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Hi lin hip KHKT Vit nam Lin hip hi kHKT cng trnh

Bo co tng kt ti trng im cp nh nc Kc 03 T ng ha

Nghin cu, thit k, ch to cc scada phc v cho ngnh nng lng thay th cho nhp ngoi
M s kc 03.11

Ch nhim: PGS Nguyn trng qu

Phn 1 Phng n hp l xy dng scada cho h thng in vit nam

6684-1
28/11/2007

H ni 2003

BN V VIC T H SCADA TRONG IU CC LI IN KHU VC

Tin s Lng Ngc Hi

H Ni 1 - 2002
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Trc khi bn v t h SCADA trong li in khu vc, ta hy xt qua v phn cp iu trong HT Vit Nam; s iu hnh v tnh trng hin nay ca li in khu vc. Tnh hnh t h SCADA trong h thng in Vit Nam hin nay. 1. Phn cp iu h thng in (HT) Vit Nam. Cc mng in min Trung, Nam, Bc ca nc ta hin nay c kt ni thnh mt h thng in duy nht thng qua ng dy trc 500KV. Vic ch huy vn hnh mt h thng c chia thnh ba cp, theo m hnh t chc s 1. S 1. Phn cp iu HT
Trung tm iu HT quc gia (QG)

Trung tm iu HT Min Bc ( M Bc)

Trung tm iu HT Min Trung ( M Trung)

Trung tm iu HT Min Nam ( M Nam)

iu CTL H Ni

iu CTL Hi phng

Cc iu in la cc tnh Min Bc

Cc iu in la cc tnh Min Trung

iu CTL Thnh ph HCM

iu CTL ng Nai

Cc iu in lc cc tnh min Nam

1. Trung tm iu HT Quc gia (gi tt l A0) l cp ch huy iu cao nht ca ton b HT Vit Nam. Theo iu 13 quy trnh nhim v v phn cp iu HT, A0 c 24 nhim v c th.
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Trong vn hnh hng ngy, A0 l ni pht i lnh ch huy vn hnh ti cc cp iu HT min (A1, A2, A3), ti cc i tng khc thuc quyn iu khin l: Cc nh my in ln, cc trm 500KV, Cng ty truyn ti in (CTTT). K s iu hnh HT quc gia trong ca trc ca quyn: c lp theo tc trn cc thit b thuc quyn iu khin; thay i cng sut phi ca nh my in cng sut nhn ca cc nh HT min bo m tn s h thng v an ton cung cp in; Thay i cng sut phn khng (v cng) pht ra t cc nh my in, t cc trm b thuc quyn iu khin, nhm iu chnh in p t cc nt chnh trn HT (in p thanh ci 500KV, 220KV cc trm bin p 500KV Ho Bnh, Nng Pleicu, Ph Lm; in p thanh ci 220KV cc nh my in chnh). Ngoi ra, mt nhim v quan trng ca k s iu hnh HT quc gia l ch huy x l s c v cc hin tng bt thng, nhanh chng khi phc tnh trng lm vic bnh thng ca HT. Nhn, chuyn v x l kp thi cc thng tin lin quan trc tip n cng tc vn hnh HT. Mt nhim v c tnh cht qun l ca k s iu hnh quc gia l: Ghi chp y ni dung cng vic vo s nht k vn hnh. Ly y , chnh xc cc thng s v lm cc bo co cn thit. 2. Cc trung tm iu min (Gi tt l A1, A2, A3 ) c cc nhim v tng t Trung tm iu HT Quc gia, nhng trong phm vi HT min. Theo iu 14 ca quy trnh nhim v v phn cp iu HT, cc iu min c 22 nhim v c th. Trong vn hnh hng ngy, K s iu hnh HT min l ngi ch huy vn hnh h thng in min, thng qua cc nhn vin trc nht ca cc c s (iu vin cc li in khu vc, trng ca cc nh my in phn cp, trc nht cc trm thuc quyn iu khin). Thuc quyn iu

khin ca iu min l: Cc nh my in va nh, cc trm diesel, cc phm b trong min; Li in truyn ti 220 110 66KV. Trong ca trc ca mnh, K s iu hnh HT min c quyn: - c tin hnh theo tc trn cc thit b thuc quyn iu khin, thay i s ni dy cho ph hp vi tnh hnh thc t. - Thay i cng sut nhn ca cc n v, ngh vi k s iu hnh HT quc gia thay i cng sut pht ca cc nh my in trong min cho ph hp vi thc t vn hnh trong phm vi ca ca mnh (ch huy vic iu chnh tn s trong HT min theo yu cu ca K s iu hnh HT quc gia). - Khi h thng in min vn hnh c lp th k s in iu hnh HT min chu trch nhim iu chnh tn s trong h thng ca mnh. - iu chnh in p nhng nt qui nh trong HT min (in p thanh ci my pht ca nh my in thuc quyn iu khin, in p 220KV, 110KV cc nt kim tra ca HT min). Vic iu chnh cng sut v cng pht v t cc nh my pht in, cc trm b, ng thi thng qua s iu chnh ca cc my bin p c iu chnh di ti. - Ch huy s l s c. Cng nh k s iu hnh HT quc gia, k iu hnh HT min cn c nhim v c tnh cht qun l; Ghi s nht k vn hnh vn hnh, ly cc thng s v lm bo co cn thit. 2. iu in lc cc tnh. Nhim v ca n l chp hnh s ch huy ca cp iu HT min vn hnh li in phn phi trong phm vi tnh, thnh ph l: Cc trm phn phi, 110 66KV phn cp cho iu li in phn phi iu khin; li in phn phi; cc trm pht hin nh, trm b trong li in phn phi. iu 15 ca quy trnh nhim

v v phn cp iu HT quy nh c th 21 nhim v ca cp iu li in phn phi. Trong ca trc ban, iu vin li in phn phi c quyn. - Thng qua nhn vin vn hnh cp di ch huy banhnh li in phn phi. - c lp tin hnh thao tc trn li in phn phi thuc quyn iu khin. - Thay i s kt dy, thay i th ti ca cc n v cho ph hp vi tnh hnh thc t vn hnh trong phm vi ca ca mnh. - Thay i cc ngun cng sut phn khng trong li in, thay i cc nc iu chnh in p nhng nt qui nh trong li in phn phi. - Tm li, s phi hp tng h gia ba cp iu trong h thng in Vit Nam gip iu ho phn b cng sut trong ton b h thng, bo m h thng vn hnh kinh t (trong mc c th), n nh, vi cht lng in (in p v tn s) ng yu cu. Hin nay, nhn chung s lin lc ch huy v trao i d liu gia cc cp iu ch yu vn qua in thoi (b m). Vi nm gn y mi a vo s dng h SCADA/EMS cp iu quc gia (A0). cp iu phn phi c th ni cha c h SCADA (SCADA/DMS). II. H SCADA/EMS CP IU QUC GIA V CP IU MIN. Nh bit, h thng SCADA cp iu trung ng A0: RANGER Bailey (ABB) c lp t nm 1999 2000 (xem ph lc 2, bo co tng kt ti nghin cu cu hnh SCADA li in Vit Nam, PGS Nguyn Trng Qu, H Ni 12 2001). H thng SCADA cp iu mi min Trung, Nam, Bc v ang lp t. ng thi cc trm phn phi 220KV cng c lp t cc h SCADA(h SCADA/DMS) cc trm
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220KV Nh B, Sc Sn, Bc Giang (ABB); cc trm 220KV Nam nh, Trang Bch, Vit Tr, Ph Ni (Siemens). (Xem ph lc 1 - H iu khin LSA Siemens t li trm 220KV Nam nh, bo co tng kt ti nghin cu cu hnh SCADA li in Vit Nam, PGS Nguyn Trng Qu). Cn ch l cc trm 220KV k trn c phn nh thuc quyn kim tra ca cp iu quc gia A0. Nh vy, c th tm coi l vic thu nhp trao i d liu iu khin ga A0 v cc iu min, gia A0 v cc i tng thuc quyn iu khin v thuc quyn kim tra ca n c bn v s c t ng ho v gim st lin tc. Ni khc i, h SCADA cp iu quc gia c th tm coi l y trong tnh trng h thng in Vit Nam hin nay. Ngy nay, khng cn ai nghi ng hiu qu ca h thng SCADA trong vic iu hnh, qun l vn hnh h thng in ni chung; c bit l vai tr ca SCADA trong iu HT quc gia (A0). C th tm tt nhng u im chnh ca vic lp t h SCADA cp iu A0 nh sau: - T ng thu nhp, truyn v trao i cc d liu. Gim st v kim tra cc thng s chnh lin quan n vn hnh h thng (Phn b cng sut, in p cc nt kim tra, tn s). - Xc nh cu hnh h thng v nh gi hiu qu khi thay i cu hnh h thng. - T ng iu khin cc lung cng sut, bo m vn hnh h thng ti u, bo m tn s yu cu. - iu khin s phn b cng sut v cng iu chnh in p cc nt kim tra. - Gip x l nhanh s c v ghi thng s s c.

- Mt u im quan trng na ca h thng SCADA l gip cho cng tc qun l hnh chnh, lp bo co, lu gi s liu, lp k hoch, d bo nhu cu ti... Tm li h SCADA t trong iu quc gia v cc iu min s bo m t ng ho phn ln cc nhim v ra i vi k s iu hnh HT quc gia v HT min, nng cao cht lng iu hnh v bo m tnh n nh cao ca HT, bo m s vn hnh kinh t h thng. Cc h thng SCADA iu quc gia, iu min v cc trm 220KV thuc quyn kim tra ca iu quc gia u nhp ngoi. Hn na yu cu v nhim v ca cc h SCADA ny kh cao v phc tp; vi trnh cn b k thut trong nc kh c th xy dng mt cch hon ho. Tuy nhin, vic nghin cu mt cch chi tit t m cu trc v vn hnh ca cc h SCADA ny l rt cn thit. Hin nay, trong cp iu li in phn phi ca HT Vit Nam cha t h SCADA. iu ny lm cho h SCADA ca cc iu min (A1, A2, A3) tr nn khng pht huy c ht u im ca n. H ch bo m s t ng lin lc, trao i d liu hai chiu gia iu quc gia A0 v cc iu min, khng c t ng thu nhp v trao i d liu gia iu min v iu cc tnh, thnh ph thuc phm vi min qun l. S s in lc v nh my in trong mt HT min rt nhiu. V d iu HT min Bc (A1) phi qun l 23 S in lc v 7 nh my in. Nu ta nhp ngoi cc h SCADA t ti iu cc li in phn phi th vn u t s rt ln. Hn na nhim v ca h SCADA t ti iu cc li in phn phi khng nhiu v yu cu khng cao nh h SCADA t ti iu HT quc gia v iu HT min. V vy t vn trong nc t nghin cu thit k v lp t h SCADA t li in phn phi l hin thc v rt c ch.
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Trc khi cp n vn SCADA trong iu li in phn phi, ta hy qua n t chc iu hnh v thc trng cc li in phn phi v khu vc hin nay. III. T CHC IU LI IN PHN PHI V HIN TRNG CA CC LI IN PHN PHI. 1. T chc iu vn hnh ca li in phn phi. Trc khi ni n t chc li in phn phi, ta cn nhc li cc thnh phn ca mt h thng in min. Nhn chung mt h thng in min bao gm cc ngun pht cng sut tc dng v phn khng (cc nh my pht in, cc trm b) v li in phn phi ca cc tnh, thnh ph. Qun l vn hnh v kinh doanh cc li in phn phi l cc s in tnh, thnh ph. V d h thng in min Bc (H thng in 1) bao gm: * Cc nh my pht in: Ph li, Ung B, Ninh Bnh, Ho Bnh, Thc Ba, tua bin khi Thi Bnh (thuc s in lc Thi Bnh), thu in Bn Thch (Thuc s in lc Thanh Ho), nhit in Bi Bng (Thuc B Cng Nghip), nhit in H Bc (thuc B Cng nghip). * Cc trm v ng b: Thi Nguyn (thuc S in Lc Thi Nguyn, Vit Tr (thuc S in lc Vnh Phc), ct 5 (thuc S in lc Qung Ninh). * Cc s in lc: Gm 23 S in Lc, qun l 23 li in phn phi ca 23 tnh, thnh ph, t cc tnh cc Bc (Lng Sn, Sn La...) n cc tnh Ngh An, H Tnh cc Nam. Mt s S in Lc cn qun l cc trm pht in nh v cc trm b. V cc thnh phn ca mt li in phn phi bao gm: - Cc trm phn phi 110 66KV/22-10-6KV phn cp cho iu li in phn phi iu khin.

- Li in phn phi, thng c in p 6, 10, 22KV, c khi c 35KV. - Cc trm phn in nh, cc phm tr. V d: Li in phn phi thuc s in H Ni c 18 trm 110KV thuc quyn iu khin (E E18). Li phn phi 6 22KV) dn ti cc trm bin p ph ti 6 10 22KV/0,4KV dn ti cc trm bin p ph ti 6-10-22KV/0,4KV, t khu ph, trng hc... S 2 l v d v s kt ni dy ca trm 110KV Ngha , H Ni (E9). Trm c cung cp t hai ngun 110KV. Theo iu 132 ca Quy trnh nhim v v phn cp iu HT (QTNVPC-09-1999), th cc b phn trc tip tham gia cng tc ch huy vn hnh li in phn phi ca cp iu li phn phi gm: - B phn trc ban ch huy vn hnh: Gm cc iu vin li in phn phi. Di quyn ch huy trc tip ca iu vin li in phn phi l (theo iu 9): Trng ca kp cc trm bin phn phi, trm trung gian, trm b, cc my v trm pht in nh cp in p 35KV; trng ban cc n v c s. - B phn phng thc vn hnh ngn hn. - B phn phng thc vn hnh di hn. - B phn tnh ton chnh nh rle bo v t ng. - B phn qun l thit b thng tin v my tnh. V d: i vi Cng ty in lc H Ni, b phn trc ban ch huy vn hnh li in phn phi H Ni c t chc theo s 3 li dy:

T chc ban ch huy vn hnh li in phn phi iu li in phn phi (B1)

Cc trm phn phi 110KV (E1 \E18)

Cc chi nhnh in (Qun, huyn)

Trm h p ph ti

Trm h p 622KV/0,4KV ph ti

Trm h p ph ti

Trm h p ph ti

Trc ban iu li in phn phi (B1) chp hnh s ch huy ca iu min A, thng qua trng kp cc trm phn phi 119KV v trc ban cc chi nhnh in, ch huy vn hnh li in phn phi. Nhim v ca B1 tm tt mc 1-3. Trc ban cc trm phn phi 110KV c nhim v: Thc hin cc lnh ng ct ca B1; x l cc s c; hng gi khi cc thng s U, I, P, Q, nhit my bin p; sau 24 gi ghi sn lng KWh; lp cc bo co cn thit. Cc trm h p ph ti khng c trc ban thng xuyn v do cc chi nhnh in qun l. Cc chi nhnh, ngoi nhim v vn hnh (ng/ct h p, sa cha ng dy di 35KV), cn gi trch nhim kinh doanh.

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2. Hin trng cc thit b trong li in phn phi a phn cc trm phn phi thuc quyn iu khin ca li in phn phi u l cc trm c. Cc thit b trong trm, ci th c thay mi hin i, ci th vn gi ca Lin X c. Do cc thit b trong trm nhnh chung l nhiu chng loi, khng ng b (tr cc trm mi). V d: - Cc my bin p 110KV hin vn cn khong 30% l ca Lin X c. Cc my bin p Lin X c c iu chnh di ti bng tay. Cc my bin p th iu chnh di ti l t ng. - Cc dao cch ly c a phn iu khin ng/ct bng so cch in. Cc dao cch ly mi iu khin bng tay nu cn. - Cc ng h cng khng ng b, c loi s, c loi tng t. Cc ng h o cng sut v nng lng loi c - in vn chim phn lng ln. - Cc rle bo v cng tnh trng tng t. Tuy nhin cc rle s chim u th. - S khng ng b ca cc thit b trong trm s gy kh khn cho vic lp t h SCADA cp iu li in phn phi, v y vn u t ln cao. - ng dy phn phi nhng nm gn y c ci thin nhiu. Cng sut trm v ng dy v c bn tho mn ph ti. S c ct in do qu ti gim hn, cht lng in p tt hn, tuy vn cha t tn tht in p yu cu, nht l gi cao im. Tuy nhin, pha mng h p 0,4KV cha c s ci thin ng k, 100% cng t vn l loi c in. Vic qun l kinh doanh cha c tin b r rt. Tn tht kinh doanh cn cao. ( li in phn phi H Ni l khong trn di 100%; cc li in phn phi khc cn cao hn).

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IV. BN V T H SCADA CP IU LI IN KHU VC. Nh mc II, h SCADA c t cp iu quc gia A0. Cc cp iu min A1, A2, A3 cng ang t h SCADA. Sau khi t song h SCADA/EMS cc cp iu min v h SCADA/DMS cc trm 220KV thuc quyn kim tra ca cp iu quc gia, th h SCADA ca cp iu gia tm coi l hon chnh. S lng h SCADA/EMS v h SCADA/DMS t trm 220KV thuc quyn kim tra ca A0 l khng ln v u nhp trn b nc ngoi, y khng bn ti. Cp iu cc li in khu vc ca Vit Nam hin nay u cha t h SCADA. Nu t th s lng yu cu s ln v c th lp rp trong nc c. Di y ta s b bn ti vn ny. 1. S cn thit phi t h SCADA cc li in khu vc. Di y l vi nguyn nhn chnh dn ti yu cu t h SCADA cc cp iu li in khu vc. a. Nu khng t h SCADA cp iu li in khu vc s khng khai thc ht kh nng ca h SCADA/EMS t cc cp iu min. iu min ch c th t ng trao i d liu vi cp iu quc gia A0 khng th t ng thu thp v trao i d liu vi cc cp iu li in khu vc do n qun l. b. V phng din k thut vn hnh li in khu vc. H SCADA cp iu li in khu vc s h tr ti a cho ngi vn hnh cc trm, loi b nhng s c ch quan, h tr x l nhanh chng cc s c khch quan, hi tr tt cho cng tc qun l li in (lp bo co, lu tr s liu, phn tch nh gi s c). Di y l

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mt s nhim v chnh ra thit k h SCADA cp iu li in khu vc. * H SCADA phi m bo kh nng iu khin t xa, iu khin t ng (v d t ng iu khin cc my bin p c iu chnh di ti, t ng ng ct t b theo h s cos v iu khin ti ch. * H SCADA phi bo m kh nng t ng thu thp v truyn cc thng s vn hnh ti cc trm, theo di (gim st) tnh trng cc thit b cc trm. * Vi cc phn mm vit sn cho mt thao tc (v d thao tc ng/ct cch ly, theo tc ng cu dao tip a ch sa cha...), hoc phn mm vit sn cho mt loi thao tc k tip nhau (v d cc thao tc/ ct ng dy ti in), nhng s c ch quan khi vn hnh li in s b loi tr nu dng SCADA. Cc s c vn hnh li in gm s c ch quan v s c khch quan. S c ch quan l nhng s c xy ra do s nhm ln ca ngi vn hnh. Tr li vi v d thao tc ng/ct ng dy ti in. Khi ng ng dy ti in phi theo trnh t sau: 1 ng dao cch ly thanh ci. 2 ng dao cch ly ng dy. 3 - ng my ct. Khi thao tc ct in ng dy, trnh t thao tc tin hnh ngc li: 1- Ct my ct. 2 - Ct dao cch ly ng dy. 3 - Ct dao cch ly thanh ci. Khng tun th th t thao tc trn s dn ti s c gy h hi dao cch ly, c khi cn nguy him n tnh mng ngi thao tc. H SCADA, vi lp trnh trc tun t cc thao tc iu khin, s loi b c thao tc nhm ln ca ngi vn hnh. Hin nay vn vn c cc s c ch quan
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trong iu hnh li in phn phi; vic loi b n nh dng h SCADA l rt ng quan tm. * Nh cc thit b ngoi vi nh my tnh, my in, h SCADA c kh nng ghi nhn cc s c, gim st c cc tnh trng bt thng ca thit b, gip ngi vn hnh d dng phn tch nguyn nhn s c v x l nhanh chng. Cc cng vic qun l nh lp bo co, lu tr, thng k s liu cng c t ng ho. c. V mt qun l kinh doanh li in khu vc. H SCADA s gip t ng ho nhiu khu trong qun l kinh doanh. Nhn mt cch tng th, cng tc iu hnh h thng in l vic iu hnh mt h thng sn xut, kinh doanh dch v. Tuy nhin vic iu hnh HT quc gia v HT min ch yu l iu hnh k thut vn hnh h thng; Bo m h thng lm vic n nh vi tin cy cung cp in cao, cht lng in tt v ti u v mt kinh t. Vic iu hnh qun l kinh doanh l rt n gin v khng trc tip vi cc khch hng. i vi iu hnh li in khu vc th vic iu hnh qun l dinh doanh l l mt khu quan trng v phc tp v s lng khch hng rt ln v khc nhau. V vy, khi thit k h SCADA cp iu li in khu vc ta phi c bit ch tho mn t ng ho mt s khu trong qun l kinh doanh. Hy ly v d in hnh sau: T lu ngi ta ni n chuyn cng t hai gi tnh tin in khc nhau gi cao im v bnh thng. Ta c th lp t cc loi cng t s iu khin ghi in nng tiu th gi cao im v gi bnh thng. Do khch hng khi nhn ho n tin in hng thng s thy r li hi v t ng xp xp iu chnh thi gian dng in hp l, khng cn s vn ng, gii thch.

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2. T chc h SCADA iu hnh li in khu vc. Theo mc II 1, iu vin li in phn phi iu hnh li in mnh ph trch thng qua cc cp di sau: - Qua trng kp cc trm phn phi iu hnh cc trm phn phi 110kV. Nu trong li in c cc trm pht in nh th khng qua trc ca iu hnh cc trm ny. - Qua trc ban cc chi nhnh in iu hnh cc trm h p 22 10 6/0,4KV. Cc chi nhnh in cn lm nhim v sa cha ng dy v qun l kinh doanh. Khi t h SCADA cp iu li in khu vc, ch cn iu vin trung tm, thng qua h SCADA iu phi, gim st vn hnh cc trm 110KV, cc trm h p 22-10-6/0,4KV, trm b (nu c). Khng cn trc ban cc trm ny. Nh vy cp chi nhnh in khng c nhim v thao tc cc trm h p, ch cn thun tu nhim v thao tc cc trm h p, ch cn thun tu nhim v kinh doanh v sa cha ng dy. Nu trong li in c cc trm pht in nh th c th vn gi lin lc in thoi (b m) gia trc ban cc trm pht in v iu vin li in. Nh vy, t chc h SCADA cp iu li in khu vc c th c m t nh s 4. Trn c , SCADA t trung tm iu li in khu vc. N thu thp d liu gi ln t cc trm v truyn ngi v cc trm v cc lnh iu khin. Thng qua cc my tnh, my in. iu vin thc hin vic x l s liu, gim st tnh trng vn hnh cc trm, ng thi c th gip t ng ho mt s khu do qun l kinh doanh yu cu. Ti cc trm 110KV v cc trm h p t h iu khin v truyn tin. N gi cc s liu vn hnh thng tin v tnh trng thit b ln iu li

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in v nhn v cc lnh iu khin. T trung tm SCADA hng ngy cn pht i cc tn hiu iu khin lm vic ca cc cng t hai gi. S 4

iu min iu li in khu vc SCADA

H iu khin bo v v truyn tin cc trm phn phi 110KV

H iu khin bo v v truyn tin cc chi ph trm h p

iu khin cc cng t hai gi

3. Nghin cu lp t h SCADA cp iu li in phn phi. Vic lp t SCADA cp iu quc gia v cp iu min l mt yu cu bc thit. Vi ng dy 500KV di xuyn Bc Nam, h thng kh lng vn hnh n v an ton cung cp in, nu khng iu hnh bng h SCADA cp iu quc gia. i vi iu li in khu vc th c khc theo phn tch trn th li ch ca vic t h SCADA cp iu li in khu vc l r rng. Tuy nhin n khng phi l yu cu bc thit. s c xy ra li in khu vc kh c th gy mt n nh h thng. Thc t hin nay h thng vn hnh c khi cha c h SCADA cp iu li in khu vc. Do s rng ln ca li in khu vc, yu cu vn u t cho vic lp t h SCADA ln, nn theo chng ti vic t h SCADA cp iu khu vc

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ch hp l khi c s pht trin mnh hn ca nn kinh t t nc ni cung. Hn na nn chia vic lp t lm ba giai on. * Giai on 1: t h SCADA iu cc li khu vc v n ch giao tip vi cc trm phn phi 110KV, cc trm b. ng nhin l cn c giao tip vi iu min. Cc u ra giao tip vi cc trm h p 622/0,4KV v u ra iu khin cc cng t hai gi cn ng. * Giai on 2: Thc hin vic giao tip gia iu li in khu vc v cc trm h p 6-22/0,4KV. * Giai on 3: Thay th cng t c bng cng t hai gi, ng thi vi vic hon thin mng h p 0,4KV. Thi im bt u ca tng giai on ph thuc s tng trng kinh t t nc ni chung v tim nng vn ca ngnh in lc ni ring. Tuy nhin, theo chng ti th vic nghin cu thit k, lp t th nghim h SCADA thuc cp iu li in khu vc ( giai on 1 v 2) phi bt u ngay. Nu khng n, khi yu cu lp i tr, chng ta s khng c sn phm tn nhim cnh tranh v s c hi sn phm tn nhim cnh tranh v s tut vo tay cc hng nc ngoi. c c mt thit k hon chnh, sau l lp t, chy th nghim, n khi c cng nhn (bi khch hng) l mt sn phm chun ho hon chnh, c cht lng m bo, phi cn thi gian nhanh t 2-3 nm, chm c th ti 4-5 nm! V. YU CU V CI T C CU T CHC IU HNH HT. Khi p dng mt tin b KHKT mi vo trong sn xut, ngoi yu cu ci thin cht lng sn phm, mt vn ln cng rt c quan tm l hiu qu kinh t ca n. Vic p dng h SCADA vo trong diu hnh HT cng khng nm ngoi qui lut .

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V vy song song vi giai on lp t h SCADA trong li in khu vc phi nghin cu c cu t chc iu hnh HT mi ph hp, ch ly mt v d nh: Hin nay, vn hnh mt trm phn phi 110KV H Ni cn c bin ch t 610 ngi khi c h SCADA th khng cn trc trm 110kV. Nh vy, vi 10 trm 110KV H Ni tha ra khong 180 ngi, cha k vic gim bin ch cc chi nhnh in khi c h SCADA. Khng ch n thun vic gim lc lng lao ng, m cn phi ci t c c cu t chc t di ln trn cho ph hp. iu ny qu khng d i vi ngnh in! Hin nay, v cha nghin cu k nn ta cha th ni c phi ci t ra sao. Nhng mt iu chc chn l mt c cu t chc iu hnh HT da trn con ngi, khng th thch hp vi mt c cu t chc iu hnh t ng thng qua h SCADA. Mt HT iu tra da trn h thng SCADA hon chnh s khng th pht huy hiu qu kinh t nu khng c ci t c cu t chc iu hnh thch hp. Rt c th c cu t chc iu hnh c li cn gy kh khn cho vic iu hnh t ng.

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BO CO TNG KT GIAI ON 1 TI: SCADA H THNG IN


I. THU THP TI LIU 1. Thu thp s liu ca HT Vit Nam - Bn HT Vit Nam 1/2002 T A0 n cc trm 220/110KV tc HT chnh Vit Nam, thc hin cc chc nng EMS v DMS. - Bn HT H Ni gm 18 trm 110KV (E1 E18) phn phi in xung cc qun huyn thnh ph H Ni. (Tt c cc trm 35, 15, 11, 6/0.4KV) - S mt s trm 110KV tiu biu. - Mt s mng in ca s in lc a phng: (ng Anh, Hon Kim). - S ni dy mt s trm h th tiu biu - Cc s ny c trng cho HT Vit Nam. 2. Phng hng pht trin HT Vit Nam trong thi gian 2010-2020 (Bi vit ca gio s Trn nh Long). 3. Ti liu v h thng thng tin o lng iu khin h thng in Vit Nam - Ti liu trung tm iu quc gia A0 (h Ranger ca Balley ABB). - H thng SCADA ca trm bin p 220KV (Trm Nam nh)... - Cc chc nng v yu cu ca h thng thng tin o lng v iu khin HT (Trn nh Long, Lng Ngc Hi, Trn K Phc). - SCADA thc nghim trm 110KV Ba La H ng.

3. Ti liu quy trnh quy phm qun l k thut h thng in Vit Nam: - Quy trnh qun l h thng in ton quc ca EVN (nm 2000) - Quy tnh qun l h thng khu vc I (1996). - Quy trnh qun l trm 110KV S in lc H Ni (1992) Nh vy thu thp ti liu cn thit hiu tnhhnh HT v SCADA ca HT Vit Nam II. XUT NHN XT V GP : Cp 1 - trung tm iu quc gia A0 c mt h thng kh hin i. c phn mm thc hin cc chc nng EMS, DMS v Expert System cho HT Vit Nam. Tuy nhin, s liu phc v cho vic thc hin cc chc nng trn coi nh cha c g, c ngha l mng SCADA ch thu c s liu ca nm ba trm bin th 500KV, 220KV, cn cc ngun pht in lin h vi A0 cn rt lng lo. Cp 2: Cp A1, A2, A3 cn ang lp cha c thng tin y v cc trung tm ny. y l cp trung gian, mc ch l chia s chc nng ca A0. Cp 3: Cp iu khin cng trnh: Nh my, trm bin p ln (ng vi s HT ton quc Vit Nam) - Cc nh my mi c xy dng do tin vay v vin tr ODA, c h SCADA ca bn thn nh my, cha c, hoc ch mi l t ni vi h thng I&C ca h thng in quc gia (A0) - Cc nh my c, cha c h SCADA ca ring nh my, do khng c lin h vi A0

- Ch l t, c th c 5 hoc 6 trm 220 KV v 110KV c h SCADA v khng bit ni vi A0 nh th no? Cp 4: L cp li in Cp ny cng l l xut pht t trm bin p 110KV. Thng tin l cp in ny cng phi c gi v trung tm iu A0 hoc A1. C th ni l h thng thu thp s liu cho HT Vit Nam hu nh cha c, vic xy dng h thng SCADA cho ton HT Vit Nam cn phi u t nhiu, phi c mt chin lc u t thch ng c cung cp s liu cho cc nhim v EMS, DMS v Expert System. 2. Nhim v ca trung tm iu quc gia A0. i vi trung tm iu Quc gia coi nh c h thng I&C. H I&C c trang b phn cng v phn mm c kh nng thc hin cc nhim v: Thu thp s liu (DAQ), MES (Expert System), MDS (Data Management System) EXS (Enptert System) v BMS (Business Management System). Tuy nhin, thng tin c c s dng c t HT cn rt t - Mt s trm 500KV - 5-10 trm 220KV - Mt s nh my in hin ang mi xy dng - Thng tin gia A0 ,A1, A2, A3. c th nhn thng tin ca trn 300 trm trm 220/110KV cn phi u t rt nhiu v SCADA trm v r rng y l mt vn kh khn. V vy trc mt cc trung tm iu A0 ,A1, A2, A3 phi thc hin cc lnh sau th mi pht huy c hiu qu u t, mi phc v cho cc chc nng m HT Viit Nam yu cu th hin trong cc quy trnh, quy phm.

a. Xy dng th tc v tiu chun thng tin dng ni cc trm vi cc trung tm iu hin c ( c SCADA hay cha c SCADA) iu ny rt cn v k thut truyn tin (Tp, cu hnh, th tc, phng tin thng tin) m bo mt s thng nht trong h thng, m bo kinh t, tin li cho vic vn hnh v sa cha. Tt nht l phi nghin cu tht k ra tiu chun cho mi thit k SCADA u phi tun th tiu chun ny (Server RDAS). b. Hc tp tm hiu v khai thc cc h c trong trung tm, vn dng trn cc chc nng yu cu ca h thng. - EMS: Trn c s cc d liu thu c (t ng hoc thng qua cc phng tin thng tin khc) chy th trn m hnh, ghi li v kim tra li bng l thuyt, tnh ton v hin tng thc t xy ra trn HT. Bao gi kt qu th ng, c th chy bn t ng trn h thc (thu thp kt qu t ng, v EMS chy t ng). C lm nh vy th sau ny khi c y thng tin mi c th trin khai thc t ng c. - DMS: khi lm vic c vi Server EMS ta c th pht trin ra h DMS (Data Management System). y l h qun l thng tin phc v cho vic pht trin v khai thc h thng. - DTS: y l 1 phn ca h chuyn gia h thng in. N gm c DAS (Data Accquition System), DS (Diagnostic System) v DTS (Data Training System hay Technical guidance dauce System). - Phn ny phi t lm ly cho st vi h thng in Vit Nam v l phn rt t nu thu nc ngoi thc hin. C th mua cc phn mm cung c chung sau p dng c th cho li in

Vit Nam. Nhim v ny ch c EVN mi gii quyt c nu bit tp hp chuyn gia trong v ngoi nc. 3. SCADA trm T chc a. Trm, nh my, cc l ln l thuc cp 3 cp 4 trong h thng in Vit Nam. Hin nay trn ton quc (theo bn HT quc gia) c trn khong 10 trm c h thng SCADA. V vy vic trang b SCADA y cho trn 300 trm bin p 220, 110KV khng phi l chuyn nh v by gi tt c mi ngi u thy: Ta c th t lc xy dng c h SCADA trm vi tn ph nh hn nhiu so vi t nc ngoi. V cu hnh trm bin p v trm phn phi, u ging nhau v c chun ho. H SCADA do cng phi chun ho. V vy nu c th b cng ra thit k c bn cho 1 trm nhn ra cho cc trm khc l vic hon ton c li v kinh t v k thut. Do u t xy dng mu mt cch y , h SCADA cho trm 110/220KV l vic phi lm. Hin nay c nhng c quan trong EVN v ngoi EVN tin hnh nhng nghin cu bc u, nay phi t chc li rt kinh nghim, xy dng thnh SCADA trm mu ph bin. b.Thng tin thu thp: H SCADA trm phi thu thp cc thnh phn thng tin sau: - Thu thp s liu o lng: Hin nay ngi ta s dng cc Transducer thng minh (dng s). - Trng thi my ct, dao cch ly cc rle s (trng thi logic). - Bn bo co s c ca cc rle s hp b, di dng bn tin (Event Recorder). Cc thng tin ny phi c t chc truyn i theo chu k t ng.

Chn mt cu hnh Concentrator no cho hp l c th lm vic y trn cng mt bus l mt vn hin ang c nghin cu trn th gii. c. H truyn tin phn b. H SCADA trm l h phn b: S liu phi ly t cc v tr sau: - Trn thanh ci 110, 220 KV - Trn thanh ci trung p cc l ca cc trm phn phi, c thng tin v truyn ti ca mi trm. Nh vy s liu cng kh hn; khong cch truyn tin cng khng ngn lm. Phi t chc thnh mt mng phn b, phi t chc c s d liu v qun l thng tin v cc s liu ny hng gi, hng ngy, hng thng... Ni chung h SCADA ca trm phi c thit k rt cn th trnh thit thng tin, cc h thng SCADA c thng hay b lc hu v nht l khng tng thch vi nhau. Ni vi nhau i hi phi c thit b ghp ni v i hi nhiu hiu bit v k thut truyn tin. Trong h thng in, nu mua h SCADA ca nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau ta cha c tiu chun c th cht ch s vp phi tnh trng khng tng thch v s lng ph tin v nht l phn tn lc lng k thut khng cfn thit trong khi ta cn rt thiu ngi c kh nng v thng tin cng nghip. 4. SCADA cho h thng kinh doanh. Trong li in Vit Nam, theo t chc ca EVN, phn kinh doanh in nng nm cc in lc qun, huyn. - y, in nng c bn trc tip cho ngi tiu th - ng ct, sa cha, pht trin l cp ny - Tnh ton hiu qu kinh doanh cng l cp ny. m bo hiu qu kinh doanh, y cn t chc h thng SCADA phc v y thng tin cho vic theo di tnh hnh li in

phc v kinh doanh. H thng in y gm mng li trm bin th (khng c ngi), t cc khu dn c phn phi in, mt h thng my ct ti trm, bn pha trung th ca trm 110 KV phc v cho vic ng ct ti cho khu dn c, cc cu dao trung th phc v cho vic cc ly thit b khi li in, phc v cho vic sa cha bin p, cc aptomat h th, cng t phn khng h th o in p, cc bin dng h th, cng t ba pha h th, cng t phn khng h th (theo s in hnh trm bin th 35..6KV/0,4KV v trm treo). l cc thit b ti thiu cho vic theo di cc trm bin p v ph v cho vic khai thc kinh doanh in nng. Cc con s ny c tp trung v in lc qun huyn. Trong cc trm hin c c y cc bin dng, cc phn p hay bin in p, cc cng t tc dng phn khng t ti ch. Ngi qun l ch ghi gi tr o trong cc tua kim tr v sa cha. m bo tnh hiu qu kinh doanh, vic xy dng h SCADA kinh doanh ny l cn thit. N s phc v cho vic qun l k thut li h th m bo cht lng in n ngi tiu dng, m bo hiu qun kinh doanh. H thng SCADA phi m bo hiu qu kinh doanh. - Thu thp thng tin cn thit cho ngi qun l li h p m bo cht lng cho ngi tiu dng. - Thng k c s ph ti cc trm, thng k ln v gi mt in cc ni, theo di c vn hnh cc trm, nh gi c tnh kinh t, k thut ca cc trm h p khng ngi. - S lng trm rt ln (vn trm) v vy thit k phi r tin ph bin.

- Xy dng SCADA mt s trm ny th nghim l va kh nng v va cp thit phc v cho vic nng cao hiu qu qun l kinh doanh in nng. 5. H thng c t khch hng Vi h thng cng t hin nay, c nhng nhc im sau: - S lng ngi i c cng t phi rt nhiu, tin cy khng cao - Khng th trin khai, tnh ton thng pht cho h dng in. khuyn khch s dng in cc gi thp ti. - Mun nh vy phi c mt h thng cng t c tnh nng tt v c ph bin d dng vi gi thnh h. V vy, thit k mt h thng cng t s c nhiu gi, r tin, li c kh nng thng tin cho ngi ghi in, m bo vic vo. ra my tnh t ton, l mt vn cn thit phi t ra. Hin nay mi ra i mt s IC chuyn dng o cng sut v nng lng vi gi thnh rt h, chnh xc cao. Vic ng dng IC ny vo cng t s nhiu gi phi c t ra. H Ni, ngy 15/3/2002 Ch nhim ti KC-03-11

PGS Nguyn Trng Qu

NHIM V TH THIT K H IU KHIN V BO V CC TRM BIN P PHN PHI 110-220 KV TNG LAI

Khi xy dng nhim v ny, chng ti t t mnh vo hai v tr son tho: v tr ngi vn hnh qun l trm, ra nhng nhim v chnh c tnh khi qut mt trm bin p phn phi. Da vo nh thit k s xy dng h iu khin v bo v. v tr ngi thit k: Kt hp hiu bit ca mnh v tham kho tng thit k vi trm phn phi min Bc, do cc hng nc ngoi thc hin, chng ti ra nhng yu cu chi tit ca tng mc ch iu khn vn hnh c th trong trm. Nhn chung, khi chi tit ho nhim v thit k, chng ti u hnh dung s b gii php k thut thc hin. iu m bo tnh kh thi ca nhim v th thit k, ph hp vi trnh thit k ca Vit Nam. Nhng v d thuyt minh cho nhim v th u da trn gi nh thit k iu khin - bo v cho trm phn phi 110KV, E9 Ngha , thuc s in lc H Ni.

PHN I T VN

Chng 1. Khi qut nhng nhim v chnh ra cho thit k h iu khin v bo v trm.

1.1. M u Cc trm phn phi tng lai yu cu m bo theo hng my tnh ho iu khin v qun l phn tn. Mt khc, v vy trong h thng SCADA h thng in quc gia, nn yu cu trm phn phi m bo tnh m, ngha l ni c th lin h vi cp iu khin cao hn v giao tip c vi cc trm h p cui cng (10-20/0.4KV) trong li in phn phi. Theo phn cp qun l hin hnh th cp cao iu khin trc tip cc trm phn phi l S in lc cc tnh, thnh ph. Tuy nhin, tng lai khi xy dng c h SCADA hon chnh, th cp trn trc tip iu khin cc trm phn phi c th l cp iu min, Hin nay, vic qun l cc trm h p cui cng thuc chi nhnh in cc qun, huyn. Tuy nhin, theo chng ti, tng lai cn phi ra s giao tip gia trm phn phi v cc trm h p cui cng. S giao tip bc u c th ch gii hn vic truyn thng tin ln trm phn phi tnh trng lm vic ca cc thit bi, v cc thng s o lng trong vn hnh c trm h p cui cng. T trm phn hot ng ca cng t hai gi (nu c yu cu) t ra ti mt s trm h p cui cng. Hng my tnh ho iu khin v qun l phn tn, to iu kin rt thun li cho vic t ng ho qun l kinh doanh in. Tuy nhin chng ti hon ton khng c vn kin thc v qun l kinh doanh. Hn na t ng ho qun l hnh chnh kinh doanh ca ngnh in hin hnh, iu m nghe chng cn rt xa vi. V vy trong nhim v th thit k ny cn ng vn t ng ho kinh doanh. Di y s khi qut cc nhim v chnh ca h thng iu khin - bo v trm. 1. iu khin cc thit b ng/ct n l. 2. iu khin lin tip, theo trnh t cc thit b ng ct.

3. iu khin chc nng t ng ng li ca ng dy (AR). 4. iu khin b iu p di ti ca my bin p (OLTC). 5. iu khin ng ct mch t dng ca trm. 6. iu khin gin t b. 7. Yu cu kh nng cnh bo, gim st t xa vn hnh trm. 8. Bo m kh nng t ng ct ph ti theo th t u tin. 1.2. Cu hnh ca h thng iu khin v bo v trm Cu hnh chi tit ca h thng iu khin- bo v trm s do thit k quyt nh tuy nhin bt k mt trm no v c bn cng s c nhng khi c bn chung nht, Hnh 1.1 l khi qut cu hnh ca h iu hnh.

Bn iu khin ti trm

Giao tip vi cp iu khin cao hn

Giao tip vi cp iu khin thp hn (10-22/0,4KV)

Khi iu khin ch o
H rle s bo v H thu thp d liu

Cc khi vo/ra
Cc thit b cn c iu khin v bo v

Cc khi o lng

Hnh 1.1: Cu hnh ca h iu khin - bo v, tip cn theo chc nng

1.3. Yu cu v phn cng ca h iu khin - bo v Hnh 1.1 m t cc phn cng chnh ca h iu khin bo v, bo gm: Bn iu khin ti trm: Trn my tnh c nhn PC, my in bn phm chc nng. Bn iu khin trm c th c thm mem lin lc vi cp cao hn qua mng internet, iu ny cho php thng nht lin lc t cp cao xung cp thp, v ph hp vi xu th pht trin ca cng ngh qun l tp trung thng qua cng ngh web (hng trin khai hp nht s c trnh by trong Chng 5). Khi iu khin ch o: l tri tim iu khin ca h. N gm cc CPU, PLC, cc b nh dung lng kh ln, cc modul thng tin giao tip vi bn ngoi... Ta thy yu cu iu khin v bo v ca trm phn phi 110 220KV

khng nhiu v cng khng phc tp. Do vic xy dng tt khi iu khin ch o l hon ton nm trong tm tay cc nh thit k tin hc trong nc. H rle bo v: Hin nay, h rle bo v cc trm phn phi 110KV ta rt a dng v cha c chun ho. iu ny gy kh khn cho vic thc hin chun ho iu khin bo v cc trm bin p phn phi. Trn c s nguyn l kinh in ca cc rle bo v nh bo v qu dng, bo v khong cch bo v so lch, bo v theo hng cng sut truyn ti..., cc hng ni tin nh ABB, Schneider, Siemens... to nn cc modul rle s chc nng c cht lng bo v tt hn ( tin cy, tnh chn lc, tnh tc ng nhanh). Nh cc modul ny m vic thit k h thng bo v rle r dng, linh hot hn. Yu cu i vi thit k rle l: Nghin cu, tnh ton, chn cc modul rle ca cc hng nc ngoi thch hp nht (v mt kinh t v k thut) cho vic bo v trm phn phi. Ta c th phn cc modul ny thnh hai nhm l khi rle bo v chun ho: - Khi rle chun ho bo v cc ng dy, thanh ci in p cao 110220KV b bo v cc my bin p. - Khi rle bo v cc ng dy phn phi trung p (10-22KV). Khi ny kh n gin, rle t ngay ti t cc ng dy phn phi. V d trm 220KV Nam nh, cc ng dy phn ph trung p 22KV c trang b cc t hp b 8BJ50 vi rle bo v 7SJ351. Yu cu h rle, ngoi nhim v x l d liu v pht tn hiu ct i tng bo v thng qua cc khi vo ra, cn phi a tn hiu v khi iu khin ch o, nhm cnh bo v ghi li s c. H thu thp d liu: thu thp cc thng tin cn thit cho vic iu khin, bo v, o lng. V d: U, I, P, Q ca tng ng dy, nhit du my bin p, mc du trong my bin p, v tr nc ca OLTC, cht lng in t dng... H thu thp d liu s lm vic trc tip vi cc thit b o lng thu thp cc
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thng tin cn thit iu ny s m bo tng thch i vi cc h thng hin hu. Mt khc p ng vi cc modul hin i v cc h thng rle s, h thu thp d liu cng cn ni vi h thng truyn tin thu thp cc thng tin c bo v t cc rle v cc thit b. Vic tnh ton thit k chnh xc, tin cy ccs h rle bo v v h thu thp d liu s quyt nh phn ln s lm vic tin cy ca h iu khin - bo v trm. 1.4. Phn mm iu khin v qun l vn hnh Ngoi phn cng, yu cu phi thit k xy dng mt s phn mm chnh sau: Phn mm iu khin cc thit b. Phn mm thu thp, lu tr, bo co cc thng s o lng trong trm. Phn mm thu thp, lu tr cc s c, s kin trong vn hnh trm. Phn mm gim st s hot ng ca trm. Phn mm lm nhiu v kim tra phn thng tin gia cc khi thit b trong h thng iu khin - bo v trm, gia trm vi cp iu khin cao hn. Tm li, phn I v II trn cung cp nhng yu cu khi qut, lm cn c cho thit k. Tip theo s chi tit ho cc thao tc ca tng mc ch iu khin vn hnh c th trong trm. Trn c s s to d dng hn cho vic thit k chi tit phn cng v phn mm iu khin - bo v trm.

PHN II. TRIN KHAI THIT K

Chng 2: Trin khai h giao tip ngi my


2.1.Trin khai thit k bn phm chc nng 2.1.1.M u 2.1.1.1.Cu trc ca bn phm chc nng Vic iu khin trm c th s dng bn phm my tnh PC thc hin mt s chc nng iu khin. Tuy nhin, a thm vo bn iu khin trm mt bn phm chc nng s to s d dng v linh hot cho iu khin vn hnh trm, trnh c s nhm ln trong thao tc mt khc y cng l c s cho vic thng nht ho bn phm iu khin ti trm vi cc bn phm tch hp vi thit b iu khin ti ch. Bn phm chc nng bao gm mt s phm iu khin, v d nh Hnh 2.1. Vic thit k bn phm chc nng, s lng cc phm, v tr cc phm phi tun th theo cc tiu ch sau: - Phi hp cht ch vi ng cnh s dng v vi thi quen ca ngi dng. - Phn nhm r rng theo chc nng. - Thit k cho ngi thun tay phi. - Hn ch nhm ln khi s dng. - Hn ch s lng phm.
KeyLock F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8

H Shift

Hnh 2.1: Bn phm chc nng

Cc chc nng ca cc phm trn bn phm Cc nhm t F1 F8 c gi l cc phm gn ng. Mi phm c th gi cc chc nng khc nhau, tu theo tng mc ch iu khin c th v tng thao tc iu khin c th. Cc phm ny c b tr thnh ba nhm nh, vic b tr ny da trn c tnh khi s dng ca chng, s lng cc phm trong mt nhm nh, vic nh hng s dng ngi iu khin s d dng hn. Bn cnh , cc phm trong cng mt nhm s c cng mt tnh cht hoc l hu nh khng i v d phm chc nng 7 v 8 s hu nh khng thay i chc nng. Phm di chuyn con tr ,,,. Cng c th iu khin con tr bng chut. Chng ti khuyn khch vic s dng chut thao tc trn cc mn hnh, tuy nhin vic s dng chut cng c th d dn n thao tc sai lm ca ngi vn hnh nn lun cn c cc bin php xc nhn i vi cc lnh thao tc quan trng. Phm Home. kho khi ng S: Ch khi ngi vn hnh tra cha kho vo S v vn ti v tr ng th mi thc hin c cc thao tc iu khin. Ho S coi nh s chng nhn c u quyn thao tc h iu khin bo v. C th bn phm chc nng c thm vi kho khc, khi thit k c th, tu theo yu cu thc t s thm vo. Trong thc t, vic s dng kho S s ch c s dng ln u, v kho s c thit k kho nm lun trong kho v tr cho php thao tc. V l do , kho c thit k gc trn bn tri s khng lm nh hng nhiu n thao tc ca ngi s dng. 2.1.1.2. u im ca menu bn phm ng Vi mi mc ch iu khin khc nhau (v d truy nhp bng s kin, ng/ct dao cch ly ng/ct my ct, iu khin b iu p di ti my bin p...) s ch
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yu cu mt s thao tc chc nng xc nh. Nu mi phm trn bn phm chc nng ch c gn cho mt thao tc chc nng c nh th s phm yu cu s rt nhiu v ngi thao tc s rt d b nhm ln, kh nh v gp nhiu tr ngi trong thao tc. V vy chng ti a ra gii php ch s dng mt s lng hn ch cc phm chc nng (8 phm chc nng) thao tc. Mi phm c gn nhiu chc nng khc nhau, tu theo tng mc ch iu khin c th v th chng c gi l cc phm gn ng. Khi nim ng y c th c hiu theo cc ngha sau: - ng theo ngha trng thi: cc phm thuc menu bn phm c th t thay i trng thi (xem phn 2.1.2.2) (cho php/khng cho php ngi thao tc tc ng...).

Diagram 110KVF22

Diagram 110KVF22

Khng cho php

Cho php

Hnh 2.2: Minh ho ngha ng thi trng thi ca cc phm chc nng Trong trng hp minh ho v d Hnh 2.2, ta thy cng mt phm chc nng F2 nhng phm c 2 trng thi cho php tc ng v khng cho php tc ng. - ng theo ngha chc nng: t thay i chc nng theo tnh trng hin hnh ca h thng, ca trang mn hnh hin ti v tnh trng/tin trnh thao tc m ngi vn hnh ang thc hin (ta gi chung cc yu t ny ng cnh tng tc).
I On F4
I Off F4 Control CB

a)

b)

c)

Hnh 2.3: Minh ho ngha ng chc nng ca cc phm chc nng

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Phn 2.1.2 s gii thiu chi tit cc thnh phn hin th ca mt phm ng. Cc menu bn phm c s dng trong chng trnh s c trnh by trong phn 2.1.3. 2.1.2. Phm chc nng ng 2.1.2.1. Cc thnh phn ca phm chc nng ng Phm ng l thnh phn c bn ca menu bn phm gip ngi vn hnh c th lm vic vi h thng. Hnh 2.4 minh ho mt phm ng
Dislay F 7

Hnh 2.4: Cc thng tin hin th trn mt phm ng Nh ta thy n c 2 phn chnh, phn t gi v Ch th phm chc nng - Phn t gi l mt t thay hay mt cm t ngn gn nhm gi cho ngi dng v chc nng hin ti ang c gn cho phm ng ny. Phn t gi ny cng c th thay i ng, ng vi cc thao tc xung khc nhau, v d: Ta mun thay i trng thi hin th gi tr dng in ca cc thit b trn mn hnh. C hai trng hp xy ra, hoc l chuyn t hin th sang khng hin th (On sang Off) hoc ngc li (Off sang On). y chnh l hai trng hp xung khc, khi ta ch dng mt phm thc hin cc thao tc tc ny. Minh ho cho trng hp ny, y ch phn gi thay i theo ng cnh.
I On F4 I On F4

Hnh 2.5: Minh ho cho hai trng hp xung khc


a) Nhn phm chc nng s chuyn t trng thi hin th gi tr dng in sang trng thi n gi tr dng in. b) Nhn phm chc nng s chuyn t trng thi n gi tr dng in sang trng thi hin th gi tr dng in. 12

- Phn ch th phm chc nng, c nh theo v tr ca phm chc nng trong menu bn phm, nhm mc ch nhc ngi dng tao tc s tng ng vi phm vi chc nng tng ng no. 2.1.2.2. Cc trng thi ca phm chc nng ng hn ch to thao tc nhm v gim nh vic x l thng tin khi s dng menu bn phm ng, mt phm ng s 3 trng thi chnh: khng cho php tc ng, cho php tc ng v v ngha.

