Adhyaasa Bhashyam
Fri 11/8/06 – Talk 1 Adhyaasa Bhashyam is an introductory commentary, it is not a complete text. A commentary dealing with adhyaasa is called Adhyaasa Bhashyam. This introductory commentary is an introduction to Brahma Sutra. What is Brahma sutra ? In Sanskrit it is Brahma Sutram or Brahma Sutrani. It is one of the three basic texts of Vedantic teaching. Technically the 3 basic texts are called Prasthanatrayam – trayam means three and prasthana means Basic. Prasthiyathe asmin ithi prasthanam-that upon which something is based is called Prasthanam. Even a pillar is called Prasthanam. Anything which forms the basis for something is called Prasthanam. Three texts are forming the basis for the teaching of Vedanta1) Upanishad 2) Bhagavad Gita 3) Brahma Sutra The first – the Upanishad is called Shrauta Prasthanam - basic text in the form of sruti. The second - the Bhagvad Gita is called Smriti prasthanam- basic text in the form of smriti and the third - Brahma Sutra is called Nyaya prasthanam basic text dealing with Nyaya or logical aspect of Vedantic teaching. This text is in the form of sutras. What is a sutra ? A sutra is a brief statement in which so many ideas are packed. In english it is called Aphorism. These sutras are cryptic statements on Vedantic idea. A Collection of aphorisms dealing with Brahman are the Brahma sutras.Brahma Sutra is written by Veda Vyasa who is also known as Badarayana. That is why it is called Badarayana sutrani or Sariraka Sutrani. Brahma Sutra consists of 555 sutras in 4 chapters. What is the purpose of Brahma Sutras? What does Veda Vyasa want to achieve through the Brahma Sutras? There are three purposes ; 1) Analysing important statements of Upanishad and bringing out the essential Vedantic teaching. The tatparyam of all the Upanishads is brought out. 2) To answer the charges raised by other systems of philosophy or darshanams. Darshanam is derived from drsh dhathu-vision or view. 3) The third one we will do later. First we will see what are Darshanas ? The set of views or vision of a renowned thinker is called Darshanam.

Generally any Darshana deals with six topics : a) Jiva svarupam-who am I ? b) Jagat svarupam- What is this world ? c) Isvara svarupam- Who is Isvara ? d) Ko nama Bandhanam ? What is the nature of bondage? e) Moksha svarupa kim ? What is the nature of freedom. f) Moksha Upaya. These are the imp issues discussed in every darshana. Philosophers are called Darshanikah. Philosophy is called Darshanas. In our tradition there are 12 Darshanas. They are divided into two groups- Aasthika and Nasthika darshana. Asthika means one who accepts the authenticity of the Vedas. Vedah pramanam asti iti brute. One who says Vedas are the authentic means of knowledge. Whether he accepts Isvara or not is not imp. There are some asthikas who do not accept Isvara. But they are still called asthikah. Their philosophy is called Astika Darshanani. Nasthika means those who do not accept Vedas . For us accepting the Vedas is more important. Their philosophy is called Nasthika Darshanani The Nasthika Darshanas are : 1) Charvaka Darshanam : The philosophy of materialism. Acc to them the body is atma and mokshah is enjoying. Vedas is just a projection of some rishis. Moksha is to eat, sleep and enjoy now. That is the only sadhana . It sounds good and is very pleasing to hear.. They have charuvak. Charu vakah means pleasing speech. This enjoy -philosophy is called Charvaka. This philosophy is surprisingly attributed to Lord Brhaspati, the guru of the devathas. In Purana the explanation given for this –Brhspati was to mislead the asuras who were getting powerful doing rituals. It was a strategy of the devas to get the asuras away from performing rituals and getting powerful. To spread mis-information so that the asuras will not gain power and can be easily defeated. One version it is said that Brhspati took the form of Sukracharya and told the asuras this philosophy . It appealed to the asuras and they adopted it. 2) Jain Darshanam : That which has come from Jin. Jinah means one who has conquered. They believe there are 24 Thirthankaras . Last in line was Vardhama Mahaveera who was called Jin. And the philosophy is named after him. They do not believe in Vedas and they worship Mahaveera and other Tirthankaras. 3) The third is a set of four darshanas given by Budha. Buddha means the enlightened one - one who has understood. They are called Baudha Darshanani. Buddha himself did not write any book. His teachings are in the form of statements heard by disciples. Afterwards when some Kings accepted Baudha dharma, they called seminars and asked scholars to bring out his teachings.

Three books were written called Pitkas (box)-Sutra pitkam, Abhidharma pitkam and Vinaya pitkam. All written in common Pali language. Sutra pitkam contains the statements of Buddha in sutra form. Abhidharma is philosophical treatise and Vinaya is the code of conduct. These three are the basic texts of Buddhism. But later there was a split as to what Buddha tried to communicate. So out of this single philosophy – 4 groups were formed. Each one has got slightly different ideas from the others. 1) Sautrantikas. Based on the sutras or statements of Buddha 2) Vaibhashika. This is basedon the abhidharma pitika 3) Yogachara. They believe in momentary conciousness. 4) Madhyamikaha . They believe in sunya vada. So these are the 4 branches of Buddhism. The six Asthika darshanas are1) Sankhya darshanam presented by Kapila muni 2) Yoga darshanam presented by Sage Patanjali 3) Nyaya presented by Gautama muni 4) Vaisheshika darshanam by Kanad rishi. He use to eat what ever was left after harvesting. Hence the name. 5) Purva mimamsa which is mainly analyzing the first part of Vedas and done by Jaimini Rishi and the important text is called Purva mimamsa. 6)Last is Uttar mimamsa done by Veda Vyasa.The text is Brahma sutra. Among the asthika darshanas the last two emphasise the Vedas as primary pramana. They are called Veda Pradhanani and the others emphasise Tarka or logic. In the Uttar Mimamsa, Brahma Sutra is important. In the Brahma sutra the first 4 sutras are very important. They are called Chatus Sutra. Many students study these four sutras. Among the four the first one is important. The first sutra is “ atha tho brahma jignasa.” “ Thereafter therefore desire for knowing Brahman.” Just reading the translation does not give you anything. Since the sutras are so cryptic we need to have commentaries. By gods grace there are fortunately many. The main one in our tradition is the Sankaracharya Bhashyam. Unlike some other commentaries where there is some doubt of authorship, but regarding Brahma Sutra there is no doubt at all that Sankaracharya wrote it. It is a great work and indicates his Prasanna Gambhiryam -cheerful profoundity. Without Sankaracharya we would not be able to figure it out. Sankara’s bhasyam is so profound that it itself needed commentaries. Therefore we have got so many commentaries on the commentaries. We have Ratna Prabha on Sankara Bhashyam and on that we have Purna Nandi. On that commentary as students we write so many notes when the teacher explains. So there is so much depth. The depth of sastra you will understand while studying Brahma Sutra. So on Brahma sutra there is bhashyam and on that there is Tika and on Tika there are Tippany. There is also another genealogy . There is Bhamati on Sankara bhashyam and on that there is

Kalpatharu and on that Parimala Kalpatharu . There is commentary on commentary on commentary. So you can imagine the profoundity of the sastra. 19/8/06 – Talk 2 (Adhyaasa means mistake. It can either be a particular mistake or mistake in general. Adhyaasa Bhashyam is a commentary in the form of introduction to Brahma Sutra which talks about the mistake. It introduces the whole Brahma Sutra especially the first sutra.) As already stated the first purpose of Brahma Sutra is to arrive at the tatparyam of all Upanishads . The second purpose is defensive. To answer questions raised by other Darshanas. 3) But the third purpose is offensive. To dismiss other systems of philosophy by showing their fallacy. The first 4 sutras are very popular called chatus- sutra. Athato brahma jignasa is the first sutra of the Brahma Sutra. It is a crytptic statement. Literal meaning – Thereafter, therefore the desire to know Brahman. It does not make sense. Fortunately because of the Acharyas we are able to undertand. Athah : Thereafter indicates that something has happened before coming to Brahma Sutra. The seeker has a certain background is indicated by athah. What should the background of the person who approaches a teacher to learn Brahma Sutra? The classical or traditional situation isWe have 4 Asramas- Brahmacharya,Grahastha,Vanaprastha and Sanyasa. The student or Brahmachari studies at the gurukula for 12 years. There he learns his own branch of the Veda, he studies about the four different types of Karmas to be performed (vihita,kamya,pratishidda, prayaschita karma), studies how to apply mantras from Purva mimamsa, and also studies Upanishad chanting. He knows the words of the Upanishad (sabda jnanam), but he has not done a systematic study. After studying all of them he enters into Grahasthashrama. He uses these karmas he has learnt in his Grahasthashrama life and acquires different karmaphalam. He gets some happiness out of it. He does mandatory vihita karmas which will contribute to the totality. This gives him chitta shuddhi. He will have more viveka and the ability to see thro’ karmas. Gradually, he acquires vairagyam and sees the limitations of Karma. They give temporary happiness, but they do not give lasting happiness. He continues to do Vihita Karma and because of his upbringing and his exposure to Vedas, he has complete shraddha in the Vedas. Now he has Vairagyam. He then approaches and asks his teacher, “Vedas prescribe many means to attain various results. Is there any rituals suggested by Vedas which will remove the sense of limitation ? Does Veda have a solution for those who are not interested in kamya karma and see the limitations of Karma.”

The teacher says, “Yes. This means is not in the form of Karma but Knowledge. This was studied by you to some extent when u were a Brahmachari.” The student says,” I remember, but there was so much contradictions”. What is the final vision of Vedanta ? Teacher then says study Brahma Sutra. It will give you a clarity of the vision and remove any doubts caused by other means of knowledge. To such a person who is Vichara-sheelah (has thoughtfulness and viveka) and at the same time has complete shraddha in Guru parampara and Sastra pramana - Guru Vedanta vakyeshu vishwasah – to him the Brahma Sutra is prescribed. All teachers of the tradition are called Aaptha Purushah. Aapta purusha is a reliable source. Reliable in terms of guiding me. It indicates two things. He is well-informed and he should be my well-wisher . He has good intention towards me. Sastra says , guiding somebody without proper knowledge is as good as Brahma hatya. Aapta purusha is one who is reliable in both these respects. This student has Aaptatva buddhi in the tradition of teachers. He has shraddha in the tradition of teachers and the teaching. Then only he will be able to respect what Veda Vyasa says in Brahma Sutra. Sraddha is relatively easy for a person born in this tradition. It is the responsibility of the present teacher to create shraddha in the students first in himself as their teacher. This will be expanded to the whole tradition of teachers. So this person has got thoughtfulness, sufficient vairagyam, shraddha, mumukshutvam , samadi satka sampatti and the desire to be free from bondage. All these are indicated by the word Athah. All these have to be there. If they are not, they have to be cultivated first. The most important are viveka and shraddha. Then only you will have the mind to study Brahma Sutra.To such a person who is capable of objective analysis, the teacher speaks about athato brahma jignasa. Brahma Jignyasa – Desire for this Brahma Jnanam. Here we have to add one word. Brahma Jignasa Kartavya . Kartavya means should be done. Desire for Brahma Jnanam should be done. The question will be – desire happens, it cannot be done. Desire itself cannot be the end in itself. So we have to understand that it means make sufficient attempts so that desire for Brahma Jnanam is fulfilled. Kartavya has two implications.— Have the desire and do something for desire to be fulfilled. In sastra it is said – Atmavare Srotavyah. So Brahma jignyasa will imply Brahma jnanaya vicharam kartavyam. For the purpose of Brahma jnanam you do something to fulfill the desire. Brahma Jignyasa implies one who has listened (sravanam) to the sastra atleast verbally. Thereafter he does Brahma Jnana vicharam. For the purpose of Brahma Jnanam do sastra vicharah . This is possible only if you have apthathva buddhi. Apthathva buddhih is the sense of reliability that a student should have. That is why respect for the teacher is so important. Every word should be

