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CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

c lp T do Hnh phc
TI SNG KIN KINH NGHIM
A. S YU L LCH
H v tn: Trn Th Hng Minh
Ngy thng nm sinh: 13 04 1985
Nm vo ngnh: 2007
Chc v v n v cng tc: Gio vin trng THPT Tn Lp
Trnh chuyn mn: Thc s
B mn ging dy: Ton
Ngoi ng: Ting Anh
1
B. L DO CHN TI
Chng minh bt ng thc l mt dng ton ph bin v quan trng trong chng
trnh ton ph thng, rt thng gp trong cc thi tuyn sinh vo i hc Cao
ng v cn l mt chuyn ln trong cc thi hc sinh gii ph thng.
Cc bi ton chng minh bt ng thc rt a dng v phong ph. Xt v c l
lun v thc tin dy hc u chng t chng rt c hiu qu trong vic pht trin t
duy cho hc sinh.
C nhiu phng php chng minh bt ng thc, vic vn dng nhn chung ph
thuc nhiu vo c th bi ton, do hc sinh ph thng thng gp nhiu kh
khn khi gp dng bi ny.
Trong chng trnh ton THPT, chng minh bt ng thc c gii thiu trong
chng trnh i s lp 10. Ti la chn mt phng php chng minh bt ng
thc hay gp trnh by trong bi vit ny vi tn gi:
Chng minh bt ng thc bng phng php
s dng bt ng thc C-si

2
C. QU TRNH THC HIN TI
PHN 1. KHI QUT V CC PHNG PHP
CHNG MINH BT NG THC
1. Bi ton chng minh bt ng thc i s.
Khi nim: Cho hai biu thc i s f, g c tp xc nh ln lt l
,
f g
D D
.
Quan h ( ) f g
cho ta mt bt ng thc i s. Nu vi mi gi tr ca bin
trong tp
f g
D D D
lm cho ( ) f g
th ta c mt bt ng thc ng.
Bi ton chng minh bt ng thc i s yu cu ta ch ra tnh ng (hoc sai)
ca mt bt ng thc no . tin v ngn ng, ni chung ta ch xt nhng bt
ng thc dng
0 f g f g
.
Theo phn loi ca Polya th bi ton bt ng thc thuc dng bi ton chng
minh ton hc (trong h thng ny, ngoi ra l cc bi ton tm ti).
2. Cc phng php chng minh.
chng minh bt ng thc i s, cc phng php ph bin l:
PP1: Dng php bin i tng ng.
PP2: Phng php phn chng.
PP3: Dng cc tnh cht c bn ca bt ng thc.
PP4: Dng bt ng thc tam gic.
PP5: Lm tri.
PP6: Quy np
PP7: Dng BT Cauchy.
PP8: Dng BT Bunhiacopski.
PP9: Bin dng ca BT Bunhiacopski.
PP10: Dng BT Bunhiacopski m rng.
3
PP11: Dng BT Bernoulli.
PP12: Dng tam thc bc hai.
PP13: Phng php lng gic.
PP14: Dng BT Jensen.
PP15: Dng BT Tsebyshev.
PP16: Dng o hm.
PP17: Phng php hnh hc.
Trong bi vit ny, ti tp trung vo mt phng php thng gp i vi hc
sinh lp 10. l phng php s dng bt ng thc Cauchy (C-si) . Tuy nhin,
phng php gii cc bi ton dng ny rt a dng nn kh c th phn loi v tng
kt thnh mt s t cc phng php gii chung. Ti xin a ra mt cch tip cn
thng qua mt s nhn xt khi bin i chng minh bt ng thc.
4
PHN 2: BT NG THC C-SI
1. Bt ng thc C-si.
1.1. Bt ng thc C-si.
Cho n s khng m
1 2
, ,...,
n
x x x
. Ta c:
1 2
1 2
...
...
n
n
n
x x x
x x x
n
+ + +

Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi


1 2
...
n
x x x
.
Vi 2 n , ta c:
1 2
1 2
2
x x
x x
+

Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi


1 2
x x
.
Vi 3 n , ta c:
1 2 3
3
1 2 3
3
x x x
x x x
+ +

Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi


1 2 3
x x x
1.2. V d.
V d 1.Chng minh rng nu a, b, c l cc s dng th:
a. ( )
1 1
4 a b
a b
_
+ +

