. Its speed relative to the upstream value remains the same as if it were stationary and so u . Consequently. F < 1 station x . in terms of y . Ignoring the residual quadratic equation in y. is g(y.
l l Elevation the critical flow profile for which the Froude number F = 1. the kinetic energy is I  Y=p : where d S is into the solid. a(3 26)). q = . 5 Profile U U ' : intersects % ? orthogonally without passing through I. unless y' = co. The kinetic energy Y of volume V of the liquid.21 Find the kinetic energy of liquid lying in the region a < Irl< b when motion is induced entirely by a source of output 4xm located at the origin r = 0. This profile is not physically possible since there would be two values of y for one of x.b' = 0 so that the profile passes through I.40. y > yc (F < 1) for x > 0 With y' # co the profile passes through I.q = n. the body. At the interchange y = yc. 3 Profile AIA': y > yc (F < 1) for x < 0.10 Impulsive matJon If m == m (x) is the impulsive pressure generated at any point P (OP = r) of a liquid of constant density p the impulsive equation of motion applied to the liquid of volume V enclosed by a geometric surface S is Spq d r V =  J wd S S Since V is arbitrary.37 and Figure 1. where q v By Green's theorem since V2q = 0 = Vq Figure I. q ( ~ . In this case. There are obviously an infinite number of profiles according to the conditions upstream or downstream.41) In this case the kinetic energy Fof the infinite liquid surrounding B. d S= o(R~) for large R. choosing Z as ( rI = R. If y is steadily decreased downstream the profile will eventually attain the form AIA' when conditions downstream will not penetrate beyond I.1. ' S 31 . + Figure I.11 the various cases are: 1 Profile HH' (when depth is sufficient): y > yc (F < 1) for all x.42) 2p B Problem 1. U = n. y' = 0 at x = 0 where bl(x) = 0 and y' and b' have the same sign. ds 1.ds (1. Here y' and b' have opposite sign with y' = 0 at x = 0. m. 4 Profile BIB': y < yc (F > 1) for x < 0.12 The boundary condition If n is the unit normal to any point of B. By equation 1.Vq (1. using equation 1. r ) r where ~ p is a constant.  =  J' Vw d z (by Gauss's theorem) v = wlp constant + (13 8 ) 1.vcp.11 Kinetic energy Suppose that liquid of constant density moving irrotationally with a singlevalued velocity potential q contains a solid body of surface B moving with velocity U. For profile HH' any change downstream will propagate upstream since F < 1. the boundary condition is simply n . R 1 qvq.V(w/p) . for an infinite liquid (R + a ) . Using equation 1. For profile LL: the shape is entirely dependent upon the upstream values. is T = qu. we have qVq. which is external to B and internal to some geometrical surface C is F= i p q2 d r = $p ( V V )d ~r .37. where q so that the resulting motion is irrotational. 2 Profile LL: (low depth): y < yc ( F > 1) for all x. This profile intersects 0 Y in the point I(0. y < yc ( F > 1) for x > 0. 12 If as Irl = R .
q . dS = .r = U r. since n = r/a. / \ n B Choosing theaxis OX parallel to U.r). cp = i ( U . is given by 4nr2q = constant = 4nm q = m/r2 (1. To find an expression for the kinetic energy we use equation 1. since x2 + y2 + z2 = a2. Show that cp =' $a3(U. Since q + 0 as r * co the condition of rest at infinity is also satisfied. therefore 1.44 with r When r = R + oo.23").5 + 9 ( ~ r)r5 . Hence = UZa3 = "M'U2 3 P 4 where E is the inner (nonsolid) boundary r = Irl = a and C the outer boundary r = b.r)r7+ 3(U.r)/r3 is a possible velocity potential of irrotational motion and find the kinetic energy of the liquid in this case. cp exists with q = . J xZdS = J y2 dS = f z2 dS n " = . = acp/ar = m/r2 = m/a2 Problem 1. deduce that its initial pressure is 7an/(l. for at the gasliquid interface continuity of velocity means that q = R when r = R. obeys the law pV1+" = constant (a is a constant) and expands from rest at R = a to a position of rest at R = 2a. = Ux so that LT= (ipU2/a)jx2dS.r)(r .e.43) q = mr/r3 Here curlq = 0 (the vorticity is zero everywhere by symmetry). This source strength m can be expressed in terms of R and dR/dt R.23 Given that a liquid extends to infinity and is at rest there with constant pressure l7. A(t) = Il/p = constant.n or.15(U .dS = (acp/dn)dS where n r on C and n = . and liquid of constant density p lies outside in lr 1 3 R We assume that there is contact between gas and liquid at all time.e. Hence the given cp is a possible solution. Now for the source cp = m/r so that on C  where M' mass of liquid displaced by B. i. r = a3(U. r)r3 SO that when r = a we have the correct relation. where R is a function of time t.42. r ) r . From the above q . . The equation of continuity.39 the kinetic energy .Solution.lZt = (d/dt)(R2k)/r giving  .UrP3) and V2v = divq = +a3 {3(U.r on E. Now Vcp. (r 2 R). r)rw3.T is 1 j (x2+ y2 + z2)dS = = $nu4. is of the form q = q(r)i. Solution. n being the outward normal from the liquid. where 6b = r. From equation 1.18 with S2 = 0 and acp. m/R2 = R.V c p where cp = m/r and m = m(t). Problem 1. Solution.22 A sphere of radius a moves with velocity U in an infinite liquid at rest at inifinity.(r/a)dS. implying that the flux of volume flow across Ir 1 = r is independent of r but not necessarily independent of time t. prove that the gasinterface pressure is n+ $p~2(d/d~)(~3 If ~ the 2 ) gas . The liquid pressure is found from equation 1. r)r5) = 0 fulfilling the equation of continuity. whilst on E acplan Hence. the liquid velocity q at any point P. r)r5r. On the sphere the boundary condition is q . On the sphere r = a. . i. Using equation 1. and that all motion is symmetric about the origin r = 0. U r By 32 symmetry of the sphere B.13 Expanding bubbles Gas occupies the region ( r 1 <R.q= Vcp = $a3{3(U.n = U . Hence.Withcp = $a3(U.
Applying continuity of pressure between the gas and liquid at the interface + external radius.E3) R E = $nn(a3 R ~ +)$nppb3(2a3 . 3. then pR3+3a = constant = p0a3 3". show that the particle speed is a2v when the diameter is (D/a)exp {(a4. R = 0 when R = 2a gives Subtracting.24 A solid sphere centre 0 and radius a is surrounded by liquid of density p to a depth (a3 b3)j. . reduces from E. The volume of liquid is $n(a3+b3):nu3 = 4nb3.l)v2/4k). Show that if the solid sphere is suddently annihilated the velocity R of the inner surface when its radius is R is given by + 1. We shall apply the principle of energy starting at time t = 0 after annihilation of the sphere. work done by the external pressure when E.R3 .R3)(R3 + b3)fSolution.~ ( d / d t ) ( m . A gas for which p = kp moves in a conical pipe. Show that when the velocity potential c$ exists the fluid acceleration may be expressed in the form V{(acp/at)+$q2). i.21 is ap at a + aa (PO cos a) + a ( ~ Q c o s ~ )= 0 @ 2. the since m = R ~ R The . is ~ . = (a3+ b3)*to E is Multiplying throughout by 2R2 and integrating. If o and l 2denote the corresponding angular velocities deduce that the equation of continuity may be written in the form cos a ~ R ' R ~ { +b3)f( R ~ R ) p = 2(3ZI+ppb3)(a3 .To find the gas pressure we use pV1+a= constant where volume V = 4nR3.E3)+)nppb3(a3 + Ei . we obtain the result since E3 . Similarly the work done to produce the configuration at time t is i p l : 4nr5pdr so that the difference is I". 2pOa3 3 " = $IZR3+ + C. Hence at time t > 0 when the internal radius is R < a the extreme radius is E where E3 . + W2.2R3) so that ~ R ' R ~ {+ ( b3)?R~ ~ } = p 2(31Z+llpb3)(a3 .R3 = b3.R ~ ) ( Rb3)+ ~ (. Assuming the particle paths are straight lines radiating from the vertex reaching an exit speed v where the diameter is D.e.the energy balance is finally F= W . The total work done by this force to produce the initial configuration of the liquid is f p 4nr5p dr. 1 1 2npl?'~' = :nn(E.a3. to eliminate C. C 3aR3" R = 0 when R = a gives + = constant The work done by the attractive force pr2 per unit mass in a displacement from r = 0 to r = r is $pr3.) + EXERCISES Problem 1. In a given fluid motion every particle moves on a spherical surface on which its position is defined by the latitude a and longitude P.Using this result show that for a source of variable strength m moving with variable speed along the OX axis the fluid acceleration at a point distant x ahead of the source x' 2m2x) 5.R3 = b3 = Ei . IZ is the external pressure and and the whole lies in a field of attraction pr2 per unit mass towards 0.If p = pO when R = a. The kinetic energy of the liquid at time t using the result of Problem 1.a.
p h e n it exists.9 is This is the necessary and sufficient condition that v dx . In any sourcefree region W q the massconservation equation or equation of continuity from equation k. by assumption. which do involve the zdimension are measured in terms of unit thickness parallel to OZ. @the fluid density p is constant. The gas within an expanding spherical bubble surrounded by liquid at rest at infinity obeys the law p v 4 = constant.total differential of some function $ = $(x. constant IL is called the stream functiw (or specifically.u dy is the exact .dy forallx.y The lines of flow V are then given by v dx . forces on twoetc.dx+$.e.u d y= d$ = +.u d v = 0. If initially its radius R is a with R = 0 and p = Apm where pa. 1 . + + 1 ~ ~ ~ . the motion is steady.u d y $(x.. is the liquid pressure at infinity. Jundamental~ l In this chapter we shall assume that everywhere in the fluid p o w is steady (slat = O). the main features of flow are: the velocity vector the lines of flow V or streamlines. y) = = 0 = d$. y). ~ d x . i. the equation of continuity is automatically satisfied and conversely $ exists at all points P of a sourcefree region W s . are integrals of or v d x . for then implies . Using suffixes to denote partial differentiation. and independent of the zcoordinate such as volume flux. Since.4. show that R will oscillate between a and pa where p is the positive root of the cubic p(p2 p 1 ) = 3A. from equation 1 . n V o n aSteady l Flay 3 t x & 2 . the streamlines $ = constant are fixed curves in twodimensional space and coincide exactly with the pathliney 37 R . the Earnshaw stream function).
. v = $x.*x *Y J *. i. y) in Figure 2. by the CauchyRiemann equations (2. v = q sinl (2. 3 For all P E %both cp and $ exist. or all points P of this regzn a velocity potential cp = cp(x. b2cp = . Y Y C C I = . z re'' cp cp(r.e. !y (2. At points of liquid stagnation u = v = 0.3. $ LA m.. c p e x i s t s .u+iv =q e  d/ are. ce taking .. V2$ = 5.1 is Figure 2.e. satisfying the condition Q = P i s $(x. In particular. as the region which is both sourcefree and vortexfree. given by dwldz = 0 = diT~ld.e. the locus of points P .the complex conjugate . At the points of intersection. 2 F o r a l l P ~ ~ . which.$y. For twodimensional flow the vorticity vector 5 is given by ( = c u r l q = Ii j k = (ox. observer at A looking towards P. .uy)k  J i.10.(ux v ) = 0.9) i s called the complex potential of liquid motion. .The flux o f volume flow Q across any plane curve joining A (a. u=c p x .uy.e. y) = $(a.1 Defining W. i. We aenote the radial and transverse components of the velocrty nd diagram of velocity representa= = V is the twodimensional nabla operator because all quantities are independent of z. 2 where u = q cos 1. * exists. gives u = cp v = cp (2.1 > + 9 is positive when measured in the sense right to left with respect to an I .2. z = x +iy for all P E Wsv W(Z) = cp(x. + . for two dimensions. ~ = c p . u = . 5 = 5k where 5 f o r  0 = ox.8) we have In terms ofplane polar coordinates r and 8. Differentiating with respect to z.8) These constitute the ~ a u c h r ~ i e m a equatiog n~ whicg form the neces. ". In a vortexfree region(Wv)& = curl q = 0 and motion is irrotational. V2$ = 5 = 0. . it ceases to exist at points occupied by sources. y) exists and the velocity components are derived from it by q = grad 9. [ = 0 . the intersection of regions We and Wv. e).7) "2 l i To summarise. cp and $ are harmonic functions and c/ v=cp = u = cpx = +Y Y *x/ (2.If $ exists 5 may be expressed in terms of it. The fact t h a t z c o m p l e x function w(z) represents some liquid motion produces a convenient method of generating liquid motions. It should be noticed that the level curves cp = constant and $ = constant Their gradients are respectively . . sary and sufficient conditions that the harmonic functions cp and $ are g e real and imaginary parts of (some)complex function w of the comulei variable z = x + iy.10) is the magnitude of the liquid velocity and l is its inclination axis. b) = constm&AuAu simply the streamline passing through A. bykquation 2. V 2 c p = (ux+t)). i. and using eq$ation 2. we have : 1 FGall P E B .we have. sinks or vortices for which P $ WSV. b) to P (x. y ) i$(x. .
the flux of volume flow across any curve P T is 614. For z = 0. Using equations 2.Again. the velocity components due b Figure 2. to the first order. for all r. Complete the elemental polar triangle P N T where N T = 6r is drawn radially and P N = r 68 is drawn transversely.acp/a$ and q. Therefore. from q = grady.3 integrating and acknowledging the physical insignificance of the constant of integration.2. = .r 60qr. Since B (ueia) Figure 2.13) 9 The singularity at z = 0 is due to the source there. 8. and across NP the flux is . The flux.2 Elementaw com lex potentials Uniform stream Here u = h ~ c o s a v = Usina where U and a are e e n t i n g the magnitudS and inclxtion respect~vely of the stream.8cplr38. 8) such The real and imaginary parts are The lines of equipotential and sceamlines form mutually orthogonal networks of parallel straight lines. I) + 6 1 1 / is the corresponding value at T.5. v Next. out of this triangle across N T is 6rq. ensional sourcq Given thatis a source of yolume svmmetry on the circle z = r. ih this particula we have [*] = 2mn corresponding to a source of outp rn+ Similarly. has a complex potential L~ = m 1"(Z.12 except at that if is the value of the stream function at P.). 4  ~"(2) v' 9 2.a source of equal strength m at z = z. = . 0 + 68) be a point neighbouring P (r. we have q.zo) from which rp = mlnIzzol and 1(1 = marg(zz. In Figure 2. . The test for the presence of a source at any point is given by evaluating d* = [*] where C is a C 1 circuit enclosing the point.2 let T (r + 6r. we exfiess these velocity components in terms of $ as follows. or / II/ = m0 / leading to w = cp+i$ = mlnz (2. we have * Integrating cp = mlnr. in the absence of sources or sinks within PNT.1 1 and 2. 2. By equation 2.2 the zplane excluding z = 0.
