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THE STORY OF CIVILIZATION Volume Two History Textbook for Class X ARJUN DEV Sata: arpdem atk sfsara aftag NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING First Edition May 1989 Vaisakha 1911 Thirteenth Reprint Edition Jeruary 2002 Magha 1923 PD 70T+50T MB ONarronal Council of Educational Reseaich and Traming, 1989 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored n a retrieval system or transmitted 19 {any form or by any means electron, mechanical, photocopyng recorthng or otherwise without ‘ha par permission of the puDisher 1D This books sold subjectto the conditionthatit shall not byway ol trade belent re-sold hired ‘Sutor otherwise chapasee of without the publisher sconsent in any form of binding or cover other than that in whichis published © The correct ance af this publication s the price printed on this page Any revised price mdi- Gaces by 9 beer stamp or by 8 sucker or by any oirer means 1s Pcorract and shou be unacceptable -———_—————— OFFICES OF THE PUBLICATION DIVISION, NCERT NCERT Campus 108 100FeetRoad, Hesdakere Navan Trust Builing = CWC Carmpus SsuAurobrdo Marg Halh Extension, Barashankan Il Slage PO Nayjuan 32 BT Road Sokchar NEW DELHI 110016 BANGALORE 560085 AHMEDABAD 380014 24 PARGANAS 743179 Rs. 40.00 Published at the Publication Division by the Secretary, National Council of Educational Research and Traming Sti Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110016 and printed at Unique Press (P) Ltd , A387, Sector-4, Noida-201301 ah Foreword AFTER the adoption of the National Policy on Education in 1986, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) developed a framework of national curriculum for elementary and secondary education, and syllabus guide- Ines and detarled syllabi in various subjects for all stages of school education New textbooks and other instructional inatenals have also been brought out. The NCERT's courses in history, whichis one of the social science subjects from. Class VIto Class X, have been designed keeping in view the requirements of general education. The course for Classes VI to VIII comprises a general introduction to the history of India from the earliest to the modern times. For Classes IX-X, it mainly comprises a general introduction to world historical development covering the period from the earliest times to the most recent. The primary objective of these courses 1s to develop in the pupil a broad historical perspective and to introduce her/him to the national as well as the world hentage. ‘The present course for Classes IX and X consists ofa broad survey of thehustory of the world with its focus on the mam stages in the growth of human civilization, and on major events and socio-economic, political and cultural developments which are of world historical importance. The emphasis is on the aspects of change and development and on the contributions of different peoples and cultures to the heritage of mankind. An attempt has also been made to focus on certam aspects of India’s cultural heritage and modern Indian history that have a close bearing on contemporary India. The details of political history, particularly dynastic history, have been reduced to the mirumum. Many important developments rnc many cultures and civilizations have had to be left out owing to the lumutations imposed by the time allotted to the teaching of the subject. However, in spite of these limitations, an attempthas been made to deal with the main course ofhumanhistory initsaspects of unity and diversity, continuity and change. (tis hoped that thestudy of this course will help to deepen the pupils’ understanding of the world, and help them appreciate that the world of man is indivisible ‘The course for Classes IX and X has been covered sn two volumes. The first volume, for Class IX, covers the period from the pre-hustoric times to abaut theend of the nineteenth century The second volume covers major trends in the history of the world from the rise of imperialism to our own times when imperialism, at least in the form of direct political control, has ended. Besides introducing the young student to major trends in contemporary world history, this volume also attempts to provide a broad historical perspective to an understanding of contem- porary India. This has been sought to be done by introducing three chapters