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IMPACT OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ON ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS AND ITS EFFECT ON EMPLOYMENT.

TABLE OF CONTENT Title page Approval page Dedication Abstract Acknowledgement Table of contents List of figures

Chapter one 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 State of the problem 1.3 Objectives of the study 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Scope and limitations of the study

1.6 Research Questions 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter two 2.0 Literature review 2.1 Some applications of computer

technology in Nigeria 2.2 Union Response to the technological

changes 2.3 Implications of technological changes on employees 2.4 Specific implication of computer

application to employment.

Chapter three 3.0 Research methodology

3.1 Research methodology used 3.2 Description of Respondents 3.3 Determination of sample size 3.4 Sources of Data 3.5 Methods of investigation

Chapter four 4.0 Presentation, analysis and

interpretation of data 4.1 Data analysis

Chapter five 5.0 Summary of findings, conclusion and

recommendation 5.1 Summary of findings 5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation Bibliography Appendix a. b. c. Survey questionnaire Interview questionnaire Chi-square distribution table

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Days are when most accounting operations and decisions that have to be made on or from them are on first hand basis. This is because accounting operators and decision makers are in close contact and with as such such, data

accounting collected,

operations analysed and

interpreted

from such operations for decision making.

Today,

as

company

and

educational

operations expand in size and complexity, company executives grow further removed

from

first

hand

contact

with

business

scenes. They are to rely increasingly on second hand at information the about what is of

happening business

various

stages

operations2,

vis-à-vis

research

and development, production, marketing and consumption of goods and services. Since decisions executives that are have of to be made by

profound

consequences

and have to be based on highly fragmented and typically tenous information, then it is of great importance that such secondhand information is from a very accurate and reliable sources3.

According

to

A.$.

fapohunda,

to

remedy

these accurate information difficulties in 1963, twenty sears – two the began establishing computer unites their centers of

regional entire

covering

states

America4. initially, the regional computer systems processed customers credit

accounts and general accounting data.

Later,

merchandising from system

and were

inventory established

information

to provide information that the business accounting are also world and business operations their 6 by

busy and

expanding bases

technological

industrial

breaking into new grounds and improving in

existing computers.

ones

through

the

use

of

With the introduction of computer to many business areas that applications, involve those business which

repeated

tasks

are often monotonous and fallible to human errors (cash, inventory control, payroll

and etc) are increasingly being simplified accurately by combining simplicity and the of cost, use, of and

effectiveness, efficiency, the

reliability to

accuracy analyze for

computer data

obtain,

interpret business

information

efficient business in size,

decisions. being

Nigerian to grow

organizations

business

operations

and

processes

become

increasingly complex, hence computers are being rapidly introduced to cope with the overwhelming growth. computer demands the of business and of

Though to many

introduction of

facets

business

operations is a welcome idea, its use is further implicated on accounting system

and as such organizations need to strike a balance manually limit between accounting so as to areas to be or

operated the

control

menance

associated

with

unemployment.

Some of the business operations to which computer introduced;-7 Printing graphic designs of has been successfully

complicated nature. Payroll system. Billing system. Predict election result. Mark examination results such as

JAMB and WAEC. Control inventories. Predict performance of an aircraft or missile still. On drawing boards.

-

To

calculate the

critical path

of

most efficient assignment of troops or problems and so on. It therefore becomes changes important such as that the

technological

introduction of computers in organizations be carefully evaluated so that the gains in technical efficiency are not made at the expense of of the well-being In of and the the to

integration circumstances, implication accounting

employees.8. then a study

of

computer of

introduction

system

business

operations

is not only timely but mandatory so as to avoid some of the problems associated with technological changes in organizations.

This research is however, limited to the implication accounting using A.G. of computer of introduction to

system

business and Pak

operations – Micro model

Leventis as

Computer

Centre

computerized

organizations.

1.1(a) LEVENTIS

HISTORICAL PLC AND

BACKGROUND PAK-MICRO

OF

A.G.

