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-2SECTION A Answer ALL questions in this section.

You must write your answers in the spacesprovided in this ansrver booklet. 1. Figure I shows the transversesection of the root of a dicotyledon. Study Figure 1 and answer Questions(a) to (c).

Figure 1.. Transverse section of a dicotyledon root Bracegirdle B. S. Miles P, An Atlas of Plant StructureVolumeI. HeinemannEdacationalBooks,1971,p'67.



toXr? I lmark] o2ro7020tCAPF/2008 GO ON TO TIIE NE)(T PAGE .r I I I t I I -3 (a) Identi$ thestructures labelledA to H. I I I [ 4 marks] (c) If the photographin Figure I hasbeenrnagnified100 times. (No labelsrequired). draw a plan diagram to show the distribution of the different types of tissuesin Box A in Figure l. A B E F c D [ 4 marks] o) In the spaceprovided. Make your drawing the actualsize of Box A. what is the actualwidth of the specimen fromX.

I i I i I I I I -4(d) Figure 2 showsphotographs plant cells seen(a) with a light microscopeand of the sarne (b)withanelectronnricroscope. et al. Bothareshownatthesarnemagnificationof aboutxl500. (a) (b) t I I I I Figure 2" trXanteelXs as seenhy a light and an electron rnicroscope niobsical ScienceI (i) Z TaynorD.f. page tr32. Carnbridge. I I I I [ 4 marks] Total 15 marks GO ON TO T}M NEXT PAGE o2IA7020{CAPE/2008 . Account for the diff'erence in clarity befweenthe two photographs. .. [ 2 manhs] (ii) Corrunenton the advantages and trirnitationsof using a Xightrnicroscopeas comparedto an electronrnicroscope to exarnineceils or tissues.

3 and 4 carbonsof. explainwhat is rneantby EACH of the following: (i) (i0 'Directional selection' 'Stabilising selection' [ 7 marks] (b) Outline the FOUR key stepsinvolved in producinga recombinantpieceof gene.OH groups on the No.I I I 1. [ 4 marks] Total 15 marks END OF TEST TheCouncilhasmadeeveryefforttotracecopyrightholders. (a) By meansof a diagram.EXCEFf for the H. the molecular structureof sucrose. 3 and 4 carbonsof fructose. [ 4 rnarks] Total 15 rnarks (c) (a) t I With reference to the human menstrual cycle. 2. discuss the biological basis for the following two rnethods of contraception.dvertently overlooked. [ 2 marks] Describethe structureof a young plant ovule.or any naterial has beenincarrectly acknowledgcd. Comrnenton differences in the way in which competitiveandnon-competitive inhibitors affect enzymeactivity" [ 8 rnarks] Totatr15 rnarks t I I I I I 6. Howeverrifanyhavebeenina. [ 3 marks] Relate the structure of the water molecule to its (i) (ii) (c) (i) (ii) solventproperties high surfacetension. CXC will bepleasedto correct this al the earliest apportunity. I (i) (iD O) (c) (d) The rtrythm method The contraceptive pilX [ 5 marks] I I I I I I t Briefly commenton the role of the pnacenta as a guardianf'or the developingfoetus. [ 4 marks] I I I (b) Explain the modeof enzymeactionaccordingto the 'lock andkey hypothesis'.and the 1. 02107020tCAPE/2008 .' SECTIONB I Answer ALL questions in this section. discussFOUR major issuesassociated with applicationsof genetic engineering. (a) StateT'WO ways in which variation can occur in sexuallyproducedorganisnns and by rneans of a graph and an exarnple. You rnust write your answers in the ansryer booklet provided. [ 4 rnarks] Discussthe relative merits of cross-fertilisation and self-fertilisationin plants. [ 4 rnarks] In generalterms.glucose. Show the position of the oxygen and all other groups.

and its alleles are C for active enzymesand c for homozygousrecessive.: FI. plant' recessive with the doublehornozygous (a) A plant with genotypeRRcc is crossed Statethe genotypeand phenotypeof the Ft plant' (i) (ii) GenotyPe PhenotYPe I lmark] o) in the gametesof this Ft state the FouR different combinations of the alleles carried dihybrid plant (plant producedin (a) above)' (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) [ Lmark] genotypes of the F use the Punnett square shown in Table 1 to show the of this dihybrid cross' generation (c) (i) TABLE tr.andthereforeproducewhite flowers.olour Flower colour in certain plants is controlled by two (white).ccareunabletosynthesizeanypigment. Plants with made. The allelesare co-dominant' pigmentsin the petals. allelesare R (red) and r that enables the pigments to be The other gene codes for an enzyme system in the petals inhibited enzymes.APw2008 . One gene codes for c.*d it.-rt- genes.INNETT SQUARE Gametes J [ 2 marks] (iD Red : Pink : White [ 3 marks] GO ON TO TIIE NE)ff PAGE 021070201c.

