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15

ACTIVITATEA NTREPRINDERII

15.1 Operatorii economico-sociali activi din economia naional, pe clase de mrime 15.2 ntreprinderile active, pe activiti ale economiei naionale 15.3 ntreprinderile active, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe clase de mrime 15.4 Operatorii economici noi i activi din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii, pe forme juridice 15.5 Concentrarea ntreprinderilor, pe activiti ale economiei naionale, n anul 2009 15.6 ntreprinderile active, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe forme juridice 15.7 ntreprinderile active, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i forme de proprietate, dup natura capitalului social 15.8 ntreprinderile active mici i mijlocii din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii, pe activiti ale economiei naionale 15.9 Ponderea personalului din ntreprinderile active mici i mijlocii n personalul total al ntreprinderilor din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii, pe activiti ale economiei naionale 15.10 Ponderea cifrei de afaceri realizat de ntreprinderile active mici i mijlocii n cifra de afaceri a ntreprinderilor din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii, pe activiti ale economiei naionale 15.11 Principalii indicatori economici i financiari ai ntreprinderilor, pe clase de mrime i forme de proprietate 15.12 Cifra de afaceri pentru ntreprinderile cu activitate principal de industrie i construcii, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe forme de proprietate 15.13 Cifra de afaceri pentru ntreprinderile cu activitate principal de comer, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe forme de proprietate 15.14 Cifra de afaceri pentru ntreprinderile cu activitate principal de servicii de pia prestate n principal pentru populaie, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe forme de proprietate 15.15 Cifra de afaceri pentru ntreprinderile cu activitate principal de servicii de pia prestate n principal pentru ntreprinderi, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe forme de proprietate 15.16 ntreprinztorii privai, pe activiti 15.17 ntreprinderile cu activitate financiar, bancar i de asigurri 15.18 Instituiile administraiei publice, pe tipuri 15.19 Organizaiile administraiei private, pe tipuri Teritorial 15.20 Unitile locale active din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii, n profil teritorial, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe clase de mrime, n anul 2009 15.21 Cifra de afaceri a unitilor locale active din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii, n profil teritorial, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe clase de mrime, n anul 2009 15.22 Investiiile brute i nete ale unitilor locale active din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii, n profil teritorial, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe clase de mrime, n anul 2009 15.23 Personalul unitilor locale active din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii, n profil teritorial, pe activiti ale economiei naionale i pe clase de mrime, n anul 2009

SURSA DATELOR
Cercetri statistice: Ancheta structural n ntreprinderi i alte cercetri realizate de Institutul Naional de Statistic privind activitatea ntreprinderilor din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii; Registrul statistic al ntreprinderilor, gestionat de Institutul Naional de Statistic. Surse administrative: Ministerul Finanelor Publice, pentru datele din Registrul Fiscal, pentru datele din bilanurile contabile ale firmelor, pentru datele privind impozitarea veniturilor persoanelor fizice i asociaiilor familiale, precum i pentru datele privind statele de funciuni ale unitilor bugetare; Oficiul Naional al Registrului Comerului, pentru datele privind structura capitalului social; Autoritatea pentru Privatizare i Administrarea Participaiilor Statului, pentru datele privind ntreprinderile privatizate; Banca Naional a Romniei, pentru datele privind situaia societilor cu activitate bancar; Alte ministere i organizaii neguvernamentale, pentru structura privind mrimea i activitile ntreprinderilor din subordine.

DATA SOURCE
Statistical surveys: Structural business survey and other surveys carried out by the National Institute of Statistics on the activity of industry, construction, trade and other services enterprises; Statistical business register managed by the National Institute of Statistics. Administrative sources: Ministry of Public Finances, for data from Fiscal Register, for data on firms balance sheets, data on income taxation for natural persons and family associations, as well as for data on the functions roll of budgetary units; National Office of Trade Register, for data on social capital structure; Authority for State Assets Privatisation and Management, for the data on privatised enterprises; National Bank of Romania, for the data situation of banking companies; Other ministries and NGOs, for the structure data on size and activity of subordinated enterprises.