Diagram 110KVF4

Diagram 110KVF4

F6

Khng cho php

Cho php

V ngha

Hnh 2.6: Ba trng thi ca mt phm ng - Trng thi khng cho php tc ng: l trng thi m lc thao tc trn chc nng m phm ny tng trng c php. S khng c php ny c th l do cc nguyn nhn, khng c quyn iu khin hp l, tnh trng hin ti ca h thng khng cho php thao tc m phm tng trng... - Trng thi cho php tc ng: Ngi dng c php thao tc. - Trng thi v ngha: phm khng c gn chc nng trng mn hnh hot ng hin i. 2.1.2.3. Cch thao tc trn cc phm chc nng C hai cch thao tc trn cc bn phm ng l dng chut click phm tri ca chut khi con tr chut nm ti v phm chc nng) v dng bn phm (nhn phm chc nng tng ng).
Diagram 110KVF2

Hnh 2.7: Thao tc bng chut

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Cc phm trong bn phm chc nng c th thay th bng menu bn phm. Chng c kch hot nh cm ng tip xc. Khi c cc menu bn phm s hin th ngay trn mn hnh phm, khng cn hin th trn my tnh. S dng m mn hnh phm c u dim l khng c hng hc nh phm n c kh. Hn na trnh c nhm ln c th xy ra khi n phm gn ng khng tng ng vi phm trong menu bn phm. Tuy nhin, ta hin nay mn hnh phm mi ch xut hin trong thit k ca mt vi h iu khin (v d h iu khin h thng lc bi ca nh my xi mng Bm Sn m rng). Dng bn phm c kh v menu bn phm hin th trn mn hnh my tnh l bin php d kh thi nht. V vy chng ti ngh gii php ny. 2.1.3 Menu bn phm 2.1.3.1. Cu to ca mt menu bn phm Qua kho st cc thao tc ca ngi vn hnh i vi h thng ta thy c th phn nhm cc thao tc thnh 3 nhm thao tc: nhm xc nhn lnh, nhm iu khin/thao tc v nhm iu khin s thay i ca mn hnh hin th thao tc. V th cc phm ng trn bn phm c tch ra thnh 3 nhm. Vic tch phms ny ph hp vi cc tiu ch ergonomic gip cho ngi c nhn din nhanh chng cc phm trong tng cm, thun tin trong thao tc v hn ch nm ln. Hnh 2.8 minh ho mt bn phm in hnh.
Accept F2 Diag 110KV Diag 22KV Diag 10KV Diag 6KV Overview Return

Hnh 2.8: Minh ho mt menu bn phm in hnh Hnh 2.9 n Hnh 2.12 trnh by cc menu bn phm c s dng trong chng trnh. Chi tit v chc nng ca cc phm v cch thc vn hnh ca tng menu bn phm s c trnh by c th trong PHN II.2.3 Mn hnh thao tc v cch thc vn hnh.

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Accept

F2

Diag 110KV

Diag 22KV

Diag 10KV

Diag 6KV

Overview

Return

Hnh 2.9: Menu chn cp in p s thao tc thit b


F1 F2 Mc/Dcl/Ar Transt F5 F6 Overview Return

Hnh 2.10: Menu chn mun thao tc trn my bin p hay iu khin cc thit b khc
Up Down Man/Aut EmergTrip1 EmergTrip2 EmergTrip3 Overview Return

Hnh 2.11: Menu chn cc thao tc tc ng ln my bin p


ExeCmd F2 Mc On/Off Dcl On/Off Ar On/Off Ser Ctrl Overview Return

Hnh 2.12: Menu chn cc thao tc tc ng ln thit b

2.2 Trin khai thit k mn hnh hin th v thao tc


2.2.1. Yu cu i vi mn hnh hin th v thao tc Vic giao tip truyn thng trong cc trm l da trn cc bng ch th gn tng vi cc ng h o, ch th v hin s, cc s u dy v cng tc trng thi. Vic b tr nh vy i hi ngi lm vic phi c ci nhn tng qut v d dn n qu ti thng tin (c bit l i vi ngi mi vn hnh). S pht trin ca my tnh v truyn thng cho php tch hp cc giao din trn vo mt my tnh. Vic gim st iu khin hot ng ca trm thc hin thng qua mn hnh my tnh PC, iu ny khin cho cc thao tc tr nn n gin, d dng v t nhm ln. Tuy vy vic thit k nh gi cc giao din phi cn tho mn mt s tiu ch sau: - n gin, khng rm r (trnh lm qu ti thng tin i vi ngi s dng). Khi nim qu ti thng tin y l mun ni n vic chng trnh a ra qu nhiu thng tin khng cn thit, khng c ngha g i

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vi ng cnh giao tip hin ti ca h thng vi ngi dng thng qua giao din. - Vic phi hp mu sc, kch thc cn c quan tm ng mc. - Thch hp vi trnh ca ngi s dng. Theo cc nghin cu cu cc nh phn tch h thng, khi mt h thng qu thng minh lm sn hu ht cc cng vic cho ngi vn hnh th khi ngi vn hnh d tr nn li, t suy ngh khi thao tc, thao tc s tr thnh mt thi quen, iu ny ng v mt vn hnh h thng khng c li v khi c cc tnh hung bt thng, ngoi d on cu cc nh l trnh v h thng khng c kh nng gii quyt ng n th ngi vn hnh s tr nn chm chp v khng cn kh nng phn ng nhanh nhy. Vi cc tiu ch trn, chng ti nhn thy vic thit k giao din mt trm tuy c phc tp nhng v bn cht hon ton c th thc hin c bi cc nh lp trnh trong nc. phn sau chng ti s xut mt giao din ngi - h thng. Giao din ch yu mang tnh cht tham kho minh ho. Cc giao din c thit k ch yu s dng cc giao din chun ca mi trng ho Windows, mt mi trng giao tip thng dng. Mu sc c phi hp thng chun ca Windows, tuy nhin ngi dng vn c th thay i d dng bng cch s dng Control Panel ca Windown, iu m vn m bo tnh n gin trong sng ca vic lp trnh. 2.2.2. Cu to ca mn hnh hin th v thao tc Vi cc tiu ch nu phn 2.2.1, v tham kho trm, chng ti xut mn hnh giao din gm c cc thnh phn c bn nh hnh 2.13. Mn hnh hin th ny gm ba phn: Phn thng tin v mnhnh hin ti v trm, phn thanh trng thi v cui cng l phn thng tin ho hoc bng. Hnh 2.13 trnh by mt mn hnh ho in hnh.

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Hnh 2.13: Mn hnh ho - Dng trn cng ca mn hnh l thng tin l phn thng tin v mn hnh hin ti v tn trm l vic v d Trm E9 NGHIA DO: Diagram Overview. Thng tin ny nhm nhc ngi vn hnh thng tin v mn hnh hin ti, tin trnh thao tc ang thc hin. - y mn hnh l thanh trng thi, hin th cc thng bo nhm mc ch hng dn thao tc hay cung cp cc thng tin h tr cho ngi s dng. v d ny thanh trng thi hin th: Operate Service With Key

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S ngha l nhc ngi s dng, mun lm vic vi h thng phi chuyn kho S vn hnh. - Gc di bn tay phi l vng hin th ngy v gi hin hnh ca h thng, nh dng ngy v gi ny c quy nh v Windows (dng Control Panel). Bn cnh l vng cung cp thng tin v cp in p ang c s c, hin ti ang b m chng t l hin h thng dang vn hnh bnh thng khng c s c. 2.2.2.1. Phn thng tin bng ch c hin th thanh trng thi Cc thng tin bng ch c th dng ting Vit, nhn vin vn hnh d nhn bit hn. Tuy nhin chng ti ngh vn thng bo bng ting Anh l ting ph thng dng trong k thut; khi tip xc vi cc thit b iu khin ca cc hng nc ngoi, nhn vin vn hnh khng b b ng.

Bng 2.1: Cc thng tin c th hin th thanh trng thi Thng tin Accept Audible Alarm No Authorisation Operation Released Printer ngha Hy xc nhn bo ng ci! Hin th khi nhn vin vn hnh xc nhn mt s hay s c trong Alarm List trong khi ci ang ku. Khng c u nhim thao tc! Hin th khi ngi vn hnh thao tc trong ch Display Level l ch ch c php quan st. c php thao tc! Hin th khi nhn vin vn hnh dng kha S trn bn phm chc nng v c th thc hin cc thao tc. My in khng c php lm vic! My in c php
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Disenable Printer Enable Printer Fault Wait Please Key not Active Run Time Exceded

lm vic! Cc dng ny hin th trong ch kim tra my in, khi nhn vin vn hnh kha my in hoc cho php n lm vic. ng truyn dn gia my in v khi iu khin ch o hng. Xin i! Hin th khi phn mm iu khin bt u lin lc vi khi iu khin ch o. Kho khng hot ng! Hin th khi khng chn c menu bn phm bng phm gn ng. Thi gian chy vt qu! Hin th khi ngi vn hnh chn lnh Execute command m sau thi gian lu, do nhiu nguyn nhn, vn cha thc hin xong vic iu khin thay i trng thi thit b.

Feed Back Signal Missing No more pages No more steps Op. Condition not fulfilled No Command Executed Set position actual position

Khng c tn hiu phn hi! Hin th khi ngi vn hnh ch lu m lnh vn cha c thc hin, v mt ln na li n lnh Execute command. Khng cn trang no na! C th hin th khi truy nhp bng s kin hoc bng s c. Khng cn nc no na! C th hin th khi thao tc chuyn nc b OLTC ca bin p iu kin thao tc cha ! Lnh khng c thc hin! C th hin th khi nh ch ca AR. = V tr t trung vi v tr hin ti! C th hin th khi thao tc ng ct.

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2.2.2.2. Phn thng tin ho Phn thng tin ho vo gm cc s ton phn v chi tit ca trm, cc bng s kin, s c khi vn hnh trm. Hnh 2.14 minh ho phn thng tin ho c mt trang hin th cp in p 110KV.

Hnh 2.14: Minh ho phn thng tin ho ca mt trang hin th 2.2.3. Thao tc trn mn hnh hin th v thao tc Qua cc phn tch phn trn, tng hp cc thao tc cn c i vi cc nhim v ca trm v tham kho thm cc h thng SCADA hin c chng ti xut cy thao tc nh hnh.2.15. Nh ta thy Hnh 2.15 su ca dy thao tc ny l 4 ng vi vic ch cn thc hin mt cch thao tc ngi vn hnh ch cn phi tri qua ti a 4 bc iu ny gip cho ngi vn hnh khng kh khn khi thc hin cc thao tc iu khin. Vic iu khin cn c th ci tin bng cch s dng chut v bin i trnh t thao tc theo ng cnh. V d khi ngi s dng chn cp in p m khng tn ti my bin p th chng trnh c th b qua mn hnh l chn thao tc

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trn my bin p hay cc thit b hc (cp 3) m n thng mn hnh chn lc cc thao tc iu khin cc thit b khc (cp 4). Phn 2.3 s i su gii thch cch thao tc trn tng mn hnh c th.

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Ghi ch
Mn hnh thao tc Mn hnh xem s kin Mn hnh ghi du (first) n bn ghi k tip (next) n bn ghi trc n bn ghi cui (last) Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc

M ra ca s Thao tc trn ca s hin ti.

Mn hnh bo ng

Bn ghi u (first) Bn ghi k tip (next) n bn ghi trc Bn ghi cui (last) Xc nhn bo ng Xc nhn khc phc xong Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc Chn s (110 KV, 22KV, 10KV 6KV) Xc nhn v chuyn n s chon Tr v mn hnh chnh Cp nht hin th iu khin my bin p iu khin my ct/dao Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc Tng/gim OLTC Chuyn ch K auto/man Emer Trip My bin p Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc

iu khin my ct iu khin dao cch ly Chui iu khin iu khin t ng li Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc

Mn hnh chn s

n hin I/P/Q

Xem th ph ti

Operator

Tr v mn hnh trc

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2.3. Mn hnh thao tc v cch thc vn hnh 2.3.1. Mn hnh chnh Overview Mc ch ca mn hnh ny l hin th tng quan tnh trng lm vic hin ti ca trm. Bao gm cc thng tin ti thiu nh tnh trng lm vic On/Off, ch iu khin t ng/bng tay, ch t ng li, ch iu p di ti...Ti mn hnh ny ngi vn hnh gim st c hot ng ca ton trm nhng khng iu khin c. Mn hnh ny c hin th trong cc trng hp sau: - Khi ngi dng bt u chng trnh - Khi ang mn hnh thao tc bt k m ngi dng chuyn kho trn bn phm v v tr kho. - Khi ti mn hnh thao tc bt k ngi dng nhn phm Overview. Cc trng thi c th c ca mn hnh: - Trng thi cho php thao tc tng ng vi vic kho trn bn phm v tr khng kho. - Trng thi cm thao tc tng ng vi vic kho trn bn phm v tr kho. - Trng thi bo ng tng ng vi tnh trng khi c mt s c trong h thng mi xut hin v cha c xc nh.

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Hnh 2.16 : Mn hnh thao tc chnh

Hnh 2.17 : Bn phm ng ca mn hnh thao tc chnh Hnh 2.16 trnh by mn hnh thao tc chnh. Thng qua bn phm ng. Hnh 2.17 ta c th thc hin cc thao tc sau: - Xem danh sch cc s kin (chn phm Evenl List. - Xem danh dch cc s c (chn phm Alarm List). - Chuyn n mn hnh chn cp in p tin hnh cc thao tc iu khin thit b (chn phm Control).

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- Hin th/khng hin th gi ca I tnh bng A (chn phm I on/off). - Hin th khng hin th gi tr ca P tnh bng Kw (chn phm p on/off). - Hin th/khng hin th gi tr ca Q tnh bng Kvar (chn phm Q on/off). - Xem th ph ti (chn Graph). - Chuyn n menu cc thao tc b sung (chn Operator).

Hnh 2.18: Mt nhm my ct vi cc thng tin I/P/Q n

Hnh 2.19: Mt nhm my ct vi cc thng tin I/P/Q hin th y Hnh 2.18 v Hnh 2.19 hin th mt nhm my ct cc ch hin th n cc thng tin I/P/Q. Ta thy mt my ct v thng tin ng dy c hin th c ng thng qua cc thng tin sau: - Hnh biu din tng ng vi trng thi ca thit b (On/Off). - Tn thit b - c hin th m bn cnh hnh biu din ca thit b. - Nhn bo ch iu khin ca thit b - c hai gi tr man v aut tng ng vi ch iu khin t ng v bng tay.

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- Nhn bo ch ng li ca ng dy cc th c cc gi tr sau, khng sut hin trong s v ng dy khng h tr tnh nng ny (ng dy 493 Hnh 2.18), xut hin nhng b m (ng dy 495 Hnh 2.18) tng ng vi tnh nng t ng li ang b v hiu ha, xut hin bnh thng (ng dy 497 Hnh 2.18) tng ng vi tnh nng t ng li ca ng dy ang trng thi cho php. - Cc nhn bo gi tr I,P,Q tc thi (xem hnh 2.19) i vi my bin p, ngoi cc nhn thng thng nh hnh hin th, tn thit b, ch iu khin, cn c thm cc nhn bo tnh trng OLTC, mc iu p hin ti (Tap), cc chi tit ny c minh ho trn Hnh 2.2.
171131-1 PB0110 Aut 100-1 115-

T1
PBC0-T PB06-T

110/22/ OLTC Tao 4 PB022

Hnh 2.20: Minh ho my bin p trong s hnh 2.20 ta thy my bin p ny c h tr tnh nng iu p di ti (c nhn OLTC hin bn cnh my bin p v c nhn Tap), ch OLTC ang hiu lc (do OLTC ang sng bnh thng), nc iu p hin ti l nc 4 (c ch nh bi gi tr ca Tap).

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2.3.2. Mn hnh xem danh sch s kin 2.3.2.1.Gii thiu chung Bng s kin ghi li tt c cc s kin xy ra trong qu trnh vn hnh trm, k c cc s c. V d s kin nhn vin vn hnh ng mt my ct no , s c nhy my ct do bo v rle tc ng, s kin nhit du my bin p tng cao... di ca bng s kin ph thuc vo yu cu c th ca tng thit k. Cc s kin c lit k theo th t thi gian. Cc s kin c c loi khi bng ghi do ngi vn hnh t xo hoc khi qu mt thi hn nh trc bi ngi vn hnh. Ngoi ra ngi dng cng c th ra lnh cho chng trnh in bn danh sch cc s kin. Phn cc thao tc trn bn s kin s trnh by k hn v cc thao tc cn thit in danh sch s kin. 2.3.2.2. Cc thng tin bt buc ca mt bng s kin Cc thng tin bt buc ca mt s kin trong bng s kin m ta c th k ra l: - Ngy gi xy ra s kin. - V tr xy ra s kin. - Nguyn nhn ca s kin. Tu thuc vo nh sn xut cc thit b cp di m ta c th c thm cc thng tin khc nh iu kin lin ng, vn hnh sai k thut (iu khin on/off khi ti my tnh khi thit b ang ch iu khin bng tay,...). 2.3.2.3. Cu trc ca bng s kin Theo thit k ca chng ti, bng s kin bao gm cc thng tin c bn nht nh ngy, gi (c tch ring d theo di), v tr xy ra s kin (trong bn demo c nh m theo tn thit b, khi lp t thc t c th b sung thm cc m s nh m ng dy,...), loi thit b v cp in p. Ngoi ra m bo tnh linh ng cho h thng v gip con ngi vn hnh d dng trong vic phn tch s kin chng ti a thm mt ct l hnh d dng trong vic phn tch s kin chng ti a thm mt ct l ct ghi ch cha cc thng tin b sung nhm gii

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thch s kin. Hnh 2.21 trnh by ton b mt mn hnh xem s kin vi y cc thng tin va nu.

Hnh 2.21: Minh ho ton b mt bn s kin

Hnh 2.22: Trch mt phn bn s kin

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2.3.2.4. Cch thc hin cc thao tc v bn phm ng Vic thao tc duyt qua danh sch s kin c th dng bn phm chc nng hoc dng chut. Bn phm chc nng cho php ngi s dng duyt qua tng s kin trong danh sch vi 4 thao tc chnh: n bn ghi u tin, n bn ghi lin trc, n bn ghi tip theo, n bn ghi cui cng. Tnh trng hiu lc c cc phm ny l ng theo v tr ca con tr trong bng s kin, v d khi con tr ang bn ghi u tin th ta khng th thao tc trn phm First v Previous c. Khi dng chut ta c th click trc tip ln s kin chn hoc dng thanh trt duyt cc s kin. Bn s kin khng chp nhn bt c mt s sa i no t ngi s dng. Ni dung bn phm ng Bn phm ng c chia thnh 2 nhm: - Nhm dut cc s kin bo gm 4 phm tng ng vi 4 thao tc c bn Fist, Previous, Next, Last. - Nhm th hai gm 2 phm, phm Print m ra mt ca s cho php ngi dng xem trc khi in v sau l in ni dung bn bo co danh sch s kin ra my in hoc xut bn di dng HTML. Phm Returm tr v mn hnh chnh. Cch in mt bn danh dch s kin Sau khi n phm Print mn hnh xem s kin ta thy xut hin ca s xem trc khi in nh hnh 2.23. Ti ca s ny to c th dng cc thanh cun v thanh iu khin di y mn hnh duyt danh sch trc khi in. Khi mun in ta c th nhn vo nt in pha trn bn tri in bn danh sch hoc ra cng c th xut bn danh sch ra mt file vn bn, hoc file HTML bng cch click vo phm oxport trn mn hnh. Sau khi in xong, ta cn ng khung ca s li tr v mn hnh xem danh sch s kin.

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Hnh 2.23. Ni dung ca s xem trc

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2.3.2.5. Cc thng tin b tr khc Ngoi ra ngi s dng cn c cung cp thm mt s thng tin b tr khc thnh trng thi di y mn hnh, mt s thng tin b tr c th k ra y l: - Last Record: bo hiu ht bn ghi - First Record: bo hiu con tr bn ghi ang u ban ghi. - .... Thanh trng thi di y mn hnh cng c th bo hiu cp in p ang c s c, iu ny gip con ngi vn hnh c thng tin v s c vo mi thi im. 2.3.3. Mn hnh xem danh sch s c 2.3.3.1. Gii thiu chung Bng s c ghi li tt c cc s c xy ra trong qu trnh vn hnh trm, v l mt phn ca bo co cc s kin ca trm nn bng s c cng c mt s trng chung vi bng s kin nh ngy gi xy ra s kin, v tr s kin. Tuy nhin bng s c cung cp mt s thng tin chi tit hn c trng cho s c (v d: m s s c (bo v 50, 51n hay 63 tc ng,..., relais no bo s c, ni dung ca cc bn ghi s c,...). di ca bng s c ph thuc vo yu cu c th ca tng thit k. Cc s c c lit k theo th t thi gian. Cc s c c c loi khi bng ghi do ngi vn hnh t xo hoc khi qu mt thi gian. Cc s c c c loi khi bng ghi do ngi vn hnh t xo hoc khi qu mt thi hn nh trc bi ngi vn hnh. Ngoi ra ngi dng cng c th ra lnh cho chng trnh in bn danh sch cc s c. Phn thao tc trn bn s c tng t nh cc thao tc cn thit in danh sch s kin.

31

2.3.2.2. Cc thng tin bt buc ca mt bng s c Cc thng tin bt buc ca mt s c trong bng s c m ta c th k ra l: - Ngy gi xy ra s c. - V tr xy ra s c. - Thit b pht hin s c. - M s s c (v d: bo ng 50, 51, 63, 87,...). Tu thuc vo nh sn xut cc thit b (ch yu l rle) m ta c th c thm cc thng tin khc nh tnh trng h thng trc v sau khi xy ra s c, cu hnh rle lc xy ra s c,... 2.3.3.3. Cu trc ca bng s c Theo thit k ca chng ti, bng s c bao gm cc thng tin c bn nht nh ngy, gi (c tch ring d theo di), v tr xy ra s c (trong bn demo c nh m theo tn thit b, khi lp t thc t c th b sung thm cc m s nh m ng dy...), cp in p, tn thit b bo s c, m s loi s c. Ngoi ra m bo tnh linh ng cho h thng v gip cho ngi vn hnh d dng trong vic phn tch s c chng ti a thm mt ct l ct Ghi ch cha cc thng tin b sung nhm gii thch s c. Hnh 2.24 trnh by ton b mt mn hnh xem s c vi y cc thng tin va nu.

32

Hnh 2.24: Minh ho ton b mt bn s c

33

2.3.3.4. Cch thc hin cc thao tc v bn phm ng Vic thao tc duyt qua danh sch s c c th dng bn phm chc nng hoc dng chut. Bn phm chc nng cho php ngi s dng duyt qua tng s kin trong danh sch vi 4 thao tc chnh: n bn ghi u tin, bn ghi lin trc, n bn ghi tip theo, n bn ghi cui cng. Tnh trng hiu lc ca cc phm ny l ng theo v tr con tr trong bng s c, v d khi con tr ang bn ghi u tin th ta khng th thao tc trn bn phm Fist v Previous c. Khi dng chut ta c th click trc tip ln s kin chn hoc dng thanh trt duyt cc s c. Bn s c khng chp nhn bt c mt s sa i no t ngi s dng. Ni dung bn phm ng Bn phm ng c chia thnh 2 nhm: - Nhm duyt cc s kin bao gm 4 phm tng ng vi 4 thao tc c bn: Fist, Previous, Next, Last. - Nhm th hai gm 2 phm, phm Print m ra mt ca s cho php ngi dng xem trc khi in v sau l in ni dung bn bo co danh sch s kin ra my in hoc xut bn di dng HTML. Phm: Return tr v mn hnh chnh. Cch in mt bn danh sch s kin Cch in mt danh sch s c tng t nh cch in mt bng danh sch s c. 2.3.3.5. Cc thng tin b tr khc Ngoi ra ngi s dng cn c cung cp thm mt s thng tin b tr khc thnh trng thi di y mn hnh, mt s thng tin b tr c th gy k ra y l: - Last Record: bo hiu ht bn ghi - Fist Record: bo hiu con tr bn ghi ang u bn ghi. - ...

34

Thanh trng thi di y mn hnh cng c th bo hiu cp in p ang c s c, iu ny gip con ngi vn hnh c thng tin v s c vo mi thi im. 2.3.4. Mn hnh chn s thao tc 2.3.4.1. Gii thiu chung Mc ch chnh ca mn hnh ny l gip ngi vn hnh s chn cp in p c cha thit b cn thao tc. Hin nay n gin, chng ti cha phn nh cc thit b cn thao tc m ch mi dng gii hn phm vi thao tc. V d khi chn thao tc nhm thit b thuc cp in p 110KV th khng th thao tc thay i cc thit b cc cp in p khc c.

Hnh 2.25: Mn hnh chn cp in p thao tc

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2.3.4.2. Cc trng thi c th c ca mn hnh chn s thao tc mn hnh ny c th c hai trng thi, trng thi khi u v trng thi trung gian. Hnh 2.26, Hnh 2.27 minh ho cho hai trng thi c th c ca mn hnh. Trng thi khi u l trng thi khi va mi chuyn t mn hnh Overview sang v ngi dng cha chn s no c, khi thanh trng thi s xut hin li nhc ngi dng chn mt s , ng thi phm chc nng F1-Accept xc nhn b m. Trng thi trung gian l trng thi sau khi ngi dng chn xong mt s , lc phm nhn tng ng vi s s b m v ng thi phm chc nng F1Accept hin r cho php ngi dng nhn xc nhn s la chn. Lc ny ngi dng c th nhn F1-Accept xc nhn s la chn ca mnh hoc chn li s khc.
Accept F2 Diag110KV Diag 22KV Diag 10KV Diag 6KV Overview Return

Hnh 2.26 Bn phm ng ca mn hnh chn s , khi cha c s no c la chn


Accept F2 Diag110KV Diag 22KV Diag 10KV Diag 6KV Overview Return

Hnh 2.27: Bn phm t ng ca mn hnh chn s , khi s 22KV c chn 2.3.4.3.Cch thc hin cc thao tc v phn phm ng Cc thao tc ca bn phm: - Nhm phm chc nng dng la chn s F3, n F6 tng ng vi cc s 10KV, 22KV, 10KV, 6KV. - Phm xc nhn la chn Accept - Nhm phm thay i mn hnh hin th: Overview v Return. i vi mn hnh la chn s ny th hai phm Overview v Return cho cng mt kt qu l tr v mn hnh tng quan.

36

2.3.4.4. Cc thng tin b tr khc Cc thng tin ny tng t nh cc mn hnh vn hnh khc. 2.3.5. Mn hnh chn thit b thao tc 2.3.5.1. Gii thiu chung Trong chng trnh ca chng ti mn hnh ny ch xut hin khi ngi lm vic chn lm vic vi s 11KV v ch c s ny l c my bin p.

Hnh 2.28: Mn hnh chn thit b cn thao tc (my bin p hay cc thit b khc)

37

F1

F2

Mc/Dcl/Ar

Transf

F5

F6

Overview

Return

Hnh 2.29: Bn phm di ng ca mn hnh chn thit b cn thao tc 2.3.5.2. Cch thc hin cc thao tc v bn phm ng Cc thao tc ca bn phm: - Nhm phm chc nng dng la chn la chn thit b: Mc/Dcl/Ar chn cc thit b nh my ct (Mc), v Tranf chn my bin p. - Nhm phm thay i mn hnh hin th: Overview v Return tng t nh cc mn hnh khc. Phm Overview a ngi vn hnh v li mn hnh tng quan. Phm Return a ngi vn hnh v mn hnh la chn s (mn hnh trc ). 2.3.5.3. Cc thng tin b tr khc Cc thng tin ny tng t nh cc mn hnh vn hnh khc 2.3.6. Mn hnh thao tc trn thit b 2.3.6.1. Gii thiu chung Trong chng trnh ca chng ti mn hnh ny ch xut hin khi ngi lm vic chn lm vic vi thao tc trn my bin p hoc cc thit b khc.

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Hnh 2.30: Mn hnh chn thit b cn thao tc (my bin p hay cc thit b khc) 2.3.6.2. Cc trng thi c th c ca mn hnh thao tc trn thit b mn hnh ny c th c hai trng thi, trng thi khi u v trng thi trung gian. Hnh 2.31, Hnh 2.32, minh ho cho hai trng thi c th c ca mn hnh. Trng thi khi u l trng thi khi va mi chuyn t mn hnh la chn thit b sang v ngi dng cha chn thit b no, khi thanh trng thi s xut hin li nhc ngi dng chn thit b mun thao tc, ng thi phm chc nng Exe Cmd-thc thi lnh b m. Trng thi trung gian l trng thi sau khi ngi dng chn mt thit b, lc hnh biu din cho thit b s c nhp nhy. Thanh trng thi s yu cu ngi

39

dng chn thao tc, nu vic chn thao tc l hp l, thao tc ph hp vi thit b, tho iu kin lin ng nu c, tho iu kin lin ng nu c, tho iu kin vn hnh hin c th mn hnh s chuyn sang trng thi th hai. trng thi th hai, phm chc nng Exe Cmd s hin r cho php ngi dng thao tc xc nhn s la chn. Lc ny ngi dng c th nhn F1 hoc click trn Exe Cmd xc nhn lnh v cho php h thng bt u thc hin lnh.
Exe Cmd F2 Mc On/Off Dcl On/Off Ar On/Off Ser Ctrl Overview Return

Hnh 2.31: Bn phm ng ca mn hnh thao tc trn thit b khi cha chn thit b
Exe Cmd F2 Mc On/Off Dcl On/Off Ar On/Off Ser Ctrl Overview Return

Hnh 2.32:Bn phm ng ca mn hnh thao tc trn thit b sau khi chn thit b

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2.3.6.3. Cch thc hin cc thao tc v bn phm ng Ngi dng c th s dng cc phm sau: - Phm Mc On/Off thay i trng thi my ct. - Phm Dcl On/Off thay i trng thi ca dao cch ly. - Phm Ar On/Off thay i ch t ng li ca ng dy. - Phm Ser Ctrl tinhnh thit lp mt chui thao tc. - Phm Overview tr thnh mn hnh ban u. - Phm Return tr v mn hnh thao tc trc . 2.3.6.4. Cc thng tin b tr khc Cc thng tin ny tng t nh cc mn hnh vn hnh khc. 2.3.7. Mn hnh thao tc trn my bin p 2.3.7.1.Gii thiu chung Mn hnh ny phc v cho cc thao tc tc ng ln my bin p. Cc thao tc ny bao gm tng gim mc iu p i vi cc my bin p c h tr ch iu p di ti, chuyn ch iu khin (t ng/bng tay), dng khn cp ng c iu khin v tr iu p. Hnh 2.33 minh ho cho mn hnh thao tc my bin p.

41

Hnh 2.33: Mn hnh chn thao tc cn tc ng ln my bin p

42

2.3.7.2. Cc trng thi c th c ca mn hnh thao tc trn my bin p Mn hnh thao tc my bin p ch c hai trng thi: trng thi khi u v trng thi trung gian. Trng thi khi u tng ng vi lc ngi s dng va chuyn t mn hnh la chn thit b thao tc sng. Lc ny thanh trng thi di y mn hnh s hin th cu nhc ngi vn hnh my bin p thao tc. Cc thao tc hp l lc ny l chn my bin p v cc thao tc dng khn cp ng c iu khin mc iu p EmergTrip.Trng thi trung gian bt u khi ngi vn hnh chn my bin p. Lc ny my bin p c chn s nhp nhy v tt c cc thao tc u l. Hnh 2.34 minh ho menu bn phm ng ca mn hnh thao tc trn my bin p.
Up Down Man/Aut EmergTrip2 EmeigTrip3 Overview Return

Hnh 2.34: Bn phm ng ca mn hnh thao tc my bin p 2.3.7.3. Cch thc hin cc thao tc v bn phm ng Ngi dng c th s dng cc phm sau thc hin cc thao tc iu khin my bin p: - Phm Up, Down tng gim mc iu p di ti (OLTC). - Phm Man/Aut thay i ch iu khin ca my bin p (bng tay/t ng). - Phm EmergTrip1/2/3 dng khn cp ng c iu khin nc iu p ca my bin p. - Phm Overview tr v mn hnh ban u. - Phm Ruturn tr v mn hnh chn thit b mun thao tc. Sau y chng ti s gii thch chi tit cch thc hin cc thao tc ny.

43

Thao tc tng gim tc iu p: Khi thao tc gim mc iu p, ch s mc iu p hin ti nhn thng tin nc iu p s thay i tng ng. V d hnh 2.35 mc iu p ang nc 1. Khi tng nc iu chnh in p, nu nc iu chnh in p mc ti a s hin cu thng bo Khng th tng nc iu chnh in p. Tng t nh vy khi iu khin gim nc iu chnh in p, nu nc iu chnh in p mc ti thiu chng trnh s hin cu thng bo Khng th gim nc iu chnh in p.
171131-1 Ch iu khin PB0110 Aut
aut

100-1 115-

T1
PBC0-T Nc iu PB06-T p OLTC Tao 4 PB022

110/22/ Tn my bin p

Hnh 2.35: Minh ho mt my bin p vi ghi ch cc nhn thng tin. Mc iu p ang v tr 1, ch iu khin bng tay 2.3.7.4. Cc thng tin b tr khc Cc thng tin ny tng t nh cc mn hnh vn hnh khc.

44

2.3.8. Mn hnh xem th ph ti 2.3.8.1. Gii thiu chung Mc ch ca mn hnh ny l hin th th ph ti ca mt ng dy.Ta c th chn ng dy v ngy tng ng xem th ph ti. Trong chng trnh ca chng ti cha hon tt vic hin th th ph ti thng v nm ca cc ng dy. Tuy nhin y khng phi l cng vic kh kh i vi cc nh lp trnh trong nc. T mn hnh th ph ti ta c th tin hnh cc thao tc sau: - Lu th ph ti vo mt file ho. - Copy th ph ti vo b nh tm (clipboard) chuyn sang cc chng trnh khc. - Cp nht th ph ti cho ph hp vi ngy v ng dy c nhp thng tin qua khung hi thoi. - In th ph ti ra my in.

Hnh 2.36: Minh ho th ph ti

45

2.3.8.2. Cch thc hin cc thao tc v bn phm ng Vic thao tc trn mn hnh xem th ph ti c thc hin thng qua cc phm sau: - Save to lu th ph ti vo file ho. - Copy copy file ho vo Clipboard. - Plot cp nht hin th th ph ti. - Print in th ph ti. - Return tr v mn hnh chnh.

46

Chng 3. Xy dng c s d liu

3.1. M u hng n vic qun l thng nht tp trung ton b h thng in li quc gia vic c mt c s d liu chun ho l iu khng th trnh khi. i vi tng trm ring l cng vy, vic xy dng mt c s d liu thch hp s cho php tn dng c sc mnh ca my tnh, khai thc c sc mnh ca cc trnh qun l c s d liu, t c th cung cp cho ngi vn hnh v cc nh qun l cc thng tin hu ch ca h thng mt cch nhanh nht v hiu qu nht. Chnh v nhng l do , nn trong bn bo co ny chng ti cng mnh dn xy dng mt c s d liu nhm mc ch minh ho v gi m cho cc nh thit k lp trnh h thng pht trin sau ny. Cc tiu ch khi xy dng h thng c s d liu Vic xy dng c s d liu c da trn cc tiu ch sau: - Lun lun cao tnh m ca h thng. Tnh m ca h thng y c th c k n l: kh nng b sung cc thit b mi, cc tnh nng b sung m ch cn thit lp thm cc bng v xy dng cc mi quan h m khng cn phi thay i (hoc thay i rt t) cc bng d liu v quan h hin c. - Kh nng kt ni trn mng in rng c th l c s d liu phi h tr truy vn thng tin qua mng nhm phc v kh nng ni mng iu khin t xa ca h thng.

47

- Ph hp vi cc yu cu thc t khi iu khin cc thit b v khi thu thp thng tin. - Khng gy tr ngi khi pht trin b sung cc thnh phn nhm tng tnh n nh, bo mt v tnh ton vn ca CSDL. Hng trin khai m chng ti p ng Da trn cc tiu ch v v l cc nh lp trnh khng chuyn nn chng ti xy dng c s d liu trn nn tng phn mm ACCESS 2000 ca Microsoft. Vic s dng h ny m bo c s h tr v tng thch vi cc tnh nng truy vn qua mng t nh cung cp phn mm smmt cth gii. Trong cc gii php truy vn d liu chng ti cng ch hn ch trong vic s dng truy vn dng SQL chun iu ny m bo tnh tng tch cao gia cc h thng trong khi vn m bo phc v c cc yu cu d liu ca ngi vn hnh v qun l. Gii hn Trong chng trnh ca chng ti vic truy vn d liu qua mng v bo mt cha c xy dng nhng chng ti tin rng vi c s d liu ny v cc truy vn SQL c bn vic truy xut d liu qua mng din rng bo mt khng phi l vn kh i vi cc nh lp trnh trong nc. Vic qun l trong trng hp nhiu ngi truy vn cng cn ng.

48

3.2. Cc bng thng tin c s 3.2.1. Gii thiu chung m bo cc tiu ch nu phn 3.1 chng ti chia c s d liu thnh cc nhm chnh sau: - Nhm thng tin cu hnh h thng: lu cc thng tin v tn c ng dy, tn cc thit b trong h thng cc tnh nng ca ng dy v thit b trong h thng. V d: i vi ng dy, c s d liu s phi lu cp in p, tn ng dy, tnh nng ca ng dy c th l ng dy c h tr tnh nng t ng li hay khng. i vi my bin p, mt s thng tin v my bin p m ta c th k n l thng tin v loi my bin p, my bin p c h tr iu p di ti hay khng, cu hnh ca b iu p di ti ca my bin p (bao gm mc iu p thp nht v mc iu p cao nht). i vi my ct v dao cch ly cc thng tin ci t c th l thng tin lin ng, cc thit b cn kim tra lin ng v trng thi cn c ca chng m h iu khin phi kim tra trc khi thc hin thao tc thay i trng thi ca thit b. - Nhm thng tin ci t h thng: lu cc thng tin cu hnh ca h thng, phn ln thng tin cu hnh ny ph thuc vo trng thi hot ng hin ti ca h thng. Mt s thng tin m ta c th k ra l: Ch lm vic hin ti ca thit b (iu khin ti ch, t xa, t ng, bng tay), .. - Nhm thng tin hin th h thng. - Nhm thng tin lu tr phc v cho vic truy vn d liu ca con ngi vn hnh v nh qun l. Do phi m bo tnh m ca h thng nn tt c cc nhm thng tin v c bn li c chia thnh hai nhm thng tin nh hn: nhm thng tin c nh (c bn chung m tt c cc loi thit b cng loi ca cc hng khc nhau u phi c), v

49

nhm thng tin thay i thch nghi tu theo h thng v thit b ca tng hng sn xut khc nhau. m bo s thng nht v tnh ton vn gi liu thng quan cc mi quan h gia cc bng trong cu trc ca mi bng s liu u c mt trng nh danh (ID) duy nht. Cc bng ID ny c gi l cc bng c s s c chng ti tnh by phn 3.2.2 ch mang ngha minh ho cho cc bng m trong h thng. Trong thc t cc bng m ny c th khc i, v cn c nghin cu k trc khi a vo p dng v n c nh hng n tn b h thng. y l mt vn ln ph thuc vo cc bi ton qun l, iu khin ca ton b cc trm trn ton h thng. Vic c c mt chun thng nht ca cc bng m gia cc h SCADA ca cc trm trn ton quc s c mt ngha ht sc to ln. Trong phm vi ti ny chng ti ch tm a ra mt s bng m nhm mc ch minh ho, tuy nhin theo chng ti chng cng c tnh cht gi v c kh nng m rng thch hp vi chun chnh thc sau ny. 3.2.2. Cc bng m c s dng 3.2.2.1. Tm tt cc bng m c s dng - Bng 3.1: M s loi thit b. - Bng 3.2: M s hnh hin th thit b. - Bng 3.3: M s cc trng thi c th c ca thit b. - Bng 3.4: M s cc cp in p. Bng 3.5: Trnh by cc dng my bin p c trong h thng. - Bng 3.5: M s dng my bin p.

50

3.2.2.2. Chi tit cc bng m Bng 3.1 Trnh by m s ca cc loi thit b c trong trm, trong khi thit k bi ton thc t cho ton b h thng ta c th b sung cc thit b khcs vo m khng lm nh hng n cc phn cn li ca h thng. Bng 3.1: M s loi thit b tbllEqp ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ... 255 Khong xac dinh MC DCL MBA DD DCLMass Cset K hiu MCHB Tn thit b May cat hop bo May cat Dao cach ly May bien ap duong day Dao cach ly tiep dia Chong set Loi thit b May cat hop bo May cat Dao cach ly May bien ap Duong day Dao cach ly tiep dia Thiet b chong set

51

Bng 3.2 Trnh by m s hnh hin th ca cc thit b trn s , mi m s s phi tng ng vi tng hnh hin th thit b trn mn hnh. Vic thng nht cc m ny v cc hnh hin th tng ng s cho php thng nht vic hin th cc thit b trn tt c cc trm. Bn cnh thng qua m vic thay i hnh dng hin th theo tnh trng lm vic ca thit b (m bo tnh ng v trc quan ca giao din) v theo cc k hiu tiu chun ca th gii v ca quc gia cng s tr nn d dng. Bng ny cng cho php b sung cc k hiu mi. tblldlmg ID 0 1 2 3 11 12 13 21 23 30 40 41 ... 255 Kxd khong xac dinh
52

K hiu DCL DCL R2L DCL R2R DCL H2L Cset H R2L Cset H L2R Cset V H2L MCH MCV MCHB MbaYYD MbaYDD

Ghi ch Dao cach ly duong day

Mass Dao cach ly tiep dia (R2L) Mass Dao cach ly tiep dia (L2R) Mass Dao cach ly tiep dia (H2L) Chong set (H2L) Chong set (L2H) Chong set (H2L) May cat nam ngang May cat thang dung May cat hop bo MBA sao-tamgiac- tamgiac MBA sao-tamgiac-tamgiac

Bng 3.3. Trnh by cc trng thi c th c ca thit b. Lu l v l do gim thiu thng tin i vi ngi vn hnh nn khi hin th khng c s tng ng mt-mt t m s trng thi sang m s hin th. Tuy nhin vic c cc m s trng thi cng s gip ch cho cc chng trnh hin th, theo di h thng c c cc giao din, v bo co linh ng, thng nht. Bng m ny cng cho php b sung. Bng 3.3: M s cc trng thi c th c ca thit b tblldState ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 K hiu On Off Dis OnFullnf OffFullnf Ghi ch M s khi thit b trng thi On M s khi thit b trng thi Off M s khi thit b trang thi v hiu ho M s khi thit b trng thi On v y thng tin M s khi thit b trng thi Off v y thng tin OnBadCom M s ca thit b trng thi ng thng tin b hng, trng thi cui cng ca thit b OffBadCom M s khi thit b trng thi ng thng tin b hng, trng thi cui cng ca thit b l trng thi Off .... 255 Kxd khng xc nh

Bng 3.4. Trnh by m s cc cp in p c th c trong h thng, cng c tnh nng m rng.

53

Bng 3.4: M s cc cp in p tblldTension ID 0 1 K hiu 110KV 22KV Ghi ch Cap dien ap 110KV Cap dien ap 22KV

tblldTension ID 2 3 ... 255 Kxd Khong xac dinh K hiu 10KV 22KV Ghi ch Cap dien ap 10KV Cap dien ap 6KV

Bng 3.5 trnh by cc dng my bin p c trong h thng. Bng 3.5: M s dng my bin p tblldTension ID 0 2 ... 255 Kxd Khng xc nh K hiu YYD YDD Ghi ch Sao sao tam gic Sao tam gic - tam gic

54

3.3. Cc bng thng tin Qua kho st nhu cu trong iu kin vn hnh ca trm to c cc thng k cc thng tin cu hnh cn quan tm i vi quan tm i vi cc loi thit b c trnh by trong Bng 3.6. Trn c s ny chng ti lp cc bng c s d liu cn thit cho vic qun l trm. Bng 3.6. Cc thng tin cu hnh c bn ca cc thit b trong mt trm in hnh Loi thit b Tn Cp in p My bin p My ct Dao cch ly x x x x x x x x x T du dy OLTC {Tap min/Tap max} Yu cu lin ng? {Danh sch cc thit b cn lin ng v trng thi ca chng khi thao tc trn thit b } My ct hp x b Chng st ng dy x x Thng tin khc

3.3.1. Cc thng tin cu hnh c nh Cc thit b cha trong cc bng thng tin cu hnh trong trm u c cc trng thng tin chung l m sn s th t hin th. M s thit b theo l thuyt, thun li trong qun l, khi kt ni mng ton h thng mi thit b s ch c mt m s duy nht. Trong ti ny chng ti v d m s cc thit b c nh s bt u t 0. M s th t hin th ch nhm mc ch phc v ring cho vic hin th ca tng trm, c th c thay i khi thit k chi tit.

55

3.3.1.1. Bng thng tin chung ca tt c cc thit b trong trm Thng tin ca tt c cc thit b trong trm c trnh by trong Bng 3.7 Bng 3.7: Cu hnh chung ca tt c cc thit b trong trm Cu hnh Tb M ID Tn 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 431 491 493 495 497 499 TU41 476 471 473 TU11 42 12 479 TU13 42 14 441 15 433 16 973 17 975 MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 10 KV MCHB 10 KV
56

Cu hnh Tb M /p ID Tn 18 977 19 675 20 979 21 933 22 971 23 TU10-1 24 900 25 942 26 974 27 972 28 TU10-2 29 932 30 932-3 31 670 32 671 33 TU-61 34 673 35 675 M Tb MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB M /p 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 10 KV 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV

Tb

MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV MCHB 22 KV

10 475

Cu hnh Tb M ID Tn M Tb MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MC MC MC DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL /p 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV 6 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV ID

Cu hnh Tb M Tn M Tb /p 57 171-75 58 171-15 59 171-14 60 131-08 61 100-15 62 100-25 63 172-76 64 172-75 65 172-25 66 172-24 67 132-28 68 133-38 69 133-08 70 132-08 71 T1 72 T2 73 T3 75 PBO6-T1 76 PBO6-T1 77 PBO22-T1 DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV DCLMass 110 KV MBA MBA MBA Cset Cset Cset 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV

36 677 37 679 38 600 39 632 40 672 41 674 42 676 43 TU-62 44 171 45 172 46 100 47 171-7 48 171-1 49 131-1 50 100-1 51 100-2 52 172-7 53 171-2 54 131-2 55 133-3 56 171-76

74 PBO110-T1 Cset

DCLMass 110 KV

57

Cu hnh Tb ID Tn M Tb Cset Cset Cset Cset Cset M /p 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV ID 78 PBO110-T2 79 PBCO-T2 80 PBO6-T2 81 PBO22-T2 82 PBO110-T3

Cu hnh Tb Tn M Tb Cset Cset Cset DD DD 83 PBCO-T3 84 PB06-T3 85 PBO22-T3 86 174-E6 87 173-E6 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV 110 KV

M /p

3.3.1.2. Thng tin cu hnh ca cc my ct c trong trm Bng 3.8 trnh by cc thng tin cu hnh ca cc my ct trong trm. Cc thng tin ny bao gm: my ct c lp t trn ng dy c tnh nng t ng li hay khng? My ct c lin ng khi thao tc hay khng? V tnh lin ng ca my ct rt khc nhau tu thuc vo cu hnh c th ca tng trm v v tr ca tng my ct nn chng ti thit k chng nm mt bng ring (Bng 3.10). Trng Tn ch mang tnh cht lng tng trng d theo di, trng ny khng tn ti trong bng khi cn thit. Bng 3.8: Thng tin cu hnh ca cc my ct c trong trm Thng tin cu hnh ca Mc C ID Tn 0 1 2 3 4 5 Ar C lin ng? No No No No No No
58

Thng tin cu hnh ca Mc ID 6 7 8 9 Tn TU-41 476 471 473 C Ar No No No No Yes Yes C lin ng? No No No No No No

431 No 491 No 493 No 495 No 497 No 499 No

10 475 11 TU-42

Thng tin cu hnh ca Mc C ID Tn Ar Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No 12 479 13 TU-42 14 441 15 433 16 973 17 975 18 977 19 675 20 979 21 933 22 971 TU1023 1 24 900 25 942 26 974 27 972 TU1028 2 No No No No No No C lin ng? No No No No No No No No No No No ID

Thng tin cu hnh ca Mc Tn C Ar No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No C lin ng? No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No

30 932-3 31 670 32 671 33 TU-61 34 673 35 675 36 677 37 679 38 600 39 632 40 672 41 674 42 676 43 TU-62 44 171 45 172 46 100

3.3.1.3.Thng tin cu hnh ca cc dao cch ly Bng 3.9 trnh by cc thng tin cu hnh ca dao cch ly c trong trm. Trng Tn ch c trnh by d theo di ch khng c lu trong bng thit k.
59

Bng 3.9: Thng tin cu hnh ca cc dao cch ly Thng tin cu hnh ca Mc C lin ID Tn 17147 7 17148 1 13149 1 10050 1 10051 2 17252 7 53 172 54 2 Yes Yes No 60 61 62 131-08 100-15 100-25 No No No 68 69 70 133-38 133-08 132-08 No No No Yes 59 171-14 No 67 132-28 No Yes 58 171-15 Yes 66 172-24 No No 57 171-75 Yes 65 172-25 No Yes 56 171-76 No 64 172-75 No Yes 55 133-3 No 63 172-76 No ng? ID Tn Thng tin cu hnh ca Mc C lin ng? ID Tn Thng tin cu hnh ca Mc C lin ng?

Trong bng 3.9, trng th nht tng ng vi m thit b trong trm (nhng c hin th di dng tn thit b), trng th hai cho bit dao cch ly c m c lin ng hay khng

60

3.3.1.4. Thng tin lin ng Bng 3.10 lu cc thng tin lin ng ca cc thit b trong trm. i vi thng tin lin ng ca thit b ta cn c bao gm: - M s thit b c lin ng - M s cc thit b cn kim tra lin ng khi ta mun chuyn trng thi ca thit b c lin ng t On sang Off v ngc li. m bo cc thng tin chng ti thit k thm Bng 3.10. bng 3.10 va tho mn tnh m cho php b sung thng tin lin ng vo h thng mt cch r rng v ng thi thun li cho vic truy vn v m bo tnh ton vn ca thng tin. Gii thiu cc trng trong bng - Trng ID l trng m thit b c lin ng. Nh ta cn thy trong bng, v mt thit b c th lin ng n nhiu thit b khc nn m thit b c th xut hin nhiu ln trong bng. - Trng Trng thi 1 y l trng thi ca thit b m ngi vn hnh mun chuyn trng thi ca thit b n trng thi . - Trng m s thit b c lin ng n l m s ca thit b c lin ng vi thit b ang xt trong bng chng ti hin th tn thit b d theo di. - Trng trng thi 2 l trng thi m thit b c lin quan n phi tho th thao tc thay i trng thi ca thit b m ID mi hp

61

Bng 3.10: Thng tin lin ng ca cc thit b Thng tin lin ng ca cc thit b M s ID Tn Trng thi 1 thit b c lin ng 44 171 45 172 46 100 47 171-7 48 171-1 50 100-1 51 100-2 52 172-7 53 172-2 17157 75 17158 15 44 171 44 171 44 171 45 172 45 172 45 172 On On On On On On On 171 171-1 171-75 171-15 172-2 171-75 100-15 Off On On Off On On On
62

Thng tin lin ng ca cc thit b M s thit b c lin ng 171-75 171 171-76 171-75 171 100-15 100 100 100-25 100 172-76 172-75 172 172-24 172 171-75 Trn g thi 2 On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On

Tr ng thi 2 Off Off Off On On On On On Off On 47 47 48 48 48 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 53 53 171 172 100 171-7 171-1 100-1 100-2 172-7 172-2 17175 17115 171 171 171 172 172 On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On ID Tn Trng thi 1

On On On On On On On On On On

171-7 172-7 100-15 171 171 100 100 172 172-25 171

46 1000 46 100 46 100 47 171-7

On On On On

100-25 100-1 100-2 171-76

Off On On On

3.3.1.5.Thng tin cu hnh ca my bin p Thng tin cu hnh ca my bin p gm cc thng tin v dng u dy ca my bin p, my bin p c tnh nng iu p di ti (OLTC) hay khng, nu c th nc iu p thp nht v cao nht l bao nhiu. Bng 3.11. Thng tin cu hnh ca my bin p Cu hnh Mba Dng my bin ID 71 YDD 72 YYD 73 YDD p Tap Min -10 -10 -10 Tap max 10 10 10 Co OLTC? Yes Yes Yes

3.3.1.6. Tng hp thng tin cu hnh ca trm Tng hp cc bng thng tin ring v thng tin chung v cu hnh ca h thng ta c c Bng 3.12 tng hp thng tin cu hnh ca cc thit b trong trm.