c l i I I 35 I 3 97.I t I (d) -6A group of students determined the Chi-squared value from the figures shown in Table 2. TABLE 2: MONOHYBRID CROSS BETWEEN CC AIrID cc Colour. which representa monohybrid crossbetween CC (colour enzymes)and cc (no enzyme for colour).APH2008 GO ON TO TIIE NEXT PAGE .El' IO-E ]2+n chi-squared isthe sum " ry = [ 4 marks] a2ro7020tc.5 32.5 o* E t r T I I I I I I I I I to . C Observedresults(O) Expected ratio Expected results (E") 95 No Colour.

34 13.84 5.27 11.22 4.82 9.78 3.37 3.82 16.001 (0.10 (10%) 0.28 10.0.27 18. TABLE3: TABLE OF/3 VALUES Degreesof Freedom Number of Classes .I I I I -7 (e) The studentsusedtheTable ofChi-squaredvalues showninTable3 todeterminewhether the value you obtainedin (d) bn page6 indicatesthat the differencebetweenthe observed and expectedresults are acceptableor not acceptableasbeing due to chancealone.01 (r%) 0.and why? [ 2 marks] (iii) If the Chi-squaredvalue had been 7.49 6.64 5.05 (s%) 0.71 4. what information could have been gained concerning the results of the monohybrid cross experiment? I lma rk ] Total 15 marks I I GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02707020tcAPv2008 .99 Chi-squared Values 2.99 7. What was their decision.61 6.r%) t I I I I I I I I - (i) How did the studentsdetermine the degreesof freedom? I lmark] (ii) The studentscheckedthe 5Voprobability in order to determinewhether the result was significantor insignificant..64 9. 3 4 5 0.50 0.46 1.36 1.83 13.20 (5oo/o) (20%) 0.39 2.25 7.47 I t I 2 J 4 I Probability that chance alone could produce this deviation 0.64 3.

I i i i i I I -8Figure 3 shows the structure of a mammalian ovum and sperm' Study Figure 3 and answer r' (a) and (b).5pm' Flgure 3.comloriginat/images/hdc-00il -0003-0-img0209ipg (a) (i) state FouR structural differences observedbetween the ovurn and the spenn.APF/2008 .humanillnesses. Questions Head Neck I Midille piece I Tail i i i '2. Structure of a mamnalian ovum and sperm http://www. t I I I I I I I I [ 4 marks] GO ON TO TIIE NEXT PAGE 02107020tc.

using two points. [ 2 marks] GO ON TO TI{E NEXT PAGE o2to7020tcAPB2008 . on how the ovum and the spermare suitedto their respective func"tions. comment. to be a secondary oocyte.-9(ii) Basedon featuresobserved.' [ 4 marks] (b) Explain why somescientistsregard the ovum at the stageshown in Figure 3.

Suggesta likely conclusion from the findings of this experiment' I lmark] Total 15 marks GO ON TO TIIE NE)(T PAGE o2to7020tc. the sea of spelm diluted freshly velocity on fertilisation in the variegatus.26 0.6 2. of sperm/cd neededto fertilise 507o of female eggs (FJ expressedas a log value 3.1 2.22 0.21 0.28 i i i i i i i I I I (D (ii) on the graph grid on page 11.15 0.20 0.1 3.3 4. plot a graph to show the relationship between [ 4 marksl spenn vltocity and fertilisation.0 3.19 No.APH2008 .2 3.5 4.5 2.0 0.6 3.16 0.I I I I I I I -10of sperm Table 4 shows the results of an experiment investigug"-g the influence Lytechinus urchin. (c) TABLE 4: SPERM VELOCITY AGAINST FERTILISATION IN SEA URCHIN Sperm velocity mm/sec 0.25 0.17 0.

GO ON TO T}IE NE)(T PAGE 02107020ic.q.P8/2008 .