PRECIZRI METODOLOGICE
Operator economic reprezint organizaia (pluridisciplinar sau unipersonal) ce poate fi o persoan fizic/juridic creat pentru a desfura activiti definite n baza Legii nr. 15 / 1990, a Legii nr. 31 / 1990 cu modificrile ulterioare i a Ordonanei de Urgen a Guvernului nr. 44 / 2008. Operator social reprezint organizaia (pluripersonal sau unipersonal) cu personalitate juridic, creat pentru a desfura o activitate dedicat interesului social. Unitate legal reprezint orice operator economic sau social care dispune de un patrimoniu propriu, poate s ncheie n nume propriu contracte cu teri i s-i apere interesele n justiie - are personalitate juridic. Unitile legale sunt fie persoane fizice autorizate, ntreprinderi individuale, ntreprinderi familiale (n calitatea lor de ntreprinztori), fie persoane juridice. Registrul Statistic (REGIS) reprezint un instrument statistic de eviden a datelor de identificare i a unor indicatori economici principali pentru toate unitile legale, care desfoar o activitate economic sau social. Registrul este actualizat pe baza urmtoarelor surse: Registrul Fiscal; Registrul Comerului; Bilanul contabil al operatorilor economici; Bilanul contabil al organizaiilor neguvernamentale; Date i informaii furnizate de Autoritatea pentru Privatizare i Administrarea Participaiilor Statului i de Banca Naional a Romniei; Cercetri statistice organizate de Institutul Naional de Statistic.

METHODOLOGICAL NOTES
Economic operator represents the (pluridisciplinary or unipersonal) organisation which can be a legal / natural person created to develop activities defined according to the Law no. 15 / 1990, Law no. 31 / 1990, with subsequent amendments and Government Priority Ordinance no. 44 / 2008. Social operator represents an organisation (consisting of one or several persons) with legal personality, created in order to carry out an activity devoted to social interest. Legal unit represents any economic or social operator having own patrimony; it can conclude contracts with third parties in own name and defend his interests in justice - it has legal status. Legal units are either authorized natural persons, individual enterprises, family enterprises (quality of entrepreneurs), or legal persons. Statistical register (REGIS) represents a statistical instrument for records of identification data and for some main economic indicators for all legal units carrying out an economic or social activity. The register is updated based on the following sources: Fiscal Register; Trade Register; Balance sheets of economic operators; Balance sheets of non-governmental organisations; Information supplied by Authority for State Assets Privatisation and Management and by the National Bank of Romania; Statistical surveys organised by the National Institute of Statistics.

ntreprinderea este o grupare de uniti legale care se constituie ca o entitate organizaional de producie de bunuri, servicii comerciale, sau servicii de interes social, ce beneficiaz de o autonomie de decizie, mai ales pentru asigurarea resurselor sale curente. O ntreprindere exercit una sau mai multe activiti, n unul sau mai multe locuri (sedii - uniti locale ale ntreprinderii). n mod convenional sunt asimilate ntreprinderilor, persoanele fizice autorizate, ntreprinderile individuale i ntreprinderile familiale care desfoar activiti economice pe baz de liber iniiativ potrivit legii, instituiile publice i organizaiile neguvernamentale. 1) Unitatea local este o ntreprindere sau o parte a acesteia (atelier, fabric, depozit, birou, min sau staie etc.) situat la o adres identificabil. n acest loc se desfoar o activitate economic, pentru care - n afara unor cazuri excepionale - lucreaz una sau mai multe persoane (cu norm ntreag sau parial) pentru aceeai ntreprindere. ntreprinderea activ este entitatea care, din punct de vedere economic, este activ n perioada de observare, respectiv realizeaz bunuri sau servicii, nregistreaz cheltuieli i ntocmete bilan contabil. ntreprinderea dormant este entitatea care exist juridic, dar este inactiv, din punct de vedere economic, n perioada de observare. n funcie de principalele caracteristici ale comportamentului lor economic, ntreprinderile - n sensul larg al cuvntului - se clasific n urmtoarele categorii: ntreprinderi cu activitate economic nefinanciar: ntreprinderi agricole; ntreprinderi din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii; ntreprinderi financiare, bancare i de asigurri; Instituii din administraia public central i local i instituii din sfera securitii sociale; Organizaii neguvernamentale - fr scop patrimonial; ntreprinztori privai - persoane fizice autorizate, ntreprinderi individuale, ntreprinderi familiale, persoane ce desfoar activiti liberale. ntreprinderile - n sensul larg al cuvntului - dup formele juridice de organizare, sunt urmtoarele: Regii autonome i institute naionale nfiinate prin Hotrri guvernamentale sau ale administraiei locale; Societi comerciale nfiinate n baza Legii nr. 31 / 1990, cu modificrile i completrile ulterioare, de tipul: - societi n nume colectiv; - societi n comandit simpl; - societi n comandit pe aciuni; - societi pe aciuni, inclusiv societi i companii naionale; - societi cu rspundere limitat.
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Enterprise is a group of legal units constituted as an organizational entity of goods production, trade services or social interest services, which benefits of a decisional autonomy, especially in view to ensure its current resources. An enterprise is carrying out one or several activities, on one or several places (headquarters - local units of enterprises). The natural persons and the family associations carrying out economic activities based on free initiative according to the law, the public institutions and the NGOs are conventionally assimilated to enterprises. 1) The local unit is an enterprise or part thereof (workshop, factory, warehouse, office, mine or station a.s.o.) situated in a geographically identifiable place. At this place an economic activity is carried out for which - save for certain exceptions - one or more persons work (even if only part - time) for one and the same enterprise. Active enterprise is the entity which, from economic standpoint, is active during the survey period, that is, it produces goods or services, records expenditure and draws up balance sheets. Dormant enterprise is the entity existing from juridical standpoint, but inactive, from the economic standpoint, during the survey period. According to the main characteristics of their economic behaviour, enterprises - in the broad meaning of the word - are classified in the following categories: Enterprises with non-financial economic activity: agricultural holdings; enterprises from industry, construction, trade and other services; Financial, banking and insurance companies; Institutions of central and local government and institutions from social security field; Non-governmental organisations - non-patrimony purpose; Private entrepreneurs - authorized natural persons, individual enterprises, family enterprises, persons developing liberal activities. Enterprises - in the broad meaning of the word according to juridical organisational types are the following: Autonomous companies and national institutes, created on the basis of central or local government decisions; Commercial companies created on the basis of Law no. 31/ 1990, with subsequent amendments, such as: - partnerships; - simple limited partnerships; - joint-stock partnerships; - joint-stock companies, including national societies and companies; - limited liability companies.

