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6-30

6-30

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:
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1 : .. 2547 1,000
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ISBN : 974-515-660-4

8
Excutive Summary
11
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6 - 30
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2 6
45
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6-30
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72

6-30







:
. . . 11000
1 : .. 2547 1,000
: 72
ISBN : 974-515-660-4

8
Excutive Summary
11
1

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14

16
2

17
3

26
4

29
1
6 - 30
29
2
2 6
45
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51
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66
1
6-30
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72

1
2

3
4
5

7

8

9
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11

12
Logistic regression
13
2 6

28
30
31
33
33
35
35
36
37
38
42

14 2 6

15 2 6

16 2 6

17 2 6

18 2 6

19 2 6

20 2 6

21 /
2 6

22 2 6

48
50
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55
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57
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1 ..2526-2543

19

1
2

3
4
5

7

8

9
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11

12
Logistic regression
13
2 6

28
30
31
33
33
35
35
36
37
38
42

14 2 6

15 2 6

16 2 6

17 2 6

18 2 6

19 2 6

20 2 6

21 /
2 6

22 2 6

48
50
52
54
54

55
56

57
58

43
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1 ..2526-2543

19

6-30

6-30


3 6 5 2520
2545
3 50
3 72
80 15






6 - 30

24

..

6-30

6-30


3 6 5 2520
2545
3 50
3 72
80 15






6 - 30

24

..

6-30
8

6-30
9

6-30 12
2 24
296
30
- 2546 - (Chi square test) (Analysis of variance : ANOVA)
Independent - t test
(Binary logistic regression)
3,790
73.1
70.0 10,000
80.1 58.9 57.9

1. 1.4
16.6 45.4 6-12 13-24 25-30

2.


3. 2 6
1,088 73.5
45.4




4. 5,000
43.4

76.0 41.2

5.
49



43 ( 36.3)
10
2 25.3
( 41.1)
27.0 ( 15.4)
1.8

1.
1)
2
2)
3) 12-18
4) 2

6-30
8

6-30
9

6-30 12
2 24
296
30
- 2546 - (Chi square test) (Analysis of variance : ANOVA)
Independent - t test
(Binary logistic regression)
3,790
73.1
70.0 10,000
80.1 58.9 57.9

1. 1.4
16.6 45.4 6-12 13-24 25-30

2.


3. 2 6
1,088 73.5
45.4




4. 5,000
43.4

76.0 41.2

5.
49



43 ( 36.3)
10
2 25.3
( 41.1)
27.0 ( 15.4)
1.8

1.
1)
2
2)
3) 12-18
4) 2

6-30

6-30

10

1. 156

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.



11

Executive Summary
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association
between the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC), in children 6-30
months of age in relation to socioeconomic factors, feeding practices, and
oral health cleaning behavior. The data were collected from 24 provinces
(2 provinces in each region), during August - September, 2003. The target
samples included 5185 caregivers who took children to get vaccination at
a well baby clinics in 296 MOPH hospitals. They were interviewed using a
30 question form and childrens dental examination. Analysis was performed
by chi - square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and forward stepwise
logistic regression.
A total of 3790 completed interviews and dental examination cases
(73.1 Percent ) ware analyzed. The result of the study revealed that the
majority of the sample - household were in rural area (70%), their income
were < 10000 baths per month (80.1%) and 57.9 % of caregivers educated
from primary school.

Results
1. The prevalences of ECC : 1.4% in 6-12 month-old children, 16.6%
in 13-24 month-old children and 45.4% in 25-30 month-old.
2. Risk factors that related to the childrens caries experience
included oral hygiene, age, prolonged rice keeping in the mouth, frequent
high risk snack consumption, vegetable untaken consumption and prolonged
bottle at night.

6-30

6-30

10

1. 156

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.



11

Executive Summary
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association
between the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC), in children 6-30
months of age in relation to socioeconomic factors, feeding practices, and
oral health cleaning behavior. The data were collected from 24 provinces
(2 provinces in each region), during August - September, 2003. The target
samples included 5185 caregivers who took children to get vaccination at
a well baby clinics in 296 MOPH hospitals. They were interviewed using a
30 question form and childrens dental examination. Analysis was performed
by chi - square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and forward stepwise
logistic regression.
A total of 3790 completed interviews and dental examination cases
(73.1 Percent ) ware analyzed. The result of the study revealed that the
majority of the sample - household were in rural area (70%), their income
were < 10000 baths per month (80.1%) and 57.9 % of caregivers educated
from primary school.

Results
1. The prevalences of ECC : 1.4% in 6-12 month-old children, 16.6%
in 13-24 month-old children and 45.4% in 25-30 month-old.
2. Risk factors that related to the childrens caries experience
included oral hygiene, age, prolonged rice keeping in the mouth, frequent
high risk snack consumption, vegetable untaken consumption and prolonged
bottle at night.

6-30

6-30

12

13

3. A total of 1,088 completed interviews and dental examination

4) Choose low risk snack (non-sugar or low sugar) for children,

cases (73.5 Percent) ware analyzed. The result of the study revealed that

limited consumption sweet and drinks not more than 2 times and eat or drink

the prevalence of Dental Caries is 45.4 Percent. Risk factors that related to

it between meal.

the childrens caries experience included oral hygiene, frequent snack

2. Future recommendations for intervention

consumption, and prolonged bottle at night.


4. The Cut point with low household income per month is 5,000

1) To chance Milk Regulation No. 156 that infant formula and


Follow on formula are no sugar.

Baht. There are poor children 43.4 Percent. The majority of the poor
caregivers - 76% of educated from primary school and 41.2% of Occupation
are agriculture.
5. Compare the prevalence of Dental Caries between poor and non
poor. It revealed that the prevalence of Dental Caries of the Poor is 49.0%
different from non poor (42.9). Risk factors that related to the childrens caries
experience, which differed between poor and non poor was only oral
hygiene. Frequent snack consumption and prolonged bottle at night of them

2) To develop alternative snacks which are low risk for dental


caries.
3) To systematic and proactive dental health Education to public
by mass media
4) Develop parent or caregiver curriculum to strength capability of
oral health care.
5) To contribute monitoring oral health care system for children by
integrating though Well baby clinic.

were not different. 10% of the poor had never tooth brushed. They tooth

6) Future researches that are need .to contribute : Impact of

brushed twice a day 25.3% which differed from non poor (41.1%). The poor

dental caries problem to Quality of life of children, health economic research

caregivers allow children to tooth brush alone (27.0%) without check oral

to forecast economic loss form dental caries problem of children, Model of

hygiene which is higher than non poor 1.8 times.

oral health care promotion in various areas and culture.

Recommendations
1. Oral health care guide of under 5 aged children for control dental
caries:
1) Brush first tooth as soon as it comes in by use a dot of fluoride
toothpaste at least twice a day especially before bed time.
2) Promote breast feeding.
3) Start using a cup to drink for milk or soft drink at 12-18 month
of age.

6-30

6-30

12

13

3. A total of 1,088 completed interviews and dental examination

4) Choose low risk snack (non-sugar or low sugar) for children,

cases (73.5 Percent) ware analyzed. The result of the study revealed that

limited consumption sweet and drinks not more than 2 times and eat or drink

the prevalence of Dental Caries is 45.4 Percent. Risk factors that related to

it between meal.

the childrens caries experience included oral hygiene, frequent snack

2. Future recommendations for intervention

consumption, and prolonged bottle at night.