b = constant are circles through A and B.. of a sink of strength m at z..3 Source and sink of equal strengths The complex potential of a source of strength m at A k = ela)with an equal sink at B (z = .b). in which2 + 0. have zero circulation. we have 2i$ = tan'ztan'2 = tan' {(zZ)/(l+zZ)} or 25 = 2iy = (l+zZ)tan2i$ = (1+x2+y2)itanh21.)+constant .iI.b The streamlines I.m In { 1. the flow is everywhere sourcefree and vortexfree. we obtain the uniforq  9 2.. therefore.2.aeia) = mln(zaeia)+mln(z a e q Writing arg(zaeia) = B and is ara(z+aeia) = y where o = . If (u. Putting z = rei8and taking real and imaginary parts.zo )}  so that for the circuit r = a q.1 Prove that for the complex potential tanP'z the streamlines and equipotentials are circles.aeia from which p(x cos a y sin a) p(x sin u . . Consequently 1 " is t v z = 0 occupied by the vortex . = 0 we have w = cp ill/ + = p(cos a +i sin a)/(x +iy) Problem 2.b = cohstant are the circles x2+ y2 + 1 = 2y coth 21(/ or. I .z.'" +constant& oo and m + oo such that 2m/a = constant.(z/a)eia)+constant If a t m{(~/a)e'~.(z aeia) (z . 8 .aeia) / d% z + ae" z . This result.d.) = . We can show that the uniform stream is the limiting case of this sourcesink pair when both a and m tend to infinite Z s with 2mla remaining constant. cp =  TW \ + I   + from which the magnitude of the velocity is I5 I since I z.aeia) (p/a)ln (z .2. & { . Jz+cot2cpJ=cosecl2cp) Consequently the equipotentials cp = constant are also circles which are  + ' ' 1 . ' .' 1 @ @ = = ato lim p /ln I F i + When z. + aeia The complex is. 2cp = tan'z+tan'2 = tan'{(z+Z)/(l22)) or 1x2y2=2xcot2cp i.i coth 2I. w = cp . This denotes the presence of a vortex of s t r e n g t h E z = cause cp exists and is single valued everywhere else.b = tan. and .m{(z/a)e"..2. cp = k8.5 Twodimensional vortex Consider w = ik ln z k rea . z . m + oo with ma = p. Determine the velocity at any point and examine the singularities at z = i.). = . Solu_tion. a d8 = 2xk. 2. \  I u! v @ m In {(z/a)eia +1) . . When a is large compared with z I the above complex potential w is written in the form.m u .2.4 ! Twodimenswnd doublet A twodimensional doublet at z = z. The volume flux across r = constant = a is zero since I) = constant on r = a for all a. of strength B. I. irection a is defined as the limit. which is independent of a howeve ies a circulation r = 2xk about any circuit containing the origin z = 0.15) The streamlines are the circles and the equipotentials are their radii 8 = point in the finite zplane is the possibly this point.b = tan.. On r = a. alrother circuits nclosino will .y cos a) Q *= v' x2 +y2 x2 +y2 The equipotentials and streamlines form mutually orthogonal systems of circles.@/a)ln (z .Z .zo . with a source of equal strength at z. Hence W is the whole of the zplane.2m(z/a)e.e.From w = cp + iI.aeia1 = AP etc.Similarly.it follows that $ = m(y L B P A (hgure 2 9 T h e streamlines I.b1 = cosech l2I.b = klnr (2. 2maeia dw = m m u+l". in complex terms. v ) are the Cartesian velocity components at P.
for steady motion the equations are _ 1 _ z$(q2)xvi = Rxplpx c 1 2 (2. + +  + On the parabola.212)' (4V +l)/54l to prevent cavitation on + 1 dw dz (1 .)/543. giving (vl).aLf (z)/f '(z). (dqlds = 0). v i We can elihinate qZ. where f (z) = a real). (ii) z = 4a.V. we have.23.where 6 is small. = 0 or.23J2 (4V+ 3. 4 /' Figure 2. z = rei8 = a(secz$6)ei8. sin f 6 = 0 (6 = 0) or r3 cos40 = a*. w = filnzr.2nLa in which case the singularity at z = 4a is a simple source of strength La.= . since u = I) Y .. When w z =a z"(z) = 0 or a according as Re f(z) is positive or negative.orthogonal to = constant and form a coaxial system with limit points at z = fi.  u r n 2 3 Prove that for incompressible flow in a conservative force field a(c. f (rei8)= r(cos 6 i sin 6) .i putting z = . Re f(z) = r cos 2J(ar) cos f 6 = a cos 8 sec2 $62a = a sec2 < 0.)/541. Near z = 4a. there are singularities at these points.) where R is the field potential_ Solution.. By equation lJ. Is/ < 1 in which case 8 is real and qm = J { ~ ( v + A)3/27A).2J(ar) (cosi 6 +i sin fe). the pressure p(V . r* cos$6  = a*.2J(4aZ a6eie) = $6ei8 + 0(d2) and ) I = Imw = VIm f(z)aLarg f(z) = $6Vsin8ilaO. and prove that provided 0 < V < 21.= dz dz' 1 (.a h on the parabola. a point outside. Similarly. For constant 6 and variation of 8 from 0 to 2a. and (. v) are given by dw = 1 u+1v.a l a is a parabola. The velocity components (u. v = 1 ey (WX )y+(  s f 8 )x = 0. Im Putting z = reie. the flow at infinity behaves like a uniform stream u = .a l ln f (z). 4 dI) = . = dz z2+1/J Since the denominator is zero at z = f i.hence 2 / Show that when w s = Vf(z) . i.16) u v X + ~ v y 2(q ) y + ~ = [ Q pP1py where qZ = uZ+ v2.and deduce that when [ = constant.i z". At this speed the pressure will be a minimum pm = pm+tp(V2q. 4 7 ' . a parabola with focus at r = 0. The maximum speed qm on the parabola occurs when s = J{(~+L)/3il).P(V. 1 1 u+1v = . i. y) = 0. Neglecting .Ql . i. w x fi ln z" so that the singularity at z = .i is a yortex of strength k = + + + inside the parabola.15 the singularity at z = i is a of strength k = f with circulation ak. part of the streamline = .e*" cos $8) A(cos2$6)efie efi8. v = 0.a A arg f (z). [ = vl. Near z = i put z = i+zr where lz'l is very small. Since 0 < V < 2l. by Bernoulli's theorem where pm is the pressure at infinity. From equation 2. +)/ax.cI) = constant.1 2iz') 2iz' Integrating. ) = . When r3cos $8 = a*. dw/dz V.u.e.Q.2 cos $6 1 have = Im w = V Im f (z).) = . We ignore the singularity at z = 0 inside the parabola. for large lzl. The singularities of w coincide with the zeros of f (z) which are (i) z = 0.)2(4V+ 3. the pressure / / J satisfies (PIP)+ q 2+ Q . s = sini6.Q and p by taking partial derivatives. so that Im f (z) = 0 implies r sin 6 = 2J(ar) sin $6. + (uC). near z = . dw dw . Then f (z) = 4a 6ei8.e.4 4 + To interpret the motion. put z = 4a + 6eie. To prevent cavitation pm > 0 or pm > p(V.'.e.) are the bodyforce compon~nts for the c ~ n s e r ~ a t i field. in which case arg f (z) = R leaving I + + t so that q = Idwldzl = s(V+L isz). To find an expression for the liquid speed on the parabola we have dwldz = Vf(z).
pc2(ir2.b2/r)2 = constant. Here @ f ( z )( z 2bi) (2.a4 .  . / f. gives the result 1 2q 2  5 is constant and that u dy ..  Problem 2.region a < < b has constant the liquid outside is at rest. (4+ i ( a 2 / z ) = + c a q d+ ==ic(rF) dr and + = d[r2$cb2 1.   g(z) = f ( z . =f(a2/n But q = 0 when r = b. The hydrodynamic image in C is the complex potential g(z) such that f (z)+g(z) is real on C the singularities of g(z) are contained in ApA Consequently. Here c c..SZ .m ln ( z i. $ = 0 on C (i.'(d/dr)(rq)k. writing the total cornvex potential w = f ( z )+ g(z). Denoting the pressures at r = a and r = b by pa and pb respectively pa . C can represent a rigid boundary) and all the singularities of w outside A coincide with those off (z).pc2($b2+b21n b ) pbpa = p['{3b2 . Motion is due to a uniform stream of magnitude U flowing parallel to the real axis and at z = ai there is a doublet of strength 4a21U inclined at an angle x to the stream. r ignoring the irrelevant constant of integration. In the case A = 1 show that the circles ) z f ail = 2a I are dividing streamline9 j / I ! *I The complex potential of the uniform stream flowing parallel* real axis is . The streamlines arethe conlzl = r = constant with the liquid speed zero on r = b .16 by d x and the second by dy and add we have Integrating. Show that when A < 1 the minimum and maximum speeds on the wall are respectively ( 1 A)U and ( 1 +8A)U. on r = a.i b 2 In r)+$pc2(r . where k is the unit vector normal to the plane.14 with a = x the complex potential of the doublet is stream contains the rigid boundary Imz = 0 as a is needed for this part of the motion.a4 4a2b2 In (b/a))/(b2 a2)' 8 k l  Case I .o d x = Let f (z) be the complex potential of motion in a liquid and losed curve enclosing a domain A of the liquid singularity off ( z ) inside.Uz. after using the fact that d+. C is ihe line Im z = b with A the domain Im z < b. c When a = 0 and f ( z ) = .pc2(ia2ib2 In a)+$pc2(a. the final compiex potential is  2.b2/a)' = p. Using equation 2. hence rq = $[(r2. Since = k is constant. however. C is the line Re z = a with A the domain Re z < a. This is the circle theorem. 0 being the transverse unit vezor.e.b2)follows.4a2b2In (b/a))/(b2 a2)' Assuming continuity of pressure across the boundaries the result follows. is .a2)+ 3 b 2 . = 1w = Case 3.4a%u/(z + ai) by equation Consequently. V . therefore. Here q = q0 where q = q(r).2bi). "/ I\. . a n z c = curlq = r. / @ n @ to f @ the imaginary Case 2.e.(dplp) constant + Liquid in the annular . the result = 2aV/(a2. .lmz > L r i ? u t o a rigid v s m z = 0. The image of the doublet.17 the pressure p with SZ = 0 is given by +$pq2 = constant pFor a < r < b.b 2 ) Since q = V when r = a. Here.19) s c 1 . . 5+ = . Using equation 2. . C is the circle lzl a with A the domain lzl < a.5 Liquid occupies the reginn. Show that = 2aV/(a2b2) and deduce that the pressure difference between the two regions at rest is $pV2{b4.+)la(x.Y ) = 0 If we multiply the first of equations 2. and a constant. the image of a source in _Re z ' c I) Solution.a2)2/a2 fb2 In (bla)) = $pV2 {b4. is a function of r only.
T0together with an equal sink at the o a n . The new complex potential is u + Factorising.mln(z2  a2k2)m ln(z2a2k')+2m lnz leading to the result (z+ai)(Zf ai) Find the comp of motion due to .~ B ( e 2 ~ 8 e. ) is a constant which can be ignored.with z.* e .5.e.e.'sdC3 e 2mz . .2mz dz zZa2k2 z2a2k2 ew h e r e ~ ~ ' +2m ? 1  he source alone is represented by the complex potential (zz. i.~. ) (z .zo ) (z + 5. u is a minimum when {2a2/(x2 +a2)i) = 0. s 5 & (7 Since A < 1. f x < arg z < zx and part of the imaginary IIm zl > a.2k2 cos 28) > 0 for 0 < 8 < liquid speed inclined at an angle.(say). ex po$. when x = + a J3.a2/to) (z a2/z0) z 2 } . > a) s s q boundary C consisting cle zl = a.k2) (e"8 . Y ~ Q ? ~ ~ ? J . i s a. When 1 = 1 the streamlines are determined by t.i n < 8 < 0 we replace q by .8a4 (zZ+ a') (ZZ+ a') {(z. . Using stie image in J z J= a is f(a2/z) = mIn{(a2/z)5. To find the maximum value of q put 28 = a.= .$kGiniP6 the .. This complex poten a1 continues to fuJiJJthe condition t h a .2k2cos 28) I ' 48 49 . A = f x + 8 (for iele = e1c3n+8) = e'9 ~ h i c h is tangent to the ~emicircle.a') u+1v = . (z . The image . on which v = 0 (proving that the wall is a rigid boundary) and + . the rigid boundary. This minimum is U(l A).q and> by A. z = zo (Re z.218) is the & . in . streamline because. Find an 9 r e s s i o n for the liquid speed on the hen z.).m ln i [J The streamline for which A = 0 will divide into separate branches on which either zZ = 0.5 '5 system consists of a source of strength m at the inverse point a2/. Substituting.U + dz (z2 a2)' / On the wall z = x+Oi. Im z = 0./'  2mk2 .~When . / Figure 2.3a2 = +ia(z5) = so that I\i )z+ai12 = 4a2 On t h > n ' dw = .q = 4mk2 sin 20/a(l+ k4 .\ z5.sink at the origin m m we have ensured that &e algebraic sum of strengths of th? sources within thk ciriclar boundary is zero so that this se&ircBcan r e m a i n s To find an expression for the :peed .m In ( . x ? A 4 w = .) = mln(za2/Zo)+mlnz+~ where A = . Since QIB h = (7) (e218.Z ) 8a2zZ.k2)  4m ik2(sin28) eIe a(l + k4 . dw 8a2U(z2.The velocity components are given by .n_tig .. The maximum value of u occurs when x = 0 and has a magnitude 41U(3/2)2+U(11) = (1+8A)U. or p. =kglre& we have / . is real and equal to k m rnha>fiXi$ u r n d O.h = (w E)/(2i) = constant = A. i.
