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SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26
JUNE 1999 AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION CENTER
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST Decide to Survive!
S U R V I V A L Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses Remember where you are. Vanquish fear and panic. Improvise and improve. Value living. Act like the natives. Live by your wits.
1. Immediate Actions a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or chemical hazards (Chapter IX). c. Seek a concealed site. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V). e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving. g. Apply personal camouflage. h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site. 2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I) a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment. b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI). c. Determine current location. d. Improve camouflage. e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand. f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!
Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.
3. Concealment (Chapter I) a. Select a place of concealment providing (1) Adequate concealment, ground and air. (2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC). (3) Listening and observation points. (4) Multiple avenues of escape. (5) Protection from the environment. (6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities. b. Stay alert, maintain security. c. Drink water. 4. Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Travel slowly and deliberately. b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline. c. Stay away from LOC. d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another. f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I). 5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III) a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind. b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice. c. Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. 6. Recovery (Chapter IV) a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans. b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear. c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC. e. Follow recovery force instructions.
. Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico. 5................................ and recovery information...................................................... I-1 Camouflage ........ 3.................. Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base.................... evasion...............S.......... II-1 Travel Considerations..... and Recovery Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival.. Alabama 29 JUNE 1999 Survival.......................... II-10 Ice and Snow Travel .. I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION Stay or Move Considerations .............. and user information...... See Appendix B for the scope.............................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I 1.... 6....................................... 7. purpose.............. application......................................... Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command Newport......... implementation plan........ 4.......................................................FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50......... 8.................................................................................................. 4................................. II-10 River Travel....................... I-1 Shelters .....3 AFTTP(I) 3-2. 2.... II-12 Dry Climates.......................... Evasion................................... 1.......................... II-12 Summer Hazards .................26 FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50..... II-1 Navigation and Position Determination .... II-12 iii .....26 U................................. 2....................... I-3 Movement .................. and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for Survival........................ EVASION Planning...................... Evasion......................... 3.. Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe.................... II-11 Mountain Hazards .........................
.......... 4.................................................................................. IV-1 Recovery Procedures ............................ V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses.............................................................................................................................. Food Preparation ................ VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing .............. IV-1 CHAPTER V MEDICAL Immediate First Aid Actions ......................... 4........................................ V-18 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION Priorities .................................. VIII-1 2.................. Nuclear Conditions .................................. Signaling ....................................... RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING RECOVERY 1.................................................... Radio Communications (Voice and Data)................ Open Seas .............................................................................. 2....................................................................................................................................... IX-6 3........................................... IV-1 Site Preparation .....................................9............................................... IX-7 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B THE WILL TO SURVIVE .................................................. II-13 10............................................................. III-2 Responsibilities.................... Tropical Climates ................................ VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD 1..... VI-1 Other Protective Equipment................................... 1................................................................... V-9 Plant Medicine................................................................ Food Procurement................ VIII-9 3...................... V-18 Rules for Avoiding Illness.......... VI-3 Fires .. II-13 CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV 1.................................. 4................................................................... III-1 2.......... VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER 1.................................................................. 1....................................... 6................................... 3........ A-1 PUBLICATION INFORMATION ........... 2.................... Water Preparation and Storage........................................... Water Procurement . 2.. B-2 iv I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B ............. VI-2 Shelters .......... 3..... 5.................................................... VII-1 3... VII-1 2......................................................................... Water Requirements .............................................. IV-1 Site Selection....... Food Preservation ....... Biological Conditions ............................................... Chemical Conditions ...... IX-1 2........... VIII-11 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1....... 3.............. V-15 Health and Hygiene ........................................
(6) Conserving strength for critical periods. Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. d. after-shave lotion. (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. (c) Snow (barren). (2) Shaving cream. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented). Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. 2. Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern. (2) Selected area for evasion. Planning a. (8) Staying out of sight. (b) Desert areas (barren). b. or other cosmetics. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. (a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). c. (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). Camouflage a. (2) Using established procedures. (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. (4) Being patient. (3) Apply personal camouflage. Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery.Chapter I EVASION 1. Guidelines for successful evasion include(1) Keeping a positive attitude. b. (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water). (3) Following your evasion plan of action. (2) Slash pattern. (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. I-1 . (4) Designated area for recovery. (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable).
netting. (3) Combination. (d) Use stains from grasses. change regularly. dirt. or mask if available. or coloration methods. Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. (2) Ears. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. Camouflage Patterns c. d. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. hands. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. and charcoal. neck. netting. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. they shift with the sun. Use scarf. (c) Grass (narrow slashes).(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). Use a hat. (4) Light colored hair. (4) Remember when using shadows. (3) DO NOT over camouflage. BLOTCH SLASH Figure I-1. (3) Head. I-2 . and the under chin. vegetation. collar. berries. May use blotched and slash together.
(b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself). “V” of crotch/armpits. (c) With observable approaches. (6) Ensure overhead concealment.Blend L . Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position. rough terrain. or reduced enemy activity. glasses. Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS. 3. (3) Restrict to periods of low light. rank insignia. Movement a. I-3 . ditches. bad weather. Shelters a. name tags. etc.Irregular shape S .Low silhouette I . Remove unit patches. or (6) (7) (8) (9) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off.Small S . A moving object is easy to spot. Use camouflage and concealment. (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons. B . Break up the outline of the body. (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation. (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter. etc. b. If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2). 4.) and blends with the environment.Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages. (5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch. (2) Use the military crest. wind. and rocks to keep from forming paths to site. (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges.pens).
Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. aircraft. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3). etc. animals. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. aircraft. troops. buildings. (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment. animals. fires. (d) SMELL for vehicles. vehicles. etc. I-4 .Figure I-2. wire. weapons. roads. tracks.). troops. etc. (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke. (c) LISTEN for vehicles. troops.
Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level. and sticks. I-5 . (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. In snow country. this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route. rocks. (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. c. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. d. Break up the human shape or recognizable lines. Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. or grass. check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them. b. (2) DO NOT break branches. leaves.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover.Figure I-3.
) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. e. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads.(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. DO NOT touch fence. Repeat for the second track. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. (c) Traveling during windy periods. align body parallel to tracks with face down.) leaving less evidence of travel. etc. shadows. Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. (3) Penetrate rail fences. and snowdrifts. Go under fence if unavoidable. (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it. I-6 . Next. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. crossing at damaged areas. go over the top. bend in road. etc. passing under or between lower rails. If impractical. downed logs. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. look for electrical insulators or security devices. rocks. (Figure I-6).
Road Crossing I-7 .Figure I-4. Rail Fences Figure I-5.
Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist.Figure I-6. I-8 . 1 may be electrified.
Stay or Move Considerations a. II -1 . b. (2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. Navigation and Position Determination a. (3) Can reach water. 2. shelter. c. (4) Supplies available. d. Note: These actions may compromise information if captured.Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area. and/or help. (2) Are certain of your location. (2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula. Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. food. (b) Man-made checkpoints. (3) Decide what equipment to take. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. and have the ability to get there. (4) Using prominent landmarks. (a) Geographic checkpoints. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat. (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. or destroy. have a known destination. (2) Route of travel. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. 1. (3) Personal condition. e. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. (3) Using information provided in the map legend. cache.
Determine cardinal directions (north.(5) Visualizing map to determine position. II -2 . Visualize a clock face on the watch. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. b. (c) Southern Hemisphere. (b) Northern Hemisphere. (2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1). and west) by (1) Using compass. Point hour hand at the sun. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. (a) Digital watches. (4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2). Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction. east. south. Figure II-1. South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position.
•Pen or pencil. •Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time.To Determine North/South NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH MID POINT SOUTH MID POINT HOUR HAND HOUR HAND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time Figure II-2. or match). •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period). Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box). •Indicate north with a drawn arrow. •1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig. II -3 . Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line. Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper. end construction at sundown. •Connect marks to form an arc. nail.Using A Watch . (b) Start construction at sunup. (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north).
Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line.1 week. level nonmetallic surface. II -4 . (b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line. Figure II-3. Stars c. Figure II-4. Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm. flat. (d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading.
Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass N N N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5. (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees). Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line II -5 . •Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees).(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line.
(b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees.(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. Map Orientation with Compass Rose II -6 . Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart. 180 Figure II-6.
Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8). (3) Using point-to-point navigation. (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). d. (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception. (d) Conserve GPS battery life. (b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method. Figure II-7. e. (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. (1) Global Positioning System (GPS). (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7). f. Route selection techniques follow: II -7 .(3) If there is NO compass. (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). Determine specific location. Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths.
New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3.Setting the Compass for Night Travel Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index 64 Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees. EXAMPLES Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left. Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. II -8 . (3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. Figure II-8. (c) Resume your route of travel. Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9). (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle.
1200 paces per kilometer [average]). II -9 . road or river). Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. (c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location. (b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. day/night travel. •Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain. (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line.N W E 90 0 180 0 90 0 S 1 80 360 0 90 0 original heading O bstacle original heading plus 45 to heading 0 90 0 m inus 45 0 from original heading Figure II-9. Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. (b) On reaching a point. establish another landmark and continue. (4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. or example in rough terrain. (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. or injured/uninjured condition.
b. and personal safety. (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). take rest stops when needed. Avoid overdressing and overheating. (4) Waterfalls. 4.3. h. j. Maintain a realistic pace. It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. and bogs if needed. etc. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). e. lakes. River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. a. lakes. g. (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees).). g. Consider food and water requirements. d. pack imbalance. II -10 . Go around obstacles. log. Travel Considerations a. Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. d. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). Use flotation device (raft. damage. c. (5) Hazardous animals. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). f. e. Consider the following for swamps. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. c. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. bamboo. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. Keep near shore. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. not over or through them. i. b. Travel in forested areas if possible. Use an oar in deep water. Pack equipment to prevent loss. Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). f. k.
DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards. (4) If caught in an avalanche. Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). Figure II-10. Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater. (3) Poor visibility. Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. a.5. (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth. b. (2) Bitterly cold winds. (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. II -11 . Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. make snowshoes [Figure II-10]). (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops.
Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days. (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. b. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. d. and unfordable rivers. Lightning. or using snowshoes. lakes. (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. •Objects protrude through ice. (2) Swamps. 7. Avalanche. (2) Rough terrain. 6. (c) When crossing frozen water. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. c. •Rivers or streams come together. Avoid low areas. •Snow banks extend over the ice. Mountain Hazards a. and bogs if needed. items h through k. (b) Travel in forested areas if possible. Flash floods. c. Dry Climates a. Avoid areas prone to avalanches. paragraph 3. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. II -12 . c. b. •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. lakes. distribute your weight by laying flat. 8. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. belly crawling. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. (5) Frozen water crossings. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. Travel Considerations.) (1) Dense brush.(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows.
(2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills. (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. Part the vegetation to pass through. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11). they may indicate a pitfall or trap.(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. Avoid grabbing vegetation. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12). (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. Open Seas a. (5) Protect the eyes. the enemy uses the trails also. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. e. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. (2) Sit low in the raft. b. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. 9. b. Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. (Sail aids in making landfall. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher.) II -13 . Tropical Climates a. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. c. 10. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. (4) Exercise caution. (6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. Travel only when it is light. e. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. d. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). f.
Making landfall.Figure II-11. (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic). Shade/Sail Construction c. II -14 . (2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics). Sea Anchor Deployment Figure II-12. Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving.
face it and submerge. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. (8) In moderate surf. (11) Select a landing point. (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks. Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk.(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (c) After it passes. (b) When the seaward wave approaches. (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. (5) The odors and sounds. (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects. (5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride. (2) Use a flotation aid. work shoreward in the next trough. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. (a) Odors from swamps and smoke. (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible. (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. from smallest to largest). d. (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing. II -15 . (9) In high surf. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks.
and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft). (2) Store raft away from the ice edge. (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability. small flows. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. Icebergs. (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully. (b) Using paddles to maintain control. (4) Head for gaps in the surf line.e. f. (5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails. (1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. II -16 . (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility.
Non-combat. (7) If transmitting in the blind. Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). Combat. vegetation. (2) Face recovery asset. If no immediate contact. if possible). g. III-1 . (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. space blanket.). Transmissions. c. (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat. Use data burst if available. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS). instructions of all 1. Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). f. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. e. d. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1). then as directed in applicable plans/orders. (1) Turn off locator beacon. ensure a clear LOS towards the equator.Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating communications and signaling equipment. etc. (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt. Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). b. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders. (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications.
(2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces. Radio Transmission Characteristics 2. (3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. III-2 . (1) Prepare early (weather permitting). Pyrotechnic signals. Signaling a.100% 91% 91% 60% 31% 24% 41% 65% Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation 1% Top cone of silence 30-50% 900 30-50% 100% Main lobe Main lobe 100% 30-50% 90 0 30-50% Bottom cone of silence 1% Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution Figure III-1.
(1) Prepare early.b. consider filters and shields. (1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. (3) Conserve battery life. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). III-3 . brush. c. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. (1) Use as directed by recovery forces. signal paulin. (2) Location. (a) Maximize visibility from above. (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). (2) Use as directed by recovery forces. (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks. parachute). branches. use only with confirmed friendly forces. (2) If no radio. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. (3) Cover when not in use. Figure III-2. d. Signal mirror (Figure III-2). Strobe/IR lights. stomped grass).
(6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). Signal Key e. (5) Contrast (use color and shadows). (1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water. Figure III-4. Sea dye marker. (3) May be used to color snow. (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. III-4 . Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners).Figure III-3.
(2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). (4) Use audio signals (that is. Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night.f. Figure III-5. (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. Smoke Generator III-5 . voice. and weapons fire). whistle.
c. Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible). If no radio. etc. especially on sloping or uneven terrain. be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft. Responsibilities a.). (4) Signal devices available. 2. a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery.Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. 3.). (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. boat. b. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. c. Pack and secure all equipment. (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement. etc. Follow recovery force instructions. (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope. Assist recovery force in identifying your position. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). Site Preparation a. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. ground. free of obstructions. obstacles. (3) Number in party/medical situation. Locate area for landing pick-up. IV-1 . 4. flat and level). Site Selection a. b. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). size. d. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers. if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter. b. Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. d. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). c. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). b. c. e. Recovery Procedures a.
Follow crewmember instructions. e. or radio call to signal you are ready. Figure IV–1. (8) Use a thumbs up. (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation. (5) Ensure cable is in front of you. (3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. (4) Put safety strap under armpits. vigorous cable shake.d. For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection. (2) Follow the procedures in "d" above. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge. (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3). if available (glasses or helmet visor). Rescue Strap IV-2 . (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable.
Forest Penetrator IV-3 .Figure IV-2.
Step 1 Step 2 Figure IV–3. Fixed Loop IV-4 .
arouse by shaking gently and shouting. (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1). Figure V-1. 1. Chin Lift V-1 . and feel for air exchange. Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a. (d) Look. listen.Chapter V MEDICAL WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious. (2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (b) Roll victims onto their backs. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible.
•Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. remove any blockage. try again. •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again. (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). For travel. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). (4) If victim is unconscious. (i) If the airway is still blocked. reposition airway. V-2 . paragraph 1d.(3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. (g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth. (5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. •Check for chest rise each time. give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. Treat Chest Injuries. you may shorten and secure the object. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. (j) With open airway. (f) If breaths still blocked. (e) If breaths are blocked. start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. b. refer to page V-7. but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body.
Application of a Pressure Dressing V-3 .Figure V-2.