4. The Cut point with low household income per month is 5,000

1) To chance Milk Regulation No. 156 that infant formula and


Follow on formula are no sugar.

Baht. There are poor children 43.4 Percent. The majority of the poor
caregivers - 76% of educated from primary school and 41.2% of Occupation
are agriculture.
5. Compare the prevalence of Dental Caries between poor and non
poor. It revealed that the prevalence of Dental Caries of the Poor is 49.0%
different from non poor (42.9). Risk factors that related to the childrens caries
experience, which differed between poor and non poor was only oral
hygiene. Frequent snack consumption and prolonged bottle at night of them

2) To develop alternative snacks which are low risk for dental


caries.
3) To systematic and proactive dental health Education to public
by mass media
4) Develop parent or caregiver curriculum to strength capability of
oral health care.
5) To contribute monitoring oral health care system for children by
integrating though Well baby clinic.

were not different. 10% of the poor had never tooth brushed. They tooth

6) Future researches that are need .to contribute : Impact of

brushed twice a day 25.3% which differed from non poor (41.1%). The poor

dental caries problem to Quality of life of children, health economic research

caregivers allow children to tooth brush alone (27.0%) without check oral

to forecast economic loss form dental caries problem of children, Model of

hygiene which is higher than non poor 1.8 times.

oral health care promotion in various areas and culture.

Recommendations
1. Oral health care guide of under 5 aged children for control dental
caries:
1) Brush first tooth as soon as it comes in by use a dot of fluoride
toothpaste at least twice a day especially before bed time.
2) Promote breast feeding.
3) Start using a cup to drink for milk or soft drink at 12-18 month
of age.

6-30

6-30

14

15

4 1)
(cariogenic bacteria) 2) (fermentable carbohydrate) 3) 4)


(demineralization)
1


5 2 3 67.9 ..

2544 72 .. 25453 15 75
80


4


4
Woodward Walker5 90
(World
Health Organization Oral Disease Data Bank)
(DMFT) Ismail 6





(WHO)
18.25 // .. 25282543 12.7 // .. 2526
31.1 // .. 2543 2.4 17 7



0-12

6-30

6-30

14

15

4 1)
(cariogenic bacteria) 2) (fermentable carbohydrate) 3) 4)


(demineralization)
1


5 2 3 67.9 ..

2544 72 .. 25453 15 75
80


4


4
Woodward Walker5 90
(World
Health Organization Oral Disease Data Bank)
(DMFT) Ismail 6





(WHO)
18.25 // .. 25282543 12.7 // .. 2526
31.1 // .. 2543 2.4 17 7



0-12

6-30

6-30

16

Edmonson 8
1)



2)

3)
4)

20-40



7


9




6 - 30

1. 6 - 30
2. 30

17



1.

(diet or food)

(nutrients) (nutrition)





6-30

6-30

16

Edmonson 8
1)



2)

3)
4)

20-40



7


9




6 - 30

1. 6 - 30
2. 30

17



1.

(diet or food)

(nutrients) (nutrition)





6-30

6-30

18


Cariogenic potential
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.
2.1
2.2


11-12 19
10 Sreebny11
5-6 23
12 47 correlation coefficient +0.31
+0.72

Woodward & Walker4 90


(World Health Organization Oral Disease Data Bank) DMFT

29

19


DMFT 3.0
18.25
WHO
12.7 //
2526 27.2 // 2543 (1)
2 17

1 ..2526-2543

ADA 198512

1.
1.1
1.2 high cariogenic potential

6-30

6-30

18


Cariogenic potential
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.
2.1
2.2


11-12 19
10 Sreebny11
5-6 23
12 47 correlation coefficient +0.31
+0.72

Woodward & Walker4 90


(World Health Organization Oral Disease Data Bank) DMFT

29

19


DMFT 3.0
18.25
WHO
12.7 //
2526 27.2 // 2543 (1)
2 17

1 ..2526-2543

ADA 198512

1.
1.1
1.2 high cariogenic potential

6-30
20

1.3 non cariogenic potential

1.4

1.5
1.6

2.

3.

4.

13
2.1

3.2

pH
pH 5.7
4.3
5.4
6.5

6-30
21

..252814
2-5

..253115
7-12

..252816
6-16
1-2

Suwanee Jintayoungkun ..253717


6-30
20

1.3 non cariogenic potential

1.4

1.5
1.6

2.

3.

4.

13
2.1

3.2

pH
pH 5.7
4.3
5.4
6.5

6-30
21

..252814
2-5

..253115
7-12

..252816
6-16
1-2

Suwanee Jintayoungkun ..253717


6-30
22

..253918

41 20

..252819
3

..253520
0-3

..253521



3

..253422


1

..253723


81.4 67.53

6-30
23

..253924

6

..253925

..254226


5-6


..254027 pH
pH
10%

pH

..2542 28
pH 12
pH
3

6-30
22

..253918

41 20

..252819
3

..253520
0-3

..253521



3

..253422


1

..253723


81.4 67.53

6-30
23

..253924

6

..253925

..254226


5-6


..254027 pH
pH
10%

pH

..2542 28
pH 12
pH
3

6-30
24


..254629 Plaque
pH
13 49
4

2

1.
2.
S shape


3.
Cariogenic potential
3.1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
3.2
(1)
(2)

6-30
25

3.3
(1)
(2)
4. 3
(1)
(2)
(3)
5.


6-30
24


..254629 Plaque
pH
13 49
4

2

1.
2.
S shape


3.
Cariogenic potential
3.1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
3.2
(1)
(2)

6-30
25

3.3
(1)
(2)
4. 3
(1)
(2)
(3)
5.


6-30
26

6-30
27








4 5

1) 6 - 3
2) 9-12

3) 1 - 4
4) 2
7
30
1
4
2
5
3
5
4 /
5
5 4
6
5
7
2

20 12 2 24
296 -
..2546

1.
2.
1

- (Chi - square test)


(Analysis of variance : ANOVA)
(Binary logistic regression)
5,185
87-101 5 6
63-75
6

6-30
26

6-30
27








4 5

1) 6 - 3
2) 9-12

3) 1 - 4
4) 2
7
30
1
4
2
5
3
5
4 /
5
5 4
6
5
7
2

20 12 2 24
296 -
..2546

1.
2.
1

- (Chi - square test)


(Analysis of variance : ANOVA)
(Binary logistic regression)
5,185
87-101 5 6
63-75
6

6-30

6-30

28



3,790 73.1
64
9 53.2 6 58 (
1)
1

.
1 12 240
237 98.8 180
76.0
75.0
2 21 420
410 97.6 297
72.4
70.7
3 23 460
413 93.7 307
71.2
66.7
4 18 360
360
100
253
70.3
70.3
5 38 760
485 63.8 359
74.0
77.2
6 27 540
405
75
313
77.3
58.0
7 38 760
693 91.2 519
75.0
68.3
8 20 400
406 101.5 271
66.7
67.8
9 17 340
253 75.3 181
71.5
53.2
10 30 600
555 92.5 406
72.2
67.6
11 23 460
423
92
304
71.9
66.1
12 29 580
527 90.9 400
75.9
69.0
296 5,920 5,185 87.6 3,790
73.1
64.0