63

Bng 3.12: Tng hp thng tin cu hnh ca cc thit b trong trm Tng hp thng tin v cu hnh ca trm ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tn 431 491 493 495 497 499 TU-41 476 471 473 M Tb M /p (KV) C OLTC? No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No Mc C Ar? No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No c Dcl c Dng Tap Tap Mba? Min Max

L? L?

MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22 MCHB 22

10 475 11 TU-42 12 479 13 TU-42 14 441

64

Tng hp thng tin v cu hnh ca trm M ID Tn M Tb /p (KV) 15 433 16 973 17 975 18 977 19 675 20 979 21 993 22 971 24 900 25 942 26 794 27 972 29 932 30 932-3 MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB 22 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 C OLTC? Mc C Ar? No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No c No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Dcl c Dng Tap Tap Mba? Min Max

L? L?

23 TU10-1 MCHB

28 TU10-2 MCHB

65

Tng hp thng tin v cu hnh ca trm M ID Tn M Tb /p (KV) 15 433 16 973 17 975 18 977 19 675 20 979 21 993 22 971 24 900 25 942 26 794 27 972 29 932 30 932-3 MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB 22 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 C OLTC? Mc C Ar? No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No c No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Dcl c Dng Tap Tap Mba? Min Max

L? L?

23 TU10-1 MCHB

28 TU10-2 MCHB

66

Tng hp thng tin v cu hnh ca trm M ID Tn M Tb MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MCHB MC MC MC /p (KV)6 31 670 32 671 33 TU-61 34 673 35 674 36 677 37 679 38 600 39 632 40 672 41 674 42 676 43 TU-62 44 171 45 172 46 100 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 110 110 110 C OLTC? Mc C Ar? No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No c No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Dcl c Dng Tap Tap Mba? Min Max

L? L?

67

Tng hp thng tin v cu hnh ca trm M ID Tn M Tb DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL DCL /p (KV)6 47 171-7 48 171-1 49 131-1 50 100-1 51 100-2 52 172-7 53 172-2 54 131-2 55 133-3 56 171-76 57 171-75 58 171-15 59 171-14 60 131-08 61 100-15 62 100-25 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 C OLTC? Mc C Ar? c Dcl c Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No No Dng Tap Tap Mba? Min Max

L? L?

DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110

68

Tng hp thng tin v cu hnh ca trm M ID Tn M Tb /p (KV)6 63 172-76 64 172-75 65 172-25 66 172-24 67 132-28 68 133-38 69 133-08 70 132-08 71 T1 72 T2 73 T3 75 PBCO-T1 76 PBO5-T1 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 DCLMass 110 MBA MBA MBA Cset Cset 110 110 110 110 110 110 Yes Yes Yes C OLT C? C Ar? Mc c Dcl c No No No No No No No No YDD -10 YYD YDD 10 -10 10 -10 10 Dng Tap Tap Mba? Min Max

L? L?

74 PBO110-T1 Cset

69

Tng hp thng tin v cu hnh ca trm M ID Tn M Tb Cset Cset Cset Cset Cset Cset Cset Cset Cset /p (KV)6 77 PBCO22-T1 79 PBCO-T2 80 PBCO6-T2 81 PBO22-T2 82 PBO110-T3 83 PBCO-T3 84 PCO6-T3 85 PBO22-T3 86 174-E6 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 78 PBCO110-T2 Cset C OLT C? C Ar? Mc c Dcl c Dng Tap Tap Mba? Min Max

L? L?

70

Tng hp thng tin v cu hnh ca trm M ID Tn M Tb 110 /p (KV)6 87 173-E6 C OLTC ? C Ar? Mc c Dcl c Dng Tap Tap Mba? Min Max

L? L?

3.2.2. Cc thng tin thay i (thng tin tnh trng ca thit b) Bn cnh cc thn tin cu hnh ca cc thit b trong mng, th chng trnh SCADA cng cn c cc thng tin v trng thi vn hnh ca h thng lm c s cho vic qun l, iu khin v hin th thng tin. Xut pht t nghin cu cc thao tc cn tc ng ln cc thit b (c tng kt trong Bng 3.13) chng ti a ra cc bng thng tin cn thu thp t cc thit b c trnh by cc trang sau: - Bng 3.14: Thng tin thay i ca my ct trong trm - Bng 3.15: Thng tin thay i ca dao cch ly - Bng 3.16: Thng tin thay i ca my bin p - Bng 3.17: Thng tin thay i ca thit b chng st Khc vi phn thng tin c nh trong cc bng thng tin thay i chng ti khng tch ring d liu chung v ring gia cc loi thit b. iu kin ny xut pht t trong thc t khi lm my tnh ti bn iu khin truyn thng truyn v nhn bn tin vi cc thit b khc nhau th ta cn phi truyn v ghi nhn c hai loi thng tin chung v ring ca tng loi thit b.

71

Bng 3.13: Thng k cc thao tc cn tc ng ln cc thit b Loi thit Thay b vic (On/Off) My p My ct My hp b Dao ly Chng st x 3.3.2.1. Thng tin thay i ca my ct Cc thng tin thay i bo gm gi tr dng in (I), cng sut tc dng (P), cng sut biu kin (Q) ca cc ng dy. Trong thc t cc s liu ny s gn lin vi thit b o lng v truyn v theo ng dy truyn thng. Thong khi thit k phn mm v mi ng dy s tng ng vi mt my ct nn chng ti xem cc thng tin ny nh l thng tin trng thi ca my ct. Bng 3.14 trnh by cc thng tin trng thi ca cc my ct vi cc gi tr gi nh. cch x x x ct x x x x x x x bin x x/o(10) TLTC Thay (Cho cho php x i Kim lin Chuyn ch c khin tay) x x iu I/P/ (t Q i ch (Tng/ ch Ar tra lm gim) php/khng ng

ng/bng

72

Bng 3.14: Thng tin thay i ca my ct trong trm Thng tin thay i ca MC Trng ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tn 431 491 493 495 497 499 TU41 476 471 473 TU11 42 12 479 TU13 42 14 441 15 433 On On On aut aut aut On On On 105 106 107 223 224 225 303 304 305 On On aut aut On On 103 104 221 222 301 302 On On On On On aut aut aut aut aut On On On On On 98 99 100 101 102 216 217 218 219 220 296 297 298 299 300 On On Off On On On thi aut aut aut aut aut aut Ch /k On On Kxd On Off On Ch Ar I(A) P(Pw) Q(Kvar) 92 93 0 95 96 97 174 211 0 213 214 215 273 291 0 293 294 295

10 475

73

Thng tin thay i ca MC Trng ID Tn On On On On On On On On On On Off On Off thi Off aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut 33 TU-66 34 673 35 675 36 677 37 679 38 600 39 632 40 672 41 674 42 676 43 TU-62 44 171 45 172 46 100 Ch /k On On On On On On On On On On On On On On Ch Ar I(A) P(Pw) Q(Kvar) 0 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 0 136 137 0 0 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 0 254 255 0 0 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 0 334 335 0

74

Sau y l thng tin chi tit v s liu trong bng: - Trng ID l trng ho lin kt bng vi cc bng thng tin khc trong trm - Trng tn c trnh by d theo di ch trong thit k khng l gi tr khng c lu trong bng. - Trng thi nhn hai gi tr On/Off tng ng vi tnh trng lm vic hin hnh ca my ct. - Dng iu khin nhn hai gi tr man v aut tng ng vi ch iu khin hin hnh ca my ct (bng tay/ti ch hoc t ng/t xa) - dng t ng l ch lm vic hin hnh ca ch ng li ca ng dy (nu ng dy c h tr tnh nng t ng li). - I(A), P(Kw), Q(Kvar): l gi tr hin hnh ca dng in bng (A), cng sut tc dng tnh bng (Kw), cng sut phn khng tnh bng (Kvar). Cc gi tr trong bng ch mang tnh cht tng trng. Cc thng tin ny cng l c s xy dng cc th ph ti ngy, thng v nm sau ny. 3.3.2.2. Thng thng tin thay i cch ly Cc thng tin thay i ca dao cch ly trong trm c trnh by trong Bng 3.15 bo gm thng tin trng thi v ch iu khin.

75

Bng 3.15: Thng tin thay i ca dao cch ly Thng tin thay i ca MC ID Tn Trng thi Ch /k aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut ID 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Thng tin thay i ca MC Tn 17114 13108 10015 10025 17276 17275 17225 17224 13228 13338 13308 13208 Trng thi Ch /k Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut

47 171-7 On 48 171-1 On 49 131-1 On 50 100-1 On 51 100-2 On 52 172-7 On 53 172-2 On 54 131-2 On 55 133-3 17156 76 17157 75 17558 15 On Off Off Off

3.3.2.3. Thng tin thay i ca my bin p Thng tin thay i ca my bin p bao gm trng thi, dng iu khin, trng thi ca OLTC (On/Off), dng iu khin ca OLTC (t ng/bng tay) v nc iu p hin ti.

76

Bng 3.16: Thng tin thay i ca my bin p Thng tin thay i ca Mba Id Tn 71 T1 72 T2 73 T3 Trng thi On On On Dng /k man aut aut On On On Trng thi OLTC aut aut aut Dng t/k OLTC aut aut aut Nc iu p

3.3.2.4. Thng tin thay i cc thit b chng st Cc thng tin thay i ca thit b chng st l trng thi hin ti c thit b On/Off Bng 3.17: Thng tin thay i ca thit b chng st Thn tin thay i ca thit b chng st ID Tn Trng thi Off Off Off Off Off Off Off ID Thng tin thay i ca thit b chng st Tn Trng thi Off Off Off Off Off

74 PBO110-T1 75 PBCO-T1 76 PBO6-T1 77 PBO22-T1 78 PBO110-T2 79 PBCO-T1 80 PBO06-T2

81 PBO22-T2 82 PBO110-T3 83 PBCO-T3 84 PBO6-T3 85 PBO22-T3

77

3.3.2.5. Tng kt cc thng tin thay i ca thit b Tng kt li c bng s liu sau: Bng 3.18: Tng hp s liu thay i ca cc thit b trong trm Tng hp s liu thay i ca cc thit b Tn ID thit b 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 431 491 493 495 497 499 TU41 476 471 473 TU11 42 12 479 aut aut On On On On 103 104 221 222 301 302 aut aut aut aut aut On On On On On On On On On On 98 99 100 101 102 216 217 218 219 220 296 297 298 299 300 Dng Trng /k aut aut aut aut aut aut thi On On On On On On Ch Ar On On Kxd On Off On Dng OLTC Dng /k OLTC Nc iu p I (A) 92 93 0 95 96 97 P Q

(Kw) (Kvar) 174 211 0 213 214 215 273 291 0 293 294 295

10 475

78

Tng hp s liu thay i ca cc thit b Tn ID thit b 13 TU-42 14 441 15 433 16 973 17 975 18 977 19 675 20 979 21 933 22 971 24 900 25 942 26 974 27 972 Dng Trng /k aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut thi On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On Ch Ar On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On Dng OLTC Dng /k Nc iu I P Q

OLTC p

(A) (Kw) (Kvar) 105 223 106 224 107 225 108 226 109 227 110 228 111 229 112 230 113 231 114 232 115 233 116 234 117 235 118 236 119 237 120 238 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318

23 Tu10-1 aut

28 Tu10-2 aut

79

Tng hp s liu thay i ca cc thit b Tn ID thit b 29 932 30 932-3 31 670 32 671 33 Tu-61 34 673 35 675 36 677 37 679 38 600 39 632 40 672 41 674 42 676 44 171 Dng Trng /k aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut thi On On On On On Off On On On On On On On On Off On Ch Ar On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On On Dng OLTC Dng /k Nc iu I P Q

OLTC p

(A) (Kw) (Kvar) 121 239 122 240 123 241 124 242 125 243 126 244 127 245 128 246 129 247 130 248 131 249 132 250 133 251 134 252 0 0 136 254 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 0 334

43 TU-62 aut

80

Tng hp s liu thay i ca cc thit b Tn ID thit b 45 172 46 100 47 171-7 48 171-1 49 131-1 50 100-1 51 100-2 52 172-7 53 172-2 54 131-2 55 133-3 Dng Trng /k aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut thi On Of On On On Off On On On On On Off Off Off Off Off Ch Ar On On Dng OLTC Dng /k OLTC Nc iu p I P Q

(A) (Kw) (Kvar) 137 255 0 0 335 0

56 171-76 aut 57 171-75 aut 58 171-15 aut 59 171-14 aut 60 131-08 aut

81

Tng hp s liu thay i ca cc thit b Tn ID thit b 61 100-15 62 100-25 63 172-76 64 172-75 65 172-25 66 172-24 67 132-28 68 133-38 69 133-08 70 132-08 71 T1 72 T2 73 T3 PBO11074 T1 PBCO75 T1 aut Off aut Off Dng Trng /k aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut man aut aut thi Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off On On On On On On aut aut aut 2 -3 0 Ch Ar On On Dng OLTC Dng /k OLTC Nc iu p I P Q

(A) (Kw) (Kvar)

82

Tng hp s liu thay i ca cc thit b ID Tn thit b Dng Trng /k aut aut aut aut aut aut aut aut man thi Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Ch Ar Dng OLTC Dng /k OLTC Nc iu p I P Q

(A) (Kw) (Kvar)

76 PBO6-T 77 PBO22-T1 79 PBCO-T2 80 PBO6-T2 81 PBO22-T2 82 PBO22-T2 84 PBO-T3 85 PBO6-T3 86 PBO22-T3

78 PBO110-T2 aut

83 PBO110-T3 aut

Tng hp s liu thay i ca cc thit b I D Tn thit b Dn g /k Trn g thi Ch Ar Dng OLT C Dng Nc /k OLT C i u p I (A ) P ) Q )

(Kw (Kvar

87 173-E6

83

3.4. Tng kt s lng v loi cc thit b Ngoi cc thng tin cu hnh v thay i trn, thun li trong vic thit k chng ti a ra Bng 3.10 l bng tng kt s lng cc thit b trong trm theo cp in p v loi thit b. Bng 3.19: Thng k s lng cc thit b trong trm Cp in p Loi thit b My bin p My ct Dao cch ly Chng st Tng 110 KV 3 3 9 12 27 16 15 13 16 15 13 22 KV 10 KV 6 KV Tng 3 27 9 12 71

84

3.5. Cc truy vn ch yu ca h c s d liu p ng cc yu cu vn hnh v qun l t xa, h tr cho vic hin th v theo di s vn hnh ca h thng, h c s d liu phi m bo cung cp c truy vn sau: - Truy vn v cc s kin trong trm. Kt qu ca truy vn ny phi cung cp cho ngi vn hnh v nh qun l h thng cc thng tin b ch: S kin g? Thi im xy ra s kin V tr ni xy ra thit b (thit b, cp in p) Cc thng tin b sung khc tu thuc vo s kin v thit b dng cung cp thng tin (y l cc thng tin khng bt buc nhng c khuyn khch b sung vo c s d liu - Truy vn v cc s c c trong trm. Kt qu ca truy vn ny phi cung cp cho ngi vn hnh v nh qun l h thng cc thng tin b ch nh: S c g? Thi im xy ra s c. V tr ni xy ra s c (thit b, cp in p) Thit b pht hin s c Cc thng tin v gii php khc phc s c. Cc thng tin b sung khc tu thuc vo s kin v thit b bo hiu v cung cp thng tin (y l cc thng tin khng bt buc, nhng c khuyn khch b sung vo c s d liu). - Truy vn cc thng tin v tnh trng vn hnh cua h thng. Cc thng tin ny bao gm thi gian lm vic trong nm, tnh trng lm

85

vic qua thit b, th ph ti (ngy, thng nm)... Cc thng tin v thi gian lm vic trong nm, tnh trng lm vic ca cc thit b ph thuc nhiu vo thit b ca tng nh sn xut c th nn chng khng c cp n trong bi vit ny. Trong c s d liu ca chng ti vic truy vn thng tin I, P, Q ca cc ng dy lp th ph ti ngy c kho st k. Vic xy dng cc truy vn tng t lp cc th ph ti thng v nm hon ton l vn tng t. Yu cu ca cc truy vn ny phi h tr cc truy vn theo cc tham s: Tn ng dy Loi th ph ti (ngy, thng, nm) Thng tin b sung (i vi th ph ti ngy l ngy, i vi th ph ti thng l thng, i vi th ph ti nm l nm).

86

Chng 4. Trin khai thit k h thng truyn thng ni b

4.1. M u
Yu cu ca h thng truyn thng l n gin tin cy, chu k truyn ti thng tin nhanh v tng thch cao vi nhiu thit b hin c. Da trn cc yu cu trn chng ti la chn truyn thng theo chun Profibus DP vi cc cu hnh sau: - H thng mono-master v h thng ny cho tc nhanh nht v chng ti xt thy h thng khng cn ch nhiu master. - DP Master clas 1 (DPM1) - H thng s c chia thnh hai cp, tng ng vi s qun l ca PLC (cc thit b in p nh hn 110KV) v cp chu s qun l trc tip ca my tnh (cc thit b in p 110KV v c PLC). - Vic truyn d liu s dng ch truyn d liu theo k Tt c d liu ca trm c lu tr ti my tn trung tm. My tnh ny gi cc chc nng sau, iu khin gim st h thng, qun l ti ch, phc v cung cp thng tin cho cc my tnh cp cao hn (c kt ni thng qua mng intranet hay internet theo chun truyn thng TPC/IP bng cch phc v cc truy vn SQL qua mng. xy dng c h thng truyn thng chng ti tham kho cc h thng chun ca nh cung cp gii php Siemens. Hnh 4.2, Hnh 4.3 trnh by mt s gii php m chng ti tham kho. Qua cc gii php ny chng ti

87

l chn gii php Hnh 4.5 vi mt s thay i nh b sung thm h thng con do PLC qun l.

88

Hnh 4.1: Kin trc phn tn ca cc h bo v v h diu khin hin i

89

Hnh 4.2 : M hnh mt trm cao p in hnh

90

Hnh 4.3 : Mt h thng trm vi cc my tnh lm nhim v giao din, cc h thng truyn thng v cc relais s Hnh 4.3. M hnh tham kho c bn ca chng ti. trong ti ca chng ti my tnh s lm nhim v in n cc bo co, lu tr d liu, v truyn tin i xa (nu c thit lp ch ny) v phc v truy vn thng tin t xa.

91

Hnh 4.4: Mi lin h gia cc cp iu khin Hnh 4.4. Trnh by cc mi quan h gia cc cp iu khin ca mt h thng in hnh. Ta c th thy p ng cc nhu cu ti thiu th ta c th b qua cc ng truyn ERTU v RTU, thay mem bng mt thit k ni Intranet hoc Internet trc tuyn 24h/24h. Bn cnh my tnh trung tm lm nhim v phi hp bo v v iu khin hon ton c th kt hp vi nhim v tp trung d liu v ph v truy vn.

92

4.2. Cu trc mng


4.2.1. M u

PLC

PROFIBUS-DP

Cc trm th ng, Slave

Hnh 4.5. Cu trc truyn thng ca h h tr cho cc thit b thc t, chng ti thit k h thng gm c mt my tnh ch v mt PLC.PLC lm nhim v qun l cc my cc hp b v thit b lm vic vi ng dy in p nh hn 110KV. phc tp trong chng trnh ca PLC thc t s khng ln v thit b ny phn ln cho chung mt cu hnh. Vic thu thp d liu v kim sot thng tin gia PLC v thit b m n kim sot s c PLC tin hnh c lp v c lu tr vo b nh tm ca n c th cung cp cho my tnh ch khi my tnh ny yu cu. PLC c xem nh l mt thit b Slave trong mng ni vi my tnh.My tnh s ra lnh cho PLC PLC thc hin thao tc cn thit v yu cu PLC cung cp cc thng tin cn thit. 4.2.2. Giao thc mng S dng PROFIBUS kt ni cc thit b trng vi cc thit b iu khin v gim st. H thng c thit k nh mt h thng mt ch. L do la chn PROFIBUS l v n l mt h thng nhiu ch (Multi-Master), cho php cc thit b iu khin, cc trm v cc thit b hin th cng lm vic trn cng mng bus.
93

Trong mng PROFBUS cc thit b c phn thnh hai nhm: nhm thit b ch (master, vi mng ca chng ta, ch c duy nht mt thit b ch) c th gi thng tin ln bus v nhm thit b ti l cc thit b trng (vo/ra iu khin thit b, cc thit b o lng) chng ch c php xc nhn hoc tr li mt yu cu tr trm ch. Mng c s dng PROFIBUS-DP v y l chun thng dng i vi cc thit b trng v chun ny c thit k ti u cho vic kt ni cc thit b trng v chun ny c thit k ti u cho vic kt ni cc thit b trng vi my tnh iu khin. Vic truyn dn (lp vt l theo mi hnh I) c th hin vi chun RS-485 (EN 50170) (xem thm ph lc C). Vic truy nhp bus c thc hin theo ch ch/t (Master/Slave) v ch ny ch thch hp vi vic trao i d liu gia mt thit b iu khin vi cc thit b trng s dng mng DP, Bng 4.1 tng kt cc tham s tuyn thng trm. Bng 4.1: Tng kt cc tham s truyn thng Tham s Kin trc giao thc Kiu thit b DP Truyn dn Tc Chiu di ti a Truy nhp bus Cu trc mng Gi tr PROFBUS-DP DP-Master (Class 1 (trm ch) DP-Slave (trm t) RS-485 19.2 kBit/s 1200 Master/Slave Hnh sao

Dch v truyn d liu SDN, SDA, SRD, CSRD

94

4.3. Khi qut v h bo v Trong phn ny chng ti s n c mt vi s bo v in hnh cng vi cc rle s i km. Trn c s cng vi cc ti liu v cu hnh, ci t v cc bng m lnh, cu trc bng tin chng ta s xc nh c s hot ng trong thc t.

Hnh 4.6: S h thng bo v my bin p in hnh vi cc rle s

95

Hnh 4.7: S h thng bo v ng dy

96

Hnh 4.8: s bo v ng dy c trang b tnh nng t ng li

97

Chng 5. Trin khai thit k h thng truyn thng lin thng gia cc trm

5.1. t vn 5.1.1. Cc vn hin nay m h thng cn gii quyt 5.1.1.1. Vn n gin ho cc mi quan h thng tin trong trm Hin nay cc h thng thng tin trong cc trm in thoi in ni chung v cc trm 110KV ni ring rt a dng v chng loi v tnh nng. S a dng c ngun gc t qu trnh pht trin ca cc trm. Cc thit b trong trm c nng cp sa cha v thay mi vo cc thi im khc nhau vi cc cng ngh khc nhau. V vy chng lm vic c vi nhau ngi ta thit k cc b lin thng m bo vic tch hp mun thit b mi vo h thng. Cch tip cn thng lm hin nay c trnh by trong hnh 5.1. Nh ta thy s lng cc kt ni l rt ln nu ta c n thit b v ta mun xy dng h thng lin thng gia cc thit b ny th ta phi cn n(n-1)/2 quan h giao tip. Cc mi lin h ny s khin h thng tr nn phc tp, km n nh v kh khn trong vic qun l, vn hnh v nng cp, hn ch kh nng s dng khai thc ti ta tnh nng ca chng trnh v ng dng.

98

ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip

ng dng

ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip

Giao tip

ng dng

ng dng

Giao tip

ng dng

Giao tip

Hnh 5.1: M hnh kt ni gia cc thit b v ng dng c s dng tng cc trm hin nay V vy vn t ra l c cch no lm n gin ho h thng, m hnh no ca h thng l thch hp nht to nn mi lin lc n gin trong vic thm mi nng cp h thng. y chnh l vn th nht ca h thng hin nay. M hnh ca bi ton c biu din hnh 5.2.
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

ng dng

ng dng

?
Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip
ng dng

ng dng

ng dng

Giao tip

ng dng

Giao tip

ng dng

ng dng

Hnh 5.2: Minh ho cho nhu cu n gin vic giao tip gia cc ng dng phn tn trong h thng

99

5.1.1.2. Vn lin thng gia cc trm vi nhau v vi cp trn Cc trm c xy dng vo cc thi k khc nh tng ng vi cc th h khc nhau ca thit b v cng ngh. Hn th na do cc nh sn xut cung cp sn phm l cc hng khc nhau v v l do cnh tranh nn vn lin thng giao tip gia cc trm trong mt h thng ln l rt kh khn (hin nay vic lin thng ch yu c thc hin bng ng in thoi). T thc t ny chng ta thy xut hin yu cu tm kim mt m hnh mng thng tin no cho php truyn thng tin nhanh chng, chnh xc tin cy gia cc trm vi nhau. H thng thng tin ny phi p ng c cc yu cu: - Tnh kh thi cao - Lm vic trn mt pham vi a l rng ln - Cho php tuyn d liu di nhiu hnh thc a dng, m bo h tr tt cho ngi vn hnh qun l (m bo lin lc, gim st, khai thc d liu t xa). - Tnh bo mt cao Bn cnh vic xc nhn mng thn tin cho php lm vic vi tt c cac trm ta cn cn phi xc nh cch thc m cc trm lm vic kt ni vi mng thng tin ny nh th no. Tm li vn lin thng gia cc trm vi nhau v vi cc trm cp trn c phn nh thnh hai vn : - Vn th nht: xc nh dng mng truyn thng. - Vn th hai: xc nh m hnh giao tip gia cc trm vi mng truyn thng vn th nht. M hnh ca bi ton c trnh by trong hnh 5.3

100

ng dng

ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip

ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip

ng dng

Giao tip

Hnh 5.3: Minh ho nhu cu ci tin cch t chc trao i d liu gia cc trm in hin nay trong h thng 5.1.2. Hng gii quyt 5.1.2.1. Vn n gin ho cc mi quan h thng tin trong trm gii quyt vn n gin ho thng tin trong trm chng ti xut phng n s dng mt phn t chung lin kt tt c cc thng tin trong trm li vi nhau. Cc phn t (bao gm thit b, ng dng) khc ch cn dm bo phi giao tip vi phn t chung ny. Vic lin thng v m bo s linh ng hot ng ca h thng trc mt trong giao on thit k s c p dng di dng phn mm. Trong tng lai nu nhu cu thc t ln phn t chung ny c th chuyn sang dng phn cng p ng nhu cu tc ca h thng. Trong phng n c chng ti phn t chung ny l mt h qun l c s d liu. H ny cho php cc phn t giao tip vi n c th khai thc d liu m chng cn mt cch hiu qu (ny theo ng dng, h c th cung cp s liu d tr sn trong vng m hoc ng vai tr nh b dn ng li yu cu sang thit b cn thit. Hnh 5.4

101

trnh by m hnh phng n s dng phn t CSDL chung gii quyt bi ton n gin ho mi quan h thng tin trong trm.
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

ng dng

ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip
ng dng

ng dng

CSDL

ng dng

Giao tip

ng dng

Giao tip

ng dng

ng dng

Hnh 5.4: M hnh phng n gii quyt bi ton n gin ho cc mi quan h thng tin trong trm 5.1.2.2. Vn lin thng gia cc trm vi nhau v vi cp trn Vn lin thng gia cc trm vi nhau v cp trn c thc hin theo s trnh by Hnh 5.5. vi phng n ny ta s c c li ch sau: - Khong cch a l gia cc trm khng l vn . - Kinh ph cho vic thit lp mng thp. - tin cy (xt v mt m bo lin lc lin tc)cao. - Cc dng d liu c h tr truyn trn internet l rt a dng m bo p ng tt yu cu truyn d liu. - Tnh bo mt c m bo v h tr bi cc nh pht trin trn th gii (hin ti c th s dng phi bc tng la, SSL, m ho cng khai hoc cc gii php khc c s dng trong thng mi in t...)

102

ng dng

ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip
ng dng

TCP/IP

TCP/IP

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip
ng dng

Internet

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip
ng dng

Giao tip

ng dng

Giao tip

Giao tip

ng dng

Giao tip

Hnh 5.5. M hnh phng n gii quyt bi ton thc hin vn lin thng gia cc trm vi nhau v vi cp trn 5.1.2.3. Tng kt cc gii php v gii hn phm vi p dng bc u Hnh 5.6 trnh by m hnh kt hp gii php ca hai vn c n trong phn 5.1.1. Tuy nhin trong phm vi ca bi bo co ny chng ti s ch i su vo trin khai hng gii quyt vn lin thng gia cc trm s dng mng internet. L do trin khai ca chng ti l: - Vn n gin ho cu trc ca mng l mt vn ln ph thuc vo rt nhiu yu t phn cng v cu trc ring ca tng trm. - Ngc li vn lin thng gia cc trm 110KV dng mng Internet l r dng thc hin. Mi trm ch cn ti thiu mt my tnh gi vai tr my ch phc v web (web server). Ch tit v cc vn k thut s c lm r hn trong phn 5.13.

103

ng dng

ng dng

ng dng

ng dng

TCP/IP

TCP/IP

ng dng

CSDL

ng dng

Internet

ng dng

CSDL

ng dng

ng dng

ng dng

ng dng

ng dng

Hnh 5.6: M hnh kt hp gii php ca c hai vn 5..1.3. Hng trin khai gii quyt vn lin thng gia cc trm s dng mng Internet Vic trin khai ci t phc v khc thc d liu c trnh by trong Hnh 5.7. Ta thy mi trm c ci t mt web server. Web server ny s cho php ngi dng truy xut vo cc trang thng tin khc nhau tu thuc vo i tng s dng. Chng ti phn lm 3 cp s dng nh sau (phn cp da trn vai tr ca cc trm trn h thng): - Cp trung tm iu (s c quyn truy cp t ch iu khin, vn hnh v khai thc s liu). - Cp ngang hng (cc trm10KV) s c quyn xem v khai thc s dng mt s s liu nht nh (cc trm 22KV) s c quyn tham chiu xem mt s thng tin ca h thng. i vi mi loi i tng ny chng ti s thit k cc trang web ring phc v cho tng loi i tng vi truyn truy nhp c qun l cht ch. Cng qua hnh Hnh 5.7 ta thy mng c s dng bc tng l gip hn ch cc s xm nhp khng hp php.

104

Website o (dng ring cho ngi qun l mng)

Trung tm iu (Khai thc thng tin)

Website o (dng cho cc trm 22 KV trc thuc)

Web server

Trm 110 KV khc (Khai thc thng tin)

Database

Trm 110 KV

Cc trm 22 KV (Xem thng tin)

Hnh 5.7: C ch truy nhp d liu tng qut dng khai tc d liu ca cc trm 100KV C ch kim sot quyn truy nhp s d trn cc k thut m ho km theo yu cu kho cp quyn truy nhp cc trang khai thc d liu khc nhau. M hnh ny c minh ho trong hnh 5.8. Ta cng c th kt hp c hai cch, va s dng kho va hn ch quyn truy nhp theo a ch vt l (trnh tnh trng gi danh). V d: vic thc hin quyn ngi qun l ch c th c tin hnh vi kho (password) ca ngi qun l v ngi qun l lc phi s dng my ti trm iu trung tm (IP thc).

105

c qun l bi Web server

Nhm qun tr Cc trang web phc v nhm qun tr Trang ch HTML Trang ch HTML Trang ch HTML

Nhm ngi dng ngang hng

Nhm ngi dng cp di

Cc trang web dng chung cng cng

Cc trang web phc v nhm ngi dng ngang hng

Nhm ngi dng bnh thng Cc trang web phc v nhm ngi dng cp di

Hnh 5.8: Phn quyn v c ch qun l quyn khai thc d liu i vi cc nhm ngi dng khai thc nhau

106

BO CO V NI DUNG TNH H THNG CA TI KC 03 11


y l mt bo co b sung dng thuyt minh tnh h thng ca cc vic v ang c gii quyt trong ti KC-03-11. N ch dng lm sng t phng php tip cn ca ti: Nhng vn ca SCADA h thng in Vit Nam, cc gii quyt v xut ca ti KC 03 -11. Ni dung ca ti KC-03-11 l: Nghin cu thit k ch to h SCADA phc v ngnh nng lng. H thng I&C phc v h thng in Vit Nam c chia thnh 4 cp. 1. Cp Trung ng (iu quc gia)A0 2. Cp khu vc (iu min) A1, A2, A3. 3. Cp cng trnh nh my in, trm bin p phn phi (gm cc trm phn phi 110/220KV). 4. Cp l cp in ln 5. ng dy trung th v cc trm ph ti khng ngi cng c th coi l mt h thng in Vit Nam. ti KC-03-11 nghin cu mt cch c h thng h SCADA i vi h thng in Vit Nam. u tin nghin cu v h I&C phc v cho h thng in Vit Nam. Phn tch h thng ho cc chc nng nhim v ca cc cp h thng. (Tng kt trong ti liu, nghin cu cu hnh SCADA li in Vit Nam. Bo co khoa hc 12-2001 ca ti KC-03-11. Sau khi phn tch h thng in Vit Nam. ti phn tch tm ra cc vn mu cht cn phi gii quyt ca h thng SCADA li in Vit Nam.
1

I. CC VN CA CP TRUNG NG TC CP A0 Hin nay h I&C c lp t hon chnh ti trung tm iu quc gia A0. Cc thng tin ca li in 500KV c thng sut n A0. Nh vy nhim v c bn ca cp A0 l tm hiu h thng, thit b, vn hnh v khai thc tt h thng I&C. ti KC-03-11 xut nhim v l: - Nghin cu s dng v pht trin ESM p dng c th vo h thng in Vit Nam. - To ra cc chng trnh ng dng tp trung vo chn on k thut, tr gip k thut v tin n h chuyn gia cho h thng in Vit Nam. Ni dung c nu trong cc bi vit ca cc chuyn gia h thng in: Trn nh Long, Nguyn Th Hng, Lng Ngc Hi, Trn K Phc. II. CC VN THUC MIN: A1, A2, A3. Cc h I&C ca iu min A1, A2, A3 cng lp t. Vn c t ra l phi vn hnh tt h . Mt s vn c t ra ngay l trung tm iu min v ngay c trung tm iu quc gia cha c y thng tin t cp di. Hin nay ton h thng in Vit Nam c trn 300 trm phn phi 110/220KV. SCADA cho cc trm ny ch tnh c di 10 trm, m cng cha c ni ln cc trung tm diu khu vc A1, A2, A3 v A0. Nhim v ca h I&C cp ny l phi nhanh chng xy dng trn 300 h SCADA cho trm 110/220KV. y c 3 vn : - Tin u t khng phi l nh (hai ba trm triu USD). - Lm th no thng nht ho mng truyn tin ca h. - Vn thit k, lp t, vn hnh, bo dng h.

ti KC -03-11 v ang gii quyt nhng vn sau: 1. Tm hiu nhng vn ny sinh ca I&C h thng in Vit Nam th hin trong ti liu: Nghin cu cu hnh ca SCADA li in Vit Nam. (Bo co tng kt mc 1 bng 3 ph lc 2 KC03 -11). 2. SCADA li in phc v cho vic qun l v m bo cht lng li in. (Bo co tng kt mc 2 bng 3 ph lc 2 KC03-11). 3. Nghin cu xy dng nhim v nh cho SCADA trm phn phi 110/220KV. Vt mc k hoch ca ti (trong kt hoch nghin cu khng c mc ny). 4. Thit k h SCADA cho trm phn phi 110/220KV Ngha ( ti ang tin hnh) Xt v tnh h thng hai ti b sung ngoi k hoch hon chnh phn SCADA cp 110/220KV. III. CP TRM PHN PHI V CC L LN SCADA trm phn phi 110-220KV c lin quan cht ch n cp trung tm iu min (ni thu thp v chuyn thng tin ln cp trn). N cng lin quan cht ch n cc ph ti p ca n tc l cc trm ph ti trong p m y khng c ngi qun l. H SCADA phi t ng thu thp s liu vn hnh cc trm khng ngi ng bo ln cp trn khi cn thit. N cn c nhim v ngang l chuyn s liu v thc hin mnh lnh cc c quan qun l ngang chc s in lc khu vc, s in lc min v Cng ty in lc qun huyn. S trm bin th khng ngi phi n hng trm ngn v vy i hi c mt s nghin cu nghim chnh to ra mt dy truyn sn xut thch hp nht, hin i v gi thnh h. H SCADA cp ny phi t chc thnh nhng mng thu

thp s liu t cc trm khng ngi phi t chc thng tin qua li vi nhau thun li nht. ti KC-03-11 xut ra h thng thu thp v thng tin nh sau: (hnh 1)
Bus ba 110 kV
MODE

Highway

CON 35...10kV

PLC

RTU

0.4 kV

RTU

PLC

T CT = Bin dng VT = Bin in p

CT

VT

VT CT T PLC = Power Line Carier RTU = Remote Terminal Unit

Hnh1 : Cu hnh h thu thp

Trong cc phm vi 110/220KV, t thanh ci trung p l xut pht ca cc l n cc trm bin p trung p khng ngi m s iu hnh c trnh by ph lc ti liub bo co ti cu hnh SCADA li in Vit Nam. mi trm, phi thu thp cc thng tin thng s IA, IB, IC, UA, UB, UC, P3fa, Q3fa, Wa, Wr, cos. Cc s liu ny c thu thp cc micro RTU v truyn ln trm 110KV bng ng dy trung p (PLC). trm 110KV c b phn thu tn hiu, gii iu ch v chuyn s liu cho my tnh hin th s liu thu thp c t cc trm khng ngi chi tit tnh trng hot ng h th my bin p. Mi trm ph ti khng ngi t nht cng c 1 hoc nhiu RTU (tu theo s bin p ca trm), mt ng dy PLC (truyn thng tin qua ng dy ti in) trung p v thit b u thu trung p. ti KC-03-11 tp trung vo gii quyt micro TRU v mng PLC ny. - Trc mt, s dng kt qu ca cng t thng minh 3 pha lm RTU v truyn thng bng PLC h th. Nghin cu ny thnh cng v bo co trong bn bo co tng kt ti: Nghin cu ch to cng t 3 pha thng minh nhiu chc nng ca KC -0311. - PLC h p c dng trong ti:H thng c ch ch s cng t t xa. AMR SYSTECH c ch to, cho chy th t kt qu, lp rp ln ng dy kim tra hot ng ca n. Ti liu AMR Systech km theo - Tip tc nghin cu PLC trung p lp t h thng thu thp nh s ni trn. hon thnh ti liu tnh hnh pht trin PLC trn th gii

- Song song vi vic nghin cu phn cng (RTU, PLC). ti cng ang tm hiu v tm cch ng dng LVNET vo h thng in Vit Nam. Sau khi hon thnh PLC trung p th h thng SCADA ca li in coi nh hon chnh. Micro RTU ng dng vi h thng AD 775 X. V h thng ADE 7753, ADE 7754 l nhng b bin i cht lng rt cao, ng dng linh hot l tng lai ca cc h thng thu thp s liu v in, v th vic nghin cu ng dng cc vi h thng AD 775X l rt quan trng. ti KC 03-11 xem cc vi h thng ny l nhng phn t c bn quyt nh s pht trin lu di ca cc thit b o in nn thi gian nghin cu ng dng chung. Cc ti liu nghin cu: + Nghin cu h vi h thng ADE 775X v ng dng vo cc cng t, transducer v RTU. (Ti liu khoa hc do ti KC-03-11 son tho). + Transducer do IRms, URms, P, Q, S, Wa, Wr trn c s ADE 7753. (Ti liu nghin cu thit k v c sn phm chun b sn xut). + Micro RTU ng dng vi h thng ADE 7754. ang nghin cu: - ng dng ADE 7754 lm cng t 3 pha v micro RTU. * Thit k Waltmet ch th s a trn AD7751. Nguyn Hi Hng v Nguyn Hong Long. * Truyn tin qua ng dy ti in ng dng cho vic thu thp v x l d liu ca cng t in 1 pha. Nguyn Vit Sn v Thi B Dng. Nghin cu ch to cng t in t 1 pha thng minh nhiu gi L Minh Qun

* Thit k cng t in t thng minh s dng vi iu khin PIC 16F 877 ca Microchip v h ADE 775X ca Analog divces. Thu Hin, Phan Thu Hng, Nguyn Trng Hon. IV. H THNG THU S CH CA CC CNG T TRONG KHU VC SINH HOT CA NHN DN y l mt lnh vc khc ton vi cc vn qun l k thut nh ni trn, nhng l mt vn cn nghin cu vi hon cnh c th Vit Nam trong hon cnh c s pht trin nhanh chng ca k thut in t v thng tin. Nu t li vn thu thp s liu tiu th cc h tiu dng Vit Nam, c nhng c im sau: 1. Thi gian lu nht ca vic thu thp s liu ca cng t l tro ln ct, c s kilowat gi trn cng t tr vi s liu c, vit giy bo co s liu cho khch hng. 2. Thi gian chuyn s liu cho ngi vo s liu trn my tnh. 3. Thi gian thu ngn 4. c im na l cng t c tp trung trn cc ct theo nhm 4 hoc 8 cng t trong mt hp. Nh vy vi cng vic thu s liu l cng vic ch xy ra mt ln trong thng th cch gii quyt nn tp trung im no? C cn thng xuyn chuyn s liu v cc Cng ty in lc qun hoc huyn (ni kinh doanh in) m c kh nng truyn trc tip hay khng (vn k thut)? ng v phng din k thut th k c khi gii quyt c PLC h p, th cng ch thu c trn concertrator t trm bin p khng ngi, t y phi c phng tin truyn thng khc v Cng ty in lc.

Vi s lng nhiu nh vy lm th no m bo s liu truyn c mt cch d dng. Nghin cu cc khu mt nhiu th gi v hay gy ln ch quan l cc khu ghi s ch ca cng t khu vo s hiu cc my tnh. V vy vn cn gii quyt l nhng khu y. Gi thnh phi r nht c th. y l mt vn nghim tc cn quan tm. ti KC-03-11 ang tm hiu v s c phng hng v c s cng t. Vit Nam khng tht thit phi bt chc hon ton nc ngoi. V. KT LUN Nh vy ti KC-03-11 : SCADA h thng in Vit Nam c cp mt cch c h thng cc cp ca SCADA h thng in Vit Nam, t cc cp iu quc gia n h tiu dng nhn dn. ti KC -03-11 c nhng kt qu v ang lp th nghim Hy vng trong thi gian ti cc cp cc t nhnh theo k hoch hon thnh. ti KC-03-11 hon thnh mt cch c h thng cc vn SCADA ca h thng in Vit Nam. Tuy nhin vn m rng ng dng v sn xut thnh sn phm c cht lng s cn l nhng bc phn u di. Cn u t tr tu v cng ngh. Tm li: Theo k hoch ghi trong bn hp ng ti KC-03-11. bng 4 ni dung kt qu 2002. Tnh hnh hon thnh k hoch nh sau: 1. Cng t 1 pha nhiu chc nng: nghin cu nhiu phngn vi nhiu loi IC ADE 775X. Ni dung trong 3 thit k tt nghip ca sinh vin ngnh o lng v tin hc cng ngh ang cho sn xut th a thnh sn phm (mc 1,6)

2. Cc transducer: nghin cu chn phng n ti u l thng minh ho v linh hot ho. Cng mt phn cng, vi s thay i phn mm c th bin i c nhiu i lng khc nhau theo chng trnh n nh. c sn phm c th (Mc 2,3,4,6). 3. Bin dng: a vo gii php k thut mi l s dng vt liu v nh hnh lm bin dng cht lng cao. Sn xut th 30 bin dng vi dng ra 10 mA. Lm vic ch ngn mch (Mc 2) 4. RTU: chuyn cng t 3 pha lm RTU thu thp cc thng s yu cu ca trm bin p ti khng ngi ang thit k v tin hnh ch to th micro RTU trn c s vi h thng ADE 7754 (mc 8). 5. Systech l h thng truyn tin gia RTU concentrator (mc 9,10,11). Gii thiu Systech v p dng vo h AMR Tng quan v PLC truyn tin trong h thng in Phn truyn tin trung p ang c tin hnh nghin cu hon chnh h thng truyn tin trong h thng in. 6. Vt mc - Xy dng nhim v th cho SCADA trm phn phi 110/220KV (hon thnh 8 -2002) - Thit k h s SCADA cho trm phn phi 110/220 Ngha - Nghin cu cc cng dng ca vi h thng ADE 775X v cc lnh vc o bng in khc nhau.

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

BI TM TT y l ni dung ca mt trong 15 ti nhnh thuc ti Nh nc KC-03-11 k kt ngy 6/1/2001 vi ch nhim chng trnh khoa hc cng ngh trng im nh nc KC-03 Ni dung ti nhnh ny nh sau: Nghin cu c im ca SCADA h thng d liu ni chung v h thng in Vit Nam ra phng n xy dng h thng d liu cho SCADA Vit Nam. Hp l, vn ny phi do EVN xut, xy dng thnh nhng yu cu k thut cho nh thit k SCADA trong nc v quc t tham kho. y l ni dung m bt c ngi nghin cu v SCADA phi quan tm. H thng c nhng c im v t chc v k thut v qun l. - H thng in l mt h phn b c bit rng trn ton quc gia - iu khin rt tp trung trung tm iu quc gia v EVN - Quy tc vn hnh i hi rt cht ch v quy c... - L h thng dch v, thng mi, rng ln nhng c quyn - Cc h I&C (SCADA) pht trin rt nhanh, theo mt ng li bin i nhanh, nhiu khi i lp vi nhau, khng tng thch vi nhau. V th lc p dng phi thn trng, phi nghin cu v phi vn dng nhng thnh t mi nht. Cp nht nhng kin thc mi, p dng v hon cnh c th ca li in Vit Nam l mt vn rt cn thit. - Mt c im na ca li in l cc trm bin th phn phi in u c cu trc kh ging nhau v th thnh qu ca trm ny c th p dng cho cc trm khc, nn vic nghin cu cc h SCADA mu cho trm in l c hiu qu v k thut v kinh t .
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Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Do l do , ti ngihn cu ny i su vaoc phn tch c s d liu, cc yu cu k thut xy dng SCADA trm in. Tuy nhin y ch l giai on u vl c s cho cc ti nhnh tip theo. Xy dng cc RTU cho trm bin p v phn phi in. Cc tc gi thu thp xy dng s ton b li in Vit Nam (trn 100 KV). S li in H Ni (n cc trm ph ti 0,4 KV) v mt s s nh my in, mt s trm bin p. Trn c s cc s ny, cng vi cc nghin cu khc, c th tnh ton, xy dng cc d liu dng cho vic thit k SCADA li in c th. Cc tc gi

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

LI M U Mc ch ti l phn tch cc c im: - H thng in v h thng in Vit Nam - c im ca cc h SCADA pht trin trong nhng nm gn y S dng cc c im y v phn tch h SCADA ca li in ni chung v ca li in Vit Nam. C gng a ra nhng ch tiu, nhng phng php xy dng SCADA li in Vit Nam. c gng xy dng mt h SCADA trm in xem nh l 1 v d cho cc h c th s thit k v sau. Cc tc gi xin cm n chn thnh n cc c nhn v c quan gip trong vic thu thp ti liu, gp kin cho ti t kt qu. Sau y l ni dung chi tit

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

CHNG I. T VN
I. NH HNG NGHIN CU. SCADA nh tn gi: Supevisor, Control, Automation and Data Acquisition c mc ch sau: Thu thp s liu phc v cho vic gim st, iu khin t ng ho cc i tng cng nghip. S liu thu thp c cng gip cho vic iu hnh, nng cao cht lng sn phm v li nhun kinh t. SCADA i vi ngnh nng lng cng khng ra ngoi mc ch . V th, mun xy dng mt h SCADA cho ngnh no y, ta phi nghin cu c im ca ngnh y ng thi phi theo xu hng pht trin ca h SCADA ni chung v ring i vi ngnh y. xy dng SCADA cho h thng in Vit Nam, ta phi nghin cu c im ca li in ni chung v li in Vit Nam; tnh hnh pht trin SCADA i vi li in Vit Nam, tm ra cc nh hng xy dng ng li c bn pht trin SCADA li in Vit Nam. nh hng h SCADA i vi li in Vit Nam, ta phi da trn cc c im sau: - c im ca h thng in ni chung v h thng in Vit Nam. - c th ca cc h SCADA hin nay v tnh hnh cc SCADA c xy dng ti Vit Nam. - ra cc yu cu k thut i vi SCADA li in v c th SCADA ca cc cp trong h thng in Vit Nam. - Xy dng nhng cu hnh in hnh cho cc cp iu hnh li in Vit Nam da trn nhim v qun l v c im vn hnh ca cc cp trong li in.

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

II. C IM CA H THNG IN LC H thng in lc l h thng quan trng nht ca mt quc gia. N c cc c th cc h thng khc. 1. H thng in ca mt quc gia l mt h thng rt ln. H thng in l mt h thng thng nht trong mt quc gia. N tri ra trn mt din tch rt rng ln, chim ton b lnh th quc gia, trong rt nhiu min c kh hu rt khc nhau, c tnh hnh pht trin rt khc nhau: C mt s vng cng nghip rt tp trung, c nhng vng phn ton. T chc ca h thng l mt t chc mng, trong khi y ccs ngun pht in, cc h tiu th c mc song song trn mt ng dy xng sng, dng chung ti nguyn. Dng in, in p xoay chiu nhng cng sut truyn trn li in ti mt im u c chiu thu nng lng v pht nng lng (tc dng v phn khng) m c quan iu hnh c th iu khin c gi l iu . Trn li in, ph ti (cng sut v nng lng) bin i theo gi, ngy, ma v rt ngn nhin tu theo ngi tiu dng. Trong ngy, c nhng gi m ph ti tng ln rt ln gi l gi cao im. C nhng gi m ph ti gim gi l gi thp im; gi cao im v gi thp im thay i theo ma. Ngi iu hnh phi nm c gin ph ti trong ngy v chun b tng ngun theo gi cao im, gim ngun cho gi thp im, m bo trong mi tnh hung cht lng in vn m bo yu cu in p v tn s. Trong nhng gi cao im, m bo cn bng nng lng, phi tng ngun v gim ngun gi thp im. cc ma khc nhau ph ti cng khc nhau: V ma ma ngi ta cho cc nh my thu in chy ht cng sut v sa cha dng cc

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

nh my nhit in, v ma kh, phi cho chy nh my nhit in v d tr nc duy tr nc trong cc h cha. Trong h thng in, c nh my c chn chy nn tc l chy ht cng sut, c nh my c chn lm nh tc l c th khi ng hoc dng cho nhng lc phti bin i. c s iu hnh hp l trong ton din tch rng nh vy i hi c mt s gip k thut cho ngi iu hnh, ngi iu hnh phi bit tnh hnh chnh xc cc ni m mnh quan tm, kp thi v chnh xc. Vai tr ca SCADA c mt ngha rt quan trng. R rng h SCADA c mt ngha rt quan trng. R rng h SCADA cng phi gii ra rng nh li in ton quc. Vic thu thp thng tin sut din rng nh vy i hi mt h phn b theo khng gian v phng din truyn tin v th tc truyn tin kp thi chn din tch rng nh vy rt quan trng. 2. H thng phn cp H thng in l mt h thng phn cp trit k c trong k thut ln trong iu hnh qun l. ng v phng din k thut, ngi ta c th phn cp theo cc cch sau: a. Phn cp theo cch ni mng: Li in khp ni u c ni mng nh tn ca n l li in. - Mng c th chia thnh mng quc gia ni cc khu vc quan trng trong li in vi nhau, c th dng chung cc ngun cung cp ch yu trong ton quc. Ngun v ph ti c ni song song trn mt ng dy cao p, thng nht cung cp cho vng tiu th quan trng ca t nc.