since it is a constant $la2 on the boundary. i.Qz e'° $i[z2) when the cylinder zl = a is introduced.m ln sinh (7cz/2b) = a inserted into 'a flow The source at z = ai has a complex potential f. Y Wall L R L ' Y 1 ~ Figure 2.value . therefore. Express I the answer in a closed form when a = 0. in the third approximation we must add the image 1.2k2 cos a)) = 0 when3 cos a (1 k4 2k2cos a) = ' 2k2 sin2a. in this sense the approximations converge. This is the first approximation to the flow for m.1)2b2) + All the image singularities are outside the walls and as n increases the compensating images move further from the region of flow. z = aiJbetween two rigid walls Im z = kb.1) at points on the semicircle for which 0 = $ cos. in L . w = . disturbs the condition on M. ignoring the constant. To rectify this.ai +4bi).b) is . &an extremum cos a = 2k2/(k4 I). I b 1 > 1 a 1.(d/da) {sin d ( l + k4 . . v = $x = Qsina u = $ Y = Qcosa. in M which is . disturbs the condition on Land I . of 1. where $ nstant shear 5. being real because k > 1. of m.22) $ = $[zZ+Im(. is any solution of+ .m ln(z + ai 2bi). * 0 we add on the image 1. the angle.m ln(z .21) $ = ~ C Z Z + Imf (z) Before inserting the cylinder. i. Alternatively.1)2b4) k=l lim wn n. of 1.= n= 1 Since z n (1 + z2/n2rc2) m = sinh z.(z) = whose image 1. $ = ~(xsina~cosa)+$Cy~ or $ . = Im f (z) = Q(x sin a y cos a) $C(y2.6 which tends to zero as n t co .{2k2/(k4 + 1)). we seek a solution for $ kxpressed in the equivalent form (2.4bi) and the ) image m.e. sin a = k(k4. of m2 in Land the image m. Moreover the magnitude of the difference in fluid velocity between the two successive so that f(z) = Qze"$[z2 and (2. $ = tC(x .x2) wn(z)= . as a second approximation. I  + Here vxuY = $xx+ $ = constant = 5.7 Find the complex potential for a source of strength m placed at. By the circle theorem 1 .2bi) and its image m. / / + + approximations is !I # Problem 2.+ m b When a = 0 g.ai . The nth approximation for the complex potential is. . no image is required for the term $cz2. in the wall YIm z = b) is m ln(z +ai .) $ .m ln(z . 4mk2/a(k4. k Before taking the limit we add to wn the constant m which does not affect the flow so that w = ln(43k2(2k.m ln(zai)m m C ln{(z ai)2 +4'k2b2} k= 1 n n In {(z ai)' k= 1 + + 4(2k . namely . = 0. in the wall^ (Im z = . Similarly.e. for general yY + y2)+$. we have. and so on.iy. in M. The speedshas a & .1)/(k4 + l).
[a.20).consta&Also rces on AB is i the moment M about z L = 0 of X =  jZrp( cos 0)a d0 = i a p 0 y =  2n 0 dsin O)a d0 = iap 1'' q2sin 0 d0 0 J2' 0 q2cos 8 d0 To evaluate the integrals. + 4 n= 1 {A. q = Co+C. C. The final after adding the cylinder to the flow expressed by equation 2. and Y = iapnB.22 is II/ = l[zZ+ 4 Im( Qz eia$i[~2 .C2 are respectively *[a.Q(a2/z)eia+$iC(a2/z)2) which is in the form of equation 2. Y) given by + +ipq2 = . dv = ds sin l or dz m o u l l i ' s the0 dary AB.C.S . x in which case.2Q cos a. .! and B.a) $[r2 cos 28+$C(a4/r2)cos28 The radial component of the velocity ( = r'+. I..21. cos n8 + B. SIC2 i. X=O S1(2C0. . consider a point P E AB (Figure A P = s and the tangent to AB at P makes an angle 1with P on ds is pds where p is the liquid pressure attQThe elemental force 4 4 components on d$are.) = 4Qa[ cos a Hence.. therefore.a) + Q(a2/r)sin(0 . using the theory of Fourier coefficients.2 cos 20) . since dx = ds cos l.' 5 ds) = Re(p e"% dz) d. But A.e. 2Q sin a. In terms of polar coordinates (r. ! X = iapnA. by equation 2. = 2C0C.23) The pressure at any point on r = a is p where p = constant $pq2 and the force components on the cylinder are (X.Qr sin(0.e. = 2C0S. . q2 = A.C2 = C1(2C0+C.) = = 0. q e'" = d s e i h n d dZ = dse'! hile on the solid v %~v/.) is zero on r = a and the transverse component ( = II/J is q = ica(1. i. sin no} t To prove this result.2 4 sin(0 . the image of the term Im f(z) is Imf(a2/z).(equation 2. integrating the expression for dF.sin0+C2cos20 where C. 0) putting z = r eio $ = $cr2. + C.cos0+S. I Y = 2nQpa2[ cos a 81 The elemental moment about 0 (z = 0)of the force p ds is dM = (x cos l + y sin l)p ds = Re(p e .23.Z $p(dw/d~)~ z dz) t / .a) (2.
Using equation 2. "1 <fi lea tal contou{~ 1 + y T + a ~ e n c e / + " f  // Now 7 givi ./& SinceRe(z di) = x dx +y $y= W x 2 + y'l= Ylzl' the given expressionfor M follows by inregration over the arc ~ e ( fl * flf'd plex potential of the uniform stream i hen the circle 1z 1 = a is added.ip . outside .g.24.tj~i@ _ s y .a = 6 centredat the source (see _F&ure 2.z.~ Figure 2 8 P = l7+. I " ~ 9 . t' equation 2.ik)U e.tial becwe's w = .26) JC/ When further sources are added w e to enclose each of them with a circle yrn centred on the singularity.Ue'"+l .puz Putting z = aeio. dwldz = U e'" + (ik . the force componenti (X.24with i.f (dw/x)'dz.4& GK?. the vortex lies what is the result when further) source lies &C.81 !G i g p a n d let E be a large circlhhffZi%ng both C and y. m is convergent.2npkU sin a YT a l/(a)=  .~l?_+_a'/_zJ./ ' on a closed solid cylinder whose section e licicyid motion is defined by the complex k= 1 d ik m zkjukzkl dw. w~~ is a constant. the i. Since t h r e are no singularities in the do am enc osed by E but excluding the interiors of both C and y. 3uKH dz z za ~ W U W U Therefore o wh#e Iz 1 is arge. the . The extension to the result is obviously X = 271p m(U cos a + urn) . Y) on the q u a d r a n t 5 ~ are given by 1% 1 J Lk r _ @i&. Cauchy's theorem gives HenceV3%>= 2np(m . I ' / 'I d/ F on C is .m)/z + O(z') &d ( d w / P U 2e""+ZU eia(ikm)z!+O(z') so that " .2npkU sin a +21tpkU cos a Y = 2npm(U sin a + urn) (2.'"+ 2rrpmf (a) where urn iv1 the conjugate complex velocity at z = a mitting the s o u r ~ r ~ i ~ 2 X = 2npm(U cos a + urn) . = aazB = ai. = i. the conjugateuunplex iorce  Let y b e a G a l l circle Jz.
cpt (P. The equations are (i) (ii) (iii) + .ml ln(z . Y = 0 and = 0.. the zeros of dz/d[ or d [ / d v H 2 . on C. if (u.) lnz so that dw m1 . + *(x. when V2q = qxx+ qyy = 0 we have qsr+q.U y +$Q(xZ yZ) constant + + (2.m2 ln(z . [ 5 Tirl we transform to the = = = = = = (p .29) . source.+m2 . )are the velocity components at z = bl excluding the source there Since dw/dz = (dw/d[)(d[/dz) except at points where dz/d[ or d[/dz vanish.m2 m1b1 .. ) and angular velocity Q referred to fixed axes Oxy. zb. is ~ ( z= ) . v. $ satisfies I ) = Vx .m. The new shapes of the streamlines and equipotentials are determined by #+ By integration along the boundary. the boundary condition states that the velocity component of P normal to C equals the liquid velocity component in the same direction.zaZ z If ( u .5 grthwonal coordinates A flow in the zplane is defined by the I complex potential w cp + it.m. +m.a2/b2) (m m. = ty = . = v..m2b2 rn. Figure 2. 6 Bounda~ condition on a movbv cvlinder In Figure 2 + C represents the crosssection of a cylinder moving with velocity (U.26 w i t b l w \ w e hHve w K 2. = $y. +m2 are the velocity components at z = bl 6 . biza2 b.9 [plane with w taking the same values at corresponding points.dz zb. .f(z) (2. y) on it.a2/bl). = 0 except at the singular points of the transformation. = 0 and simi. With ds the element of C at a point P(x. = fly..b. .+ 5.using equation 2. . .b. . Using equation 2. z x + iy so that = ~ ( xy).. ln(z . from 2 = g(i) from w = F(i) from w = .vx q.. in general the fluid will have different velocities at the corresponding points of the transformation. i. I Similarly . = $< qy = $. $ .) . y).. ~ .28) Moreover.b f (z). Using the function z g([).) .) . larly $rr + $ namely. excluding its from which u. .20. ln(z .e.
B constants.= 2nk.e. cos a + i cosh 5.31. To satisfy (iii) we must choose C = 0 and when both A and B are arbitrary we may choose D = 1 so that $ = eCt(A cosq+ B sinq). i. cos a sin q) for all q. from the transformation formula. i.6 we seek a solution $ = $((. The kinetic energy is given by formula 2. and equating coefficients of cosq and sin? respectively. Using Sections 2.( ~ .. (ii) If cp is not univalent then. e5 cos q = Im (ie<). c sinh ( . + ia) since cecO= c(cosh ( . y = c sinh t sin q.dwldz + 0 since the liquid is at rest there.~ ~ ) (5. co sin s ha cos q .i sin q). denoting by cp+ the value of cp on B+ etc. e5 sin q = Im (. The kinetic energy of the liquid is s = +pi ct  1 . (iv) When conditions (i) and (iii) hold together. where c cosh 5.10). The given ellipse is defined by ( = 5. ds = dsn.sinh 5.e. ) = a +b.32. to satisfy (ii) putting ( = 5. Problem 2. g= B+ + + + or $ = Qc(cosh tosin a cos q . Y E (i) If cp is univalent (onevalued) then sB+ + Y E . {x/(ccosh ()I2 + {y/(csinh ()I2 = 1. . = 0.32) (iii) If the liquid extends to infinity and is at rest there. = b. J w dw where on C ( = 5. ( = constant are ellipses.LT.)(XY 2. we have cp+cp.10 () The total length 9 is made uv of the followine c a p o n e n : o d y ( ~ ~ ) enveloPe(~t) bridge out(^+:) bridie in(B . Eliminating q. cos a so that the required solution for $ is $ = Q ~ e . A. I 5e $ = VxUy = Vccosh~cosqUcsinh(sinq Figure 2. (iii) as lzl + oo. Find the stream function of the motion. sin a + e5 sinh 5. cos a sin q) (2.sinh 5. Q sin a) through a liquid at rest at infinity. where 9is the total boundary surrounding the liquid (Figure 2. then YE = 0. lzl + oo corresponds to taking ( + co (for both cos q and sin q are bounded) and dwldz + 0 corresponds to dwldc + 0..&the per uni ic ness of twodimensional liquid motion is e kinetic energy since w dB = id(cp2+ $2) + i($ dcp . From the transformation z = c cosh 5 where z = x + iy and w e have x = c cosh 5 cos q.22 The elliptic cylinder ( ~ / a ) ~ + ( ~= /b 1 ) moves ~ with constant velocity components (Q cos a. complex potential the imaginary part of which is given by equation 2. A ~ . so that F B + + F B = npk 1 V c p . Condition (ii) suggests that we seek a solution of (i) of the form $ = f ( ( ) ( Acos q +B sin q).q) such that (i) $5t + $ . sin ci) (2. we have 1*cedingproblem. c2 = a2b2.?) 6 from which the separate contributions to LT are respectively sc. Substituting into (i) we find this equation identically satisfied when f(() = CeS+DeC.= 0.33) = Q(a + b)ec sinh (5. However. For this we need totevaluate w. Now ec = e{(cos q . the circulation.7 Kinetic ener Using the result in Section l. il Problem 2. whilst (ii) on the ellipse 5 = t o .e5) so that w = Qce'~(ie~ cosh ( .<= o Qc cosh sin a.ds. Finally.5 and 2. Beet0 = .cp d$).IP [ cp d$ = fp [ $ dcp (integration by parts) . + sinh 5. n being the unit outward normal to 9 and ds an element of 9'.13 Find the kinetic energy of the liquid motion in the p r e Solution. = a. cos a) = Qcec+50(sinh 5. Finally.Qc sinh 5.
< + Solution.and I. = .11 Adding. FA.8 Rotatin c linders By equation 2. By Section 2.14 A prism whose section is an equilateral triangle of side 2aJ3 contains liquid and rotates about a generator through a vertex. When f (z) = {$(a2.bZ) + a Z+ bZ.C. the equation of the triangular s e w e f i n e d by z i = f(z)+f(Z) where f ( z ) = (Q3 . 6 Adding.cos 2 a ) e 2 b i dq = ixpQ2(a b)'(cosh 25.sinZa). Choosing a vertex 0 as origin where OG = 2 4 the equation becomes i. Using equation 2. = 5.29 the boundary condition on a .z3)/6a. k.z3)/6a. zZ = g(z) +g(Z) where g(z) = zZ.cos 2a)e'50 Using. iq. the effective radius of gyration. a + b = cetO. +bZ).yJ3 + 2a)(x + yJ3 + 2a)(x . we have.Problem 2.3xyZ+ 3 a T w # a 3 = (x . and %#+ 2. the kinetic energy of the liquid is I = QpQ2(a+ b)'(cosh 25.33 w diS = ~ ' ( a + b)'sinh (5.' = 2i sin in = i. Again 0J3 (odd powers of y give no contribution) = ypa4Q2J3 Figure 2. We denote these respective contributions to J by I. the final I is (33/5)pa4QZ J3 = +mk2Q2where m = 3J3aZp is the liquid mass within C per unit thickness. When f (z) = (4a3.. Find the effective radius of gyration of the liquid. . on C. Hence.) whereas if ff(z) has no singularities outside C. Hence. C has the equation x3 . on AB z = 3a+iy and on BO. is 61 F .and q increases from 0 to 2x.e. Using equation 2.(z3/6a). +ia)sinh ((oia)e5(erdr) where.. Writing o = e*"' on OA. = c2(cosh25.a) = 0 the three sides H of an equilateral triangle of side 2aJ3 with centroid at z = O * On OA. w will represent the motion outside C. + sinh25. c2 cosh 25. Exam~le 2. + Similarly. cZcos 2a = (aZ. the equation of cylin er rotating wit angular velocity 52 is IC/ = ~ Q z zIf C can be expressed in the form z5 = f (z)+ f (Z) this boundary condition is satisfied by taking IC/ = Im w where w = iQf(z (2..8 the complex potential of the liquid motion when the prism rotates with angular velocity 0 about 0 is w = iQz2(6az)/6a. finally.i dq.31 and changing the sign because the liquid lies within the boundary.(for in this case there are no singularities of the velocity due to sources or vortices etc. Since o .35) When fl(z) has no singularities inside will represent the complex potential of liquid motion inside C. z = re*"'. is the ellipse (x/a)' +(y/b)' = 1. represented Exam le I . With the centroid G as origin. inverting o and the limits of integration.o. . Z = rw. dr = .b2)z2+ a2b2)/(aZ by t e equatlon z5 = f (z)+ f (z). z'= re*"'.) (cosZa . z = r/o.