29


3
1
6-30
1
6-30


5,185 87.6
530

6-30

6-30

28



3,790 73.1
64
9 53.2 6 58 (
1)
1

.
1 12 240
237 98.8 180
76.0
75.0
2 21 420
410 97.6 297
72.4
70.7
3 23 460
413 93.7 307
71.2
66.7
4 18 360
360
100
253
70.3
70.3
5 38 760
485 63.8 359
74.0
77.2
6 27 540
405
75
313
77.3
58.0
7 38 760
693 91.2 519
75.0
68.3
8 20 400
406 101.5 271
66.7
67.8
9 17 340
253 75.3 181
71.5
53.2
10 30 600
555 92.5 406
72.2
67.6
11 23 460
423
92
304
71.9
66.1
12 29 580
527 90.9 400
75.9
69.0
296 5,920 5,185 87.6 3,790
73.1
64.0

29


3
1
6-30
1
6-30


5,185 87.6
530

6-30
30

865 6-12
3,790 73.1

( 2)
2

()

6-12 2,462 7.9 1.9 9.0 1.8 1,156 530
776
(47.5)
(30.5)
47
13-24 1,593 18.4 1.8 18.4 1.8 1,546
(31.7)
(40.8)
25-30 1,130 29.7 1.0 29.7 1 1,088
42
(21.8)
(28.7)
5,185
3,790 530
865
()
(100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
: 50.8
: 49.2 3 6-12 : 13-24
: 25-30 30.5 : 40.8 : 28.7
: : : 27.4 :
31.4 : 22.6 : 18.6
58.9
25.7 3
1) 34.2 2) 27 3)
19.4 57.9
10,000 80.1
70.0 ( 3)

6-30
31

3,790

1,924 50.8
20.2

1,866 49.2
20.3
***

3,790
6-12
1,156 30.5
1.4
13-24
1,546 40.8
16.6
25-30
1,088 28.7
45.4
***

3,790

1,037 27.4
20.3
1,191 31.4
18.3

858 22.6
19.3

704 18.6
24.3

3,790

1,137 30.0
18.6
2,653 70.0
20.9

3,784

2,230 58.9
20.6
507 13.4
20.1

973 15.7
20.2

74
2.0
12.2
***
3,489

1,192 34.2
18.5

676 19.4
21.9

941 27.0
22.6

342
9.8
21.9

338
9.7
14.5

6-30
30

865 6-12
3,790 73.1

( 2)
2

()

6-12 2,462 7.9 1.9 9.0 1.8 1,156 530
776
(47.5)
(30.5)
47
13-24 1,593 18.4 1.8 18.4 1.8 1,546
(31.7)
(40.8)
25-30 1,130 29.7 1.0 29.7 1 1,088
42
(21.8)
(28.7)
5,185
3,790 530
865
()
(100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
: 50.8
: 49.2 3 6-12 : 13-24
: 25-30 30.5 : 40.8 : 28.7
: : : 27.4 :
31.4 : 22.6 : 18.6
58.9
25.7 3
1) 34.2 2) 27 3)
19.4 57.9
10,000 80.1
70.0 ( 3)

6-30
31

3,790

1,924 50.8
20.2

1,866 49.2
20.3
***

3,790
6-12
1,156 30.5
1.4
13-24
1,546 40.8
16.6
25-30
1,088 28.7
45.4
***

3,790

1,037 27.4
20.3
1,191 31.4
18.3

858 22.6
19.3

704 18.6
24.3

3,790

1,137 30.0
18.6
2,653 70.0
20.9

3,784

2,230 58.9
20.6
507 13.4
20.1

973 15.7
20.2

74
2.0
12.2
***
3,489

1,192 34.2
18.5

676 19.4
21.9

941 27.0
22.6

342
9.8
21.9

338
9.7
14.5

6-30

6-30

32

***
<=10,000
>10,000

***
<=
>=

33


3,737
2,996 80.2
21.9
741 19.8
14.2
3,784
2,192 57.9
21.9
1,592 42.1
18.0

*** Pearson
Chi-Squared p-value <0.05


92.1 4
1.7
766 20.2

11.2
1.4 6 - 12 45.4
25-30 32 ( 3)
6-12 1-2

( 4)
37.9
( 19.1) 2
( 5)

6-12 13-24 25-30

1,156
1,546
1,088

1.4
16.6
45.4

1-2
1.1
10.8
24.3

0.3
3.8
8.6

1.4
8.4

0.6
4.1

3,790
20.2
11.7
4.1
3.0
1.5

***
3,635
19.8

2,667
8.5

968
50.9
***
3,691
19.9

3,472
19.1

153
37.9

66
19.7
***
Pearson Chi-Squared p-value
<0.05

6-30

6-30

32

***
<=10,000
>10,000

***
<=
>=

33


3,737
2,996 80.2
21.9
741 19.8
14.2
3,784
2,192 57.9
21.9
1,592 42.1
18.0

*** Pearson
Chi-Squared p-value <0.05


92.1 4
1.7
766 20.2

11.2
1.4 6 - 12 45.4
25-30 32 ( 3)
6-12 1-2

( 4)
37.9
( 19.1) 2
( 5)

6-12 13-24 25-30

1,156
1,546
1,088

1.4
16.6
45.4

1-2
1.1
10.8
24.3

0.3
3.8
8.6

1.4
8.4

0.6
4.1

3,790
20.2
11.7
4.1
3.0
1.5

***
3,635
19.8

2,667
8.5

968
50.9
***
3,691
19.9

3,472
19.1

153
37.9

66
19.7
***
Pearson Chi-Squared p-value
<0.05

6-30
34


( 3)

624 19.1

7.9
0.4


40.2 65 6-12
21.4 13-24 25-30
75.5 93.0 ( 6)

( 2,391 ) 2
38.3, 32.8 34.7

48.5 37.3
14.8
25-30
20.6
( 7)

2
81.6
1 ( 70.7) ( 57.6)
( 8)

6-30
35


50.9 6 ( 5)
6

6-12 13-24 25-30



1,063
1,531
1,083 3,677
228
1,156
1,007 2,391
21.4
75.5
93.0 65.0

187
1,059
920 2,166
SD 8.32.7 11.73.7 14.95.9 12.85.1
7

6-12 13-24 25-30




209 1,102 962 2,273
-

(2 )
38.3 32.8 34.7 34.1

(1 )
22.0 31.9 31.4 30.8
-

39.7 35.3 33.9 35.1



212 1137 985 2334

6.6 11.2 20.6 14.8



66.5 57.2 34.5 48.5
27.9 32.6 44.9 37.3

6-30
34


( 3)

624 19.1

7.9
0.4


40.2 65 6-12
21.4 13-24 25-30
75.5 93.0 ( 6)

( 2,391 ) 2
38.3, 32.8 34.7

48.5 37.3
14.8
25-30
20.6
( 7)

2
81.6
1 ( 70.7) ( 57.6)
( 8)

6-30
35


50.9 6 ( 5)
6

6-12 13-24 25-30



1,063
1,531
1,083 3,677
228
1,156
1,007 2,391
21.4
75.5
93.0 65.0

187
1,059
920 2,166
SD 8.32.7 11.73.7 14.95.9 12.85.1
7

6-12 13-24 25-30




209 1,102 962 2,273
-

(2 )
38.3 32.8 34.7 34.1

(1 )
22.0 31.9 31.4 30.8
-

39.7 35.3 33.9 35.1



212 1137 985 2334

6.6 11.2 20.6 14.8



66.5 57.2 34.5 48.5
27.9 32.6 44.9 37.3

6-30

6-30

36

/ / /

(2 ) /

727 (100.0) 672 (100.0) 761 (100.0) 2,160 (100.0)