listened to very carefully. Further he thinks Brahma jnanam is given to a person who is a mumukshu. Therefore Brahma Jnanam must be the means for mokshah. So in the first sloka, the implication is ”moksha prapthayartham brahma jnanaya vicharah Kartavyah”.. For the purpose of moksha, analysis should be done to gain Brahma jnanam . Vichara gives me Brahma Jnanam and Brahma Jnanam gives me mokshah So Veda Vyaasa is prescribing Brahma Jnanam for moksha. This is what is meant by Athahto Brahma Jignasa. Next the student may ask the teacher, How can Brahma Jnanam give me freedom from bondage of Samsara ? If there is something to do, the Purva Mimamsa section should give me Brahma Jnanam. But teacher says, knowledge is the means for the freedom from samsara. How is that possible? The teacher says, in life there are two types of problems – 1) Real problem – born of certain situations which are difficult to deal with. The problems are called real because they cause real suffering. The way we resolve these problems is to do some karma. Eg: hunger can be removed by eating food. That is the way we approach our life. 2) Unreal problem – Committing a mistake in perception. No problem is really there. But there seems to be a problem which is causing real suffering. This is due to mistake caused by ignorance. Such mistakes can be removed by seeing the reality of the objects. 25/8/06 -Talk 3 In the last class, we saw the background of a person who is coming to study Brahma Sutra. That background is indicated by the word ‘athah’ in the first sutra of the Brahma Sutra itself. The first sutra is athato brahma jignasa. Athah literally means thereafter. It indicates the background. The background is in the form of four fold qualifications - Sadhana Chatustaya Sampatthih - Vivekah which is indicated by the word Vichara Sheelata, Vairagya, Mumukhsa and ofcourse sama, dama,etc. which indicates Shraddha. He has all this and approaches the teacher. He should mainly have thoughtfulness and shraddha in the words of sastra and teacher. Vedanta guru vakyesu viswasah. He has Apthatva Buddhih in the sastra and tradition of teacher and in one’s own teacher. Aapthathva buddhi means sense of reliability that the person is well- informed and is my well wisher. The student should have aapthathva buddhi in Veda Vyasa and the tradition of teachers. The student should also have some familiarity with the Upanishads. He does not know the tatparyam of the Upanishads well, he thinks it is confusing, but he is familiar with them. Such a person listens to the first sutra and he has aapthathva buddhi in Ved Vyasa,. One lakshana of Aaptha Purusha is that he is very serious about what he speaks. Especially in teaching he is not casual. With that attitude he listens to ‘atthato brahma jignasa’. It means desire for knowledge. When acharya says desire for knowledge, something is to be added. So Kartavya is added. Something

should be done. It has got a corresponding sentence in Vedas atmavare srotavyah. Similarly the injuction kartavya. Desire for knowledge is not the end , so when it is said, desire for knowledge is to be done, what is meant is something is to be done so that desire for Brahma Jnanam is fulfilled and that is Vicharah. That is given in other slokas, atmavare srotavyah. So he understands that for the purpose of Brahma Jnanam do Sastra Vichara. Further he analyses and he comes to the conclusion that the sutra is said to a person who is interested in moksha. So he understands that Ved Vyasa must mean that Brahma Jnanam is the means for moksha. When a person who desires wealth is told to do Avahanti Homa what it means is do Avahanti Homa for getting wealth. So he understands moksha prapthyartham Brahma vicharah kartavyam - For the attainment of moksha one should do Brahma Jnana vichara. At this juncture there can be a question – Moksha means freedom from bondage. Generally the problem is solved by doing something. Suppose I am bound, I have to untie myself. So how can knowledge remove bondage ? Ved Vyasa says for moksha which is freedom from bondage do brahma jnanam. That means brahma jnanam is the means for freedom from bondage. Suppose I have hunger and I say get knowledge hunger will go away. That will not happen. Generally something has to be done to remove hunger. So the person may have the question how knowledge can solve the problem of samsara. At this juncture, the teacher will say, there are 2 types of problem-real and unreal problem. In life we have not only real problems, but there are some unreal problems. Problems born of error or mistake is called unreal problem. I think I have a problem so I have a problem. This is not a hypothetical situation . Rope/snake is an unreal problem. We think this is theory, but it happens in real life. Like the example I gave you that I had wrong diagnosis of scabies instead of allergy which caused suffering. Unreal problem causes real suffering. For eg : Once I told a child I am taking away his nose. And the child started crying that his nose was gone. I solved the problem by saying I am putting the nose back. So these are unreal problems. So one has to see how mistake can create unreal problem which can cause reactions. Another unreal problem –( swamiji gave auto-driver example and how he mistook his request .What he really wanted was for swamiji to be first born and keep his fare on the meter and what swamiji thought was that he wanted more money which cause mild irritation.) Another story to illustrate unreal problem- A merchant who had a shop and doing reasonably well. One day someone asked him if he deals with diamonds. Merchants said no. To deal with diamond I need someone who will give me the diamond. So the man takes out one diamond and shows him. This will fetch you 100 silver coins. But I will get it for you for 20, then you will make a good profit. Who will give it so cheap asks the merchant. I have a friend in Kashmir who gives it. If you are interested you come with me and you buy as many diamonds you want. You can make 400 % profit. The greed was very tempting. The merchant decided to sell his shop and buy diamonds with whatever money he got even against his wife’s advise. Wife advises him not to

believe someone he has met only today. But he didn’t listen and he sold his shop , sent his wife to his parents house and along with that person, they go in the northern direction. On the way he wants to have a wash and he tells his friend to take care of horse and his bag ; he comes after ½ hr and finds no one there. Later he gets into so many problems because of his impulsiveness. He is accused of theft by the King and put in jail for 16 yra. After 16 yrs the king finds out that this merchant was not the culprit, so the king tells him he is sorry and to make up gives him several gold coins, some weapons and horse. This fellow was happy that he got gold, freedom and weapons. He returns home and when he reaches parents house it was night. He ties the horse in the stable and thro’ the window he sees his wife sleeping facng his direction and some distance away another male figure is sleeping next to her. He gets angry . I am coming after so many years and she is sleeping with another man in my own parents house. He decides to kill both with his daggers. Then he remembers upto now I got into trouble because of hasty decision. He knocks on the door and the wife is overjoyed to see him. She wakes up the male figure and tells him your father has come. He is shocked. My son ! The wife says when you left I was in the family way and your son is now 16 yrs. The merchant is very happy that he did not kill his son . he was mistaking the male figure to be the paramour of his wife. And it caused a reaction in him. Similarly there are several situation in life where unreal problem causes real suffering. Second point is unreal problem is due to a mistake and mistake is due to ignorance, So the second point is unreal problem is caused by ignorance of the reality. Without ignorance unreal problem would not have come. Just as, if I had know I had dry skin only then unreal problem of scabies would not have come Third point is ignorance will go only by knowledge. Fourth point which is really an extension of the third point is that knowledge which will remove the ignorance should be the knowledge of the reality. In the example of rope-snake, the real fear of the snake is because of unreal problem that is caused by the ignorance of the fact that there is a rope. Point 2 - there is ignorance of the rope. Point 3 - the ignorance will go by knowledge of the rope. Point 4- By the knowledge of the reality of the problem. Object of problem is snake and reality of object is rope. Therefore the reality of the object of the problem is ropeness. If I have knowledge of ropeness, then ignorance of the problem of the snake will go away. Thus, Real suffering can come from unreal problem Unreal problem is due to ignorance. Ignorance will go away by knowledge. And the fourth point clarifies what sort of knowledge? The knowledge of the reality of the object of the problem will remove ignorance about the snake. So what I have to do is get knowledge of the reality of rope.

One has to have adequate knowledge /clarity about these 4 points. Then only you have proper foundation for Vedanta study. Otherwise your approach to study Vedanta will be superficial, casual. Out of curiosity you attend classes. Suppose you find something else more curiosity generating, you will move on. One has to have this clarity that there can be unreal problem which can be caused by ignorance and the ignorance can go by knowledge of the reality of the object. Then only when the acharya says that for removal of the bondage of samsara you get knowledge, then there will not be rejection. When acharya says, Your problem of samsara is due to ignorance and the solution is through knowledge only. You will say yes, because you have seen that mistake can take place. Suppose a person has commited a mistake and he knows he has committed a mistake then he can be corrected. But if he does not accept it, then he cannot be corrected. When you are arrogant or thoughtless you cannot see that you have committed a mistake. Somebody has a wrong perception that money is everything. There is adhyaasa. Then the whole life will be directed by money. Every interaction will be based on how much he will get. The person is known or judged by the money or property he owns. This is wrong thinking. One has to see clearly how wrong thinking can destroy one’s life. Your mind should be so saturated with the idea that there can be unreal problem and unreal problem can go only by knowledge. Even in dream you should ask the question whether this is real or unreal problem, We should see examples in our life of how our thoughtlessness and wrong conclusions can create unreal problem or situations. One has to saturate one’s mind that there can be unreal problem. That does not mean all problems are unreal . But there are few unreal problems. Once you get insight you will see that most of our problems are unreal problems based on wrong perceptions. To such a person it is said that your samsara problem is due to ignorance and it can go by knowledge . Such a person will accept what the teacher says. When the background is there. and Vedavyasa says that for moksha Brahma Jnanam is to be attained. Then he will understand that if brahma jnanam is the solution to the problem, then problem must be unreal, As said in point 3, knowledge solves unreal problems . The corollary for that point is that problem which goes away by knowledge must be unreal. Unreal problem is caused by ignorance and ignorance can go by knowledge of reality. Moksha praptyhyartham, brahma jnanaya vicharana kartavya. He understands that Vedavyasa wants to say that my problem of samsara is due to error and this error is technically called adhyaasah. Adhyasah topic is dealt with in introduction to Brahma sutra. Adhyaasa bhasyam literally means error commentary. What it really means is commentary dealing with error. Brahma Sutra is relevant only when you have understood that brahma vichara will give something which will help me. If I understand that my problem is due to adhyaasa and adhyaasa is due to ignorance and ignorance can go by knowledge and knowledge comes by sastra vichara and therefore Ved Vyasa is telling Brahma Vichara kartavya. So Sankarcharyaji introduces Brahma Sutra by the discussion of adhyaasa and that is why it is called adhyaasa bhashyam. This is done because once it is established that mistake is the cause of samsara , then the removal or freedom from bondage is connected with knowledge will set in our mind only if we understand that the bondage is adhyaasa. That has to be established well that adhyaasa is the cause of samsara. Otherwise you feel how can knowledge remove samsara. My problem of being dukhi, mortalilty how can it be solved by knowledge. Only when we understand that this suffering is

due to adhyaasa, then the solution becomes clear. So the connection between moksha and jnanam is estabkished by the diuscussion on adhyaasa. That discussion is called adhyaasa bhashyam. It is a waking up Bhashyam. 1/9/2006-Talk 4 ( In the last class, we were seeing, the implications in the first sutra - Athato brahma jignasa. We supplied kartavya. Then we got the implied meaning that Brahma jignyasa means brahma jnana janaka vicharah kartavya. The analysis leading to brahma jnanam should be done. Further we analysed the sutra and found that this advise of vichara for jnanam is given to a mumukshu. Therefore Brahma jnanam should be the means for Moksha. Mokshah prapthyartham Brahma jnanaya vicharah kartavyah. For the purpose of moksha one should do the analysis of sastra. Then the question was raised how Brahma Jnanam can give moksha. Moksha means freedom from bondage. Bandha nivrittih mokshah. Bondage can go only by some karma. How can bondage go by knowledge ? Then we saw there are 2 types of problem-real and unreal problem. Real problem cannot go by knowledge. Real problem is problem caused by some empirical situation like hunger, thirst, shortage of money,etc . These problems can go only by karma. But there is another type of problem called unreal problem, problem due to mistake which can go only by Knowledge. It is caused by ignorance of the reality . Knowledge can be the solution to the problem that is unreal.) Based on that discussion 4 points were derived.: 1) Unreal problem can cause real suffering. Eg Seing snake, there can be real fear. 2)Unreal problem is caused by ignorance of reality. Eg: ignorance of the rope causes the problem. 3) Unreal problem can go by Knowledge. Conversely problem which goes by knowledge is unreal. Eg: ignorance of the rope is removed by rope knowledge. 4) The Knowledge which removes unreal problem should be the knowledge of the reality of the object of the problem. Knowledge that removes the problem has to be specific knowledge. Eg: suppose rope snake is the problem then object of the problem is rope-snake. The reality of rope- snake is rope. The rope is reality of the object of the unreal problem. The problem is snake and reality of the object of problem is rope. So the rope knowledge will give me the answer to the problem. These four points are very important and we should see it with reference to our life. If you have the mind you will see it all the time. Something is lost and we feel panicky. Panick is caused because of the conclusion that something is lost. Really it is not lost. It is unreal problem. It is caused by the ignorance of the fact that it is really not lost. Our mind should be saturated with the