,
b. ( )
1 1 1
9 a b c
a b c
_
+ + + +

,
Khi no xy ra ng thc?
Gii.
a. p dng BT C-si, ta c:
2 a b ab + (ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b).
1 1 1
2
a b ab
+ (ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 1
a b

)
5
Do : ( )
1 1 1
2 .2 4 a b ab
a b ab
_
+ +

,
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi 1 1
a b
a b
a b


'

b. p dng BT C-si, ta c:
3
3 a b c abc + + (ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a = b = c).
3
1 1 1 1
3
a b c abc
+ + (ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 1 1
a b c
)
Do : ( )
3
3
1 1 1 1
3 .3 9 a b c abc
a b c abc
_
+ + + +

,
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi 1 1 1
a b c
a b c
a b c


'

V d 2. Cho ba s dng a, b, c. Chng minh rng:


1 1 1 8
a b c
b c a
_ _ _
+ + +

, , ,
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Gii. p dng BT C-si, ta c:
1 2
a a
b b
+ (ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi 1
a
b
)
1 2
b b
c c
+ (ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1
b
c

)
1 2
c c
a a
+ (ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi 1
c
a
)
6
Nhn v vi v, ta c:
1 1 1 8
a b c
b c a
_ _ _
+ + +

, , ,
(pcm)
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1
a b c
a b c
b c a

V d 3. ( thi tuyn sinh H, C khi D nm 2005)
Cho cc s dng x, y, z tha mn
1 xyz
. Chng minh rng:
3 3 3 3 3 3
1 1 1
3 3
x y y z z x
xy yz zx
+ + + + + +
+ +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Gii. p dng BT C-si, ta c:
3 3
3 3
1 3
1 3
x y
x y xy
xy xy
+ +
+ +
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 x y
Chng minh tng t, ta c:
3 3
1 3 y z
yz yz
+ +
(ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 y z
)
3 3
1 3 z x
zx zx
+ +
(ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi 1 z x )
Cng v vi v cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( )
3 3 3 3 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1
3 1
x y y z z x
xy yz zx xy yz zx
_
+ + + + + +
+ + + +


,
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 x y z
.
p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
( )
3
1 1 1 3
3 2
xy yz zx xyz
+ +
7
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 x y z
.
T (1) v (2), ta c iu phi chng minh.
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 x y z
.
2. Mt s lu khi bin i.
Ni chung, ta t gp cc bi ton s dng ngay bt ng thc C-si nh cc v d
trn m thng bin i bi ton n tnh hung thch hp ri mi s dng bt ng
thc C-si. Khi bin i, ta thng s dng nhng s hng ca mt v cng thm
cc s hng thch hp v s dng bt ng thc C-si m t cc s hng trong v
cn li hoc trong iu kin bt ng thc. Khi bin i, ta nn lu mt s nhn
xt sau:

2.1. Nhn xt 1. S chiu ca BT Cauchy ph thuc vo s hng ca bc cao
nht.
V d 4. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
3 3 3 2 2 2
a b c ab bc ca + + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Phn tch: Ta thy s hng v bn phi c bc cao nht l 3, nn ta s s dng bt
ng thc C-si cho 3 s khng m. Chng hn, s hng
2
ab s ng vi b ba s
3 3 3
, , a b b . C nh vy, ta thu c bt ng thc cn chng minh.
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
3 3 3 2
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 2
3
3
3
a b b ab
b c c bc
c a a ca
+ +
+ +
+ +
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
8
( ) ( )
3 3 3 2 2 2
3 3 3 2 2 2
3 3 a b c ab bc ca
a b c ab bc ca
+ + + +
+ + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
a b
b c a b c
c a


'

V d 5. Vi cc s khng m a, b, c, chng minh rng:


( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
a b b c c a abc a b c + + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Phn tch: Ta thy cc s hng
, , ab bc ca
v bn phi c bc cao nht l 2, nn ta
s s dng bt ng thc C-si cho 2 s khng m.
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2
a b b c ab c
b c c a abc
c a a b a bc
+
+
+
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 a b b a c a abc a b c
a b b c c a abc a b c
+ + + +
+ + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
ab bc
bc ca a b c
ca ab


'