593 (81.6) 475 (70.7) 438 (57.6) 1,506 (69.7)
134 (18.4) 197 (29.3) 323 (42.4) 654 (30.2)
Pearson
Chi-Squared p-value <0.05


77.8 (2,933 )
22.2 (766 ) 3
1) 43.5 2)
22.4 3) 17.2

2.6 6-12 82.2 25-30
12.4
25-30 19.7 ( 9)

37

6-12 13-24 25-30



333
270
163

2.6
24.8
82.2
=209
/

793
1234
876

9.5
9.4
19.9
=365

766
27.3
2,910
12.6

6 2,838
3
30.1 12.7
8.7

4.3 14.5
25-30 1.1
6-12 8.1 25-30

25.9 26.1
( 17.5) 2
( 10)

6-30

6-30

36

/ / /

(2 ) /

727 (100.0) 672 (100.0) 761 (100.0) 2,160 (100.0)


593 (81.6) 475 (70.7) 438 (57.6) 1,506 (69.7)
134 (18.4) 197 (29.3) 323 (42.4) 654 (30.2)
Pearson
Chi-Squared p-value <0.05


77.8 (2,933 )
22.2 (766 ) 3
1) 43.5 2)
22.4 3) 17.2

2.6 6-12 82.2 25-30
12.4
25-30 19.7 ( 9)

37

6-12 13-24 25-30



333
270
163

2.6
24.8
82.2
=209
/

793
1234
876

9.5
9.4
19.9
=365

766
27.3
2,910
12.6

6 2,838
3
30.1 12.7
8.7

4.3 14.5
25-30 1.1
6-12 8.1 25-30

25.9 26.1
( 17.5) 2
( 10)

6-30

6-30

38

( 78.7)
()
9 6-12 17.1 25-30
2
11.2 6-12 18.3 25-30
31.0
20.3
52.4
23.0
18.3 ( 10)
3 ( 33.6) ( 11.7) ( 9.7)

10
3

6-12 13-24 25-30



1,148 1,537
1,084 3,769 20.2
30.0
19.1
18.4 22.2 21.5
70.0
80.9
81.6 77.8 19.8

742
1,167
831 2,740 19.7
*** /

73.5
75.8
72.3 74.1 17.5
26.5
24.2
27.7 25.9 26.1

1,156 1543
1,085 3,784 20.2
*** 98.9
96.0
91.9 95.7 19.3

1.1
4.0
8.1
4.3 41.1

39

3

6-12 13-24 25-30

1,156 1,546
1,088 3,790 20.2
95.7
88.2
85.5 89.7 19.0
***
4.3
11.8
14.5 10.3 31.0

1,125 1,508
1,061 3,694 20.3
*** 85.4
78.1
71.9 78.5 18.6
9.0
11.9
17.1 12.5 28.8

5.6
10.0
11.0 9.0 23.6
***
830
1,476
1,046 3,352 22.0

88.8
84.5
81.7 84.7 20.3
11.2
15.5
18.3 15.3 31.0
***
1,053 1,445
1,016 3,514 20.5
53.8
52.8
50.4 52.4 18.3

/
46.2
47.2
49.6 47.6 23.0

1,041 1,416
1,006 3,463 20.4
62.3
67.9
70.1 66.6 20.8

/
38.5
32.1
29.9 33.4 19.4

808
1,089
971 2,868 24.7
*** 1 53.6
26.7
16.1 30.7 15.7
2 30.1
34.9
35.9 33.9 23.5
3 9.0
20.8
26.8 19.5 32.4
>3 7.3
17.6
21.2 15.9 31.9

6-30

6-30

38

( 78.7)
()
9 6-12 17.1 25-30
2
11.2 6-12 18.3 25-30
31.0
20.3
52.4
23.0
18.3 ( 10)
3 ( 33.6) ( 11.7) ( 9.7)

10
3

6-12 13-24 25-30



1,148 1,537
1,084 3,769 20.2
30.0
19.1
18.4 22.2 21.5
70.0
80.9
81.6 77.8 19.8

742
1,167
831 2,740 19.7
*** /

73.5
75.8
72.3 74.1 17.5
26.5
24.2
27.7 25.9 26.1

1,156 1543
1,085 3,784 20.2
*** 98.9
96.0
91.9 95.7 19.3

1.1
4.0
8.1
4.3 41.1

39

3

6-12 13-24 25-30

1,156 1,546
1,088 3,790 20.2
95.7
88.2
85.5 89.7 19.0
***
4.3
11.8
14.5 10.3 31.0

1,125 1,508
1,061 3,694 20.3
*** 85.4
78.1
71.9 78.5 18.6
9.0
11.9
17.1 12.5 28.8

5.6
10.0
11.0 9.0 23.6
***
830
1,476
1,046 3,352 22.0

88.8
84.5
81.7 84.7 20.3
11.2
15.5
18.3 15.3 31.0
***
1,053 1,445
1,016 3,514 20.5
53.8
52.8
50.4 52.4 18.3

/
46.2
47.2
49.6 47.6 23.0

1,041 1,416
1,006 3,463 20.4
62.3
67.9
70.1 66.6 20.8

/
38.5
32.1
29.9 33.4 19.4

808
1,089
971 2,868 24.7
*** 1 53.6
26.7
16.1 30.7 15.7
2 30.1
34.9
35.9 33.9 23.5
3 9.0
20.8
26.8 19.5 32.4
>3 7.3
17.6
21.2 15.9 31.9

6-30
40

3

6-12 13-24 25-30

888
1,424
1,039 3,351 21.6
33.7
51.9
62.3 50.3 27.8
***

59.5
40.1
29.2 41.8 14.9
6.9
8.0
8.6
7.9 17.4
***
Pearson Chi-Squared p-value <0.05


1-25
4 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3
4) 3 1-2
64.6 (10)
6-12 (53.6
7.1 ) 13-24 1-2 ( 61.6
11.9 ) 25-30 2-3
( 62.7 17.6 )
3 32
1-2 ( 15.7
23.5 ) (10)

29
3 1) :
2) :

6-30
41

3) :
6-12 59.5


27.8 ( 14-17) 2
( 10)

ANOVA 13.7
1) 25-30
/ / (16.2 3.2 )
6-12 (9.7 2.1 )
13-24 (13.1 2.8 )
2)
/ 16
10.7
2.9 2.3

3.9-4 2
3)
/
(16.52 3.3 )
(12.7 2.6 ) ( 11)

6-30
40

3

6-12 13-24 25-30

888
1,424
1,039 3,351 21.6
33.7
51.9
62.3 50.3 27.8
***

59.5
40.1
29.2 41.8 14.9
6.9
8.0
8.6
7.9 17.4
***
Pearson Chi-Squared p-value <0.05


1-25
4 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3
4) 3 1-2
64.6 (10)
6-12 (53.6
7.1 ) 13-24 1-2 ( 61.6
11.9 ) 25-30 2-3
( 62.7 17.6 )
3 32
1-2 ( 15.7
23.5 ) (10)

29
3 1) :
2) :

6-30
41

3) :
6-12 59.5


27.8 ( 14-17) 2
( 10)