COMPUTERS

INTERNATIONAL LTD. A.G. Leventis in (Nigeria) 1958. and This is PLC company on was went the

incorporated public in

1978,

quoted

Nigeria Stock Exchange.

It

provides and

properties, share

company

secretarial

registration

services. Industrial and public relations services, legal services, financial

management and other services to all the companies under the group.

This

company

has

an

ultra data

modern

and

functional

electronic

processing

centre in Lagos where most of the group’s data are processed with an “OLIVETTI SP 600 Computer” which located of has a at Iddo network of

terminals

various House Head

departments/companies

Office data input and output. Some of the areas of computer application include

Accounts Receivable, Inventory and General Ledger package used by A.G. Leventis and company (Nig) PLC, Leventis Technical PLC.

There is payroll system for the staff and all managers in the group. Other areas of computer application include inventory,

billing and share registration.

Leventis stores – formerly a legal entity is now a division PC of A.G. Leventis and

company merger

(Nig) in

after This

the

successful has an

1995.

division

“Olivetti SP 600 computer located at Malu Road, Apapa which handles the inventory

control of Leventis stores throughout the

country as well as the account receivable and general ledger of leventis stores.

Pak – Micro International Ltd is a group name with Data Training Institute and

Master Maintenance Under it. It has its Headquarters at Lagos, 77 Ikorodu Road,

Fadeyi. Regional office in Enugu, 31 Ogui Road, Enugu.

Paks

Micro

specializes

in

computer

sales, installation, maintenance, account receivable, registration, development and inventory training Bureau services. and share software Because

of the nature of its business, the company

has

the

following

sections

sales,

maintenance and bureau services, software development laboratory, training section

(DPI). Each section has its own manager. The master maintenance is a civil Engineer contracting firm with its General Manager.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The importance of personnel of an in the

accounting

section

organization

cannot be over emphasized especially when one remembers the the facts that these from

personnel

support

organization

its small scale to the large scale stage when it begins to introduce computers to many of its hitherto manual operations.

However,

an

organization

has

the

obligation of profit making and as such promptness speed, cost of information, accuracy, prime

effectiveness,

becomes

factors to the organizations.

The problem of this study is therefore to find out whether or not the introduction of computer technology to accounting

systems of business operations has reduced the output of the accounting sections at A.G. Leventis PLC and Pak – Micro computer centre.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this research work is to find out and evaluate the implication of computer sections introduction of business to Accounting with

operation

particular reference to A.G. Leventis PLC and Pak – Micro International as some of the largest organizations in Nigeria

today.

The study will also attempt to find out the efficiency and effectiveness of such application to overall management

capabilities in decision making.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This

research

work of one

provides of the

a

clear social on

understanding implications accounting obtained

of

computer

application

system. be

The to

information management,

will

useful

consultants, students, institute of

about

unions,

professional, investors, training

shareholders, higher learning,

managers, economist, the government and so on.

The

study

will

also

be

significant

to

other organizations willing to computerize their accounting operations as well as to A.G. Leventis Plc and Pak – Micro computer centre.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY For the purpose of this study, the impact of computer technology on accounting

system will in scope be limited to A.G. Levenits and Pak – micro Computer. Both of them are of Enugu Branch. This is because of it’s and many computerized makes application for better

areas study.

therefore

The

researcher

encountered

some

problems

which stood as limitations to this study. Such problems include, time available for this study, time to generate primary data from such large organizations. Other

limitations include the rigor of having to move around Enugu and also problem of

combining, course work, research work and a full time job among other things.

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The following research questions form the basic postulate of the study:1. Has computer introduction had any

impact on accounting system? 2. Has computer introduction made the accountant’s job easier? 3. Has more computer introduction provided with

accounting

information

same staff?

4.

Has computer introduction made the storing and retrieval of accounting information faster.

5.

Has computer introduction made the accountant more efficient?

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