2.2. Nhn xt 2. Bc ca s hng cn thm vo s dng bt ng thc Cauchy


bng bc ca s hng cn m t.
V d 6. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
9
3 3 3
a b c
ab bc ca
b c a
+ + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Phn tch: Ta thy cc s hng v bn tri c cha mu, cc s hng bn phi
khng cha mu, do ta cn kh mu bng cch thm cc s hng vo bn tri ca
bt ng thc. Bc ca s hng cn m t l hai, nn bc ca s hng thm vo cng
l hai.
Chng hn, s hng
3
a
b
c cha mu l b, nn s hng thm vo phi cha nhn t
b. Bc ca s hng l 2, nn ta cng thm vo ab.
3
2
2
a
ab a
b
+
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
3
2
2
a
ab a
b
+
3
2
3
2
2
2
b
bc b
c
c
ca c
a
+
+
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( )
3 3 3
2 2 2
2
a b c
ab bc ca a b c
b c a
+ + + + + + + (1)
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi :
3
2 2
3
2 2
2 2
3
a
ab
b
a b
a b
b
bc b c b c a b c
c
c a
c a
c
ca
a



' ' '

10
Li c,
2 2 2
a b c ab bc ca + + + + (2)
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a b c .
T (1) v (2) suy ra:
( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
2
a b c
ab bc ca ab bc ca
b c a
a b c
ab bc ca
b c a
+ + + + + + +
+ + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a b c .
V d 7. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
3 3 3
a b c
a b c
bc ca ab
+ + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Phn tch: Ta thy cc s hng v bn tri c cha mu, cc s hng bn phi
khng cha mu, do ta cn kh mu bng cch thm cc s hng vo bn tri ca
bt ng thc. Bc ca s hng cn m t l mt, nn bc ca cc s hng thm vo
cng l mt.
Chng hn, s hng
3
a
bc
c cha mu l b, c v bc ca s hng thm vo l 1 nn
cc s hng thm vo l b, c:
3
3
a
b c a
bc
+ +
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
3
3
a
b c a
bc
+ +
11
3
3
3
3
b
c a b
ca
c
a b c
ab
+ +
+ +
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( ) ( )
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 3
a b c a b c
a b c a b c a b c
bc ca ab bc ca ab
+ + + + + + + + + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
3
3
3
a
b c
bc
b
c a a b c
ca
c
a b
ab


'

2.3. Nhn xt 3. Khi bc khng bng nhau s hng cng thm c th l hng s.
V d 8. Vi cc s dng a, b, c tha mn iu kin 1 ab bc ca + + , chng minh
rng:
3 3 3
1
3
a b c + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Phn tch: Cho a b c thay vo iu kin ta tnh c
1
3
a b c
S dng bt ng thc C-si vi n = 3 cng vi s hng hng s, s hng cha
bin thch hp m t iu kin v bt ng thc cn chng minh.
Chng hn, vi s hng ab trong iu kin xc nh, ta s dng cc s hng
3 3
1
, ,
3 3
a b
:
12
3 3 3 3
3
1 1
3 3
3 3 3 3
a b a b ab + +
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
3 3
3 3
3 3
1
3
3 3
1
3
3 3
1
3
3 3
a b ab
b c bc
c a ca
+ +
+ +
+ +
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
1
2 3 3
3
2 1
2
3 3
a b c ab bc ca
a b c a b c
+ + + + +
+ + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1
3
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
a b
b c
a b c
c a
ab bc ca


'

+ +

V d 9. Vi cc s dng a, b, c tha mn iu kin ( ) 4 3 a b c abc + +


, chng
minh rng:
3 3 3
1 1 1 3
8 a b c
+ +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Phn tch: Bin i iu kin, ta c:
1 1 1 3
4 ab bc ca
+ +
13
Cho a b c thay vo iu kin ta tnh c 2 a b c
S dng bt ng thc C-si vi n = 3 cng vi s hng hng s, s hng cha
bin thch hp m t iu kin v bt ng thc cn chng minh.
Chng hn, vi s hng
1
ab
trong iu kin, ta s dng bt ng thc C-si cho
cc s dng
3 3
1 1 1
, ,
8 a b
, ta c:
3
3 3 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1
3 . . .
8 8 2 a b a b ab
+ +
Gii. Ta c: ( )
1 1 1 3
4 3
4
a b c abc
ab bc ca
+ + + +
p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
3 3
1 1 1 3 1
.
8 2 a b ab
+ +
3 3
3 3
1 1 1 3 1
.
8 2
1 1 1 3 1
.
8 2
b c bc
c a ca
+ +
+ +
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
3 3 3 3 3 3
1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 3
2
8 2 8 8 a b c ab bc ca a b c
_ _
+ + + + + + +