ANOVA 13.7
1) 25-30
/ / (16.2 3.2 )
6-12 (9.7 2.1 )
13-24 (13.1 2.8 )
2)
/ 16
10.7
2.9 2.3

3.9-4 2
3)
/
(16.52 3.3 )
(12.7 2.6 ) ( 11)

6-30
42

6-30
43

11

/
/
N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation

***
6-12
514 9.72
7.38
511 2.05
2.16
13-24
1,134 13.13 9.92
1070 2.78
2.79
25-30
990 16.16 11.92
937 3.23
3.2

2,638 13.68 10.57 2,518 2.8


2.87
***

722 15.59 10.15


699 2.84
3.23
838 12.07 10.39
781 3.02
3.35

622 11.18 7.75 605 2.41


2.24

456 17.04 13.15 433 2.88


1.9

2,638 13.68 10.57 2518 2.8


2.87
****

1,979 12.74 9.55 1,897 2.63


2.65

659 16.52 12.75 621 3.30


3.41

2,638 13.68 10.57 2518 2.8


2.87
*** ANOVA
p-value <0.05

5
// 35.3 34.6
8.3 6.6 5.9
19.3 18.7 12.8
12.5 / 8.2


Chi-Squared test 8

Forward Stepwise logistic
regression


( 12)

12

Unadjusted
Adjusted

Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value


() () (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)

2441 226
1
1
(91.5) (8.5)

475 493
11.21 0.000 9.214 0.000
(49.1) (50.9) (9.311-13.497)
(6.994-12.139)

6-30
42

6-30
43

11

/
/
N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation

***
6-12
514 9.72
7.38
511 2.05
2.16
13-24
1,134 13.13 9.92
1070 2.78
2.79
25-30
990 16.16 11.92
937 3.23
3.2

2,638 13.68 10.57 2,518 2.8


2.87
***

722 15.59 10.15


699 2.84
3.23
838 12.07 10.39
781 3.02
3.35

622 11.18 7.75 605 2.41


2.24

456 17.04 13.15 433 2.88


1.9

2,638 13.68 10.57 2518 2.8


2.87
****

1,979 12.74 9.55 1,897 2.63


2.65

659 16.52 12.75 621 3.30


3.41

2,638 13.68 10.57 2518 2.8


2.87
*** ANOVA
p-value <0.05

5
// 35.3 34.6
8.3 6.6 5.9
19.3 18.7 12.8
12.5 / 8.2


Chi-Squared test 8

Forward Stepwise logistic
regression


( 12)

12

Unadjusted
Adjusted

Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value


() () (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)

2441 226
1
1
(91.5) (8.5)

475 493
11.21 0.000 9.214 0.000
(49.1) (50.9) (9.311-13.497)
(6.994-12.139)

6-30

6-30

44

45

6-12
13-30

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value
() () (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)
1140 16
1
1
(98.6) (1.4)
1884 750 28.364 0.000 12.864 0.000
(71.5) (28.5) (17.193-46.763)
(4.666-35.629)

2262 577
1
1
(79.7) (20.3)

354 159
1.761 0.000 1.646 0.006
(69.0) (31.0) (1.43-2.168)
(1.156-2.344)

1-2/ 1249 313


1
1
(80.0) (20.0)
>=3/ 648 308
1.897 0.000 1.472 0.006
(67.8) (32.2) (1.578-2.279)
(1.115-1.943)

/ 1411 255
1
1
(84.7) (15.3)

1217 468
2.128 0.000 0.674 0.007
(72.2) (27.8) (7.794-2.54)
(0.5.7-0.896)

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value
() () (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)

/ 1288
(77.0)

1504
(81.7)

/ 1676
(82.5)

524
(73.9)

384
1
1
(23.0)
338
0.754 0.001 0.691 0.009
(18.3) (0.64-0.888)
(0.525-0.910)
355
1
1
(17.5)
185
1.667 0.000 1.407 .013
(26.1) (1.361-2.042)
(1.073-1.844)

2
2 6
2
2 6

2 6

2 6 1,088
73.5
: 48.6 : 51.4
55.3 3

6-30

6-30

44

45

6-12
13-30

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value
() () (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)
1140 16
1
1
(98.6) (1.4)
1884 750 28.364 0.000 12.864 0.000
(71.5) (28.5) (17.193-46.763)
(4.666-35.629)

2262 577
1
1
(79.7) (20.3)

354 159
1.761 0.000 1.646 0.006
(69.0) (31.0) (1.43-2.168)
(1.156-2.344)

1-2/ 1249 313


1
1
(80.0) (20.0)
>=3/ 648 308
1.897 0.000 1.472 0.006
(67.8) (32.2) (1.578-2.279)
(1.115-1.943)

/ 1411 255
1
1
(84.7) (15.3)

1217 468
2.128 0.000 0.674 0.007
(72.2) (27.8) (7.794-2.54)
(0.5.7-0.896)

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value
() () (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)

/ 1288
(77.0)

1504
(81.7)

/ 1676
(82.5)

524
(73.9)

384
1
1
(23.0)
338
0.754 0.001 0.691 0.009
(18.3) (0.64-0.888)
(0.525-0.910)
355
1
1
(17.5)
185
1.667 0.000 1.407 .013
(26.1) (1.361-2.042)
(1.073-1.844)

2
2 6
2
2 6

2 6

2 6 1,088
73.5
: 48.6 : 51.4
55.3 3

6-30
46

1) 27.5 2) 27.02 3)
21.9 59.5
5,000
43.4
69.4 ( 13)

45.4
60.8


( 13)


( 75) ( 25.7)
3
2 34.5
2 38.2
51.1
( 14)



( 15)

6-30
47

13
2 6

1088 100.0
45.4

529 48.6
45.9

559 51.4
44.9
*
1088 100.0
45.4

296 27.2
45.9

334 30.7
41.3

271 24.9
44.6

187 17.2
52.9

1088 100.0
45.4
/
333 30.6
42.6

755 69.4
46.4

1083 100.0
45.5

599 55.3
46.7

484 44.6
44.0

5
*

999 100.0
45.9

275 27.5
44.4

219 21.9
46.1

277 27.7
51.3

112 11.2
49.1
94
9.4
30.9

22
2.2
45.5

89

6-30
46

1) 27.5 2) 27.02 3)
21.9 59.5
5,000
43.4
69.4 ( 13)

45.4
60.8


( 13)


( 75) ( 25.7)
3
2 34.5
2 38.2
51.1
( 14)



( 15)