(3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). (b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.
Figure V-3. Pressure Points
(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. Use ONLY when severe, uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. A band at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) or wider is best. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours, an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes.
1. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Tie with a square knot.
2. Pass a stick, bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot.
3. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding.
4. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding.
Figure V-4. Application of a Tourniquet
(5) Place conscious victim on back. (a) Remove wet clothing. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing. It may be present with or without visible injury.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. d. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. cool. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. and sweaty skin. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. (4) Maintain normal body temperature. V-7 . fast pulse. (d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. Treat shock. •DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim. (c) Insulate from ground. may cause sucking sound. (b) Fast breathing and a weak. Treat chest injuries. (1) Sucking chest wound. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion. (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway.c. (2) Maintain circulation. (2) Flail chest. may cause victim to gasp for breath. (b) Give warm fluids. (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. (d) Decreased urine output. (3) Treat underlying injury. as necessary. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing. (d) Shelter from the elements.
(b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs. (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow). sprains. (3) Fractured ribs. Treat fractures. Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful. jewelry. and dislocations. (2) Remove watches. • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia). (b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure. and constrictive clothing. e.Figure V-5. (1) Control bleeding. (3) If fracture penetrates the skin— V-8 .
(4) Position limb as normally as possible. (5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). V-9 . (7) Attach with strips of cloth. NOT in straight position. (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy. (2) Remove watches. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site. (e) Stabilization. (c) Compression. Burns. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight. etc. (b) Body parts (for example. (b) Apply dressing over wound. (b) Ice. Common Injuries and Illnesses a.(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. (10) Apply cold to acute injuries. (a) Rest. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. If fracture is in a joint. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. parachute cord. (1) Cool the burned area with water. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. jewelry. CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. stiff materials from equipment. (d) Elevation. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application. arm-to-chest). constrictive clothing. opposite leg. (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. 2.
seizures. •Check after 12 hours. CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). (a) Prevent with improvised goggles. (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. (c) Protect from further heat exposure.(3) DO NOT remove embedded.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). fast pulse). Eye injuries.) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. c. Shock. (2) Heat exhaustion (pale. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area. (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation. (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed. (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease. Figure VI-2. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain. improvise a small swab. moist. Heat injury. (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. cool skin). (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious. page VI-3. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye. (a) Rest. (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part. •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed. (a) Rest in shade. burning sensation. (b) Drink water. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen). patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b). (b) Drink water. and cardiac arrest can occur. (2) Foreign body in eye. V-10 . b. Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. sweating. skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. (See Chapter VI. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed.
) (b) Maintain airway. (Avoid overcooling. • •Cover top of head. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. puffy skin. and toes are affected first. or shelter. If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes.(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. •Warm with blankets. CAUTION: In frostbite. •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. d. •Ears. DO NOT thaw frozen tissue. • •Insulate from above and below. sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. •Put on dry clothing (if available). difficulty speaking. respiratory and cardiac failure. V-11 . jerky movements go to— ••••Coma. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. sleeping bags. nose. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. then frostbite is present. repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment. and circulation. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. fingers. •Prevent further heat loss. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. breathing. • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering.
Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. V-12 . (d) Clean bite with soap and water. (1) Immersion injuries. cover with a dressing. Snakebite. Keep feet protected. •Warm central areas before extremities. (b) Minimize activity. f. DO NOT rub. (2) Saltwater sores. Skin tissue damage. Skin tissue will be sensitive. cuffs. DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. e. (a) Remove constricting items. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest. and open to air. CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. • •Place heat packs in groin.neck. etc. (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. (d) Loosen boots. (1) Nonpoisonous. (b) Pat dry. (c) Dry socks and shoes.. armpits. warm. (b) Keep sores dry. (2) Poisonous. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). to improve circulation. and around • •Avoid causing burns to skin. (a) Change body positions frequently. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. Clean and bandage wound. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. (e) Keep area dry.
(2) Punctures. force fluids. V-13 . Use soap (if available). Check for pulse below the overwrap. (2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection. (h) Position extremity below level of heart. g. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin. (a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). (a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release). (i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest). The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow. Infection. (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (c) Treat for shock as needed. paragraph 1a). h.(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). paragraph 1c). i. (1) Wash with large amounts of water. (f) Treat for shock. (1) Stings. (j) For conscious victims. (g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds. (1) Keep wound clean. (e) DO NOT rub area with sand. Marine life. (3) Change bandages as needed. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy). (d) Apply a steroid cream (if available). (b) Remove jewelry and watches. (g) Treat for shock (page V-7. (f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion. artificial respiration may be required (page V-1.
Compression Bandage for Snake Bite V-14 .Figure V-6.
skin problems.) k. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. dysentery. Tannin.j. diarrhea. (a) Burns. Aches. (1) Medical uses. (1) Medical uses. acorns. sprains. pain. colds. and parasites. (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). V-15 . (3) Eat charcoal. Plant Medicine a. and blackberry stems. strawberry leaves. •Apply compress to burned area. (2) Sources. (3) Drink extra water. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). (2) Exercise. (a) Place crushed outer bark. or leaves in water. b. inflammation. Salicin/salicylic acid. •Increase tannin content by longer soaking time. common plantain. •Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea. acorns. (2) Use a liquid diet. •Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. (2) Sources. (d) Lice and insect bites. Found in the outer bark of all trees. (b) Diarrhea. Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. banana plants. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins. Burns. •Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities). (3) Preparation. (1) Drink extra water. (1) DO NOT take laxatives. Drink strong tea solution (may promote voiding of worms). fever. Dysentery and diarrhea. dysentery. Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7). Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling. (4) Treatments. and worms. 3.