, ,
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 1 1 1
2
2
1 1 1 3
4
a b c
a b c
ab bc ca


'

+ +

2.4. Nhn xt 4. Ta cn n trng hp ng thc xy ra vi a = b = c ca


bt ng thc thm h s cho thch hp.
14
V d 10. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
1
2
a b c
a b c
b b c c c a a a b
+ + + +
+ + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Phn tch: Cho a b c thay vo mt s hng bn v tri ca BT cn chng
minh, chng hn s hng
( )
3
a
b b c +
ta thu c
2
a
. Mt khc, s hng ny li c mu
cha nhn t
, b b c +
. Do , ta s thm vo cc s hng ,
2 4
b b c +
v s dng bt
ng thc C-si vi n = 3:
( ) ( )
3 3
3
3
3 . .
2 4 2 4 2
a b b c a b b c
a
b b c b b c
+ +
+ +
+ +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:

( )
( )
3 2
3
2
2 4
a b b c
a b b c
a b c
b b c
b c
+
+

'
+

Ta lm tng t vi cc s hng khc s thu c bt ng thc cn chng minh.


Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
( ) ( )
3 3
3
3
3 . .
2 4 2 4 2
a b b c a b b c
a
b b c b b c
+ +
+ +
+ +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
( )
( )
3 2
3
2
2 4
a b b c
a b b c
a b c
b b c
b c
+
+

'
+

Tng t, ta c:
15
( )
( )
3
3
3
2 4 2
3
2 4 2
b c c a
b
c c a
c a a b
c
a a b
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
3
2
1
2
a b c
a b c a b c
b b c c c a a a b
a b c
a b c
b b c c c a a a b
+ + + + + + +
+ + +
+ + + +
+ + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a b c
V d 11. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
2 2 2
2
9
2 2 2
a b c
a b c
b c c a a b
+ + + +
+ + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Phn tch: Cho a b c thay vo mt s hng bn v tri ca BT cn chng
minh, chng hn s hng
( )
3
2
2
a
b c +
ta thu c
9
a
. Mt khc, s hng ny li c
mu cha nhn t
2 b c +
. Do , ta s thm vo cc s hng
2 2
,
27 27
b c b c + +
v s
dng bt ng thc C-si vi n = 3:
( ) ( )
3 3
3
2 2
2 2 2 2
3 . .
27 27 27 27 3
2
a b c b c a b c b c a
b c b c
+ + + +
+ +
+ +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
( )
( )
3
3
3
2
2
27 2 3 2
27
2
a b c
a b c a b c
b c
+
+ +
+
16
Ta lm tng t vi cc s hng khc s thu c bt ng thc cn chng minh.
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
( ) ( )
3 3
3
2 2
2 2 2 2
3 . .
27 27 27 27 3
2
a b c b c a b c b c a
b c b c
+ + + +
+ +
+ +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
( )
( )
3
3
3
2
2
27 2 3 2
27
2
a b c
a b c a b c
b c
+
+ +
+
Tng t, ta c:
( )
3
2
2 2
27 27 3
2
b c a c a b
c a
+ +
+ +
+
(Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi 3 2 b c a + )
( )
3
2
2 2
27 27 3
2
c a b a b c
a b
+ +
+ +
+

(Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi 3 2 c a b + )
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
2 2 2
3 3 3
2 2 2
9 3
2 2 2
2
9
2 2 2
a b c a b c a b c
b c c a a b
a b c a b c
b c c a a b
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ +
+ +
+ + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
3 2
3 2
3 2
a b c
b c a a b c
c a b
+

+
'

2.5. Nhn xt 5. Ta s dng bt ng thc C-si kt hp vi mt s bt ng


thc ph.
17
V d 12. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
5 5 5
2 2 2
2 2 2
a b c
a b c
bc ca ab
+ + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi no?
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
5 5
2 2 2
3
2 2
3 . . 3
a a
c ab c ab a
bc bc
+ +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
5
2
2
a
c ab a b c
bc