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

- Mng a phng l mt phn ca mng quc gia cu to cng nh mng quc gia, c phn ni lin thng vi mng quc gia nhng cng c th phn c lp ca a phng v c gi l mng khu vc. Mng khu vc cng gm ph ti tp trung mt s khu vc, cc ngun in ni nh ni vi mng quc gia. - Mng h tiu th l h thng mt hoc nhiu h tiu th, ni vi nhau bng mt thanh ci hoc bng cp in. Cch ghp ni ch yu l thanh ci chung cp mt u, hay hai u m bo tnh tin cy cung cp in tu theo tnh cht ca h dng in. - Do ngun v ti ni song song vi nhau trn mt thanh ci nn phi c cng in p, cng tn s, cng gc pha, ta gi l ng b ho. b. Phn cp theo cp in p Nhiu ngun v nhiu ph ti c ni song song trn mt thanh ci c cng chung in p v tn s. Trong li in c nhiu cp in p C th chia lm mng: theo cp in p Mng 500KV ch yu dng ni v truyn ti cc khu vc rt xa vi cng sut v nng lng truyn ti rt ln. Thng dng ng cao p 500KV l xng sng cho li in quc gia. - Mng in 220KV v 110 KV l li in khu vc. Truyn ti nang lng ln trn vng rng ln cng sut v nng lng ln, thng l li in ni vi nhng ngun in ln. - Mng in 35KV, 22KV l mng trung p. cc my pht in p ny pht ra t mt my pht gi l my in trung p. - Mng in 6KV dng cho vic phn phi in cc h tiu th
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Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

- Mng h p 127/220V hoc 220/380V dng cho cc nh my, cc h tiu th. - Vic theo di thu thp s liu trn cc mng khc nhau cng rt khc nhau, c bit mng in p thp v trung bnh. c. Phn cp qun l. H thng in l mt h thng quc gia vic qun l cng phi c phn cp nh sau: - Qun l quc gia: Qun l h thng in quc gia c 2 phn. Qun l hnh chnh v qun l k thut. H thng in l mt h thng nht ton quc va c tnh cht kinh doanh va phi qun l k thut. Hnh thc qun l kinh doanh c tnh cht l mt tng Cng ty. V qun l iu hnh k thut li in in ton quc l c quan iu quc gia. Trung tm iu quc gia c chc nng sau: Theo di, gim st h thng in, iu hnh ti u li in quc gia, m bo ch tiu kinh t k thut cho ton in li in, quyt nh ng ct, ph ti, cho khi ng ngun, iu chnh ph ti cc ngun. Trung tm iu quc gia, r rng phi c thng tin v cc ngun in trn khp c nc, bit c chiu tng lng cc im quan trng trong li in. Cc thng tin phi c cp nht kp thi, chnh xc c th ra c quyt nh iu khin ti u h thng in. Chc nng trung tm iu quc gia nh sau: - Thu thp s hiu (ADQ) qun l thng tin (IMS). - Qun tr cu hnh h thng in, qun l ccs RTU (Remote terminal Unit) giao tip thng tin (communication). - Qun l nng lng EMS.
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Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

- Xy dng trm vn hnh (Workstation) v giao tip ngi my, m phng h thng. - Chn on k thut (diagnoitic). - Tr gip k thut h thng (Technical giudance). - Qun l khu vc v kinh doanh: Tng Cng ty chia ra cc Cng ty qun l cc khu vc, qun l tng vng kinh doanh c tnh c th ring. ng v k thut, l trung tm iu min. Chc nng ca trung tm iu min cng nh ca trung Tm iu quc gia, nhng phm vi hp hn v i su hn n cc nh my, n cc ph ti. - Cc cng ty in lc cc tnh. Phn cp theo phn cp hnh chnh thng nht qun l hnh chnh v ti chnh. Cc s in tnh, thnh ph thc cht khong lm chc nng iu nhng li qun phn phn phi nh ng ct ph ti quan h mua bn in nng lm th no hiu sut cao nht. cc c s ny c cc s hiu ch yu l s liu kinh doanh tc l tu thp s hiu nng lng thu nhn, nng lng pht ra cho cc h tiu th, tnh ton gi c theo cc biu n gi tnh n chnh sch v nng lng. Khuyn khch tiu th nng lng gi thp im, khuyn khch nng cao h s cng sut v.v... - Cc cng ty kinh doanh in nng cp c s (qun, huyn), cp ny thit b trc tip vi ngi tiu dng m ngi tiu dng ng ct thit b in mt cch ngu nhin v th s liu thay i lin tc. cp ny s liu thu thp cho php nh gi ng dy ca ngi tiu dng, bo m in nng vi cht lng cao, ng thi l ni trc tip thu tin ca dn; theo nguyn tc l ni thc hin cc hp ng mua

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

bn in v th s hiu thu phi c chnh xc m bo va kinh doanh va dch v. 3. H thng in l h thng c yu cu v qun l k thut cao. a.Yu cu th nht l an ton. - An ton v cung cp in. C nhng h dng in c yu cu rt cao v an ton v cung cp in, v d nh l luyn kim nu mt in trong mt thi gian kh di th kim loi ng trong l, hng l m khng th phc hi c, do , phi qun l nh th no khng bao gi mt in bng cch c mch d phng v iu khin ng mch d phng lc cn thit. - An ton cao p: Li in c in p cao d gy ra tai nn v an ton do cc thit b an ton phi c lp t trn li in, cc quy tc an ton phi c m bo nghim ngt. Quy tc an ton v vn hnh li in v quy tc cht ch nht m mi cng nhn phi tun th. Quy tc, quy trnh quy phm li in phi c tun th mt cch trit . Do vic iu hnh theo quy trnh quy phm h thng in l h thng d dng p dng chun on k thut (diagnostic) v m hnh ho lm cng tc o to v tr gip k thut. Ni dung ca h chuyn gia (Expert System) l tm ra lut, pht biu thnh lut v iu khin theo lut, s c ng dng d dng trong h thng in ni m quy trnh, quy phm c ng dng mt cch c quy c l iu kin p dng h chuyn gia qun l h thng.

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Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

4. H thng in l mt h thng va kinh doanh va c tnh c quyn Hu ht cc h thng in cc nc u l h thng kinh doanh c tnh c quyn quc gia. Gi tin in do quc gia quyt nh, vn u t xy dng do Nh nc cp, v vy khng gn lin vi quyn li ca ngi qun l v tha hnh vic iu hnh d tr thnh quan liu. Cng thm vo , do l do an ton iu hnh li in phi theo quy trnh quy phm c tnh mnh lnh cng gy thm tnh quan liu ca h thng iu hnh. Xy dng h SCADA cng b nh hng iu kin y. - u tin l p dng cch ci tin k thut vo mt h thng qun l nh vy rt kh. - Th hai l cc phng n k thut p dng vo li in thng theo mun ca mt s ngi lnh o m khng theo khng theo tnh hnh ca thc t yu cu. - Do tnh c quyn kinh doanh vic iu hnh, k hoch pht trin khng b rng buc vo yu cu ca ngi tiu dng m thng theo mt k hoch t trn a xung c tnh ch quan v d nh gi in do c quan Nh nc quyt nh, khng c cnh tranh. Li in quc gia l mt li thng nht, khch hng khng th chn ni mua in v th khng c sc p g i vi c quan in lc. c bit i vi nc ta, va thot ra ch bao cp, cc c quan in lc, cc dch v in nng vn gi cch qun l ca quyn. Do vic xy dng cc phng tin k thut, mua bn phng tin qun l cng mang tnh cht ca quyn. Theo mun ca c nhn ngi qun l. - Do tnh c quyn vic nghin cu sn phm mi, thit k cho thch hp vi yu cu s dng v qun l phc v cho cc yu cu ca
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Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

cng vic khng c ch trng v th khng c nhu cu nghin cu sn phm v hay b chn nhm nhng h thng nhng thit b lc hu va kh s dng va km hiu qu. - Chnh v nhng l do trn, vic nghin cu tnh hnh pht trin cc h thng thng tin o lng iu khin (HTTTDL K) hin i hin nay. Sau p dng vo tnh hnh c th ca li in Vit Nam ni chung v c th tng khu, tng cp ca li in Vit Nam m bo gi thnh r, li p ng c nhng nhu cu cp thit ca li in Vit Nam c mt ngha rt quan trng. III. CC C TNH CA H THNG THNG TIN O LNG IU KHIN. H thng thng tin o lng iu khin hay cn gi l h I & C (Instrurment and Control System), trong h thng in c gi l I & C i vi cc nh my pht in cn h thng SCADA c gi i vi li in. Thc cht y l nhng ng dng v o lng, iu kin v k thut thng tin, phc v cho cc i tng cng nghip khc nhau. Hin nay I & C pht trin rt mnh vi nhng c th ring v bin i rt nhanh qua cc thi k o p dng cng ngh thng tin vo o lng v iu khin. H thng thng tin o lng iu khin pht trin nhanh trn cc c tnh sau: 1. H thng thch hp Cc h I&C pht trin, c mc ch c th l dch v cho nhng h thng cng nghip v th n phi thch hp ton din vi cc h thng cng nghip m n dch v.

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Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

H I&C khng c ngha nu n khng phc v cho vic nng cao hiu qu ca cc h thng sn sut h thng phi thch hp t mc tiu, nhim v sn xut n t chc v qun l k thut v iu hnh c th. Trong h thng in I&C, h SCADA phi phc v cho nhim v iu v qun l nng lng (EMS), chun on v tr gip k thut v phi t cc nhim v y, t chc v trang b thit b. ngha th 2 ca tch hp l trong mi khu ca h thng iu khin tch hp cc chc nng sau: - Chc nng, nhim v (funtional) - Cu trc (strutural) - Thng tin (Infomational) Chc nng n gin, cu trc cng n gin, thng tin cng t; chc nng phc tp hn, lng thng tin i hi cng nhiu v cu trc cng phc tp. Trong h I&C ngy nay mi khu mi ni u tch hp ba chc nng y. Trong cng nghip tnh tch hp ny th hin t lp thp nht nh cm bin, transducer, actuator- n cp t ng ho nh PLC cc controller, n khu MMI, (Main machine Interface), OS (Operator Station) v.v... Hin nay trn th gii ang c mt s chuyn bin mnh m t sn sut linh hot (flexible) sang nn sn xut ti hoa (agile) trong y c mt s tch hp ton din gia cng ngh sn xut v cng ngh thng tin. H thng in trong tro liu ny khng th thot ra khi xu hng . 2. H thng phi thng minh hay trn c s vi x l (Microprocessor based): C s k thut s dng trong cc h thng I&C l cc phn t thng minh IED (Intelligent Electronic Devices).

13

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Mt h thng minh bao gi cng c quan h sau - Quan h vi i tng - Quan h vi ngoi cnh. - Quan h vi ngi. - Quan h vi h thng.
i tng T chc o, iu khin, thu thp s o trng thi Ngi MMI Dch v: SCADA Hin th, m hnh, tr gip KT

IED Microproce - ssor based

Ngoi cnh Thch ng ngoi cnh, loi tr cc yu t nh hng

H thng Thng tin Mng Bus...

- Quan h vi i tng. Tu theo tnh cht ca i tng IED c t chc khc nhau. Ni chung vi i tng, chc nng ca IED l o v iu khin. thit b phi p ng vi yu cu o lng v ly c trng thi ca i tng. Vi i tng bin thin chm vic thu thp s o ch l tun t, khi i tng bin thin nhanh (trong trng hp Event recorder) vic thu thp phi nhanh chng kp thi. Trong h thng in h thng bo v cng l IED, h thng o lng cng l IED, t chc iu khin cng vy. Phi thch ng vi iu kin yu cu.
14

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Phi linh hot ho cc thit b gim bt chng loi thit b phi sn xut, nng cao s lng sn xut, u t cng ngh k thut nng cao cht lng, h gi thnh. Cc thit b c nhiu chc nng nhiu thang o nhiu thng s, mun thay i thng s, cch o ch cn t li cc thng s. - Quan h vi ngoi cnh: Thit b phi thch ng vi mi trng trong y thit b hot ng. Cc iu kin k thut c rt nhiu v cch loi tr rt khc nhau, cc IED phi c bin php hu hiu chng vi nh hng ca mi trng xung quanh. - Quan h vi ngi. Bt k mt h I&C no cng phi c quan h vi ngi v th cc phng iu khin trung tm CCR (Central control Room) hay ngay phn xng cng c cc OP (Operator panel) lm nhim v MMI. (Manmachine interface). Nhim v quan trng ca SCADA cng l MMI. Nhim v ca MMI l: - ho v hin th s liu di nhiu dng. - Trao i, thng bo vi cc thao tc vin. - Kim tra theo di, t chc s liu. - Bo ng, bo hiu. - Nhn lnh, truyn lnh n ni thc hnh. - Pht hin hng hc, chun on k thut. - Tr gip k thut - M hnh ho qu trnh tr gip o to. - T chc s liu v ti liu. Cn c cc chc nng khc na theo yu cu ca ngnh k thut. Trc kia, cc phn mm MMI do nhng ngi lm cng tc xy dng SCADA ca cc nh sn xut c th xy dng cho nn n mang c
15

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

th ca ngi sng tc ra n, h thng SCADA ca cng ty ny khng th dng chung ti nguyn vi cng ty khc. V d: phn mm MMI ca Siemens l Conos LSB trc kia Win CC gn y khng tng thch vi Master view ca ABB hay Control view ca Allen Braddly. Vi nm gn y, ngi ta bt u s dng phn mm tin hc chung xy dng h MMI thch ng cho tt c cc thit b v phn mm cp vt l. H nh th l h m. Khi trang b cc h SCADA cho mt h thng no y nht thit phi ch im c tnh ny. H SCADA khng tng vi phn mm chung khng th chp nhn trong hon cnh hin nay. 3. c tnh th 3 l h thng phi phn b (DCS) Ngy nay khng ai c th ph nhn tnh cht ny ca h I&C. H thng phi phn b trit . ngha phn b nh th no? - Phn b theo chc nng v nhim v. - i vi h thng in, vic ny l qu nghim nhin v bn thn li in c phn chia rt r rng gia cc cp v chc nng nhim v rt r rng. Vic s ho cng thc hin c gn i bao nhiu th cng c hiu qu v nhiu mt. - Phn b theo khng gian. i vi li in th phn b khng theo gian li cng r rt. nhng ni xa xi, r rng cc s liu phi c s ho v chuyn v bng nhng phng tin thng tin khc nhau m bo tnh chnh xc v tnh tin cy. - Phn b theo thi gian: Vic thu thp s liu phi c phn b theo thi gian hay nhim v.

16

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Vi cc thng tin v in p, dng in, cng sut, vic thng tin c th tun t m vn coi l thng tin chuyn i theo thi gian thc. Trong khi , bo v ngn mch khng th x l tun t c m phi tc th, khi nim thi gian thc y phi rt kht khe. Phn b theo thi gian r rng phi tu theo nhim v. R rng i vi li in h thng thu thp s o (DAQ) khc rt nhiu so vi h thng bo v. 4. c tnh modul ho: tt c cc ngnh xu hng chung l t sn xut chc theo modul, bt k mt h I&C no cng c t chc bng modul a chc nng. Trong h thng in vic t chc modul hp b rt r rng. - V thu thp s ngi ta s dng cc transducer vn nng, cc nh sn xut u sn xut cc b bin i bin I, U, P, Wa, Q, Wr, cos, f... thnh i lng thng nht 4-20mA hoc thnh s truyn theo th tc xc nh. Cc modul ny c t chc trn c s microprocessor c th t thng s theo mun. - V bo v cc s c t chc rle s hp b a chc nng v modul ho. - Cc RTU, (Remote control Unit) cc PLC (programble logic controller) c t chc thnh modul nh modul vo ra (I/Omodules) Modul giao in modul ngun modul CPU (central precessing unit)... - Phn mm c t chc thnh cc khi (block) v thit k v lp trnh theo hng i tng 5. H thng m: Gn y cc h thng I&C ni nhiu n tnh cht m ca h thng. L do l nh sau: Khi pht trin ng dng ca vi x l vo cc h I&C
17

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

ngi thit k, thit k theo nhng iu kin ca mnh cho nn cc h thng ca cc nh ch to khc nhau khng tng thch vi nhau v ngi s dng sau khi mua khi thit b phi l thuc vo ngi bn, do mt yu cu rt cp thit l h I&C phi c lp vi ngi bn hng (Indepencance vendor) H nh vy c gi l h m. Mun vy phi thng nht ho th tc thng tin c cc cp trong cc m hnh truyn tin OSI v TCP/IP th vic thng nht c cc cp trn. Cn hai cp di cng l cp vt l gn lin vi i tng (bus hin trng) cha thng nht c tiu chun. Thng 3/2000 thng qua tiu chun IEC 61158 thng nht th tc truyn tin cp hin trng v h thng nhng khng thnh cng, hin ang chun b cho mt tiu chun mi. Chnh y c nhiu kh nng xy ra nhiu rc ri trong vic xy dng v trin khai h SCADA li in Vit Nam cho vic pht trin, bo hnh v sa cha. Hin nay tuy cha pht trin c bao nhiu n0 vn ny pht sinh. Trn y l 5 c tnh ca mt h thng I&C hin i. Khi xy dng SCADA cho li in ta phi ch n cc c tnh ny. IV. NH GI MT H THNG I&C HIN I Mt h thng I&C hin i l mt h thng phc tp phc v cho vic iu khin gim st mt qu trnh cng ngh nh gi phi da trn cc tiu chun. 1. Tnh hiu qu Tiu chun u tin l tnh hiu qu ca h I&C lp t phi c tc dng n cht lng ca nh my y l cht lng ca pht v truyn ti in, tc ng n hiu qu kinh doanh v qun l.
18

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

V vy phi theo chc nng yu cu m t h I&C thch hp. Chc nng th lng ph c khi cn h cht lng ca truyn ti in nng. Phi c ch tiu nh gi hiu qu lp t h I&C (hay SCADA) vo li in hay mt b phn ca li in. 2. Tnh tin cy ca vn hnh Hiu chnh I&C hin ti rt phc tp, n gm hng triu linh kin in t ghp ni vi nhau nn xc sut hng hc s cao hn rt nhiu so vi cc thit b c kh. V vy tng tnh vn hnh hay gim thiu thi gian dng ca h thng. nh gi tin cy vn hnh ca mt h thng v mt h thng I&C l ch tiu quan trng nh gi h I&C. Ngi ta phi dng nhiu bin php nng cao tin cy ca h thng, m bo cho h thng vn hot ng bnh thng khi mt phn t trong h thng lch ra mt gi tr bnh thng ca n. Phng php ch yu l b tr cc d phng nng cc khu ch yu, tng cng tnh nng pht hin li t chun t chun on loi tr b phn hng hc ra khi h thng. 3. Tnh dch v cao H thng I&C cung cp nhng dch v cho ngi vn hnh: Ch yu l cc phn mm h tr gip k thut nng cao tnh vn hnh ca h thng. Cc dch v trong cc h I&C ngy cng nhiu, tuy nhin phi la chn dch v no c ch cho vn hnh h thng m n phc v, nu khng ch lng ph. 4. Tnh tng thch ca h thng - Tng thch trong h m n phc v. - Tng thch vi cc h khc nhau. - Tng thch gia cc h.

19

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

5. Tnh linh hot tin dng 6. Dng nhiu phn lng thng minh ng dng tr khn nhn to (Artificial Intenligence application) th hin tnh hin i ca h thng. 7. Tnh kinh t Quan h gia tnh thng minh linh hot tin dng v gi thnh. H I&C cho h thng in phi da trn c th ca bn thn h thng in, phi cn c vo tnh hnh pht trin ca h I&C hin i, ra phng hng xy dng SCADA thch hp cho li in Vit Nam. Mun t cc ch nu trn, trc tin ta phi nghin cu h thng in Vit Nam cc quan h trong h thng, cc yu cu nng cao cht lng ca h thng nghin cu cc kh nng SCADA. ra: c c s thng tin xy dng h I&C cho h thng in Vit Nam, phi xc nh c. 1. Cc dch v yu cu SCADA cung cp cho cc cp I&C. 2. Phn tch lng thng tin cn cung cp cho h gii quyt cc vn gim st theo di iu khin cc cp in hnh. 3. Trn c s phn tch cc k thut v lng thng tin cn thit xy dng cc SCADA mu cho tng cp ca h thng in. 4. ra cc tiu chun cn phi xt khi xy dng SCADA cc cp. 5. ra yu cu k thut cho cc thit b phn cng cng nh phn mm ca cc SCADA - c c s xy dng cc phng hng sn xut cc SCADA thch hp v pht trin cho li Vit Nam.

20

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

CHNG II TNH HNH LI IN VIT NAM V SCADA CA LI IN VIT NAM I. CU TRC CA H THNG IN VIT NAM V SCADA TRN LI IN Li in Vit Nam tp chung ch yu hai min: - Min Bc l ni m li in c thnh lp rt sm v c ngun cng sut ln, nh nh my thu in Ho Bnh (1.600.000KW) nh my nhit in Ph Li (5.000.000KW) nh my nhit in Ung B, nh my thu in Thc B vi cc khu cng nghip tiu th in nng ln. ng dy 220kV vi cc ngun v trm phn phi to thnh h thng in min Bc. - Min Nam c cc nh my thu in YALI, thu in Tr An, a Nhim, a mi- Hm Thun Sng Hinh, nhit in Ph M 2, Ph M 2 m rng ni thnh mng min Nam cc trm phn phi ln. - ng dy ti in 500KV ni lin li in Nam Bc thnh mt in thng nht m trc l ng dy 55KV. - iu hnh li in thng nht, xy dng ng thi vi ng dy 500KV l trung tm iu quc gia t ti H Ni cch xa li in quc gia. - i vi trung tm iu quc gia l trung tm iu min thc hin cc chc nng qun l li in gi trung tm iu min. Cc chc nng ca iu min cng nh cc chc nng ny iu quc gia trong phm vi hp hn. - Di trung tm iu l cc nh my pht in cc trm bin p v phn phi li 220KV.
21

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

- Di cc trm phn phi ln l cc h dng in ch yu l phn phi v tiu dng in nng. Nh vy h thng I&C phc v cho h thng in quc gia phn thnh 4 cp s hnh 2.1 1. Cp trung ng (iu quc gia) 2. Cp khu vc (iu min, iu khu vc) 3. Cp cng trnh (nh my in, trm bin p ln) 4. Cp l cp in ln
IU KHIN TRUNG NG A0 CP 1

IU KHIN KHU VC A0

CP 2

IU KHIN CNG TRNH NH MY, TRM

CP 3

IU KHIN I TNG HOC L CP IN

CP 4

Lung d liu

Lung tn hiu iu khin

Hnh 2-1: Cc cp iu khin trong li in Vit Nam Cng vi vic xy dng ng dy 500KV trung tm iu quc gia c trang b iu khin t xa h thng in. Trung tm c

22

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

trang b h SCADA li in do c xy dng cc nm 94-94 nn h SCADA cng ch nm trnh lc y. H EMS (Energy management system) l by gi, do s cm vn ca M cha c trang b. Gn y ci tin v nn cao v th ca trung tm iu quc hi gia, trung tm iu quc gia c trang b li y hn. H thng SCADA EMS Ranger Bailey: trnh by k ph lc 2, c kh nng y chc nng qun l k thut h thng in. Sau y l nhng nhim v ca mt h thng I&C cp trung ng v cp min phi thc hin. Ch Nhim v Trao i d liu cc ht my tnh Thu thp v kim s liu Xc nh cu hnh ca h thng nt Chn nh my in v t pht Kim tra d phng nng (quay) iu chnh cng sut tc dng iu chnh cng sut phn khng nh gi tin cy vn hnh nh gi hiu qun thay i cu hnh h thng / / Bnh thng S c / / / / Sau s c

Xc nh lung cng sut v in p

23

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Ghi thng s s c Mc d phng cao cho bo v Hn ch tc hi ca s c

Phn tch xu th pht trin ca qu trnh o lng v lu tr mt s thng s chn trc Phn tch s c Lp bo co Giao din vi cc thit b iu khin T ng kim tra v chun on / ch dng cho chc nng bo v Bng 2-1 Nhim v iu khin cp trung ng v min.

Di trung tm iu min (cp 2) l cc nh my pht in ln v cc trm phn phi ln ( ln). Cc l ln chu trch nhim mt vng rng ln, do khng c ngun cho nn khng c nhim v iu m ch c nhim v phn phi tc l ng thm ti, bt ti v.v... y, h SCADA c trch nhim bo v ng dy, ng ct ti, theo gii cc thng s trn ng dy, ghi thng s ca s c, xc nh v tr s c, chn on s c, tr gip k thut x l s c v.v... Cc nhim v ca cp iu khin cng trnh v l ln c tm tt bng 2-2. Ch Nhim v Bnh thng S c Phc Cp h i u Khi s Sau s hi
24

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

c Trao i d liu gia cc h thng my tnh Thu thp v kim tra s liu Phn tn hiu cnh bo Bo v l cp in Bo v thanh gp Bo v d phng D phng h hng my pht Kim tra i lng t ca bo v T ng ng li my ct T ng ct ngun i n T ng sa thi ph t i iu khin cng sut pht v ph ti Kim tra qu t i / / /

c / / /

thng

khin 3,4 3,4 4 3 3,4 3 3

3,4 3,4 3,4 3 3 3 3

ng dy v trm Ti u ho mc n nh

25

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

T ng phc hi h thng Xc nh trnh t ct ca kh lin ng Ghi thng s s c tng t iu chnh in p ca trm bin p Kim tra cc thit b ph tr Phn tch chc nng h thng my tnh Giao din vi cc thit b iu khin khc T ng kim tra v chun on / ch dng cho chc nng bo v

3 3 3,4 3 3 3 3 3 3

o v ghi cc tn hiu

Ti u ho ph ti

3,4

Bng 2.2: Nhim v ca cc cp iu khin cng trnh v l cp in ln. Hin nay mt s trm phn phi ln lp t h SCADA cho trm nh Nam nh, Trng Bch, Vt cch, Vit Tr, H SCADA LSA ca Siemes trm 220KV Nam nh c trnh by ph lc 1. Hin nay c cc nhim v sau:

26

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

- iu khin t xa (Tele control) - iu khin ti trm - Gim st cc thit b ti trm. - o lng cc thng s li in. - Bo v cc thit b. - Phn tch hot ng ca h thng in m n ph trch cng cp vi cc trm phn phi ln, di s iu ca Trung tm iu quc gia v iu min, c cc nh my pht in ln. Trong nc ta hin nay, cc nh my mi c xy dng u c cc h I&C sn sng kt ni vi h iu khin quc gia nh a My Hm Thun, Ph M 2, Ph M 2 m rng, Ph M 1, Sng Hinh, Ph Li 2. Cc nh my khc nh thu in Ho Bnh mc du cng sut rt ln vn cha c h I&C hon chnh ni vi li in quc gia. Tuy nhin do s pht trin qu nhanh chng ca cng ngh thng tin (Do yu cu c h thng I&C m nn cc h thng I&C cc nh my u l h thng m. Trong lc y, hin nay tc l phn mn s dng trong cc nh my Vit Nam u l phn mm ring ca cc nh sn xut thit b khng tng thch c vi nhau. V th, khi kt ni vi cc h iu khin khc, vn tng thch phi c t ra. Ngay c nhng h I&C do cc nh t vn thit k vo ti liu u thu hin nay nc ta cng vn khng phi l h thng m. Sau y l cu hnh ca 2 h I&C do 2 Cng ty t vn Php v Nht thit k cho nh my Thu in i Ninh v nh my a Nhim sa pht trin (hnh 2-2) Tinh thn h thng phn mm cho MMI hay OSI dng cc cng c chung ca tin hc vn cha c th hin cc bn thit k. II. H THNG IU HNH, KINH DOANH.
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Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Ngoi cc h thng iu hnh k thut nh trnh by trn EVN cn mt h thng qun l v kinh doanh gm: Tng cng ty in lc Vit Nam ENN (in lc Vit Nam) quyt nh mi k hoch kinh doanh, k hoch xy dng ngun xy dng h thng in: ENV l c quan cao nht quyt nh ng li pht trin HT Vit Nam, chu trch nhim v mi vn trong in lc Vit Nam. L c quan kinh doanh nhng l kinh doanh c quyn do Nh nc h tr, v vy cc chnh sch ca EVN l phn nh chnh sch ca quc gia. Do cch qun l nh vy nn mi ch trng ca EVN l do c quan u no, cc ban ca Tng Cng ty quyt nh, ch trng sai ng ca cc ban ca EVN c nh hng rt ln n vic pht trin lu di cu HT Vit Nam, v th s hiu bit v cc h i&C i vi li in v I&C trong cc nh my in ca EVN l rt quan trng. Di EVN l in lc khu vc, nhim v ca cc in lc khu vc va chu s ch o ca EVN va phi qun l v mt hnh chnh ca cc ngun, li in trong khu vc. - Ngoi ra cn c cc c s in lc, sau l in lc cc qun, cc huyn trc tip kinh doanh in nng v qun l cc ng dy v trm trong phm vi kinh doanh ca mnh. Do t chc nh vy, nn vic kinh doanh ln t cc vn qun l k thut c tnh cht c lp tng i. III. NH GI H I&C HAY SCADA CA LI IN VIT NAM Nh vy s lng c s in lc ca Vit nam c h thng I&C hay SCADA hin c rt t. Cn b k thut thng hiu v cc h iu khin hin i trong cc nh my v h thng in cn rt t cn b lnh o bit v h thng ny hu nh khng c, v vy ng li xy dng cc h iu

28

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

khin vn hnh ti u h thng cha c t ra, do cha phi l vn cp bch nh xy dng ngun cc ng dy, trm phn phi mi. Cc SCADA li in hin nay mc du cn rt t nhng bc l nhiu nhc im. Nhc im chnh cn tr cho vic pht trin v vn hnh lu di ca h thng in. Sau y l mt nhn xt v thc trng iu khin trong bn lun vn cao hc ca mt cn b ca trung tm th nghim in do gio s tin s khoa hc Trn nh Long hng dn: NH GI THC TRNG IU KHIN V BO V HT VIT NAM 1. Qu trnh xy dng v pht trin Trc nhng nm 90, h thng in Vit Nam tha hng c s h tng lc hu, nh l. Thit b iu khin bo v ch yu l th h in c, cha c mt h thng thng tin s. Cc khi nim trong lnh vc iu khin, gim st nh SCADA, h thng o xa... v hiu bit v th h thit b s cn kh mi m xa l vi ngi thit k v qun l h thng in. u nhng nm 90, nn kinh t t nc bt u pht trin, i hi nhng bc pht trin mi trong truyn ti v phn phi in nng. H thng ng dy siu cao p 5500KV thng nht HT ton quc, vi th h thit b nh: rle, b ghi s c v thng tin s. H thng qun l h thng in ra i cp iu trung ng A0 qun l gim st vn hnh h thng 500KV v nh my in ln trong ton quc. Mt s thit b tiu biu cho th h rle s c th lit k nh: Rle bo v so lch dc ng dy LFCB 102 (GEC Alsthom s dng knh truyn thng tin cp quang ring lp t theo h thng dy chng st dc tuyn, rle t ng ng li LFAA 102, rle bo v ng dy 6SA13, V2.1 SIEMENS, b t ng ghi s c... bn cnh , vn s dng th

29

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

h thit b bn dn nh rle bo v qu dng nh MCGG82, 62, 22. H thng iu khin c thit k theo m hnh SCADA. Nn kinh t v khoa hc k thut Vit Nam ang tng bc ho nhp vo pht trin mnh m ca th gii. in lc Vit Nam i hi s pht trin ton din cc h thng ngun truyn ti v phn phi. T l s ho trong thit b iu khin tng dn l mt l chn tt yu trong thit k xy dng cng trnh mi v ci to nng cp h thng. Trong h thng in Vit Nam c mt nhiu nh sn xut ni ting: ABB, SIEMENS, SEL Schweizer, GEC Althm, AEG, Schineider-Merlin Gerin... ni chung thit b bo v v iu khin tt c cc nh sn xut u mang hng quan im thit k ca nhiu loi d liu ln hn, giao din, ni ghp thn thin hn v c bit ngy cng p ng yu cu thng tin mnh hn. Ngoi ra cn thm c im mang tnh kinh t cnh tranh: trn mt thit b, c th c nhng la chn cu hnh t ti thiu n nng cao tu thuc vo kh nng u t v phm vi ng dng ca ngi mua. c nhiu cng trnh trm, ng dy phn phi mi hon ton lp t rle s, vi mt h thng thng tin m. Ngoi ra cn a cc thit b iu khin t ng qu trnh (PLC trong mi trng iu khin cng nghip) vo h thng in trong thng tin, iu khin trm, t my pht... Cng ngh thng tin cng nghip, vn phng, cng kin trc mng LAN, WAN c mt trong mng thng tin in lc Vit Nam. Km theo , khi nim my tnh ho iu khin v bo v ang l xu hng ca tng lai, nng cao v hon thin vai tr ca my tnh trong mi trng ny. C th k tn nhng trm bin p mi c iu khin hon ton trn mn hnh my tnh c thc thi trn h thng thng tin nh trm: 220KV Nh B, Sc Sn, Bc Giang (ABB), 220KV Nam nh,

30

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Trang Bch, Vit Tr, Ph Ni (SIEMENS), cc my in dng h thng kinh doanh qu tnh t ng: Sng Hinh, Hm Thun a My, Ph li 2, Ph M... Nhng cng trnh trn c coi l sn xut th h thit b v thng tin mi v tin tin nht trn th gii vo thi im xy dng. mc nh hn, cc trm bin p 110KV v cc l ph ti trung p mi iu c thit k lp t s dng hon ton rle bo v s. So vi thi k u, c s lng rt ln, chng loi kh a dng v rt nhiu th h (version) tit b s c mt trong h thng in Vit Nam. Vic lm ch s thit k, th nghim, vn hnh cc thit b s ca nhiu hng tr thnh quen thuc vi cn b k thut. Trong iu khin h thng, SCADA ang c ci to v lp mi ngy cng hon thin hn. H thng SCADA cp iu trung ng Ao c lp t 1999-2000 c kh nng iu khin, to mt c s d liu trn h thng thng tin mang tnh m v mnh p dng nhng ng dng mc cao trong h thng in nh EMS, DSM... h thng SCADA cp iu mi min Bc, Trung, Nam v ang lp t, to ngun thng tin t cp cc thp hn: trm bin p 110KV, t my pht nh... ni ghp cung cp d liu n h thng SCADA trung ng, v cc ng dng vn phng khc trn ton quc gia hoc ton cu. Nh sn xut Chc nng chnh F87, F87BB F87N, 7U512, 513, RET316 7SS, V3.2X, V4.5 V4.1X
31

SIEMENS

ABB

SEL

Alstom

SEL 387

P643. P141, KBCH130, 120

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

F50/51&N, F90 R50/67N

F49,

RET V2.XX 7SJ51 V3.3X V4.1X 7SJ531

520

SP140, 141C

SEL 531 A SET 551

MIicom P127, P123, P441, KCGG140

F67/67N F21

7512 V3,4 7SA511, 513 V3.2X

SPAA341 REL 511

Bng 2.3: Nh sn xut cng th h rle mi nht c trn h thng in Vit nam. 2. nh gi vic khai thc h thng iu khin v bo v trong h thng in Vit Nam. Qu trnh thm nhp, ng dng th h thit b mi (rle bo v, h thng iu khin, thng tin in lc) c thc hin theo tng bc, mang c im ca mt nc ang pht trin v cng theo st vi s pht trin ca nhng th h mi nht. Vit Nam c nhng mt thun li khi theo chin lc n u cc k thut mi, a vo ng dng nhng thit b, h thng tin tin nht ngay trong giai on pht trin ban u khng phi tri qua thi gian va chi ph

32

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

th nghim, c i ng k thut c nng lc nhy bn, trnh c sai lm t nhng bi hc v kinh nghim ca cc nc i trc. Nhng cng c nhiu mt hn ch trong qu trnh pht trin. - Kh nng u t hn hp, ph thuc vo cc ngun vn vay km theo nh cp hng c ch nh. - B ng mang nhiu tnh cht cht gii quyt tnh th. H thng in c khi lng, ti sn ln, xy dng mang tnh cht ca mt qu trnh pht trin kt tha, trong h thng tn ti rt nhiu th h, nhiu cng ngh x thit b l iu khng th trnh khi. c bit tnh tin tin hin i ca thit b thong tin ngy nay c vng i rt ngn, do vy nhiu thit b, h thng khi cn trn d n l hin i v tin tin nht, khi thc thi xong d n (2 n 3 nm) tr nn lc hu. - Nng lc k thut thm nh thit k khai thc ng dng trn h thng hin c cn hn ch... - Chng hn, khi chn thit b rle bo v, thit b thng tin (b x l trung tm, thit b chuyn knh... hay mc phi nhng thiu st sau: Chn nhng thit b trong cng mt cp (cp l ph ti phn phi, cp trung tm thng tin mc trm). - Nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau - Hnh thc, giao thc thng tin, nng lc v tc thng tin khc nhau. - Tu chn rle c kt ni EIA232, 485, cp quang khc nhau (m chun ni ny ch phc v tt ring cho mi lin kt Star hoc Bus (Daisy Train/Trunk Drop). - Chn nhng thit b c kh nng thng tin qu mnh so vi kh nng ca mng thng tin tng th, dn n s dng lng ph thit b.

33

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

mc trm chn nhng s cu trc thng tin m thiu nh gi v tin cy ca h thng. V d ti trm 220KV Nam nh ch da vo hnh thc iu khin ton trm, ng ct my ct v dao cch ly trn mn hnh my tnh, khng c h thng thng tin, mng d phng. Do vy, c mt ln xy ra s c my tnh hoc h hng ng cp quang do chut cn lm t lit iu khin ton trm trong nhiu ngy thm ch nhiu tun. Do i hi phi in i ho theo mt chc nng no , chng hn gim st trng thi my ct, h thng o xa... nn nhng nm 95, 96 chng ta u t nhng h thng thng tin ring l, ch phc v n mc ch t ra. Sau mt thi gian ngn (4,5 nm), khi xut hin nhng h thng thng tin m, c th pht trin khai thc a ng dng theo hng ca ngi s dng, th cc h thng lp t trn ch lm phc tp h thng v cng knh trong cng tc qun l. Kt qu l gy ra mt lng ph ln trong u t. Tng hon cnh kinh t Vit Nam ca thi k u pht trin, chng ta phi tit kim v s dng hiu qu cao nht ngun vn u t. Nh vy, xy dng h thng iu khin v bo v da trn h thng thong tin in lc hay thc thi xu hng my tnh ho trong iu khin trm in, cn phi lu mt s vn sau: - Phi c so snh, nh gi ng nhng ch tiu k thut; tin cy, tnh duy tr, n nh h thng, cht lng in nng, thit hi khi c s c, tnh kinh t... khi la chn xy dng mt h thng iu khin vi quy m no trn c s thng tin, hoc m nnh iu khin khc c t vn nhm chn ra nhng cng trnh c quy m v v tr a l no khng nht thit phi xy dng trn h thng thng tin mnh. Khng th trang b h thng thng tin nh mt thng tin nh mt thc thi trang.
34

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Phi c kin thc v nm bt d on ng nhng pht trin trong tng lai trong vng 5,10 thm ch 20 nm tip theo, theo l nhng cu trc m hnh iu khin. Trnh tnh trng thit k mang tnh tnh th v cng trnh c tui i s dng ngn. III. PHNG HNG V GII PHP - Trc mt gii quyt h thng SCADA cho ton b h thng li in nc ta. Phi xy dng ti thiu 600 SCADA cho trn 600 trm bin p trn 110 KV (l ln). S vn u t rt ln. Gi s u t vo mt trm mt 100.000USD th ti thiu phi u t 60 triu USD. Tuy nhin khi u t nh vy th hiu qu s nh th no? Nu khng ng th cn rc ri hn do vic va qun l h thng in va qun l SCADA ca chnh trm y. Nu khng xy dng cc h SCADA th l no li li in Vit Nam tnh trng lc hu nh vy. Vic xy dng h iu khin li in l khng trnh khi v cn phi m rng n trm 35KV. Vic phn tch h thng, xy dng cc chun da vo y mua sm thit b hay t ch to phc v cho vic hin i ho iu khin v gim st li in l cn thit v phi lm sm. Nu nhp ba bi theo li mi cho ca cc hng hoc mua sm do 1 quan h no y thm ch nu u thu m khng c nh hng th sau ny khi pht trin (ni mng vi nhau) th s gp rc ri v tn km. Sau y l bn thuyt minh v s rc ri khi s dng cc thit b phn cng v phn mm ca nhiu nh sn xut khng tng thc vi nhau. Cc iu cn tr khi xy dng mt trm CSRN

35

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Do tnh cnh tranh, hu ht thit b hin th IER ca cc nh cung cp km phn mm thng tin c quyn cng vi IEDs ca ring h v to ra mt CSDL chuyn cho thit b ca h. Trm CSDL ny c thit k vi dng d liu nm trong phm vi ca cc sn phm ca nh cung cp v khng thc s tng thch khi h tr cho cc nh dng (Format) d liu v loi d liu t cc sn phm ca nh cung cp khc. Mc d, trong cu trc mng thng tin c nhiu im chung nh: Cc knh thng tin chuyn bit CSDL chuyn bit cng yu cu mt trm CSDL ring t mi nh cung cp hoc mi loi thit b. Do vy, ngi s dng cui cng (End user) cn phi lp t thng hiu v duy tr nhiu trm CSDL v phn mm giao tip trn trm thit b hin th ch. Hnh v 4.8 minh ho 1 my tnh ca thit b hin th h tr cho ba trm hin th ch khc nhau ca ba nh cung cp tng ng 3 trm ch ny khng lin kt trc tip vi nhau m i hi CSDL ch ring, do phn mm thng tin, u ni cng cc ISEs ring. Trong phng thc ny, trm iu khin to ra trm CSDL chung (substation wide database), cc d liu ng dng to trm CSDL ny cp nht t kho d liu ca 3 trm cc kho d liu chn lc v lu tr d liu ng dng theo nhiu mc ch s dng ca ngi khai thc cui cng. V d nh: vn phng qun l (Admininistrasion), qun l hiu qu (Revennue), thao tc iu khin, k s chuyn gia (Engineering)... c th truy nhp n kho CSDL chung v mi ng dng c th lp ra mt dao din lin kt theo cc mc ch ca n trong s ny, d liu chn lc t nhiu ngun c lp nh Relays, Metters... v kho CSDL con to ra thng tin v ton h thng. Cc trm ch khc s truy sut t cc kho ny phc v cho cc ng dng ring. Nh vy, trm CSDL trung tm bao

36

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

gm nhng gi tr ph bin v c th truy xut d liu bng cc phng tin lnh truy xut (Common Tools). Chc nng chuyn i d liu (DDE Dynamic Data Exchange) v lin kt i tng (Object Linking) k gn vi nhau trong iu khin s l (OPC-Process Control) l 2 con ng chun m phn mm s dng thu thp d liu, chng c kh nng thc hin v kt hp phc v cc yu cu trn, vi vic s dng phn mm thng tin DDE v OPC cng vi trm CSDL ch khi tn ti nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau trong h thng. Sau , d liu c thu thp v s l c th li c pht trin theo thut ton phn tch khc. My tnh trm gim st hin th (Euipment Monitoring Host Computer Venenr 1 Thit b gim st Giao din s dng (EM. User Inteface) Venenr 1 C s d liu (Data Base) Venenr 1 Commu. Software Vender 2 Thit b gim st dng (EM. User Inteface) Venenr 2 C s d liu (Data Base) Venenr 2 Commu. Software Vender 3 Thit b gim st dng (EM. User Inteface) Venenr 3 C s d liu (Data Base) Venenr 3 Commu. Software

Giao din ngi s Giao din ngi s

C/t phn mm thng tin C/t phn mm thng tin C/t phn mm thng tin

Vender #1 IDE

Vender #2 IDE 37 Vender #2 IDE

Vender #3 IDE

Vender #1 IDE

Vender #3 IDE

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Hnh 2.4 Trm c s d liu vi h thng c nhiu nh cung cp vi cc phn mm v CSDL c quyn

38

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Trm my tnh trm ch c s d liu (Data ware house Host Computer


Giao din s dng Trm gim st h/t (EM. Use Inteface) Giao din s dng Tnh ton hiu qu (Revenue Use Interface) Giao din s dng Vn phng (Adiminstration Use Interface) Giao din s dng iu khin, vn hnh (Operating Use Interface Giao din s dng Chuyn gia k s (Engineering Use Interface)

Trm c s d liu chung (Universal Ware house Databese Chun ghp ni ng dng (Standard Application, Interface iee. DEE, OPC) Chun phn mm thng tin i.e DNP v UCA (Standard Cummuincation Software) Phn mm thng tin c quyn Vender 1 (Proprietary Communication Software)

IDE

Vender #1 IDE

iu khin trm (Substation Control)

iu khin trm (Substation Control)

Hnh 2.3 Trm c s d liu s dng giao tip ph bin v giao tip c quyn.
39

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

CHNG III CC THNG TIN CN TNH CA CHC NNG SCADA I. CC CHC NNG SCADA SCADA nh tn ca n: Thu thp d liu t ng ho, iu khin, bo v gim st h thng in c th hin cc chc nng sau: * Bo v. * Ghi s kin. * Ch th s c. * Hin th hot ng trn cc rle s. * o lng. * iu khin thit b theo cc v tr: Ti ch, ti bng iu khin, ti trm v t xa. * iu khin ng ct my ct, iu khin ng c ca dao cch ly c iu khin, iu khin cc ng c qut, sy hay chuyn nc my bin p... * C th a bo v hoc tch ra. * Gim st lin ng, iu khin qu trnh. * ng b thi gian ng hi ca IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices). * Hin th mi trng, s iu khin. * Phn tch nh k thit b. * Hin th cc iu kin lm vic ca thit b. * Ch th h hng my ct v gii tr. * iu khin gin t. * T ng ng lp li. * SCADA trm (theo HMI). * M rng h thng.
40

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

* T ng d phng h thng iu khin v h thng thng tin. * Ghi cc s kin tun t. * Hin th ng cong iu chnh in p. * Truy cp vo/ra (dial in/out). * Cnh bo (theo HMI). * T ng v bng tay khi truy cp vo iu khin. c cc d kin trong h I&C trn, c th c th s dng cc ng dng sau y, th hin tnh hin i ca h I&C h thng in. 1. SCADA - h thng iu khin theo di, thu thp d liu t xa v gim st h thng in, mc trm. 2. EMS - h thng qun l nng lng: iu khin lung cng sut, cht lng in nng (in p, tn s...) v iu khin h thng ngun in. 3. SER Analysis Phn tch bn ghi cc s kin h thng m rng theo nguyn tc tun t. 4. Power System Planing quy hoch h thng in, tr gip vic quy hoch pht trin, m rng v phng thc vn hnh. 5. Power quatily - qun l cht lng cung cp nng lng: so snh cc gi tr tc thi ca h thng in vi cc tiu chun t ra. 6. Protection quality - Cht lng h thng bo v: Kim tra s thch ng, ph hp ca h thng thit b v cht lng thc hin chc nng bo v. 7. Power System Distubance Analysis nh gi phn tch mt bn ghi s kin v phn ng ca h thng. 8. Mettering o lng, kim tra cc gi tr cn theo di.

41

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

9. Substation Automation - t ng trm thc hin cc chc nng ng li, gim st cc ch ca p lc du, gas, ngun t dng AC, iu chnh..., mch chng h hng my ct. 10. Distributed Automation - t ng trong iu khin phn b: cch ly phn on hoc phc hi trng thi. 11. Coordinated Protection logic logic bo v c iu phi v s nh t ng thay i cc nhm gi tr (setting) trong rle cho thch ng vi cu hnh ca pha s cp. 12. Communications Assisted Protection - thc hin h tr cc chc nng bo v t xa theo knh thng tin. II. C S D LIU Cc d liu thu c trong h I&C ca h thng in ni trn c th phn thnh cc loi d liu sau. 1. D liu v thit b Biu din nhng iu kin tc thi ca h thng nh tnhiu analog, cng tc trng thi, d liu h thng theo cc bo v, iu khin v phn tch h thng dng biu din ng c tnh ca h thng in, n l ngun cung cp tt c cc d liu v tnh ton trong rle v cc ng dng iu khin xa. 2. D liu bo v Mi quyt nh bo v da trn phn tch iu khin thit b cc d liu c tnh nh dng, p, tn hiu vo ri rc, trng thi vt l v iu khin mi trng t cc ngun ti ch hoc t xa. Hu ht cc quyt nh bo v a ra th hin trong mt khung chu k thi gian. Phng php thng tin d liu ny cn phi nhanh, tin cy v bo mt. D liu o lng.

42

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

D liu o lng theo truyn thng c tnh t cc gi tr analog m phng trng thi lm vic ca h thng in. N c s dng cho bo v, hin th, v cc ng dng tin ch khc, d liu o lng c th hin th ti ch hoc t xa cung cp cho mc tiu theo di v kinh doanh h thng in cho mc tiu thao tc, vn hnh. Ngi theo di t xa c th quan st d liu ny trn h SCADA, EMS, RA, hoc HMI. 3. D liu h thng t ng y l phn nh ca kt qu thc hin lnh logic trn cc dng d liu khc. Lnh a ra khng nht thit ng thi cng lnh ca bo v. u vo ca thut ton iu khin c th nhn c ti ch hoc c gi n t cc thit b khc. Kt qu ca thut ton iu khin c th nhn c ti ch hoc c gi n t cc thit b khc. Kt qu ca thut ton iu khin t ng cho thy rng cn thc hin iu khin v thu thp d liu, tng hp cc bn ghi s kin (Event report) cc thut ton iu khin thc hin hot ng ngoi phm vi thut ton bo v truyn thng ti mc thit b v mc h thng s dng d liu bo v, o lng, tip im I/O v d liu c thng tin t cc thnh phn I&C khc. Rle thc hin cc thao tc truyn thng vi nhiu i tng c bo v trong h thng in. Thut ton iu khin t ng h thng cng tng t nh trn, nhng thm vo thnh phn h thng thc hin phn tch hot ng nh phn vng s c, phc hi sau s c, gim ti hoc truyn ti ti u rle l mt thnh phn ca gii php t ng mc iu khin trm (Substation Automation) v xu hng t ng iu khin phn tn (Ditribution Automation). 4. D liu iu khin D liu iu khin l kt qu ca chc nng x l v tc ng ca ngi vn hnh thc hin trong iu khin. iu khin c th thc hin t
43

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

xa hoc thut ton bo v, t ng hoc thao tc ngi vn hnh. Khi cn ra lnh cho rle thc hin lnh iu khin lnh iu khin t xa, cn phi gi mt thng bo kinh doanh n rle, c trng thi u ra dng cht (latching) hoc dng xung (pulse). Lnh iu khin cng c th l mt dng tn hiu u ra analog output hoc chui xung nh iu chnh kch t hay m van iu chnh cng sut my pht... c th c nhiu tc thc hin iu khin ch k (10ms) n vi chc giy. Chc nng iu khin c th khi ng bi rle hoc nhn t mt rle khc n do vy tc iu khin y ph thuc nhiu vo kh nng s l v phn ng ca rle. 5. D liu gim st Bt k dng d liu no bn trong dle hoc thit b ca h thng I&S c s dng HMI hoc thng tin n cc thit b xa chi mc ch hin th h thng in u tr thnh d liu gim st. Thng thng, d liu dng cho mc ch gim st l kt qu ca cc s l khc. 6. D liu giao tip phn tch thit b Rle lu gi cc thng tin thit b trong h thng in cho mc ch phn tch qu trnh lm vic ca chng. V d: tng s ln lm vic, tn sut s dng, khong thi gian lm vic dng ct... thm vo c qu rnh t kim tra thanh rle. D liu phn tch ny cung cp thng tin v cht lng ca h thng in v h thng thit b.H s khng sn sng ca h thng c tch hp qua trng thi h hng ca nhng thnh phn trung gian. 7. D liu qu trnh Rle lu tr d liu cung cp cc thng tin v hot ng ca h thng theo qu trnh hoc qua chui nhiu s kin lin tip. N c lu chn ra thnh mt tp hp (System profiles) cc bn ghi s kin, bn ghi
44

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

tun t (SER) , bn ghi cht lng nng lng, v cht lng bo v. Lnh ng b thi gian c gi t mt trung tm n tt c cc thit b trong h thng s dng chung mt ng h. Thng tin ca bn ghi qu trnh s cung cp cho nh phn tch cht lng h thng, c th tr gip khi thit k quy hoch pht trin v hon thin h thng in. Bn tin v s kin chn v lu li nhng gi tr o analog v digital trc v sau khung khi ng (pre or post trigger). Bn ghi SER bao gm thnh phn biu din thi gian tc thi ghi c s thay i ca digital input hoc digital logic input. Cht lng ca h thng in c nh gi bng vic so snh cc gi tr t. Nhng tham s v cht lng nh thnh phn sng hi, tn s, ng cong in p (km hoc qu p), dao ng cng sut... Cht lng ca bo v c kim tra qua phn ng ca cc phn ca h thng I&C bo v tng phn t trong h thng in nh my bin p, ng dy... v h thng thit b thng tin. D liu qu trnh c lu li di dng bn ghi v thc hin ghi ng hoc kch thch khi c yu cu. Bn ghi c th qu ln v mt nhiu thi gian truyn gi liu. 8. D liu thng s ci t. Gi tr ci t c nhiu tham s s dng cu hnh trong phn mm ca rle thc hin cc chc nng theo ngi s dng. Rle a chc nng a ng dng lm cuc cch mng trong thit k. Gi tr t c s dng mc ng dng cui cng (end user). N bao gm cc thng s ph hp vi tr khng, chiu di ng dy ca mi thit b cn bo v, vng bo v s thit b bo v:

45

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Chc nng kt ni

D liu t/gian thc

D liu qu trnh

iu khin

iu

Thi gian t ng b

khin gi rle

ti ch t xa tr

Bng hin th Rle HMI Cng my in Cng ni PC ti ch Cng Modem Cng ng b thi gian Giao tip SCADA nng iu trm khin

Tch hp cc chc

Bng 3.2 Tng hp d liu truyn thng v thng tin iu khin III. TRUYN D LIU Trong h thng thng tin iu khin cc d liu c truyn i t ni ny sang ni khc, t cp ny sang cp khc. Do truyn khi lng ln d liu i xa phng php truyn l truyn tin ni tip, tc l cc d liu c lin tip a i trn phng tin truyn tin. Tc truyn tin c ln tin tc c truyn i nhu nhiu. Trong truyn tin c 2 vn : th tc truyn tin v phng tin truyn tin.

