Phenolic Resins Technology Handbook

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers Format: Paperback ISBN: 9788190568500 Code: NI197 Pages: 584 Price: Rs. 1,275.00 US$ 125.00 Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES Usually ships within 5 days

Phenolic resins are obtained by the reaction of phenols with aldehydes. The simplest representative of these types of compounds, phenol and formaldehyde, are by far most important. Phenolic resins are mainly used in the production of circuit boards. The development of synthetic resins for surface coating applications has usually followed the use of similar material in the plastic industry. One of the first synthetic resins ever used commercially, both in plastics and in surface coatings was the phenolic resin. Phenolic resins result aldehyde with or without modification. Phenol resin bonded wood materials; particle boards (PB), plywood, fiber board (FB) and glued wood construction element are used for outdoor construction and in high humidity areas because of the high water and weathering resistance of the phenolic adhesive bond and high specific strength. The competitiveness and development of the wood working industry are of utmost importance for the development for thermosetting plastics. This industry is the largest consumer of urea melamine and phenol resins. Phenolic laminates are made by impregnating one or more layers of a base material such as paper, fiberglass or cotton with phenolic resin and laminating the resin saturated base material under heat and pressure. The resin fully polymerizes (cures) during this process. The base material choice depends on the intended application of the finished product. Paper phenolics are used in manufacturing electrical components such as punch through boards and household laminates. Glass phenolics are particularly well suited for use in the high speed bearing market. Other applications of phenolic resins are in chemical equipments, fibers, socket putties, photo resists, tannins, brush putties, etc. Good performance at a reasonable cost has long been an important selling point for phenolic resins, especially in applications such as wood bonding and insulation, where discoloring and other drawbacks can be overlooked because of cost savings. Hence demand of phenolic resins is growing rapidly. This book basically deals with general reaction of phenols with aldehydes, the resoles, curing stages of resoles, kinetics of a stage reaction, chemistry of curing reactions, kinetics of the curing reaction, the novolacs, decomposition products of resites, acid cured resites, composition of technical resites, mechanisms of rubber vulcanization with phenolic resins, thermosetting alloy adhesives, vinyl phenolic structural adhesives, nitrile phenolic structural adhesives, phenolic resins in contact adhesives, chloroprene phenolic contact adhesives, nitrile phenolic contact adhesives, phenolic resins in pressure sensitive adhesives, rubber reinforcing resins, resorcinol formaldehyde latex systems etc. The present book covers manufacturing processes of phenolic resins. New entrepreneurs, technocrats, research scholars can get good knowledge from this book.


Bisphenol-A. Mineral Fillers 10. Resins used for Laminates 11 PHYSIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Toxicology of Phenols. PHENOLIC RESINS FROM POLYHYDRIC PHENOLS 6. Resole Cross-Linking Reactions. Phenols from Coal and Petroleum. RAW MATERIALS Phenols. Phenol-Formaldehyde Reactions under Acidic Conditions. Furfural. Cellulosic Fibers. PHENOLIC RESINS FROM HIGHER ALDEHYDES Acetaldehyde. Decomposition Products of Resites. Plastic Bonded Cotton Fiber. Reaction Kinetics of the Base-Catalyzed Hydroxymethylation. Alkylphenols. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PHENOLIC RESINS 2. Ammonia. Acid-Cured Resites. Electron Microscope Examination. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE General Reaction of Phenols with Aldehydes. Thermal and Catalytic Incineration. FILLERS FOR PHENOLIC RESIN MOULDING POWDERS Types of Filler. Microscopic Structure of Fillers. Glass Fabric Filler. Proteinaceous Fillers. HMTA. FILLERS AND RESINS FOR LAMINATES Classification of Laminates. Furfural. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MOLDED PHENOLIC RESINS 2/5 . Curing Stages of Resoles. OXYGEN AND HIGH ENERGY RADIATION Thermal Degradation. Trioxane and Cyclic Formals. Resorcinol. The Spherocolloid Theory of Phenoplast Structure. Kinetics of the Curing Reaction. Carbon Fillers. Structure of Cast Phenoplasts 8. HMTA and Amine-Catalyzed Reactions. Activated Carbon Process. Wood Flour. THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF PHENOLIC RESINS Introduction. Textile By-Products. REACTION MECHANISMS Molecular Structure and Reactivity of Phenols. Laminated Phenolic Sheets. The Novolacs. Gas Scrubbing Processes 12. Cresols and Xylenols — Synthesis Methods. Other Phenolic Compounds. Standard Classification of Phenoplast Molding Powder According to Filler. Degradation by High Energy Radiation 13. Paraformaldehyde. General Picture of Phenoplast Structure. Formaldehyde-Water and Formaldehyde-Alcohol Equilibria. Properties and Processing. Ratio of Resin to Filler. High Strength Paper Laminates. Hexamethylenetetramine. Kinetics of A-Stage Reaction. Waste Water and Exhaust Air Treatment Processes. Cellulose Derivatives. Walnut-Shell Flour. Composition of Technical Resites 4. Acid Curing. “High-Orthoâ€Â•-Novolak Resins. Other Aldehydes 3. Physical Properties of Phenol. Environmental Protection. Reaction Kinetics in Acidic Medium. The Resoles. Reactions with Diisocyanates 7. Reaction under Weak Acidic Conditions. Laminated Phenolic Tubes (NEMA Classi-fication). Heat Curing. Properties of Individual Fillers. The Isogel Theory of Phenoplast Structure. X-Ray Examination. Formaldehyde. Chloral. Chemical Oxidation and Resinification Reactions. Phenol-Formaldehyde Reaction under Alkaline Conditions. Acrolein 5. Cottonseed Hulls. Further Swelling Experiments. Inorganic Catalysts and Tertiary Amines. DEGRADATION OF PHENOLIC RESINS BY HEAT. Novolak Cross-Linking Reaction with HMTA. Cumene Process (Hock Process). Extraction Processes and Recovering. Toxicology of Formaldehyde. Reaction with Epoxide Resins. Microbial Transformation and Degradation. Prepolymer Formation.Contents 1. Effect of Filler on Impact Strength and Damping. Development of Structure in A-Stage Resin. Quinone Methides. Oxidation Reactions. RESIN PRODUCTION 9. Butyraldehyde. Chemistry of Curing Reactions.

