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-


80



ul 2

24

ul 2

16
2

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mx = x ul x2
m y = y ul x2
1

ly

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.5

1.4

1.75

lx

0.06
2
0.06
2

0.074

0.084

0.093

0.104 0.099

0.061

0.059

0.055

0.046 0.051

x = .122 + .25 R .065 R 2


ly
lx

0.11
3
0.03
7

=R
0.112
0.102
0.092
0.082
0.072
0.062

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

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0.118
0.029

y = 0.067 + 0.0084 R .014 R 2


ly
lx

=R

0.058
0.053
0.048
0.043
0.038
0.033
0.028
2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

= * .
:
4

ul
u1 = 4 1 4
l1 + l 2

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mx = x ul x2
m y = y ul x2

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V y = y ul x

Vx = xul x

Vc = 0.27v 3 Fcu
Fcu 40
3
Vc = Vc 4

400
d 400
d

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)(

10
10
12
14
16
18
20

20
20
18
16
14
12
10


26
24
26
24
23
21
21
19
18
17
16
15
13
12

477 f s
2.0
M
) 120(0.9 + 2
bd

f1 = 0.55 +

5
fy
8

Moment

As req
As prov

= fs

redistributed

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of

=%



= 150
:






:
-

50

%10

1.5
4

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:
5 2.5

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:
1

5
2

5
3

10

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11

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:
276 )(
414
= * 0,785
= * 0,617 ) (

Fy=414 mPa

Es

Fy=276 mPa

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200000 = 0,87
F

Plastic zone

elastic zone

Fy=276 mPa

Es

Fcu

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= 4500
= 0,67= 0,80

= 0,70

-

)( :
.
= 310.

31

7
24
12

12
104

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40

12

A1 = 1.04 0.07 + 2(0.12 0.24) = 0.1304


A1 = 0.1304

= 25x0.1304/ 3 (1)4
= 3.26/2

=..0.2x10 (1)4
= 2/2
= 1.04/5.26

= 5.06/2

.
= ..15.9 x0.10 (1)4
= 1.59/2
= .. 25x0.05 (1)4
= 1.25/2
.
= .. 22x0.025 (1)4
= 0.55/2
.
= .. 0.33x3.3x2.38 (1)5
= 2.6/2
= 11.04/2

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.. (2)4/3/3

= 11.04x1.4
= 15.46/2
= 8.05/


) (3 ) ( 6

2.0/

2.0/

2.0/

2.0/

2.0/

4.0/

)
(

1/4/3

6/3/3

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:
: : )(SA
)(SB
)(SC
)(SD
)(SE

2B--2A-- 1 3



35 /
-

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W
L
WL/2
WL/2

WL/8
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W
L
2

2/3*L*WL/8

WL/12/EI

WL/24/EI=
WL/24EI=

W
L
3

WL/12/EI
3

WL/24/EI=

WL/24/EI=

=(WL/24*(L/2-3L/16)
=(5WL/384)
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4

CANTILEVE
R

BOTH
END

ONE
END

SS

MEMBER

L/10

L/28

L/24

L/20

SOLID ONE WAY


SLABS

L/8

L/21

L/18.5

L/16

BEAMS OR ONE
WAY RIBBED SLABS

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MEMBER

DEFLECTION LIMIT

ROOF NOT ATTACHED TO NON STRUCTURAL


ELEMENTS LIKELY TO BE DAMAGED BY LARGE

L/180

FLOORS NOT ATTACHED TO NON


STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS LIKELY TO BE

L/360

ROOF OR FLOORS ATTACHED TO NON


STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS LIKELY TO BE
DAMAGED BY LARGE DEF.S

L/480

ROOF OR FLOORS ATTACHED TO NON


STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS NOT LIKELY TO BE
DAMAGED BY LARGE DEF.S

L/240

L/250

WD=80 kN/m
WL = 15kN/m

L=10m
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d=1000/20

d=500mm

h=550mm

STANDARD SECTION

10 D 18
550mm
28 D 25

Stirrup 2

1600mm

As=2543mm
As=13737mm

=59.8mm

all=10000/250

As` mm

As tot mm

2543 4
3560 76
4069 44
4578 12
5086 8
5595 48
7121.52

16280 9
17298 26
17806 94
18315 62
18824 3
19332 98
20859.02

7630 2
8138 88
8647 56
9156 24
9664 92
10173 6
10682 28
11190 96
12717
13225 68
13734 36
14243 04
15260 4
15769 08
16277 76
16786 44

all=40mm

mm

21367 7
21876 38
22385 06
22893 74
23402 42
23911 1
24419 78
24928 46
26454.5
26963 18
27471 86
27980 54
28997 9
29506 58
30015 26
30523 94
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59 8
57 2
56
54 9
53 9
52 9
50.2
49 4
48 7
48
47 3
46 7
46
45 5
44 9
43.4
42 9
42 4
42
41 2
40 8
40 4
40