46

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

1. Phng tin truyn tin: cn gi l gi truyn tin(Media) C cc phng tin sau: - Cc thng tin kim loi trc tip (direct coper) c s dng thng tin trc tip gia 2 thit b. Ngi ta cn gi l ng dy song i trc tip. - ng dy in thoi: cng l kiu kt ni trc tip nhng thng qua i ni ca mng in thoi, bng cch quay s hoc thu bao ng truyn. (Tc truyn 2000baud). - Ti ba PLC (Power Line Carrier) dng ng dy ti in, iu ch tn s cao (600 2000baud). Gn y bng cc php iu ch phi hp ngi ta c th nng ln Mbaud (106 baud). - Cp quang: truyn d liu hoc bng cch bin i thnh xung quang, tc truyn c th dn n G baud (109 baud). S dng trong in lc c u im sau: + Cch ly khi cao p gy nguy him cho thit b v ngi s dng. + Trnh c nhiu mi trng, bn thn khng pht nhiu. + H s suy gim nh (1dB/km). - Truyn khng dy: dng sng dng FM hay sng ngn (micro wave). 2. Cc cch lin kt: Gia cc thit b thng mih thong tin vi nhau c th c nhiu cch lin kt. Mng lin kt hnh sao (Star Topology). Mng lin kt BUS (Bus Topology). Mng lin kt vng (Ring Topology).

47

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Mng cu trc lin kt hnh sao: c thit k tr gip cho nhng h thng c nhiu loi IEDs. Nhng rle c kh nng thng tin tc chm lp t cng vi nhng rle hin i c nhanh hn. Trong mng hnh sao, thit b c xut x t nhiu nh sn xut vi ccs topology khc nhau c th cng ni trc tip ti b ng x l trung tm. Tnh m y c hin th khi mng c kh nng giao tip gia phn cng v phn mm ca nhiu hng sn xut vi nhiu giao thc (protocols), nhiu t s truyn (baud rate), v nhiu hnh thc giao tip mng. Th h rle s c cng giao tip n gin thng c s dng l loi cng ni tip EIA-232. Mng cu trc lin kt nhiu im (Multidrop): y l mng lin kt BUS v vng vi nhiu im, trong cc thit b c ni theo lut truyn v nhn thng nht, nh minh ho nh ccs hnh v di dy. c im ca 2 lin kt ny l trong mt khong thi gian no ch c mt thit b lin lc. Trong mng Multidrop, mi trm, mi thit b, hoc rle trong mng phi c nh gi a ch v s s dng cng EIA-485 khi c s dng cho mt s mng Multidrop c bit. * Mng cu trc BUS Tt c cc thit b trong mng u c ni trc tip vi mt ng dn chung. Nh vy, c im c bn ca cu trc nyl vic s dng chung mt ng dn duy nht cho tt c cc thit b trong trm (hoc mng) v th tita kim c cp dn v cong lp t. C th phn bit 3 kiu cu hnh trong cu trc ny: daisy chain, trunk line/drop line v mch vng khng tch cc. Hai kiu cu trc u c xp vo kiu cu trc ng thng vi tnh cht 2 vng khng khp kn (hnh 3.8)

48

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Mng cu trc mch vng (tch cc) Cu trc mch vng c thit k sau cho cc thnh vin trong mng c ni t im ny n im kia tun t trong mch vng khp kn. Mi thnh vin u tham gia tch cc vo vic kim sot dng tn hiu. Khc vi cu trc ng thng, trong cu trc ny tn hiu c truyn i theo mt chiu quy nh. Mi trm nhn c d liu t trm ng trc v chuyn tip sang trm ln cn ng sau. Qu trnh ny c lp ti khi d liu quay v trm g, sau n s c hu b. iu khin mng (Network Controler) iu khin mng (Network Controler)

IEDs Hnh 3.3 Minh ho mng hnh sao (Star Topology)

IEDs Hnh 3.3 Minh ho mng hnh BUS (BUS Topology)

3. Th tc truyn d liu hay giao thc Mun truyn cc d liu ln ng dy thng tin phi t chc d liu v truyn theo cc giao thc xc nh. Ban u khi cha c cc giao thc chung theo nhng chun xc nh, cc nh sn xut phi to ra sn phm ring vi cc giao thc c quyn, cc giao thc ny khn dng giao tip vi cc d liu theo giao thc khc. Chnh s khng thng nht giao thc gy ra nhng tr ngi v i hi phi xy dng ng cc giao thc chung.
49

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Ngi ta c gng chun ho cc giao thc v cc lp trn. Cn li 2 giao thc l OSI (Open System Interface) v TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocal/Internet Protocol). hai lp di ny l lp lin kt d liu v lp vt l, cha c mt s thng nht v giao thc. Nhiu nh sn xut ra cc giao thc c th dng chung c, nhng cho n nay tuy c chun IEC 61158 (4/2000) vn cn tranh ci. Sau y l cc giao thc n nay hay c s dng. ASCII giao thc lm lm d dng vic i sang k t v s ta hay s dng. y l giao thc n gin nhng tc chm. Modbus - giao thc ph thng trong cng nghip v n tr thnh thng dng trong thng tin in lc, c bit trong phm vi trm in khi thit k cho cc PLCs chuyn d liu. Trn c s giao thc ny nhiu nh sn xut pht trin thnh nhng giao thc ring ca h. DNP3.0 y l giao thc cho h SCADA ph thng, thit k ti u ho hiu qun qua bn ghi, kt ni Modem t xa, kh nng kt ni ca h nhiu im (multidrop). Chun ny rt pht trin khu vc Bc M. UCA/MMS (utitlty Com unications Architecture v Manufactoring Messsage Specification) y l chun quc t ca cc nh thit k Bc M, c cc nh sn xut v cc nh t vn s dng. N p ng hu ht cc i hi trong thng tin gia cc thit b trong phm vi mt trm phn phi hay nhiu loi thit b trong h thng in ln. MMS: chun ny to ra c c s quan trong trong vic xy dng lp ng dng ca h thng bus hin tng c nhiu hng pht trin khi s dng: FMS (Filedlbus Message Specification) ca PROFIBUS,

50

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

PMS Periodiclaperodic Services) ca WordFIP, hoc RAC (Remote Access Control) ca Bitbus u l cc tp con ca MMS. IEC-870-50: y l chun Chu u, mt phn ca DNP3.0, nhng khng ph thng bng. 4. Tc truyn tin: Xt chn mt h truyn tun ch yu da trn tc truyn tin ca h: Bo v v iu khin i hi tc ny ngy cng cao hn, nhng iu cng ko theo vic tng gi thnh v mc hon thin h thng. Cho v d, nu mun chuyn mt khi d liu (nh mt bn ghi s c DFR hoc bn ghi s kin t rle bo v) trong khong thi gian ngn, chng yu cu phi t c tc ln hn 40kbit/sec. Trong bo v chng h hng my ct, mt lnh i ct khi ng t mt trong cc thit b bo v (t chc nng 50 BF trong rle s c...), sau mt thi gian nu my ct khng tc ng n ct dng, th chng tip tc phi gi lnh i ct my ct xung quanh, lin quan n my ct b hng. Hin nay, bo v ny s dng thng tin thay th cho u dy v rle u ra. Tt c tn hiu lin quan n s thut ton bo v (50BF) phi c chuyn qua nhnh thng tin ny. Mi kt ni thit b cn thc hin gi thng tin cao hn, khi h thng ch ph hp vi kiu kt ni thng tin Peer to Peer. Tuy nhin c nhiu tr ngi khi thc hin mt h thng thng tin tc cao. V d, mt h hng ca h thng thng tin c thm lm ngn cn bo v ch thc ca h thng in? Nh vy dng s bo v d phng no cn c a thm vo? Gi thnh ca mi IED s tng bao nhiu khi pht trin m rng thng tin? Tc cho php ca thng tin m c th thit k thch hp n tt c cc phn t.

51

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Vi knh thng tin tc 10-10 kbit/sec l nhanh n thc hin bo v tc ng nhanh. V d tc : 9600 bits/sec ta c.
9600bits / sec = 1600bits/cycles 60cycles / sec

Vi mc ch chuyn mt thng bo c lnh ct n rle xa trong mt s bo v c ct lin thng, vi di ca thng bo l 2 bytes (16bits). Ti tc 160 bits/cycles, theo nguyn l EIA-232 vi phng thc truyn im - im ch phi mt 1/10 chu k. Chng ta phi xc nh cc chc nng bo v v iu khin cn thc hin qua thng tin da trn tc t, khi s phi quan tm n cc tham s nh: S cc thit b c ni, di d liu, v tc truyn... TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dng d liu (Data Object) Lnh ng nhanh my ct o nhanh m nh phn Lnh o m ACII 11 chu k, 4 mu/chu k Bn ghi s kin m ACII 11 chu k, 4 mu/chu k Bng ghi s kin m ACII 11 chu k, 16 mu/chu k Bn ghi s kin m ACII 300 chu k, 16mu/chu k ln (size) (Byte) 6 byte 80 200 6K 21 K 570 K Thi gian truyn (ms) 7.0 ms 92 229 7 sec 25 sec 11 min

Bng 3.3 ln d liu v thi gian truyn tc 9600 bits/s

52

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Trong trng hp phi thu thp cc thng tin t cc c s d liu c quyn ca c nh sn xut khc nhau. Ta phi s dng mt giao din chun ghp ni ng dng tng tch vi mi trng c s d liu c quyn, sau dng mt c s d liu chung.

53

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

III. XY DNG H I&C BNG CCH GHP NI CHUN Xy dng h thng I&C s dng cc phn mm chun to ra mt h m cho ghp ni m rng v ng dng: c minhho hnh 3.6 v 3.7
Intranet WEB SER Vn phng iu trung ng Phn mm qun l lao ng

WAN Vn phng trung tm iu khin iu min (General Office Workstation)


B ghi s kin tun t h thng SER (System SER) Trm d liu ch o t phn mm (Warehouse Data Serve Software)

Trm c s d liu trung (Universal Ware house Database)


WAN My tnh trm (Substation PC)
B ghi s kin tiu chun tun t trm SER (Substation SER) Giao tip ngi my - trm my (Substation HMI) D liu in to t phn mm (Data Buffer Software)

Trm c s d liu trung (Universal Ware house Database)

Chun ghp ni ng dng (Standard Application. Interface-iee DDE. POC)


B x l thng tin (Comm.Processer B x l thng tin (Comm. Processer

Hnh 3.7 Minh ho quan h thng tin gia trm, iu min iu trung ng trong h thng in ln.
54

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Trm my tnh trm ch c s d liu (Data Ware house Host Computer)


Giao din s dng Trm gi st, h/t (EM. Use Interface) Giao din s dng Tnh ton hiu qu (Revenue Use interface) Giao din s dng Vn phng (Adminitration Use Interface) Giao din s dng iu khin vn hnh (Operating Use Interface) Giao din s dng Chuyn gia k s (Engineering Use Interface)

Trm c s d liu chung (Standard Ware house Database) Chun ghp ni ng dng (Standard Application. Interface iee DDE, OPC)
Chun phn mm thng tin i.e DNP v UCA (Standard Communication Soflware) Phn mm thng tin c quyn Vendor 1 (Proprietary Communication Soflware) File Chn lc & d liu iu ch (File Collection & Data extration) Vendor 1: Phn mm thng tin (Comm. soflware)

IED

IED

IED

iu khin trm Substation Controler

iu khin trm (Substation Cibtroler

iu khin trm Substation Controler

Hnh 3.6: Minh ho trm c s d liu vi cc File d liu c ci ch v thm phn m rng

55

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

i vi mt trm phn phi cng c th p dng cc phn mm truyn tin chun ghp ni cc thng tin v trng thi, ca cc rle bo v...
Yu cu v nhn lc (Human resouce) Phn mm lp k hoch (Schedur Software)
Giao tip ngi - trm my HMI (Substation HMI) C s d liu trm (Substation Database)

Yu cu bo dng

Email

Phn mm qun l bo tr (Maintenance Maneger Soflware)

Giao tip phn ng dng (Standrd Application Inteface - PCP Phn mm chun thng tin (Standard Communication Softwarre iee. DNP3.0)

Modern B x l thng tin (Comm. Precesor)

B x l thng tin (Comm. Precesor) Rle bo v (Proteclive Relays)

Senson OLTC, nhit Trng thi my ct

Hnh 8.8: Minh ho quan h thng tin trong iu khin, qun l phm vi h thng nh cp trm phn phi

56

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Ph lc 3: Trnh by mt xut mt h iu khin v bo v trm bin p do thc s Nguyn Quang nh xy dng di s hng dn ca gio s tin s khoa hc Trn nh Long. y c coi l xut mt phng php xy dng h thng I&C cho 1 trm phn phi in. Tuy nhin tt c cc trnh by trn u khong c tnh ton t m cho mt i tng c th v khi xt n i tng c th mi xy ra nhiu vn cn phi xem xt v nghin cu.

57

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

CHNG IV MT S NGH XY DNG H SCADA H THNG IN Cn c vo tnh hnh hin nay ca li in Vit Nam. Cn c vo tnh hnh pht trin cc cng c phn mm, cn c vo cc thit b c trn th trng chng ta c th c nhng gii php sau: I. NGHIN CU NHNG VIC LM CHO SCADA H THNG IN VIT NAM xy dng h SCADA y nh cc nc tin tin s rt tn dem nu ra khng t lc nghin cu cc gii php, cc yu cu ca bn thn h thng in Vit Nam m chy theo th hiu ca th gii. 1. Chn nhng vn phi gii quyt vi SCADA h thng in Vit Nam. Vic u tin phi lm l phi nghin cu xem h SCADA phc v c th g cho li in: ng ct ngun, tng gim ti, phn ti, ng ct h tiu th, nm bt tnh hnh c th li 1 vng, 1 ch th trn h thng. Nhim v phi xc nh rt c th, ch cn ra 1 s nhim v, hoc cha phi lc gii quyt, hoc cha c iu kin gii quyt s gy ra tn tht rt ln v ca ci vt cht trong khi ta cn phi gii quyt nhng vn bc sc m khng kinh ph. V d: Hin nay nhng nh my ln ch cht cho xng sng in Vit Nam vn cha c h thng I&C. Cha c ni mng vi trung tm iu quc gia. Vic tng ngun v iu chnh cng sut vn ang c iu khin thng qua con ngi qua in thoi. Vn chn vn g phi gii quyt trc, vn g phi gii quyt sau ch c th do EVN quyt nh. 2. Xy dng cc d liu yu cu cc cp khc nhau: trn c s xy dng SCADA h thng in. i vi trung tm iu quc gia v iu min, trang b do nc ngoi cung cp. Nhim v hin nay ca
58

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

cc trung tm l vn hnh tt nm vng, lm ch h y, thc hin cc chc nng c i vi h thng in m n phc v. Nghin cu cc chun giao thc ca h thng v chuyn dn sang giao thc chun, sau ny, khi h thng pht trin, h thng trng thi m (khng ph thuc vo giao thc). Ni tm li cp trung tm iu nhim v ch yu l: - Tm hiu h SCADA ca mnh - Chuyn v h giao thc chung nu cn thit - Cng b cc chun chn bi EVN sau ny chchn cc giao thcm theo tiu chun TCP/IP l tiu chun giao thc hin nay chim lnh th gii v h thng c th tip nhn cc thng tin Internet. - i vi cc trm bin th phi tin hnh phn cp cc trm theo tiu chun xc nh. * Mi loi trm phi xy dng h thng d liu cn thu thp v h thng d liu cn chuyn i v nhng vn v thu thp s liu, iu khin, thng bo v bo v cc trm y. - Nu c th, xy dng mt s trm in hnh: thit k chi tit n mc c th lm ti liu u thu hay lm c s cho vic chn thit b. Bn thit k phi chi tit hn bn xut ph lc 3 bn ny. Ch mi cu hnh c bn cha nu ra c nhng s liu cn c thit k.

59

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

II. XUT XY DNG C S D LIU CHO MT TRM V CNH TNH TON Ly v d: Xy dng d liu cho trm 220 KV H ng. y l mt trm va bin p va phn phi in 220/110 KV. Gm 2 my bin p 250 MVB. y l bin p t ngu c th iu chnh in p trn ti c cun dy th cp 23KV. Pha 220 ni vi Ho Bnh (2 l), Chem, Ninh Bnh, Ph Li, Mai ng. Pha 110 ni vi ti: Mai ng (2 l), Thng nh (2 l). T1, T2, Chm (2 l), Sn Ty, Ninh Bnh. Trm ny l mt trm phn phi v c vn phng v vy y phi hnh thnh mt trm c s d liu chung. (Universal Ware House Data Buse) dng mt my tnh cht lng cao vi y thit b ngoi vi nh my in ghi s c, bo ng, bo hiu... - 83 cn o cch ly (c cng tc pha) dng thng bo trng thi hin hnh ca s ni dy. S dng 83 DI - Bo v 2 bin p 250 MVA. Dng rle s hp b: bo v bin p ln gm cc bn v sau (hnh 4-1)

60

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Cao p

50 I>>

51 I>,t

51N Io>, t

49 G>

46 I2>, t

63 Ap sut

51G I0>, t

49 0>

49 0>

51 I>,t

51N I0>,t

Trung p

51 I>,t

Hnh 4-1: Bo v my bin p cng sut ln.

61

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

50 rle dng in ct nhanh 51 rle dng in c thi gian (3 b) 51N rle qu dng th t khng (2 b) 46 rle dng in th t nghch 51G rle dng in th khng c thi gian 87N Rle bo v ni t bng dng in khong 87B/5L Rle bo v so lch 49 Rle nhit Tng cng 11 cng tc ph hoc 11 gi tr logic biu th rle hot ng. - Bo v ng dy song song cao p cung p t 2 u (hnh 2-1) rle ni b: 51 87 49 79 Rle dng in ct nhanh (3 b) Rle bo v so lch (2 b) Rle nhit (2 b) Rle t ng ti 51N Rle qu dng in th t khng (2 b)

9 Cng tc ph hay 9 k hiu logic

62

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Ngun

Ngun

79 TL 51/51N I>,I>,t 8.7 SL

*
Bo v nh D1
49 0>

**

Knh truyn ti
51/51N I>,I>,t 8.7 SL 79 TL 49 0>

**

Ngun

Ngun

Hnh 4-2 Bo v ng dy song song c chiu di b, cung cp t 2 u. Tng cng: 129 digital input: t y chn s mudule DI cho PLC hc cho PTU. - S im o analog: y khng thy v bin dng CT hay bin in p VT, v th c c s chn Transducer hp b.
63

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Tu theo i lng o v phi bo co ta phi cn 2 transducer in thng minh dng o cc i lng sau: Ia Ua Pa Qa Ib Ub Pb Qb Ic Uc Pc Qc P3fa Q3fa

Mi s liu truyn i mt 3 byte (24bit) nh vy truyn s liu ca mt bin p: 14x24 = 288 bt Ta c 2 bin p: nh vy truyn s liu mt 576 bt Cc s liu analog trn c truyn n 1 d liu kp thi theo thi gian theo nhp o my ch quy nh (thng thng 2s). Cc s liu DI c chuyn nh cng DI ca PLC hoc ca DTU - iu khin cc dn dao t ng phi dng cc u DO (Digial output) ng ct cc my ct. - 25 my cn dng 25 DO t PLC hay PTU Nu c cc van iu khin bng dng c thay i tc , hoc cc cn b iu hnh t l ta phi s dng cc DI (digital output). - Ghi s liu nu phi truyn i nng kt qu: 11 chu k 4 mu/chu k-gi tr cc i mt 6Kbyte Nu dng mng LAN Ethernet v ng dy truyn tin tc cao v d 10 MB/s th ch mt 0,8 sec v c th b tr truyn khng cn dng cc s liu khc. Tm li: S u vo DI (digital input) 129 S u vao anolog. Vo cc transducer do transducer truyn S u DO (digital output) 25

64

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

Truyn kt qu ghi s c cn phi nghin cu. Vi cc s liu trn, lng thng tin truyn i ca mt transduer khng ln lm. V th vic chn la th no cho ln l nhim v ca ngi qun l trm, xy dng nhng s liu cn thit cung cp cho nhng nh sn xut h SCADA trong nc. III. KT LUN Qua nghin cu c th c nhn xt sau: - H thng in Vit Nam l mt h thng ln: (nhn trn c s h thng in Vit Nam) V th vic xy dng h I&C cho h thng in phi t chc, phi c nghin cu c th. - Cc SCADA cc trung tm iu c trang b v th mi cn thu nhn nhiu thng tin nht c gii quyt. Cn tm hiu v lm ch n tip thu tt thng tin t di ln. - Cc trm c cu trc rt ging nha v quy m cng ging nhau v th SCADA ca trm ny c th dng cho trm kia. Do nghin cu t xy dng h SCADA l rt c li v kinh t. - Tuy nhin hin nay vic t chc nghin cu mt cch c h thng cha t ra v t ngi quan tm. - Bn tng kt ny ch mi l mt bn bo co tnh trng hin nay v gi cc vic phi lm. - Khi thit k cc RTU (trong cc ti nhnh v sau nghin cu phn tch t m v xy dng cc phn mm c th dng c cho nhiu trm).

65

Lin hip Khoa hc in t Cng trnh SEEN

PH LC
Ph lc 1: H thng I&C trm 220 KV Nam nh LSA Siemens Ph lc 2: H thng SCADA iu trung ng A0; Range Bailey (ABB) Ph lc 3: Thit k cc h thng iu khin v bo v trm bin p trong tng lai Ph lc 4: Tp s : h thng in ton quc (n trm 110 KV). 3 bn v ghp H thng d liu H Ni (n trm tiu dng) S 1: Dy nh my thu in Ho Bnh S 1: Dy trm bin th H ng S 1: Dy ca nh my in i Ninh S 1: Day nh my in a Nhim, sa cha v ci tin

66

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

NH HNG PHT TRIN NGNH IN VIT NAM GIAI ON 2010 2020 Gio s TSKH: Trn nh Long

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

HIN TRNG H THNG IN VIT NAM H thng truyn ti in 500 kV Bc Trung Nam c xy dng v a vo vn hnh cui nm 1994 nh du mt bc ngot trong lch s pht trin h thng in Vit Nam. Cc h thng in trc y vn hot ng ring l ba min Bc, Trung, Nam c hp nht vo h thng in quc gia vi trung tm iu trung ng t ti H Ni: vi h thng in hp nht ton quc, in lc Vit Nam trong nhng nm gn y t c nhng thnh tu ln trong pht trin ngun in, xy dng nhiu ng dy v trm p ng c nhu cu in nng phc v pht trin kinh t, x hi. I.1 Tnh hnh sn xut v tiu th in nng n cui nm 2001, tng cng sut lp t ca cc nh my in trong h thng in (HT) Vit Nam l 7612,88 MW, trong cc nh my do Tng Cng ty in lc Vit Nam qun l vn hnh l 7013,73 MW chim khong 92%, cc nh my in c lp (IPP) l 599,15 MW chim khong 8%. Phn loi theo ngun: thu in 3984,33 MW (52,33%), nhit in than 645 MW (8,4%), nhit in du 198 MW (2,6%), tua bin kh -1894 MW (24,87%) v diezel 295,81 MW (3,8%). Phn b cc nh my in ang hot ng ca HT ca Vit Nam trnh by trn hnh 1. Nm 2001 sn lng in sn xut v in mua l 30,603 t kWh, nm 2002 c tng sn lng in sn xut v mua l 34,390 kWh. Tc tng trng bnh qun v sn xut in giai on 1996 2000 khong 13%. V c cu sn xut in, trong giai on (1991 1996) sn lng thu in lun chim t trong cao trn 70% (ring nm 1994 ln ti 75%). Nm 2001 do iu kin thu vn thun li sn lng thu in tng ln n 59% so vi 51% nm 1998. Sn lng tua bin kh, c bit l tua bin kh chy kh thin nhin ngy cng tng v t ti gn 23% trong nm 1998. Nm 2001 t trng ca tua bin kh v diezel l 25%. Sn lng in thng phm cung cp cho cc nghnh kinh t v sinh hot dn dng tng t 11185 GWh nm 1995 ln n 25751 GWh nm 2001, tc tng trng bnh qun trong giai on (19962000) khong 14,6% trong cc nm ( 1996 1998 ) tc tng bnh qun hng nm rt cao 16 19%. Nm 1999 do nh hng ca khng hong ti chnh trong khu vc tc tng nhu cu in gim xung ch cn 10,3%, n nm 2000 kinh t pht trin kh hn, tc
2

I.

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

tng nhu cu in t khong 13,2% v nm 2001 t khong 14,96%. T l tn tht in nng t 21,7% nm 1995 gim xung cn khong 15% nm 2001. V c cu tiu th in c th nhn thy t trng in nng dng cho cng nghip c xu th gim dn t hn 46% nhng nm 90 92 xung cn khong 40% nm 2001, trong khi in nng tiu th cho sinh hot tng nhanh t 30% n gn 50% nm 2001. T l ny lm cho ch vn hnh h thng in ngy cng xu, h s ph ti gim gy nhiu kh khn cho vic m bo an ton cung cp in. I.2 Tnh hnh pht trin li in Li in Vit Nam c cc cp in p: - in p truyn ti c cc cp: 66, 110, 220, 500 kV - in p phn phi c cc cp: 35, 22, 15, 10 v 6 kV n nay li in Quc gia c pht trin n tt c cc tnh; gn 96% s huyn v trn 80% s x trong c nc vi hn 71% s h nng thn c dng in. Chiu di cc ng dy ti in v cng sut cc trm bin p cc cp in p a ra trong bng sau: Tng hp khi lng li in ton quc: Cp in p (kV) 500 220 66-110 Trung p II. Chiu di ng dy (km) 1532 319.3 7493 50464 Cng sut my bin p (MVA) 2700 5922 7044 10395

CHNG TRNH PHT TRIN NGNH IN LC VIT NAM GIAI ON 2010 2020

II.1 nh hng chnh sch pht trin nhn lc Trn c s chin lc pht trin nng lng bn vng n nm 2020 v chin lc khai thc ti nguyn trong nc n 2020. nh hng chnh sch pht trin in lc nh sau: 1. m bo cung cp in an ton v cht lng v hiu qu cho pht trin kinh t - x hi trn c s a dng ho ngun cung cp; khai thc ti a cc ngun nng lng c hiu qu
3

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

kinh t trong nc (thu in, nhit in kh, nhit in than) kt hp vi trao i, lin kt li in hp l trong khu vc, trc ht vi Lo v Campuchia. u tin xy dng cc nh my thu in c cc li ch tng hp, kt hp chng l - cp nc vi sn xut in. ng b vi pht trin ngun in, cn tng cng pht trin h thng li in truyn ti v phn phi vi t l hp l nhm m bo cung cp in an ton, tin cy cho cc h tiu th in. S dng cng ngh tin tin, gim nhim mi trng. y mnh vic a in v nng thn v in kh ho nng thn. Pht trin ngnh c kh nng lng. Chun b chng trnh in nguyn t ca Vit Nam. Coi trng vic thu ht u t ca nc ngoi v khuyn khch cc thnh phn kinh t trong nc tham gia u t pht trin ngun in, li in trn c s in lc quc doanh phi m bo vai tr ch o trong sn xut v cung ng in cho pht trin ca nn kinh t quc dn v i sng nhn dn. Xc tin k hoch mua in ca Lo v nghin cu vic u ni v trao i vi cc nc trong khu vc.

II.2 D bo nhu cu tiu th in Trn c s cc kch bn pht trin kinh t x hi, d bo nhu cu in ca Vit Nam nm 2005 v 2010 nh sau: Nm 200x Nm 2005 Nm 2010 Nm 2020 Pmax (MW) 4800 7800-8300 11700-13000 27000-32400 in nng (t-kWh) Xxx 46,5 - 49,0 70,0 78,0 167,0 200,0

Tc tng trng nhu cu in trong giai on 2001-2020 khong 10 11%. II.3 Chng trnh pht trin ngun in II.3.1 Pht trin cc ngun thu in Vit Nam c tim nng thu in di do v phn b trn hu khp cc vng lnh th. Tng tim nng l thuyt ngun thu in Vit Nam khong 300 t kWh/nm, cn tim nng kinh t - k thut
4

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

c nh gi vo khong 80 100 t KWh, cng sut tng ng 18000 20000 MW. Khi cc NMT Yaly 720 MW, Sng Hinh 70 MW v Hm Thun a Mi 472 MW hon thnh nng tng cng sut thu in n gn 4100 MW (22,8% tng tim nng kinh t k thut) tng ng sn lng in khong 18 t KWH ( t 22,5% tim nng KTKT mc 80 t KWh)/ Qua cc cng tc nghin cu v thu in, i n kt lun sau v chin lc khai thc cc ngun thu in: 1. Cn tp trung khai thc thu in tn dng khai thc tim nng phong ph ca ngun nc. 2. Trong giai on sp ti cn tp trung khai thc ngun thu nng trn cc dng sng: Sng , Sng S San v sng ng Nai, trn cc dng sng ny c nhiu cng trnh c hiu qu kinh t cao v phi hp li dng s lch pha ca ch thu vn. Xy dng mt s cng trnh thu in va trn cc dng sng khu vc min Trung nht l cc cng trnh c hiu ch tng hp (cp in, cp nc, chng l..). D kin khai thc thu in ca Vit Nam trong giai on t nay n nm 2020 khong 12000 14000 MW tng ng in nng khong 50 60 t KWh v min Nam gn 9 t KWh. Trong hn 20 nm ti s xem xt hu ht cc NMT c kh nng xy dng trn cc dng sng: , L, Gm, C, Chu min Bc, sng S San, V Gia-Thu Bn.. min Trung v sng ng Nai min Nam. Bn phn b cc cng trnh thu in d kin a vo giai on 2020 xem trn bn hnh 2. II.3.2 Pht trin cc nh my nhit in t than Hin nay v trong tng lai, than c khai thc ch yu tp trung khu vc Qung Ninh. Tng tr lng than ca Vit Nam l 3,9 t tn, trong than antraxit l 3,28 t tn, trong tr lng cp A + B khong gn 500 triu tn. Ngoi ra pht hin ti ng bng Sng Hng (ch yu di Khoi Chu - Tin Hi) c than nu vi tng tr lng c c lng khong 37 100 t tn. Tuy nhin vic khai thc than nu s c nh hng n mi trng sinh thi ca khu vc ng bng sng Hng, trong tng lai 15 20 nm ti than nu s chim t l rt nh trong tng nng lng s dng ca Vit Nam. D kin trong giai on 2010 2020, sn lng khai thc than khai thc khong 15 20 triu tn/nm, trong khong 6 8

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

triu tn dnh cho sn xut in, trong trng hp n giai on 2015 2020 ngnh than c th tng sn lng than khai thc (ln n 25 30 triu tn) th c th cha phi nhp than sn xut in. Trn c s kh nng cung cp than cho in v nhu cu pht trin ph ti d kin n nm 2015 tng cng sut ca cc ngun nhit in t than khong trn 3000 MW, d kin pht trin cc a im: Ph Li (1000MW), Ung B: m rng thm 3000 MW, ti Hi Phng: 600 MW, Qung Ninh: ti khu vc Lng Bang: trc y c d kin cho cng ty OXBOW ca M pht trin mt NMT s dng than xu c cng sut 300 MW, nhng do c kh khn trong m phn nn hin nay cng trnh ang b ngng li. Trong tng lai d kin ti khu vc ny c th pht trin mt nh my vi quy m 600 MW gm hai t my, mi t 300 MW. Khu vc Cm Ph: cng c th pht trin mt nh my s dng than ni a l Na Dng v Cao Ngn mi nh my c cng sut 100 MW do TCT Than u t. Tu theo v tr a im v tnh cht ca loi than s dng m cc nh my c th s dng cng ngh khc nhau (l than phun, l tng si..) Giai on 2016 2020 nhu cu cng sut cc nh my nhit in than khong 2000 4000 MW, trong trng hp ngun than sn xut trong nc hn ch, c th xem xt xy dng cc nh my nhit in s dng than nhp, hin nay mt s nc trong khu vc nh Thi Lan, Malaysia.. v c chin lc s dng than nhp sn xut in, cng sut t my cc nh my in s dng than nhp khong 500 1000 MW. a im c th pht trin cc nh my in s dng than nhp hin nay cha c cc kho st nhin cu c th. S b c mt s khu vc a im c th xem xt xy dng: khu vc min Bc ti ven bin Hi Phng Thi Bnh, Nghi Sn (Thanh Ho), khu vc min Nam ti: Nh B (trc yd chnh quyn Ngu c k hoch xy dng mt NMN y), M Tho (dng tuyn vn ti sng Tin v gn cc trung tm ph ti min ng v min Ty). II.3.3 Pht trin cc nh my nhit in Theo nh gi ca Tng Cng ty Du kh, tng tr lng ca Vit Nam khong 1200 1400 t m3, trong tr lng xc minh khong 179 t m3, trong khong trn 30 t m3 kh ng hnh khu vc cc m du thuc b Cu Long, gn 11 t m3 thuc b kh

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

Sng Hng v lc a B Sng Hng, hn 113 t m3 thuc b kh Nam Cn Sn v khong trn 23 t m3 vng lc a pha Ty Nam. Da trn tim nng kh t ca cc khu vc v kh nng tiu th kh ca cc ngnh (h tiu th kh chnh s l ngnh in v ngnh cng nghip), d bo kh nng khai thc kh theo tng giai on nh sau: n 2010: 6-8 t m3 giai on n nm 2020 khong 15 20 t m3, trong khong 3 t m3 cho pht in. s dng ht lng kh ny cn phi xy dng cc nh my nhit in c tng cng sut khong 1000 4000 MW, tng cng sut cc nh my s dng kh hin c v c k hoch xy dng trn khong 4000 MW, nh vy cn khong 6000 10000 MW cng sut cc ngun nhit in s dng kh cn phi xy dng thm n nm 2020. a. Cng ngh ca cc nh my in s dng kh t - Cng ngh TBK chu trnh hn hp : Cng nghip TBKHH bao gm TBK n, l thu hi nhit v Tua bin hi. Cng ngh TBKHH c pht trin rt mnh m trong nhng nm gn y, vi vic s dng cc TBK c t my ln v cc l thu hi nhit c nhiu cp p lc, hiu sut ca cc cm TBKHH c th ln n trn 50% (cc nh my N ngng hi c hiu sut khong 40%). Vi sut vn u t thp v hiu suts cao, trong tng lai cc nh my in s dng kha ch yu ngh pht trin cc nh my s dng cng ngh TBKHH. Tuy nhin cng nghip ny cng c nhc im l chi ph cho bo tr cao, trong trng hp thiu kh s phi s dng loi nhin liu thay th t tin l nh du DO, kh t nhin (LNG), kh ho lng (LPG). - Cng ngh ngng hi: cng ngh ny c lch s pht trin lu di, cng mt nh my c th s dng nhiu loi nhin liu khc nhau. Mc d c vn u t cao v hiu sut thp hn cng ngh TBKHH, tuy nhin tong trng hp thiu kh c th s dng cc loi nhin liu thay th r tin nh du FO> Do trong tng lai cng c th xem xt xy dng mt t l thh hp c nh my opt kh s dng cng ngh ngng hi nhm mc ch a dng ho ngun nhin liu v nng cao an ton cung cp nhin liu cho sn xut in. b. a im ca cc nh my in s dng kh t Trn c s phn b v kh nng cung cp kh ca cc khu vc, c th xem xt quy m v cc a im xy dng cc ngun nhit in s dng kh t sau: - Khu vc min ng Nam B: ngoi cng sut ca cc NM c v d kin phtg trin ti B Ra (300 MW) v Ph M gn (4000
7

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

MW), d kin s ti khu vc ny s pht trin thm khong 1200 MW ti khu vc Nhn Trch. - Khu vc min Ty Nam B: khu vc s dng kh t ca thm lc a Ty Nam, theo nh gi ca Tng cng ty Du kh th kh nng khai thckh ca khu vc ny cng c th ln n 5 t m3/nm, trong cp cho in trn 4 t m3/nm. Ti khu vc ny ngoi cc nh my hin c v c k hoch xy dng l Tr Nc v Mn vi tng cng sut khong 800 MW, s dng ht lng kh trn cn pht trin thm khong 2000 3000 MW. D kin cng sut v a im ca cc ngun in s dng kh Ty Nam gm: NM C Mau (trong t hp Kh - m C Mau) c cng sut 1500 2000 MW, m rng Mn thm 600 MW, NM khu vc Kin Giang (ti Rch Si) c cng st khong 600 1200 MW (s dng kh ca cc l 16, 51..). - Khu vc min Trung: khu vc ny s dng kh t ca b kh Sng Hng (cc l 111, 112 v 113). Cu to c kh pht hin ca PV c tp trung ti vng Bch Tr, ng ng dn kh t y n Qung Tr ch vo khong 40 km, nu dn n Qung Nam (khu vc c c khu kinh t Chu Lai - K H) th chiu di ng ng kh khong 190 km. Kin ngh nu khu vc min Trung tm thy kh s pht trin nh my in ti khu vc Qung Tr, qua ng dy 500 kV cp in cho cc trung tm ph ti. D kin n nm 2020 ti y s pht trin mt nh my in khng 720 1440 MW (ph thuc vo kh nng cp kh) tiu th khong 1 -2 t m3/nm. - Khu vc min Bc: vi tr lng xc minh khong 10 t m3 (BSH v cc l 103, 106, 107) ti Thi Bnh s pht trin NM 360 MW. Trong trng hp pht hin thm kh khu vc ny s xem xt pht trin thm. II.3.4 Nh my in nguyn t a. Cng ngh NM nguyn t: c 3 loi cng ngh ch yu bao gm cc loi: - L nc nh c hai loi l nc p sut (PWR) c cng sut t my ln n 1000 1300MW, loi ny hin c s dng rng ri ti Php, M. L nc si (BWR) c cng sut t my ln n 1000 1300MW, loi ny ang c s sng rng ri ti Nht Bn v mt s quc gia khc

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

- L nc nng CANDU (PHWR), c cng sut t my 600 700MW (CANDU 6) v 900MW (CANDU 9), loi l ny c s dng rng ri ti Canada v mt s quc gia khc. b. Cng ngh v a im xy dng NM nguyn t: Qui m cng sut ca cc nh my in nguyn t d kin pht trin n nm 2020 khong 2000 4000MW, nghin cu trn 10 a im c th pht trin nh my in nguyn t ven bin t Bc n Nam, ngh la chn a im ti khu vc Nam Trung B, thuc cc tnh Ninh Thun v Bnh Thun. Bn phn b cc nh my in d kin pht trin n nm 2020 xem trn hnh 3. II.4 Chng trnh pht trin li in n nm 2010 2020, tip tc pht trin li in truyn ti 500, 220KV ti in t cc nh my in cp in cho cc trung tm ph ti, to mi lin kt trao i in nng mt cch linh hot, hiu qu gia cc min t nc v li in cc nc trong khu v c Li in 110KV s c pht trin mnh ti trung tm tiu th cc huyn th v cc khu cng nghip nh, v dn tr thnh li in phn phi. Ring li 66KV hin c m min Nam s c ci to nng cp in p ln 110KV trong mt vi nm ti i vi li in trung p s c k hoch tng bc chuyn dn t h thng vi nhiu cp in p (6, 10, 15, 22, 35 KV) nh hin nay sang h thng mt cp in p 22KV khu vc thnh th, ng bng, trung du v cp in p 35KV khu vc min ni v vng trung du c mt ph ti thp, vic pht trin li in m bo hp l, ng b gia cc cp in p, m bo vn hnh an ton, tin cy, p ng yu cu ngy cng cao ca khch hng v cht lng in nng, gim tn tht in nng t 15,5% hin nay xung cn 10% vo nm 2010 v khong 8% vo nm 2020 D kin n nm 2020 xy dng 35.000km ng dy v trn 100.000MVA cng sut cc trm bin p c in p 110 500 KV. Bn li in truyn ti 500 200KV n nm 2020 xem hnh 4.

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

II.5 Trao i in nng v lin kt li in khu vc Vic lin kt cc h thng in mang li cc hiu ch - Gim d phng chung ca h thng in lin kt do gim c chi ph u t vo cc cng trnh ngun - Tng hiu qu vn hnh h thng in (sn xut in t cc ngun in kinh t) v gim cng sut chung cha h thng - C th s dng t my cng sut ln hn so vi trng hp cha lin kt, do cng gp phn gim thm chi ph u t vo cc cng trnh ngun - H thng in lin kt vn hnh linh hot hn so vi phng n vn hnh ring l Hin nay trong khu vc v trn th gii hnh thnh nhiuh HT lin kt gia cc quc gia. Trong chng trnh pht trin ngun in ca Vit Nam, d kin nhp khu thy in t Lo vi qui m ti 1000MW n nm 2010 v s nng dn n 2000MW vo nm 2020. Vic nhp khu s theo hai hng chnh bng ng dy 500KV. Hng th nht t Trung Lo (Nam Theun 2) n H Tnh: ng dy 500KV t thy in Nam Theun 2 n trm 500KV H Tnh, nhn in t cc nh my thy in Trung Lo (cc cng trnh trn sng Nam Theun) cp in cho khu vc min Bc, cng trnh xut hin trong giai on 2006 2008. Hng th hai t Nam Lo (Ban Paam) n H Tnh: ng dy 500KV t trm 500KV Ban Paam n trm 500KV Pleiku (min Trung Vit Nam), nhn in t cc nh my thy in trn sng Mkng cp in cho Vit Nam, cng trnh xut hin trong giai on 2008 2010. Vi vic xut hin cc ng dy 500KV lin kt vi Lo, vi Thi Lan, Vit Nam s tham gia li in lin kt vi cc nc trong khu vc Trong giai on 2015 2020 s xem xt lin kt li in 500KV vi cc tnh pha Nam Trung Quc v vi Campuchia Bn lin kt h thng in gia Vit Nam v cc nc trong khu vc xem trn hnh 5.

10

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

III.

CHNH SCH U T V PHT TRIN IN LC

III.1 Nhu cu vn u t cho pht trin in lc Tng vn u t cho nghnh in n nm 2020 ng vi ph ti c s l 447 560 ngn t ng, tng ng vi 32 40 t USD. Trung bnh mi nm cn mt lng vn u t l 21 27 ngn t ng (khong 1,5 2,0 t USD). Trong vn u t cho ngun in chim t l khong 52 58%, vn u t vo li in chuyn ti v phn phi chim t trng 42 48%. III.2 Chnh sch u t v pht trin Ngun vn u t cho cc cng trnh in bao gm: - Vn ca ngnh gm khu hao c bn v li nhun bnh qun - Vn vay t cc t chc tn dng song phng, a phng, cc t chc ti chnh quc t - Vn ngn sch cp Nhu cu vn u t cho pht trin ngnh in rt ln, v vy cn c chnh sch to ngun vn cho pht trin in, sau y l mt s chnh sch. 1. tng ngun vn t c ca ngnh, m bo cc tiu chun ti chnh do cc t chc cho vay vn cn phi tng gi in ln bng chi ph bin di hn. Trong trng hp gi in cha th tng ngay ln c, Chnh ph cn c bin php ti chnh h tr ngnh in nh: tr gi u vo, gim thu v cc khon thu 2. Nh nc cp vn ngn sch cho cc cng trnh li in phc v cho mc ch pht trin kinh t x hi vng su, vng xa. in kh ha nng thn s do Nh nc u t t ngn sch. Cc ngun ng gp t Chnh ph, a phng, v ngun khu hao c bn hng nm ca cc ti sn trn c tp hp thnh qu in kh ha, do Tng cng ty in qun l, c s dng theo k hoch Nh nc giao trong lnh vc pht trin in vng su, vng xa v in kh ha nng thn. Trong nhng nm qua, vn t ngn sch cp cho u t pht trin in ch khong 2%, do s ngn sch cp t nn phn no cng hn ch vic thc hin pht trin in cho cc vng nng thn, vng cn c chnh sch x hi

11

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

3. u tin cho cc ngun vn vay ODA cho pht trin in v cc ngun vn vay khc cho pht trin in. Trong giai on 1996 2000 cc ngun vn vay chim 60% tng s vn u t pht trin ngnh. 4. a dng ha phng thc u t pht trin ngun v li in phn phi theo cc hnh thc xy dng vn hnh chuyn giao (BOT), ngun sn xut c lp (IPP), lin doanh, lin kt v c phn ha hoc nhp khu t cc nc lng ging. Ngnh in ch c quyn i vi vic pht trin, vn hnh v qun l li in truyn ti Tuy nhin qua qu trnh m phn v thc hin cc d n BOT bc l mt s im cn xem xt l - Gi bn in cho khch hng hin nay cn mc thp, khng hp dn cc nh u t. Nu mua in vi gi qu cao ca cc d n BOT, IPP th EVN phi b chi ph, nh hin ang mua ca Hip Phc vi gi gn 6,0 US cents/kWh, trong khi gi bn in bnh qun ti ngi tiu dng ch c 5,2 US cents/kWh - Nhiu d n BOT va qua pht trin khng u thu nn dn ti gi in qu cao khng thng tho c - Cc nh u t BOT khng chu trch nhim g v tin d n nn c th lm nh hng ti vic an ton cung cp in. Nhiu d n vo chm gy nn mt phn tnh trng thiu in va qua - Chnh ph gp kh khn trong vic bo lnh chuyn i ngoi t cho cc d n ny - Vic pht trin cc d n BOT c th gy ra mt s nh hng khng c li cho vic tin n th trng in (Power Pool). Khi chuyn sang c ch th trng t do th vi hp ng BOT c k di hn kh c th cnh tranh gi vi cc nh sn xut in vi gi thp hn - C kh nng gp ri ro khi ng tin Vit nam b trt gi so vi cc ngoi t mnh - m bo n nh v bn vng trong qu trnh pht trin in, ngh t l cc ngun in BOT, IPP ch nn gii hn mc hp l, ti a khng vt qu 15 20% cng sut cc i ca h thng in quc gia (Pmax) 5. Ngnh in xem xt pht hnh tri phiu, c phiu vi s bo lnh ca Nh nc, nhm thu ht vn u t 6. i mi v ci tin cng ngh sn xut, truyn ti v phn phi in theo hng nng cao hiu sut, gim tc ng

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nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

nhim mi trng v a dng ha nhm m bo cung cp in cho pht trin kinh t x hi bn vng 7. Xy dng chng trnh qun l pha nhu cu (DSM) nhm gim in nng tiu th v gim cng sut cc i ca HT, gim nhu cu tiu th in nng bng vic nng cao hiu sut, hiu qu s dng in ca khch hng dn n gim chi ph u t v chi ph sn xut ca ngnh in ni ring v ca x hi ni chung, gim vic s dng t ai nng lm nghip, gim cc tc ng xu n mi trng sinh thi do xy dng v hot ng ca cc nh my in gy nn III.3 Chnh sch ti chnh trong pht trin in lc V quan im cn xem ngnh in l mt trong cc ngnh thuc c s h tng, ly mc tiu phc v pht trin kinh t x hi l chnh, v vy cc tiu ch sn xut, pht trin ca ngnh in phi da trn ng li phng hng c vch ra trong cc Ngh quyt ca ng v Chnh ph, ch khng phi l kinh doanh n thun. Mt khc ngnh in cng l mt ngnh sn xut vth cht, v vy cng chu cc tc ng ca qui lut kinh t th trng. V vy vic phc v cc ngnh sn xut kinh doanh khc, ngnh in cng phi hot ng trn c s t trang tri, ly thu b chi Trn c s cc quan im trn v mc tiu pht trin ngnh in, v nhng yu cu thng l ca cc c quan ti chnh quc t cng nh th trng vn quc t, trong chnh sch ti chnh kin ngh cn thit phi thc hin mt s chnh sch sau: III.3.1 Chnh sch gi: 1. Tng bc nng dn gi in n nm 2001 ln 7,0 cents/kWhm giai on 2006 2010 tng gi in bnh qun ln 7,5 cents/kWh bng chi phi bin di hn. y l mt trong nhng chnh sch quan trng nht thc hin mc tiu pht trin ngnh in trn c s t trang tri trong lnh vc phc v i vi cc ngnh sn xut vt cht 2. Trn c s khung gi c Chnh ph ph duyt, ngnh in c php t iu chnh gi in theo s thay i ca cc yu t nh ch s lm pht, t gi chuyn i ngoi t v gi nhin liu 3. Khng ngng ci tin c cu biu gi in. a cc loi biu gi c nh hng trc tip n nng cao hiu qu s dng in v ti nguyn t nc nh sau:

13

nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

1) Xy v p dng biu gi cng sut v in nng (biu gi hai thnh phn) vo p dng trc i vi cc h cng nghip, sau vi cc h khc, nhm nng cao hiu qu s dng in 2) Xy dng v p dng ngay gi in theo cc thi gian trong ngay i vi cc h sn xut kinh doanh, dch v, nhm ci thin biu ph ti. Nng cao thp im m v gim cao im ti 3) Xy dng v p dng gi theo ma tn dng in nng thy in vo ma l v trang tri cc chi ph vo ma kh, biu gi ny rt ph hp vi h thng in ca nc ta, khi m t trng thy in trong h thng ln 4) Xy dng v p dng biu gi theo vng, nhm iu tit s dng in theo lnh th v trang tri cc chi ph lin quan - Cc biu gi mc 1 v 2 c th gp phn lm gim mc u t pht trin ngun in t 4 6%, cn biu gi mc 3 v 4 gp phn s dng ti nguyn mt cch hp l hn 5) Cn xy dng gi bn bun ca ngun in thu ht vn u t pht trin ngun in ca khu vc t nhn v thc y vic ci to, pht trin li in phn phi 6) Cn xy dng gi bn in trn li trung p a dng ha vic qun l pht trin li phn phi, thu ht u t ca cc thnh phn kinh t vo khu vc ny. III.3.2 Chnh sch thu Ngnh in cn c hng u i ca chnh sch thu nh i vi ngnh h tng c s. Phn thu trn vn c s dng cho u t xy dng cc cng trnh in IV. CHNH SCH QUN L PHA CUNG CP (SSM) V QUN L PHA NHU CU (DSM) VIT NAM

IV.1 Qun l pha cung cp (SSM) Xy dng nhiu cng trnh thy in nhm khai thc ngun nng lng ti to mc hp l, gim thiu s dng ngun nhin liu ha thch. i mi cng ngh cc nh my in, gim tn tht in nng chuyn ti v phn phi. p dng cc cng ngh lnh mnh v mi
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nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

trng, bao gm: Cng ngh s dng cc ngun nng lng mi v ti to, cng ngh sn xut in nguyn t. IV.2 Qun l pha nhu cu (DSM) Vic thc hin qun l pha nhu cu c nhiu nc quan tm thc hin v mang li hiu qu cao. Trong 5 nm t 1993 1997, Thi Lan b ra mt khon tin l 189 triu USD ch cho cng tc DSM, kt qu gim c cng sut v sn lng in l 238MW, 1426GWh/nm, gim c mt lng pht thi vo mi trng 1,2 triu tn CO2. Vit Nam c nhiu tim nng ng dng qun l pha nhu cu in (DSM) Trong khu vc gia dng v dch v: Khu vc gia dng c nhu cu in nng chim t trng gn 50% nm 1998, 51,1% nm 1999, v theo d bo trong tng lai thnh phn ny vn chim t trng kh ln. Khu vc ny c th c kh nng p dng cc gii php ca chng trnh DSM: 1) Thay th cc thit b c hiu nng thp bng cc thit b c hiu nng cao hn - Thay th cc loi n chiu sng - S dng cc my thu hnh TV, Video, t lnh, my iu ha khng kh c hiu nng cao hn 2) Gim thiu s tiu ph nng lng mt cch v ch Ngoi bin php la chn cc thit b c hiu sut cao, ph hp vi yu cu s dng, vic hn ch thi gian lm vic v ch cc thit b cng mang li hiu qu ng k. thc hin mc tiu ny c th s dng cc thit b ph tr nh: T ng ct in khi ra khi nh, phng; T ng iu chnh sng ca n; iu khin (bng sng in t) cc bnh un nc nng, t lnh, iu ha khng kh ra khi li trong mt thi gian hn nh no , c bit vo cao im ti; lp thm cc v bc hn ch s tht thot nhit h thng un nc nng S dng cc mu thit k nh thng thng, tn dng nh sng t nhin nhm hn ch thi gian lm vic ca cc thit b chiu sng, qut mt Khu vc cng nghip : Tim nng ng dng DSM trong khu vc cng nghip c th c nh gi qua cc gii php sau:
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nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

- Pht trin cc tiu chun quc gia v ng c v thit b chiu sng c hiu sut cao v mt c ch thc hin - Thc hin th im kim ton nng lng Giai on II v III d kin s gim c thm trn 500MW ph ti nh ti nm 2010. Bao gm cc bin php - Pht trin v gii thiu bin php iu phi DSM cho tt c cc Cng ty in lc thuc TCT - a vo p dng lut xy dng v cc tiu chun thit b - Pht trin c ch ti chnh cho nhng hot ng DSM trong tng lai - Thit lp kh nng ca tng a phng kim ton nng lng trn din rng v lp k hoch u t - Khuyn khch t nhn tham gia cung cp cc dch v s dng tit kim v hiu qu nng lng Giai on III l giai on k tha v b sung cho hai giai on trc nhm t c hiu qu cao nht ca chng trnh DSM. NHNG THCH THC MI 1. Nguy c lc hu, tt hu: i vi nn kinh t chung ca t nc, nguy c tt hu xa hn v kinh t so vi nhiu nc trong khu vc vn l thch thc to ln v gay gt. i vi ngnh in Vit Nam, trc ht vn l thch thc v tnh trng lc hu v nguy c tt hu. Tuy t nhiu thnh tu sau hn mt thp k i mi nhng mc pht trin vn cn rt thp, vi mc nng lng tiu th trn u ngi qui i 144kg th mc tiu th nng lng hin ti mi ch bng 1/7 mc ca Thi Lan v nm mc thp nht trong cc nc ang pht trin. S lc hu v cng nghip in nc ta th hin r qua cc ch tiu v s lng, cht lng, cng ngh v c ch qun l. Chng hn so vi cc nc ASEAN vo thi im nm 1997, in nng tiu th trn u ngi ca Thi Lan gp 5,2 ln nc ta, Malaysia gp 8,9 ln, Philippines gp 2,4 ln. Tn tht in nng ca EVN nm 1998 ca EVN l 16,08% gp 1,8 ln so vi Thi Lan. So v nng sut lao ng mt ngi trong Cng ty phn phi in cho cc tnh ngoi Bng Cc ca Thi Lan (PEA) qun l trung bnh 352 khch hng v bn c 1.597.331 kWh, cn Vit Nam, tnh chung cho c 3 Cng ty in lc 1, 2, 3 l 55,4 khch hng v 363.880 kWh, nh vy PEA c nng sut lao ng cao hn ta 6,4 ln v s khch hng v 4,38 ln v in nng thng phm. V.