Production of Molding Powders. High-Densified Plywood. Flexural Strength. FRICTION MATERIALS Friction and Wear of Thermosets. Influence of Temperature on Creep. Blowing Agents. Formulation of Friction Materials. Shear Strength. Composition of Molding Powders. Colorants. Effect of Degree of Cure. Creep and Stress Endurance. PHENOLIC RESINS IN RUBBERS AND ADHESIVES 3/5 . Fillers. Surfactants. Lignosulfonates. Resorcinol Adhesives 17.and Clutch Linings. Shear Strength. Physical Properties of Composite Wood Materials. Heavy Metal-Modified Resins. Other Fillers and Fibers. Resins and Additives. Chip Blending. Bearing Strength. Properties of Particle Boards. Tensile Strength. Boron-Modified Resins. Phosphorus-Modified Resins. Coefficient of Expansion. Fatigue Resistance. Production of Particle Boards. Sound Insulating Textile Fiber Mats. Flame Retardants. Abrasion Resistance.Introduction. Impact Strength. Hydrophobic Agents. Plywood. Esterification Reaction. Production of Plywood. Effect of Resin Content on Mechanical Properties. Phenol Resins. Flame Resistance 20. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PHENOLIC RESINS Introduction. COMPOSITE WOOD MATERIALS Wood. OIL SOLUBLE PHENOLIC RESINS Introduction. 19. Pheno-plast Properties at Room Temperature. Fillers. MODIFIED AND THERMAL-RESISTANT RESINS Etherification Reactions. Compressive Strength. Flexural Strength. Mechanical Properties of Post-Formed Laminates. Wood Chips. Sulfur-Modified Resins 16. Tensile Strength. Diisocyanates. Impact Resistance. Dry Mix Process 23. Silicon-Modified Resins. Nitrogen-Modified Resins. Impregnation Process. Thermal Resistance. Phenolic Resin Foam. Inorganic Fibers and Fiber Production. Foam Properties. Resins. Tensile Strength. Additives and Formulations. Effect of Reagents. Influence of Temperature on Mechanical Properties. Pressing of Particle Boards. Lubricants and Release Agents. Transfer Molding. Creep and Stress Endurance. Effect of Moisture Content on Physical Properties. Effect of Laminating Pressure. Asbestos. Mineral Flour. Effect of Moisture Content of Paper Filler Before Lamination. Fiber Boards. Wood Fibers. Modulus of Elasticity. Resistance to Microorganisms 21. The Modified Phenoplasts. Wood Flour and Cellulose Fibers. Resins and Additives. Chemical Applications for Phenoplasts. Compression Molding. Bearing Strength. Reinforcements and Additives. Wet Mix “Doughâ€Â• Process. Injection Molding. Resins. Mechanical Properties Covered. Production of Fiber Boards. Shrinkage and Post-Mold Shrinkage. Influence of Temperature on Mechanical Properties. Urea and Melamine Resins. Resins and Additives. Structural Wood Gluing. Flexural Strength. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED PHENOLIC RESINS Introduction. Reactions of the Phenoplasts with Oils 22. Fungicides and Insecticides. Particle Boards. Fibers. Manufacturing of Brake. Adhesives and Wood Gluing. Effect of Degree of Cure on Physical Properties. Water Absorption 15. Theoretical Discussion of Strength Properties of Phenoplasts. Strength-Weight Comparisons with Metals 14. Residues of Annual Plants. Thermoset Flow. Wood Chips. Resins. HEAT AND SOUND INSULATION MATERIALS Inorganic Fiber Insulating Materials. Manufacturing of Molded Parts. CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF PHENOLIC RESINS Introduction. Water Absorption. Properties of Fiber Mats. Thermal Expansion 18. MOULDING COMPOUNDS Standardization and Minimum Properties. Impact Resistance. Compressive Strength. Modulus of Elasticity. Bark Extracts. Resins and Formulation. Fatigue Resistance. Shear Strength. Pure Oil-Soluble Phenoplasts. Selected Properties. Foaming Equipment. Resins. Mechanical Properties at Ordinary Temperatures.