Examine the corresponding motion in the [plane when = z" (n is a positive integer). We can construct a corresDondina motion in the zplane by arranging that w takes the same (complex) value at corresponding points P and 52. . c 4 2. r corresponds to C and by definition $ takes the same values at corres ct K t [. [. (C. implies $ . = arg f LP.. Since z = 0 = 5 is a singularity and argc = n arg z. This implies conditions (which cannot be proved in the space available here) on the derivative df/dz = ff(z). 4 q: = dw/dzI SO that Y except at the singular points of the transformation where either speed is zero/The kinetic e n e r a is preserved in transformation.zl is small. [. J d o = J d$ since : Z Solution. The new motion in the zplane is then described by w = q( f (z) since. a nonsingular point of the transformation. When z. unit description of C produces unit description of T .__. where C is the circle Izz. meaning that a rt source of strength m. 52 .1 = 6 in the [plane with radius 6 = q t ) and centre at [ = = zl. Suppose w = g(r) is the complex potential of a liquid motion in thq RQ2  ponding points of the two planes. Hence. in the [plane enclosing a domain A. Q([). For the source m. ). The singular points of the transformation are the zeros of d[/dz = nz"' and dz/d[ = z1"In. at z = 0. PP. . P Czc . rt i 62 63 . (z.* C. 52.3Cj6jC 2. 52Rl zlv f zf z =z + z l z . ) be three neighbouring points in A.9 Co formal ma in # 9 A mapping from the zplane to the Cplane. and m. @ arg 5252. 22 Z/ If '(z)l < m and f '(z) # 0 we   Iff(z)I PP. = w . zlz Taking moduli and argument. provided have to a f a order of approximation. = (QQ1/PP1 )' = '(z)I2 since the elements are geometrically similar.2?crn0 or the corresponding source at [ = 0 has strength m . = i..^. r is described n times for a single circuit of C in which case n J d$ = . z = 0 = [ and the points at infinity in the two planes.lane 0 4 5plane Figure < of strength m . are placed at points of the zplane respectively. We shall assume that the mapping is onetoone between domains so that in the inverse transformation for which z = g([).would also be a streamline.* f (z) is fmite and single valued in some domain A enclosed by a contour C in the zplane. I = t. P.P uniquely. E is small. /n. i.arg PP. For the source m. we have = Idw/dc). = arg 5252. fl(z) must be finite and nonzero. for if dS5. Any point P within A is transformed ni uel into a definite point Q of the [plane. PP.e. P. P. ). (5.bp. implying conservation of kinetic energy If I * \ \ . + Q. at z. q f q5is the liquid speed at 52 and qZthe speed at P. .zl).e. in the zplane Ct d$ = 2xm. a streamline in A maps into a stream11 alongthe corresponding curve h l . is finite and nonzero i. at z = z.C I ! 0 z.1P +  ! Let P(z). is small for which the corresponding circle r is I l l = 6". namely.2nmO where C is the circle lzl = E. Moreover. and dS. The zeros of l/f '(z). ). where C1 = f (zl) etc / When 1 z. we have dSs/dS. (z. are corresponding elements of area at Q and P. Under transformation P . Under the transformation [ = z" this circle becomes the circle r: 1 [ .is e defin . 6 j d$ CT = .arg PP. We write this as P + a w e r e corresponds a contour i. transforms into a source of equal strength m1 at = 4. f'(z) are singurarities of the transformation and i r e normally cut off from the d o m a i y / I  (plane. dS. P. subject to the stated 1 t e angles between elemental lmilari of corresponding is applied to this representation.f'(z)+O(lz. Hence f d$ = 2?cm. for all z in A.
b " ) + m l n ( ( + b n ) = mln(lb2n[2). "} where I = (alb)'" +(bla)'" that one value of ( correspositive sign associated with the square root then for large 5. a = f +c2/f. In the [plane. hence the sector boundary can be rigid.A 2 cos 2n8 On writing dwldz = (uiv) = (qr iq.( a / ~ ) ~ +constant. z 2c2/(.13 (!) Solution. I)e" +Ithe Joukowski transformation [ = + iq = z + c2/z S < \ ~ . 5 = co.1 . Zn . Choosing the negative sign. A source of strength 2nm is placed at the vertex together with a sink of strength m at z = b(<a) on the real axis. w = m ln ((1 b2nz2n)(1 b2na4n~2n)} = m ln { I . where z dw 2nm(a2nz2n.*. Case 2. the lines arg z = +$x/n become arg ( = f$c and the arc of lzl = a becomes the semicircular arc of the = an = c. Case L I f C :circle z = f e" (f > c) then r :ellipse (</a)' +(qlb)' = 1. the infinity of the 5 plane will transform into the neighbourhood of z = 0.z = cliesoncand I< r.= w i l l be infinite (see equation 2.e. we introduce the image sink m at [ = .e.15 the source 2nm at z = 0 is transformed into a source of strength 2nm/n = 2m at [ = 0 and the sink of strength m at z = b is transformed into an equal sink at [ = bn.i. q = 0. i. 1f~:circleIzz.I = rwherelcz.dz I . The inside of the sector is mapped onto the inside of circle the semicircle of radius c in the (plane. Normally it is possible' to achieve this condition by introducing a ) circulation about C and adjusting its strength accordinglyfl.z2nado) Zn . " ere z = c&on C and z = c lies w i t h h e (Figure 2.I = r. Problem 2. The total volume output into the sector due to the source 2 n m w 2 x ( 2 n m ) ( l / 2 n ) = 2 m which balances the input of the sink inside.)e" where qr and qe are respectively the radial and transverse components of the liquid velocity we find that 4nm sin 2n6 I = (a/b)'" (bla)'" qr = Oy qe = .bn.a .a2nZ. Applying the transformation ( = z" where arg ( = n argz. If C :circle z = ceiethen r :straight line = 2c cos 8.&(z c)}' is called the The singulariiies transformation + or (5 . 1 1!! ((1 < . To find its image in the circle = c = a" we use the circle theorem 2. Znie + ICj) 2.10 Joukowski transformation .The inverse Figure 2.e2nie where a s(8) 2i sin 2n6 e.(z/a)'" .20) which gives the final complex potential w = f(()+f(c2/() = mln(1bzn(2)+mln(1b2nc4[2) ( In terms of z.16 .2c)/(( + 2c) = mapping function. Find an expression for the velocity on the curved .a(l 2 cos 2n8)' = ~~2nit1 . i. {(z. b = f c2/f.14).e.2ni0 = . & 2c. z ( so that infinities in the two planes will correspond. Using the results of Problem 2.Liquid in the zplane is contained in the sector with v d e x at z = 0 and bounded by lines arg z = &ix/n (n is a positive integer) and an arc of the circle lzl = a.This makes the complex potential f(() = .. z = c lies inside C then r :aerofoil section with a cusp at ( = 2c   < I .?  Consequently. to make Re( = 0 a rigid boundary..2 m l n ( + m l n ( ( .36) unless the speed q = Idwldzl at thccorresponding point z = c on C is zero.2 n = aeie. / v cusp w h A at 'the of the last section the liauid speed utta conditi In C . on the arc. co.
zfi / and dl = 1+o(IZI2& dz = (.. V v y w ]JO'& b ~ (+c A ) s&hich determines t h e k & of the c i r c u l a t k $ m o = x e c T .) {(c+ A)e. AIO = OA. Ue'"{(c +A)2Z.<. . F o r../(C2.produces the y e i r & i l profilewith aat @ c = 2c + c = j+iq = (c+A)ei0+3. o f z a p $ the uniform stream  ?4?t I.n e is found by eliminating z using z +{C+  QW*. L A. Q=pUK which give a mulhntjft force. .cJ zl dw iK dz Ue' I J a /++O((~l2).15.n.A.4c2)}.. = = .A. 1.A.)ei0 3.a2)n.' so that A=pUKsina.\O ' 1 iK F = *if2 =+p$Ueia++O(lzl2) 27~~ dz T + p i ( 2 n i ) ( F ) e i ? P' I. A.161 Liquid streams & the region Im z > 0 with velocity U parallel to the real axis. . .The complex forF ~ on this aerofoil is given by the Blasius formula (2./(c2 4c2)).p. A..z.. on the real axis. thkn z [ for large in tbzplane with complex 4 ' 7 n y b . respectively on Imc = 0. c // // To satisfy the Kutta conditiop..a.. and LA.+Ib)+(iK/2a) In Z // Problem 2. = (2. where 0 is the origin.A. = (1al)n. w(Z) = uei"( Hence.. .o~sg~t@ outside C we can deform this circle into the circle E defined by lzl = R where R is large. A. +1).Cn. .. . a.  I 2.A2A. 2x.+ c2{(c+A)e"+A) {(c 3."+3.d*a v@ rpthere are . we have Iplane Figure 2. Writing F = A + if2.) + 6&rSj%' u&l*.. . w e... find the complex potential of motion eferring to ~ i g u r e 2.zn and internal angles a. Furthermore when the polygon is simple its interior is mapped onto Im > 0 .15 (plane 67 . = LA. Assuming that the real axis is solid together with that part of the imaginary axis for which 0 < Imz < a.  <. 2 25 I // ($ k a  # )( Figure 2 14 To make the infinities in the two planes correspond we choose the jgyerse transformation as z = +{c+.24).. A.12 The SchwarzChristoffel transformation Here the boundary of a polygon in the zplane with vertices z.aria is mapped onto Im C = 0 by where the vertices of the polygon become the . is an isosceles triangle of in Imz 2 0 with its base A.
Problem )tJ(+2. z a[ so that w = . V2cp = 0. c. i. I + i J = . 4+ The impulsive thrust on an element ad6 of the cylinder at is pacp(a. 8)d6 along OP where 0 is the centre z = 0.the streaming speed here is aU. since Im = 0 is a rigid boundary w = . A. becomes w = . sin n6)a"} do for all 6. 6) where 4 6) (A. D. therefore. (r. the uniform stream in the zplane. Hence z = a(['. cos n6 +B. (z = 0+). Show that the component of the impulsive liquid thrust (per unit thickness) on the cylinder in the direction 6 = a is xpacp. are constants = 1 1 I Problan 2. (a. Show that the liquid motion is initially of the form cp = .e. By equation 2. L.) The inner cylinder is suddenly given a velocity (u. (Both masses are measured per unit thickness perpendicular to the zplane. (c = O). Therefore. At P ( z = aeie)the boundary the initial motion is + (C.. Since divq = 0 by the equation of continuity. B.pa = pa // Figure 2.cos n6 +D.. (2. A.The domain of the actual liquid motion is the region Im z > 0 outside the triangle whose base is then allowed to shrink to zero into coincidence with the origin 0 .1)+ M.l). a). 2.z1 = a lies at rest in a liquid which is set in motion from rest with the velocity potential cp defined in Section 2. Since = 1 when z = 0+.1 9 A circular c$linder 1. w = . sin n6)rn+ (C.37 the mapping function is dz/dc = L(c . integrated. sin n6)r". (c = . I1A. cp = n= 1 cp. cos n6 +D. c c  c .Uac. cos n6 + B. a. sin n6)an N 0 c= 1 The given cp satisfies V2cp = 0. v). M are constants.13.Uz. = ai). in I +=N 2.16 1.O) and at the same time the outer shell is given a velocity (0. If I. (z = 0 ).For large Ill.. The impulsive thrust component along 6 = c + a is. Aj (c = 1) are the points on Imc = 0 corresponding respectively to the limits of the points A. .13 Im ulsive motion The impulsive pressure m at any point of a liqui set m motion impulsively from rest is pcp where q = grad cp.20 Liquid of density p lies at rest in the annular region ')external to the uniform cylinder lzl = a of mass m and internal to the uniform shell lzl = b > a of mass M. M = 0 and = 0 when z = ai gives L = a. El Inverting the order of summation with integration and using 1'' cos n6 sin 6 d6 0 2n 0 =0 = = cos n6 cos 6d6 cos26 d6 0 = 1 =n = 0 1.1)f and = (a2+z2)+/a. on integration. polar coordinates. A. gives z = Ye2. In terms of z. dB lZn (cos 6 +i sin 6) {(A.U(z2+ a2)i. cpn(r. + and a.l)'c(c 1)f which. (A cos 6 + B sin 6)r + (C cos 6 +D sin 6)/r. B+Da' = 0 . we have.U 4 in the cplane or . A+Ca' = u. This domain is mapped by the SchwarzChristoffel transformation onto Imc > 0 where A. J are the components of the total thrust parallel to the real and imaginary axes respectively. Hence. Moreover.' Jn: sin n6 sin 6 d6 ! 2n 0 sin n6 cos 6 do for all n for all n except n = l sin26d6 + we have. (cos6 +i sin 6)~ ( a0).