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nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

Nhn chung so vi cc nc trong khu vc nh Thi Lan, Malaysia, Trung Quc, in lc Vit Nam ang b lc hu vi ba thp k, tuy nhin nguy c tt hu cn ng lo ngi hn nhiu. V d nm 1984 tiu th in nng tnh theo u ngi ca Thi Lan gp 5,1 ln so vi Vit Nam, th n nm 1997, t s l 5,3 2. Thiu khun kh php l v th ch: Cho n nay cc hot ng in lc Vit Nam vn c chi phi bng mt s Ngh nh v vn bn php l ca Chnh ph. Lut in lc vn cha c ban hnh lm c s php l nht qun, to iu kin cho cc hot ng ca ngnh v cho s gim st khch quan ca cc c quan Nh nc i vi ngnh in lc S thiu khun kh php l dn n nhng bt cp v th ch. hu ht cc quc gia thnh cng trong pht trin cng nghip in lc u c th ch phn nh rch ri gia qun l Nh nc, iu tit v qun l sn xut kinh doanh ca ngnh in. gip Nh nc hoch nh i vi ngnh nng lng ni chung v ngnh in ni ring, nhiu nc thnh lp y ban Nng lng Quc gia do Th tng Chnh ph ng u, nh ra cc Chnh sch v phi hp hot ng gia cc ngnh du m, kh t, than v in Mt t chc khc rt cn thit l c quan iu tit v c cu mi ca ngnh in l C quan iu tit in lc. y l c quan Nh nc thc hin chc nng Kim sot v iu chnh trong khun kh lut in lc, quan h gia cc t chc, c nhn tham gia vo hot ng in lc nhm m bo quyn v li ch hp php ca Nh nc, ca n v in lc, v ca khch hng s dng in 3. in kh ha nng thn thch thc v cng bng x hi. Vi tinh thn Nh nc, chnh quyn a phng v nhn dn cng gp sc vi EVN a in v cc thn xm, cng cuc in kh ha nng thn t nhiu thnh tu ng khch l, nhng vn cn nhiu kh khn ln - T l dn cha c s dng in cn cao hn nhiu so vi nhiu nc trong khu vc - Cht lng in thp, gi cao ng k so vi khu vc thnh th, nhiu ni cn >900/kWh - Thiu vn u t, u t khng c kh nng hon vn - Dn chng khng c kh nng tham gia u t, thm ch mt s vng cn khng c kh nng tr tin in

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nh hng pht trin Ngnh in Vit Nam giai on 2010 - 2020

Bc vo th k 21, nhng c hi mi ang m ra i vi ngnh in song cng c nhiu kh khn thch thc i hi ngnh in Vit Nam phi c nhng bc tin mi nhm to mt c s vt cht k thut bn vng phc v cng cuc cng nghip ha hin i ha t nc.

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

H THNG THNG TIN, O LNG, BO V V T NG IU KHIN TRONG H THNG IN


GS-TSKH Trn nh Long

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

1. Phn cp iu khin h thng in Mc tiu ca h thng iu khin, iu h thng in (HT) l nhm m bo s hot ng n nh ca ton b HT, cung cp in an ton, lin tc m bo cht lng in nng v cc ch tiu kinh t tt nht trong vn hnh. Cc thit b t ng, iu khin v bo v HT c lin kt vi nhau theo mt cu trc phn cp thng thng, theo chc nng mng li iu khin HT c phn b thnh ba cp (hnh 1). * Cp Trung ng hay cp iu Quc gia vi chc nng ch huy, gim st, qun l qu trnh sn xut, truyn ti v phn phi in nng trong ton h thng in quc gia, trong c: - Lp phng thc vn hnh c bn cho ton b HT quc gia. - Tnh ton ch vn hnh ng vi tng phng thc vn hnh c bn. - Ch huy vic iu chnh tn s ca HT v iu chnh in p mt s nt chnh ca HT. - Tnh ton n nh v ra cc bin php nhm nng cao n nh ca HT. - Tnh ton v ra cc yu cu v chnh nh thit b bo v v t ng trn ton h thng. * Cp iu khu vc (hoc min): Chp hnh s ch huy ca cp iu quc gia v thc hin s ch huy gim st qun l i vi li in khu vc, trong c: - Lp s kt dy c bn ca HT khu vc. - Lp phng thc vn hnh HT khu vc trn c s phng thc huy ng ngun ca iu quc gia.

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

- Huy ng cc ngun in thuc quyn iu khin ca cp iu khu vc. - iu chnh cc ngun cng sut phn khng, nc phn p ca cc my bin p gi in p cc nt quy nh trong khu vc gii hn cho php. - Tnh ton v ra cc yu cu v chnh nh thit b bo v v t ng trn HT khu vc. - Trc tip ch huy thao tc v x l s c trong HT khu vc. - Bo co v cung cp thng tin d liu cho iu quc gia. * Cp iu cng trnh (nh my in, trm bin p) v li in a phng: chp hnh s ch huy ca cp iu khu vc v/hoc cp iu trung ng, theo di, gim st, qun l i tng c th ca cng trnh v li in a phng, trong c: - Lp phng thc vn hnh ngy; - iu chnh ngun cng xut phn khng, nc phn p ca my bin p trong trm; - Tnh ton chnh nh thng s ca thit b bo v v t ng thuc phm vi nh my v trm.

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

CC NH MY IN LN QUAN TRNG CP TRUNG NG (IU QUC GIA) NG DY V TRM TRUYN TI SIU CAO P

CC NH MY IN KHU VC CP KHU VC (IU KHU VC) TRM V NG DY TRUYN TI 110-220kv

CC NH MY IN NH, A PHNG CP A PHNG (IU C S) TRM V NG DY PHN PHI

HNH 1: PHN CP IU KHIN H THNG IN LUNG D LIU LUNG TN HIU IU KHIN

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

S PHN CP IU H THNG IN VIT NAM CP IU IU QUC GIA M HNH T CHC QUYN IU KHIN - Cc NM ln. - H thng in 500 kV - Tn s h thng - in p cc nt chnh QUYN KIM TRA

c quan tt iu ht quc gia

tt iu ht min bc

tt iu ht min trung

tt iu ht min nam

IU MIN
- iu
ctl h ni, iu ctl hi phng - cc iu l tnh thnh ph min bc

- cc iu l tnh, thnh ph min trung

- iu ctl tp. hcm, iu ctl ng nai - cc iu l tnh, thnh h min bc

- Cc NM khng thuc quyn iu khin - Li in 220kV - Trm phn phi NM ln - ng dy ni NM vi HT - Cc NM c phn cp - Cc trm D phn phi 110-66kV phn cp cho iu li in phn theo quy nh ring - Li in truyn ti 220-110- phi iu khin. - Cc h s dng in quan trng 66kV trong li in phn phi - Cng sut v cng NM - Cc nh my nh, cc trm diesel, b trong min.

IU LI IN PHN PHI

- Cc trm, D phn phi 110- - Cc trm, D phn phi ca khch 66kV phn cp cho iu li hng iu khin in phn phi iu khin. - Li in phn phi - Cc trm diesel, trm b trong li in phn phi.

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

- Thao tc v s l s c trong phm vi nh my v trm; - Bo co v cung cp thng tin, d liu cho iu khu vc v quc gia. - Tu theo c th ca tng nc, trong quan trng nht l h thng qun l sn xut kinh doanh ca ngnh in m h thng iu c th c cp khc nhau, dn n mt s quan hn trc thuc cng khc nhau. Chng hn, hin nay mng li iu HT Vit Nam c t chc thnh 3 cp (Hnh 2). - iu quc gia (A0); - iu Min: Bc (A1), Trung (A3), Nam (A2); - iu li in phn phi: Cho cc tnh v mt s thnh ph ln nh H Ni, TP H Ch Minh, Hi Phng, ng Nai... Mi cp iu ngoi quan h trc thuc trn - di cn c cc quan h iu khin trc tip vi cng trnh tu theo mc quan trng ca cc cng trnh ny. Chng hn, iu Quc Gia c quyn iu khin trc tip cc nhy my in ln, h thng ti in 500kV; iu Min c quyn iu khin trc tip mt s nh my in c phn cp theo quy nh ring, li in truyn ti 110 220kV v.v... 2. Nhim v c th ca cc cp iu khin. Nhim v ca mi cp iu khin c xc nh cho tng ch lm vic ca h thong ch vn hnh bnh thng, ch s c v ch khi phc li h thng. a. Trong ch vn hnh bnh thng: nhim v chnh ca cc cp iu khin l m bo s lin tc ca qu trnh sn xut, truyn ti v phn cp phi in nng vi chi ph thp nht vi cht lng tn s v in p nm trong gii hn cho php.

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

b. ch s c: Nhim v ca cc cp iu khin l bng cc thit b bo v v t ng tng ng phi pht hin, cch ly v loi tr phn t h hng ra khi h thng cng nhanh cng tt, m bo an ton cho ngi v thit b, hn ch n mc thp nht tc hi ca s c. Nhim v x l s c thng do cc thit b bo v v t ng cp thp nht (ng dy, my bin p, thanh gp, my pht in v.v...) thc hin. Trng hp xy ra trc trc cp ny (chng hn bo v hoc my ct t chi tc ng) th h thng t ng cp cao hn (Trm bin p hoc nh my in s can thip. Trong tng lai, khi nhim v bo v c trao cho cc my tnh, vic x l s c s c thc hin bng my tnh cp cao hn. c. Ch khi phc li h thng: Nhm nhanh chng khi phc li vic cp in bnh thng cho cc h tiu th cc l cp in (Fider) hoc mt phn h thng b bo v ct ra trong ch s c. Hin nay ch c mt s thit b hn ch thc hin nhim v ny nh cc thit b hn ch thc hin nhim v ny nh cc thit b t ng tr li ngun in (TL), t ng ng cc phn t v ngun in d phng (T), t ng hon ng b v.v... Trong tng lai, nh trn ni, khi nhim v iu khin h thng c trao nhiu hn cho my tnh, chng s tham gia nhiu hn vo nhim v khi phc li h thng sau s c. 2.1. Nhim v ca cp iu khin c s: Cc b cp in, my bin p, thanh gp, my pht in v.v... Phn ln cc thit b o lng, bo v v t ng lm vic cp ny nhm thc hin cc nhim v sau y: * Thu thp, kim tra v tp trung d liu: Nhim v ny c thc hin cho tt c cc ch : bnh thng, s c v phc hi h thng. Nhng d liu cn thu thp bao gm: in p ti nt kim tra, dng in

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

chy qua phn t, gc pha gia in p v dng in, tn s ca in p, t s bin ca my bin dng in v my bin in p, trng thi u tip xc ca my ct in, dao cch ly, dao ni t trng thi ca b truyn ng my ct in, dao cch ly v.v... * Pht tn hiu cnh bo: Hot ng trong ch khng bnh thng v s c, khi c qu ti, chm t trong li in c trung im khng ni trc tip, nhit ca phn t hoc mt s im kim tra vt qu gii hn cho php, trc trc trong h thng thng tin, truyn ng, trong ngun in thao tc, trong phn cng ca rle... * Bo v: Hot ng ch yu ch s c nhm pht hin v tch nhnh phn t h hng ra khi h thng, bao gm cc li bo v chnh v bo v d phng. Trong cc h thng bo v hin i, cc i lng t ca bo v c th c t chnh khi ph ti v cu hnh ca li in thay i. * Thao tc t ng: Bao gm t ng ng tr li my ct, t ng ng phn t hoc ngun in d phng, t ng ho ng b, t ng sa thi theo tn s v.v... nhng thao tc ny c thc hin trong ch s c v ch phc hi h thng. * T ng kim tra v chun on: Kim tra qu ti, qu in p, nhit tng cao, trng thi cch in, trng thi ca mch in th cp, pht hin cc trng hp t dy, chp mch, trc trc trong phn cng v phn mm ca rle. Nhim v ny c thc hin trong tt c cc ch bnh thng, s c v phc hi h thng. * Pht hin v ghi chp dao ng ca h thng: Cc dao ng v dng, p, gc pha, cng sut, tng tr v.v... phn bit cc ch dao ng vi s c.

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

* Xc nh v tr im s c: Nhm lm d dng vic tm kim v khc phc s c. Cc thit b nh v s c (Fault Lo cator) c th l cc thit b c lp hoc kt hp trong cc thit b bo v (chng hn trong bo v khong cch), hot ng trong cc ch s c. * o v ghi cc tn hiu tng t: c thc hin trong ch bnh thng, nhm gim st cc thng s vn hnh ca tng i tng, thc hin nhim v o m in nng cung cp cho khch hng, ghi chp cc thng s trong qu trnh s s (Fault Recorder) phc v vic phn tch s c. Cc thit b ghi chp s c thng c khi ng khong 5 10 chu k trc thi im pht sinh s c v ko di khong 2 3 giy trong qu trnh s c, c th phn on loi s c v din bin ca qu trnh. * Trao i d liu gia cc h thng my tnh: Vi cc i tng quan trng c trang b my tnh ring (hoc dng chung cho trm, nh my) my tnh c th thc hin nhiu chc nng nu trn y, ghi chp v lu tr cc d liu v ch vn hnh bnh thng cng nh s c v khi phc h thng sau s c, v lch s vn hnh cu tng thit b, i tng trong h thng. 2.2. Nhim v ca cp iu khin cng trnh. (Nh my in, trm bin p, li phn phi). Ngoi cc nhim v ging cp iu khin c s (i tng) nh: Thu thp, kim tra v tp trung d liu, pht tn hiu cnh bo, bo v, t ng thao tc, t ng kim tra v chun on, pht hin v ghi chp dao ng, o v ghi cc tn hiu tng t, trao i d liu gia cc h thng my tnh, cp iu khin cng trnh cn c thm cc nhim v. * Bo v chung cho c cng trnh: Nh bo v thanh gp, bo v d phng my ct hng, kim tra v hiu chnh i lng t ca cc bo v trong phm vi cng trnh.

H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

* iu khin cng sut pht: (ca nh my in) v ph ti (ca trm bin p nhm m bo cn bng chung ca h thng theo nhim v ca cp iu khin cao hn (khu vc, quc gia) giao vi cc ch tiu kinh t k thut tt nht. * Ti u ho mc n nh: m bo d phng cng sut v d tr n nh ca cc t my pht in v mc in p cn thit m bo d tr n nh ca ph ti (ng c in). * T ng phc hi h thng: ng tr li cc t my v cc ph ti b ct ra trong qu trnh x l n nh (tn s tng cao) hoc xa thi ph ti theo tn s, kt ni li cc phn h thng b chia ct trong qu trnh s c, a cc phn t v ngun in d phng vo lm vic. * Xc nh trnh t ct v kho lin ng: Gia cc i tng trong cng trnh trong qu trnh thao tc bnh thng, a phn t ra sa cha v x l s c nhm trnh nhm ln v m bo chn lc. * iu chnh in p: nh my in bng tc ng cc h thng t iu chnh kch t, iu chnh phn b cng sut phn khng gia cc t my. cc trm bin p lm vic song song hp l nhm gim tn tht cng sut, in nng v m bo yu cu v tin cy cung cp in. * Kim tra cc thit b ph tr: C rt nhiu h thng ph tr nh my in v trm bin p nh cc h thng bm, qut, kh nn, du p lc, h thng nhin liu v nhit nh my in, h thng ngun in thao tc, h thng thit b v knh thng tin ca cng trnh v.v... * Phn tch chc nng ca h thng my tnh v giao din: Vi cc thit b iu khin khc. Trong tng lai cc h thng my tnh ngy cng c giao ph nhiu chc nng hn trong nhim v thng tin, o lng, iu khin, bo v v t ng ho cc nh my in 4 trm bin

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

p. phn tch theo tng chc nng v s phi hp vi cc thit b iu khin khc thng qua cc giao din ca h thng iu khin cng trnh. 2.3. Nhim v ca cc cp iu khin khu vc v trung ng. Ngoi nhng nhim v chung ng t cp iu khin c s v cng trnh nh thu nhp v kim tra s liu, ghi thng s s c, t ng kim tra v chun on, giao din vi cc thit b iu khin khc, cp iu khin khu vc v trung ng cn lm cc nhim v sau: * Xc nh cu hnh ca h thng: S lng my pht in, trm bin p v li in truyn ti, trng thi ca cc phn t chnh trong HT: ang lm vic, d phng hoc sa cha. * Xc nh lung cng sut tc dng v phn khng trn li in v in p cc nt ca h thng phc v vic iu chnh v m bo cn bng cng sut phn khng trong h thng, ti u ho ch in p trn ton h thng, kim tra mc mang ti v tnh trng qu ti ca cc phn t chnh trong h thng. * Chn nh my in hoc t my pht lm nhim v ch o trong vic iu chnh tn s ca HT, nh my hoc t my cn c ct ra trong qu trnh x l s c do tn s tng cao. Nhng t my hoc nh my ny phi p ng c cc yu cu k thut nht nh v cng sut, gii hn iu chnh, tc tng gim ti, kh nng ca li in truyn ti u ni trc tip vi nh my v.v... * Kim tra lng cng sut d phng nng (quay) trong h thng. D phng nng c nh ngha nh hiu s gia tng cng sut kh dng ca cc t my ang vn hnh vi tng cng sut ti m chng ang mang. D phng nng m bo kh nng t ng iu chnh tn s v d tr n nh cn thit cho h thng, tuy nhin d phng qu cao s lm xu ch tiu kinh t ca h thng.

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

* iu chnh cng sut tc dng nhm m bo ch lm vic kinh t ca h thng vi tng chi ph vn hnh ti thiu. Vic iu chnh cng sut tc dng ca ngun in c thc hin bng tc ng trc tip ln cc my iu tc cu tuabin ko my pht in. iu kin phn b ti u cng sut tc dng gia cc my pht in l cn bng sut tng lng i ca chi ph vn hnh c xt n tn tht trn in truyn ti. * iu chnh cng sut phn khng lin quan trc tip n ch in p v tn tht trn li in. Khc vi iu chnh cng sut tc dng, iu chnh cng sut phn khng c thc hin bng rt nhiu phng tin khc nhau: Thng tin t ng iu chnh kch t my pht in, thay i u phn p ca my bin p, thay i h s ca cc thit b b trn h thng truyn ti, b cng sut phn khng trong li in phn phi v.v... y l bi ton ti u ho a ch tiu, phc tp. * nh gi hiu qu thay i cu hnh h thng v tin cy vn hnh. Vic thay i cu hnh h thng (s lng t my pht in, my bin p lm vic song song, s kt dy chnh gia cc phn t trong h thng, cc ng dy c a ra nng cp, sa cha v.v...) s nh hng trc tip n lung cng sut, tn tht cng sut, in nng trn li, mc in p ti cc nt, dng in ngn mch, tin cy vn hnh ca h thng. * To mc d phng cao cho bo v v hn ch tc hi ca s c. iu khu vc v trung ng phi phn tch, nh gi v phi hp tc ng gia cc bo v trong li in khu vc v trong ton h thng, m bo tnh chn lc, mc d phng cao theo quan im h thng, lp t thm cc thit b t ng chng s c (nh bo v chng h hng my ct, chng dao ng in, chia ct h thng trong trng hp mt n nh, t ng sa thi ph ti theo tn s v.v...)

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

* Phn tch xu th pht trin ca qu trnh: Cc nguyn l bo v v iu khin hin i c xy dng theo phng hng phn tch xu th pht trin ca qu trnh: chng hn cch in b lo ho lm tng dng in r hoc phng in cc b c th dn n chc thng cch in gy ngn mch, tng gc lch pha gia sc in ng ca cc ngun in lm vic song song hoc gc truyn ti (gc lch pha gia in p 2 u ng dy) trn cc ng dy chnh n gn gii hn cho php c th dn n mt n nh ca h thng; qu trnh dao ng in c th tt dn (tin n n nh) hoc mch du (tin n mt n nh). Kh nng phn tch xu th pht trin ca qu trnh cho php h thng iu khin c tc ng vt trc nhm ngn chn s c trc khi n c kh nng xy ra. * o lng v lu gi mt s thng s chn trc: Nh mc in p ti cc nt chnh ca HT, ch s dng in trn cc truyn ti quan trng gc lch pha, tn s, cng sut tc dng v phn khng, thi gian dao ng ca cc h thng, thi gian mt in v.v... Nhm phc v vic tnh ton ti u ho ch , cc ch tiu kinh t trong sn xut kinh doanh v phn tch s c. * Phn tch s c: Trc y vic phn tch s c thng da theo cc ghi chp (bin bn hoc mu thng k ca s c) ca nhn vin vn hnh m t din bin s c, tc ng ca thit b bo v v t ng v s l hu qu ca s c. Nhng ghi chp ny thng cha ng rt t thng tin, thiu chnh xc v nhiu trng hp thiu chn thc. Ngy nay trong bn thn cc thit b bo v v t ng c trang b cc b phn ghi chp s c (Fault Recorder FR) ghi li cc thng s nu trn y trong khong thi gian xc nh lin k trc s c (khong 5 n 10 chu k trc thi im xy ra s c) v din bin ca qu trnh s c (khong vi trm chu k ca qu trnh s c). Ngoi ra cc nh sn xut thit b

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

cng c th cung cp cc phn mm phn tch s c s dng cho PC. Cc phn mm phn tch s c s dng cho PC. Cc phn mm ny c xy dng trn c s kinh nghim phn tch s c ca cc chuyn gia vn hnh, gip ch cho vic nhn nh, nh gi s c chnh xc v nhanh chng hn. * Lp bo co: nh k hoc sau mi s c cc trung tm iu phi lp bo co cho cc cp hu quan v tnh vn hnh ca trang thit b v h thng hot ng iu khin, iu h thng. Trong cc h thng hin i vic lp loi bo co khc nhau c tin hnh t ng tin hnh bng my tnh theo cc chng trnh v biu mu thng nht trn c s cc d liu thu nhp c. 3. Yu cu i vi vic thu nhp v trao i thng tin, d liu gia cc cp iu khin. 3.1. Thit b thng tin ti nh my in.Phi c 2 ng thng tin lin lc (m thoi) c lp gia phng iu khin trung tm ca nh my in v trung tm iu khu vc hoc trung tm iu quc gia. Cc ng lin lc m thoi ny gn lin vi tng nh my in v ch c dng cho mc ch vn hnh. * Phi c mt my FAX vi mt ng lin lc c lp vi trung tm iu . S my FAX ny v s my FAX ca trung tm iu phc v cho mc ch vn hnh phi c ng k trc. 3.2. Thit b bo v * Thi gian loi tr s c (l khong thi gian t khi xut hin s c n khi h quang trong my ct c dp tt th gii) phi khng ln hn: - 80 ms cp 500kV; - 100 ms cp 220kV; - 140 ms cp 110kV.

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

* Cc bo v d phng phi c thi gian loi tr s c khng chm hn 300 ms. * cc my in 110 kV phi c bo v chng my ct h hng (t chi). Thi gian tc ng ca bo v ny phi 250 ms sau khi my ct khng ct c. * Phng thc bo v cc phn t chnh ca nh my in, trm bin p v ng dy ti ng truyn ho c chun ho theo chng loi, cp in v c cng sut. 3.3. Thit b o lng v ch th ch v t xa 1. Cc nh my in phi trang b cc RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) gi tn hiu phc v vic gim st, tnh ton v iu khin n hoc t Trung tm iu quc gia v/ hoc trung tm iu khu vc bao gm cc loi tn hiu sau: * Cc tn hiu iu khin: ng - ct, tng - gim * Cc tn hiu nh phn: Phn nh trng thi ca my ct, trng thi ca kho iu khin t xa - ti ch iu khin cng sut tc dng ca my pht in; trng thi vn hnh ca b iu tc c nh - t do ca tua bin. * Cc tn hiu tng t (4 20 mA) v: - Cng sut tc dng (MW), - Cng sut phn khng (MVAr), - in p u cc my pht (kV), - Gii hn trn ca cng sut tc dng (MW), - Gii hn di ca cng sut tc dng (MVAr), - Tc tng ti (MW/pht), - Tc gim ti (MW/pht), - Tn s (Hz),

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

2. Cc trm bin p v im u ni * Cc tn hiu iu khin n t trung tm iu quc gia hoc khu vc. * Cc tn hiu nh phn v trng thi my pht (ng - ct), trng thi giao ni t ca ng dy v trm. * Cc tn hiu tng t (4-20 mA) v: - in p trn thanh ci (kV). - Tn s (Hz). - Dng cng sut tc dng qua ng dy hoc my bin p (MW). - Dng cng sut phn khng qua ng dy hoc my bin p (MVAr). - Nng lng (MWh) n (+) hoc (-): dng cho vic mua bn, trao i nng lng. - Cnh bo mt in. 3.4. Yu cu k thut i vi thit b o. a. My bin dng in, my bin in p: c th s dng cho mc ch thng mi (trao i, mua bn in nng) yu cu: - Cc my bin dng in phi c cp chnh xc khng 0,2 v cng xut th cp danh nh 30VA. - Cc my bin in p phi c cp chnh xc 0,2 v cng sut th cp danh 75 VA. b. ng h o in nng (cng t) tc dng (kVh): ng h 3 pha, mt hoc nhiu biu gi, kiu ghi hai chiu (mua hoc bn), cp chnh xc 0,2 c trang b thit b b sung chuyn tr s cho c n thit b n sa vn nng (Universal Telecouuting Instrument UTI). c. ng h o in nng (cng t) phn khng (kVAr) thit b ba pha thng l mt biu gi, kiu ghi hai chiu (mua hoc bn) cp chnh xc

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

0,5, c trang b thit b xung chuyn tr s cho c n thit b n sa vn nng (UTI). d. Thit b n sa vn nng (UTI): Phi m bo: - S u vo n xa 24 s u vo iu khin 8. - S cng ra 8 - 1 m un phiu d liu c SRAM, - 1 m un thit b i nhit, - 1 m un lin lc, -1 l giy in nhit (cho 2 nm) . B chuyn i cng sut tc dng/ cng sut phn khng (MW/MVAr). Mi b chuyn i MW/MVAr phi c lp trong cng hp, kiu 3 pha, 3dy 2 thnh phn, phi c thit k cho mc ch o xa. e. Rle cnh bo mt in p. Mi cng t tc dng (kVh) v cng t phn khng (kVarh) phi c lp t cng vi Rle cnh bo mt in p kim tra tin cy cung cp in ti mch lp t cng t. g. Cc mch th nghim: Mi cng t tc dng v cng t phn khng v b chuyn i W/VAR phi lp ring r vi mt mch th nghim t ngun nng lng bn ngoi hoc t my bin dng in, my bin in p thng qua cc cng th a cc c lp t cho mc ch th nghim. h. B nghch lu tnh (Static Inverter). * B nghch lu tnh c s dng lm ngun in xoay chiu d phng cho thit b m xa vn nng v mt s thit b t ng v iu khin khc. N chuyn i nng lng mt chiu ca c qui thnh nng lng dng in xoay chiu vi mo sng di khng qu 5%. * Mi b nghch tnh phi chi ni dng in ngn mch u ra trong khong thi gian qui nh v c trang b bo v chng ngn mch v

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

qu p, khng gy nhiu v tuyn cho cc mch v thit b iu khin khc. * Cc thng s chnh ca b nghch lu: Cng sut ra danh nh (VA), in p ra (Vac); in p vo (Vdc), gii hn iu chnh in p (%), tn s (50f, Hz) biu sng di cho php cho php (%) phi c qui nh khi t hng. 4. Cc giai on pht trin ca h thng thng tin o lng iu khin, bo v v t ng ho HT. Qu trnh hin i ho cng ngh thng tin, o lng, iu khin, bo v v t ng ho HT bao gm cc giai on ch yu sau y:

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in Khi lng thng tin

BMS DMS

EMS

SCADA

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Nm

Hnh 4: Cc giai on pht trin chc nng ca trung tm iu khin 1. Xy dng h thng gim st, iu khin v thu nhp d liu vn hnh (Supervisory control and Data Acquisitron Sytem SCADA) h thng ny thng qua cc thit b thng tin u cui (Remote Terminal Unit RTU) cung cp cc d liu v dng in, in p, cng sut, tn s, trng thi my ct... v cc trung tm iu khin. Nhn vin iu cn c vo nhng thng tin ny tin hnh phn tch, tnh ton, ra quyt nh v gi tn hiu iu khin n cc i tng khc nhau trong HT. giai on ny cc thng tin, d liu thu nhp c theo yu cu ca nhn vin vn hnh c th c hin th trn mn hnh ca my tnh hoc bng iu khin. Phn tnh ton v ra quyt nh do nhn vin vn hnh thc hin.

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

2. iu khin cc qu trnh nng lng (Energy Management Systems EMS): Qu trnh gm 2 ni dung: - Gii tch li in: Phn tch, tnh ton cc thng s vn hnh trong thi gian, xc nh lung cng sut trong li in, phn b cng sut gia cc t my, in p cc nt, tn tht in p v cng sut trn li, tnh ton lng b cng sut phn khng ti cc nt, tnh ton dng in ngn mch v.v... - Ti u ho ch vn hnh ca h thng: Tm phng n huy ng ngun ti u theo cc ch tiu kinh t, cc phng n m bo tin cy bng tng cng mc d phng v thay i cu hnh li. T giai on SCADA chuyn sang giai EMS i hi h thng iu khin. iu ny i h thng iu khin phi c nhng bc tin ln hn c v phn cng ln phn mm. Cc thit b iu hnh i tng c iu khin (cc b iu tc ca tua bin, thit b iu chnh in p ca my pht in ng b, c cu thay i u phn p ca my bin p, cc thit b b v.v...) phi tng thch vi thng s ca thit b iu khin. iu ny i hi phi thay i, phi nng cp cc thit b s cp, c bit l cc thit b thuc th h c cn ang vn hnh. H thng my tnh v thit b x l thng tin phi c dung lng v tc ln, c trang b phn mm hin i thc hin nhng khi lng tnh ton ln ca nhiu bi ton iu khin ti u trong thi gian thc. Trn th gii h thng EMS c s dng t nhng thp nin 70 80, Vit Nam mt s cng trnh in lc mi xy dng c th trin khai s dng h thng EMS.

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

3. Qun l thng tin, d liu (Data Management Systems DMS). Bc pht trin tip theo s l h thng qun l thng tin d liu, trong c s liu v d bo nhu cu ph ti, iu khin nhu cu ph ti in (Remand Side Management DSM), gii p cc s kin xy ra trong h thng, lp trnh sa cha thit b, h thng thng tin a l (Geographical Infomation systems). Vic m rng kh nng thu thp v qun l thng tin i hi u t ln, tng hiu qu ca vic s dng s liu v tnh tng thch ca d liu thu thp c cn phi c mt h thng qun l d liu hp l. Xu th hin nay l t chc h thng qun l d liu phn tn (hnh 5) trong mi h thng cn c th gi hoc nhn cc thng tin cn thit t cc h thng con khc, mi cuc trao i hoc thay i thng tin u c ghi li v cc h thng con u c s dng cc thng tin mi ny. H thng qun l d liu phn tn c nhng u im ln: - Mi phn c s d liu thuc v mt h thng con; - Mi h thng con chu trch nhim v d liu song song nhau; - Vic m rng hoc thay i mi cc h thng con khng lm nh hng n c s d liu chung ton h thng. 4. Qun l kinh doanh (Business Management Systems BMS) xu th chung ca hot ng in lc trn th gii l tng cng cnh tranh, a dng ho s hu, gim c quyn v phi iu tit ho, to lp mt th trng in lc t do, nhiu thnh phn. Vic mua bn in nhiu nc c th trng in lc pht trin hin nay ang thc hin theo kiu th trng chng khon cho tng gi, thm ch na gi. Trong iu kin nh vy vic qun l kinh doanh in ngoi phn qun l k thut i hi phi x l mt lng thng tin thng mi khng l, lm sao c th iu hnh mt th trng rt nng ng, a dng nhm m bo cho khch

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H thng thng tin, o lng, bo v v t ng iu khin trong h thng in

hng dng in c c mt kiu gi in thp nht, cht lng phc v cao nht v h thng in pht trin lin tc v bn vng. Qu trnh pht trin ca h thng HT qua cc giai on SCADA EMS DMS BMS i hi khi lng thng tin ngy cng ln, tc x l tnh ton ngy cng cao.
H thng c (tp trung) MMI Giao din th Qun l hnh chnh Cng/ lin kt Hun luyn Super MINI M phng SCADA Gii tch li in H thng chuyn gia iu khin NM lch vn hnh Front End Giao din iu khin xa H thng mi Giao din th Qun l hnh chnh Cng/ lin kt Hun luyn M phng SCADA Gii tch li in H thng chuyn gia iu khin NM lch vn hnh Giao din iu khin xa MMI- Workstation ADM Server GWI Server DTS Server PSS Server COM Server NA Server ES Server GCS - Server DAS - Server

Hnh 5 : Phn b cc chc nng ca h thng iu khin

22

Mc lc

I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

Khi qut nhng nhim v chnh ra cho thit k h iu khin v bo v trm Yu cu v phn cng v phn mm trong h thng iu khin bo v trm Bn phm chc nng Cc menu bn phm Yu cu i vi cc mnh hnh hin th Bng s kin, bng bo ng, bng cng sut Chn cc s chi tit

VII. iu khin thit b ng/ct n l VIII. iu khin trnh t cc thit b ng/ct IX. X. Xem xt cc s kin v s ton trm Kim tra my in v a mm

Ph lc: S trm 110KV. E9 Ngha

NHIU V TH THIT K H IU KHIN V BO V CC TRM BIN P PHN PHI 110 220KV TNG LAI PGS: Nguyn Trng Qu - TS. Lng Ngc Hi KS. Lng Ngc Qun
Khi xy dng nhim v th ny, chng ti t t mnh vo hai v tr son tho: v tr ngi vn hnh qun l trm, ra nhng nhim v chnh c tnh khi qut ca mt trm bin p phn phi. Da vo nh thit k s xy dng h iu khin v bo v. v tr ngi thit k: Kt hp hiu bit ca mnh v tham kho tng thit k vi trm phn phi min Bc, do cc hng nc ngoi thc hin, chng ti ra nhng yu cu chi tit ca tng mc ch iu khin vn hnh c th trong trm. Nhn chung, khi chi tit ho nhim v thit k, chng ti iu hnh dung s b gii php k thut thc hin. iu m bo tnh kh thi ca nhim v th thit k, ph hp vi trnh thit k ca Vit Nam. Nhng v d thuyt minh cho nhim v th u da trn gi nh thit k h iu khin - bo v cho trm phn phi 110KV, E9 Ngha , thuc s in lc H Ni (xem s trm ph lc). I. KHI QUT NHNG NHIM V CHNH RA CHO THIT K H IU KHIN V BO V TRM Cc trm phn phi tng lai yu cu m bo theo hng my tnh ho iu khin v qun l phn tn. Mt khc, v vn hnh trong h SCADA h thng in quc gia, nn yu cu trm phn phi m bo tnh m, ngha l n c th lin h vi cp iu khin cao hn, v giao tip c vi cc trm h p cui cng (10-20/0,4KV) trong li in phn phi. Theo phn cp qun l hin hnh th cp cao iu khin trc tip cc trm phn phi l S in lc cc tnh, thnh ph. Tuy nhin, tng lai khi xy dng c h SCADA hon chnh, th cp trn trc tip iu khin, cc trm phn phi c th l cp iu min. Hin nay vic qun l cc trm h p cui cng thuc chi nhnh in cc qun, huyn. Tuy nhin, theo chng ti, tng lai cn phi m ra s giao tip gia trm phn phi v cc trm h p cui cng. S giao tip bc u c th ch gii hn vic truyn thng tin ln trm phn phi v tnh trng lm vic ca cc thit b, v cc thng s o lng trong vn hnh cc trm h p cui cng.T trm phn phi c th thc hin lnh iu khin ng/ct cc t b, lnh iu khin hot ng ca cng t hai gi (nu c yu cu) t ti mt s trm h p cui cng.

Hng my tnh ho iu khin v qun l phn tn to iu kin rt thun li cho vic t ng ho qun l kinh doanh in. Tuy nhin chng ti hon ton khng c vn kin thc v qun l kinh doanh. Hn na t ng ho qun l hnh chnh kinh doanh ca ngnh in hin hnh, iu m nghe chng cn rt xa vi. V vy, trong nhim v th thit k ny cn ng vn t ng ho kinh doanh. Di y s khi qut cc nhim v chnh ca h thng iu khin - bo v trm. 1. iu khin cc thit b ng/ ct n l. Nhim v ny bao gm: ng/ ct cc dao cch ly, cc my ct in. Yu cu khi thao tc phi c s gim st lin ng v trng thi ca thit b ng/ct khc c lin quan, nhm bo m an ton tuyt i cho thit b v ngi thao tc, loi b hon ton cc s c ch quan (do nhm ln). Yu cu thit k bo m cc phng thc iu khin sau: iu khin ti trm (Station Control Level) Trc ban trm tin hnh iu khin bn iu khin ti trm, thng qua khi iu khin ch o, (xem s H.1). Hin nay ta, cc trm phn phi 110KV u c trc ca. V vy y l phng thc iu khin trc tin cn c lu tm thit k. iu khin ti ch, bng tay (Local Control Mode) tng tin cy, ta nn duy tr song song h iu khin ng/ct ti ch, bng tay. Dao cch ly v my ct trung p (6-22KV) khi vn hnh u cho php iu khin bng tay, ti ngay t phn phi c t chng. Cc thit b ng/ct in p cao 110kV tr ln khi vn hnh khng cho php iu khin ti ch, bng tay. Tuy th chng vn c c cu iu khin bng ty thao tc ng/ct th khi sa cha. loi b s c ch quan do nhm ln th t thao tc khi iu khin ti ch, chng ti ngh nn thit k cc kho lin ng an ton. iu khin t xa hay iu khin cp cao hn (Higher Level Control) Khi c mt h SCADA h thng in quc gia hon chnh, cc trm phn phi 110KV c th khng cn c ngi trc ( mt s nc ng Nam , v d Malaysia, trm 110KV c th khng cn c ngi trc). Mi iu khin trong trm c iu khin xa, t cp cao hn (v d iu min). y l phng thc iu khin cn m, yu cu ngi thit k phi tnh ti.

2. iu khin lin tip, theo trnh t cc thit b ng ct Trong vn hnh, c nhiu nhim v yu cu phi thao tc tun t, theo mt trnh t xy dng cc thit b ng/ct. V d: a mt ng dy v lm vic, ngng cung cp in cho mt ng dy sa cha, ho in gia hai thanh ci, a mt my ct sa cha song vo lm vic... Ngi vn hnh lc c th ng/ct lin tip tng thit b ring l. Tuy nhin lm nh th s lu v r gy ra s c do nhm ln.V vy yu cu thit k mt s lnh thc hin mt chui cc thao tc. 3. iu khin chc nng t ng ng li ca ng dy (AR) Mt s ng dy c trang b chc nng t ng iu khin ng li khi c s c (AR). V vy yu cu thit k phi c lnh iu khin chc nng AR lm vic hay khng lm vic. 4. iu khin b iu p di ti ca my bin p (OLTC) Cc my bin p trong trm phn phi thng u c trang b b iu p di ti. N gm nhiu nc ni vi cc u ra ca dy qun th cp my bin p. Mt ng c iu khin kho truyn i gia cc nc. Do c th iu chnh di ti in p ra th cp my bin p. Vic thay i cc nc ca OLTC c th do trc ban iu khin, hoc iu khin t ng nh b iu chnh in p. 5. iu khin ng ct mch t dng ca trm Gm mch t dng xoay chiu v mt chiu 6. iu khin gin t b Nhn chung t b thng khng t ti trm phn phi nn khng c vic iu khin gin t b ti trm (tr mt s trm b). Tuy nhin nu ch ti kh nng m giao tip vi cc trm h p cui cng (10-22/0,4KV), khi thit k cn lu ti yu cu iu khin xa, t trm phn phi iu khin gin t b t ti mt s trm h p cui cng. 7. Yu cu kh nng cnh bo, gim st t xa vn hnh trm. c im ca h SCADA l c kh nng gim st t xa hot ng ca cc i tng iu khin. V vy yu cu tnh trng vn hnh trm phn phi c th hin trn mn hnh my tnh gm: S tng th hot ng ca trm Cc s chi tit theo di cc thao tc ng/ct Cc trang thng tin, th hin cc s kin, cnh bo, ghi cc s c sy ra trong qu trnh vn hnh trm; bo co cc thng s vn hnh (U, I, P, Q); th ph ti.

8. Bo m kh nng t ng ct ph ti theo th t yu tin. S yu tin ca mt s ph ti c th l c nh (v d: bnh vin ti cng nghip loi 1...); nhng cng c nhng ph ti yu tin bt thng, ch trong thi gian ngn (v d: hi ngh quc t, hp quc hi, trin lm...). V vy yu cu trm phi c lp trnh cc ti theo th t yu tin c th thay i c , bo m khi cng sut phn phi khng vn cung cp in an ton cho cc ti u tin. II. YU CU V PHN CNG V PHN MM TRONG H THNG IU KHIN - BO V TRM 1. Cu hnh ca h thng iu khin v bo v trm: Cu hnh chi tit ca h thng iu khin - bo v trm s do thit k quyt nh. Hnh 1 l khi qut yu cu v cu hnh ca h. Bn iu khin ti trm Giao tip vi mc iu khin cao hn Giao tip vi cc trm 10-22/0,4KV

Khi iu khin ch o

H rle s bo v

H thu thp d liu

Cc khi VO/ RA

Cc thit b iu khin v bo v H.1: Cu hnh ca h iu khin - bo v 2. Cc yu cu v phn cng ca h iu khin - bo v Hnh 1 m t cc phn cng chnh ca h iu khin bo v, bao gm: Bn iu khin ti trm, trn t my tnh c nhn PC, my in, bn phm chc nng 5

Khi iu khin ch o l tri tim iu khin ca h: N gm cc CPU, PLC, cc b nh dung lng kh ln, cc modul thng tin giao tip vi bn ngoi... Ta thy yu cu iu khin v bo v ca trm phn phi 110 220KV khng nhiu v cng khng phc tp do vic xy dng tt khi iu khin ch o l hon ton nm trong tm tay cc nh thit k tin hc trong hc trong nc. H rle bo v . Hin nay, h rle bo v cc trm phn phi 110KV ta rt a dng v cha c chun ho. iu ny gy kh khn cho vic thc hin chun ho iu khin - bo v cc trm bin p phn phi. Trong c s nguyn l kinh in ca cc rle bo v nh bao v qu dng bo v, bo v khong cch, bo v so lch, bo v theo hng cng sut truyn ti... Cc hng ni ting nh ABB, Schneider, Siemens.. to nn cc modul rle s chc nng c cht lng bo v tt hn ( tin cy, tnh chn lc, tnh tc ng nhanh). Nh cc modul ny m vic thit k h thng bo v rle c d rng linh hot hn. Yu cu i vi thit k rle bo v l: Nghin cu, tnh ton, chn cc modul rle ca cc hng nc ngoi thch hp nht (v mt kinh t v k thut) cho vic bo v trm phn phi. em chia cc modul ny thnh hai khi rle bo v chun ho: - Khi rle chun ho bo v cc ng dy, thanh ci in p cao 110 220KV v bo v cc my bin p. - Khi rle bo v cc ng dy phn phi trung p (10-22KV). Khi ny kh n gin, rle t ngay ti t cc ng dy phn phn phi v d trm 220KV Nam nh, cc ng dy phn phi trung p 22KV c trang b cc t hp b 8BJ50 vi rle bo v 7SJ531. Yu cu h rle, ngoi nhim v x l d liu vo pht tn hiu ct i tng bo v, cn phi a tn hiu v khi iu khin ch o, nhm cnh bo v ghi li s c. H thu thp d liu thu thp cc thng tin cn thit cho vic iu khin, bo v, o lng. V d U, I, P, Q ca tng ng dy, nhit du my bin p mc du trong my bin p, v tr nc ca OLTC, cht lng in t dng... Vic tnh ton thit k chnh xc, tin cy cc h rle bo v v thu thp d liu s quyt nh phn ln s lm vic tin cy ca h iu khin- bo v trm 3. Cc phn mm iu khin v qun l vn hnh trm Ngoi phn cng, yu cu phi thit k xy dng mt s phn mm chnh sau: Phn mm iu khin cc thit b Phn mm thu thp, lu tr, bo co cc thng s o lng trong trm Phn mm thu thp, lu tr cc s c, s kin trong vn hnh trm 6

Phn mm gim st s hoat ng trm Phn mm lm nhim v kim tra phn thng tin gia cc khi thit b trong h thng iu khin - bo v trm, gia trm vi cc cp iu khin cao hn. Tm li, phn I v II trn cung cp nhng yu cu khi qut, lm cn c cho thit k. Tip theo s chi tit ho cc thao tc ca tng mc ch iu khin vn hnh c th trong trm. Trn c s s to d dng hn cho cng vic thit chi tit phn cng v phn mm h iu khin bo v trm. Nhng phn chi tit ho v nhim v thit k s trnh by di y, ch yu da trn tng thit k h iu khin - bo v trm 220KV Nam nh ca hng nc ngoi. Chng ti nghin cu k lng, lc b nhng tng theo chng l khng hp l v b sung mt s tng m theo chng ti l cn thit. III. BN PHM CHC NNG CC MENU BN PHM 1. Bn phm chc nng C th s dng bn phm my tnh PC thc hin mt s chc nng iu khin. Tuy nhin a thm vo bn iu khin trm mt bn phm chc nng s to s r rng v linh hot cho iu khin vn hnh trm, trnh c nhm ln trong thao tc. Bn phm chc nng bao gm mt s phm iu khin, v d nh H.2 gm:

6 11

8 9

S +

14 15

12 13

10

Shif

H.2. Bn phm chc nng Cc phm t 1-8 gi l cc phm gn ng. Mi phm c th gi chc nng khc, tu theo mc ch iu khin c th. Phm xc nhn ci 9 Cc phm di chuyn con tr 11-14. Cng c th iu khin con tr bng chut. Phm 15 cn gi l phm home. Phm dch chuyn (shift) 10 kt hp vi cc phm 11-15 s c cc chc nng: 7

Shift+home: thot khi chng trnh Shift +: Th nh c ca s Shift +: a ca s v c ban u kho khi ng S:Ch khi ngi vn hnh tra cha kho vo S v vn ti v tr ng th mi thc hin c cc thao tc iu khin. Kho S coi nh s chng nhn c u quyn thao h iu khin bo v. C th bn phm chc nng c thm vi kho khc; khi thit c th, tu theo i hi s thm vo. 2. Cc menu bn phm Vi cc mc ch iu khin khc nhau (v d truy cp bng cc s kin, ng/ct dao cch ly, ng ct my ct, iu khin b iu p di ti my bin p...) s yu cu mt s thao tc chc nng xc nh nu mi phm trn bn phm trn bn phm chc nng ch c gn cho mt thao tc chc nng c nh th phm yu cu s rt nhiu v ngi thao tc s rt r b nhm ln v vy ta ch s dng hn ch 8 phm thao tc chc nng (1-8). Mi phm c gn cho nhiu chc nng khc nhau tu theo mc ch iu khin v gi l cc phm gn ng. Tp hp cc chc nng thao tc, gn cho 8 phm gn ng gi l mt menu bn phm, v n c hin th trn mn hnh my tnh. C nhiu menu bn phm. C sau mi thao tc ca mt mc ch iu khin c th, th trn mn hnh li xut hin mt menu bn phm mi. Cn c vo , ngi vn hnh bit l lc ny mi phm gn ng gi mt chc nng g. Ta c t chc menu bn phm nh sau: Menu ban u: Operate 1 Service 2 With 3 Key 4 S 5 6 Display Level 7 8

c menu trn, ngi vn hnh hiu l: thc hin cc thao tc v dch v, phi dng cha kho S tra vo trn bn phm chc nng v bt v v tr ng. Nu ch cn quan st m khng yu cu iu khin th n vo phm gn ng s 7 trn bn phm chc nng; lc ny n gi chc nng mc hin th (Display Level). Sau khi dng kho S trn mn hnh li xut hin menu bn phm sau: Event List 1 Alarm List 2 3 Deatail Picture 4 5 6 Operator Term 7 Service Off8

T menu ny, ngi vn hnh c th truy cp vo bng cc d kin, bng bo ng, hoc chn cc s chi ti, bng cch n tng ng vo cc phm gin ng 1,2,4 trn bn phm chc nng (xem mc V, VI). Nu n vo phm gn ng 8 (Service off), h thng tr v menu ban u v ta c th tt my tnh PC. Nu khng tr v menu ban u, chng t phn mm iu khin ang cn menu khc v s c bo ng ci. 3. Ch : Song song vi thao tc chc nng bng cch n cc phm gn ng trong bng bn phm chc nng, ta c th thit k thm cch thao tc kch hot bng chut, ch vo trong menu bn phm hin trn mn hnh. C th thay cc phm trong bn phm chc nng bng mn hnh phm. Chng c kch hot nh cm ng tip xc. Khi c cc menu bn phm s hin th ngay trn mn hnh phm, khng cn hin th trn my tnh. S dng mn hnh phm c u im l khng c hng hc nh phm n c kh. Hn na trnh c nhm ln c th xy ra khi n phm gn ng khng tng ng vi phm trong menu bn phm. Tuy nhin nc ta hin nay, mn hnh phm mi ch thy trong thit k ca mt vi h iu khin (v d h iu khin h thng lc bi ca nh my xi mng Bm Sn m rng). Dng bn phm c kh v menu bn phm hin th trn mn hnh my tnh l bin php d kh thi nht. V vy chng ti ngh gii php ny. IV. YU CU I VI MN HNH NN i gim st, iu khin hot ng ca trm c quan st trn mn hnh my tnh PC. Yu cu mn hnh hin th phi c ba phn (H.3) Phn thng tin bng ch Phn thng tin ho hoc bng Phn minh ho menu bn phm, v d: Event List Alarm List Detail Picture H.3: Yu cu mn hnh hin th. Operator Term Service Off

1. Phn thng tin bng ch. Cc thng tin bng ch s c th dng ting Vit, nhn vin vn hnh d nhn bit hn. Tuy nhin chng ti ngh thng bo bng Tin Anh, l ting ph thng dng trong k thut, khi tip xc vi cc thit b iu khin ca cc hng nc ngoi, nhn vin vn hnh khng b b ng. Hng u yu cu hin th ngy gi, tn trm, cc cp in p trong trm. V d: 20.7,02.12:35:2 E9 NGHA 110KV:A.10KV:A. Khi vn hnh bnh thng, ch A sau cc cp in p khng hin th. Khi cnh bo s c cp in p no th ch A mu sau cp in p s sng nhp nhy. Khi ngi vn hnh xc nhn trong bng bo ng (Alarm List) th ch A ngng nhp nhy v sng n nh. Nu khng cn s c, ch A tt. Hng th 2 tip theo hin th cc thng tin cn lu , hoc nguyn nhn mt s trc trc trong vn hnh trm. Bng 1 di y l cc thng tin c th hin th phn thng tin bng ch trong thit k trm 220KV Nam nh; theo chng ti l kh y .

