Answers to exercises in A Course in Phonetics Chapter 1

A: (1) 1: upper lip 2: (upper) teeth 3: alveolar ridge 4: (hard) palate 5: soft palate or velum 6: uvula 7: epiglottis 8: lower lip 9: tongue tip 10: tongue blade 11: tongue front 12: tongue center 13: tongue back 14: tongue root B: (2) s: voiceless alveolar central oral fricative k: voiceless velar central oral stop n: voiced alveolar central nasal stop f: voiceless labiodental oral fricative l: voiced alveolar lateral oral approximant t: voiceless alveolar central oral stop C:
h] (3) a: alveolar stop, e.g. [t b: labiodental fricative, e.g. [f] c: (inter)dental fricative, e.g. [T] d: labial stop, e.g. [p] e: palatoalveolar a ricate, e.g. [> f. palatoalveolar fricative, e.g. [S] g. velar stop, e.g. [k]



got cot 3. fat vat 4. suit meet 15. thigh thy 6. race wreath bush breathe rave rose rough 8. shy 7. wad lad 16. we you one run 12. rain rang dumb 9. mother robber leisure razor 14. lip lit crab dog hide back 10. gate cat kit 17. coop cop good 18. lull 11. zip nip lip sip tip dip 5.D: (4) 1: met bet pet 2. who E: (5) adder: voiced alveolar stop father: voiced interdental fricative singing: voiced velar nasal etching: voiceless palatoalvealor a ricate robber: voiced labial stop ether: voiceless interdental fricative pleasure: voiced palatoalveolar fricative hopper: voiceless labial stop selling: voiced alveolar lateral sunny: voiced alveolar nasal lodger: voiced palatoalvealor a ricate 2 . much edge 13.

ho d/hawed bait: head. ho od I: (7) laugh: 3 begged: 4 graphic: 5 fish: 3 fishes: 5 fished: 4 batting: 5 quick: 4 these: 3 physics: 6 kno ck: 3 axis: 5 J: (8) 1: mean 2: steak 3: mast 4. Before the vowel ends the soft palate lowers so that air can ow through the nasal cavity. preventing air from 1 I’m not completely sure I understand what’s being asked in this question. 3 . good 6. dud Chapter 3 A: (9) a.H: 1 (6) bite: hod/hawed. ton 5. head boat: hood. At the end of the vowel the blade of the tongue is raised to make contact with the alveolar ridge.

The lips are opened. breathe together. c. kid Ted. this dog. rad. thieve. [g t h ] (only relevant segments t t t t transcribed) (4) a boy. [s p]. tram. lo dge Ted. [z h ]. b. ending voicing. [Tiv]. The vocal folds are held open. a judge. The vocal folds continue to vibrate. this girl: [ b]. The lips become more rounded. love Ted. Then the velum (or soft palate) is raised and the front of the tongue is raised. buzz cut. [t h A ]. [s k] (only relevant segments transcribed) (5) spark. this boy. D: h A ]. B: (10) a. [ d]. bus. The velum remains closed throughout the end of the word. The lips are partially rounded. [b z]. cutting o nasal air ow. b. and one or both sides of the tongue are lowered to allow air ow around a lateral obstruction. and the vocal folds are held open. Anticipating the lateral sound. [ :t]. [ d >Z t h ]. [ t h ]. car: [p (3) stab Ted. [l :k]. [k in]. 6 and 7 are juggled in the Exercises): [spA k]. The vo cal folds stop vibrating. while the velum is lowered to allow air ow through the nasal cavity. [k h A ] (11) (2) par. [skA ] (6) plan. c. The velum is raised. After a short period the tip of the tongue moves downward.passing through the oral cavity. this judge. [s t]. hug Ted: [b h ]. but the front of the tongue remains close enough to the alveolar ridge to tightly restrict air owing through the oral cavity. [ d]. stark. [ g]. queen. a girl. pure (Numbering problem in the book here – Stateh l h h w ments 5. buzz. while the tip of the tongue remains in the same place. [stA k]. The lips close to block air ow through the oral cavity. [l g] 4 . [ph jU ] (7) thief. lag (Numbering problem in the book here – Statements 5. tar. [v h ]. [t m]. rat. lack. The lips remain open. 6 and 7 are juggled in the Exercises): [p n]. [b :s]. allowing air ow through the oral cavity. The vo cal folds continue vibrating. [d h ]. scar (Numbering problem in the book here – Statements 5. The vo cal folds resume vibration. the tip of the tongue is raised to the alveolar ridge. 6 and 7 are juggled in the Exercises): [Ti:f]. a dog.