clarity of these 4 pts that there can be real suffering due to unreal problem. Even in dream you should ask yourself if this is real or unreal problem. Then only you have assimilated this. To such a person it is said that jnanam will give mokshah. That person will be able to accept it. He will have the sense of possibility. Otherwise the person will think I have a real problem. I am sukhi, dukhi. How can it go by simple knowledge.? In all the examples, the problem went away by simple knowledge. Ofcourse for knowledge to come so many things are required. For knowledge to take place it should be well set in our mind. Then only we will understand what sastra says Mokshartham brahma jnanam. Brahma jnanam is for moksha. Then we understand that my bondage is unreal . When solution is knowledge then problem must be unreal. When Ved-Vyasa is prescribing knowledge as the solution for samsara then it means that my bondage must be unreal. Brahma jignyasa kartavya .That is the implication. In the eyes of Veda Vyasa the bandhanam is unreal, the student understands that. How the problem of bondage is really due to error which is technically called adhyaasa. That is what is implied in the first sutra. Your problem of bondage is unreal. Therefore knowledge is the solution. There are many vakyas in the sruti which say this - By knowledge you will be free from samsara. This particular point should be clearly set in the mind. My bondage which is looking solidly real is an error based problem. We have one word in sanskrit – adhyaasik- It is an adhyaasa based problem. This particular idea is beautifully brought out in the sloka in Swarajya siddhi. Jnatva devam sarva pasapahanih, nanyah panthaaschethi, bhuyo vachobhih jnapteh sakshaat muktihetuttva siddhau, adhyaasatvam bandhanasyartha siddham. Knowledge of atma removes all bondage, There is no other way than this, by such statements When knowledge as the direct means for moksha is established, Then the superimposed nature of bondage is implied. By this sloka we understand that our bondage of samsara is unreal and the solution is Knowledge. By knowing this chaitnaya svarupa atma there is destruction of all knowledge. There is no other path for moksha than this. By all such stmts what is established is that knowledge is the direct means for moksha. Once it is established that knowledge gives moksha, what is implied is that the problem is unreal. So it is said here that bandhanam is due to adhyaasa. This is brought out by Sankaracharyaji in his introduction to Brahma Sutra. Adhyasa means mistake. Adhyaasa Bhashyam is a commentary dealing with adhyaasa or error.

In sastra we have two popular examples. One is rope-snake. Really there is rope and you are seeing a snake. It is an error in the form of taking rope for a snake. Rajju sarpavat. This is mentioned in Mandukya Upanishad. Another example is shuktika rajat. Seing silver in the mother of pearl. From a distance the mother of pearl looks like silver. Silver is rajat and shuktika is mother of pearl. Shuktika rajat is silver which is seen on the mother of pearl. Why do we need 2 examples? The rope snake example is a nivritti-running away example. Many things in life we run away from. The shuktika - rajat is a pravritti example. Many things in life we run after them . There are many other examples like ghost-post,etc. But these two are popular. Let us look at the rope-snake. How does adhyaasa take place? Suppose rope is completely known to you? Will you see snake there ? No. Suppose it is completely unknown. There is darkness and you cannot see anything. Will I see the snake? No If ignorance is total there is no mistake. That is why it is said ignorance is bliss. Suppose there is knowledge there is bliss, provided it is total. Total ignorance we enjoy in deep sleep state. A wise person who has total knowledge also enjoys bliss. Here also if rope is completely unknown (sampurnathah ajnaatah rajju), there is no problem. Suppose rope is completely known ( Sampurnathah jnaatah rajju) no problem. For a mistake to happen the rope should be somewhat known, not completely known. What do we mean by partly known ? In sastra this is presented in a technical way. One is called Samanya amshah - general feature - This is. Thisness is common to every object. With reference to every object we can say this is. This is called samanya amshah The other is Vishesha amshah - specific or particular aspect of the object - ropenes is specific to rope. It cannot belong to a book. Only the rope has ropeness. When we say this object is a rope, the ropeness is vishesha amsha. But what is known is this is. This is-is samanya amsha. There is samanya jnanam - knowledge of general feature of the object . This samanya amshah is anavrittah - it is not covered. It is seen by you. When you are seeing the snake on the rope, the general feature is seen by you, it is not covered. That is why you say this is a snake. So this is –is a samanya amsha of the rope which is known . When a mistake is taking place, this is a snake is a mistake . This is a rope is a fact. This is- is known to you. It is uncovered amshah . The general feature of the object is known. But the vishesha amsha is avrittah-It is covered. It is not seen by you. We are analyzing the particular situation when we have the experience this is a snake. Really what is there is a rope. What is happening then ?

This is extensively analysed in the Sastra with lot of commentaries. It is covered by ignorance. So samanya amsha is anavrrtah and vishesha amsha is avrittah. In this situation, the knowledge of snake is already there in our mind. So vishesha amsha of snake is replacing vishesha amsha of rope. The fact ‘rope is’ is the vishesha amshah which is covered and in its place snake vishesha amshah comes. In other words, ‘this is a rope’ is a fact , but the vishesha aspect of the rope is covered and in the place of this snake visheha amsha is replaced. Therefore we have the perception that this is a snake. So what has happened is that the general feature of rope is uncovered , vishesha of rope is covered and in place of it, vishesha amsha of snake comes. Let us further analyse this. Vishesh amsha is covered. When we get knowledge that this really is not a snake but a rope. At that time what is dismissed is vishehsa amsha. But the samanya amsha continues. ‘ This ’ is not dismissed. In Sanskrit, this is called idam tva. Idam tva (thisness) is not dismissed only sarpatva (snakeness) is dismissed . What is dismissed is called mithya or anrtham(unreal) . What is not dismissed is called satyam (real). So in every mistake there is 2 amshas- satya amsha and mithya amsha. In every mistake these two have to be there - real and unreal mistake. Even though it appears like one entity , it really is a mixture of these two-satya and mithya. So samanya amshah is satyam and visheha amsha is mithya. In every mistake samanya and visheha is mixed up. We can say, that in every adhyaasa there is a mix up of satya and mithya amsha. In the example, “this is’ is satya amsha and sarpa is mithya amshah and both are mixed up. This is what happens in the drstantha (example) of rope and snake. What about darshtanta-subject matter . How is it to be understood in our life? Satra says similar mistake is taking place in our life. When I say I am a samsari, a small person, a miserable fellow. Sastra says there is 2 amsha- I am is samanya amsha in which I indicates Sat and am indicates Chit. So Sat-Chit is samanya amsha. I am is common to everybody be it woman or man. There is no gender for I am - aham asmi. This sat chit amsha (samanya amsha) is not covered. But vishehsa amsha is covered and because of that another vishesha amsha is replacing it. Like real ropeness is replaced by unreal snakeness. I am samanya amsha is evident but ananda - visheha amsha is covered. So vishehsa amsha of anatma I am small, a samsari replaces the vishesha amsha of atma. So the samanya amsha of atma is mixed up with vishesha amsha of anatma. Therefore I make the mistake that I am samsari, I am son, daughter, etc. In that I am –samanya amsha is common. But samsari, small.. is visheha amsha of anatma. When vishesha amsha of rope is covered then visheha amsha of snake comes in to the picture. Similarly, when vishesha amsha of atma is covered, then vishesha amsha of anatma comes in its place. Vishehsa amsha of anatma is small, miserable. So when I say -I am a samsari - is a mistake which has 2 amshas -I am which is uncovered samanya amsha and samsari is vishesha amsha. It is there because visheha amsha of atma is covered. I am Brahmatma . This is the fact. But this fact being covered, in the place of real vishesha amsha - Brahmatama, unreal vishesha amsha –

samsari comes. We want the real. But since it is not known , then unreal replaces it. That is how we have the mistake I am samsari. This is called Jiva bhavah. Jiva is a mixture of atma and anatma . Jiva is a salad. It is a mixture of samanya of atma and visheha of anatma . I am -Samanya is satyam and samsari is mithya. Satya and Mithya are mixed up. That is the error. The error goes away when the knowledge of the vishesh amsha – Brahma jnanam takes place. When the knowledge of real vishesha amsha comes, then the mistake goes away. When I know the rope the snake goes away. When I know the atma the mistake of samsari goes away. When knowledge comes then the mistake of taking atma for anatma goes away. There is no bandhanam , then there is mukthi – mokshah. Brahma sutra is meant for this purpose - to separate atma and anatma so that there is no mix up . When Jnanam comes aviveka goes away. When aviveka goes away, aviveka born mixup goes away. When mixup goes away mixup born problem goes away. When problem goes away problem-born suffering goes away. One has to see the connection between this knowledge and moksha and that connection is implied in the first sutra and that is made explicit by adhyasa bhasya. How all our problems is due to mistake. 8/9/06 – Talk 5 (Adhyaasa bhashyam is a commentary talking about a particular mistake and also about mistake in general. Adhyaasa Bhashyam is introductory commentary to Brahma Sutra. We had derived certain implications earlier. We saw the implication of first sutra -athato brahma jignasa we have to add kartavya. Second Brahma jignyasa is not the end . Brahma jnanaya vicharana kartavya. Since it is addressed to a mumukshu. Mokshartham brahma jnanaya vicharana kartavya. This vichara leading to self knowledge is the means for moksha. Since knowledge is meant for moksha o bondage must be unreal. Bandhanasya adhyassatvam siddham. This many implications we have seen earlier. In seeing them we saw 4 important points – 1) There can be real suffering due to unreal problem 2) Unreal problem is due to ignorance 3) Unreal problem can go by knowledge 4) Knowledge which removes unreal problem should be the knowledge of the reality of the object of problem. We have seen with example that unreal problem of rope-snake will go away with knowlege of the rope which is the reality of the snake which is the object of the problem. Based on the , 4th point one more implication is derived. In the first sutra, we derived the implication that Brahma Jnanam is the means for moksha. The problem is, I am samsari. The object of problem is”I ’. The problem is centered on’ I’ . So according

to the 4th point we should get knowledge of I . Like rope-snake is removed by knowledge of rope not any other knowledge. Specific knowledge is needed. Samsari I is the object of problem ,therefore the reality of Samsari I should be understood. Then only the problem will be removed. But in first sutra it says Brahma jnanaya not Atma jnanaya. What is prescribed is brahma jnanam and what we need is atma jnanam. It means brahma jnanam and atma jnanam is one and the same . So it implies that atma= Brahman . In other word the reality of the samsari I, is Brahman. To solve the problem of samsari , I have to understand the reality of atman which is Brahman . I have to understand that I am limitless. Not knowing this, there is a mistake and because of that I am samsari. So one more implication derived is that atma=brahman and brahman=atma. All these implications are discussed in the adhyasa bhashyam. Regarding adhyaasa we had seen certain pts. Mistake takes place when something is partly known and partly unknown. Suppose I know rope completely, snake mistake is not there. If it is completely unknown also there is no mistake. What is meant by partly known and partly unknown ? Rope is having 2 aspects -one is samanya amsha-general feature– this is. In sanskrit it is called idam tvam. Vishesha amsha –specific feature- is the rope where mistake is taking place. When samanya is evident but vishesha amsha-ropeness is covered(avrtthah). What happens? The vishesha amsha of snake replaces the vishesha amsha of rope. In this mistake samanya is uncovered and vishehsa amsha of rope is covered ie, specific aspect of snake replaces specific aspect of rope. This is true in drshtanta of rope and snake. Let us seen in darshtanta – I am atma. I am is evident. But what I am is covered. Vishesha amsha of atma is replaced by vishehsa amsha of anatma . Therefore I feel I am this body…. I am intelligent,etc.. This is because the vishesha of non-self has replaced the vishesha amsha of the self which is I am Brahman. When correction takes place , it takes place in vishesha amsha. Samanya amsha is not dismissed. Vishesha amsha is dismissed. So we say vishesha is mithya and samanya is satyam. In every error there are these 2 aspects and the correction is always in vishesha amsha. ) ContinuedIn atma-anatma also the same thing happens. The error is I am anatma. When knowledge comes, vishesha is understood. The whole pursuit is to discover the vishesha amsha of atma. To know that I am, I don’t need the sastra. But what really I am, for that I need sastra. So what sastra does is reveal vishesha amsha of atma. When real vishesha amsha is understood the unreal vishesha amsha goes away. When real vishesha amsha - rope is understood, unreal vishesha amsha - snake goes away. Similarly, the real vishesha amsha- Brahman comes…unreal vishesha amsha that I am samsari, dukhi, mortal goes away. The pursuit of knowledge is to discover vishesha amsha of atma. And thereby remove the error born of ignorance.