•Apply pulpy mass over injury. (2) Source. abrasions. (4) Treatments. stings. Itching. c. (c) Use warm. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. •Make a pulpy mass. (c) Make poultice of leaves. sores. and stings. and dysentery. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit. (1) Medical uses. Common plantain. burns. (a) Chew on twigs. (a) Brew tea from seeds. (b) Brew tea from leaves. buds. (3) Preparation. d. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery.(3) Preparation. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. (c) Use poultice to treat cuts. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. or cambium layer (soft. Digestive aid. (4) Treatments. (4) Treatments. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). diarrhea. V-16 . buds. (b) Eat ripe fruit for food. (1) Medical uses. (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. (2) Source. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). or cambium for symptom relief. moist poultice for aches and sprains. (c) Make poultice. vitamins. •Crush the plant or stems. (a) Gather twigs. Papain. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat. •Hold in place with a dressing. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. and a food source. meat tenderizer. (3) Preparation. wounds. and minerals.
Papaya . Useful Plants V-17 E. (4) Treatments. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). Cattail ground level edible rootstalk D. Typical Willow leaf 6-16 inches tall edible pollen B. and minerals. Plantain Figure V-7. Wounds. A. sores. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. inflammations. (1) Medical uses. vitamins.e. and an excellent food source. burns. (2) Source. (b) Use plant for food. Common Cattail. boils. Typical Aspen leaf edible young leaf shoot C. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. (3) Preparation.
4. ticks. Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day. (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). b. f. Wash hands before preparing food or water. etc. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. Rules for Avoiding Illness a. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. bleach. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. or boiling for 5 minutes. g. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. (Use white ashes. netting. Prevent and control parasites. and clothing. (a) Check body regularly. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing. Eat varied diet. dry. (4) Clean and protect feet. and massage. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. Exercise daily. sand. c. (d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage. c. b. 5. h. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush). (1) Check body for lice. or loamy soil as soap substitutes. e. V-18 . Stay clean (daily regimen). Health and Hygiene a. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss.) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair. d. (1) Minimize infection by washing. fleas.
Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire). When fully clothed. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. f. (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities. c. NOT drinking water. VI-1 . Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. b. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). (1) Use salt water. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. Priorities a. (2) Layers create more dead air space. (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. d. c. g. 2. then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. Wear loose and layered clothing. Avoid overheating. Evaluate available resources and situation. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. e. Care and Use of Clothing a. (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. b. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. (3) Establish multiple survival signals.Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. (4) Build Fire. (2) Procure food. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. Never discard clothing. (2) Procure water.
or tuck into other layers of material. Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes. If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available).h. (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. etc. (5) Fold side corners. tape. vines. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. (c) Tape. (2) Wash clothing whenever possible. Examine clothing frequently for damage. (1) Fluff before use. j. VI-2 . especially at foot of bag.. (b) Safety pins. (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. 3. over the instep. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). (2) Fold into a triangle. Sleeping bag. one at a time. (6) Secure by rope. i. (3) Break ice out of clothing. (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread. Other Protective Equipment a. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1).
insects. or similar materials. etc. a. Site selection. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions. Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). Figure VI-3. dry moss. Shelters Evasion considerations apply. Used to protect from sand. Sun and Snow Goggles c. dry grass. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). Figure VI-2. b. (1) Near signal and recovery site. (2) Available food and water. bark. leaves. Gaiters (Figure VI-3). (3) Avoid natural hazards: VI-3 . snow. Gaiters 4.(3) Improvise with available material.
(3) Thermal A Frame. unless you can see your breath. Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). Note: As a general rule. (b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). Cold climates require an enclosed. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. (c) Avalanche areas. (b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. Types.(a) Dead standing trees. Figure VI-4. VI-4 . Snow Cave. (1) Immediate shelters. insulated shelter. Snow Trench. (4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. b.
Figure VI-5. Snow Trench VI-5 . Thermal A Frame Figure VI-6.
Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter. arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. (a) If natural materials are used. a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. c. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches). (2) Cover with available material.Figure VI-7. (a) To reduce the surface temperature. (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. Tropical/wet climates require enclosed. VI-6 . Shelter construction. (b) For thermal protection. (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). See Figure VI-10 for an example.