6-30
47

13
2 6

1088 100.0
45.4

529 48.6
45.9

559 51.4
44.9
*
1088 100.0
45.4

296 27.2
45.9

334 30.7
41.3

271 24.9
44.6

187 17.2
52.9

1088 100.0
45.4
/
333 30.6
42.6

755 69.4
46.4

1083 100.0
45.5

599 55.3
46.7

484 44.6
44.0

5
*

999 100.0
45.9

275 27.5
44.4

219 21.9
46.1

277 27.7
51.3

112 11.2
49.1
94
9.4
30.9

22
2.2
45.5

89

6-30

6-30

48

<=
>=
*
<=5000
>5000

49


1088
644
444
1076
467
609
12

100.0
59.2
40.8
100.0
43.4
56.6

45.4
48.4
41.0
45.6
49.3
42.9

*
Pearson Chi-Squared p- value <0.05

14 2 6

1022 100.0
45.0

622 64.8
25.7

400 35.2
75.0

66
/*
1038 100.0
45.3
2 335 32.3
38.2
1 302 29.1
45.4
401 38.6
51.1

50

831
/
601

230

256

1085

997

88

3

1061

880

181
24

1046

855

191

32

1016
/
504

512

72
*
937
1-2/ 487
>=3/ 450

151


100.0
42.2
72.3
38.1
27.7
53.0
100.0
91.9
8.1

45.4
44.6
54.5

100.0
82.9
17.1

45.5
44.3
51.4

100.0
81.7
18.3

45.4
44.6
49.7

100.0
49.6
50.4

45.3
47.6
43.0

100.0
51.9
48.1

45.6
40.5
51.1

6-30

6-30

48

<=
>=
*
<=5000
>5000

49


1088
644
444
1076
467
609
12

100.0
59.2
40.8
100.0
43.4
56.6

45.4
48.4
41.0
45.6
49.3
42.9

*
Pearson Chi-Squared p- value <0.05

14 2 6

1022 100.0
45.0

622 64.8
25.7

400 35.2
75.0

66
/*
1038 100.0
45.3
2 335 32.3
38.2
1 302 29.1
45.4
401 38.6
51.1

50

831
/
601

230

256

1085

997

88

3

1061

880

181
24

1046

855

191

32

1016
/
504

512

72
*
937
1-2/ 487
>=3/ 450

151


100.0
42.2
72.3
38.1
27.7
53.0
100.0
91.9
8.1

45.4
44.6
54.5

100.0
82.9
17.1

45.5
44.3
51.4

100.0
81.7
18.3

45.4
44.6
49.7

100.0
49.6
50.4

45.3
47.6
43.0

100.0
51.9
48.1

45.6
40.5
51.1

6-30

6-30

50

51


1039
647
392
49

100.0
62.3
37.7

45.4
48.5
38.8

*
Pearson Chi-Squared p- value <0.05

15 2 6

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value
() () (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)

462
(74.3)

100
(25.0)

/ 372
(61.9)

108
(47.0)

160
1
1
(25.7)
300
8.663 0.000 8.637 0.000
(75.0) (6.488-11.566)
(5.984-12.467)
229
1
1
(38.1)
122
1.835 0.000 1.613 0.020
(53.0) (1.350-2.494)
(1.080-2.409)

()
/
1-2 / 290
(59.5)
>= 3 / 220
(48.9)

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value
() (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)
197
1
1
(40.5)
230
1.539 0.001 1.521 0.023
(51.1) (1.188-1.993)
(1.060-2.181)


2545
2545 922 // (
9.8 )
2545 5
4,610 5,000
5,000
2 6
5,000
43.4

2 3
1)

6-30

6-30

50

51


1039
647
392
49

100.0
62.3
37.7

45.4
48.5
38.8

*
Pearson Chi-Squared p- value <0.05

15 2 6

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value
() () (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)

462
(74.3)

100
(25.0)

/ 372
(61.9)

108
(47.0)

160
1
1
(25.7)
300
8.663 0.000 8.637 0.000
(75.0) (6.488-11.566)
(5.984-12.467)
229
1
1
(38.1)
122
1.835 0.000 1.613 0.020
(53.0) (1.350-2.494)
(1.080-2.409)

()
/
1-2 / 290
(59.5)
>= 3 / 220
(48.9)

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Odd Ratio P-value Odd Ratio P-value
() (95%C.I.)
(95%C.I.)
197
1
1
(40.5)
230
1.539 0.001 1.521 0.023
(51.1) (1.188-1.993)
(1.060-2.181)


2545
2545 922 // (
9.8 )
2545 5
4,610 5,000
5,000
2 6
5,000
43.4

2 3
1)

6-30

6-30

52

39 30.6
33.8 28.5 2)
41.2
26
28.5 /
( 18.7 14.5 )
3)
76
( 16)

2
( 49.3)
( 43) ( 17)

16 2 6


()

*

467
609
1076

18
33.8
27
39
24.5
30.9

30.6
20.2
24.7

12
21.5
17.4

462
609
1072

57.8
53.5
55.4
42.2
46.5
44.6

53

()
*

*
<=
>=



432
557
26
28.5
23.6
20.8
41.2
17.4
6.7
14.5
2.5
35
467
76
24

18.7
52
609
46.3
53.7

989
27.4
22
27.8
11.1
11.6
87
1076
59.4
40.6

*
Pearson Chi-Squared p- value <0.05


3 7.1
10.6
( 4.4) 15.8
12 30
( 911 )
2 34.5

25.3
41.1 34.7

6-30

6-30

52

39 30.6
33.8 28.5 2)
41.2
26
28.5 /
( 18.7 14.5 )
3)
76
( 16)

2
( 49.3)
( 43) ( 17)

16 2 6


()

*

467
609
1076

18
33.8
27
39
24.5
30.9

30.6
20.2
24.7

12
21.5
17.4

462
609
1072

57.8
53.5
55.4
42.2
46.5
44.6

53

()
*

*
<=
>=



432
557
26
28.5
23.6
20.8
41.2
17.4
6.7
14.5
2.5
35
467
76
24

18.7
52
609
46.3
53.7

989
27.4
22
27.8
11.1
11.6
87
1076
59.4
40.6

*
Pearson Chi-Squared p- value <0.05


3 7.1
10.6
( 4.4) 15.8
12 30
( 911 )
2 34.5

25.3
41.1 34.7

6-30

6-30

54

45.1
20.2
27
( 15.4) ( 18-19)
17 2 6

467
609
1,076

49.3
42.9
45.6
*

437
576
1013

43.0
36.3
39.2

30
33
63
*
Pearson Chi-Squared p- value <0.05

18 2 6

464
607
1071

89.4
95.6
92.9

3
2
5
14.3 5.9 14.9 5.9
SD 15.8 5.7

378
533
911

55

19 2 6


-
395
555
950
*
2 25.3
41.1
34.5
1 35.2
29.4
31.8
39.5
29.5
33.7

20
25
45
*
403
566
969

27
15.4
20.2

37
33
34.7

36
51.6
45.1

12
14
26


81.6 (886 )
18.4 (197 )
72.4 24
88.8 16.9
3 1) 43.5
2) 22.4 3) 17.2 ( 20)

6-30

6-30

54

45.1
20.2
27
( 15.4) ( 18-19)
17 2 6

467
609
1,076

49.3
42.9
45.6
*

437
576
1013

43.0
36.3
39.2

30
33
63
*
Pearson Chi-Squared p- value <0.05

18 2 6

464
607
1071

89.4
95.6
92.9

3
2
5
14.3 5.9 14.9 5.9
SD 15.8 5.7

378
533
911

55

19 2 6


-
395
555
950
*
2 25.3
41.1
34.5
1 35.2
29.4
31.8
39.5
29.5
33.7

20
25
45
*
403
566
969

27
15.4
20.2

37
33
34.7

36
51.6
45.1

12
14
26


81.6 (886 )
18.4 (197 )
72.4 24
88.8 16.9
3 1) 43.5
2) 22.4 3) 17.2 ( 20)

6-30
56

20 2 6

467
606
1073

129
68
197

27.6
11.2
18.4
=209 81.7
84.2
82.6
/

338
538
876

72.4
88.8
81.6
=365 24.0
16.9
19.6

319
506
825

29.2
26.9
27.8
6 912
3
26.9 12.1
10.5
16
9
27.8
( 20)