Interpret the motion. Solving for the four unknown constants and writing b2 a2 = A we see that all conditions are satisfied by the given cp with A = ua2/A. only the cp. (r.a2) J . we have I . = npa(Ba+ Da. are {npacp(a. a.Similarly at Q(z = beie)the boundary condition is = ar . express dw/dz in a closed form and hence show that the magnitude of the liquid speed at z = aeie is 1(2m/a)sin 28/(cos 28. Hence.39.. .npacp(a.0 ) = mu.') = . for all 8. I .a')} + ! + h)}. 4.1 1 1 where 2a2b21 = a4 + b4. ~ 3 Prove that the impulse on the solid cylinder lzl = a due to the &den application of a source of strength m at a point z = b outside on the real axis is 2nmp2/b away from the source. 1 EXERCISES / F A solid cylinder 121 4 a is placed in a liquid whose velocity potential Awodimensional motion is originally i ( x 2+x y2). .20 I?!  .~ c o s 8 . D = va2b2/A (2. B = vb2/A. show that b t .b2)(b2z2 . y = 0.38.39) Problem 2. = Mv + xpbcp(b.a4)/(b2z2)). in order that 4 ax2 + 2hxy + by2 Ax2+2Hxy+ By2 ( x 2 y2)2 may represent a possible liquid motion. A.2npvab2/(b2. Show by any means that this motion is also irrotational and the streamlines are circles. / U = (x2+y 2 ) 2 V = + . b. = mu+npa(Aa+Ca') = mu+npua2{(a2+b2)/(b2a2) > J . = 0 when x = 0.0 ) = xpb(Ab Cb.A + c ~ = ~0. h. B+D~= ~ v . C = ua2b2/A. Obtain the relations between the constants a. J. be the ext&nal impulse components (per unit th~c ness applied to the cylinder lzl = a. + < > Given a complex potential w = m ln {(z2 .') = 2npua2b/(b2. H.O).=. xpacp(a. or x2+y2 = a ' where z = x +iy. d I' Let I. The corresponding components of the impulsive liquid thrust. B.xpacp(a. are the external impulsive components on z = b.13. . 8) so chosen can possibly satisfy these boundary conditions. Show that the force on the cylinder is 4npa2i2. The impulsive equations of motions of the inner cylinder are I . using equation 2. = xpbcp(b.21 Find the external impulses which must be applied to produce the motion of Problem 2. J . J . 9)= 0 Using equation 2. Referring to the general expression for cp given in Section 2.a2) Similarly if I.i x ) = Mv xpvb2{(a2+ b2)/(b2 .~ s i n 8 + ( ~ c o s 8 + ~ s i n 8 )= bvsin8..
= the vortices at any instant we use equation 3. For twodimensional motion we have q A & = (ui + v j) A C k = jvi.. )U.Chapter 3 A.i(k.4) dz z~ zz u. which carries the vorticity k. referred to as a vortex couple. move with the liquid particle associated with the point z. z1 = ullvl = Uand P.u. = U.. xy = iu (3.(u. A.j dq = 2nk.A.4 et seq. = u.+k.K) and sin a = . is any small circle centre 71 In the special case when k. and z. y. Solution. then k.i(k. . = reie. occupy the points A. 3 = 0 or r = A.)+k. a point vortex for which w = ik In (z . d ik. ) induced in it'by the uniform stream and by the vortex A.ik. = jv.1dq = 2nk2 where y. . = 0.2) u. Denoting the constant 8 by a we have o = 0 and i. = j+ (U . = U . /(z. + k. is not i. Given z. giving ik. Consequently. (z = z. ). and z.i(k.. i + xyj where x = p/p +q(u2 v2)+ SZ.iv. i.v. Again. will vary with time. we have (Cv). = (k.)U and k. z. Also = C + Ut .z1 z2 z2z1 Writing z. i.C uj whilst Vx = x. the velocity (u.) respectively at time t = 0.)+ik. + iv. k2)/r2 = constant = o. The complex potential at this instant is w = Uz+ik.v.1 stream U.. ik.(z = z. has constant velocity of translation only. Again suffixes are used to denote partial differentiation.3) This means that vorticity following (i.+ v. vCy = DC/Dt = 0 (3. ) will.ln(zz. will have a velocity (u. = U . respectively. = (k.1 of the previous chapter.find the positions of liquid velocity under z.v.1) z l   2 + rei(wt+a). = (k. k.+k. = 2. In particular. i.e.iu. not tied on a boundary). i. + k. /rw)eia(eiw' . i. .u. in general. z. ). eiaor cos a = 0 (a = $ or .k.)~= (xy). Since u. ). iv.v.e. The main features of flow are: The velocity vector is (3. u. + + + + + + + + + i.e. Therefore. since p is constant. The equations o f motion are derived from the results of Section 1.(k.z. = 0. = U + i(k. a = .n => rU = k.+k. /dt) and u. so that 8 = ot a where 8 = a when t = 0. unsteady. is the same as in the case of steady flow. are not constant since z. ) ) ~= = U~ ~. .k. i..e. is the centre of gravity associated with masses k.1) q = u(x. where y. u1 ivl = . ) and A. integration leads to the result + + Problem 3. If z. if free (i. + . Similarly. and 0 = (k.z. t)i v(x. /r)eie from which Y2 TwoDimensional Unsteady Flow 3. i. but ( d w / d ~ ) ~. .iv./r)eia from which Z. k. It should be emphasised that the To ~ .) Note that this satisfies . .uy. are one form of the equations.ik.+ uC.(wik. = constant. but we replace (i) by the new condition that flow is. and .1 Fundamentals In this chapter we adopt the same assumptions (ii). and k. ln(zz. y. Discuss the motion of two vortex filaments in a uniform z. x. k. z.e. both r and 8 are constant so that A. The particle at A. (a = in = . substituting and taking conjugates we have i. )/(k. /r)eie. it follows from the above analysis that i = 0 = 8. + (Cu). + k. i.. ) induced in A. This principle is illustrated in the next problem.e.(~. I n ( z . the centre of gravity moves with constant velocity of magnitude U parallel to the real axis. z. + vy = 0. Hence k. Both vortices will remain at rest if rU = ik. Using the equation of continuity and C = vx uy we arrive at the result 5. u.~ . Eliminating x from these equations using (x. . is any small circle centre A. provided k. Choose the real axis parallel to the uniform stream and let the vortex filaments of strengths k. (iii). = U .7. /r)e""'+ "). attached to) any point which moves with the liquid remains invariant.) = (kl+kz)U or k. Hence v. z. t)j O k The equation o f continuity. (3. at z. is U. ( = dz. = z2 + reia. and (iv) defined in the first paragraph of Section 2. rU = . = U . = ( at t = 0.e. = 0. = i. . eia/r)t.rU/k. = 0.z. all or some quantities are time dependent.
= (d/dt)(r. = kr. 8. ). v satisfy dw* ( n . where Problem 3.l)k/b induced in it by the members of its own circle as proved in the previous problem. using equation 2.r: = constant = A..E) '181 1 ' k Integrating. deduce the equation of the path of the vortex k.2.. u = 0. r.n) whilst a similar set of n vortices are r placed at points z = zs = (s = 1. = (r r.r. r: . Show that members of the second set will remain equidistant from z = 0 and determine the initial values of db/dt and daldt.~ + ( n .e. The velocity n n ' r= 1 of the vortex at z = a (i. A vortex at zs has the tangential velocity f(n . /k) In sin (8. If (r.2. By symmetry the other vortices move with this same speed tangential to the circle and therefore the system of vortices moves as a rigid system on the circle = a with angular velocity $(n. = r. r.cos A). Show that the configuration rotates as a rigid system with angular velocity j(n.n). i. The vortices on z = a will also induce a velocity calculated from the complex potential w = ik ln (zn. . 3. v = 3 n ..e. Dividing throughout by e"' followed by separating real and imaginary parts. + 8. The complex potential w for n vortices at z = zr = aeZr"'ln is But u.+ + an' u+iv = = ik( dz = = a +.eiel. The complex potential of the motion at any instant is w = ikln(zz.an).k and interchanging r. Problem 3. Solution. eiel)= eie1(3. k 3I = .) denote their respective polar coordinates of position at any instant. terms from the above equations giving y 1 At time t = 0. If r.3 n vortices each of strength k are placed at equal intervals along the circumference of a circle of radius a.)ikln(zz.ae2'"'ln) = ik In (z" . = r. . + iv. = ) = 3 (@) 1 dr.. 8. . = 2(a8.Problem 3.~ a. 8. e l ) and (r. ).. R' = r:+r:2r. we have. so that 8.an).)+mlnz. w = ik r=l 1 In (z . 2m 2m k+~~tjA = co~(~. a)e2me11k= constant. permanently and R2 = 21: (1 . the path (r.m . = constant = 2a (say). and 8. e l ) of the vortex k is In r.l ) ~ " . + ir.8. = r. with 8.l)k/a2.. initially. Hence r. Z. = r. deduce that r: ... . RZ RZ cos Ar.Z skr inl .f k r ~ ~ Similarly 8. has components u. z.1)/[2r:(l cosA)] or 8. We can now eliminate both r. n vortices each of strength k occupy positions (r = 1.2 ) z " . = 0.e. Hence. z = zn)is determined from w* = wikln(za) = ikln {(znan)/(za)) The velocity components u. (cosl. = . = ikr. . with r2 and 8. = r2eie2 The velocity of the vortex at z.zr ) = ik ln n (z .r2cosA Similarly. 1 IzI It follows that r. k sin A 2r.ri = constant. so that 1 becomes A.8. respectively.l)k/az. If initially r. 3.1 1. = (2m8.(lcosA)' 81 = 2'kr'. .4 = = ae2wi/n m= r.l)k/a2. A = 0 or r. . . Solution. = z.v. Denoting this contribution by its radial and transverse components qr and q.8. 1 A = 8. . .) from which 74 Solution..e.l)k/a so that the vortex moves tangentially to Jzl = a with speed v or angular velocity f(n. = .2 A sink of strength m is fixed at the origin r = 0 whilst two vortices of strengths k and k are free to move in the liquid. sin (8.+an' fn(n1) ik(n1) = ik(y) =i b i. a) = constant i. replacing k by .
the vortices .q. ) i.) Solution.M)/L) where L. The vortex at ( . z = L cosh'( +M or [ = cosh{(z . With k = 2Uaqo we have 5.1 and + 1 respectively on Im ( = 0. we must introduce an image vortex of strength k at 5. show that two vortices of strengths k and . q. M = 0 and with [ = . the hydrodynamic image of the vortex .le . = in. is a nonsingular point.k can remain at rest downstream of the plate and find their positions given that the liquid speed is nowhere infinite.).U(zZ+aZ)* as solved in Problem 2.)+ikln((7. +iq.l(.k at z. = a([.37.an  nikbn . = . q? = k/(2Ua) from which z. Substituting for 5. The velocity will be infinite at the point z = ai unless dw/d[ = 0 when [ = 0 (Kutta conditioriSection 2. . (n.qi . : ( ane"a) nkbn.ancos nu) (n . respectively.11. Again by Problem 2. = 2: . and will.= qr = Re R dt Again. therefore. = $aZ((E2 +45: q.a" . with a.'a" sin nu .e. Show that a vortex of strength k can remain at rest at a point midway between the two parallel walls. Writing z. from which x. When this condition is satisfied the vortex .1 I. yo = a25. remain equidistant from 0 (z = 0). . is not a singular point.12 to map the region AmBCD.q : . Find this point and evaluate the force on the wall Re z = 0 in this case.2anb"cos nu + bZn. du q. . we use the SchwarzChristoffel transformation of Section 2. = kJ3/(2~a).1 Solution. = x. q. + iy. occupied by the liquid in the zplane onto the upper half of the [plane with B(z = in/A) and C(z = 0) represented by [ = .Ua + ikc. . + Problem 3. By symmetry. and 2. the result follows. each vortex of the ring has the same induced velocity. we have z. Writing ( .1. Since qr + iq.l)k = 1m 1 .I)* is determined. = iaZ{(E2 +45. y. The complex potential of motion in the (plane is then w = Ua[ikln(((. Since [ = 1 when z = 0.anenia) R2 where RZ = (bne"'". (.k. however.k at the corresponding point ( .5 A thin plate of width 2a is placed perpendicular to a uniform stream of magnitude U.an) = aZn . By equation 2.1 + 2i5. ' = 0 or aU(ci + q : ) = 2kqo. is an equal vortex .)*+ E).nikbn.15.it9 4. This distance. + I].18 the mapping function is z = a(('.l > 0).E ) where E = 5.k at z.l(bn.nia . + k will lie at the image points z. changes with time t and initially db {nikbn.18. is independent of s.1 . '  . (Assume the stagnation pressure is p. )' = a'((.1 ) h h e r e dz/dC = 0 when [ = 0.1. provided z.)*. = 5. Referring to Figure 2.= +dt b 2b2 b nkbn'(bn . Y: = a2(5$.ai.an)(bnenia . This implies .1 when 77 . .z = 1 we have Integrating. . will remain at rest if zplane Figure 3. Assuming the absence of cavitation.11). the flow in the absence of vortices is represented by w = .+iq0 this becomes 2Uaq0 = k. and q. = a.ikr.. x. ' .l)k 2bZ R Problem 3. M are constants. in the zplane will also be stationary since 5.nia bne . Referring to Figure 3. = (x. In order that the real axis in the (plane remains a solid boundary in correspondence with the solid boundary in the zplane.6 Liquid lying at rest in Rez > 0 is bounded by rigid walls coincident with the real and imaginary axes and Im z = rc/. Choosing the zplane as the region of flow with the stream parallel to the positive real axis and the plate lying in the imaginary axis between z = ai and z = . x. so that we need only consider the flow in Im z > 0.Since eZmi = 1. iy.
by the image system are given by thrust P on BC is. A point midway between the parallel walls can be represented by z. we have V2$ = $"+$'/r = where $' d$/dr etc. 0 = ly To evaluate the integral consider " de dt . Therefore we must insert the image vortex of strength k at $ . = ik l sinh (lz. cosh l z = cos ly. Since a > 0.) ikln (5 7.gradS2 and curl q = 0.e. + E). 1 z . c = 0. For r < a.z. cosh lz. we have PIP = (ac~iat) iq2. where $. i. $ = $. = fr3 + ar2+c. w = ik In (cosh l z . + c dw dz iklsinhlz 1 cosh l z . Instead. The velocity components u.cosh A$ with. in which case cp exists with q = . r$b = constant = f and c (=el) g = constant $ .z = in/l . For no slip at r = a. = i cosh a leading to . = For finite speed $r3+iar2 +e.cosh lz. where (r$b )' = 0. 2kli sinly u+iv = klsinAy coslyi cosly+i ( I c0s2l y + 1 or u = 0. of the [plane. A vortex of strength k placed at a nonsingular point z. = i sinh a and sinh lz. = (a +fni)/l for which cosh lz. e = constant.+pv2 where p. $a3 +$a3 + e = f In a +g. I ': t = tan 8 = ik lim lim I sinh l z l z .grad4. ). the pressure p = p(r. . in the cplane so that the complex potential of liquid motion is w = ik In ([ 5. z = iy.n I(a) = 1+acos2 8 = 1+ a + t 2 (I +a)" and cos2 8 dB R da (1 + a cos2 8)2 2(1 +a)* Hence S.cosh lz. $ = $ . Assuming that F = . therefore. Choosing + . . l sinh l z cosh l z cash l Z .'+$. t ) is no longer given by Bernoulli's equation. = ln(J2+ 1). = cosh (a + $xi) = i sinh a = i. The Solution. The velocity (u.cosh lz. Since cosh lz. $ . is a rigid boundary so is Im[ = 0. v) on BC is given by u+iv = = 3.u + iv = ikl(tanh a . (say) in the zplane transforms into a vortex of the same strength at the corresponding point [=[ . is the stagnation pressure.cosh 25. a. For r > a. = coshlz.i coth a) Hence..e. + E) cosh (lz. v = 2klsinly/(cos21y+ 1). = i r 2 + a r and $. $b = $'. etc.) in the [plane and in the zplane where ( = cosh lz. Integrating r$. sinh a = 1.cosh lz. cosh a = J2. u = 0 and the vortex will remain stationary provided tanh2 a = i . By Bernoulli's equation the pressure p on BC is p. and = r+2a for r < a.2 Pressure and forces in unsteady flow When flow is unsteady.D ~ ( t ) where A(t) is an arbitrary function. sinh lz. ) .cosh 15. + E) 1 1sinh (lz. cosh l z . Discuss the incidence of cavitation within the vortex. Since $ = $(r).)'/r = r+2a. c = constant at r = 0.gradplp. Since AmBCD. = f ln r +g./r = (r$. Problem 3. E cosh (lz. i. + E). the pressure is determined by integrating the equation of motion DQIDt = F .7 Find the stream function $ and pressure p due to a vortex field in which the vorticity = 0 for all lzl = r > a.cosh l Z . Integrating. fa3 a3 = $a3 = f . Also for continuity in $ (the absence of sources on r = a).1 = cosh (in/lL) = cos (n/lL) or L = 112 giving 5 = cosh lz.ik In (cosh l z . v induced in the vortex at z.