Tng t, ta c:
5
2 2
2
3
b
a bc b
ca
+ + (Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi: a b c )
5
2 2
2
3
c
b ca c
ab
+ + (Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi: a b c )
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( )
( )
5 5 5
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
5 5 5
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
3
a b c
a b c ab bc ca a b c
bc ca ab
a b c
a b c a b c ab bc ca
bc ca ab
+ + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi a b c
p dng bt ng thc ph:
2 2 2
a b c ab bc ca + + + +
(Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi: a b c )
Ta c:
5 5 5
2 2 2
2 2 2
a b c
a b c
bc ca ab
+ + + +
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi: a b c
18
V d 13. ( thi tuyn sinh H, C khi A nm 2003)
Cho x, y, z l cc s dng v
1 x y z + +
. Chng minh rng:
2 2 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
82 x y z
x y z
+ + + + +
Gii.
Bt ng thc ph 1: vi cc s dng a, b, c, d, ta c:
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
a b c d a c b d + + + + + +
Tht vy, ta c:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2
0
a b c d a c b d
a b c d a b c d a b c d ac bd
a b c d ac bd
a c b c a d b d a c b d abcd
ad bc
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + +
+ + +
+ + + + +

p dng bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
1
x y z x y z
x y z x y z
x y z
x y z
_
+ + + + + + + + + +

,
_
+ + + + +

,
Bt ng thc ph 2 (V d 1): vi cc s dng a ,b, c, ta c:
( )
1 1 1 1 1 1 9
9 a b c
a b c a b c a b c
_
+ + + + + +

+ +
,
p dng bt ng thc trn, ta c:
19
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
1 1 1 9
1 1 1 81
2
x y z x y z
x y z x y z
x y z
x y z
+ +
+ +
_
+ + + + + + + +

+ +
,
p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
( )
( )
2
2
1
2 x y z
x y z
+ + +
+ +
Theo gi thit:
( )
2
1 80
1 1 80 x y z
x y z
x y z
+ +
+ +
+ +
Do :

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2
81 1 80
2 80 82 3
x y z x y z
x y z x y z x y z
+ + + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+
T (1), (2), (3) ta c iu phi chng minh.
V d 14. ( thi tuyn sinh H, C khi A nm 2005)
Cho x, y, z l cc s dng tha mn
1 1 1
4
x y z
+ +
. Chng minh rng
1 1 1
1
2 2 2 x y z x y z x y z
+ +
+ + + + + +
Gii. p dng bt ng ph vi cc s dng x, y:
( )
1 1 1 1 1 1
4
4
x y
x y x y x y
_ _
+ + +

+
, ,
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi x = y. (V d 1)
Ta c:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 4 2 4 2 4 4 x y z x y z x y z
_ _
+ + +

+ + +
, ,
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
2x y z
x y z
y z
+


'

20
Tng t, ta c:
1 1 1 1 1
2 4 4 2 4 x y z x y z
_
+ +

+ +
,
(Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
x y z
)
1 1 1 1 1
2 4 4 4 2 x y z x y z
_
+ +

+ +
,
(Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi:
x y z
)
Cng v vi v ca cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
2 2 2 4 x y z x y z x y z x y z
_
+ + + +

+ + + + + +
,
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
3
1 1 1
4
4
x y z
x y z
x y z


'
+ +

2.6. Nhn xt 6. t n ph trc khi bin i gip ta a mt s bt ng thc


v cc bt ng thc n gin.
V d 15. Vi cc s dng a, b, c tha mn 1 abc , chng minh rng:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 1 3
2 a b c b c a c a b
+ +
+ + +
ng thc xy ra khi no?
Gii. t
1 1 1
, , x y z
a b c
, ta thu c:
1 xyz
.
Ta c:
( )
2 2
2
1
1 1
x x yz x
a b c y z y z
y z

+ + +
+
Bin i tng t, ta c:
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
,
y z
b c a z x c a b x y

+ + + +
21
Bt ng thc cn chng minh c dng:
( )
3
2
9
1 1 1
2
1 1 1 9
2
x y z
y z z x x y
x y z
y z z x x y
x y z
y z z x x y
+ +
+ + +
_ _
_
+ + + + +

+ + +
,
, ,
_
+ + + +

+ + +
,
p dng bt ng thc trong v d 1, ta c:
( )
( )
1 1 1
1 1 1 9
2 2
x y z
x y y z z x
x y y z z x
x y y z z x
_
+ + + +