6-30
57

21 /
2 6

SD. t df p-value

-5.2 979 0.000

430 13.9 10.2

551 17.9 12.9



0.6 927 0.549

405 3.3 3.4

524 3.2 3.1

Independent-t test
13.9
17.9 ( 21)

3 51.1
1-2 40.5
( 14)
( 21-22)

6-30
56

20 2 6

467
606
1073

129
68
197

27.6
11.2
18.4
=209 81.7
84.2
82.6
/

338
538
876

72.4
88.8
81.6
=365 24.0
16.9
19.6

319
506
825

29.2
26.9
27.8
6 912
3
26.9 12.1
10.5
16
9
27.8
( 20)

6-30
57

21 /
2 6

SD. t df p-value

-5.2 979 0.000

430 13.9 10.2

551 17.9 12.9



0.6 927 0.549

405 3.3 3.4

524 3.2 3.1

Independent-t test
13.9
17.9 ( 21)

3 51.1
1-2 40.5
( 14)
( 21-22)

6-30

6-30

58

59

22 2 6



405
524
929
1-2 / 52.1
52.1
52.1
>=3 / 47.9
47.9
47.9

447
582
1029

64.2
60.7
62.2
/ 35.8
39.3
37.8

48.5
( 38.8) 1.3
( 14)
( 22)
2 6 3
38.6 // 21.7
15.4 31
17.9 13.6 12.8



6-7 9-12 17-19
29-30 22-28
6-7

9-12


6 - 5 5

6-30

6-30

58

59

22 2 6



405
524
929
1-2 / 52.1
52.1
52.1
>=3 / 47.9
47.9
47.9

447
582
1029

64.2
60.7
62.2
/ 35.8
39.3
37.8

48.5
( 38.8) 1.3
( 14)
( 22)
2 6 3
38.6 // 21.7
15.4 31
17.9 13.6 12.8



6-7 9-12 17-19
29-30 22-28
6-7

9-12


6 - 5 5

6-30
60


6-30

2 6
3







6
1
2

6-30
61


6


26.1
2




12-18
31
..2541 17
32
..2541 62
..254433
24.9

.. 254634 26.5
35 12 4 ..

6-30
60


6-30

2 6
3







6
1
2

6-30
61


6


26.1
2




12-18
31
..2541 17
32
..2541 62
..254433
24.9

.. 254634 26.5
35 12 4 ..

6-30
62

2543 4 50

3


11.2 18.3 3




52.4



2




//
35.3 34.6
29 10

6-30
63

5-6 871 5 4

31.4 16.7
13.9 12.3 7.2

36
..
2542 0-5
66.0 23.4
58.9


1)
2

2)
3)

6-30
62

2543 4 50

3


11.2 18.3 3




52.4



2




//
35.3 34.6
29 10

6-30
63

5-6 871 5 4

31.4 16.7
13.9 12.3 7.2

36
..
2542 0-5
66.0 23.4
58.9


1)
2

2)
3)

6-30
64

12-18
4) 2

1.
2

156

2.

3.

4.

5.

6-30
65

6.
6.1
6.2

6.3

6-30
64

12-18
4) 2

1.
2

156

2.

3.

4.

5.

6-30
65

6.
6.1
6.2

6.3

6-30
66

6-30
67

1. , . Cariology ,
Preventive Dentistry in Community Care 1, .. 2539 26-28 ;
, .
2. .
5 .. 2543-2544 . :
; 2545.
3.
3 .. 2545. .
4. Woodward, M., and Walker, A.R.P. Sugar consumption and dental caries :
Evidence from 90 countries. Br Dent J 1994;176:297-302.
5. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry oral. Oral health policies. Pediatr
Dent 1999;21:18-37.
6. Ismail AI, Tanzer JM, and Dingle JL. Current trends of sugar consumption in
developing societies. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1997;15:438-43.
7. .
.. 2543.
8. Edmonson EMS. Food composition and food cariogenicity factors affecting
the cariogenic potential of foods. Caries Res 1990;24(Suppl 1):60-71.
9. . . [cited 2003 December 12] Available
from: http://www.Milkmaiwan.saimbloob.com.
10. Marthaler, T.M.(1990) Changes in the prevalence of dental caries; how much
are attributed to changes in diet? Caries Res., 24 (Suppl), 3-15.
11. Sreebny, L.M. (1982). Sugar and Human caries. Wld Rev. Nutr. Diet; 40, 19-65.
12. ADA 1985 : Scientific Consensus Conference on Methods for Assessment of
the Cariogenic Potential of foods, San Amtomio, NOV 1985. J.Dent.Res.
(special issue) 1988:65.
13. Scheie, AA., Fejerskou, O., Lingstiom, P., Biekhed, D., and Manji ,F. : Use of
Palladium Touch Microelectrodes under Field Conditions for in vivo Assessment
of Dental Plaque pH in Children. Caries Res .26 : 44-52, 1992.

14. , , (2528)

, , 15(3), 161-73.
15. (2531)
7-12
, (.-. 2531), 92-100.
16. Triratana T., Hemindra T., and Kiatiprajuk, C. (1990) Eruption of Permanent
Teeth in Malnutrition Children. J. Dent. Assoc. Thailand 40, 100-108.
17. Suwanee Jintayoungkun (1994) Dental Caries in the Malnutrition Groups of Bangkok
Metropolitan School Children Aged 7-12 Years. J. Dent. Assoc. Thailand 44, 116-125.
18. Kanchanakamol, U., Tuongratanaphan, S., Tuongratanaphan, S., Lertpoonvilaikul,
W., Chittaisong, C.Pattanaporn, K., Navia, J.M., and Davies, G. N. (1996)
Community Dent Health 13, 204-207.
19. (2532)

20. (2535)
, 21(3), 204-218
21. (2535)
.., 15, 79-88.
22.
2533- 2534
23.
:
2537.
24. 2539

6 . . 19, 103-13.
25. (2539)
3
..,46(4), 196-202.

6-30
66

6-30
67

1. , . Cariology ,
Preventive Dentistry in Community Care 1, .. 2539 26-28 ;
, .
2. .
5 .. 2543-2544 . :
; 2545.
3.
3 .. 2545. .
4. Woodward, M., and Walker, A.R.P. Sugar consumption and dental caries :
Evidence from 90 countries. Br Dent J 1994;176:297-302.
5. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry oral. Oral health policies. Pediatr
Dent 1999;21:18-37.
6. Ismail AI, Tanzer JM, and Dingle JL. Current trends of sugar consumption in
developing societies. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1997;15:438-43.
7. .
.. 2543.
8. Edmonson EMS. Food composition and food cariogenicity factors affecting
the cariogenic potential of foods. Caries Res 1990;24(Suppl 1):60-71.
9. . . [cited 2003 December 12] Available
from: http://www.Milkmaiwan.saimbloob.com.
10. Marthaler, T.M.(1990) Changes in the prevalence of dental caries; how much
are attributed to changes in diet? Caries Res., 24 (Suppl), 3-15.
11. Sreebny, L.M. (1982). Sugar and Human caries. Wld Rev. Nutr. Diet; 40, 19-65.
12. ADA 1985 : Scientific Consensus Conference on Methods for Assessment of
the Cariogenic Potential of foods, San Amtomio, NOV 1985. J.Dent.Res.
(special issue) 1988:65.
13. Scheie, AA., Fejerskou, O., Lingstiom, P., Biekhed, D., and Manji ,F. : Use of
Palladium Touch Microelectrodes under Field Conditions for in vivo Assessment
of Dental Plaque pH in Children. Caries Res .26 : 44-52, 1992.