10

Thng tin Accept Alarm No Authorisa tion Operation Relesed Printer Disenable Printer Enable Printer Fault Wait Please Key not Active Run time Exceeded Feed Back Signal Missing No more pages No more steps Op. Condition not fulfilled No Executed Set Position = actual position

ngha nhn mt s hay s c trong Alarm List trong khi ci ang ku. Khng c u nhim thao tc! Hin th khi ngi vn hnh thao tc trong ch Display Level l ch ch c php quan st. c php thao tc? Hin th khi nhn vin vn hnh dng kho S trn bn phm chc nng v c th thc hin cc thao tc. My in khng c php lm vic! My in c php lm vic! Cc dng ny hin th trong ch kim tra my in, khi nhn vin vn hnh kho my in hoc cho php n lm vic. ng truyn gia my in v khi iu khin ch o hng Xin i! Hin th khi phn mm iu khin bt u lin lc vi khi iu khin ch o. Kho khng hot ng! Hin th khi khng chn c menu bn phm bng phm gn ng. Thi gian chy vt qu! Hin th khi ngi vn hnh chn lnh Excecute command m sau thi gian lu, do nhiu nguyn nhn, vn cha thc hin xong vic iu khin thay i trng thi thit b. Khng c tin hiu phn hi! Hin th khi ngi vn hnh ch lu m vn cha c thc hin, v mt ln na li n lnh Excecute command. Khng c tn hiu phn hi! C th hin th khi truy nhp bng s kin hoc bng s c. Khng cn nc no na! C th hin th khi thao tc chuyn nc b OLTC ca bin p iu kin thao tc cha !

Audible Hy xc nhn bo ng ci! Hin th khi nhn vin vn hnh xc

command Lnh khng c thc hin! C th hin th khi nh ch ca AR. V tr trng vi v tr hin ti! C th hin th khi thao tc ng/ct

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2. Phn thng tin ho Bao gm cc c s ton phn v chi tit ca trm, cc bng s kin, s c khi vn hnh trm. Hnh 4 l v d v s chi tit phn in p 6KV ca trm E9 Ngha , hin th trn mn hnh. Dao cch ly ng My ct ng AR on 6,3 KV Dao cch ly ct AR off 6,3 KV

80Kw 60 Kvar 16R

My ct ng

H.4. Hin th s chi tit 6KV trn mn hnh Ti mi ng dy hin th cc thng s vn hnh I, P, Q ca n (trn hnh v ch v d I, P, Q ca mi l). Bn cnh my ct hoc giao cch ly cn th hin th mt s ch nh: MAN.C: Dao cch ly hoc my ct chuyn sang iu kin ti ch, bng tay. AR on/off: Mch t ng ng li AR ca my ct lm vic (on), hoc khng c a vo lm vic (OFF). Trn hnh v cn c biu tng my ct v tr trung gian ngha l khi iu khin ch o khng c thng tin g v v tr ng/ct ca my ct. S trn mn hnh cn c phn bit bi mu sc. V d: - Mu vng: Khi iu khin ch o nhn c y cc thng tin v thit b. - Mu xanh da tri: Vic thng tin gia thit b v khi iu khin ch o b hng. V tr ca thit b ng/ct trn s l v tr cui cng c truyn ti khi iu kin ch o trc khi lin lc b hng. V. BNG S KIN (EVENT LIST) V BNG BO NG (ALARM LIST)- BNG CNG SUT. 1. Bng s kin (Event List). 12

Bng s kin ghi li cc s kin xy ra trong qu trnh vn hnh trm, k c cc s c. V d s kin nhn vin vn hnh ng mt my ct no , s c nhy my ct do bo v rle tc ng, s kin nhit du my bin p tng cao... di ca bng s kin ph thuc vo yu cu c th ca tng thit k v n quyt nh dung lng b nh. V d bng s kin thng khong 10 trang mn hnh, v n i hi mt dung lng khong 20Kbyte ca mt b nh. Cc s kin c lit k theo th t thi gian. Cc s kin c b dn dn loi khi bng khi c cc s kin mi ghi vo. Khi cn truy cp bng s kin ta cho ni hin th trn mn hnh vi mu en trng hoc in ra t my in. a) M t cc s kin thao tc bnh thng trong bng s kin. Bng s kin c 5 ct. Nu l cc s kin thao tc bnh thng th mi ct c ngha nh bng 2 di y. Bng 2. Thi gian xy ra s kin 20.1.15:13:59 20.1.15:14:30 22.1.13:20:25 V tr xy ra s kin 174 E6 -110KV 174 E6 -110KV T1 Thit b hoc m t s kin CB 171 CB171 OLTC Nguyn nhn s kin CM + FB + SPN ON ON Trng thi

Cc nguyn nhn s kin trong ct 4 c din di bng cc k hiu: V d: CM +: Lnh thao tc thit b theo phng thc iu khin ti trm (do ngi vn hnh iu khin t bn iu khin trm). FB +: Tn hiu phn hi tt (lnh thc hin thnh cng). FB - : Tn hiu phn h xu (lnh thc hin khng thnh cng) SPN: Thit b c iu khin khng phi do lnh ca khi iu khin ch o (Spontaneous). Cc trng thi ct 5 cng c m t bng cc k hiu. V d: RAISE: T thi im ny tr i, s kin ny tn ti. CLEAR: T thi im ny tr i s kin ny b xo. ON: Thit b ng OFF: Thit b ct Trong bng 2 gi nh v s kin xy ra trm E9 Ngha . Hai hng u ca bng hiu l: Ngy 20/1, hi 15h 13ph 59gy my ct 171 ng dy 174 E6 110KV c iu 13

khin ng t bn iu khin; v hi 15h 14ph 30gy my ct ng thnh cng. Hng th 3 ca bng hiu l ngy 22/1, hi 13h 20pt 25gy b iu p di ti ca my bin p T1 c thay i v tr do iu khin ti ch, bng tay (Khng phi do lnh ca khi iu khin ch o). b) M t cc s kin c trong bng s kin i vi cc s kin s c, mi ct trong bng s kin c ngha bng 3. Bng 3 Thi gian xy ra V tr xy ra s Thit b bo v S th th c s c 20.1.15:13:59 c 491 22 KV v s c 7SJ531 52 Thi gian pht hin 94 MS

Trong bng 3, k hiu ct 5 hiu nh sau: ...MS : Sau... miligy, s c c bo v pht hin ...MSC: Sau ... miligy, s c c bo v pht hin v b loi tr, khng tn ti thm. c. Cch truy nhp vo bng s kin Sau khi tra cha kho S vo kho bng bn phm chc nng, hoc n vo phm chc nng, hoc n vo phm gn ng s 7 (Display Level), xut hin trn mn hnh hin th menu bn phm sau: Event List 1 Alarm List 2 3 Detail Picture 4 5 6 Operator Term 7 Service off8

Tip theo n phm gn ng s 1(Event List) trn bn phm chc nng, s xut hin meu bn phm sau: 1 2 3 Next Page 4 Previous page 5 6 7 Return 8

n cc phm 4 hoc 5 trn bn phm chc nng, nhn vin vn hnh c th xem cc trang s kin t 1 n 10 (v d c 10 trang) trn mn hnh. Ch : Khi cc trang u tin hoc cui cng hin th trn mn hnh; nu ngi vn hnh vn n phm 5 hoc 4, th trn mn hnh phn thng tin bng ch s hin th hng ch: No more Pages (Khng cn trang no na).

14

2. Bng bo ng (Alarm List) a) Cu trc bng Bng bo ng hay cn gi bng ghi s c. Sau khi pht hin s c, bo v rle s gi thng tin v s c ti khi iu khin ch o. Cc thng tin ny s c ghi vo bng cc s kin, ng thi cng c ghi vo bng s c. Ch rng bng s kin (Event List) l bng tng th ghi mi s kin xy ra trong trm. Bng bo ng (Alarm List) ch ghi cc s c nhn vin vn hnh tham kho v s l. Cu trc bng Alarm List trnh by trn, mc 1, b v bng s c ny c th c 3 mu: Mu : Ch cc s c xut hin v ang tn ti. Mu xanh: Ch s c ht, ct thi gian pht hin c k hiu MSC (C=clear = xo). V d 90MSC, ngha l s c c bo v pht hin 90milligy v khng cn tn ti. Mu en trng: Ch s c khng cn tn ti v c ngi vn hnh xc nhn. S c ny c th xo khi bng bo ng. Ch l trong bng bo ng, nu s c l mi, cha c xc nhn, th u hng s c ch Q. V d: Q 20.1.15:13:59 491 22KV 8SJ531 52 94MS Hiu l: 20/1, hi 15h 13ph 59gy, ti c dy 491-22KV c s c ngn mch do rle bo v 7SJ531 tc ng vo. s c c rle pht hin sau 90miligy, l s c mi ang tn ti v cha c xc nhn. Sau khi ngi vn hnh xc nhn s c, ch Q b xo b nhng dng ch vn gi nguyn mu v vn tn ti s c. Nu s c ht th hng ch tr thnh mu en trng. b) Cch truy nhp bng bo ng (Alarm List) Nu bo ng c ci th ngi vn hnh phi xc nhn bo ng ci trc bng cch bm vo phm xc nhn ci 9 trong bn phm chc nng. Ci s ngng ku. Sau truy nhp bng bo ng tm s c: Vn cha kho S, trn mn hnh s xut hin menu bn phm: Event List 1 Alarm 2 3 Detail Picture 4 5 6 Operator Term 7 Service off 8

n phm gn ng s 2 bn phm chc nng, menu bn phm sau s xut hin: 15

Aclmpwedge Cencel 1 2

Next page 4

Previous page 5

Retur 8

n phm gn ng s 1 (Cknowledge) trn bn phm chc nng nhn s c. Sau khi xc nhn, nu c s c khng cn tn rt th n phm gn ng s 2 (Cancel) hu b s c ghi tng bng bo ng. Nu mun gim st cc bo ng xy ra, ta n vo phm gn ng s 5 xem cc trang trc ca bng bo ng. Nu bng bo ng ng hin th trang u hoc trang cui m ngi vn hnh n phm gn ng 5 hoc 4, th phn thng tin ch ca mnh hnh s hin th No me pages. 3) Bng o cng sut (Puis List) c th thnh lp c th ti hng ngy, hng thng v nm ca trm, yu cu thit k phi phn mm t ng ghi cng sut vn hnh cu ton trm yu cu nh sau: C sau 1 gi ghi cng sut P, Q ton trm Sau 1 ngy, t ng (hoc ngi vn hnh iu khin) in ra c th v biu th ti trong ngy. ng thi tnh cng sut trung bnh PTB, QTB cng sut cc i PMAX, QMAX ca trm trong ngy v ct vo mt khng gian b nh xc nh. Cui thng t ng in ra v c th ph ti trong thng. ng thi tnh cong sut trung bnh trong thng lu tr vo mt khng gian khc ca b nh. Cui nm iu khin in ra v th ph ti hng nm ca trm. Khng c yu cu hin th bng o cng sut ca trm. VI. CHN CC S CHI TIT 1) Cc s hin th trong phn thng tin ho ca mn hnh c th l: - S ni dy ton trm, gip ngi vn hnh gim st c hot ng ca ton trm, nhng khng iu khin c. - Cc s chi tit, gip ngi vn hnh c thng tin chi tit v mt g dy no . ng thi cng gip nhn vin vn hnh thc hin cn thao tc diu khin cc thit b ng/ct OLTC. - Tu theo tng trm c th v mc chi tit yu cu m nh ra s s chi tit. V d E9, Ngha c th phn chia cc s chi tit theo bng 4.

16

Bng 4 DETAIL PICTURE DIAGRAM DIAGRAM 110 KV DIAGRAM 22 KV DIAGRAM 10KV VOLTAGE LEVEL 110 KV 22KV 10 KV 492, 974, 972, 932, 932 3, 933, 971, 973 975, 977, 675, 979, 900, TU10 1, TU10 2 DIAGRAM 6 KV 6 KV 670, 671, 673, 675, 677, 679, 600, 632, 672, 674, 676, TU 61, TU- 62 Ch l, cc s chi tit trong bng 4 ch l v d: Nu mun hin th r rng v chi tit hn, ta chia cc s trung p 22KV, 10KV, 6KV, mi s thnh 2 s nh (DIAGRAM 1 22KV, DIAGRAM2 22KV...) 2) Cch truy nhp n s chi tit. Sau khi quay kho S v v tr ng trong bn phm chc nng, menu bn phm sau s hin th trn mn hnh: Event List Alarm List 2 3 Detail Pictur 4 5 6 Operator term 7 Service off 8 EQUIPMENT 173E, 174E6, T1, T2, T3 431, 491, 493, 495, 499, 433, 471, 473, 475, 479, 441, 442, 471, 473, TU41, TU42

n phm gn ng 4 trn bn phm chc nng, bng s chi tit (DETAIL PICTURE), v d nh bng 4, s hin thin phn thng tin phn thng tin ho trn mn hnh v menu bn phm sau xut hin. Picture choice 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Return 8

S dng cc phm ,,, trn bn phm chc nng, hoc chut a con tr ti s mun chn trong bng DETAIL PICTURE trn mn hnh. ng thi menu bn phm sau xut hin: Acknow Control Transf 4 5 6 Display Return

17

Picturel

Level 7

T menu ny, ngi vn hnh c th tin hnh thao tc iu khin cc thit b ng/ct iu khin OLTC ca m bin p, hoc ch xem cc thng tin (n cc phm 2, 3 hoc 7 bn phm chc nng). Nu trn c s c thit b iu khin m trng thi ca n b thay i, nhng khng o lnh ca khi iu khin ch o (v d lnh ct my ct do ngi vn hnh thao tc ti ch, hoc do rle bo v tc ng), th thit b s nhp nhy. n phm gn ng 1 (Acknowledge Picture), thit b s khng nhp nhy na. VII. IU KHIN THIT B NG/CT N L Yu cu xy dng phn mm iu khin ring l thit b ng/ct (my ct, dao cch ly), l phi c cc lch gim st trng thi ca cc thit b ng/ct khc c lin quan, nhm m bo an ton tuyt i cho thit b v ngi thao tc. i vi dao cch ly th ch c php ng/ct khi khng ti. Tu thuc tng s c th m nh ra cc thit b no lin quan phi gim st khi thao tc mt thit b ng/ct c th. Hy ly v d v ng dy 174E6 ca trm E9, Ngha (11.5), ta thy:
K1 174 E6 K5 K2 iu MC K3 Khin K4 K6

Trc khi pht hin ng dao cch ly K5, phi kim tra K2, K3 v MC l trng thi ct. Trc khi pht hin lnh ng K6, phi kim tra K3, K4 v MC l thi ct. Trc khi pht lnh ng MC phi tra K2, K3 l trng thi ct; K5, K6 l trng thi ng. Trc khi pht hin ct K5 hoc K6, t nht phi kim tra MC l trng thi ct...

110 KV

Tm li, khi c mt thao tc iu khin mt thit b ng/ct n l phn mm iu khin phi ln lt qua cc bc sau: - Kim tra xem lnh c a ra t u (ti bn iu khin trm hay ti ch), c nh hp vi phng thc iu khin ang c n nh khng. Nu khng, s pht tn hiu hin th OP.CONDITION NOT FULEILLEF. Cng kim tra xem c c u nhim thao tc khng

18

(ngi vn hnh c bt kho S v v tr ng khng). Nu khng s pht tn hiu hin th NO AUTHORIATION - X l lnh: Kim tra trng thi ca cc thit b ong/ct lin quan ph hp khng; v tr t iu khin ca thit b ng/ct c ngi vi v tr hin ti khng. - a lnh iu khin thc ng/ct thit b. - Gim st qu trnh ng/ct ca thit b thng qua cc tn hiu phn hi v thi gian ng/ct (time out). Nu cn, c th kt thc lnh ngay lp tc. 1) iu khin dao cch ly Vn kho S trn bn phm chc nng v v tr ong Thc hin cc thao tc chn s chi tit ( trnh by mc VI, 2), s c menu bn phm sau hin th trn mn hnh. Acknow Picturel Control 2 Transf 3 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Refurn 8

n phm gn ng 2 trn bn phm chc nng; menu bn phm tip theo s xut hin: Control DC1 hin th: ON 1 OFF 2 3 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8 Control CB 2 Serial control 3 Control AR 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Refurn 8

n phm gn ng 1 (Control DC) iu khin dao cch ly; menu bn phm sau s

Dng cc phm ,,, (hoc dng chut) iu khin dch con tr n dao cch ly mun ng/ct. n phm gn ng 1 (ON) nu mun ng/ct. n phm gn ng 2 (OFF) nu mun ct. Dao cch ly iu khin lc ny s nhp nhy, i cho phn mm thc hin vic x l lnh. Nu vic x l thy thng tin bng ch trn mn hnh: Condition synchronu fault: iu kin lin ng ca cc thit b ng/ct lin quan khng ph hp hoc Set postion = Actual position: Thit b v tr l chn ri. Nu vic x l thy t yu cu, dao cch ly iu khin trn s s chuyn sang biu tng ng vi gi tr t, mi, v nhp nhy. Menu bn phm sau xut hin: 19

Execute command 3

Display Level 7

Return 8

n phm gn ng 3 (Execute command: thc hin lnh). Dao cch ly s nhn c tn hiu (lnh) ng/ct. Nu ng ct thnh cng, biu tng ca dao cch ly iu khin trn s khng cn nhp nhy. Nu ng/ct khng thnh cng, dng thng tin Running time exceeded s hin th phn thng tin bng ch trn mn hnh. 2) iu khin my ct: a) iu khin ng/ct my ct tng t iu khin dao cch ly: Lm cc thao tc nh trnh by iu khin dao cch ly n khi hin th menu bn phm: Control DC 1 Control CB 2 Serial control 3 Control AR 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8

n phm gn ng 2 iu khin my ct, menu bn phm sau xut hin: ON 1 OFF 2 3 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8

n y thc hin ng cc thao tc iu kin tip theo, nh trnh by cho cho iu khin dao cch ly. b) iu kin chc nng t ng ng li (AR) Nu trn s chi tit, mt s ng dy c trang b thm chc nng t ng ng li (AR) ra c th iu khin cho chc nng ny lm vic hoc khng lm vic. Thao tc nh sau: Lm cc thao tc trong chn s chi tit c menu bn phm sau hin th trn mn hnh: Acknow Picture 1 Control 2 Transf 3 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8

n phm gn ng s 2, menu sau s hin th: Control DC 1 Control CB 2 Serial control 3 Control AR 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8

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n phm gn ng 4 (Control AR). Lc ny, cc ng dy trong s chi tit c trng b chc nng t ng ng li, s hin th ch ARON/OFF nhp nhy bn cnh my ct. ng thi menu bn phm sau s hin th. ON 1 OFF 2 Display Level 7 Return 8

Dng cc phm ,,, (hoc dng chut) la chn ng dy mun iu khin AR. n phm ON (phm gn ng s 1) nu mun AR lm vic, hoc n phm ng 2 (OFF) nu mun AR khng lm vic. Ch AR ON hoc AR OFF bn cnh my ct ng dy iu khin s sng n nh. Nu lnh khng thc hin c, phn thng tin bng ch trn mn hnh s hin th bng ch No commad exceuted VII. LNH IU KHIN TRNH T CC THIT B NG CT. Khi cn ct ng dy ra khi trm tin hnh sa cha; hoc khi cn a ng dy sa cha xong vo vn hnh; hoc khi cn sa cha my ct lin lc gia hai thanh ci... ta cn iu khin theo mt trnh t nht nh cc thit b ng/ct. V d khi ng ng dy ti in phi tun theo trnh t: ng dao cch ly thanh ci ng dao cch ly ng dy ng my ct. Ngc lai, khi thao tc ct ng dy khi thanh ci phi theo trnh t: Ct my ct ct dao cch ly ng dy ct dao cch ly thanh ci. Nu ngi vn hnh iu khin ring l tng thit b s lu v c th nhm ln trnh t thao tc cc thit b. Do , yu cu phi c phn mm iu khin trnh t cc thit b ng/ct. Thao tc lnh iu khin trnh t nh sau: Lm cc thao tc chn s chi tit ti khi hin th menu bn phm sau: Acknow Picture 1 Control 2 Transf 3 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8

n phm gn ng 2 (Control), menu sau hin th: Control DC 1 Control 2 Serial control 3 Control AR 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Retura 8

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n phm gn ng 3 (serial control), menu bn phm sau s hin th: ON 1 OFF 2 3 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8

Dng cc phm ,,, (hoc chut) iu khin con tr ti ng dy (hoc on mch ni gia hai thanh ci) cn iu khin ng/ct trnh t. Lc ny, cc thit b ng/ct ca ng dy trng s chi tit hin th trn mn hnh s nhp nhy. n phm gn ng 1 (ON) nu mun ng trnh t; hoc n phm gn ng 2 (OFF) nu mun ct trnh t. Phn mm s iu khin ng/ct trnh t tng thit b. Tun t mi thit b khi ng/ct xong, biu tng ca n trn s chi tit mn hnh s thay i, ng vi v tr mi v khng cn nhp nhy. n phm gn ng 1 (ON) nu mun ng trnh t; hoc n phm gn ng 2 (OFF) nu mun ct trnh t. Phn mm s iu khin ng/ct trnh t tng thit b: Tun tng mi thit b khi ng/ct xong, biu tng ca n trn s chi tit mn hnh s thay i, ng vi v tr mi v khng cn nhp nhy. Nu trong qu trnh thc hin lnh c trc trc, phn mm thng tin bng ch trn mn hnh s hin th hng ch RUN TIME EXCEEDED IX. IU KHIN B IU P DI TI (OLTC) iu khin b iu p di ti my bin p bao gm: Vic chn ch iu chnh OLTC l bng tay hay t ng nh b iu chnh p, v vic iu khin thay i nc OLTC trong ch iu chnh bng tay. 1) Chn ch iu chnh OLTC. Lm cc thao tc chn s chi tit c my bin p cn chn ch iu chnh OLTC, menu bn phm sau s hin th: Acknow picture 1 Control 2 Tranf 3 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8

Trong s chi tit hin th trn mn hnh, bn cnh biu tng my bin p c cc hng ch biu th ch iu chnh OLTC v v tr nc hin ti ca OLTC: OLTC MAN: OLTC ang ch iu chnh bng tay (ti ch hoc t bn iu khin). OLTC AUTO: OLTC ang ch iu chnh t ng nh b iu chnh ip p. TAP 10: V tr nc hin ti ca OLTC (v d nc 10) n phm gn ng 3 (Transf), menu bn phm sau s hin th.

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UP 1

DOWN 2

MAN 3

AUTO 4

EMERG TRRIP.1 5

EMERG TRIP. 2 6

Display Level 7

Refturn 8

Dng cc phm ,,, (hoc dng chut) iu chnh con tr ti my bin p cn iu khin OLTC. Lc ccs hng ch OLTC MAN/ AUTO v TAP 10 (v d OLTC ang nc 10) bn cnh biu tng my bin p s nhp nhy. n phm gn ng 3 (MAN) nu mun chn ch iu chnh bng tay. Khi chn xong, bn cnh my bin p hin th hng ch OLTC MAN sng n nh. Nu mun chn ch iu chnh t ng, ta n phm gn ng 4 (AUTO) v bn cnh biu tng my bin p s hin th hng chd OLTC AUTO sng n nh. 2) iu khin thay i nc OLTC trong ch iu chnh bng tay, ti bn iu khin. Trong ch iu chnh OLTC bng tay, ta c th iu khin thay i nc OLTC trc tip ti ch, hoc c th iu khin t bn iu khin trm. Khi iu t bn iu khin th cc thao tc s nh sau: Lm cc thao tc chn s chi tit, menu bn phm sau xut hin: Acknow picture 1 Control 2 Transf 3 4 5 6 Display Level 7 Return 8

n phm gn ng 3 (Transf), menu bn phm sau s hin th: UP 1 DOWN 2 MAN 3 AUTO 4 EMERG TRIP.1 5 EMERG TRIP.2 6 Display Level 7 8 Return

Dng cc phm ,,, (hoc dng chut) chn my bin p trong s chi tit cn iu khin OLTC. Lc hng ch OLTC MAN v TAP... bn cnh my bin p s nhp nhy. n phm gn ng 1 (UP) nu mun thng nc OLTC; hoc n phm gn ng 2 (DOWN) nu mun gim nc OLTC. Hng ch TAP... thi nhp nhy, sng n nh v ch v tr nc mi iu khin OLTC.

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Khi OLTC v tr u (hoc v tr cui cng), nu ngi vn hnh yu cu gim (hoc tng), trn phn thng tin bng ch ca mn hnh s xut hin hng ch: NO MORI STEPS. 3) Ct khn cp OLCT Trong qu trnh iu khin thay i nc OLTC, ngi vn hnh mun ct khn cp aptomat ca ng c iu khin OLTC; th yu cu n vo phm gn ng 5 (Emerg Trip 1 = ct khn cp my bin p s 1); hoc n vo phm gn ng 6 (Emerg trip 2 = ct khn = ct khn cp PLTC my bin p s 2), tu theo my bin p ang iu khin l my s hay my s 2. UP 1 DOWN 2 MAN 3 AUTO 4 EMERG TRIP.1 5 EMERG TRIP.2 6 Display Level 7 8 Return

Ch rng vi cu trc menu bn phm nh trn, trong mi s chi tit phi cha ti a khng qu 2 my bin p. iu ny cng ph hp vi thc t l s my bina ps trong mt trm phn phi thng ch 2-3 my. Nu trm c 4-4 my, ta phi phn b chng vo 2 s chi tit. XI. XEM CC S KIN V S TON TRM Nu ch cn xem s ni dy ton trm vo cc thng s vn hnh, cc thng tin v cc s kin, cc s c, ta lm nh sau: T menu ban u (xem mc II.2) hoc t bt k mt menu bn phm no c Display Level (n u c b tr s 7), ta n vo phm gn ng s 7 (Display Level), menu bn phm sau s xut hin trn mn hnh: Event List 1 Alarm List 2 T menu ny: n vo phm gn ng s 1 s truy nhp bng s kin n vo phm gn ng s 2 s truy nhp vo bng s c n vo phm gn ng s 3 s hin th s ni dy ton trm, vi cc thng s vn hnh. Ch l khi truy nhp vo cc bng s kin v s c, ta khng th xo nhn cc thng tin. XI. KIM TRA MY IN V A IN Over view 3 4 5 6 7 Return 8

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Phn ny s dng khi mun my in khng lm vic hoc kim tra cc a lu gia thng tin. Sau khi vn kho S v v tr ong, menu sau s hin th Event List 1 Alarm List 2 3 Detail picture 4 5 6 Oprator term 7 Service off 8

n phm gn ng 7 (Opetator term), menu bn phm sau s xut hin: Printer Lockout 1 Printer enable 2 Printer test 3 4 Check disk 5 6 Display level 7 Return 8

n phm gn ng 1 kho, khng dng my in n phm gn ng 2 a my in vo lm vic. n phm gn ng 3 kim tra trng thi my in. Nu my in ang b kho s hin th hng ch PRINTER ENABLE. n phm gn ng 5 kim tra cc a mm lu gi thng tin ci trong khi iu khin ch o.

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XEM XT KHI QUT V MT H THNG IN Ph gio s: Nguyn Th Hng

XEM XT KHI QUT V MT H THNG IN C. T VN Cng tc thit k cng nh qun l v iu hnh mt h thng in ni cung u da trn 3 yu cu sau y: 1. m bo cung cp in nng y cng sut, lin tc v cht lng cao cho tt c cc h tiu th c trong h thng. 2. Cu trc n gin, t kh nng xy ra s c, khi c s c th d pht hin, sa cha v khi phc nhanh, an ton ti a cho ngi vn hnh v ngi dn bnh thng. 3. Tit kim vn u t, chi ph vn hnh thp, gi thnh in nng thp, gi bn ra r, ti a khng vt qu mt bng gi c chung ca th trng hin nay. Ch khc mang tnh c th ca in nng so vi tt c cc loi hng ho khc l trong qu trnh sn xut v tiu th ca n lun lun phi m bo nghim ngt s cn bng tc thi gia cung v cu. Chnh c th ny to nn mi kh khn cho c quan qun l v iu hnh h thng in. Di y s ln lt trnh by khi qut v nhng nt ln ca mt h thng in. I.VN CUNG CP Y CNG SUT CHO TI. c th ca ngnh in khc vi tt c cc ngnh sn xut khc l ch phi lun lun duy tr cho c s cn bng gia cung v cu. S cn bng ny phi m bo c din ra tc thi mt cch ht sc nghim khc. cng chnh l ngun gc to nn mi iu kh khn cho cng tc qun l v iu hnh H thng in.

tho mn nghim tc yu cu trn, ngnh in phi lo y nhng cng vic sau: 1. Cng sut ca cc Nh my in c gi tt l ngun ca H thng in phi lun lun tho mn cng sut ca tt c cc ti c trong h thng vo cc gi cao im. Cng sut tiu th ny ca ti thay i theo ngy, theo ma trong mt nm nht nh v quan trng hn c nhp tng trng hng nm ca n. Ngy nay, mc d c nhng phng php tnh v nhng cng c hin i, cng vic d bo ph ti in vn khng th lng trc c ht mi nhn t c th tc ng ti nhp tng trng c th tm cch lng ho chng a vo qu trnh tnh ton c. Nhng kt qu tnh ra c s l ch da tin cy ngnh in tip tc bnh lun trn c s kinh nghim thc t cng nhng hiu bit rng v kinh t, chnh tr v x hi tm ra c p s hp l hn c chnh l cng tc D bo ph ti trong H thng in nh ra k hoch pht trin ngun ca ngnh in. 2. H thng phi c mt lng cng sut d phng nht nh, thay th phn cng sut thiu ht khi xy ra s c mt in ln nht ti mt ngun quan trng ca H thng. 3. Tng cng sut pht ra ca h thng cn c phn mt cch hp l cho tng ngun khc nhau trong h thng da trn kt qu ti u v mt kinh t trong vn hnh. Phng php tnh v cng c tnh u c nhng yu cu l phi xp hng cc nh my in c c s phi hp hp l gia Nhit in v thu in. Kt qu tnh ra c km theo mt s bin lun cn thit s cho ta p s quy nh ch vn hnh thch hp cho tng nh my nhm t hiu qu kinh t ti u cho ton h thng.

4. Ti trong h thng ch t tr s ln nht ca n vo cc gi cao im, nh vy c ngha l vo cc gi khc trong ngy, ti s mc thp hn hoc t hoc nhiu so vi kh nng pht ca cc ngun trong h thng. nh gi hiu sut lm vic ca ngun v h thng. nh gi hiu sut lm vic ca ngun v mt s dng cng sut t, ngi ta dng ch tiu Tmnx c tn l Thi gian s dng cng sut ln nht phn nh tnh trng ny. l s chia ca sn lng in pht ra A tnh bng kWh cho cng sut ln nht Pmax ca ti trong gi cao im. Ch tiu Tmax cng cao th hiu sut s dng thit b t ca ngun cng cao. Tm li v phn ny c quan qun l v iu hnh H thng in cp trung ng cn thu cp nht gn nh tc thi cc s liu sau: - Cng sut pht ra t cc ngun trong h thng, tnh t thanh ci cao p ca nh my in. - Cng sut nhn c cc trm bin p h p xung 110kV cui ng dy trn thanh ci 110kV. Vi cc s liu trn ta s c c ng cong ph ti ca ngy v ca nm, tnh ra c sn lng in, tn tht cng sut, tn tht in nng trong qu trnh chuyn tr thi gian s dng cng sut ln nht Tmax v da vo n c th thy c nhiu iu khc c quan h ti s pht trin chung ca c nc v cc mt kinh t, x hi v.v... C quan qun l v iu hnh ca cc khu vc trong nc cng lm nh vy i vi cc li in cao p 110kV, li in trung p v h p.

II. M BO LIN TC CUNG CP IN CHO CC TI. 1. S c gy mt in trong H thng in ph thuc ch yu vo cu trc ca H thng. tng cng tin cy ca H thng in, gim nh ti mc thp nht kh nng gy s c mt in, bin php quen thuc xa nay l tm cch b tr thm ng dy d phng, trm bin p, km theo cc thit b bo v rle c tin cy v tnh chn lc cao. Ngoi ra cn cn c mt mng li chng st thch hp vi yu cu phi hp cch in trong li in...C th ni, vi cch b tr s ni dy tt v s dng cc thit b hin i, kh nng xy ra s c gy mt in vt trong h thng l rt thp c th coi gn nh khng th c c. Tuy nhin v nhiu iu cn ng bt cp nn h thng in ca chng ta cho ti nay vn chua t ti c. 2.S c nguy him nht v ng s nht ca H thng l trng hp t ngt b thiu ht mt lng cng sut ln, khng cn sc tho mn nhu cu ca cc ti ng lm vic. iu ny c th xy ra trong trng hp mt Nh my pht in c ln trong H thng t ngt b hng t ngt khng th pht in c na, lc lng d phng khng thay th hoc cn cng sut d phng ti mt ni no nhng huy ng khng kp. Cng c trng hp cc ngun ca h thng vn ng lm vic tt nhng mt ng dy trc ch yu no b ct in t ngt khin cng sut pht ra t mt Nh my ln no khng a c ti h thng, gy ra tnh hung thiu ht cng sut nng n v t ngt trong h thng. Trong c hai trng hp trn, cc Nh my in cn li t ngt phi gnh mt lng ti qu ln rto ca cc my pht b chng li, tc quay gim hn ko theo tn s ca dng in gim, v cui cng l h thng b mt th cn bng n nh, cc my pht khng cn v n
5

hnh

ng

vi

thng s b mt in trm trng. Thi gian cn thit khi phc s c ko kh di, hao tn nhiu v sc ngi v ca. trnh s c r li nh trn c th xy ra, cch duy nht l phi pht hin nhanh c thi gian tm cch xa thi cp tc mt lng ti ln, m bo gi cho kp c th cn bng gia cung v cu ca h thng. Trong hon cnh ny th vic ct i in c mt mng ln cn hn rt nhiu vic h thng bi tan r. Tn s f ti khp mi nt trng yu ca h thng in u phi c phn nh thng xuyn v cc trung tm iu cc cp khc nhau. Khi c bin ng bt li, cc thit b t ng ca h thng phi t n bit nhanh chng huy ng cng sut d phng v trong trng hp cn thit phi bit sa thi bt ti bo v cho c trng thi n nh ca h thng. Vic sa thi bt ph ti cng khng n gin, phi phn bit c loi ti no l th yu ct trc v loi no nht thit phi c m bo khng ct in. Kh nng b r li nh trn cng c th xy ra trong trng hp ngc li l b mt ti t ngt. Khi h thng t nhin b mt i mt lng ti qu ln, h thng s nng vo tnh trng tha cng sut, rta cc my pht s lng ln vi tc qu nhanh, tn s in tng t ngt t ph th vn hnh ng b ca cc Nh my in, dn ti hu qu tan d ca h thng. cu vn tnh th c quan iu ch cn cch l phi nhanh chng sa thi bt mt s ngun, to nn s cn bng tr li gia cung v cu ca h thng. Mi yu cu v thao tc ln ny trn i th cng ging nh trng hp trn.

III. BO M IN P LUN BNG GI TR NH MC. Cht lng in nng cung cp cho khch hng c quy nh bng hai i lng quen thuc l tn s f v in p U. Ngnh in phi m bo cho tn s v in p lun lun bng gi tr nh mc c quy nh ca chng. Vn tn s f c nu ln phn trn, di y ta tip tc xem xt ti vn in p U. Nhn chung, in p ch c th tng hoc gim qu mc cho php xung quanh gi tr nh mc trong 3 trng hp c th sau: 1. Trm bin p v ng dy b qu ti thng xuyn v lu di. Gii php trong trng hp ny kh n gin, ch cn tm cch nng cao dung lng ca my bin p v tng tit din ca dy dn sao cho kh nng truyn ti ca chng p ng c nhu cu v cng sut ca ti l in p s li tt ngay. Cch lm l thay th my bin p c bng my mi c dung lng ln hn v dy dn c bng dy dn mi c tit din ln hn. Cng cn cch na l t thm mt my bin p v mt ng dy mi vn hnh song song vi ng dy c. 2. Nhng loi s c thng xuyn hay xy ra nh chp mch trong dy qun ca my bin p, ng dy b st nh trc tip hoc b chm t, v.v... hin tng bo hiu u tin bao gi cng l gim st v in p v pha ph ti ca ng dy b s c. Trng hp phn phi ph ti trn ba pha ca mt l ng dy khng u, li in lm vic trng thi khng i xng s dn ti tnh trng c phai th in p b gim sut v c hai thc tri li in p li b nng cao. Chnh v nhng l trn nn vic quan st in p tt c cc nt khc nhau trong h thng phi c tin hnh thng xuyn c bin php x l kp thi.
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3. Hu ht cc loi ph ti n in t h thng u mang tnh cm khng, my bin p v ng dy cng u mang tnh cm khng. Tt c trong qu trnh vn hnh u i tiu hao mt khi lng cng sut phn khng Q rt ln m cc my pht ngun ca h thng khng th no tho mn c. Thiu cng sut phn khng l nguyn nhn ch yu gy ra tnh trng gim st in p trong h thng. gii quyt tnh trng ny, bin php duy nht l t cc thit b b nh t in tnh hoc my b ng b t cc trm bin p trong h thng in. T in tnh v my b ng b ng vai tr mt loi my pht in chuyn pht ra cng sut phn khng Q nhm b vo khi lng Q thiu ht ca nh my in trong h thng in. Thit b b khng thng c t ti thanh ci h p ca cc trm hp p t 1P kV hoc 6kV xung 0,4kV trc khi a in vo cc phn xng sn xut. C nhiu phng php tnh lng b khc nhau xong ni chung u nhm mc tiu tho mn nhu cu cung cp u cng sut phn khng Q cho ti v m bo t ch tiu kinh tt tt nht cho vn hnh ca h thng. Thng b thanh ci 10kV hoc 6kV nhm t ch tiu kinh t cho qu trnh vn chuyn in nng 1 li in trung gian 110kV. B thanh ci 110kV l nhm t ch tiu kinh t tt nht cho vic huy ng ngun mt cch hp l nht. B ti cc x nghip tiu th in ti thanh ci 0,4kV l do tng X nghip t b tr nhm cung cp y Q cho cc thit b tiu th in ca X nghip v trnh khong phi tr mt s tin qu ln cho ngnh in v tiu th qu nhiu cong sut phn khng. Dung lng b ti a t ti cc nt h thng c tnh cn c vo cng sut lc gi cao im. cc thi im khc trong ngy, ni chung cng sut ti u thp hn v bin ng thng xuyn trong sut ngy m. Dung lng thit b b vy phi c chia thnh tng nhm
8

nh c th tu tin ng thm hoc ct bt khi cn thit. Qu trnh ng ct ny phi c thc hin t ng, do cc thit b iu khin khng ch t ng da trn tn hiu ca in p U o c tin hnh tnh ton v ra lnh. KT LUN Nh trn trnh by, tt c nhng kh khn trong vic qun l, iu hnh mt h thng in u xut pht ch yu cu phi m bo thng xuyn l lin tc thc thi gia cung v cu. Tt c trc ht phi da trn mt h thng o lng t ng nhm thu thp cc lng o c bn nh P, Q, I, U, f, cos tt c cc nt, coi l nhng tn hiu ban u chuyn v cc b phn vi x l theo chng trnh tnh ton, rt ra kt lun tho ng c th a ra c nhng iu lnh ng n cho mi theo tc trong h thng in Vit Nam chng ta. Ngi vit Nguyn Th Hng PGS. H Thng in HBK H Ni Ngy 6 thng 01 nm 2002

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Ti liu ny hng dn vic thit k v thc hin cc site Internet trn cc trm trung ng v trm khu vc. 1.Gii thiu 1.1. Ni dung ca Site Phn ny s gii thiu s lc cu trc ca site, chi tit ni dung ca site s c trnh by k hn trong phn. Trang m u Trang mn hnh lm vic chnh Trang mn hnh hng dn Trang mn hnh cu hnh gim st v iu khin Cu trc ca site

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Trang s 4

Hnh 1 : Cu trc ca site

1.1.1.Trang m u Trang m u s cung cp cc thng tin cn bn nh thi gian, a im ca trm, tn chng trnh, ng thi cng cung cp giao din ngi s dng c th ng nhp vo h thng v t lm c s h thng gim st hot ng ca ngi dng m bo vn bo mt. Trang m u bao gm cc thnh phn sau: Tiu Cc lin kt n cc trang Trang mn hnh lm vic chnh Trang mn hnh hng dn Trang mn hnh cu hnh, gim st v iu khin (yu cu mt khu v/hoc kim sot IP khi truy cp). Cc thng tin chung v d lch mt in, ng ct ca cc ng dy...(thng tin cng cng). Cc thng tin b sung (ngy, gi a phng v quc t), ngy gi cp nht ln cui. 1.1.2. Trang mn hnh lm vic chnh Trang mn hnh lm vic chnh s trnh by phn b dng lgic ca cc trm cc mi lin kt thng tin v dng truyn thng gia cc trm vi nhau (vd: cp quang, in thoi ha tuyn, hay moem...) S phn b ca cc trm lin quan cng c th c trnh by di dng mng li vt l ngha l biu din v tr cc trm theo bng phn b a l vi t l thch hp. T cc trang ny ngi s dng c th truy cp trc tip n trang ch ca cc trm bng cch chn trm tng ng trn mn hnh.

1.1.3. Trang mn hnh hng dn Trang mn hn hng dn s dn n cc trang thng tin trc tuyn v cc thng s c bn ca cc trm, cc thng tin chung (c nh nh v tr a l, phn b ti...) ng thi cng cung cp cc thng tin s dng trang web khai thc d liu v iu khin h thng. 1.1.4. Trang mn hnh gim st v iu khin Trang mn hnh gim st v iu khin s dn n cc trang thng tin tng ng vi cc quyn hn ngi dng khi ang nhp. Cc trang con c chia lm ba nhm chnh tng ng vi ba i tng phc v ca chng trnh. Nhm qun tr v iu khin bao gm cc file phc v vic iu khin v gim st t xa c cu trc tng t nh cu trc ca chng trnh iu khin ti ch (c trnh trong Hnh 2)

Mn hnh thao tc chnh

Mn hnh xem s kin

n bn ghi u (first) n bn ghi k tip (next) n bn ghi trc n bn ghi cui (last) Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc

Ghi ch
M ra ca s mi Thao tc trn ca s hin ti

Mn hnh bo ng

n bn ghi u (first) n bn ghi k tip (next) n bn ghi trc n bn ghi cui (last) Xc nhn bo ng Xc nhn khc phc xong Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc Cp nht hin th iu khin my bin p iu khin my ct iu khin my ct/dao cch ly iu khin dao cch ly Tr v mn hnh chnh Chui iu khin Tr v mn hnh trc iu khin t ng li Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc

Mn hnh thao tc chnh Mn hnh thao tc chnh Mn hnh thao tc chnh Tr v mn hnh chnh Tr v mn hnh trc

Mn hnh chn s

Chn S (110kV, 22KV, 10KV, 6 KV) Xc nhn v chuyn n s chn

n hin I/P/Q Tr v mn hnh chnh Xem th ph ti Tr v mn hnh trc Operator

Hnh 2: Cu trc ca nhm trang phc v qun l v gim st

1.2. Cc dch v site cung cp cho ngi s dng Site cung cp cho ngi s dng cc dch v sau: a ch ca trm trong h thng, cc thng tin ca cc nhn vin cn lin h cng tc trong t chc (tn, chc v, s in thoi...). Thng tin chung v s lm vic ca h thng theo cc cp khc nhau ca ngi truy nhp (v danh, ng k, ngi qun tr) Thng tin thng k v s hot ng ca h thng da trn cc s liu lu tr trong c s d liu (dnh ring cho ngi qun tr hoc ngi iu hnh c ngi qun tr cho php truy cp). Trang mn hnh lm vic chnh ca ngi qun tr cung cp: Khai bo mt ngi iu hnh mi (thm, bt, thay i thuc tnh ca ngi iu hnh ny).. Thay i cc ch hot ng v lm vic t ng ca h thng (v d: gi in, ch lm vic ca cc trm v ng dy). Qun l c s d liu.

uses

Cu hnh

uses uses ng nhp uses Gim st extended Gim st iu khin uses extended iu khin uses Thng tin thng k

uses uses

uses uses Thng tin mt in S liu cc trm khc uses Thng tin ni b

uses

Ngi dng bnh thng (nc danh)

Hnh 3: Tm tt cc chc nng web site cung cp cho ngi s dng 1.3. Duyt site Mt s trnh t duyt site m ta c th k n l: - i vi ngi s dng bnh thng: Trang m u Thng tin mt in Thot Trang m u Cu trc site Thot - i vi ngi vn hnh gim st h thng: Trang m u Trang ng nhp Trang lm vic chnh...Thot
7

Thang m u Trang ng nhp Trang hng dn..Thot Trang m u Trang ng nhp Trang gim st iu khin ... Thot Trang m u Trang ng nhp Trang cu trc ca site ... Thot -... thun li cho ngi s dng ta cn thc hin vic gim st trnh t duyt site ca ngi s dng c th cung cp kh nng tr lui (back) v tin ti (forward). 2. Thit k 2.1. Trang m u

Hnh 4: Trang m u vi thng tin mt in

2.2. Cc trang lm vic chnh Cc trang ny ch c th truy cp c sau khi ngi s dng ng k truy nhp thng qua thao tc ng nhp (log in) vo h thng. Sau khi ng nhp th hot ng ca ngi dng s c xem nh l mt session v c h thng theo di h tr tnh nng tr lui (back) v tin ti (forward). Ti trang lm vic chnh ngi dng c th la chn xem thng tin phn b cc my tnh trong trm di dng cc lin truyn thng Hnh 5 hay phn b a l Hnh 6. T cc trang ny h thng ngi dng c th chuyn nhanh n cc trang thng tin chi tit v/hoc s gim st vn hnh ca cc trm bng cch chn cc biu tng ca cc trm hoc cc thit b tng ng trn mn hnh. Trng thi lm vic ca cc trm cng c th c gim st ti y thng qua m mu ca biu tng (v d: mu tng ng vi s c, mu xanh l vn hnh bng thng, mu vng tng ng vi c thng tin cn ch ,...)

Hnh 5: Trang lm vic chnh vi ni dung l mng in vi cu hnh truyn thng

Hnh 6. Trang m u vi ni dung l mng in vi cu hnh phn b a l

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2.3. C s d liu C s d liu c th c thit k v xy dng da trn cc h qun tr c s d liu thng dng nh MySQL hoc Access. C s d liu s cha cc d liu v hot ng ca cc trm, cc thit b trong trm v cc ng dy lin thng gia cc trm. Ngoi ra c s d liu cn c dng chng ti phn phi cc truyn truy cp v x l tng n CSDL... 2.4. Cu trc phn b ca h thng v phn quyn ca ngi s dng Vic trin khai ci t phc v khai thc d liu c trnh by trong Hnh 7. Ta thy mi trm c ci t mt web server. Web ny s cho php ngi dng truy xut vo cc thng tin khc nhau tu thuc vo i tng s dng. Chng ti phn lm 3 cp s dng nh sau (phn cp da trn vai tr ca cc trm trn h thng): - Cp trung tm iu (s c quyn truy nhp t ch iu khin, vn hnh v khai thc s liu). - Cp ngang hng (cc trm 110KV khc) s c quyn xem v khai thc s dng mt s liu nht nh (ph thuc vo thit k c th). - Cp di thp hn (cc trm 22 KV) s c quyn tham chiu xem mt s thng tin ca h thng. i vi mi loi i tng ny chng ti s thit k trang web ring phc v cho tng loi i tng vi quyn truy nhp c qun l cht ch. Cng qua hnh Hnh 7 ta thy mng c s dng bc tng la gip hn ch cc s xm nhp hp php.