Elevated Platform Shelter Figure VI-10.Figure VI-8. Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter Figure VI-9. Shingle Method VI-7 .
blankets. (7) Grass and sod. (9) Sand and rocks. (e) Pyrotechnics. (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat. and oxygen. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts. such as flares (last resort). poncho. (3) Blankets. (2) Use fires at dusk. or dry moss. fuel. Construct a bed to protect from cold. b. leaves. (5) Bark peeled off dead trees. (c) Sparks from batteries. etc. broad leaves. (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced). dry moss. etc. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. dawn. (8) Snow. d.• Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope. a. VI-8 . Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke. e. damp. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter. or during inclement weather. (2) Boughs. Bed construction. Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. (6) Boughs. or parachute material. Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts. Fire building.— (b) If using porous material like parachute. 5.
and fuel. etc. • Plastic spoon. VI-9 . this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device. • Foam rubber. carry a fire-starting device with you. (2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder. or knife.(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). aircraft fuel. fork. insect repellant. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. Chapstick. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer. saturate with Vaseline.) (a) Tinder. not the wax).) Examples of tinder include— • Cotton. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire. • Candle (shred the wick. kindling. Without prior training. Friction Method Note: If possible. Figure VI-11.
or signaling. c. Types. Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. • Dry dung. Examples of fuel include— • Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke).•Dry bark. •Petroleum products. Figure VI-12. Tepee Fire (2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13). (b) Kindling. Use the tepee fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking. Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat. and provide coals for cooking. lighting. • Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion). etc. (c) Fuel. VI-10 . to dry out wet wood. •Dry grasses. •Gun powder. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn. (1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12). •Pitch. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses.
Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Build fires against rocks or logs. Figure VI-14. Sod Fire and Reflector VI-11 . CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated.Figure VI-13. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires (3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14).
Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations. Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16). These are very efficient. Improvised Stove VI-12 .(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). Figure VI-16. Figure VI-15.
sleet) (FigureVII-1). Water Requirements Drink extra water. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. • Lowers body temperature. snow. and springs). (2) Precipitation (rain. lakes. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water. (6) Melted water from new sea ice. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). DO NOT drink— (1) Urine. 2. (5) Alcohol. (4) Sea water. (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. Exertion. dew. (2) Fish juices. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. injury. VII-1 . or an illness increases water loss. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams. (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow.Chapter VII Water 1. • Induces dehydration. (b) Drainages and low-lying areas. (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. (3) Blood. Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration. heat. (5) Snow or ice. (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near. Water Procurement a. b.
Figure VII-1. Water Procurement Figure VII-2. Water Indicators VII-2 .
Table VII-1.(b) Melt with fire. • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. (c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1). • DO NOT place next to the skin. (b) Precipitation. Figure VII-3. • Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. • Drink as much as possible. (c) Melt with body heat. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty VII-3 . (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3). (a) Water available in survival kits. • Collect dew off raft. Water Generator (6) Open seas. • Place between layers of clothing. • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. • Use waterproof container.
• • Pour into hand to check smell. and taste to determine if drinkable. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime. color. • • For evasion situations. •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. Leaning Tree •Banana plants. • Old bamboo. cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). (b) Vegetation. bore into the roots and collect water. • • When water flow stops. cut off 6 inches of opposite end. • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). • • Produce most water at night. • •Shake and listen for water. •Leaning Tree. VII-4 . • Vines (Figure VII-5A). water will flow again. •Water trees (avoid milky sap). • • Tap before dark.(7) Tropical areas. • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. (a) All open sources previously mentioned. Figure VII-4. • • If juice is clear and water like. Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4).
Figure VII-6. Figure VII-5 A and B. Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea). Beach Well VII-5 .• •Cut out entire section to carry with you. obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6). •Beach well. Along the coast. • •Filter and purify. • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B).
(8) Dry areas. •Water will taste like the plant smells. •Water bag must be clear. Solar Still Figure VII-8. Figure VII-7. (a) Solar still (Figure VII-7). Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). (b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8). VII-6 .
(1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. (a) Boil at least 1 minute. Seepage Basin 3. b. Purification. Figure VII-9. Transpiration Bag Figure VII-10. Water Preparation and Storage a. Filtration. (2) Purify all other water. Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. VII-7 .(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10).
(3) Section of bamboo. Storage. (1) Trash bag. covered or sealed container. cold. c. (2) Prophylactic. clean.(c) Water purification tablets. obtain water from a clear. use a clean. (2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria. (4) Flotation gear. d. to aerate. To prevent contamination. Follow instructions on package. and fast running source (if possible). (1) If water cannot be purified. Potable Water. (b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste VII-8 .
and roosting areas). feeding. Procurement techniques. (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. (b) At ant and termite mounds. Sources and location. Food Procurement a. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. (c) On ponds. watering. (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended. and slow moving streams. b. (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh.Chapter VIII FOOD 1. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. and bedding areas. Figure VIII-1. lakes. VIII-1 .
•Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. the wire locks in place. • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares. • •Once tightened.(b) Location: •Trails leading to water. (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible). Figure VIII-2. •Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2). fist-sized for rabbits). VIII-2 . •Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). and the animal’s escape. feeding. • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. preventing reopening. Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare. •Avoid disturbing the area. and bedding areas.
Locking Loop Figure VIII-4. Funneling VIII-3 . Squirrel Pole Figure VIII-5.Figure VIII-3.
(f) Trap. it may be dangerous. line.) (a) Club or rock. binding the animal's hide in the fork. (d) Be ready to kill the animal. (See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. VIII-4 .met. (2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands). (d) Pole. (b) Spear. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6). Figure VIII-6. Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices. (e) Net. and hook. (c) Remove the animal from the den. (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is (b) Twist the stick. (c) Slingshot.