In vedanta sastra we are discovering what really atma is . There is distinction that atma is this and anatma is this. Viveka comes , aviveka goes away. When aviveka goes away aviveka born error goes away and when error goes away then problem goes away, that is the implication of this sutra. The whole problem of samsara is ignorance and knowledge is the solution. That implication is made explicit in adhyaasa bhashyam We have to understand a few technical terms. 1) Adhishtanam – the locus where mistake is taking place. What is mistaken is adhishtanam . Rope is adhistanam- substratum. 2) Adhyastha or Aropyah - that which is superimposed. Snake is called adhyasta or aropya. That for which something is mistaken. 3) Adhyaasah or aropah - superimposition. Upon the rope, the snake is superimposed. Snake (adhyasta) is superimposed (adhyaasah) on the rope (adhistanam). Sometime the adhyastah (aropyah) is also called adhyaasah (aropah). Adhyaasa can be seen from 3 angles – 1)From adhistanam angle ie, rope angle. Then we say misapprehension is adhyaasah - anyahta grahanam –mistaking the adhistanam is called adhyaasa. 2) From adhyasta or aropya angle ie, snake angle -superimposition of something which is not there is called adhyaasa. 3) By combining both adhishtanam and adhyasta – adhyaasa is mix up of satyam and anrtham. This is snake is adhyaasa. This is is satyam and snake is mithya -satya anrtha mithuni karanam adhyaasah. Rope is satyam and snake is mithyam. Both are mixed up- rope from samanya amsha angle and snake from vishesha amsha angle are mixed up. So adhyaasa can be defined from the angle of adhistanam, adhyasta or combination of both . There are 2 types of adhyaasa - dharmi adhyasah and dharma adhyaasah. Superimposition of entity is called Dharmi adhyaasa. The entity who has quality is dharmi . Here Snake is dharmi which is superimposed. Second is dharma adhyaasa- this is poisonous, this is moving. The qualities poisoness, moving of the snake are superimposed on the rope. This is called dharma adhyaasah. With reference to atma-anatma - Anatma is superimposed on atma. It is called dharmi adhyaasah. When qualities of anatma are superimposed on atma, then it is called dharma adhyaasah .When I say, I am fat. The quality of the body- fatnes is superimposed on atma. This is dharmi adhyaasah. But when I say, I am ahankara. Then the entity- the whole body - is superimposed on atma. This is dharma adhyaasah. Let us see how adhyaasa bhashyam develops. The commentators have divided it into six parts.

1) Akshepa bhashyam -objection to adhyaasa. This idea of error of atma-anatma is really an error. Atma-anatma adhyaasa is not possible. This particular point is discussed in the first part of adhyaasa bhashyam. Akshepa literally means accusation. 2) Samadhana bhashyam- answering the objection. We understand the objection, but we answer it. 3) Lakshana bhashyam - Definition of adhyaasa and diff opinions and contentions about adhyaasa. 4) Sambhavana bhashyam – Sense of possibility . How there is a sense of possibility of adhyaasa . 5) Pramana bhashyam -proof for adyaasa. What are the proofs for adhyaasa ? 6) Upasamhara bhasyamWith this background, we enter into the first part of adhyaasa bhashyam. It is very very profound and for each one, there is so many commentaries. In Akshepa bhashyam (presenting objection), the Purvapakshi-(opponent) ie, the one who objects and his presentation is called Purvapaksha. The one who answers the objection is called Siddhanti.. Siddhanta means the final conclusion or doctrine. One who is presenting the conclusion is called Siddhanti. Here the contention of Purvapakshi is that adhyaasa maybe possible with reference to ropesnake, silver-pearl or ghostpost. With reference to atma-anatma what you are saying that there isa mutual mix up of qualities of atma and anatma is not possible. Why? Because there are certain conditions required for adhyaasa to take place . The conditions which are there in rope-snake are not there in atma – anatma. The conditions required are – 1) Pratyaksha Vishayatvam -where mistake is taking place should be available for perception. One rope (idam) is mistaken for the other snake (idam). Idam means it is available for objectification. So only when it can be objectified, such a mistake is possible. 2) There should be Saadrsyam between adhistanam and aropyah. There should be similarity. We don’t mistake rope for elephant or silver. So there should be similarity. 3) Ajnatatvam - mistake takes place when adhishtanam is not known. There shd be ignorance about adhistanam. Then only mistake is possible. The rope-snake mistake comes because there is ignorance of the rope.

4) There should be Samskara brought about by real knowledge. This should be understood well. We can commit a mistake, ie, take something for something else only if there is past impression . For example, If you have never seen Mr X then you cannot mistake Mr Y for Mr X. Only if you have seen something somewhere, then you can superimpose. If you have not seen at all, then mistake is not possible. So there should be Samskara. Let us analyse the example of rope-snake. We are mistaking rope for snake and you say this is a snake. This is, is adhistana samanya amsha and snake is aropya vishehsa amsha. This is possible only when once upon a time you have really seen the two together. You have Prama - true knowledge and your appreciation was that this is and the snake being together. This true knowledge has created a samskara. So these two can go together. Since samskara is there, adhyaasa is possible. The idea is that for mistake to take place, samskara (impression) has to be there and for impression to be there prama has to be there and for prama real combination must have been possible somewhere. Only then superimposition is possible. The chain is -adhyaasa is possible when samskara is possible, samskara is possible when prama is there, prama is possible when real combination is there. So Samskara based on Prama is necessary. Knowledge which is true to the situation is Prama. With reference to atma and anatma all these four conditions are not fulfilled. Even if one condition is not fulfilled adhyaasa cannot take place. That is what the Purvapakshi is saying. In the case of atma-anatma all these conditions are not there. Let us see how…. The Purvapakshi says, you are saying atma is asabda, asparsha, nirvikara, apratyaksha. Atma has no sadrasya. Atma is nirvikara like light, nitya wheras anatma is savikara, anitya, like darkness . You are saying atma is svayam prakasha. It is self evident so Ajnatatvam of atma is not there So atma cannot be unknown. All the conditions are not fulfilled in the case of atma. Then how can you say there is a superimposition. This is what is said in the Akshepa Bhashyam.

15/9/06 –Talk 6
( Purvapakshi- Opponent - The one who is raising the objection is called Purvapakshi And his contention is called Purvapaksha. Akshepa means objection. Akashepa Bhashyam is commentary on the objction raised by Purvapakshi. Objection is raised regarding atma-anatma adhyaasa as presented by Siddhanti. Siddanti – One who has the contention that atma-anatma are superimposed. And his contention is called Siddanta. The contention of Purvapakshi is what is the nature of atma?

Siddanti will say, Atma is asabda, asparsha, asanghah, nirvikara and satchit ananda. Anaatma is inert, limited. This is what you say is the nature of atma and at the same time you are saying there is a mix up between atma-anatma. This is not possible. The way u are describing the nature of atma-anatma , a mix up is not possible. Either you withdraw the statement there is mix-up or change your stand about the nature of atma. So the way you have presented atma-anatma, adhyaasa is not possible. This is what Purvapakshi wants to say to the Siddanti. For adhyaasa to take place certain conditions are required. 1) First conditon is Pratyaksha Vishayatvam. That which is mistaken should be available for objectification. It is to be first taken , then only it can be mistaken. For something to be perceived, it has to be the object of perception. Therefore whenever there is adhyaasa, there is Pratyaksha Vishaya. On one pratayaksha vishaya you are superimposing another Pratyaksha Vishaya. Where there is adhyassa there is Pratyaksha Vishaya. For eg: In rope-snake, rope is Pratyaksha vishaya - it is availble for objectification. That is why it is mistaken. Like for example, you have misunderstanding only of the people you know in your life. If you don’t know the person at all, you do not commit a mistake. 2) Second condition is Sadrsyam - Similarity. If similarity is there, confusion can be there. If there is no similarity, then there will not be any confusion. In rope you are superimposing a snake which is similar ot rope not an elephant. 3) The third conditon is mistake can happen only when something is ajnaatatvam-unknown. The rope is not completely known, that is why mistake is possible. Ajnattatvam has to be there for mistake to take place. 4) The fourth condition is you can commit a mistake about something only when you have seen it before. To superimpose snake on rope you must have seen the real snake somewhere. If you don’t know snake at all, then you cannot superimpose snake on rope. So you must have seen the real snake somewhere. Because of that there is samskara of snake and this samskara causes adhyaasa . Thus the chain of events is – Snake adhyaasa is possible when snake samskara is there, Snake samskara is possible when snake prama is there, Prama is possible only when there is real snake. There are two types of Jnanam, viewed from one angle – a) Bhrama Jnanam – delusion -false knowledge. Knowledge which is not true to the object .Eg: Taking rope to be the snake. b) Prama Jnana -true knowledge – Knowledge which is true to the object. I have rope knowledge and really there is a rope , this is Prama. Really there is a rope and I have snake knowledge, this is Brahma.


For samskara to take place, there should be true knowledge (Prama). For true knowledge to take place there should be real object. Adhyasa is possible when samsakra is there and samskar is pssible ehwn true knowledge is there. True knowledge is possible when real object is there. Samskara born of true knowledge is a requirement for adhyaasa - Prama janya samskara. Impressions born of true knowledge is requirement for adhyaasa. For adhyaasa to take place that, this is snake, once atleast you must have seen the combination of this is and snake. This is samanya and snake is vishesha. So adhyasa to happen, you should have the samskara born of the experience that this is a snake. So this and snake you have seen together somewhere. This is prama which gave rise to the samskara of togetherness. So when you see this of the rope then the snake can be superimposed on it. So the adhishtana samanyan for this and aropya vishesha ‘snake’, these two you must have seen somewhere. This and snake combination you have seen together somewhere. If combination is possible then knowledge is possible. If knowledge is possible samskara is possible and if samskara is possible, adhyaasa is possible. Only then I can superimpose snake on this. If this is never seen together, then you can never superimpose this and snake on each other. Adhishtana samanya this and aropya vishesha snake must have been together for samskara to take plaece, then adhyasa is possible. So samskara born of prama of togethereness of both is a required conditon for adhyaasa. Even if one of these conditions is not there, then adhyasa is not possible. Eg: Your daughter has given some conditions for the boy she wants to marry-he should be smart, intelligent, multi-billionaire, jovial…even if one is not there then marriage is not possible. In the case of atma all these conditions are not fulfilled. Atma you have said is asabda, arupa, asparshya, asanghah. It is not objectifiable. It is not pratyaksha vishaya. So first condition is gone. Second is Sadrsyam-similarity. Atma you say is satyam, nirvikaram whereas anatma is mithya,savikaram. Like darkness and light, atma and anatma are opposite in nature. So there is no Sadrsyam –similarity between the two. Third is ajnatvam. Atma is svayam prakaha. Atma is known to everybody, so there is no ignorance of atma. There is no ajnatvam. Fouth is samskara. You say anatma is superimposed on atma and vice versa. This mutual adhyaasa is possible only if somewhere you have seen the two together. Because of that you gain true knowledge of the combination. Because of that u have samskara and because of which you are superimposing one on the other. But my contention is that atma-anatma cant be unified. If somewhere, sometime they have been unified then there can be samskara. But atma and anatma cannot be combined because they are opposite in nature like tama- prakasha. Something which is combinable can be combined. Something which is not combinable cannot be combined. Tadatmyam or aikyam is not possible.