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Definiie n conformitate cu Regulamentul Consiliului (CEE) nr. 696 / 1993, privind unitile de observare statistic. / Definition in compliance with The Council Regulation (EEC) no. 696 / 1993, on the statistical observation units.

Societi agricole nfiinate sau reorganizate n baza Legii nr. 36 / 1991; Societi cooperatiste reprezint societile cu capital de tip cooperatist nfiinate sau reorganizate n baza Decretului - Lege nr. 66 / 1990, a Legilor nr. 109 / 1996 i 1 / 2005; Alte instituii ale administraiei publice centrale i locale nfiinate prin decrete, legi; Instituii bugetare nfiinate prin hotrri de guvern sau decizii ale organelor administraiei locale; ntreprinztori privai - persoane fizice autorizate, ntreprinderi individuale sau ntreprinderi familiale, nfiinate n baza Ordonanei de Urgen a Guvernului nr. 44 / 2008, profesiile liberale aa cum sunt definite de legile speciale. Organizaii neguvernamentale - asociaii i fundaii, sindicate, partide politice, organizaii ale cultelor religioase nfiinate n baza Ordonanei Guvernului nr. 26 / 2000 i Legii nr. 54 / 2003, Legii nr.14 / 2003, Legii nr. 489 / 2006. Dup forma juridic de organizare, ntreprinderile au caracter comercial sau necomercial. n categoria formelor juridice necomerciale sunt incluse instituiile bugetare, administraia public central i local, precum i organizaiile neguvernamentale. n sfera economic se includ formele juridice cu caracter comercial: regii autonome i institute naionale, societi comerciale, societi cooperatiste, societi agricole. n aceast categorie nu se includ societile care desfoar activiti cu caracter social, respectiv activitile didactic-educative i de asisten sanitar. Aceste activiti nu sunt asimilate cu un act de comer i nu pot conferi comercialitate societii care o desfoar. Mrimea ntreprinderii este evaluat dup criteriul numrului mediu de salariai, n perioada de referin, n concordan cu criteriile emise de Eurostat. Se utilizeaz urmtoarele intervale: ntreprinderi micro: 0 - 9 salariai; ntreprinderi mici: 10 - 49 salariai; ntreprinderi mijlocii: 50 - 249 salariai; ntreprinderi mari: 250 salariai i peste. Activitatea principal a ntreprinderii este stabilit n funcie de produsele sau serviciile a cror realizare implic cele mai mari pri ale resurselor umane sau care aduc cele mai mari venituri ntreprinderii i se determin utiliznd Clasificarea Activitilor din Economia Naional (CAEN Rev.2). Cifra de afaceri - suma veniturilor rezultate din vnzri de bunuri, vnzri de mrfuri, executarea de lucrri i prestri de servicii, mai puin rabaturile, remizele i alte reduceri acordate clienilor. Datele privind cifra de afaceri nu includ TVA.