+ + +
,
+ + + + + _
+ +

+ + +
,
Do , ta c iu phi chng minh.
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
x y y z z x x y z a b c + + +
V d 16. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
2
3 2
2 2
1
c b
a b c ac ab
b ac
+ + + +
ng thc xy ra khi no?
Gii. Chia c hai v cho 0 bc > , ta c:
3
3 3
1 1 c a a
a b
b ac b bc c
+ + + +
t
1 1
, , a x b c
y z

bt ng thc cn chng minh c dng:
3 3 3
x y z
xy yz zx
y z x
+ + + +
Bt ng thc trn c chng minh v d 6.
22
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
1 1
x y z a
b c

2.7. Nhn xt 7. S dng hng ng thc kt hp vi bt ng thc C-si.
V d 17. Vi a, b, c dng, chng minh rng:
3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
3
a b c a b c
a ab b b bc c c ca a
+ +
+ +
+ + + + + +
Gii. t
3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
a b c
P
a ab b b bc c c ca a
+ +
+ + + + + +


3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
b c a
Q
a ab b b bc c c ca a
+ +
+ + + + + +
Ta c:
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
2
a b b c c a
P Q
a ab b b bc c c ca a
a b b c c a
a b b c c a
P P Q
a ab b b bc c c ca a

+ +
+ + + + + +
+ +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + + + + +
Mt khc, ta c:
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 3 3
2 2 2 2
3
1
3 3
a b ab a b ab a b ab
a b ab a b a b
a b ab a ab b
+ + + +
+ + +

+ + + +
Chng minh tng t, ta c:
3 3
2 2
3 3
2 2
3
3
b c b c
b c bc
c a c a
c a ca
+ +

+ +
+ +

+ +
Cng v vi v cc bt ng thc trn , ta c:
23
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2.
3
3
a b b c c a a b c
P
a ab b b bc c c ca a
a b c
P
+ + + + +
+ +
+ + + + + +
+ +

Ta c iu phi chng minh.
V d 18. Vi a, b, c l di ba cnh ca mt tam gic, chng minh rng:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 9
4 4 4 2
a b c b c a c a b
a b c
a b c b c a c a b
+ + +
+ + + +
+ + + + + +
Gii. t
2 2 , 2 2 , 2 2 x a b c y b c a z c a b + + +
V a, b, c l di ba cnh ca mt tam gic nn
, , x y z
dng.
Ta c:
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
9
4
4
4
x y z a b c
y z a b c
z x b c a
x y c a b
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
Bt ng thc cn chng minh c dng:
3 3 3 2 2 2
2
x y x x y z
y z z x x y
+ +
+ +
+ + +
p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
( )
( )
( )
3
2
3
2
3
2
4
4
4
x y z x
x
y z
y z x
y
y
y z
z x y z
z
x y
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Cng v vi v cc bt ng thc trn , ta c:
24
3 3 3
2 2 2
3 3 3
2 2 2
2
2
x y x xy yz zx
x y z
y z z x x y
x y x xy yz zx
x y z
y z z x x y
+ +
+ + + + +
+ + +
+ +
+ + + +
+ + +
p dng bt ng thc
2 2 2
x y z xy yz zx + + + + , ta c:
3 3 3 2 2 2
2
x y x x y z
y z z x x y
+ +
+ +
+ + +
2.8. Nhn xt 7. Khi bin i ta iu chnh cc h s sao cho kh c ht cc s
hng khng c mt trong bt ng thc cn chng minh.
V d 19. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
2 2 2
4
3
a b c
a b
b c a
+ + +
ng thc xy ra khi no?
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
2
2
2
2
4 4
4
4
a
b a
b
b
c b
c
c
a c
a
+
+
+
Cng v vi v cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
2 2 2
2 2 2
4
4 2 4 4
4
3
a b c
b c a a b c
b c a
a b c
a b
b c a
+ + + + + + +
+ + +
25
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
2
2
2
4 2
2
4
a
b
b
a b
b
c b c
c
a c
c
a
a



' '

V d 20. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:


( ) ( )
3 3 2
2
a b c b
a
b c a c a b b c
+ + +
+ + +
ng thc xy ra khi no?
Gii. p dng bt ng thc C-si, ta c:
( )
( )
3
3
2
3
2 4 2
3
2 4 2
4
a b c a
a
b c a
b c a b
b
c a b
c b c
c
b c
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
Cng v vi v cc bt ng thc trn, ta c:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3 2
3 3 2
3 3
2 2 2
2
a b c a
b c a b c
b c a c a b b c
a b c b
a
b c a c a b b c
+ + + + + + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
( )
( )
3
3
2
2 4
2 4
2
a b c a
b c a
b c a b
a b c
c a b
c b c
b c
+