14. , , (2528)

, , 15(3), 161-73.
15. (2531)
7-12
, (.-. 2531), 92-100.
16. Triratana T., Hemindra T., and Kiatiprajuk, C. (1990) Eruption of Permanent
Teeth in Malnutrition Children. J. Dent. Assoc. Thailand 40, 100-108.
17. Suwanee Jintayoungkun (1994) Dental Caries in the Malnutrition Groups of Bangkok
Metropolitan School Children Aged 7-12 Years. J. Dent. Assoc. Thailand 44, 116-125.
18. Kanchanakamol, U., Tuongratanaphan, S., Tuongratanaphan, S., Lertpoonvilaikul,
W., Chittaisong, C.Pattanaporn, K., Navia, J.M., and Davies, G. N. (1996)
Community Dent Health 13, 204-207.
19. (2532)

20. (2535)
, 21(3), 204-218
21. (2535)
.., 15, 79-88.
22.
2533- 2534
23.
:
2537.
24. 2539

6 . . 19, 103-13.
25. (2539)
3
..,46(4), 196-202.

6-30

6-30

68

26. (2542)

5-6

27. (2540) -

.
28. (2542) pH
12 ..,49,10412.
29. , , , .
2546;2:103-17.
30. A.J.Rugg-Gunn, Nutrition and Dental health. Oxford University press 1993 ; 18.
31. , .
.
2541;5:259-67.
32. , .
..2541.
.
33. , , .
.
..2544.
34. , , , ,
.
. 2546
35. , , , .

2544;6;105-88
36. .
.. 2542. :
; 2543.

69

6 -30
................................................................................................/........../2546
X
1
1 ......................................................
.....................................................
1. 6 2. 12. 3. 18. 4. 30.
..........................................
2 ............................................
............................
0. 1. 3. 4. 5.
1. 2. 3. / 4. / 5. 6. 7. ....
1. 2.
3 1. 2. 3. / 4. / 5. 6. 7. ....
0-6 ...............
7-12 .............
13-18 ...........
19-30 ...........
4
1. <2000
2. 2001-5000 3. 5001-10000 4. 10001-15000
5. 15001-20000 6. >20000

1. 2. 3.
4.
2
5 0. 1. ......................... (99)
0. 1. 2. 3.
6 0. 1.
....................(99)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. .....................
7 0. 1. 2. 3.
0. 1. ..............
8 6 ......................................................................
9 ( 1 )
0. 1. 2. 3. 4.

6-30

6-30

68

26. (2542)

5-6

27. (2540) -

.
28. (2542) pH
12 ..,49,10412.
29. , , , .
2546;2:103-17.
30. A.J.Rugg-Gunn, Nutrition and Dental health. Oxford University press 1993 ; 18.
31. , .
.
2541;5:259-67.
32. , .
..2541.
.
33. , , .
.
..2544.
34. , , , ,
.
. 2546
35. , , , .

2544;6;105-88
36. .
.. 2542. :
; 2543.

69

6 -30
................................................................................................/........../2546
X
1
1 ......................................................
.....................................................
1. 6 2. 12. 3. 18. 4. 30.
..........................................
2 ............................................
............................
0. 1. 3. 4. 5.
1. 2. 3. / 4. / 5. 6. 7. ....
1. 2.
3 1. 2. 3. / 4. / 5. 6. 7. ....
0-6 ...............
7-12 .............
13-18 ...........
19-30 ...........
4
1. <2000
2. 2001-5000 3. 5001-10000 4. 10001-15000
5. 15001-20000 6. >20000

1. 2. 3.
4.
2
5 0. 1. ......................... (99)
0. 1. 2. 3.
6 0. 1.
....................(99)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. .....................
7 0. 1. 2. 3.
0. 1. ..............
8 6 ......................................................................
9 ( 1 )
0. 1. 2. 3. 4.

6-30
70

3
10 6- 30 1. / 2. 3.
4. 5.
11 0. 1. 2.
12 / 0. 1. 2.
.........................................................
13 0. 1. 2.
............................................................
14 ..................................................................................................................
4 /
15 ............................................... ..................................
............................................... ..................................
16 ........................(99 )
17 ..........................................................................................
...........................................................................................
18 ....................... ................................../
19 ......................
15,17 1. 2. // 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. / 12. .....
5
20 1. 0. 29-30
21 0. 1. 2.
...........
22 0. 1. ...........

0. 1. 2.
0. 1. 2.
23 1. 2. 3.
4. 2 3

6-30
71

6
24 1. 2.
25 0. 1. 2. 3.
26 0. 1. 3. 4.
27 ( 1 )
0. 1. 2. 3. 4.
28
0. 1. () 2. 3.
7
29 1. 2. 3. .....................................
30 1. 2. ...........
3. ()

6-30
70

3
10 6- 30 1. / 2. 3.
4. 5.
11 0. 1. 2.
12 / 0. 1. 2.
.........................................................
13 0. 1. 2.
............................................................
14 ..................................................................................................................
4 /
15 ............................................... ..................................
............................................... ..................................
16 ........................(99 )
17 ..........................................................................................
...........................................................................................
18 ....................... ................................../
19 ......................
15,17 1. 2. // 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. / 12. .....
5
20 1. 0. 29-30
21 0. 1. 2.
...........
22 0. 1. ...........

0. 1. 2.
0. 1. 2.
23 1. 2. 3.
4. 2 3

6-30
71

6
24 1. 2.
25 0. 1. 2. 3.
26 0. 1. 3. 4.
27 ( 1 )
0. 1. 2. 3. 4.
28
0. 1. () 2. 3.
7
29 1. 2. 3. .....................................
30 1. 2. ...........
3. ()

6-30
72

5
100
106
76

7
140
131
104

11
220
220
153

10
200
190
144

11
220
218
155

12
240
213
152

10
200
200
138

8
160
160
115

13
260
37
25

25
500
448
334

14
280
162
123

13
260
243
190

18
360
335
253

200
400
358
266

10
200
220
141

9
180
186
130

8
160
160
115

9
180
93
66

13
260
228
162

17
340
327
244

18
360
331
229

5
100
92
75

17
340
304
221

12
240
223
179
Total
296
5185
3790

23.70
16.30
20.90
23.60
18.10
22.40
17.40
20.90
24.00
17.10
22.80
18.90
20.20
15.00
23.40
27.70
13.00
16.70
11.70
21.30
21.00
30.70
24.40
25.70
20.20

3
50

6-30
72

5
100
106
76

7
140
131
104

11
220
220
153

10
200
190
144

11
220
218
155

12
240
213
152

10
200
200
138

8
160
160
115

13
260
37
25

25
500
448
334

14
280
162
123

13
260
243
190

18
360
335
253

200
400
358
266

10
200
220
141

9
180
186
130

8
160
160
115

9
180
93
66

13
260
228
162

17
340
327
244

18
360
331
229

5
100
92
75

17
340
304
221

12
240
223
179
Total
296
5185
3790

23.70
16.30
20.90
23.60
18.10
22.40
17.40
20.90
24.00
17.10
22.80
18.90
20.20
15.00
23.40
27.70
13.00
16.70
11.70
21.30
21.00
30.70
24.40
25.70
20.20

3
50