2a). is a minimum at r = 0. = 4a3 1n (rla) and for r < a. the pressure p.2aeiw'). = p{(acp/at)$q2 + A(t)}. To produce the required circulation we add the term 2ik In z which does not upset the rigid boundary condition on z = a. Putting t = 0 we obtain w. or. Outside the vortex where r > a. = constant.59pa4/36. cp exists and equals Ja3 arg(z/a). = 0 at r = R ( <a) which is a root ofthe equation R2(R2+ 8aR + 1 8a2)= 59a4 . for When r < a.2. is given by p. If this condition is not fulfilled.The vortex will be completely hollow if R = a. cp does not exist in which case we find the pressure p. q = $ . the final complex potential for all t is For continuity of pressure across the boundary r = a po = pm :pa4 = $pa4 + h which determines h. 0 so that A(t) = ppm where pm is the pressure at infinity.8 Find the pressure on a circular cylinder lzl = a due to an 4 2 on the real axis external vortex of strength 3k placed at a point z = 2 given that the total circulation about the cylinder is 4nk. its position in the plane is defined by z = 2aei"' and therefore the complex potential of this external vortex for t 3 0 is 3ik In ( z . = 3ikln(z2a)3ikln(z$a)+5iklnz This expression does not persist because the vortex at z = 2a has a velocity (u. directly from the equation of motion.3 ik . we have e = lla3/18. p. q = Idw/dzl + 0. The pressure p = p{(acp/at)$q2} A(t). at time t = 0 is then w. We note that dp. i. 3k at z = $a and 3k at z = 0 . As + CO. After inserting lzl = a.e. A(t) = 0 .g+ f lna = 0. At time t 2 0. q is determined by (dw/dzl where dw5 ik . Hence.2a). = pm . dcplat = 0. ignoring the term independent of z. for r < a.v ) induced in it by the image vortices. Integrating.3 ik dz z .e. Using Section 3. cavitation of radius R < a could occur when p. i. The complex potential ofthe vortex 3k at z = 2a is 3ik In ( z. IzI . This result gives zero circulation about the circle since the algebraic sum of the vortices inside. TO prevent cavitation within r < a. p. moves in a circle of radius r with acceleration q2/r towards r = 0. Hence. $ . = 4a3/r.2a) by the circle theorem (2. when r > a. + h = constant Hence. This minimum value is p. = pm +k p ( r 4+ 8ar3 + 1 8a2r2.3ik In {(a2/z) . I). u = 0 and u = k/2a or the vortex at z = 2a moves in a circle of radius 2a centred at z = 0 with angular velocity o = k/4a2. pm > 59pa4/36.La e'"' Z + + 2 + Also Problem 3. is zero. Since we are evaluating the pressure on the circle when the vortex is in its initial position. We have (2r3+9ar2lla3)/18 Next we determine the pressure. again. to consider the incidence of cavitation within the vortex. = k p ( r 4+ 8ar3 + 18a2r2) h. Ignoring the constant term the complex potential w. An element at a distance r(<a) having a speed q = $. we need to evaluate the minimum pressure p. i.59a4) Finally. /dr = pr(r+ 3a)'/9 and d Z p l/dr2 = $(r+a)(r 3a) from which p. provided pm = llpa4/18.p + p. Applying the circle theorem to find its image in lzl = a and adding the circulation term 2ik In z.20). we can put t = 0 and z = aeie in which case. the complex potential is 3ik In ( z . leading to p. Given that as r + oo. > 0 . = Solution.e'"' z . acp/at .36pm/p.e.
.
4 Surface waves To examine the characteristics of small constantamplitude waves propagated over the surface of still water of constant evaluated on the still water surface y = h. Assuming both k and U are positive. + 41.. 8 is real.7~) (3. We must not allow tanib+ 1 = 0 either.Case 2. t. By (iii) we neglect qZ. In terms of the modified cp. the above surface condition on the unknown profile W can be replaced by an equivalent condition 3. h + q) be a point on the wave profile at any time t where q = q(x. wavelength 1= 2n/m and period z = 2nln propagated with speed c = nlm. Putting A2 . .Xo + Case 3 . i. Hence. i.2) and let P (x. or /I where p = sin'(kl(2Ua)). h. (iv) the profile slope is everywhere small.7b) Normal velocity . t)/gat for all x. t)/ay.nt).a 1 Q vanishes. From tan f 8 + 1 + Q = 0 we find that k 2 tanf8 2(1L Q) = 1sin 8 = = 2 4 1 Q) I. dq/at is approximately . We assume that due to the surface wave (i) liquid motion in W is irrotational with velocity potential cp = cp (x. y) a typical point within. In the case of a simple monochromatic wave of amplitude a. small circulation. is finite provided the liquid particle is not entering or leaving (when tan f a + 1+_ 52 = 0) either point of stagnation. This means that the time to or from a point of liquid stagnation is infinite. y) E 9. 1 = 2 Ualk > 1. t). (3.a9(x.7d) By equation 3. VZ& = & . 1) (tanf8+ l)(tanfa+ 1) provided tania+ 1 # 0.B(t) where dB/dt = A(t)ghU/p since the velocity field q = grad cp due to either cp is the same.6 (3.acplay = 0 when y = 0 for all x. + ++ . h.7a) For all t and R(x. W is bounded by the profile W and bed y = 0.e. t.  X . q = acp(x. The point z = aei*" is a point of stagnation of the flow since 6 = 0 here. provided neither tan f 6 + 1 Q nor tan . h.tanfa (x+ 1)(x. 8 = n+P. motion is solved by (3.h+q't)+gq at When q is small =0 for all P E W + Invoking (iv). (ii) the pressure on the profile W is a constant ll for all x and t.2 1 + tan2i8 Since 1 > 1. 52 = gy = g(h+q). (iii)q.18) with p = constant. 1 = 2Ualk Here a = 1. for all P' (x.acp(x.5. cp and speed q = I grad cp ( are all small. the time.2 is the final (equivalent) surface condition applied at joints P'(x.e. dx x+ tanf6. t). Hence t.1 = Q2 depth h choose the axis OX in the horizontal bed (Figure 3. a # :n. Using suffmes to denote partial derivatives.~= 0 Condition 3. On the profile W applying (i) and (ii) to the pressure equation (1. q will be of the form q = a cos (mx . t). Figure 3. t). where A(t) is arbitrary. Using (iv). Also we may replace cp by cp . h. y. Let W denote the fluid region and R(x. These are the points of stagnation on the cylinder.
$ ~ . = . V2cp = (f. ..) sin mx) + 0(a2) Neglecting a'.7d). ~ ~ . ' (d2) (2) = (U. Replacing z . cos m(z + ih. the required complex potential becomes w = cz + ac cosech mh cos m(z + ih) (3. Following the method of the last problem we superimpose on the whole system a velocity ci which reduces the wave to rest and changes the streaming velocities to (U. = (U. and flows with velocity U. = 0.gmA sinh mh cos(mx. Show that k' = k cot2 a. . +mp2(U2. Solution.m2f = 0 or f = A cosh my + B sinh my where A and B are arbitrary constants.Problem 3.2ma cosech mh.~ .e. t.ga sin mx = p. = ~ o n s t a n t . A vortex of circulation 2xk is at rest at the point z = a sec a (a is real and 0 < a < in) in the presence of the circular boundary lzl = a.ih.h. EXERCISES 1. Choosing the new origin z = 0 in the free surface.c).7a).c)i. . the speed q : . acp(x. . find the speed of propagation of a monochromatic surface wave of wavelength 1 over still water of uniform depth h.m2f) cos (mx . sin mx) Since the pressure must be continuous across the interface for all x p.)) (U. for all x. . . Invoking condition (3. cosh m(y + h.nt) = 0 for all x. nA cosh mh = ag. find an expression for the speed of propagation of a small surface wave at the interface of the two liquids.nt) for which 1 = 2n/m and the speed c = nlm.{1. < y < 0 is w..nt). 87 .) where q = a sin mx is the streamline rl/. . A twodimensional vortex of strength k is placed at the origin z = 0 in a liquid confined between the two parallel walls Imz = f$a.i over an immiscible liquid of density p.(l+ 2ma coth mh.h.9.c).11 Using the above theory. .10) Moreover it is easily verified that the corresponding $ is $ = cy .g(acp/ay) = . by equation 3. where q.c) cosech mh. the surface condition (3.ct by z and imposing a velocity . sin m(z + ih)} x = (1 ma cosech mh. t.c).c)z .(U. .cos2a). Finally. the axes and wave profile are brought to rest whilst the liquid has a velocity ci. for h.(l. around which there is a circulation 2nk'. for U.nt) and.t. coth mh. .i. t) = gq = ag sin (mnt) at from which we deduce that cp has the form cp = f (y)cos (mx .c). 2.10.ct) with A = ac cosech rnh from equations 3. for all x.nt) = Re w where w = A cos(mz .c)' (1 ma cosech mh..6) gives the speed for. and . . a2cp/at2 = .a(U. Solution. The liquid speed is q.. We assume that q = a sin (mx . sin mx) We find the corresponding result for the upper liquid by writing U.p. Using (3. coth mh.e. We assume the wave has an elevation q = a sin(mx.. giving cp = A coshmy x cos (mx . Show that the complex potential of the liquid motion due to the vortex is w = ik In tanh (nz/2a). at the interface y = 0 the speed is q.2ma coth mh. Using (3.c).h. implies fyy .12 A liquid of density p.7~) we must have B = 0. Prove that the vortex will remain at rest and that the streamline which passes through the point z = aai (0 < a < $) will intersect the real axis at the points z = f(a/n)ln(tan an + sec an).9) To find the complex potential of relative motion we have cp = A cosh my cos(mx . = (glm)tanh mh.n2A cosh mh cos (mx . . The coefficients of sin mx on either side must equate in which case mp. Prove that there are two stagnation points on the boundary z = aeie symmetrically placed about the real axis in the quadrants nearest to the external vortex given by 2 cos 8 = cos a (3 .ci on the whole system. ) the required result.h.nt) above the interface y = 0. Problem 3..nt) i. = g(p2.c)i. < y < 0 flowing with velocity U.nt) or w = Acosm(z . and y = .ac cosech mh sinh m(y + h) sin mx so that the bed y = h is the streamline $ = ch and neglecting a2 (compared with a) the surface y = a sin mx corresponds to $ = 0. fills the region 0 < y < h. Deduce the complex potential of motion relative to the wave. i. Using equation 3. m = 2x/A (3. (U.(>p.h. the complex potential of the lower liquid in . Assuming that rigid walls lie along y = h. c2 = (nlm). where q2 . sin m(T . when y = h. and deduce that 8 is real..(U. is given by qio= (U.nt) = .p .8.) which fills the region . ~ a s i n m x 2 = constant $p2q2.
(mqm).. z = a sin 8. A source. of strength m. m. y = R sin 8. for which cp exists with . Given that there is no circulation in the liquid apart from the effect of the vortices. (4. sinz8 = 48a)8 where r = m/UZ.0 a 1 0.2) 3 $ is called theStokes . c = $a. i . a(z) = (zZ 't a2)+ Deduce that in order that the vortices remain at rest z. are the unit > i n ~ r p e n d i the radial and transverse vect o r s ~ F a ~ t O ~ x ~ n n & directions respectively. 4. e a G 2 3 ) The velocity vector is q = q i + 6 m + q.1) ax mcm The stream function $ = $(x. R = {(x. Show that the equations to the paths of the liquid particles can be expressed in the form x.Ua(z)"+ik ln{(a(z). 6 When q.Ut)' yZ)+= (U sin 8)/d = r(8a)/sin 8. m.m) exists in W sby virtue of equation 4. (ii) the geometry of any immersed obstacle together with the flow is symmetrical about OX. The vorticity li m m0I a$ / z 9 k 9 = a+F ~ / . respectively outside the cylinder Ill = c at rest in uniform streaming motion of magnitude U parallel to the imaginary axis when there is no circulation about the cylinder.Prove that t/r = . Find the complex potential for vortices of strengths k and k at loand 9.stream functioq.a)cot 8 +In sin 8 + constant divq = + ap=L ? X I / ' q m (4. each of strength k are symmetrically placed inside a fixed circular cylinder of radius a.(8. t0 = 5. the axis of symmetrb (iii) using ~vlindricalc o o r d i n w (x. free region W s the equation o f continuity is aq.4) When flow is irrotational 6 = curlq = 0.3. 0.1 and satisfies r 6 .1 Fundamentals We assume that (i) density p is constant. prove that they will revolve about the axis of the cylinder with angular velocity 88k/21az.E ) (4. .a(z. and pass through the corners of an equilateral triangle of side $a J3. ' 2 r Alternatively. These components q 1 x and m onlv. y = m cos8. we have q = curl($0) where $ is a component of a vector potential function.Ut = Rcos 8. 2. Three vortex filaments.))/(a(z) .ax am ax ax + am m am / =. behind a plate of length 2a is w = .6 = 50 where  5 and q m =a  aqx a (1 a*) a (1 a*) . 1 Chapter 4 ThreeDimensional Arisymmetric Flow / + 4. to show that the complex potential of motion due to vortices k at z. move along the axis OX with velocity U relative to the undisturbed liquid. elwhere x = x. = =c u r = 1 m ax am ..) must be purely imaginary. the flow is independent of 8.a(Z. 1 c' + . Apply the transformation iz = c+ c2/[.))).a(z.0 where i.