If real unification is not there then samskara is not there and then adhyasa is not there. So prama janya samskarah is not there therefore adhyaasa is not possible So all 4 conditions not fulfilled. This is what is said in Akshepa Bhashyam. Now the first few lines of the Akshepa BhashyamYushmat Asmat pratyayaocharayoho, vishaya vishayinoho, tama prakashavad virudhasvabhavayoho etaretara bhavanupapatthau siddhayam, tad dharmanamapi sutaramitaretara bhavanupatthih ityatha asmatpratyayagochare vishayini cidatmake yushmat pratayaya gocharasya vishayasya taddharmanam chadhyaasah, tad viparyayena vishayinah taddharmanamcha vishaye adhyaaso mithyeti bhavitum yuktham. The main sentence is adhyaasa mithyeti bhavitum yuktsam. Here mithya is used in the sense of negation. It does not mean unreal, but used in the sense of adhyaasa , denial. Mithya has two meanings- Anirvachaniyata and Nishedham. Yuktham means proper. The mains entence is, It would be proper to say that adhyaasa is not there. Adhyasa is negated. Means the error of atma-anatma is not there. Why is it negated ? For adhyasa to take place there should be Samskara and for samskara to take place there should be Prama and for Prama to take place there should be vishaya or object. For atma-anatma adhyaasa to take place there should be combination samskara. For combination samskara to take place there should be true knowledge. For true knowledge to take place there should be real combination of atma-anatma. Combination is not possible because they are opposite in nature. Vishaya the object - anatma and vishayi the subject - atma are opposite in nature. How they are opposite is indicated in first line - yushmat asmat pratyaya gocharyoh. This is sixth case. Visaya visyinihi is qualified by yusmat asmat… Gochara means revealed -That which is revealed . Pratyaya means thought - That by which something is revelaed. Pratiyate anena iti pratyaya. Eg. Clip thought reveals clip. Pot thought reveals pot. Everything is revealed by thought really. Knowledge finally takes place in the mind. Eyes are just catching the rays of the light and sending it to the mind. There vritti takes place and thro’ this vritti knowledge of object takes place. This vritti is called pratyaya. There are 2 types of pratyaya -idam and aham pratyaya. Idam means this - The thought which is pointing out something outside. Aham means I- The thought which is pointing out something inside. Idam pratyaya objectifies anatma and aham pratyaya points out atma. So Anatma can be called Idam pratyaya gochara. That which is revealed by idam pratyaya - this thought. Sankaracharya could have just said idam(this)/aham (I) pratyaya. But he uses yusmat, asmat. Because often we use the word this with I –especially in sanskrit we say ayam aham-I am this. Purvapakshi wants to show the contradcition between atma-anatma. So he uses the words which show it perfectly. Instead of saying idam/aham for anatma/atma .

He says yusmat - you and asmat - I. You always refers to outside things. You is always different from I. The difference is clear because we never use I and you together. We never say I am you. But we can say this is I. So I and you are opposite. They can never go together. So anatma is referred by the word you and atma is refered by word I. Yusmat pratyaya gochara means that which is revealed by you thought ie anatma and asmat pratyaya gochara means that which is revealed by I thought ie, atma. They are opposite. So vishaya object is yusmat pratyaya and visayi subject is asmat pratyaya . They are opposite entities like darkness and light , they can never be combined. Etara means other etarasya bhava-one becoming the other. Like pot becoming cloth and vice versa. Similarly atma becoming anatma and vice versa. Anupapathau-7th case-untenability. Atma and anatma cannot be unified . It is untenable because they are opposite in nature. If they have sadrsyam then they can be combined and there can be confusion. But atma and anatma cannot have etaraetara bhava-ie, atmatvam(selfness)going into anatma(non-self) and anatmatvam (non-selfness) going into atma (selfness)is called etaraetara bhava. That is atmatvam (selfness) and anatmatvam(unon-self) cannot be transferred. So transference between the two is not possible. Therefore adhyaasa is not possible. Since atmatvam can never go to anatmatvam, there cannot be any situation where there can be knowledge, only from knowledge we get samskara and due to samskara, adhyaasa takes place. This is what Sankaracharya is saying here. Atmatva and anatmatva cannot be transferrd to each other. When this fact is established there cannot be mutual transference of atma to anatma. Further when entities cannot have mutual transfer, then qualities cannot be transferred also. When atmatvam is not transferable, then qualities of atma cannot be transferred. Sutaram-all the more, certainly, furthermore. If atma and anatma cannot transfer then atmaanatma qualities certainly cannot transfer. There is furthermore untenability of the transference of mutual qualities. For eg: if land cant be transferred the fertility,etc. qualities of land cannot be transferred. So two things are stated. Atmatvam cant be unified with anatmatvam. Since this is the case their qualities cannot be exchanged also. Since between dharmi(entity) etaretara bhava is not possible then between dharma (quality) etharetara bhava is not possible. Since this is the situation, on atma (vishayi) which is revealed by I thought which is of the nature of conciousness, the superimposition of anatma (vishaya ) that which is revealed by You thought and its qualities is not possible. Therefore on atma which is the subject the superimposition of anatma is not possible and superimposition of its qualities also is not possible. What is the connection ? First he said etharethara bhava- real mutual transference is not possible. Therefore knowledge is not possible, samskara is not possible therefore adhyaasa is not possible.

This is the crux of Purvapaksha Bhashyam. Since real mutual transference is not possible so adhyaasa is not possible and in between you have to see the link - knowledge not possible, samskara not possible. Conversely, the superimposition of subject and its qualitieson on the object is not possible. So adhyasa of atma on anatma is not possible also. First it was said adhyaasa of anatma on atma is not possible. Now he is telling superimposition of atma and its qualitieson anatma is not possible. In other words superimposition of anatma & its qualities on atma and of atma & its qualities on anatma is not possible. Why ? Because really if they have combined sometime then knowledge , samskara is there. But they have never combined being opposite in nature. The other conditions are also implied. Sadrsyam, ajnatatvam is not there and also Pratyaksha Visaytvam is not there. It is asmat pratyaya gochara and is not available for objectification. Idam is available for objectification. Aham cannot be objectified. Therefore there is no material (samgrih) for adhyaasa. Adhyaasa of rope and snake is possible. Adhyasa of atma-anatma is not possible. If this accepted, your feeling I am karta, bhokta is not adhyaasa. I am limited, dukhi are all real. So accept this reality that you are limited. Accept the fact and do some good karmas and try to be happy. Bandhanam is real so knowledge cannot remove it. You have to do something else. Nothing happens without doing anything. Do something. Sastra gives you this yaga, that yaga. They all have limited ends, but you just do them. Then go to heaven and come back and do some more punya. You are a Jiva is the reality. Accept the reality and do karma. Jnanam cannot do anything. If jnanam cannot do anything, then vichara is useless and there is no need for Brahma Sutra. When there is no adhyaasa , place for knowledge is gone, then sastra study is not required. Brahma sutra which is analyses of the sastra is not required. Hence the Purvapakshi says, Brahma sutra na arambaniyam . Instead, you do upaasana, then the meditation will give you result of higher lokas. But don’t take the statement that you are Brahman seriously. It is like thinking you are Hercules. You will get a good feeling. It is a good exercise, but don’t take it seriously. This is the Purvapakshi contention. The Siddanti now answers the objections raised by the Purvapakshi. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Meaning of the Akshepa Bhashyam – Yushmat asmat pratyaya gocharayoho, visaya visayinoho, tamah prakashavad Of Object and subject revealed by You and I thought , like darkness and light Virudha svabhavayoho, etaraetar a bhavanupapatthau siddhyam , being opposite in nature ,their mutual transference is not tenable being established, taddharmanapi sutaram itaraetara bhavanupaatthih , the mutual transference of even their qualities is certainly not tenable, ithyathah asmatpratyaya gochare vishayini chidatmake therefore on the subject revealed by I thought which is of the nature of conciousness , yushmat pratyaya gocharasya vishayasya taddharmanam superimposition of object revealed by You thought and its qualities and viparyayena vishayinah taddharmanam cha vishaye conversely the subject and its qualities being superimposed on the object , adhyaaso mithyeti bhavitum yuktam. is denied. ie, It is not proper to say that adhyaasa is there.. IN SHORT –



TALK 7- SEPT 22 , 2006
This is the objection of Purvapakshi regarding atma-anatma adhyaasa. The Siddhanti is saying that jiva-bhava is based on adhyaasa and because of that there is suffering. But the Purvapakshi is not ready to accept that. According to Siddhanti that I am karta, bhokta is adhyaasa. But Purvapakshi says no. Who is really Purvapakshi ? Pratically our own mind is Purvapakshi. Adhyaasa is not accepted by our own mind. Our own mind is given some tools to argue about adhyaasa. This jiva - bhava based on atma-anatma adhyaasa is not accepted by the mind. The Purvapakshi contention in brief is that atma-anatma mixup is possible only when sometimes they have come together somewhere. If togetherness of atma has happened sometime, then only there is knowledge of togetherness and then samskara is created which gives rise to mixup. But Purvapakshi says that is not possible beause atma-anatma coming together is not possible to happen anytime. Because they have got opposite nature so they cannot be combined. Therefore there cannot be true knowledge – Prama. If prama is not there, samskara is not there and if samskara is not there, adhyaass is not possible. So ‘etharethare bhava anupathhih’ is the basis for denying adhyaasa. Since they cannot come together, so adhyaasa is not possible-‘mitheyti bhavitum uktham.’ It is not proper to say there is adhyaasa. So Purvapakshi says rope-snake adhyaasa is possible because this & snake have been together sometime. But atma-anatma have never been combinbed so adhyaasa is not possible. So Purvapakshi is not ready to accept that adhyaasa is theer. I am really karta, bhokta. Accept this reality and act accordimgly. Try to manage somehow, that is what our mind thinks. The Siddanti now answers the objections raised by Purvapakshi – Thathapi anyonyasmin anyonyatmakatam anyonya dharmah cha adhyasya itaretaravivekena atyantha viviktayoh dharmadharminoh mithyajnananimittah satyanruthe mithuni krtya ‘ahamidam, mamedam, iti naisargikoyam lokavyavaharah. Siddhanti’s answer to Purvapakshi – Siddhanti has strong answers so he need not be elaborate. His explanation is shorter than Purvapakshi’s objection. First we will understand the idea contained here and then we will go word by word. Idea contained in Siddhanti’s contention – Siddhanti is asking Purvapakshi, you are saying that atma-anatma adhyaasa is not there. What really bothers you in accepting adhyaasa ? There are 3 possibilities which can bother you to accept it. If there is a fourth one, you let me know. 1) There is no Samagrih for adhyaasa. Samagri abhavat - ingredients or factors necessary for adhyaasa are not there. Eg : You order masala dosa , it is possible because material is there.