VIII-5 . •Sunken eyes. Animals in distress may attract the enemy. (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. •Unpleasant odor. (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. •Flesh that remains dented when pressed. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8). •Flabby skin. slimy gills. (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft.Figure VIII-7. •Pale. (c) Kill animals before handling.
(k) Avoid poisonous insects. VIII-6 . for example: •Centipedes.Cone shell Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain. the hairs could cause irritation or infection. swelling. such as— •Flies. (l) Avoid disease carrying insects. •Scorpions. paralysis. •Poisonous spiders. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects. blindness and possible death in a few hours. •Mosquitoes. •Ticks. Terebra shell Figure VIII-8.
these guidelines may help determine edibility. Even after testing food and finding it safe. etc. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time. or black spurs. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). bulbs.) requires more than 24 hours to test. test all others before eating. however. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. Plant Foods. purplish. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. or seeds inside pods. nausea. leaves. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. bark. fine hairs. Each part of a plant (roots. VIII-7 . (g) Beans. (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable). DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. (h) Old or wilted leaves. (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). (b) Spines. stems. (j) White and yellow berries.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. or cramps. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant. (a) Before testing for edibility. (c) Mushrooms and fungus.c. (f) Grain heads with pink. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. (i) Plants with shiny leaves. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. (1) Selection criteria. eat in moderation.
and flowers). NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. Remember. If any ill effects occur during this period. The sap or juice should contact the skin. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility. If no ill effects occur. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. roots. (3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. rinse out your mouth with water. test the part raw before eating. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. (12) If no ill effects occur. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. VIII-8 . smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. Wait another 8 hours. buds. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. (1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water.d. (10) If there is no reaction. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. If any ill effects occur. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW). Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. (6) During testing. Test procedures. place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes.
and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. 3. (b) Wash when ready to use. (a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. Small Game Skinning VIII-9 .CAUTION: 1. 2. a. •Open the abdominal cavity. Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. (1) Mammals. liver. is the best indicator of ripeness. •Save inner organs (heart. and eyes. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. (c) If preserving the meat. Softness. Figure VIII-9. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants. tongue. During evasion. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull. remove it from the bones. you may not be able to cook. brain. ripe fruits. •Avoid rupturing the intestines. •Remove the intestines. rather than color. (a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9). Butchering and skinning. 2.
(a) Gut soon after killing. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets. (c) Remove entrails. clams.(2) Frogs and snakes. (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. (3) Fish. cook food. CAUTION: To kill parasites. mussels. and scavenger birds. head with 2 inches of body. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or broth). Cooking. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. (b) Discard skin. DO NOT save. (The rest is edible. and internal organs. (5) Insects. b. (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. thoroughly cook all wild game. and most nuts can be eaten raw. snails. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly. berries. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. (c) Skin or pluck them. (b) Protect from flies. crawfish. (6) Fruits. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. freshwater fish. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. VIII-10 . (4) Birds. (a) Skin. (2) Baking.
(b) Earth below the surface. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. •If bitter. (3) Remove fat. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. boiling water is sometimes best. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). Food Preservation b. Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. c. Refrigerating. •Crushing and pouring water through. and taste the plant. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine. 3.(3) Leaching. Keeping an animal alive. (1) Long term. however. c. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off. is cooler than the surface. (4) Roasting. Cold water should be tried first. (b) Second method: •Boil. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. (2) Short term. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. (a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. pour off water. •Discarding water. particularly in shady areas or along streams. repeat process until palatable. VIII-11 .
(a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning. it attracts unwanted animals. (d) Carry shellfish. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool. (3) Packing meat on the trail. e. (b) Wrap pieces individually. DO NOT store food in the shelter. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. (2) Hanging meat. VIII-12 . (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. (a) Hang meat in the shade.d. crabs. (a) Use clean material. Protecting meat from animals and insects. and shrimp in wet seaweed. (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying. (1) Wrapping food. (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof.
Immediate Action Shelter IX-1 .Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS (NUCLEAR. (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting). AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1. and shielding. (3) Avoid detection and capture. Figure IX-1. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure IX-1). Protection. BIOLOGICAL. a. Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure. distance from the source.
then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2). dig a trench or foxhole as •Dig trench deep enough for protection. Parachute or other suitable material Wind Enough room to work 3 Feet Minimum Figure IX-2. Improvised Shelter IX-2 .follows: (b) If no shelter is available. •Cover with available material.
Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. 5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! (4) Basements.3 inches 3. Cover exposed body parts.3 inches Ice 6.8 inches 2.8 inches Snow 20.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8. Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches. DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over. SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter. Additional thickness added to any amount of thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. wells. Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement. give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered. 3 or more feet of earth. SHELTER: Pick. (6) Lie down. Rinse and /or shake wet clothing. as soon as possible. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. and rest. Improvise goggles. Present minimal profile to direction of blast. •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout). Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings. DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water. Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose. (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs. keep warm. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel Brick Concrete Earth . (3) Culverts.3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. sleep. Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (2) Storm/storage cellars within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip). b. DO NOT smoke! 4-6 3-7 8 DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day Complete isolation 13 Normal movement. Substance: (1) Water. or underground sources are safest.0 inches 2. IX-3 .7 inches Cinder Block 5. Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) Brief exposure (1 hour maximum) Figure IX-3. NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat. No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil.(4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3).