11

Website o (dng ring cho ngi qun l mng)

Trung tm iu (Khai thc thng tin)

Website o (dng cho cc trm 22 KV trc thuc)

Web server

Trm 110 KV khc (Khai thc thng tin)

Database

Trm 110 KV

Cc trm 22 KV (Xem thng tin)

Hnh 7: C ch truy nhp d liu tng qut dng khai thc d liu ca cc trm 110KV C ch kim sot quyn truy nhp s da trn cc k thut m ho km theo yu cu kho cp truyn truy nhp cc trang khai thc d liu khc nhau. M hnh ny c minh ho trong Hnh 8. Ta cng c th kt hp c hai cch, va s dng kho va hn ch quyn truy nhp theo a ch vt l (trnh trng thi d gi danh). V d: vic thc hin quyn ngi qun l ch c th c tin hnh vi kho (password) ca ngi qun l v ngi qun l lc phi s dng my ti trm iu trung tm (IP thc). Vic kim sot ny c thc hin n cp tng web v tng chc nng thuc trang. 2.4.1. Thng tin chung (thng tin cng cng)

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Trang ny c th truy cp t do t bt k my no thuc h thng. N bao gm tt c cc thng tin chung v hot ng ca h thng nh: s trm, lch mt in ca cc vng do cc trm ph trch v l do sa cha.

c qun l bi Web server

Nhm qun tr Cc trang web phc v nhm qun tr Trang ch HTML Trang ch HTML Trang ch HTML

Nhm ngi dng ngang hng

Nhm ngi dng cp di

Cc trang web dng chung cng cng

Cc trang web phc v nhm ngi dng ngang hng

Nhm ngi dng bnh thng Cc trang web phc v nhm ngi dng cp di

Hnh 8: Phn quyn v c ch qun l quyn khai thc d liu i vi cc nhm ngi dng khc nhau

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2.4.2. Thng tin ring Cc trang ny c thit k thnh ba nhm trang chnh xung quanh cc nhm ngi phc v (nhm qun tr, ngi dng ngang hng, ngi dng cp di). Mi nhm ngi dng c mt tp cc quyn thao tc khc nhau trn h thng ng thi cng c mt tp cc quyn chung. V d: ngi qun tr c th thc hin tt c hm chc nng ca nhm ngi dng ngang hng v nhm ngi dng cp di nhng chiu ngc li th khng th. 2.4.3. Thng tin thng k 2.5. Bo mt Vic bo mt c thc hin thng qua vic s dng mt khu v/hoc a IP c nh. iu ny c ngha l vic truy cp web site v cc dch v do website cung cp ch c thc hin nu ngi dng c mt khu tng ng vi tn ngi dng c ng k trong c s d liu ca my ch v/hoc ngi dng ch c th truy cp n web site v cc dch v tng ng t mt my tnh ng vi mt IP c nh c cu hnh trc. 3. Thc hin 3.1. Cc iu kin phn cng v phn mm (d kin) Vic thc hin site c tin hnh trn my Pentiun III 800MHz, h iu hnh Windown XP hoc 2000 (my ch). B son HTML: Editplus v2.11. Hnh nh v trang mn hnh: Photoshop v Macromedia Fash MX. Phn mm lp trnh: Php 4.3.1, html, javascript. C s d liu: MySQL 4.0.12 hoc SQL. 3.2. C s d liu Trong phn ny chng ti s trnh by cc bng c s d liu ch yu v in hnh nhm minh ho cho vic thit k.
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Bng 3.2.1. Bng tng hp bo ng v s kin Bng 1: Danh sch cc Trng hp v dng hin th ca bng tng hp cc bo ng ca mt trm qSelAlmLst Loi Stt Ack? Clear? 7 6 5 4 3 1 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Date Time Tn Abr 22 KV 22 KV 22 KV Relais 7SJ60 7SJ60 DD Be 79 51 52 50 63 7/12/2003 6:15:06 AM 431 7/12/2003 6:12:06 AM 431 7/12/2003 5:20:34 AM 495 7/11/2003 1:02:12 AM T1 7/10/2003 4:54:34 PM 11:20:35 7/10/2003 AM T1 110 KV MBA T1

110 KV 7VH80 81N 110 KV 7SJ60

15

Bng 2: Danh sch cc Trng v dng hin th ca bng tng hp cc s kin ca mt trm qSelEvtLst Stt Date Time Tn Loi thit b My p My p My p My p My p My p My p My p hp bo
16

Cp in p Gii thch ng c OLTC ca MBA b "dng khn cp " ng c OLTC ca MBA b "dng khn cp " ng c OLTC ca MBA b "dng khn cp " Ch iu khin c t ch "bng tay" Ch iu khin c t ch "t ng " OLTC ca MBA b ''gim" OLTC ca MBA b ''gim" OLTC ca MBA c "tng" Thit b c chuyn sang ch "ON''

7/11/2003

6:42:58 PM 6:43:01 PM 6:43:03 PM 6:43:07 PM 6:43:11 PM 6:43:14 PM 6:43:18 PM 6:43:20 PM 6:51:17 PM

T1

bin 110 KV bin 110 KV bin 110 KV bin 110 KV bin 110 KV bin 110 KV bin 110 KV bin 110 KV ct 22 KV

7/11/2003

T2

7/11/2003

T3

4 5 6 7 8 9

7/11/2003 7/11/2003 7/11/2003 7/11/2003 7/11/2003 7/11/2003

T2 T2 T2 T2 T2

TU- My 41

10 7/11/2003 11 7/11/2003

6:51:25 PM 6:51:32 PM

TU- My 41 41 hp bo hp bo TU- My

ct 22 KV ct 22 KV

Thit b c chuyn sang ch "OFF" Thit b c chuyn sang ch ''ON"

3.2.2. Cc bng s liu o lng tc thi ca cc thit th (d liu ng Cc bng s liu ny c trnh by di dng bng v s xut hin khi ngi s dng nhn ln biu tng tng ng ca thit b trn mt trang web. Cc bng s liu ny s xut di dng mt trang web mi dng ca s, cc trang html ny s c to Online vi cc s liu tc thi ly t c s d liu. Cc trng s liu c ln lt trnh by trong cc bng sau: Bng 3: Danh sch cc trng s hin th ca bng thng tin chi tit (thng tin o lng) ca cc my ct. Bng 4: Danh sch cc trng s hin th ca bng thng tin chi tit (thng tin o lng) ca my bin p. Bng 3: Danh sch cc trng s c hin th ca bng thng tin chi tit (thng tin o lng) ca cc my ct Tn trng ID Tn Trng thi thit b Ch iu khin Ch t ng li Dng d liu S nguyn di Chui Boolean Boolean Boolean Ni dung M s thit b Tn thit b ng/ct T ng/bng tay Cho php/khng cho php

17

Bng 4: Danh sch cc trng s hin th ca bn thng tin chi tit (thng tin o lng) ca cc my bin p. Tn trng ID Tn Trng thi thit b Ch iu khin Trng thi OLTC Dng /k OLTC Nu iu p Dng d liu S nguyn di Chui Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean S nguyn Ni dung M s thit b Tn thit b ng/ct Cho php/khng cho php T ng bng tay T ng/Bng tay Nc iu p

Dng trang HTML ca cc bng s liu o lng c trnh by trong cc hnh sau: Hnh 9: Trang HTML hin th thng s ca my ct. Hnh 9: Trang HTML hin th thng s ng ca my ct.

Hnh 9: Trang HTML hin th thng s ng ca my ct


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Hnh 10: Trang HTML hin th thng s ng ca my bin p 4. Ci t v bo tr h thng 4.1. Ci t h thng Vic ci t cc web server s c tin hnh nh sau: Ti mi trm s ci t mt web server km vi mt h c s d liu. Web server ny c nhim v khai thc c s d liu v phc v vic giao in vi ngi truy nhp qua mng cc d liu thuc c s d liu ca trm. My ch thuc cp iu min c th truy cp trc tip n cc trang thuc cc trm ph thuc, lc ny cc trang ca cc trm ph thuc s c xem nh cc trang con (hay cn gi l frame) ca trang web thuc site. Trnh t ci t c th tm tt ngn gn nh sau: - Ci t h thng thu thp d liu, cu hnh gim st v iu khin cc thit b ca trm. Cu hnh c s d liu v cc thng tin cu hnh ca trm (s my ct, m s cc thit b, lin ng...). - Ci t h qun l c s d liu (mySQL hoc SQL).

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- Ci t chng trnh web server (khuyn co nn s dng Apache). - Ci t cc mun phn mm phc v hot ng ca mng (v d Php hay java). - Ci t web site bng cch copy ton b cc file ca website thit k sn cho tng loi trm (trm ton min, trm cao p, trm h p...) - Ci t file cu hnh webserver thch hp. - Chnh nh cc cu hnh bo mt (nu cn). Cu hnh ny bao gm, a ch IP hp l, danh sch ngi dng hp l, quyn v tp cc chc nng tng ng vi tng nhm ngi dng. 4.2.Bo tr h thng Vic thit k cc web site phi c tin hnh vi cc tiu ch cho php m rng v nng cp d dng. Vic kt ni vi cc thng tin thuc c s d liu v tp cc chc nng tng tc vi ngi s dng l c nh nhng cch thc thc hin v giao tip vi ngi dng th cn c thit k sao cho vic thay i v nng cp trong tng lai s c tin hnh mt cch d dng nht. Chnh v vy m chng ti chn cch thit k theo mun chc nng v cu trc phn cp chc nng di dng th mc. Cu trc kiu ny cng to iu kin thun li cho vic qun l quyn truy nhp ca ngi s dng vo tp cc chc nng ca h thng, chng ta cng c cc th mc khc nh images/librairies/style/... tng t nh cc trang web thng dng khc. Vic thit k c khuyn co s dng ti a cc frame v cc style chun iu ny s gim bt cng sc lp trnh, bo dng v bo tr web lite ng thi cng mang li nhng trang web thun thin, n gin, d nm bt xt t gc ngi s dng.

20

Ti liu tham kho 1.Hong Minh Sn, Mng truyn thng cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc k thut, 2001. 2. Nguyn Quang nh, thng tin trong iu kin v bo v h thng in, Lun vn tt nghip cao hc, ngnh Mng v h thng in, HBK H ni, 10-2001. 3. Nguyn Quc Cng, Internet working vi TCP/IP (tp 1: Cc nguyn l, giao thc, kin trc), NXB Gio dc, 2001. 4. Lp trnh ng dng chuyn nghip SQL Server 2000 (tp 1&2), Minh Khai Group. 5. Siem ens, Power System Protection Introduction 6. Cary N. Prague and Michael R. Irwin Access 2002 Bible, Hungry Minds, 2001. 7. Data communications for Instrunmentation and Control 8. Bernard Manouvrier, EAI Intergation des applications dentreprise, Hermes, 2001. 9.Daniel Parrochia, la coneption technologie, Hermes, 1999. 10. Jean-Peau Lemaire, Les Protocoles de reseaux OSI DECnet Phace I Hermes, 1996

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Ti liu tham kho 11. Jean-Pierre Briffaut, Systemes dinformation en gestion industrielle, Hermes, 2000. 12. Mokrane Bouzeghoub, Mireille Jouve, Philippe Puchlippe Pucheral, Le modele relationnel:Algebre, langages, applications, Hermes, 1998 13. Mokrane Gouzeghoub, Mireille Jouve, Philippe Pucheral, Modeles de de stockage it dacces placement, indexation, navigation, Hermes, 1998. 14. Sylvie Laleu-Merviel, la conception en communication methodologie qualite, Hermes, 1997. 15. Genie objet analyse et conception de levolution, sous la idirection de Chabane Oussalah, Hermes, 1999.

22

Ph lc A: Cc d liu ca h thng in 1. Tm tt cc d liu ca h thng in Tn nh ngha c tnh Ghi ch D liu v Nhng iu kin tc thi Cung cp tt c cc d liu thit b D bo v ca h thng v tnh ton trong rle v cc ng dng iu khin t xa liu Mi quyt nh bo v da Phi c thc hin xong trn phn tch d liu thit trong mt chu k thi gian, b yu cu nhanh, tin cy, bo mt D liu o c tnh t cc gi tr Dng bo v, hin th v lng Analog m phng trng cc ng dng khc. C th thi lm vic ca h thng c s dng hin th ti ch hoc t xa. D liu h L phn nh kt qu thc Thng biu din di dng thng ng D iu khin t hin lnh logic trn cc cc bn ghi s kin, tng hp dng d liu khc d liu liu L kt qu ca chc nng Ti ch hoc t xa, t ng x l v tc ng ca ngi hoc do ngi vn hnh. C vn hnh thc hin trong th c nhiu tc thc hin. iu khin Tc iu khin ph thuc nhiu kh nng x l v phn ng x l v phn ng h thng qua ng thng tin.
-A-1-

D liu Mi d liu c s Thng thng l kt qu cc x gim st dng bi HMI hoc l khc. cc thit b xa cho mc ch hin th D liu Phc v cho mc Cung cp cc thng tin v cht giao tip ch phn tch qu lng ca h thng in v hot phn tch thit b D liu L d liu cung cp c th hin di dng mt tp qu trnh cc thng tin v hot hp cc bn ghi s kin, bn ghi ng ca h thng tun t, bn ghi cht lng nng theo thi gian hoc lng v cht lng nng lng qua chui s kin lin v cht lng bo v. Cc thng tip tin ny c s dng bi cc nh phn tch cht h thng. D liu Cc thng s ci t C th ci t ring l hay theo thng s cho thit b ci t nhm. D liu c th c kch thc ln v c truyn thng qua ng thng tin. lng hay cc nh thit k quy hoch pht trin trnh lm vic ca thng thit b. thit b (v d: rle,...)

-A-2-

2. Tm tt cc thng tin c s dng trong cc h thng

Thit b to mi

Tn hiu cnh

To Profiles

Ghi tun t

Trng thi

Lnh iu

Ghi th s

iu khin t ng phn tn v iu khin trm Thit b hin th SCADA bo dng T ng ghi v ghi SER o lng li nhun Truy cp Dial- in/Dial-out Thu thp d liu tun t

o lng

Cht lng

Ghi s c

EMS, Qun l

Thit b to

-A-3-

Cht lng h

3. Tnh u tin ca cc loi d liu trong x l thng tin D liu bo v Mc u tin m thoi n mc ch mt nht) D liu o lng, t ng, Mc hai iu khin, gim st v giao tip hi thoi D in qu trnh v ci t Mc ba (thp nht) (cao (lingle-purpose conversation) m thoi a mc ch (multi-purose conversation)

-A-4-

Ph lc B: Rle Tng hp d liu truyn thng ca rle v thng tin iu khin CHC NNG KT NI Bng th Rle HMI Cng my in Cng Cng modem Cng ng b thi gian Giao Tch cc nng khin Ghi ch: Cc chc nng c ci tin rle s trong gim st iu khin v bo v: i vi chc nng iu khin ghp ni:
-B-1-

D liu t/gian thc

D liu qu trnh

iu khin ti ch

iu khin t xa

t gi tr rle

Thi gian t ng b

hin

ni

PC ti ch

tip h p chc iu

SCADA

- C th hin th trng thi tc ng bng h thng n LEDS v mn hnh, c th truy nhp qua cc phm trn mt rle hoc cc thit b ngoi vi khc. - Ghp ni d dng vi cc thit b gim st nh PC, my in,...ti ch hoc t xa qua Modem. - Kt ni thng tin lin lc kiu Point-to-point to thnh mt thng tin nh l mt SCADA Basic. - Ghp ni vi h SCADA hoc RTU thc hin vic chuyn hoc nhn d liu, gi tr t hoc lnh iu khin ng ct. i vi chc nng bn v: - Tch hp nhiu chc nng bo v. - C kh nng thc hin thay i gi tr t cho bo v theo lch thi gian yu cu nh hng ngy, hng tun... - C kh nng thay i cc chc nng bo v: nhm gi tr t, nhy, c tuyn tc ng... qua cc input nh phn ca rle.

-B-2-

Ph lc C: H thng bus PROFIBUS(1) Cc c tnh in hc ca chun truyn dn RS-485: Chun PROFIBUS theo EN 50170 qui nh cc c tnh in hc v c hc ca giao din RS-585 cng nh ca mi trng truyn thng trn c s cc ng dng c th la chn cc thng s thch hp. Cc c tnh in hc bao gm: Cu trc ng thng kiu ng trc/ng nhnh (trunk-line/drop-lien) vi cc ng nhnh ngn. Cp dn c s dng l i xy xon c bo v (STP) Tr kt thc c dng fail-safe biasing (390-220-390). Tc truyn thng t 9.6 kBit/s n MBit/s. Chiu di dy dn ti a trong mt on mng t 100 n 1200m, ph thuc vo tc truyn c la chn. Quan h gia tc truyn ti v chiu di ti a ca mt on mng c tm tt trong bng sau. S lng ti a cc trm trong mi on mng l 32. C th dng ti a 3 b lp tc l 4 on mng n nng tng s trm ti a ln 127. Ch truyn ti khng ng b v hai chiu khng ng thi. Phng php m ho bit NRZ Tc Chiu di (m) V dao din c hc c quy nh vic s dng gic cm loi Sub-D9 pin cho cc thit b PROFIBUS. Bn cnh , c th dng k thut kp dy n gin ni mng. 9.6 1200 19.2 1200 93.75 1200 187.5 1000 500 400 1500 200 12000 100 (kbit/s)

-C-1-

Ph lc D: Danh sch cc bng v truy vn thuc c s d liu Danh sch cc bng Stt 1 2 3 4 Tn bng tblAlmLst tblBufEqp tblBufForAvgIPQ tblBufMba Ni dung La gi lch s cc bo ng Lu gi cc thng tin ng ca cc thit b trong h thng Lu gi cc thng tin ng phc v vic tnh cc gi tr thng k ca I (A), P (Kw), Q (Kvar). Lu gi cc thng tin ng cha cc d liu trung gian phc v vic gim st tnh trng hot ng ca cc my bin p. 5 tblBufMc Lu gi cc thng tin ng cha cc d liu trung gian phc v vic gim st tnh trng hot ng ca cc my ct. 6 7 8 9 tblBufRx tlbCmdFCap tblCmdFCap Lu gi cc thng tin vng m nhn khi truyn thng phc v. Lu gi cc thng tin cu hnh tnh ca cc my ct trong h thng. Lu gi cc thng tin phc v vic hin th. bo v v s kin, phc v hin th. giao tip ngi my. tblDefProtecByRelais Lu gi cc thng tin lu tr loi Relais cc bo co

-D-1-

10

tblDynCfgEqpDis

Lu gi cc thng tin ng phc v vic hin th cc thit b trn s hot ng ca h thng. Ch lu gi cc thng tin hin th chung ca tt c cc thit b.

11

tblDynCfgMbaDis

Lu gi cc thng tin ng phc v vic hin th ca cc my bin p trn s hot ng ca h thng. Ch lu gi cc thng tin hin th ring ca cc my ct.

12

tblDynCfgMcDis

Lu gi cc thng tin ng phc v vic hin th ca cc my ct trn s hot ng ca h thng. Ch lu gi cc thng tin hin th ring ca cc my ct.

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

tblEvtlst tblFlash0 tblFlash1 tblIdAlm tblIdCmdF tblIdDis tblIdEqp tblIdEqpRelais

Lu gi thng tin ca hin th. Lu gi thng tin phc v vic hin th. Lu gi thng tin phc v vic hin th. Lu gi m s ca cc loi bo ng Lu gi thng tin phc v hin th. Lu gi m s phc v vic hin th. Lu gi m s loi cc thit b trong h thng. Thng tin b sung ca cc loi rle.

-D-2-

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

tbldEvt tblIdFKey tblIdFlash tblIdForm tblIdState tbiEdTension tblIdTpeAr tblIEdTpeCtrl tblIdTpeMba

Lu gi m s c cc s kin c th xy ra. trong h thng Lu gi thng tin phc v vic hin th. Lu gi thng tin phc v vic hin th. Lu gi thng tin phc v vic hin th Lu gi cc m s cc trng thi c th c ca thit b. Lu gi m s cc cp in p ca h thng. Lu gi m s cc cp in p ca h thng. Lu gi m s cc ch iu khin ca thit b. Lu gi m s cc dng ca my bin p.

Danh sch cc truy vn: Stt 1 Tn bng qApp2BuForDay Ni dung Tin hnh cc ng b cn thit phc v vic chuyn s liu lu tr trong vng m d liu trong ngy sng vng m lu tr s liu theo ngy (phc v vic khai thc d liu) 2 3 qCalAvgIPQ qDelBufForAVgIPQ Tnh s liu thng k ca I (A), P (KW), Q (Kvar) Xo vng m d liu phc vic tnh s liu thng k ca I (A), P P (KW), Q (Kvar)

-D-3-

4 5 6 7 8 9

qSelAlmLst qSelCfgItrlLck qSelCfgSys qSelDis qSelDynDatDis qSelEvtLst

Tng hp d liu phc v cc yu cu truy vn danh sch s c. Kim tra cu hnh v truy vn bin ng Tng hp s liu cu hnh tnh ca ton b h thng. Tng hp s liu tnh phc v vic hin th Tng hp cc s liu ng phc v vic hin th Tng hp s liu phc v cc yu cu truy vn danh sch s kin.

-D-4-

Ti liu tham kho

Ti liu tham kho


1. Hong Minh Sn, mng truyn thng cng nghip, NXB Khoa hc k thut 2001. 2. L Tin Vng Nhp mn c s d liu ton h, NXB Khoa hc k thut. 3. Nguyn Quang nh, Thng tin trong iu khin v bo v h thng in, Lun vn tt nghip cao hc, ngnh Mng v h thng in, HBK H Ni, 10-2001. 4. Nguyn Quc Cng, Internet working vi TCP/IP ( tp 1: Cc nguyn l, giao thc, kin trc), NXB gio dc, 2001. 5. Nguyn Th Ngc Mai, Microsoft visial Basic 6.0 & Lp trnh c s d liu, NXB lao ng x hi, 2002. 6. Lp trnh ng dng chuyn nghip SQL Server 2000 (tp 1 &2), Minh Khai group. 7. T hc lp trnh c s d liu vi Visual Basic 6.0 trong 21 ngy (tp 1&2), nh xut bn Gio dc 2001. 8. Siemens, Siprotec 7SJ602, Numerical Overcurrent, Motor and Overload Protection Relay.

-1-

Ti liu tham kho 9. Siemens, Siprotec Multifunction protection with control 7SJ61/7SJ62/7SJ63/7SJ64/7SJ65/sMD63. 10. Siemens, Power System Protection Introduction. 11. Cary N. Prague and Michael R. Irwin, Access 2002 Bible, Hungry Minds, 2001. 12. John Connell, Beginning Visual Basic 6 Database Programing, Wrox Press 1998. 10.Data Communications for Instrumentation and Control. 13. Bernard Manouvrier, EAI Integration des applications dentreprise, Hermes, 2001. 14. Chirstophe Kolski, Interfaces homme-machine application aux systemes industriels complexes, Hermes, 1997 15. Daniel Parrochia, La conception technogie, Hermes, 1999 16. Fancoise Detienne, Genie logiciel et psychologie de la programmation Hermes, Hermes, 1998. 17. Jean-Peau Lemaire, Les protocoles de reseaux OSI et DECnet Decnet Phace V, Hermes, 1996. 18. Jean-Pierre Briffaut, Systemes dinformation en gestion industrielle, Hermes, 1996 19. Joelle Coutaz, Modelisation en Interaction Homme-Machine, cours DEA JSC, 2002 20. Mokrane Bouzeghoub, Mireille Jouve, Philippe Pucheral, Le modele relationnel: Algebre, langages, applications, Hermes, 1998 21. Mokrane BVouzeghoub, Mireille Jouve, Philippe Pucheral, Modeles de stockage et dacces placement, indexation, navigation, Hermes, 1998.

-2-

22. Sylvie Laleu-Merviel, La Conception en communication methodologie qualite, hermes, 1997. 23. Genie objet analyse et conception de levolution, sous la direction de Chabane Oussalah, Hermes, 1999

-3-

PH LC I H thng iu khin LSA SIEMENS Trm 220KV Nam nh

SWITCHYARD

Hnh PL1.1: H thng iu khin v bo v trm 220KV Nam nh 1- Tng qut H thng iu khin v bo v trm 220KV Nam nh c gi l SINAUT LSA, vi h thng ny ta c th thc hin c tt c cc chc nng ca 1 trm phn phi in nng nh: iu khin t xa Telecontrol iu khin ti trm iu khin t ng Gim st cc thit b ti trm

o lng cc thng s Bo v cc thit b... Nh vy l tt c cc chc nng ca mt trm thng thng c tch hp vo trong h thng duy nht, iu ny khin cho cng tc qun l cng nh vn hnh trm tr nn d dng hn, nhanh chng hn v chnh xc hn. 2. Cu hnh ca h thng iu khin v bo v trm: c th tch hp cc chc nng vo mt h thng duy nht ta cn phi c nhng cu hnh ph hp cho tng trng hp c th, nhng thit b phn cng (hardware) v cc phn mm tng ng. Ta xt mt s khi.
Higher-level control system Telecontrol channel Central evaluation station (PCI) Telecontrol channel

6MB511/6MB512 substation control master unit Command initiation, processing and output Station control level Bay control level 6MB520/521 input/output units Command processing and output BM SY
DE* w/o CPU

Central commands 6MB522/523 compact Input/ output units Command processing and output Numerical protection equipment

Switchyard

Hnh PL1.2: Cu hnh h thng iu khin v bo v trm Cu hnh ca h thng iu khin trm nh sau: Cc thit b phn cng Trong h thng iu khin trm c nhng thnh phn chnh nh sau:

Master Unit: l trung tm x l tt c nhng tn hiu s, tn hiu tng t. I/O Unit: l thit b thu nhn v chuyn tt c cc tn hiu gia Master Unit v c thit b chp hnh. Cc rle bo v s: lm nhim v bo v cc thit b trong trm phn phi ng thi cng truyn tn hiu v cho cc I/O Unit, thc hin cc lnh iu khin. Cc thit b chp hnh nh: My ct, dao cch ly, my bin p v.v... Cc thit b ngoi vi: my tnh, my in c kt ni vi Master Unit. y l cc thit b cho ngi vn hnh giao din vi h thng SINAUT LSA qua a ra cc mnh lnh iu khin thch hp. Cc phn mm LSACONTROL: lm nhiu v thc hin cc mnh lch iu khin xue ngi vn hnh cng nh thc hin cc lnh kinh doanh t ng c lp trnh trc v gim st tnh trng cc thit b trong h thng. LSAT OOLS: Lm nhim v thc hin cc mnh lnh iu khin ca ngi vn hnh cng nh thc hin cc lnh kinh doanh t ng c lp trnh trc v khi gim st tnh trng cc thit b trong h thng. LSATOOLS: lm nhim v thit lp cc thng s ca h thng LSADIAG: Kim tra s hot ng ca h thng LSATEST: lm nhim v kim tra phn thng tin gia c thit b trong h thng v gia h thng trm vi trung tm iu (Telecontrol) LSAPROCESS: Lm nhim v phn tch cc hot ng trong h thng. Nguyn tc lm vic v cu to ca phn t chnh: Sau y chng ta xem xt s lm vic ca tng phn t trong h thng. a. Master Unit Nguyn tc lm vic L trung tm iu khin v x l tn hiu c s dng trong cc trm in thc hin nhim v qun l trm theo nhng chc nng nh: Gim st iu khin Truy nhp vo cc phn t trong trm

Lm mt thit b u cui cho Telecotrol System iu khin cc thit b tun t theo cc chc nng logic Thc hin cc s kho lin ng Lu tr cc d liu ca h thng Ch th trng thi ca cc thit b trong h thng Cc thit b khc cn thc hin nhng nhim v khc trong trong h thng (nh cc I/O Unit, rle s...) c ni vi Master Unit theo s hnh tia. Ton b cc s liu, tn hiu trao i vi Master Unit v cc thit b ny c thc hin qua cc cp quang (Fiber Optical Cable) Cu to

Hnh 3.1: Mt trc Master Modul x l: cha CPU v b nh - Kim sot bus truyn d liu - T ng khi ng ton b h thng - Np cc thng s cha trong EPROM cho cc modul khc v cc I/O Unit cng nh cc rle s - Phi hp v gim st tt c cc chc nng trong Master Unit - Kim sot cc thng s v ngy, thng, thi gian trong ton b h thng Modul giao tip SK-A Modul ny c s dng giao tip vi cc I/O Unit khc trong h thng. Mt modul c th kt ni ti 64 Unit. Modul giao tip SK-G Modul dng ni vi my tnh, my in, ta c th ni c 2 my tnh vo Master Unit thng qua cc modul ny

Modul giao tip vi Telecontrol LK Dng cho vic giao tip gia Master Unit vi h thng Telecontrol, modul ny c b x l c lp thc hin nhng nghi thc truyn khc nhau. Modul cha cc a mm FL Cc thng s trong h thng c lu li trn a mm v thng qua 1 modem v phn mm LSAMAAS ta c th tin hnh phn tch cc thng tin lu trn a. Modul ngun Modul ny cung cp cc ngun nui cho ton b Master Unit. I/O Unit Nguyn tc lm vic: Cc I/O Unit l cc thit b trung gian gia Master Unit v cc phn chp hnh trong h thng. Thng thng mi mt i tng cn c bo v v iu khin s c 1 hoc 1 s I/O Unit i km theo v d nh 1 ngn l ng dy, my bin p trong trm v do cc I/O Unit c gn ngay cnh cc rle bo v. Cc I/O Unit lm nhim v thu nhn x l cc tn hiu s, tng t gi cc lnh iu khin. thc hin c nhim v ny mt mt I/O Unit c kt ni vi Master Unit qua cp quang mt khc n c ni vi cc CT, VT, tranducer, rle... Cc tn hiu m I/O Unit thu nhn c s gi n Master Unit x l sau Master Unit s gi li lnh iu khin ti I/O Unit ri ti cc i tng iu khin tng ng.

Cu to

Hnh PL 1.4 Mt trc I/O Unit I/O Unit c cc thnh phn chnh nh sau: Cc u vo s: dng nhn cc tn hiu s nh l cc tip im ch trng thi ca my ct, dao cch ly, v tr nc ca my bin p... Cc i ra s (Relay output): dng truyn lnh ti cc my ct, dao cch ly, my bin p...tng ng Cc u vo tng t: dng nhn tn hiu t CT, VT, tranduce... s dng cho mc ch o lng. Cc cng giao din bng cp quang: ni Master Unit v cc rle s Ngoi ra I/O Unit cng c mn hnh th hin cc thng s o c v HT n LED ch th trng thi tn hiu s tng ng vi v tr ng hay m ca cc thit b. Cc rle s Cc rle bo v s trong h thng ngoi nhim v bo v thit b cn c cc chc nng phi hp vi h thng iu khin : Thc hin cc lnh iu khin Gim st o lng cc i lng in Ghi li s c, s kin truyn v Master Unit My tnh, my in Cc my tnh ny v my in c ni vi Master Unit thg qua cp ni tip (RS232) : Ngi vn hnh c th giao tip c vi h thng khin trm

Theo di cc thng s: Trng thi lm vic ca thit b Pht lnh iu khin thit b Xem xt cc x l s c, s kin iu chnh cc thng s ca thit b khi cn thit... Cc phn mm Kt hp vi phn cng k trn, h thng iu khin v bo v trm cn c nhng phn mm thc hin nhng nhim v khc nhau. Tt c cc phn mm ny u chy trn h iu hnh OS/2 l h iu hnh a nhim c th dng cng 1 lc chy nhiu chng trnh. C nhiu phn mm cho h thng nh l LSACONTROL, LSATOOLS, LSADIAG, LSAEST, LSAPEOCESS. V d sau m t hot ng trc tip dng trong qu trnh iu khin v bo v trm ca LSACONTROL.

Hnh PL 1.5 Giao din mn hnh khi chy LSACONTROL Trn mn hnh th hin s kt ni, trng thi cc thit b trong trm, cc thng s o lng... v ngi vn hnh c th thc hin cc thao tc cn thit trn s ny. Xem xt cc chc nng trong phn mm LSACONTROL

Chc nng iu khin

CONTROL

Hnh PL 1.6: Mnh ho chc nng iu khin ca LSACONTROL thc hin c thao tc iu khin n gin, ng ct dao cch ly hoc my ct nh hnh v th phn mm LSACONTROL phi ln lt qua cc bc sau: Kch hot lnh iu khin C th thc hin lnh c t cc ni khc nhau nh: trung tm iu (remote control), ti trm (local control) v t cc phn t ng. X l lnh Tip theo tng bc kch hot ln l bc x l lnh. Trong bc ny phn mm s kim tra lnh ny c c a ra bi ngi c quyn hn hay khng kim tra cc iu kin lin ng c ph hp hay khng, kim tra trng thi cc thit b... a lnh iu khin n cc u ra a cc lnh iu khin ti cc u tng ng Gim st v kt thc lnh Sau khi lnh iu khin c a ra cc u ra phn mm s tip tc gim st vic thc hin cc lnh iu khin thng qua cc tn hiu phn hi

(feeback signa) v thi gian (time out) nu cn thit c th kt thc lnh ngay lp tc. Thc hin 1 chui lnh Ta c s sau:
BB1 BB2

Q1

Q2 Qb1

Q0 Qb2

Q9 Q8

Feeder n

Hnh PL 1.7: Minh ho khi LSACONTROL thc hin chui lnh Trong khi vn hnh gi s mun thay i phng thc vn hnh nh: thay i thanh ci, a ng dy vo vn hnh hoc a ra... Lc ny thay v a vo tng lnh mt, c th n nh chc nng ch cho 1 lnh thc hin 1 chui lnh theo yu cu. Vic thc hin cc lnh trong chui lnh cng s c tin hnh 1 cch tun t nh trnh by trn.

Tnh nng ca chui lnh gip ngi vn hnh theo tc mt cch nhanh chng hn ch ti a nhng sai st c th xy ra. Chc nng hin th Phi hp vi chc nng iu khin l chc nng hin th, n gip ngi vn hnh theo di cht ch cc trng thi lm vic ca thit b, qu trnh thc hin cc lnh thao tc cng nh cc thng s vn hnh. Cc tn hiu cn thit cho chc nng hin th cng c ly thng qua cc I/O Unit, cc rle s v bn thn cc thit b. Trn mn hnh hin th c dng nh sau:

Hnh PL 1.8 Mn hnh vn hnh Chc nng ghi nhn cc s c s kin Chc nng ghi nhn cc s c s kin gip ngi vn hnh lun lun gim st c nhng tnh trng bt thng ca cc thit b trong h thng, nh gi c mc hng hc, phn tch nguyn nhn c phng n x l thch hp. Cc bm ghi s c c dng nh sau:

Hnh PL 1.9: Mn hnh s kin (Event Reporl) Kt lun H thng iu khin v bo v ti trm 220KV Nam nh l 1 h thng hin i ln u tin c a vo vn hnh. H thng ny h tr ti a cho ngi vn hnh v qun l trm, gim thiu cc sai st trong thao tc, thng bo kp thi cc h hng xy ra, lu tr chi tit y cc s c xy ra c th phn tch nh gi sau ny. Thm vo h thng cn c thit k theo cu trc m c th d dng cp nht thm cc thit b mi trong tng lai cng nh sn sng ni mng ln trung tm iu quc gia trong h thng SCADA. Qua qu trnh vn hnh n nh trong thi gian va qua h thng iu khin v b v ti trm 220KV Nam nh hot ng tt dp ng c ch tiu k thut. Tuy nhin trong thit k h thng thng tin, ch c mt h thng chnh khng c h thng d phng, iu khin h thng ph thuc hon ton thao tc trn my tnh, khng c h thng iu khin song song bng kho thao tc, nn c nhng s c do nhng nguyn nhn khch quan v mi trng l nh hng n tin cy ca h thng.

PH LC 2 H thng SCADA iu h trung ng A0: RANGER- Bailey (ABB) Hnh PL2.1 minh ho s khi ca h thng. Thit b phn cng Bao gm cc thit b chnh sau: 1. Server ng dng RANGER-RAS 2. Server thu thp d liu RANGER-RDAS 3. Server thng tin my tnh RANGER-ICCP 4. Server d liu qu trnh 5. Server m phng thc thi DTS (Dispatchers Training Simulator) RANGER-DTS 6. Server mn hnh ngi /my MMC 7. Mn hnh lm vic WC 8. Mn hnh m phng h thng DTS 9. Mn hnh phc v nhim vn bo dng, pht trin ng dng ... 10. Mn hnh phc v tc v vn phng, qun l mng WAN ... 11. H thng mng LAN h tr bi giao thc TCP/IP 12. Cc cng WAN phc ph pht trin m rng trong tng lai H thng ny u c xy dng trn cu trc c h thng c d phng song song (Primary & Backup) m bo tin cy v an ton cao M t chc nng cc thit b. Server ng dng RANGER RAS L tri tim ca h thng RANGER - Trm duy tr CSDL: m bo ng b d liu n h thng - H tr cc hnh thc CSADA v chc nng ng dng pht trin trong h thng in. - Qun l, iu khin cu hnh v khi ng li h thng. - H tr cc chc nng qun l cu hnh vi 2 h thng: h thng chnh v h thng d phng vi ch lm vic Mirroring - d phng song song.

Server thu thp d liu RANGER RAS Lp t gia RAS v cc b RTU, cung cp cc chc nng dch v la chn d liu tr RTU. - Kim tra, xc nhn nhng d liu c gi tr cho h thng.

- Thng tin cc lnh gim st n RTU - Nhn v kim tra phn hi cc lnh iu khin gim st. - Hin th, iu khin ng ni thng tin gia RTU v RAS + m bo cc chi nhnh thng tin lin tc n RTU + Lp cc bn ghi, thng k li ca h thng + T ng chuyn thng tin qua nhng nhnh thng tin vi RTU b l i H tr bi 2 b server chnh v d phng, mt h thng ng b c lu li di dng: + Trng thi + Gi tr tng ng +Gi tr di dng tch lu + D liu c to ra di dng lin kt trn c s d liu, nn chng la theo cc thut ton lu li vi kch thc nh nht. Cc trm khch (Historian Client cung cp giao din MMI n chc nng qu trnh, cc trm ch d phng lin kt vi nhau trong mt mng LANS d phng). Server ICCP, LAN, WAN Phc v chc nng EMS theo thi gian thc trong h thng in, v m phng ti to lm vic ca h thng, hng dn cho ngi vn hnh v cc nh phn tch phn ng ca h thng trong nhng trng hp tng t, hin th biu din v hng dn cc th tc theo tc. Cc chc nng ca h thng SCADA/EMS chy trn DTS nh: - T ng iu khin t my pht - Tnh ton hiu qu kinh t - Lp k hoch - D bo nhu cu ti - X l cc tnh th h thng - iu khin v ti u cc lung cng sut - Tnh ton cc h s cht trong h thng (Fenalty Factor) - Tnh ton ngn mch h thng - V chc nng SCADA c bn khc

Cc h thng mn hnh lm vic Workstation Console, Maitain, Engineering, WAN communication Cung cp cc giao din ngi dng ca h thng RANGER, to kh nng lu chn phng thc bo v v iu khin h thng, cung cp nhiu dch v ng dng pht trin khc... Cu trc phn mm RANGER Cung cp chc nng SCADA v h tr cc chc nng pht trin ng dng trong h thng in theo quan im cu trc. - C nhiu trung tm x l phn tn - C nhiu tc v JOBs chy trn mt b x l trung tm Kh nng khai thc trn h thng ny ti Vit Nam - H thng SCADA cc iu min v ang hon thin lp t, cung cp d liu v thc thi hot ng ton din trn ton h thng ln.

PH LC 3 Thit k cc h thng iu khin v bo v trm bin p trong tng lai Qu trnh ci tin khng ngng ca cng ngh sn xut v cu trc sn phm, c bit lin tc ra i cc th h rle s, thit b iu khin t ng, phn mm ng dng, v cng ngh thng tin pht trin vi tc nhanh, lun t cho ngi thit k v s dng cn c kin thc v d on chnh xc mc pht trin trong tng lai. Nhc li mt s yu cu c coi l nguyn tc bt bin ca thit b v h thng iu khin, bo v trong h thng in phi tho mn nhng i hi sau y: Tnh tin cy Tnh tc ng Tnh chn lc nhy Tnh kinh t Quan im xy dng cu trc h thng in da trn h thng thng tin (trnh by trong chng 4): trm bin p tng lai c xy dng theo nh hng quan im my tnh ho theo hng qun l v iu khin phn tn. Hng ti cc mc tiu sau: Ci thin nng cao tnh nng bo v trong: tnh chn lc, tc ng nhanh, v tin cy, nhy ca bo v (tnh cht ca bo v h thng in theo nhng i lng dng, p, nhit , p sut) theo cc nguyn tc bo v khun mu nh bo v khong cch, lo lch, qu dng, p, hng cng sut... nng cao cht lng bo v, trong cng i tng bo v c th tng tin cy, tnh chn lc, tnh tc ng nhanh... qua vic kt hp c nhiu chc nng bo v chnh v d phng c sn trong mt rle. Ci thin chc nng iu khin t ng: c hiu nh tng kh nng an ton trong thao tc vn hnh, gim thiu cc thi gian khc phc s c v phc hi nh xy dng mt trnh t thao tc hp l, hng dn chuyn gia v gim st cho nhn vin vn hnh phn ng ng v an ton trong cc ch ny.

Ci thin tnh nng trong qun l, gim st: m rng phm vi qun l, gim st: - a s gim st theo di t cp xung cc thit b, n tng my bin p, l ph ti trung p. - Kh nng gim st ti ch hoc t xa. (t xa c hiu nh t cc cp cao hn). T ng trong theo di, gim st lp k hoch sa cha bo dng nh k. - Nhiu i tng c th khai thc ngun d liu phc v cho nhiu mc ch khc nhau thng qua vic m rng thng tin, ng dng cc thng tin vn phng. V d: i tng ch On-line trn mng Internet, v cc trang Web... Mt mc tiu rt quan trng na l tnh kinh t th hin trong vic gim gi thnh tng th cho mt h thng c hiu bao gm c gi thnh thi cng lp t, chuyn giao hng dn s dng v bo dng thay th nh k. V d: kh nng linh ng lp t c th hiu nh vic lp t cc m un hay cc trm di ng, ni ghp v th nghim a vo lm vic h thng iu khin v bo v (qua cc ch tiu thi gian lp t tnh bng ngy, bng gi), sn c cc thit b thay th d phng tng thch... c bit vic tn hnh th nghim v ci t thng s bo v trc khi a vo lm vic c th thc hin t xa qua h thng thng tin ph thng. t c yu cu v tnh nng ca h thng cp trn th mc tiu u tin l pht trin tnh nng v phm vi hot ng ca rle s trong mi trng trm in. Rle s thc t ang pht trin theo hng: Mt rle c th thit k linh ng, a dng bng vic la chn cu hnh trn t hp cc modul chc nng iu khin v bo v, a ng dng hn (v d nh mt s loi rle ca ABB: th h RET, TEL 5xx... Scheider: SEPAM 2000), la chn v khai bo cu hnh trong phn mm ci t lp thm modul trn frame ca rle khi cn thm chc nng. Trao cho rle vai tr thng tin cao hn (nh b s l thng tin trm) Fault Recorder, b x l v truyn thng tin (communication Switch, RTU), v b iu khin c th lp trnh c (PLC) qua vic tng tc x l ca CPU, tng dung lng b nh, kt hp tnh nng ca cc module thng tin c sn trong rle.

Nguyn l, cu to ca rle s mi khng khc nhiu vi th h rle v ang c sn xut. im nng cao ca ni ch l vic thc hin ghp nhiu rle s vi nhau to thnh mt khi cc module s dng mt ngun thng s (DAU) c bin i t cc gi tr tc thi u vo, gim bt s lp li ca modul ny khi thc hin mi chc nng bo v c lp. Thm cc modul thng tin giao thc mnh nhm tng kh nng v vai tr trong thng tin ca chng. M hnh h thng thit b trm m bo nhng yu cu sau: M hnh thit k iu khin trm phi c ng, gn nh trong cu trc, th hin trong: + Kch thc ca h thng iu khin trm nh gn v khng gian, d sa cha, gim thiu vic u dy, cu hnh gn nh, mch lc, thun tin cho vic gim st bo dng nh k. + Qu trnh t thit k, la chn thit b lp t nhanh chng - Thun li cho vic m rng trong tng lai, tng thch ghi ghp ni vi h thng c v mi.

Hnh PL 3.1 M hnh h thng iu khin trm nh bng my tnh

Hnh PL 3.2 M hnh t iu khin v u ni trong phng iu khin trm nh

My tnh ho trong iu khin trm in nh: Ti cc trm nh, cho php iu khin khng i hi cao nh cc trm phn phi phc hi s c do mt iu khin khng i hi cao nh cc trm phn phi ln (220KV...) ch thit lp kh nng iu khin s tp trung trn mt mn iu khin hin th ca my tnh trung tm. Do vy khng yu cu lp t cc Panel iu khin song song dng kho ch ng, cc truyn thng trong phng iu khin (Indoor Panel) C th s dng cc b nh ca my tnh thng mi (PC), hoc cng nghip (IPC) lp thnh c s d liu mc trm... Vi gi thnh r, d thay th. Mi thit b thnh phn u c kh nng giao tip my tnh (xch tay) qua phn mm ring. c bit, mc tiu chung ca hng thit k l: M rng v tng kh nng thng tin xung cp trm, l ph ti. Tng tnh lin kt ca iu khin trm trong h thng in ln. Tnh kh thi ca thit k trn l hon ton thc t v s ph bin trong tng lai gn. Chnh v n da trn cc c s hin thc: Mi trng v h tng cng ngh thng tin ni chung v thng tin d liu ni ring, m thit b iu khin t ng cng nghip, cng nghip my tnh hin pht trin nhanh chng. Hnh 5.1 Th hin m hnh mt h thng iu khin, bo v (va v nh) c lp t v lm mt trong nhng hng pht trin trong tng lai. Thnh phn thit b PC (IPC): s dng cc PC bn thng dng (c th s dng PC cng nghip nu c yu cu cao hn) PLC: s dng PLC ca cc hng quen dng: SIMATIC S7 (SIEMENS), GE Fanuc (Genearal Elechtric USA)... cng cc modul thng tin nu c yu cu mt h iu khin t xa qua thng tin tc cao

B x l tn hiu analog chung v rle s a chc nng (nhiu modul chc nng), rle s (vi chc nng bo v l ng dy trung p) ca t hp b ng dy ph ti. Mng LAN h tr TCP/IP cho mng ni b tc cao (10MBs), cc ni IEA-232, 485, cp quang: Cc mng thng tin cng nghip ph thng, cc giao thc chun ph bin nh gii thiu trn. H thng ngun t dng AC (UPS), DC H thng cc thit b th cp c iu khin: Bin i (CT, VT...), chp hnh (rle u ra, my ct, dao cch ly, qut my MBA, OLTC, thit b bin i nhit , m, p sut..., t hp b chung p phn phi... cng vi kho iu khin bng tay ti ch), h thng o lng t xa vi chnh xc cao, bo ton v bo mt knh thng tin ring. Hnh 5.2 Minh ho thit k kch thch lp t t iu khin, bo v. M t vai tr ca mi thit b trong s trn DAUs: (Data Acquistion Units) To mt ngun cung cp thng s tng t lin tc cho nhiu chc nng: n nhiu module rle bo v, cung cp cho thng tin o lng trn mn hnh hoc t xa. Lm vic vi cc u vo l digital Input v analog Input. Thit b ny bao lun c chc nng ca h transmitter s. c h tr phn cng: C cc CPU thc hin nhiu x l v truyn d liu tc cao Modul rle s Thc hin cc chc nng bo v truyn thng, thc hin ci t qua my tnh trung tm, lu li d liu s c v qu trnh truyn cho my tnh, lin lc trc tip vi DAU nhn cc thng tin gi tr tc thi x l nhanh theo chc nng bo v... Hp b rle s c Main CPU qun l trao i gi tr tc thi vi DAU, qun l cu hnh thc hin giao tip vi thit b ngoi vi khc nh PC,my in lp trnh cm tay... ng thi c mn hnh v phm chc nng c th thc hin ci t bng tay v theo di hot ng ca rle. Trn mi modul lm vic theo chc nng bo v ring c h thng n LED tu t hin th tnh trng v tc ng theo chc nng trn. Ngoi ra cn c

cc modul I/O: digital Input, Relay Output h tr mt s chc nng logic ca rle v cch ly vi thit b khc v phng din in p lm vic. Mt s rle th h mi (nh RET512 V2.xx...-ABB) l ghp ni ca DAU +Modul bo v + Modul thng tin (cp quang +RS 232, 485). H thng rle l phn phi trung p cng c thit k cho chc nng iu khin ng ct (nh 7SJ531 SIEMENS), thch hp cho kt ni so BUS (RS485) thun tin trong vic m rng thm l ng dy v ch yu cu truyn thng tc thp hn. PCL Cc PCL vi kh nng tung bnh c th m nhn chc nng thc hin gim st iu khin lin ng, logic toan ton trm, nhin v thc hin cc lnh iu khin t xa qua ng thng tin hoc t mn hnh my tnh i ng ct hoc khi ng cc thit b s cp. Ngoi ra PLC nhn tn hiu Digital Input t trng thi ca thit b v Analog Input, x l c cp thp hn nh nhit : du, mi trng, p sut: GAS, du tn hiu ch th my bin p, cht lng ngun AC, DC t dng... Ngoi ra c th la chn PLC Master, vi CPU c kh nng v tc x l nhanh hn, cng cc modul thng tin, v b nh ln phc v cho cc mc ch thong tin tc cao. C nhng lp chng trnh phc v nhiu mc ch, chy trn h iu hnh a nhim nh Microsoft Windows NT/Windows 95 hoc UNIX... mn hnh hin th iu khin di dng ca s cps cc Menu t chc dng Pull down Menu. H thng phn mm phc v cc i tng sau: - i tng DAU: thu thp thng tin gi tr o lng t DAU - i tng thu thp d liu - i tng lp bo co hin th (hin th v in n cc bo co)

- i tng truyn tin ln iu cp trn theo knh thng tin (Modem) - i tng qun l cc c s s liu qu trnh vn hnh, s kin, s c... - i tng lp cc trang hin th iu khin v gim st (bao gm cc trang Busbar, Trend, Login...) - Ngoi ra cn mt s chng trnh pht trin ng dng khc H thng thit b mng thng tin LAN, WAN Ngun t dng DC, AC (UPS) cho h thng my tnh v t dng trm. Cc thit b thihnh th cp: mi thit b c th ng ct qua rle Output nhn lnh t PLC v rle bo v. Ngoi ra theo yu cu to, mi thit b u c th thc hin ngay ti ch tren thit b phc v cho ng ct th nghim v khn cp. Cc thit b tu chn nh: My tnh xch tay, modem, h thng ng b thi gian thc GPS cng cng ng b thi gian IRGIB Time, h thng n v nt iu khiu ging vi panel mi trng iu khin truyn thng (thit b ny ni vi Digital I/O ca PLC nu yu cu...) H thng cng t o lng c knh thng tin ring (hoc thng qua PLC nhm c tnh bo ton, lin tc v tin cy trong o m kinh doanh) c im ni bt ca thit k - Gim s thit b: Gim s Modul analog khi thiu nhiu chc nng cng khai thc BUS s liu (tc thi) lm gim s mch CT, VT... - m bo tnh tc ng nhanh khi c s c, nhng chc nng ny do Modulers rle bo v thc hin. - Thc hin cc s logic t ng iu khin ng ct bng tay t xa thng qua PLC, nhng chc nng ny vi trm in nh khng i hi tnh tc thi cao nh iu khin t xa ca cc trm in v nh my in ln trong ng dng ng ct ho h thng sau s c v iu chnh cng sut t my pht (EMS)...

- Mc quan trng (vai tr phn phi ca trm nh trong s h thng in ln), tnh hnh kinh t v tin cy yu cu nm trong phm vi chp nhn c. V vy khng cn phi c nhng h thng iu khin d phng (t ng chuyn song song khi mt h c s c vi trng hp hu hng b iu khin PC, PLC, hoc hng mng thng tin), v n khng nh hng dn tc ng nhanh ca bo v. - Th hin y chc nng ca h iu khin v qun l phn tn, im nt chuyn gia trong h thng ln. - m bo c tnh kinh t trong: Gi thnh lp t, gim thiu c khi lng v qun l phn tn, im nt thi cng ca cng trnh. Gim tiu th in nng t dng, khong gian lp t Thun tin trong qun l gim st v vn hnh y cc thit b d phng, thay th v kh nng m rng trong tng lai - So vi mt s m hnh thit k SCADA trm nh khc, mc ch ch yu ch to ra v khc thc c s d liu xy dng mt dng hot ng ca h thng SCADA trm, thc hin trn c s cc Transmitter s thng minh kt hp vi my vi tnh, trong thit k ny vi s c mt ca PCL s h tr ti a thc thi iu khin logic trm ti ch v t xa theo mng thng tin tc c cao, nng cao hot ng, tng tnh lin kt ca trm trong s iu khin mt h thng in ln.