Suppose you ask for steak, it is made of some meat – beef steak is possible. Suppose you ask for Dinosaur steak, that is not possible. Why? Samagri abhavath. Like dinosaur steak, samagrih for adhyaasa is not possible. This is the first possibility. 1) Sometimes Samagrih may be there, but Anubhava is not there. Eg : earth planet has one moon . Earth has samagrih to have 2 moons, but there is only one moon . So there is no anubhava . If something is experienced, then it is there. Since anubhavah is not there, adhyaasa is not there. 2) Atma-anatma adhyaasa is Ayukthathvat , ie, does not seem to be logical because they are opposite in nature. So o pram ano samskaraso illogical. So u want to say adhyaasa is not there because ayukthathvat. Do you want to say that ? So Siddhanti gives three basis to deny adhyaasa. Suppose you say all three of them are the reasons for adhyaasa not being possible, then we will answer all three objections and show how adhyaasa is possible. Siddhanti says, I will prove that Samagrih is there, anubhava is there but logicality is not there and that does not effect adhyaasa. 1) Let us discuss the first one which you have highlighted – Samagrih Abhavat. Four factors required for adhyaasa are not there in the case of atma anatma – pratyaksha vishayatvam, sadrsyam,agnatatvam and samskara. The Siddanti deals with each of these factors : a) For adhyaasa to happen there should be Pratyaksha Vishayatvam. But this condition you have misconceived. That condition is really there in a particular form. What you must say is that adhyaasa is possible if something is evident. But you should not say that it should be evident by sense organs. That is not necessary. Eg : When prescribing recipe you can say ,’put oil’. Why should you say put groundnut or postman oil or when coming to class bring a pen. But if I say bring Parker pen then I am partial . So I agree with that adhistanam should be evident. But it need not be evident by sense organs. Atma is self-evident. Nobody has doubt that I am. Everybody knows that. That is enough. You should say prakashmanah not indriya prakashamanah. You are adding an unnecessary extra condition. So your first condition Prakashamah we accept, but in its true sense without conditions. So Samagrih is there, not the way you want. Atma has Prakashamanatvam but not indriya prakashamanatvam. What is necessary is there, and what is not there is not necessary. So pratyaksha vishayatvam is not the condition but prakashamanatvam is the condition necessary for adhyaasa. That is there. b) Sadrsyam is not a necessary condition. Generally sadrsyam is there. Eg : between rope and snake, ghost and post there is sadrsyam, but it is not an inevitable condition. Because we do see adhyaasa, when sadrsyam is not there. Like blue sky. Really sky is colorless. Blueness is superimposed on the sky. There is no similarity between blueness and sky. Blueness is quality and sky is dravya. So similarity is not a necessary condition. We see that akasha which is nirupama (colorless) appears blue due to adhyaasa. We say sky is blue. Eg; Hanumanji was asked during Mahabharata war, how was Rama-Ravana yuddham . Hanumanji said - gaganam gaganatkaram, sagarath sagaradkaram, Rama ravanayoryudhah Rama-

Ravanayorva. Just like sky is like sky and ocean is like ocean. Rama– Ravana battle was like Rama -Ravana battle. There is no comparison. So in the case of atma-anatma case if sadrsyam is not there, then it is okay. c) Agnatatvam – Atma is known but not fully known. Sastra says atma is satchitananda. But my experience is I am small, limited person. So ajnanam regarding atma is there. Upanishad is talking about self-knowledge . So there must be ignorance of the self. It says you should get self-knowledge - tarati shokam atmavit. The knower of self crosses over grief. Sastra glorifies self -knowledge. If everybody knew this, then sastra would not have to say this. Suppose we said by food and drink one crosse over grief. Sruti does not say this. Our experience also shows that. From statement of sruti we know that self-knowledge is not there completely. So Agnatatavam is there. d) There should be Samskars for atma- anatma mixup to take place. Samskara is there, if true knowledge is there and true knowledge (prama) is there if atma-anatma were seen together sometime. So prama janya samskara is necessary for adhyaasa. That samagrih is not there. This is the Purapakshi’s contention. The Siddhanti replies that I agree with you that for adhyaasa to take place samskara should be there. For adhyaasa, samskara is required. For samskara to be there there should be previous experience. That is correct also. For samskara, anubhava is required, that is agreeable . But here you are saying that anubhava should be in the form of true knowledge-prama .That I do not agree. Samskara should be born of true knowledge only is not correct . Eg: there is a pot, so I should have true knowledge of pot. As the object , so is the knowledge. Yathartha anubhava-prama But there is another type of knowledge also which is called Ayathartha anubhava- brhma. There is pot outside and I see it as somethingelse. For eg : there is a male outside and I see a female. There is a rope outside and I see a snake. That anubhava is false knowledge misunderstanding. In Sanskrit it is called Bhrama. Both are anubhavah. Experience can be Prama or Bhrama -true knowedge or false knowledge. False knowledge means that the obect is not corresponding to my experience. But both are experiences only. Both can create samskaras. Eg. Suppose you see a rope outside as a snake and you run away, you will have impression of snake experience. Suppose there was a real snake, then also there is samskara. Suppose there is false snake, there is samskara, so samskara can be created form ayathartha anubhava or bhrama. Samskara can be from delusion also. Suppose you have seen a snake in a movie which is not real. You can superimpose that impression on the rope. Like a Dinosaur. We have not seen the real one, but we have seen it in the movie - Jurassic Park. Then when you see some huge building material at night , then it may appear to you as a huge dinosaur. Especially with childen this is possible. The superimposition of dinosaur on building material is due to Samskara born of Bhrama oly. It is born of unreal

experience or false knowledge. So false knowledge can also cause samskara which can give rise to adhyaasa. So don’t say that since adhyaasa is there, once upon a time atma-anatma should be really combined. Yes, there is nodoubt a mixup of atma-anatma now because that samskara of mix-up was there earlier. A present mistake can be there because of past mistake. Mistake need not be now. Why I am idiot now is because I was idiot before. So Siddhanti says samskara is needed for adhyaasa. But samskara is from ayathartha anubhava. Eg: Narendra Shak…...is called Narendra Modi . mixup in last name. Adhyaasa is so strong that you begin to believe that is his real name and convince others too ! I have this mixup now because they were taken to be together in the past by mistake. My present delusion is because of samskara which is due to previous delusion and so on and so on…. So when did this adhyaasa start ? The million dolar question. When did the mixup start ? When did I start taking myself to be a Jiva. For every sadhaka this question comes up. The answer is that the mistake never started, there was never a time that mistake was not there. Either it was in active form or dormant form. When I am asleep, I am karta, bhokta in dormant form. But when I get up I take up my kartrtvam and bhoktrtvam. There was never a time, when taking atma to be anatma and anatma to be atma was not there. That is why adhyaasa is Anaadi . My present samskara is due to previous adhyaasa. The previous adhyaasa is due to previous samskara - so adhyaasa-samskara,adhyaasa-samskara is anaadi. This present moment adhyaasa can have a beginning. It is based on previous samskara. But the flow of adhyasa –samskara is beginningless. When I am asleep taking myself to be Body-Mind-Sense complex is not there. So adhyaasa is not there, but samskara is there. When I get up my backache is still there. ‘ I got up’ is there. So adhyaasa-samskara parampara is annadi.. Never there was a time that samskara was created by Prama. It was created by Bhrama only. So Siddhanti’s contention is that for Samskara, Prama is not essential. Even Bhrama will also do. So atma-anatna need not really come together for adhyaasa. Without coming together you can have the experience of togetherness. Eg ; You can show yourself in front of Tajmahal or shaking hands with the Prime Minister. With Bhrama anything is possible. Really it need not be there. What matter is there should be experience. And that is there. Why I am fool now is because I was a fool earlier. So Samskara condition is also answered. So all 4 conditions are answered. i) Necessary Samagrih for adhyaasa is there. What you are talking about is not there, but required Samagrih is there. ii) Anubhava is there. We keep saying I am this..If u ask- Who is this ? We say, it is me…really the body is standing. But I say, I am standing. This is adhyaasah. Purvapakshi may ask , why do you call it adhyaasa. This experience , I am this body may not be adhyaasa.

Siddhanti replies, we can answer whether it is adhyasa or not based on two factors - Sastra and Experience. We say often my body is aching. There is simple logic that says, whatever is mine cannot be me. You do have the experience that, this is my body. Therefore it is different from you. Since it is different from you, you cannot say that - I am fat, lean, female etc.. but we do say this and mean it. Therefore u have the xperienc eof adhyaas. The experience I am the body is an experiemce of adhyaasa. I am a human being is also adhyaasa. Human beingness is a quality of the body. Therefore when I say, I am a human being what one means is, I am this body. We also say that, this is my father. Father-son relationship is based on body only. So all relationshipsmother,son, daughter.. are based on the body. We do not say this is this body’s mother. We really mean it is mine, so it bothers us a lot. So all this shows adhyaasa. To say mine, I have to fix mine. Considering myself to be the body, I have this relationship. So we have the experience of adhyaasa. So you cannot say that adhyaasa is not there. So adhyaasa anubhava is answered. I can say it even stronger based on sastra . Satsra says atma is asanghah - akarta, abhokta –ajanma –amrthyu. But my experience is, ‘ I celebrate my birthday. I am going to die – I have fear of death. I am mortal. I am karta, bhokta. But Sastra’s vision is I am akarta abhokta, ajanma…. Sastra is right . So I must have false notion about myself. So anubhava is there. My experience of being mortal, having birth is due to adhyaasa. Fact is I am akarta, abhokta… So second basis is also ruled out. So first was samagrih abhavat adhyaasah nasti. Second was anubhava abhavat adhyaasah nasti. Now the third is adhyaasa ayukthatvateva . Adhyaasa is not logical which we shall see.

Sept 29 Fri-holiday Oct 6- Talk 8
(The crux of Purvapakshi contention is that atma and anatma are of opposite nature. Therefore they can never be combined and since they cannot be combined, true knowledge of combination cannot be there and therefore samskara born of this knowledge is not there. Since samskara is not there adhyaasa is not there. This is the chain presented in Akshepa bhashyam. Ofcourse Sadrsyam is not here because their nature is opposite. Ajnatatvam is not there and pratyaksha vishayatvam is not there. I, Atma is asabdam, asparsham. Therefore it is not available for perception. Therefore all 4 conditions are not there. Siddanti posed three possibilities, why adhyaasa could not be possible1) Samagrih abhavat. Necessary material or conditions for adhyaasa is not there. Eg: Dinosaur steak. But even this is a limited example. Dinosaur is not there now, since dinosaur is not there so you cannot make steak of it. But once upon a time dinosaur was there and steak could be made. So

it is not a perfect example. Better example would be flower vase made of flowers grown in the sky not in the pot. That type of flowers is not available at any time. So Samagrih abhavat means that the material is not there at all. So Siddhanti says do you mean to say that adhyaasa is like a flower vase which is not possible because samagrih is not there ? Another possibility is that adhyaasa is not possible because Anubhava is not there. Samgrih is there but Anubhava is not there. Eg : Earth has material for making two moons, but earth does not have a second moon. Do you mean to say that there is no adhyaasa because there is no experience of atma ? Third possibility is that Adhyaasa is not logical. Therefore it is not there. Eg: Resurrection of Jesus Christ. They say he came back to life. But this is not possible because somebody who is dead cannot be made alive again. It is illogical. So do you want to say that adhyaasa is not possible because it is illlogical like circular square which is not there. So these are the three possibilities. The first two have ben already refuted earlier. i) For adhyaasa samagrih is there. We checked all four conditions required. Pratyaksha Vishayatvam needs to be redefined. We do not need Pratyaksha vishayatvam, but it shoud be evident-prakashamanah. The factors on which adhyaasa is done should be evident, it need not be indriya pratyaksha. Eg : Postman oil. Oil is needed not necessary it should be postman brand. ii) Sadrsyam is not necessary. Because without sadrsyam also adhyaasa is possible. Eg: blue sky. There is adhyaasa of color blueness on entity sky. iii) We also saw there is agnatatavam about atma iv) Samskara for adhyaasa is there. But the samskara is not born of Prama but of Bhrama . Samskara can be born of bhrama-delusion. It need not be born of prama. That is why atmaanatama need not really come together to create samskara of togetherness. Even though there was a delusion of atma-anatma coming together, that delusion can create samskara of togetherness of atma-anatma. What we need for adhyaasa is samskara of togetherness of atma-anatma and that samskara can be born of delusion also. For confusion of atma-anatma we need samskara of togethereness of atma-anatma which can be born of delusion. Now I have delusion regarding atma-anatma which is born of samskara and that samskara is born of previous delusion and that previous samskara is born of previous previous delusion. There can be a parampara of bhramasamskara-bhrama-samskara-bhrama-samskara..( flow of delusion-impression-delusionimpression). When did it start? It never started. This sort of flow has been there since time beginningless. What do we mean by beginningless time? There was never a time when the flow was not there. There was no t ime which was charaterised by the absence of this flow. This is what is called anaaditvam of this parampara . When we say that this bhrama-samskara parampara is anaadi,