r cpr = (4. Replacing the variable 0 by p where p A z e have 2 r 2 q r = .e. 'l'hese components can be expressed in terms o using equation 4..3 G *.2 Spherical polar Figure 4.2 the a r e a s f r u s t r u m is 2xw 6s so that if qn is the average normal component of velocity across PQ we have 2n:w 6s qn+ 0(6s2) = 2n: 6+ . which are the relations (4. cos i .r. 0 being un< v a e d l c i and transverse directions.In terms of cylindrical coordinates x = r cos &w = r sin 8 (x.p2)$. = 0. The polar coordinates (r. = = .1 P Q = [(q.2 1 6* qn = lim . w 6w) be neighbouring points belonging to surfaces I) = constant and = constant and respectively.'(cosec 8)(a+/ and with 6s = 6r. = +.L=m as normal velocity component \\ 1 a*. = acp/ra8. + r21ClVr = 0 with a ss=ying e5uations 4. b) to P(x.q.I)) = 2n:6 1 ) ..2).uZ)(p. The equation for 11. A and B are constants and Pn(. 8) are defined by__ / =symmetrical flow we write the velocity q = qrr + q.u) is a Legendre &lr_nomial of order n. + where the suffixes attached to cp and I) only denote partial differentiation.. L z + where Q is taken as positive measured in the sense right to left for an observer at A looking towards P.6 and 4. w) and Q(x+ 6x. The volume flux across the surface (a conical frustrum) formed by the revolution about OX of PQ = 6s is 2n($+ 64b.1 (where ds is an element of AP and is inclined to OX at an angle I)is i. qn <q.The flux of volume flow Q across the curved surf& formed by the complete rotation of the meridian plane curve joining A(a.4.6) r sin 8 q. Referring to Figure 4.SS Putting 6s Gw. A solution is .7 given by . . and q. When P lies on the stream surface through A.q. /an\ where n is a positive integer. a) in Figure 4. = (1 .w). = r'(cosec8) x a velonty p tial cp exists thecq = grad @giving I q = acp/ar.5. Eliminating y5 the equation for cp is (r2cpr )*+ ((1 .+q q =.0(.u2)cpp ) . sin 42nw ds Cm)~~ coordinates . Q = 0 or t+bp = To find the velocity in terms of II/ let P(x. . With 6s = r 68. Figure 4.. is (1 .
(a2/r. r..1 1 ) = [p.= l )Choosing .2a2brp + b2r2)3 The radial component of the liquid velocity on Irl = a must be zero so that the required speed is simply the transverse component q. by Section 4.10) (Note that dr Vf = df (r) = f (r+ dr).dS = 4mn for all sjmple surfaces S e n c l os i n ~ .metric irrotational flow devoid of rigid boundaries and = 0 at r = 0. to ensure the correct conditions at infinity in Butler's theorem we must arrange that $ = 0 at r = 0 by adding a c o n s t a v n o t a t i o n of Section 4.= .9 1 I "wl = lim (6p.9 the stream function of this source is $. If a rigid sphere Irl = a is introduced into this flow and none of *. (The verification is left to the reader.(r.b)' +mz)*.9) cp = m/lra1 5/i @ The resultant f l l v m m e t r i c about an ~s through r = a/ a * Denoting the image stream function (r/a)$.(ra)/lra1 (4. b r2 qr = m = r2cpr = $ r sin 8 q. no new singularities are introduced into the fluid by the image system. satisfies ( 1 p2)$ + "'! r2$rr = 0 in which case $. writing (r2.br) $ = m+ a (r2.3 _Elementan r +. m = r(1 p2)*. on which.p .V) €to 1 r = p.r)/r cp = m/l. by symmetry.r r3 (4. the final stream function in the presence of the sphere is mr m(rp. Moreover.% 4. i. S as the sphere Irl = r ?constant.f (r) and the direction of dr is j l ) . i A r]/r3 . 4 Butler's sphere theo $.e. = m(x . the new motion is represented by the stream function a Point source Apoint source at r = 0 has constant volume output f+ i. we have $ = mi. Now.xr) = (p. = O(l/r)+ constant. near r = 0 this expression behaves like m.2. the volume flux across the sphere at infinity is O(l/r)which vanishes as The verification is therefore established.there are four steps to establish in the proof: 1 Since motion is irrotational.b) mr(a2p. the sphere Irl = a is a stream surface. Using equations 4. = Solving.'regular in Irl < a and I ) .4 with p = cos 8.3. 4 With +. $ .b)/{(x.p) by I). = 0 when r = 0 we have 9. . We assume that a source of strength m lies at r = bi outside the sp ere r I = a.6. The axis OX is the axis of symmetry. by equations 4. when cp = llr.4.6.r r3 (4. i.= p.12. the corresponding solution for $ is. x = rp. lie inside Irl = a given those of $ . 3 Since r and a2/r are inverse points with respect to Irl = a all singularities of $. = O(r) for small r so that $. (a42a2brp + b2r2))= B(r) w 4 . and d d i e except at the oriiin r = 0.1 Uniform and by the_ constant _ _ ofintegration) +4.  doublet whose strength and axial direction is given by as the combination of a sink of strength m at r = 0 with a source of equal strength at r = ~p where c + 0 and m + co with m6 = 1.9.V)mm. = 0 = ( 1 p2)cp. x (r2i. However.) 2 $(a.2brp + b2)i = A(r). . Using equations 4. Since. Consequently. = we have 4.e. $ = xlr.+ P r o b l e m s Find the liquid speed on a solid sphere due to an external source.2 its singularities is covered by the sphere.2brp + b2)fa(a4 .3. of Here jsq. also satisfies this condition for irrotationality. or by equations 4.e.p) is the stream function of an axisy. is 0 ( l / r 3 )which tends to zero as r + m. using equation 4. olution. the velocity at infinity due to $.V). = rI x cosec 8+. = mp = mxlr = m(i . lie outside. qr = qr (r) q. * (:) Hence. p) = 0 for all p. m r = (p.1f the source is placed at a pointinstead. v .
the constant is $pU2 On the ~ a r aoloid b where m2 = . Prove also that the radius of the equatorial section is aa where o is a root of a3(o 24) = 144 and deduce that the liquid speed on the equator is U(18+ o)/(12 o).b can be "~3 written a s . c a k @ n d ~ ~ i o ie. "V Problem 4.5)' + w 2 ) dg. Hence integrating.9 the stream function d+ for an element of this source of length dg at x = 5 is l ( x. h te per unit length is i = 12na2U/(4na)= 3Ua. the stream function $+ due to the line source is * .3Ua adding to the stream function i U w 2 of the uniform stream the final IC/ is = . X. .Ui at Solution.lr=a = +.UJ~'J .5. ba g A(a) g b+a a aA(a) aA3(a) giving the speed q.a2)(ap./ a ax la+  . % = x(x2+m2)+.2abp + b2)f.When r = a.( ( x + a ) ~ + w ~A ) *= ) .so that SW.( )+(. the axif. / ( x 2+ m2)is large. By equations 4.<) { ( x.Ui is introduced.m(x2+ m2).+$ at (0.urn2+*+ * +* =~U~~+3LJa{2(x~+w~)*((x+a)~+w~)+((xa)~+~ .. = :Urn2 .O) and vertex at :Urn< i.which . 'V ++ = 1.e. + + . i ( x .ah 2Ua ax w (2ax)v and ' + 4 4 1  f= 4.&~h which uniform s t r e q 4 .x/ / [ x + J ( x 2 +w 2 ) ] ) is a and $.~ a { J ( x + ' m2)x). = w(x2+ m2). $ behaves like + Similarly the stream function due to the line sink is = i[{(x5)2+w2)*]O_a = i { ( ~ ~ + w ~ ) * ~ . ( .4a(x.p :pq2 'constan! where from the evaluations at infinity. n s the To interpret the motion * x +J ( x 2 + m2) = 2a so a i c h is the eauation of M%f&owivhen .educe that it represents en t h a q p r e s s u r e at infinity t h e m varies 7 tP7t.~ ) ~ + r n ' ) =* d ~ ~[ { x .~ ) ~ + w ' ) * ] ~  m = 0. = \ + so that I/ u (")  4p+A4 V( \ &'" 'J Thus \ . For the line source of total output 12na2U in 0 g x < a. on r = a as The pressure p is given by. show that the resultant flow is equivalent to a streaming motion past a solid of revolution of length 4a which is symmetrical about the equatorial plane x = 0. B(a) = aA(a).x)/m> the given t. a uniform stream .3. stream u tion i streaming motion is zero show that inversely with 20 .= { J ( x 2+ m2).) =p. \A J Y 7 By equation 4. Y of the equation and so is 9 ~ ~ a i writing n 2 J ( x 2 + w2) = X . @ or m2 = 4a(xa).>7 = Od/ in . If a uniform stream . so that m 2mb m(b2. A(a) = (a2. IC/ _mustsatisfy the equation a la* ax am am { x + J ( x 2 + w 2 ) ). A uniform straightline sink of total volume flux input 12xa2U lying on O X between x = a to x = 0 is followed by a compensating uniform line source of total output 12na2U stretching from x = 0 to x = a.b) *.~ ) { ~ .
the radius of this equatorial section is oa.m).a )# 0 t+h = 0 is a dividing stream surface giving the axis of symmetry as one ) branch (provided 1x1 > a) and a closed surface as another. x satisfies  and or x(x2a2) = 6a3. Alternatively. The equation of the body is.' dp+$q2+S2 so that curl (q A 5) = curl grad x = 0. . giving one real root x = 2a.( ( x+ a)' +m)* .( a . $ I ) = = 3Ua{2(x)(x+a)(xa)) = 0 = 3Ua{2(x)(xa)(ax)) 0 But ( 1 + a2)+= a( 1 +&a). for x < a. e.17 of Section 1. From equation 1. q. Using equation 4.4 I ) must then satisfy the equation By symmetry. In the case of axisymmetric motion q = qx i + q.e. which is a half length of the body.3. From the body equation putting m = oa with x = 0. hence rl/ = 3 ~ a { 2 1 ~ 1 . for a < x < a.( a + x ) . m. ~lies on this surface so does (x.4 In the case of steady axisymmetric motion show that the vorticity C and stream function t + b satisfy the Jacobian a($.g. the surface is symmetrical about the plane x = 0. qx = .e. i. Thus which is The Jacobian is obviously zero when [/m = constant = A. For small m and x > a we have Problem 4. i.x ) )= 6 ~ a { l x l . a) = 0. when m = 0 for x > a.((x +m2)*)/m2 It'meets the axis at the value of x for which m = 0.It is important to realise that all the square roots must be given their positive values. we could find this point from the condition that it must be a point of liquid stagnation. From equation 4. In the limit as a+ 0. [/m)/a(x. Deduce that there exists a solution C: = Am with t+b = { B + A(x2+m2)/ 10)m2 where A and B are constants. = mI a$/ax = 0 at x = 0 so that the equatorial liquid speed is (in the negative sense). Interpret this solution when B = a2A/10. Solution.7 for steady flow q ~= 5 VX where^ = I p . $/$Ua2 = 0 = 1 + 6a{2(x2 +m2)*.w'd$/am = 0 when m = 0 and x = 2a. If ( x . At x = 0.
pm)xa2where pm is the liquid pressure at infinity. 0 6 8 < x. we must have n = 1 and 2B.6. +cpo m w Y the conditions (i) V2cp = 0 in the liquid. from cp = U cos 8(r +$a3r.d)2d5) (V AS r = Irl + a .U i a s r +a. to satisfy the boundary condition on the sphere. Show that when there are no body forces. q2 = q. d + co so that both q = lql and acplat + 0 giving A(t) = po/p. and acp/at = ~ { u vn. + 0 as r +o o and acp.n)2) q = r ( V3(V. on the sphere Id = a or d = an where In = 1. = 0. of V2q. denotes the perturbation potential then cp = cp. 0 6 o < x. Obtain conditions that ensure the absence of cavitation on the sphere. d ) d . Verify that the perturbation in cp.b = C(x2w2+w4)where C is constant as a trial solution. dS = a2sin 8 x dodo. Choosing B = a2A/10 and writing x = r cos 8.q = t{V2+3(V. Substituting t.b) . Moreover.b = 0 when r = a.the result (P po)/p = .e.2x2. we have t.lx)/a2 .iq2 A(t) is some function of time to be determined.~ . po being the pressure at infinity. i.d)d5d) acp/dt = $ ~ ~ { # . choosing C = A/10. Jar = . grad cpo = . = C B.9x2. Writing r . If cp. Jd1 = d q = gradcp = $a3{d3V3(V. = . = Ux = Ur cos 8.~ + 3 .v ~ d .b = (B+ A ( X +w2)/10)w2 ~ is a solution for arbitrary constants A and B. We choose the hemisphere for which z = r . = 0 where gradcp. Hence. v = Gi.U cos8 when r = a for all 8. the pressure p at a point P on the sphere whose position vector is r referred to the centre 0 is given by where x = r .18.$V2(5a2 . = $Ua3r2cos 8.r"l x Pn(cos8). V2cpo = 0.b = B W ~ E(t. By symmetry the force on this hemisphere is .n)~) = $z~.5 An inviscid incompressible liquid moves irrotationally with velocity potential cp.n)~ .(iii)q = gradcp = .V2 3(V. i = x/a we have with V = 91V2/2a2. In the given problem V and v have the same fixed direction. Hence we seek a solution cp. w = r sin 8. within the sphere r = a. Solution. a vortex for which I = Am = Ar sin 8 can be contained. avoJar = U cos 8.n~~+3(V. (ppo)/p = ${a$'. as the result.(rR) lrR13 where V = Vi cp = +A(t)) where The pressure anywhere in the liquid is p = p{(acp/at).Ui. (ii) acplar = 0 when r = a.b = (A/10)(a2r2)r2 sin2 8 for which t. and 1 = (2/9)(a2/v2) (dV/dt). Therefore.! + Substituting t.n)n). = Ua3 giving cp. Using the result proved in the previous problem and denoting thFP=n vector of the centre 0 referred to a fixed origin by R. so that t. Hence a result which is true for all V and V. The velocity of 0 at any instant t is V(t)i where i is a unit vector in a fixed direction. Using Bernoulli's equation we have p+ipq2 = pm+ipU2 = P where q is the liquid speed on r = a.. Solution.i. the velocity potential of the liquid motion is $a3V . n . 1 1 + q = qg = (r1acp/a8)r=a = : U sin 8. = Ux where U is constant. n)2). Consequently. This is known as Hill's spherical Problem 4. we have a particular integral.n. Finally. when a sphere r = a is introduced with its centre at the origin r = 0 is $ U ( ~ / r ) ~If x .pm 2 $pu2) = x a 2 ( f i P ~pm) 2 & Problem 4.A sphere with centre 0 and radius a moves through an infinite inviscid liquid of constant density p at rest at infinity. r = a(cos Bi + sin 8 cos o j + sin 8 sin wk).the sphere is divided into two hemispheres by a plane passing through the axis OX prove that the force on either portion due to the liquid pressure is ((11/32)pU2.4w2) = 10Cw2.n)~)${~~+3(V. Using equations 4. Writing V = Vi.2).a' jn m=o In B=O (P :pU2 sin2 8) sin28 sin w dB dw = 4a2 I ~ ( : p ~ ~ s i n ' 8 sin2 ~ ) 8d8 = xa2(zpU2P) = n a 2 ( E p ~. On the sphere. Since cp. we have E(+) = C(2w2+ 12w2.Z along the zaxis and is given by Z = JJ pn k dS evaluated over the surface where p is the liquid pressure and n = r/a the unit outward normal to the surface at the element dS. k 2 0.7 the first two conditions are fulfilled by choosing cp.R = d.~~+:(V.