Agricultural holdings created or restructured on the basis of Law no. 36 / 1991; Cooperative companies - represent cooperative type capital companies created or reorganized based on the Decree - Law no. 66 / 1990, Law no. 109 / 1996 and Law no. 1 / 2005. Other institutions of government central and local administration created on the basis of Decree, Laws; Budgetary institutions created on the basis of central or local government decisions; Private entrepreneurs - authorized natural persons, individual enterprises or family enterprises, created according to the Government Ordinance no. 44 / 2008, liberal professions as they are defined by social laws. Non-governmental organisations - associations and foundations, unions, political parties, religious associations created according to the Government Ordinance no.26 / 2000, Law no. 54 / 2003, Law no. 14 / 2003, Law no. 489 / 2006. By legal organisation type, there are commercial or non-commercial enterprises. The category of noncommercial types includes budgetary institutions, central and local government, as well as non-governmental organisations. The economic field includes commercial legal types: autonomous bodies and national institutes, commercial companies, cooperative and agricultural holdings. This category does not include companies developing social activities, respectively teaching educational activities and sanitary assistance. These activities are not assimilated with the trade activity and can not provide commercial nature to the respective company. The size of an enterprise is assessed according to the average number of employees, during the reference period. In accordance with Eurostat criteria the following intervals are used: micro-enterprises: 0 - 9 employees; small enterprises: 10 - 49 employees; medium enterprises: 50 - 249 employees; large enterprises: 250 employees and over. The main activity of an enterprise is established depending on the goods or services whose production involves the largest share of human resources or which entails the highest revenues of the enterprise and is determined based on the Classification of Activities of National Economy (CANE Rev. 2). Turnover - the amount of income resulted from sales of goods and commodities, execution of works and rendering services, excluding rebate, commissions and other discounts for the customers. Data on turnover do not include VAT.

Investiii brute n bunuri corporale - valoarea investiiilor efectuate n cursul perioadei de referin n toate bunurile corporale, incluznd pe lng mijloacele fixe puse n funciune i valoarea cumprrilor de terenuri i mijloace fixe (la mna a doua sau cumprate de la alte uniti) corectat cu diferena () soldurilor de imobilizri corporale n curs (investiii neterminate), cu diminurile prin: investiii care nu creeaz mijloace fixe, investiii definitiv sistate, investiii n curs vndute i investiii n curs de execuie cedate la teri. Investiii nete: caracteristicile investiiilor nete sunt prezentate n capitolul nr. 12 - Investiii i imobilizri corporale (pag. 354). Exporturi directe reprezint cifra de afaceri obinut de ntreprindere n urma vnzrii la export a produselor i/sau serviciilor proprii, fr intermedierea unei ntreprinderi de comer exterior. Valoarea adugat brut la costul factorilor - suma salariilor i altor elemente legate de costul factorilor de munc, a profitului, a subveniilor de exploatare, a amortizrii capitalului fix, din care se scad impozitele legate de producie. Rezultatul brut al exerciiului - diferena dintre suma veniturilor din exploatare, a celor financiare i celor extraordinare i suma cheltuielilor de exploatare, financiare i a cheltuielilor extraordinare. Diferena pozitiv reprezint profitul, iar cea negativ, pierderile. Repartizarea principalilor indicatori economici i financiari pe clase de mrime s-a realizat n funcie de numrul mediu de persoane ocupate. Repartiia macroregional i pe regiuni de dezvoltare a rezultatelor ntreprinderilor s-a determinat n funcie de structura unitilor locale active din industrie, construcii, comer i alte servicii.

Gross investments in tangible goods - the value of investments carried out during the reference period for all tangible goods also including, besides the fixed assets put in function, the value of lands and fixed assets purchases (second-hand or purchased from other units), adjusted with the difference () between the balancing items of ongoing tangible assets (unfinished investments) and subtracting the investments which do not lead to fixed assets creation, the investment definitively ceased, sold ongoing investments and ongoing investments yielded to third parties. Net investmentes: the characteristics of net investments are presented in chapter no. 12 - Investments and tangible fixed assets (page 354). Direct exports represent turnover obtained by the enterprise following export sales of own products and/or services, without brokerage of a foreign trade enterprise. Gross value added at factors cost - the amount of salaries and other elements related to labour factors cost, profit, exploitation subsidies, fixed capital amortisation, after subtracting production taxes. Gross result of exercise - the difference between the revenues from exploitation, financial and extraordinary income and the amount of exploitation, financial and extraordinary expenditure. Positive difference represents profit, and negative ones, losses. The breakdown of main economic and financial indicators by size class was done depending on the average number of employed persons. The breakdown of enterprises by macroregion and by development region is determined depending on the structure of local units belonging to industry, construction, trade and other services.

15.G1
45,6%

Structura operatorilor economico-sociali activi din economia naional Structure of active economic and social operators of national economy
2004 2009

57,5% 45,5% 32,6%

8,4% 6,4% 2,5% 1,5%

ntreprinderi Enterprises Administraie public Public administration

Administraie privat Private administration ntreprinztori privai Private enterpreneurs