gear: [k n]. [w k^t]. ["lIP@ ] (11) rotten. winter: [" R@m]. lapped. ["b R " ]. ["wInR@ ] (14) width. Scot: [stAPp]. [l p^t]. gull. ["kIP@n]. love virtue: [waI doU ]. [skAPt] (9) stop. (13a) atom. hacker: ["p zl "]. ["h k "] ladder. [k eI]. m "]. (Can you have alveolar stops in this environment?) [lAb^d]. [p tSu] Chapter 4 C: (12) [i]: sheep [Sip] /I/: ship [SIp] /eI/: shape [SeIp] /E/: step [stEp] / /: sap [s p] /A/: hop [hAp] /O/: gawp [gOp] /oU/: grope [g oUp] /U/: whoop [wUp] /u/: soup [sup] / /: sup [s p] /aI/: stripe [st Ip] /aU/: None? /OI/: None? 2 2 As in “whoop his ass. kitten. ["k pIR@l]. simple. [d n ” at] (15) hand write. wrinkle. ["s dn" ]. old money: [h n aIt]. litter: ["bIP@n]. comfort: [" nts@ ]. ["fjuR@l]. ["sImpl"]. butter. went lo oking.” not “whoop for joy. feudal. [g i ] h I ]. done that: [wId ”T].” 5 . [l g] (19) lip. lug: [lIp]. bag girl. ["k mpf@ t] (17) wide door. [g Es]. [wn "lUkIN]. sudden. [l v@ > (18) can. ["scapital. center. [b g@ l]. whacked. [t (10) bitten.(8) lobbed. [b g^d] h APt]. ["bAtm" ] (12a) puzzle. summer. [h d” t]. ["sEnR@ ]. [g ]. ["l R@ ]. pill. Kay. had that. [oUl "m ni] (16) answer. [" INkl "]. bagged. tot. bottom: ["rAtn" ]. guess.

[" Efjuz]. ["kAntEst] (3) need. meet. contest: [ "fju:z]. neediest. ["nidi@st]. E:st]. h 6 . mead: [mi]. powerful: [ni::d]. [ Ed mAnst@ S f@ld aUnd um T i taImz. [k n"tE:st]. protest. pow. refuse. [mi::d] (2) refuse. Alveolar (or coronal) consonants o ccur after the largest number of vowels. ["ni:di].] H: (17) (1) me. [p @"t ["p oUtEst]. F: (15) Tense and lax vowels: /i/ secrete [s@k it] secretive [sik @tIv] /I/ explicit [eksplIsIt] explication [ekspl@keIS@n] /eI/ opaque [oUpeIk] opacity [op s@Ri] /E/ repair [ @pE ] reparation [ Ep@ eIS@n] / / erratic [@ RIk] errant [E @nt] /A/ monster [mAnst@ ] monstrosity [m@nst AsIRi] /oU/ provoke [p @voUk] provocation [p Av@keIS@n] /aI/ divine [d@vaIn] divinity [dIvIn@Ri] G: (16) The red monster shu ed around the room three times. needy. [mi:t].D: (13) Vowels that can’t occur in syllables closed with /p/: /aU/ /OI/ /b/ – – /m/ – – /f/ – – /t/ out [aUt] – /n/ town [taUn] coin [kOIn] /l/ owl [aUl] coil [kOIl] /z/ house (verb) [haUz] poise [pOIz] /k/ – – E: (14) /OI/ occurs before the smallest number of consonants. protest. power. contest.

7 . Chapter 7 A: (18) [b]: pulmonic egressive voiced bilabial oral stop [th ]: pulmonic egressive aspirated apical alveolar central oral stop [t’]: glottalic egressive laryngealized apical alveolar central oral stop [ ]: pulmonic egressive voiceless apical alveolar lateral oral fricative [!]: velaric ingressive voiceless laminal palato-alveolar central oral stop [ ]: pulmonic egressive voiced laminal uvular central oral trill A: (19) nasal trill apical pharyngeal bilabial lateral pharyngeal nasal glottalic egressive voiced C: (20) [h]. sin. such as [ > gb] and [ ]. sill: [p ] h IS@n]. References Ladefoged. I have no idea. repetition. Peter (2006) A Course in Phonetics. [ Ep@ "t [daI"lut@ d] (5) Sam. [sI (6) pad. crumb: [s m]. ["ph aU@ ]. ["mIst@ faI]. sang. mystify. [sI]. sid. Wadsworth. pal. [s In]. D: (21) Sounds with multiple primary articulations. ["p (4) testify.h aU@ f@l] [ph aU]. [s eIN]. diluted: ["tEst@ faI]. [p h ]. [k m] h d].

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