with pm = potpVL(91.2a)Ia which is positive when p. p+ipq2 = P where . r +(L .q = r. r = Irl The boundary condition on the shell (r( = a is n .~ + 2 L a = ~ U. the total surface integral is zero so that the component integrals of H over S and S' are equal. / If J is the external impulse we have J+I=MU i. r. 4 8 4. since the volume integral is zero. integrating over the total surface S + S' enclosing V. differentiating dp/dx = 9v2(x+ 1)/4a2. We shall assume that S' is a nonintersecting surface reconcilable with S and V is the volume enclosed between. for every surface S' reconcilable with S. We have Hence 4 I = p{pa3p+n : 1= 471: 3 P(a3P+L) 4. he given cp does satisfy Laplace's equation V2q = 0 since the first rm p . evaluate H for a sphere S centred on r = 0.VZ) volume integral using the Gauss divergence theorem. The impulse of the liquid on the internal shell is The simplest way to evaluate the surface integral is to convert it into a 100 Since S and S' are reconcilable surfaces. p is a ) / a ~ . the boundary condition on the outer shell is r . U forallr This is satisfied when . By Gauss's theorem and its extension we have.~= r .p .q = r . Solving. Prove also that the impulse experienced by the internal shell from the liquid is $np(a3p+ A).e.$ p ~ ~ ( 5 a ~ + 9 1 ~which positive provided po > p ( 4 5 V 4 + 4 a 2 ~ 2 ) / 7 2 ~ When 2.= V.d 2 ~ / d x 2 = 9v2/4a2. From Bernoulli's equation for steady motion.r corresponds to a uniform stream and the second to a doublet whose strength and direction is L.5 Impulsive motion The method is illustrated in the following problem and solution.r)rr5}.qIv=a = .To ensure no cavitation the pressure p must be positive everywhere. r ~ . p is a minimum pm when x = a. To find the minimum value of p on the sphere we have.Provided that )I[ < a. (I) 2 a. verify that the resulting irrotational motion is described instantaneously by a velocity potential cp of the form p . Since n = r/a the equivalent condition is r.q = 0 respectively. Problem 4. r + 2 L . Similarly. The liquid velocity q determined from cp is q = gradcp = {p+Lr33(L.htiOF . V for all r when Irl = r = h This is satisfied when p + 2Ab. given that (i) the sphere encloses no other singularity and (ii) the liquid velocity at r = 0 due to all other effects excluding the source is U. If the shells are instantaneously given velocities V and U respectively. and write down an expression for the external impulse which must be applied to this shell of mass M to produce the motion. Problem Liquid at rest is bounded externally by a spherical shell Irl = b an Internally by the spherical shell Irl = a < b. > i p ( a v .q = n U where n is the unit normal to the shell. Solution.Uforallrwhen Irl = a. q) has the same value liquid show that the integral H = h2 S .is minimum pmwhen x = 1 and pm = po . In the absence of vortices and sources V A q = 0 and V.i. This solution is of course only instantaneously true for the symmetry is instantly destroyed by the ensuing motion. Consequently. we have.e.r)lrl 3. no singularities of the liquid motion exist within V. where there is a source of output 4nm. Interpret H when S is a fixed solid surface. Also.6 Miscellaneous examples In conclusion two examples will be considered in which motion of the liquid is not necessarily axisymmetric.8 Given a closed geometrical surface S within a moving dS q(dS.
r2 . Hence in this case H = Flp.(b2. H. remembering that we choose the positive value When and r to the square root.For any solid surface. Also. j U dS = 0. .4xmU. by the result proved in the first part of the problem. S the sphere Ir.4xmU where U is the velocity at r = bi due to all effects excepting the source there.dS = 0 by the boundary condition when S is a fixed surface.m ' E4 +$UZ +m6'(n.1 from which the image of the source in r = a has a Stokes stream function given by mr mr(aZP . In Figure 4. the first term being the source velocity and the third term. O(E). hence we can write pH = J [p dS + pq(dS .br)a2br (bZr2 . the q due to this image system will behave. write q = mR/R3+O(R3) and since dS = O(RZ). like 0(R3) on E.'n + U +O(E) where n is the unit outward normal to S the sphere. H = S{".2a2brp+ b2r2)* ar p = 1 = b.dS = j d S = 4x6'. there are no singularities of the liquid motion within V.br) = = 1 0 a a(a4.2 ~ ' b r p + a ~ ) ~ a2(b2r2 .the correction to U due to the evaluation on S. U)) dS Using the results of Problem 4. For any closed surface S. For the given S.e. * ** f4 Figure 4.= ap ar dp (b2r2.9 Using the results of the previous problem prove that the force on a sphere Irl = a due to an external point source of output 4xm placed at r = bi is 4xpm2a3i/b(bza2)'.i. Problem 4.3. . Again qZ = m ' ~ + ~U2 + 2mc. On a sphere Ir 1 = E we can write the liquid velocity q = mc.2a2brp+ b2r2)f where p = cos U =mi(qi)ib. H must be independent of E. For any closed surface S. Since the image in the solid sphere B can have no resultant source inside (i. at most. . i.q)]. B denotes the solid sphere Irl = a. On the envelope we may. It appears that HE + 0 as R t co so that F = 4xmpU.e. = 4xmpU pHE We now show that H E t 0 when R + co.br q = . (In fact HE = 0(R3)). f P d ! 3 = 0.1'p dS is the force F S S S on it whilst q . For large R the velocity q at a point r = R on E due the source at r = bi is of the form q = mR/R3+O(R3). where the integrals are taken over the surface of the sphere Irl = E. By the extension to Gauss's theorem we have 1 . since b > a. .'n U + O(E.so that Solution. U ) d S j n(U dS) = 1U(dS A n) = 0 since dS = dSn. H = m~'U4x6'+0(~) = 4xmU+O(c) However.P is a constant. therefore. j n.a2)a2b2 ab (b2 ma3 b(b2aZ)' . If V is the volume of liquid internal to E and external to both B and S. = Flp where F is the required force on B and Hs = . the termO(6) must be identically zero or H = .2aZbrp+ a4)+ (a2p.8.e. = where a2p. To evaluate U we use Problem 4. j(n dS)n = j dS n = j d S = 0. j dS = 0. Hence. Hence F = pH.3 qr =  a2(b2a2)' . U is the velocity at r = bi due to the image of the source in the sphere B. the sum of the source and sink there must be zero or else there will be a flow across B).bi( = E of small radius E enclosing the source of output 4xm at r = bi and E is an enclosing envelope Ir = R where R is large. HE = O(R') at most. Again J ( n .
constant unit vectors parallel to fixed Cartesian axes. Prove that a solid sphere of radius a moving with velocity Ui sin wt through a liquid otherwise at rest experiences a resistance $7c poa3U cos wt. the streaming motion past an ellipsoid of revolution. 3..).dr S 'g 1 (S is a surface spanning %') r Q 5 P grad cp = cp.d =S F. Table 1.e.r2+ 3 ~ x ) r represents. i cpy j + cpZ k (cp. . to a first approximation in E. A uniform stream of magnitude 8m/(9a2)flows parallel to the axis from source to sink. = acp/ax etc./ V A ( F A G )= + + + + . 2. i. grad f (r) = f '(r)r/r div q = u. Deduce that the radius of the equatorial section is aAt where A is a root of the equation 4A2(1+A) = 81 and prove that the liquid speed at the equator is 1 +2A3/81 times the magnitude of the uniform stream. vy wZ. A source and sink of equal strengths m are placed on the axis OX a distance 2a apart. with WV belongs to contains velocity potential where q = grad cp stream function mobile operator Table 2.'(bZ az) sin 19 where r = S P and 8 = L SOP. (q. intersection of 9. Show that $ = w2(ArZ + Bx)rP5is a possible Stokes stream function. ~ d r or j p d ~ = j v c p d i S v S v 4.q. dS is an elemental vector area outward from V) Extension to Gauss's theorem: Green's theorem : Stokes' theorem: ~curl~. ux = au/dx etc. . List o f the main symbols used i j. Deduce that the resultant force on the sphere is 24pzp7ca3 b(b2towards S. OY. (u = i . grad cp dr = dq~ grad cp+ = cp grad + I) grad cp.).so that finally we have the result for the force as EXERCISES 1. ~ Given that 0 < E Q 1 verify that IC/ = $Umz(r5. Find the stream function and show that the speed at a point P on the surface of the sphere is 3pr. div r = ' 3 w divcpF=cpdivF+F. dz is an element of V.V)q=V($qZ)q~curlq . fluid density adiabatic constant = J(dp/dp) acoustic speed fluid space sourcefree fluid region source field of W vortexfree fluid region vortex field of W sourcefree and vortexfree region. A doublet pi is placed at S(r = bi) in the presence of a fixed sphere Irl = a.gradcp. Show that the flow corresponds to a streaming motion past a solid of revolution which is symmetrical about an equatorial section and is of length 4a. OX. s = j v . Some useful results in vector calculus Gauss's theorem : [ ~ . OZ respectively = xi+ yj+zk position vector = ui + vj + wk velocity vector = curl q vorticity vector pressure (Surface S encloses volume V.
33. 77 Lagrange 1 Laplace equation 15 Laval tube 2325 Legendre polynomial 9 1 Mach number 25. 4.45. 3. 95 Froude number 2730 Gas 23. 62. 8688 Conformal mapping 62 Continuity equation 69. 84. 41. 85. 23. 81. 26. 34. 33. 37 Stream Filament 2. 83. 16. 80. 20.26 Acyclic motion 13 Adiabatic 24 Aerofoil 65 Angular velocity 11. 30 32. 60. 26. 14 Irrotational (motion) 11. 93. 90. 76. 46. 89 Velocity potential 12. 54. 63. 19. 27 Volume 5. 86 Surface 2. 37. 16. 66. 33. 35 Axisymmetric 23. 56. 19 Ring 14. 11 Flux Mass 5. 24. 26. 79 Function (three dimensionsStokes) 89. 18. 46. 60 Entropy 18. 43. 66.Index Acceleration 2. 81 Circulation 1215. 3. 13. 80 Channel flow 27 Circle theorem 47. 88 Perfect fluid 4 Pressure 2. 50. 79 Velocity 2. 29.92 Twodimensional 3942. 19 Attraction 34. 45. 3133. 51 Strength of Doublet 18.40. 13. 72. 64. 57. 68. 92 Source 17.9. 28 Boundary condition 3 1. 5962. 43. 71. 24 Momentum 5. 57. 44. 38. 44. 87. 32. 64. 8. 85. 78. 78 Blasius's theorem 52. 76. 2729. 8788 Complex potential 3943. 37. 32. 63.59.9395 Line 2. 43. 15. 18. 33. 66. 35. 93 Sink (see source) Sonic 25. 56. 26. 52. 3. 70. 15 Rotating cylinders 60 SchwarzChristoffel 67. 18. 89 Waves 27. 45. 7476. 68. 3739. 39. 32. 92 Earnshaw 37 Elliptic cylinder 59. 7880. 91 Volume flux (see flux) Vortex Couple 73 Filament 13 Line 13. 41. 81. 10. 95 Equation 18. 68. 94 Isentropic 24 Joukowski 65 Kinetic energy 31. 3. 7 Function (two dimensionsEarnshaw) 37. 16. 19 Density 2 Doublet 18. 18. 23. 27 Source Three dimensional 6. 84 Strain 11 Streakline 1 Steady flow 2. 33. 85 Wavelength 85. 47.93 Impulsive pressure (motion) 30. 82. 8CL84. 90. 70 Incompressible 6 Inviscid 4 Irreducible circuit 11. 56 Euler 2 Fluid element 10. 9 D/Dt operator 4. 71 Specific heats 24 Spherical coordinates 9 1 Stagnation 25. 70 Boundary surface 8 Bubble 33 Butler's theorem 92. 57 Cavitation 44. 63. 26 Bernoulli's equation 18. 15. 41 Vortex tube 14 Thermodynamic equations 24 Unsteady flow 2. 7281. 16. 18. 66 Bore 27. 2225. 58. 70. 72 Equipotentials 41. 54. 35. 60. 28 Image 47. 67. 89 Convection 5 Critical flow 29. 42. 72. 48. 15 Tube 13 Twcdimensional 39. 72. 10. 53. 2022. 28. 89. 4143.4952. 85 Reducible circuit 11. 77 Shear flow 51 Shock 26 Simply connected 111 4 Singular points 43. 38. 44. 36 Harmonic function5 39 Hydraulic jump 27. 5 Acoustic speed 24. 22. 31. 82. 45. 32. 87. 12. 33. 10. 93 Tube 2 Uniform 40. 49. 64. 51. 47.26 Mass conservation (see continuity equation) Mass flux (see flux) Mobile operator D/Dt (see D/Dt) Momentum flux (see flux) Orthogonal coordinates 56 Pathline 1. 24. 5456. 1G18. 86 . 49. 42. 23. 47.24. 65. 93 CauchyRiemann equations 39. 50. 38. 34. 85. 88 Vorticity 11. 83. 38. 40. 6163 Kutta 65. 35.24 Equation of continuity (see continuity) Equations of motion 9. 30 Cyclic motion 14 Cylindrical coordinates 6. 34.
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