+

'
+

+

+

26
3. Bi tp.
Bi 1. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
( )
4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 2 3 2 3
a b b c c a abc a b b c c a + + + +
Hng dn:
( )
4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 2 3 2 3
4 4 4 3 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1
a b b c c a abc a b b c c a
a b c a b b c c a
+ + + + + + + +
4 4 4 4 3
1 1 1 1 4
a a a b a b
+ + +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
4 4 4 3 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1
a b c a b b c c a
+ + + +
Bi 2. Vi cc s dng a, b, c tha mn 3 ab bc ca + + , chng minh rng:
3 3 3
3 a b c + +
Hng dn:
3 3
1 3 a b ab + +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
3 3 3
3 a b c + +
Bi 3. Vi cc s dng a, b, c tha mn 3 a b c abc + + , chng minh rng:
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
3 a b b c c a a b c + +
Hng dn:
1 1 1
3 3 a b c abc
bc ca ab
+ + + +
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4
1 1 1
3 3 a b b c c a a b c
a b c
+ + + +
4 4
1 1 4
1 1
a b ab
+ + +
27
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
4 4 4
1 1 1
3
a b c
+ +
Bi 4. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
2 2 2 3
a b c a b c
b c a c a b a b c
+ +
+ +
+ + +
Hng dn:
( )
3
2
3 9
a b c a
a
b c a
+
+ +
+
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
2 2 2 3
a b c a b c
b c a c a b a b c
+ +
+ +
+ + +
Bi 5. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
6 6 6 4 4 4
3 3 3
a b c a b c
b c a c a b
+ + + +
Hng dn:
6 6 6 4
3 3 3
3 a a b a
b b c c
+ +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
6 6 6 4 4 4
3 3 3
a b c a b c
b c a c a b
+ + + +
Bi 6. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
2 128
2 4
2 2 4
a b c
a b c
b b a c c b a a c
+ + + +
+ + +
Hng dn: BT cn chng minh tng ng vi
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
3 3
3
2 4 1
2 4
2 2 4 4 2 4 2
b c a
a b c
b b a c c b a a c
+ + + +
+ + +
28
p dng v d 10 ta c iu phi chng minh.
Bi 7. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
8 8 8
3 3 3
4 4 4
a b c
ab bc ca
b c a
+ + + +
Hng dn:
8 8 8 4 2 4 2 4 2
3 3 3
4 4 4 2 2 2
a b c a b b c c a
ab bc ca
b c a c a b
+ + + + + +
Bi 8. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
4 4 2
2 2
2 2
2
4 8
a b ca
b c abc
b c b
+ + +
Hng dn:
4 4 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
4 4 4 4 8
a b ca a b ca
b c b c a b c abc
b c b c b
+ + + + + +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
1 1 1 3 3 3
2 2 2 a b c a b b c c a
+ + + +
+ + +
Bi 9. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
1 1 1 3 3 3
2 2 2 a b c a b b c c a
+ + + +
+ + +
Hng dn:
9 9 1 2
2 a b a b b a b
+
+ + +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
1 1 1 3 3 3
2 2 2 a b c a b b c c a
+ + + +
+ + +
29
Bi 10. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, chng minh rng:
1 2 3 3 18 9
3 4 6 a b c a b b c c a
+ + + +
+ + +
Hng dn:
1 2 3 3 18 9 1 1 1 3 3 3
3 4 6
2. 2. 2
2 3 2 2 3 3
b c b b c c
a b c a b b c c a a
a a
+ + + + + + + +
+ + +
+ + +
Bi 11. Vi cc s dng a, b, c sao cho 1 a b c + + , chng minh rng:
3 3 3 3
3 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 a b c + + + + +
Hng dn:
3 3 3 3
3
3 1 2 2 3 5 3 5
3 1. 2. 2 3 1
3 3 3 4
a a a
a a
+ + + + +
+ +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
3 3 3 3
3 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 a b c + + + + +
Bi 12. Vi cc s dng a, b, c, d sao cho:
1
1 1 1 1
a b c d
a b c d
+ + +
+ + + +
Chng minh rng:
1
81
abcd
Hng dn:
( ) ( ) ( )
3
1
1 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
a b c d bcd
a a b c d b c d
+ +
+ + + + + + + +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
1
81
abcd
Bi 13. Vi cc s dng a, b, c sao cho:
1
1 1 1
a b c
b c a
+ +
+ + +
30
Chng minh rng:
1 1 1
1 1 1 8
b c a
a b c
+ + + _ _ _