Injection Molding. Nitrile-Phenolic Contact Adhesives. PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS 25. Molding Powder. FOUNDRY RESINS Mold. Materials. Precoated Resin “Shellâ€Â• Sand. Requirements of Foundry Sands. Nitrile-Phenolic Structural Adhesives. Application of Ion Exchange: Types of Processes 4/5 . Vinyl-Phenolic Structural Adhesives. Numerical Data on Electrical Properties. Decorative Laminates. Chromatographic Methods. MOULDING TECHNIQUE FOR PHENOLIC RESINS Introduction. Hot-Box Process. Vulcanized Fiber Abrasives 33. Preheating 28. Wash Primers. Oil-Modified Phenolic Resin Paints. Nitrogen and Water. Socket Putties. Phenolic Resin/Fiber Composites. Reinforced Grinding and Separating Wheels. Rosin-Modified Phenolic Resins. Phenolics for Chemical Equipment. Compression Molding Process. Fillers and Reinforcements.Mechanisms of Rubber Vulcanization with Phenolic Resins. ABRASIVE MATERIALS Grinding Wheels. Brush Putties. Organic Binders. Abrasive Materials. MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS OF PHENOLIC RESINS Wood Adhesives. Physical Properties. Blast Furnace Taphole Mixes. Fibrous Laminated Wheels. Printing Inks. Abrasive Papers. Reactivity. Composition of Coated Abrasives. Brake-Lining Resins. Cast Resins. Cold Molding Procedure for Non-reinforced Wheels. Battery Separators 31. Filters. Other Applications 32. Phenolic Resins in Contact Adhesives. Ion-Exchange-Resins. Phenolic Resins in Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives. TECHNICAL MANUFACTURE OF PHENOLIC RESINS Resin Manufacture. Theoretical Discussion. Compression Molding. War Uses of Phenoplasts. Adhesives and Coatings. Phenolic Resin Fibers. Shell Sand Properties. Thermosetting Alloy Adhesives. Shell Molding Process. Effect of Heating on Electrical Properties 34. Snagging Wheels. Laminated Tubes and Rods. No-Bake Process. Composition of Grinding Wheels. Abrasive Tissues. Shop Primers. Spectroscopy 35. Transfer Molding. Cold-Box Process. Resin Varnishes. Resins. Application of Ion Exchange: Theory. INDUSTRIAL LAMINATES AND PAPER IMPREGNATION Electrical Laminates. Water-Borne Paints and Electrodeposition. Rubber-Reinforcing Resins. Marine Paints. Coating Process. COATINGS Automotive Coatings. PHENOLIC RESINS AS ION-EXCHANGE RESINS Introduction. Resins for Bonding Grinding Wheels. 29. Coated Abrasives. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF PHENOLIC RESINS Introduction. ANALYTICAL METHODS Monomers. Molding Practice. OTHER APPLICATIONS Carbon and Graphite Materials. Miscellaneous Adhesive Applications. Cross Linking of Thermoplasts. Ingot Mold Hot Tops 30. Inorganic Binders.and Core-Making Processes. High-Speed. Paper. Coatings for Metal Containers. Resins. Cotton Fabric Reinforced Laminates. Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Latex Systems 24. Production of Electrical Laminates. Phenoplast Molding Laminates 27. Resin Compound. Photo-Resists. Bonding of Insulating Mats. Casting Resins 26. Abrasive Materials. Chloroprene-Phenolic Contact Adhesives. Tannins. Wood Impregnation. Manufacturing of Grinding Wheels.

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