As(TOP) Vs Def.
64
59
54
49
44
39
20000

10000

15000

5000

As Tot vs Def.
64
59
54
49
44

33000

31000

29000

27000

25000

23000

21000

19000

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17000

39
15000


.
mm

As mm

As tot mm

59.8

16280.9

13737.5

57.9

17262.15

14718.75

56.3

18243.4

15700

54.9

19224.65

16681.25

53.6

20205.9

17662.5

52.4

21187.15

18643.75

51.4

22168.4

19625

50.4

23149.65

20606.25

49.5

24130.9

21587.5

48.7

25112.15

22568.75

48

26093.4

23550

47.3

27074.65

24531.25

46.7

28055.9

25512.5

46

29037.15

26493.75

45.5

30018.4

27475

45

30999.65

28456.25

44.5

31980.9

29437.5

44.1

32962.15

30418.75

43.6

33943.4

31400

43.2

34924.65

32381.25

42.9

35905.9

33362.5

42.5

36887.15

34343.75

42.2

37868.4

35325

41.8

38849.65

36306.25

41.5

39830.9

37287.5

41.3

40812.15

38268.75

41

41793.4

39250

40.7

42774.65

40231.25

40.5

43755.9

41212.5

40.2

44737.15

42193.75

40

45718.4

43175

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.
As vs Def.
64
59
54
49
44

45000

40000

35000

30000

25000

20000

15000

39
10000

As Tot vs Def.
64
59
54
49
44

50000

45000

40000

35000

30000

www.muhandes.net

25000

20000

39
15000


.
m
62

1300

61.2

1400

60.4

1500

59.8

1600

59.2

1700

58.7

1800

58.3

1900

57.9

2000

Hmm

59.8

550

57.4

560

55.1

570

53

580

51

590

49.1

600

47.4

610

45.7

620

44.1

630

42.6

640

41.1

650

39.8

660

www.muhandes.net

H vs Def.
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
540

560

580

600

620

640

660

680

L=10000mm
H=660mm
L/H=10000/660
L/H=15.52

10

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,
.

:
15 . 10 . -


= b

0.75 1.0


1.20 2.20


l o 60b


100b 2
h

lo

www.muhandes.net

* :



N uz = 0.67c Fcu Ac + s Asc Fy



N = 0.6c Fcu Ac + 0.85 s Asc Fy

%15 N = 0.5c Fcu Ac + 0.75 s Asc Fy

*
-1
-2
-3

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-1

N uz = 0.67c Fcu Ac + s Asc Fy

-2
N = 0.6c Fcu Ac + 0.85 s Asc Fy
N b = 0.33c Fcu Ac

-3
M b = 0.10c Fcu Ac d + 0.5 As Fy d

-4
M u = 0.87 As Fy d

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*

Pd u = 5000kN
Pl u = 3000kN
L =3.3m

Pu = 8000 kN
B >= L/15 = 3300/15
= 220mm
Using min steel

As=0.004 Ac

N = 0.6 c Fcu Ac + 0.85 s Asc Fy


8000000 = 0.6 0.67 25 Ac + 0.85 .87 420 0.004 Ac
Ac = 708400mm 2

Using max steel

As=0.06 Ac

N = 0.6 c Fcu Ac + 0.85 s Asc Fy


8000000 = 10.05 Ac + 18.64 Ac
8000000 = 0.6 0.67 25 Ac + 0.85 .87 420 0.06 Ac

Ac = 278900mm 2
As = 18150mm 2
550mm 550mm

38 25

steel%
6
5
4
3
2
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

530
560
600
650
700
780
790
800
810
820
830
850

col dim(mmsteel(no) steel Dmm conc. vol.c steel wt. cost(JD)


530
35
25 0.92697 0.445397 278.3166
560
32
25 1.03488 0.40722 265.7028
600
30
25
1.188 0.381769 262.1644
650
26
25 1.39425 0.330866 249.0881
700
20
25
1.617 0.254513 224.2763
780
13
25 2.00772 0.165433 203.1798
790
18
20 2.05953 0.146599 196.8714
800
17
20
2.112 0.138455 195.9474
810
15
20 2.16513 0.122166 190.9908
820
13
20 2.21892 0.105877 186.0738
830
11
20 2.27337 0.089588 181.1964
850
12
18 2.38425 0.079164 182.6368

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steel% vs. cost


290
270
250
cost

210
190
170
7

steel%

700mm 700mm

20 25
5

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cost

230

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:
. :
# )(Strip Footings
250
:
) (Wall Footings )(Continious Footings # :
250
:
: . :* .
*
*
* 300
* :
-

www.muhandes.net

-1

# :


# :
:
)


:



:
:
:

%25

%30




75
40
6/1

www.muhandes.net

-2
d
1.5d .
:
-

V
=v
bd

- v :

v vc

- :

Vc = 0.27v 3 Fcu
Fcu 40
3
400
d 400
d

Vc = Vc 4

-3

%25

www.muhandes.net

:
:
= 1500
= 300
= 0.20
= 300 600
:
= 1800=300+1500
=) 9000000 = 0.201800(10002
= 92
= 33
3.22.9
2
= 9.28
:
300

2900

)3200= (b
)250 = (d

300
600

V
bd

=v

) = (V ) (A ) (q
(250-2/(300-2900))3200 = A
= 10503200
u

250

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3200

= 3360000
AfPu = qu

Wl1.6+ wd 1.4= Pu

= 2580
(29003200) 2580000 = qu
= 0.278
33600000.278 = V
934080 = V
934080
3200 250

=v

v = 1.1676mPa

Vc = 0.27v 3 Fcu

Fcu = 25
= 0.40

Vc = 0.270.83 0.4 25
Vc = 0.49mPa

550

)3200= (b
)500 = (d

500

2900
300

600

www.muhandes.net

3200


V
bd

=v

) = (V ) (A ) (q
(500-2/(300-2900))3200 = A
= 8003200
2
= 2560000
AfPu = qu
u

Wl1.6+ wd 1.4= Pu

= 2580
(29003200) 2580000 = qu
= 0.278
25600000.278 = V
711680 = V
711680
3200 500

=v

v = 0.449mPa

Vc = 0.27v 3 Fcu

Fcu = 25
= 0.40

Vc = 0.270.83 0.4 25
Vc = 0.49mPa

www.muhandes.net

2900

)3900= (p
)500 = (d

300
600

V
bd

=v

) = (V ) (A ) (q
21001800 29003200 = A
2
= 5500000
AfPu = qu
u

Wl1.6+ wd 1.4= Pu

= 2580
(29003200) 2580000 = qu
= 0.278
55000000.278 = V
1529000 = V
1529
3900 500

750

=v

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3200

v = 0.387 mPa
Vc = 0.49mPa

= 1300
= 2/ 13002(3200) 0.287
= 7517120000
0.0392 = R
477.2 = Z

1300

300
2900

= 4560

= 3520
23 16

600

3200

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:
, , .
. :
- )(Gravity retaining walls

.
.
3.
. .
.
- )(cantilever retaining walls

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.
3 8.
.

- )(Counterfort retaining walls

.
8.
.
)(Battress retaining walls2

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.
.
.
.

- )(Basement retaining walls

)(Bridge abutment retaining walls


3

www.muhandes.net

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)(Active pressure
)(Passive pressure
)(At rest pressure


.
.
.




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Kah12
2

= Pa

Ka

1 sin
1 + sin

= Ka

) Ka = tan 2 (45o
2

Ka 0.27 0.40

Kph22
2

= Pp

Kp

1 + sin
1 sin

= Kp

) Kp = tan 2 (45o +
2
1
Ka

= Kp

Kp 2.50 4.0
3\1

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cos cos 2 cos 2


cos + cos 2 cos 2

( Ka = cos


)(hsurwsur

= hsur

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) (

: 1.5 2.0
:
1.5 2.0
:

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0.5 0.70
0.10
0.075
0.25 0.33
0.25



.




) (

) (


.
.

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.
.
.
.
.

1

) ----------------------------------------------- (1

F = Ka G H2 / 2

10 .
:
Ka = 0.33

G = 18 kN/m3
H = 10m

10

www.muhandes.net

F = 300 kN
M = 300 * 10/3
M = 933 kN . m

0.50

0.60

0.00

10.00

25.00

0.00

Wall type: Cantilever


Theory: Coulomb

8.00

30.00

0.50
0.50
Ka=0.30
Kp=7.70

SFslip = 1.08
SFovt = -15.23

=0.58
V=337.9kN
v= 0.77MPa
vc= 0.72MPa

SF Ovt<0 :No Overturning posssible

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11

Wall Moments
Moment max = 903 kNm @ -.600m

9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00

4.00

)Height (m

5.00

3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

)Bending moment (kNm


10 .
.
:

12

www.muhandes.net

0.50
3.30

0.00

0.60

0.00

10.00

25.00

R=91.15kN

4.00

30.00

0.50
0.50

185.1kPa
Wall type: Propped cantilever SFslip = 1.50
Theory: Coulomb

Ka=0.30
Kp=7.70
=0.58
V=210.3kN
v= 0.48MPa
vc= 0.35MPa

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13