(b) Animal foods.). •Before cooking. •Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). (c) Avoid. (2) Food. •Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. apples. potatoes. Wash and remove skin. carrots. pools. •Cook all meat until very well done. (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. wash and wipe containers before use. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference).•Use a seep well. •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example. •Discard all internal organs. •Milk from animals. (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). cut meat away from the bone. •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. water). •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the IX-4 . •Lakes. fruits. •Purify all water sources. etc. •Smooth skinned vegetables. leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. ponds. or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. etc. turnips. etc. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat.). •Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking).
Figure IX-4. Filtration Systems, Filtering Water
Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems, Settling Water
c. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. (c) Rest, avoid fatigue. (d) Drink liquids. (2) Wounds. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. (c) Cover with clean dressing. (d) Watch for signs of infection. (3) Burns. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea, weakness, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair, radiation burns). (a) Time is required to overcome. (b) Rest. (c) Drink fluids. (d) Maintain food intake. (e) Prevent additional exposure. 2. Biological Conditions a. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs, particularly those bursting with little or no blast, and muffled explosions. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation; sick looking plants or crops. b. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. (5) Clean teeth, gums, tongue, and roof of mouth frequently.
c. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. (3) Keep nose, mouth, and skin covered. (4) Keep food and water protected. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. If in doubt, boil food and water for 10 minutes. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area, away from vegetation, with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. (6) If traveling, travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). 3. Chemical Conditions a. Detecting. (1) Smell. Many agents have little or no odor. (2) Sight. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. Yellow, orange, or red smoke or mist. (b) Liquid. Oily, dark patches on leaves, ground, etc. (c) Gas. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. (d) Solid. Most solid state agents have some color. (3) Sound. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. (4) Feel. Irritation to the nose, eyes, or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. (5) Taste. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. (6) General indications. Tears, difficult breathing, choking, itching, coughing, dizziness. (7) Wildlife. Presence of sick or dying animals. b. Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. (b) Select routes on high ground. (c) Avoid cellars, ditches, trenches, gullies, valleys, etc. (d) Avoid woods, tall grasses, and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors.
Pinch-blotting. (b) Follow antidote directions when needed. dead fish. (3) Keep food and water protected. Warm water. etc. IX-8 . Burying. Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas. •Destroying. fabric.). Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire. (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing. or animals). (4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas. c. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt. d.(e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing. handkerchief. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment. foreign odors. •Neutralizing.
carelessness. 1. b. (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. (3) Working as a team. (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. (3) Develop a realistic plan. hunger. environment. c. Psychology of Survival a. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. forgetfulness. isolation).Appendix A THE WILL TO SURVIVE ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. good organization. guilt. (4) Anticipate fears. (2) Keep a positive attitude. withdrawal. (5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. death. boredom. illness. Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership. anxiety. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. fatigue. and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. responsible for my actions. and propensity to make mistakes). anger). depression. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. (3) Faith in America. A-1 . (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. (2) Taking care of your buddy. (4) Patriotic songs.
d. (2) Give thanks that God is with you. f. j. or others. g. With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. (2) Discuss what is important to you. A-2 . (4) Pray for each other. verses. 2. (c) Accepting suggestions and criticism. repeat them to yourself and to your God. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). wisdom. Worship without aid of written scripture. b. (3) Share scriptures and songs. Remember scripture. (1) Talk to your God. Use self-control. Meditate. strength. i. (2) Love for family and self. h. Identify your personal beliefs. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity. Collect your thoughts and emotions. Spiritual Considerations a. (2) Those who have failed you. or hymns. (4) Never give up. (3) Ask for God’s help. (1) Faith and trust in your God. (3) Never lose hope. l. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. Trust.(5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. k. (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. Pray for your God’s help. c. clergy. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. and rescue. (5) Try to have worship services. e. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong.
A-3 . remember— (a) Your God loves you. (7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue. (b) Praise your God.(6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember.
validate the information. evasion. US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). pocket-sized guide on basic survival. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. B-1 . 4. Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. and recovery information. and curricula as follows: Army. and recovery information. 3. and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals. 2. regulations.Appendix B Publication Information 1. evasion. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication. The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location. weatherproof. techniques. Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics.
responsibilities. Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. b. command and control (C2) organizations. 5. and procedures.Marine Corps. The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. c. Air Force. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications. Send comments and recommendation directly to— B-2 . Changes in Service protocol. We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360. personnel. Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC). This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. User Information a. Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409. facilities. Navy. US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander. The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general.
mil Air Force HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc.mil ALSA ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB.af.Army Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153 Marine Corps Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234 Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org@langley. VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: email@example.com B-3 .
E. . KINNAN Major General. USN Commander Navy Warfare Development Command TIMOTHY A.58.217. RHODES Lieutenant General. SMITH Rear Admiral. JOHN N. ABRAMS General. USA Commander Training and Doctrine Command J. USMC Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command B.58. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155. J.This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate.
Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 110906.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K.FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50. . USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center *Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246.S. Army National Guard. and U. SHINSEKI General. KINNAN Major General. requirements for FM 21-76-1. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOEL B. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force: TIMOTHY A. 1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F DISTRIBUTION: Active Army.
MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800 .
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