what it means is there never was a time when this flow was not there. It never started, it was always there. With this the samagrih (material) part is covered. All 4 conditions of adhyaasa are there. Whatever necessary is there and whatever is not there is not necessary. 2) Anubhava is there. I do this vyavahara when I say, I am this body. I may not even say that I am this body. But my vyavahara suggests that. Taking myself to be this body is adhyaasa. So there is experience of adhyaasa.When I say I am fat, thin, brahmana, kshatriya,intelligent, dull ,…all indicate adhyaasa. How do you say this is adhyaasa and not prama. Because the truth is I am not the body. You yourself say this, this is my body, my body cannot be me. I am mortal, I am this body indicates adhyaasa. Based on scriptures it is very easy to prove that there is adhyaasa. Sastra clearly says that atma is different fromt his body. Sastra says Atma is akarta, abhokta, asangha and my experience is I a am karta, bhotkta, sanghi. Ther e is experience of adhyaasa. This is my father is based on the relationship with this body only- aham idam mama idam iti .. So based on anubhava we cannot deny adhyaasa. 3) Third point is ayukthathvam. Yuktham means logical. Yukthathvam means logicality and Ayukthathvam is non-logical or illlogical . But I prefer the word non-logical. Siddanthi asks Purvapakshi you are not accepting adhyaasa because it is not logical. Our tendency is to accept something ony if it is logical. Being a rational being we accept only what is logical . You are saying so many things which do not seem logical – Anaadi- samskar-anaadi samskara. This annadi is difficult to swallow. It does not seem to be logical. Then also Sadrsyam is not there and you say it is okay. So it is not tightly logical. Therefore I do not accept adhyaasa. Now Siddhanti says, one thing is that logic has got its own limitations. We have so many paradoxes. I will give a few examples.You must have heard the statement, Every rule has got an exception. Like water, generally when it is boiled its vloume increases. But below 4 degrees it does not happen. It is called irregular or anamolous expansion of water. All laws we find have exceptions. Eg : all angles of triangles total to 180 degress. There are some triangles –sphecrical triangles-180 degrees which will never have 180 degres. So it is an exception. So this stamement is saying, every rule has an exception. Now this statement itself is a rule. If we apply this rule to this statement., then this rule also has an exception. What is the exception to this rule? If this rule has exception means, there will be some rules that will not have exception. Then what is the exception to this rule that there is some rules which have no exception. So whathappens to the original rule . So we keep on at it. We can never come out of it. Another simpler example- Suppose I say, every sanyasi tells lies all the time. This is a statement made by a sanyasi. A sanyasi makes this statement that, all sanyas are liars forever. Now how

are you going to analyse this statement. The statement is simple. But this statement is made by a sanyasi. So this statement also must be a lie. So if this statement is a lie, then what it means is that sanyasis do not tell lies. So you will remain all the time in this only. Then how do you interpret this statement? Another example - the door is half closed, then it will be half open. If it is fully closed it should be fully open.That is not true. Theseare all fun for the intellect. So these examples are just to tell you that logic has got its own limitations. But this type of statement we can make only if we have a thorough knowledge of logic. Only those who have grasped what logic is, that person alone can understand the limitation of logic. Otherwise even a dull person will say that logic is useless. Because he does not understand it. It is not grape sourism. Like some people oppose English because they do not understand it. It should not be like that. I have understood well what logic can do, how logic can help and at the same time I know it has got its own limitations. All this understanding is just to begin with. This is not the answer but just to make Purvapakshi humble since he is jumping with logic, logic. Further we say, just because something is not logical you canot deny its experience. Something is not logical still it can be experienced, but it can be unreal . So Purvapskhi says something is not logical. It does not exist at all. It cannot come to your experience at all. But Siddhanti says that just because something is not logical we cannot say it does not exist. It can exist But it can be unreal. So its being illogical only proves that it helps us to see that it is unreal. O pruvapakshi, by attempting to prove adhyaasa is not logical you have helped me. I also say that adhysaasa is not logical. It should not happen but it has happened. And since it has happened we cannot deny it. Eg: Suppose your understanding of marriage expenses is that marrieage is possible only if you have Rs 50000 to 1 lac. Someone comes and say that I got married. Did u have 50-1 lac ? No, but I got marrid. How can that be possible? You need 50-1 lac to be married . He says well whether you accept it or not, here is my wife..Nahi drste anuppanam nama. When something is experienced you cannot deny based on it not being logical. Many things we experience which is not based on logic. Like you tell Swamiji, you told me to remember and bring something from home and by mistake I kept it at the door . Really when I pass the door I should see it, but still I do not bring it. It does not seem logical. How can you forget ?. This is what I am. Like the husband many times asks his wife, how can you misunderstand me? How many times I have proved I am not like that. But misundertsandanding happens. Many things if you logically analyse you will miserably fail, but still you cannot deny its experience. For eg: Nobody can deny you are here as a person. You have a father or mother. You cannot be here without your parent being there. So a child can be there only if the parent is there. Similarly your parent’s are there because he or she had a parent. So every parent has to have a parent. So you go back. You had a father- because you had grandfather-because you had great grandfather.-great great grandfather. Keep on going back. How will you establish the first father? Because the logic is every parent has to have a parent. You can say our sastra says, God is our first father. So you have shifted the paradigm . Logically you cannot establish any entity to be the first parent. How do you say God is first father. Why not God have a father? Logically you cannot establish even God as the first parent. Yes, we go to another pramanam-Sastra

Pramanan to establish that. This means without establishing first parent you are accepting your existence which is not true by logic. Logically you should be here only if first parent is established. But can you deny your existence? You are here now. So do not say, I don’t accept anything which is not logical. You have accepted that you are there. Otherwise you have to say that I am not here. Since the first parent is not logically established you are not there. This is alos logic. So logically we prove logic does not work. Another example, you are different from your sibling. You are very quiet, whereas your brother and sister are very rajasic or tamasic. You are of A category and they are of B category. You may say that we are different because we got different exposure or due to genes. Still why was his genes like this ? Theory of natural selection. That is not logical. The simple fact is that you are different in character and disposition than your brother or sister. But you cannot prove it logically. So you cannot prove the difference logically, but it is still there. So Mr Purvapakshi do not insist too much that something has to be logical for it to come to your experience. Therefore ayukthathvm, ie, not being logical is not a basis for denial of adhyaasa. Adhyaasa can be there but need not be logical. Infact we celebrate that it is not logical. Why ? Since it is not logical we can enquire into its true nature. It should not be there logically, but it is there. So it must be unreal and since it is unreal, it can go by knowledge. That is why it is said, jnanena mokshah which is our Siddhanta. So Purvapakshi you have helped us by showing that adhyaasa is not logical. Just because it is not logical, it is still experienced . Since it is not logical it motivates us to enquire and we discover it is unreal. We do not say that atma-anatma have really been mixed up. We say that atma-anatma are taken to be together, but they have not really become one with the other. Logically it is not true, atma becoming anatma. But we are saying that they appear to be one with each other. The experience is possible.. We understand your objection, but it does not affect the experience of adhyaasa. Your contention is that it is not logical. It cannot be there. But experientially it can happen. For example, you read a word two -three times, but you still read something else. You read it wrongly. It should not happen but it happens. The Siddhanti has got the maturity to accept that something can be illogical and experientially it can be there. This needs a lot of maturity. Our orientation is that if something is not logical it cannot exist. Based on this many husbands have problems with there wife. Why do you cry, why do you misunderstand? Logically I am doing what a husband should do. But he should know that convention does not work here, The fact is she cries. Your logic is if you bring more wealth, more ornaments, sarees she should be happy. But it does not work. So we should be mature enough to see this. A wise person is so mature that in his vision there is no problem at all. That’s what Pujya Swamiji says that in Vedanta there is no problem at all. But when someone comes to him he does not say that there is no problem why areyou crying. He does not say that. He acknowledges or validates the problem , then only you can help the person to discover that his problem is due to wrong perception. If you dismiss it outrightly , that is foolish. Then you are going to add one more adjective to him. I am not only limited, small, but I am foolish also. In practical life Siddanti can say that Ayuktahthvam alankarah iti bhavah.. It should not be there but it is there, that particular point is expressed by this one expression tathapi.


So three points are discussed in the Samadhana bhashyam –Samagrih abhavat, Anubhava abhahat, Yukthathva abhavat. All 3 are answered . The essence of Siddanti’s answer is that adhyaasa is there because samagrih is there, anubhava is there and its not being logical does not effect its experience. Now let us see the words of Samadhana BhashyamTathapi - nevertheless, yet. Because Purvapakshi had told that because of these reasons adhyaasa shd not be there. Adhyaasa being not there looks proper, logical. Since this was the stmt of purvapakshi, so siddhanti is saying taathap. Menas eben though adhyaas ais not logical yet it is there.this is indicated by the word tathapi. Since tathapi is ther ewe shd supply theowrd adhyapi-even though. Even though adhyasa does not seem logical yet it is there. How do u say it is there? Loka vyavaharah-see the exression of people. Expression can be of 2 types in this context(usually 4)-mental expression-thinking . The other is verbal expression. See the mental thinking-aham idam and mama dam I am this and this is mine . what I am thinking at mental level. I am this –anatma. I am this BMC and all these things which are related to the BMC are mine. This is the thinking which is there. Even at the verbal level I say I am fat, lean, man, woman .So both manasa vyavahara and vacika vyavahra indicate adhyaasa. The main sentence is –thathathapi adhyasya loka vyavahara nevertheless there is experience of the world only after having done adhyaasa. So loka vyavahara is done after dhyaash. All my mental and verbal exression is ther eonlya fter adhyaasah.they presuppose or imply adhyaasa. I will not consider myself to be mortal, fat unless I mstake atma for anatma. So this confusion is there is indicate dby my vyavahara.having superimposed atma on antma and anatma on atma there is adhyaasa. Haing superimposed (adhyasya) there is anyonasmin- on each other, anyonatmakatam-each togetherness ie, superimposing each otherness on each other . Not only each otherness even qualities of each other are superimposed on each other.