, , ,
Hng dn:
( ) ( )
1
1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
a b a b c bc
b b c a c a
+
+
+ + + + + +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:

( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1 8
1 1 1
1 1 8
b a c b a c abc
b c a
a
a b c
+ + +
+ + +
_ _ _


, , ,
Bi 14. Vi cc s dng a, b, c chng minh rng:
2
a b c
b c c a a b
+ + >
+ + +
Hng dn:
( )
( )
2 1 2
2
a a
a b c a b c
a b c a b c b c
a b c
+ + +
+ + + + +
+
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c: 2
a b c
b c c a a b
+ +
+ + +
Du ng thc khng th xy ra nn ta c: 2
a b c
b c c a a b
+ + >
+ + +
Bi 15. Vi cc s dng a, b, c sao cho 3 ab bc ca + + , chng minh rng:
( )
2 2 2
3 3 3 2 a b c a b c + + + + + + +
Hng dn:
( )
7
3 4 4 3 3
4
a
a a a
+
+ + + +
31
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
21
3 3 3
4
a b c
a b c
+ + +
+ + + + +
2
1
2
a
a
+

Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:


2 2 2
21 45
4 8
a b c a b c + + + + + +

( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
45
3 2
8
a b c
a b c ab bc ca a b c
+ + +
+ + + + + +
Bi 16. Vi cc s dng a, b, c sao cho
2 2 2
3 ab bc ca + + , chng minh rng:
( )
4 4 4 3 3 3
7 7 7 2 a b c a b c + + + + + + +
Hng dn:
( )
3 3
23
7 8 8 12 7 7
16
a
a a a
+
+ + + + +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
3 3 3
69
7 7 7
12
a b c
a b c
+ + +
+ + + + +
4 4
1 1 1 3
4 4
a a
a
+ + + +

Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
4 4 4
69 285
12 48
a b c a b c + + + + + +

4 4 4 2
1 4 a b b ab + + +
Chng minh tng t, ta thu c:
( )
4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4
285
3 2
48
a b c
a b c a b c
+ + +
+ + + +
32
D. KT QU I CHNG
1. Kt qu thc hin.
Trong nm hc 2010 2011, ti c phn cng ging dy b mn Ton lp
10A1. Ti p dng chuyn bt ng thc cho hc sinh. Sau khi p dng, ti
thy hc sinh bt cm thy ngi v yu thch cc bi bt ng thc.
Kt qu kho st bi kim tra 15 pht nh sau:
S hc sinh Di TB Trung bnh Kh Gii
47 5 (11%) 10 (22%) 22 (45%) 10 (22%)
2. Phm vi p dng v bi hc rt ra.
- Chuyn c s dng nhm bi dng nng cao cho hc sinh lp 10 v l
mt trong nhng chuyn kh v hay trong cc thi i hc Cao cng
nh trong cc thi hc sinh gii.
- y l mt n lc nh ca ti nhm khc su kin thc, pht trin t duy cho
hc sinh trong gii ton, c bit l trong cc bi ton bt ng thc.
33
E. NHNG KIN NGH, NGH
SAU QU TRNH THC HIN TI
Trong qu trnh thc hin ti, ti khng trnh khi nhng thiu st nht nh.
Vi mc ch khc su kin thc cho hc sinh v nng cao cht lng dy v hc
trong nh trng, ti rt mong c s ch bo, gp ca nhm chuyn mn cng
nh hi ng khoa hc c s. iu s gip , ng vin ti rt nhiu trong qu
trnh ging dy sau ny. Qua y, ti xin cm n mt s kin ng gp ca bn b,
ng nghip gip ti hon thnh ti mt cch y hn.
Tn Lp, ngy 10 thng 4 nm 2011
Ngi vit
Trn Th Hng Minh
34
F. KIN NHN XT, NH GI V XP LOI
CA HI NG KHOA HC C S
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Ch tch hi ng
35
G. KIN NHN XT, NH GI V XP LOI
CA HI NG KHOA HC CP TRN
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Ch tch hi ng
36