Oct 13 - Talk 9
(Last class we dealt with Ayukthathvam. Purvapakshi said that adhyaasa should not be there. It is not logical. Adhyaasah mityeti bhavitum yuktam. It is proper that adhyaasa should not be there .The Siddanti answers this. He wants to say that you are dismissing adhyaasa . What is the reason ? Siddanti presents three possibilities- Is it because samagirh is not there? Or is it because there is anubhava abhavat ? If something is not experienced we cannot accept. Like akasha-pushpa cannot be experienced, so we cannot accept. Third is ayukthathvam. Adyaasa does not seem to be logical. Generally we accept only what is logical. You are not excepting adhyaasa because it is not logical ? If these three possibilities are answered then you have to accept adhyaasa. This is the idea. First posibility - Samagri abhavat was answered elaborately. We saw the four conditions necessary - Pratyaksha vishayatvam, sadrsyam, ajnatatvam and samskara. We saw necessary

samagrih in the necessary form is there. What is required is there and what is not there is not required. We have to establish that if something is required and is not there , it is not a problem. If I don’t need washing machine or TV and it is not there it does not bother me. This is a very important thing to understand in our life , then a lot of our problems will not be there. Next anubhava abhavat was answered. Experience of adhyaasa is there. Aham idam mama idam I am this body , this is mine that is my experience. This is my father, my mother that experience is there. Unless I accept this body I cannot accept the people related to ths body as mine. If I take this body to be I , then only I can accept somebody as my father, mother, son… even husband and wife relationship is with respect to my body only. Suppose my spouse dies and she comes in a ghost form. Will I embrace her ? No. Why because my relationship with her was there as long as this body was there. Yavat pavano nivasati dehe….as long as bod is there, till then relationships. Once it is gone, there is no more relationships. So all relationships are based on identification with this body. When I consider myself to be this body then only relationship is there. If I do not consider myself to be this body then relationship has no meaning. Suppose I consider somebody as my wife or husband then her/his relationship become my relatives. There is a nice joke - Once a husband and wife were going on the road . There was a group of donkeys. Husband said they are your relatives. Wife covering her head answered, ‘ yes after marriage ’ ! So as long as I consider someone to be my husband, then his relatives are mine. Afterwards they are not. We say former husband, he is no more present husband. This mamakara indicates identification with this body. This vyavahara - I am this, this is mine indicates that there is adhyaasa. The fact is I am not the body. My own experience shows I am not the body. At times I say this is my body. In dream this body is not there, still I am there. Therefore I am not this body but I do take myself to be this body. That is adhyaasa. I take all that is related to this body as my things, my people. Every vyavahara indicates adhyaasa. No vyavahaara is possible without this adhyaasa being there. So it is not something to be discussed in the classroom. No vyavahara is possible without this adhyaasa being there. I am teaching indicates that I have assumed this role and there is identification with this body. Don’t think just the statement - I am fat, I am male - only indicates adhyaasa . Really all vyavahara indicates adhyaasa. I am this mind, I am this intellect, I am sense organs are all adhyaasa. So adhyasya vyavaharah. There is experience so you cannot deny the experience. So anubhava abhavat is not there. Third is yukthathvam - logicality. Purvapakshi says adhyaasa is not possible because it is not logical. Siddanti’s answer is that something may not be logical but still it can come to your experience. Something is not logical , it may not be real. So not being logical is not an obstacle in accepting adhyaasa. What do I mean by adhyaasa being non-logical ? Logical means following conventional logic. Generally we think something can be superimposed when you have seen the real one. You can superimpose snake on rope only if you have seen the real snake. But experience of adhyaasa does not follow conventional logic, in that sense it is not -logical. If you are able to accept non-

conventional logic then it appears logical. We ar explaining how adhyaasa is taking place. But it is not conventional expalanation of logic, ie, it does not follow conventional pattern. So therefore we say it is not logical. Like in maths we have some general rules. One rule is , if any number is divided by the same number, it is equal to 1. Eg: 5/5=1 ,3/3 =1. But suppose I say 0/0 . The answer is infinity not one . Now I want to shake my example. Suppose I think zero is not a number. But colloquially we say somebody is earning a five digit salary when they want to say he is earning 1 lac. So zero must be a number. Infact Indians are proud that Zero was invented in India. Generally when we add 2 numbers it should be double- 2+2 =4. But Infinity + infinity is infinity. So zero, infinity etc have a different status. Similarly adhyaasa does not follow your conventional logic. It does not matter. Many things we find even though it is not established in logic still it is the object of our experience. Like establishing myself as an individual, I cannot establish my first father. Whenever I say that this is my first father, I take it arbitrarily. We say Bhagvan is first father. But this statement is not arrived at through logic. It is through sastra pramanan. Logically we can say , why not God also have a father. But logically there is no answer. We have to say somewhere we have to stop so let us stop with God.. It is a nice point to stop. So logically we cannot establsh first father, still we accept that we are there. My experience as individual is not established without first father being there. But still we accept this. This is just to begin with. But afterwards anything you really thoroughly analyse you do not get any logical answer. There is no real logical certainty. Initially we just give examples where the absence of logicality is very strking and afterwards we find that we cannot establish anything logically. Another example of non-logical : You have your pecularities and idiosyncarcies. Why I am like this is because of my past and that was there because of previous past and this goes on. You cannot say we were all equal and we then changed. Why did we change then ? Cannot be established logically. Fact remains that you have some qualities and I have others.Your disposition is different , mine is different . I committed a crime and you do not. The fact remain my disposition is different fom yours. The cause cannot be established but still we accept it. When the cause is not known how can we accept it. You are Leo and I am Virgo. We have difference but we cannot establish it logically. So adhyaasa not being logical does not matter. We can say that since it is not logical, it is mithya. And since it is unreal it can be dismissed by knowledge. So Purvapakshi is helping the Siddanti by showing that adyaasa is not logical. Infact we are happy about it. Thus ayukthathvam also is answered. This is the essence of Samadhana bhashyam - anubhava is there, samagrih is there and ayukthathvam does not matter. Thus adhyaasa is established. Let us see the word meaning of the Samadhana Bhashyam –

Tathapi – nevertheless, yet. We have to supply adhyapi - even though .
Even though adhyaasa does not seem to be logical nevertheless having done adhyasya alone there is loka vyavahara.

Adhyasya Loka vyavaharah - means lokaanam vyavaharah and vyavahara means mental
and verbal exression. Mentally I think in this way -aham idam and mama idam. Aham idam iti vyavaharah and mama idam iti vyavaharah. Having done adhyaasah there is this expression that , I

am this and this is mine. When we say idam, it is vastuthah not pratitithah. Really it is idam. But I do not feel it that way. I am this . Thisness of this body is really not felt all the time. Feeling-wise I don’t experience it all the time that I am this body. Body is this is not felt all the time. But this is the reality. Not only the body, even the sense organs that is why I say , I see or I do not see. I need glasses to see. I am taking these sense organs to be I. I say, I am very loving. Accepting myself as this mind I say, I am of average intelligence. How much identification with the intellect. In saying you don’t know one should be very careful. That is why teacher’s job is very difficult. The students ego should not be hurt. Now we are little more touchy than before. Earleir if teacher said you are a fool, you just accepted it. So I am intelligent or dull all indicate adhyaasa. So one has to see how all-pervasive this adhyaasa is. I take myself to be karta. I am singing or you sing well. Singing is the job of throat and the mind behind it. But I say thank you for praising me. Again adhyaasa. You cook well. This is karmendriya’s job. But I say thank you. I accept that I am a good cook. You look bright. Thank you. So every thank you is accepting adhyaasa. We can continue to say thank you but the mind behind should understand it is adhyaasa. All vyavaharas are based on this conclusion. This conclusion that I am body, mind senses….Having this concludion alone you act. Whatever is connected wth the body I consider to be mine. It is an extension to my body. My son has got exam , I am worried. My daughter is worried, I am worried. All adhyaasa. Eg: one girl who was studying for her MBBS said that since she was not worried about the exam this time her father was worried ! Why . Generally she is worried and since she was not worried this time, her father thought she had given up hopes of passing the exams. So much identification , mamakara - My son, my daughter.We live our life through our children and their achievement give us self worth. I am great because my son is great. All adhyaasa - mama idam. Not only that since I consider myself to be this body anyting which is conducive to this body I will have raga towards that. And anything which is hostile to this body, I will have dvesha towards that . Eg: This soap is soft to my skin-raga . This one is hard on my skin-dvesha. Similarly I have identification with the mind. So If somebody hurts me I have dvesha towards that person. If somebody says I love you I feel raga towards that person. It is not really I love the person. I love being loved by that person. So when identification with the mind is there, whatever is conducive to the mind becomes my raga and whatever is non-conducive becomes my dvesha. So aham idam mama idam leads to raga dvesha, raga dvesha leads to desire. Eg: This cream is very conduvive to my body. So even if it is available in New Zealand I will get it. They say that in UK, etc lunch, dinner comes from other countries. They are very particular. There is identifiation with the tongue and the taste buds which creates desire. Desire leads to karma. Karma can be dharma rupa or adharma rupa. Generally I try to fulfill by fair means but if it does not work then unfair is OK. When we do adharma or tell a lie, it is because there is some pressure. One has to see this fact. Nobody wants to tell a lie. But we end up telling a lie. Eg: In sanskrit class, students sometimes that they do not want to read their sentence, so they tell a lie that they have not written . They feel if they read it every one will laugh. Really you should be completely exposed to your teacher, then you are safe. Then only the teacher knows what you

know and what you don’t know. Then he will teach accordingly. Suppose you hide your area of ignorance, then you are the loser. In samsara we are used to hiding our ignorance. We do guesswork and when we come to Vedanta we do the same thing unfortunately. The main point here is that the pressure of desire makes us compromise with our dharma. So we try to fulfil our desire with dharmic ways or adharmic ways. And dharma and adharma will create punya-papa. Punya-papa again will create punar-janma sukha dukha- sukha dukha will create raga dvesharaga-dvesha will again create desire- desire ceates karma- karma again punya papa and therefore you are in Samsara.

The order is adhyaasa aham idam mama idam iti vyavaharah - raga dvesha, iccha, karma, punya papa,sukha dukha, samsarah. So adhyaasa is not just some intellectual or
philosophical exercise. It is relevant every moment , in every vyavahara of your life. Then only your studying of adhyaasa bhashyam has paid off. It is not meant for writing notes or recording only. These are helpful. But it should help to see how becauseof adhyaasa you are suffering. You must keep seeing this. So adhyasya loka vyavahaarah. Now Bhagvan bhashyakara says what is the nature of adhyaasa ? Anyonya asmin, anyona atmakatam - What is superimposed and where. Anyonya asmin- in each other means in atma and anatma. Anyonya atmakatam- eachotherness. On atma non-selfness is superimposed and on anatma selfness is superimposed. Means I the self am taken as anatma and anatma is taken for atma. The status is interchanged. In atma anatmakatam is superimposed and in anatma atmkatam is superimposed. Atmakatam means nesstatvam . When I say, I am this. In atma anatmakatam is superimposed and when I say, this is me, then in anatma selfness is superimposed. This is called dharmi adhyaasa –superimpositon of entities. They are mistaken for eachother. But we do not end up with just dharmi adhyasa only. Next anyonya dharmascha. We also superimpose qualities of each other, ie qualities are interchanged, atma’s qualities are superimposed on anatma and anatma’s qualities are superimposed on atma. Therefore I say, chetanah aham gachami. I am a conscious entity who is walking. Chetanah is the qualtity of atma and going is the quality of the body. Body alone goes. I do not think the two things seperately. In my mind there is one composite rentity. I the conscious entity is going. Chetan belongs to atma and going belongs to anatma and they are both mixed up and this mixed-up entity is called Jiva. Atma-anatma mix-up is Jiva. Jiva is like a salad which has minimum two things. That salad has come about because of adhyaasa. This mix- up is not real. It is not that atma is really combined together with anatma or vice versa. They are taken to be together. They have not really come togther but they are taken to be together. That is why Siddanti is telling Purvapakshi you are right that atma-anatma having come together is not logical. But they are taken to be together . This is possibe. For eg: in this room elephant cannot come. Because we don’t have big doors. But I say that I experience an elephant in this room. That is possible. There could be a movie elephant or some huge picture of elephant which I took as real. So logically adhyaasa not possible but experientially it is possible. So really atma-anatna cannot combine, but they are taken to be together, that is what is said here. Anyonya asmin anyonya atmakatam anyonea dharmascha is connected with adhyasya vyavahara .


So two types of adhyaasa - anyonya asmin anyonya atmakatam is dharma adhyaasa and anyonya dharmascha is dharma adhyaasa. Both type of adhyasa have taken place. –dharma and dharmi adhyaasa. Having done this adhyasa there is vyavaharah. In grammar, adhyasya is ‘yat ‘prayoga like anubhuya, prakrtya, visrajya. It means having done . What causes dharma and adharmi adhyaasa ? That is said in the next line-itaretaravivekena. Aviveka is absence of viveka. So what is viveka ? Discriminating knowledge of atma and anatma is Vivekah. Aviveka means absence of discriminating knowledge of self and non-self and due to this aviveka there is adhyaasa. Aviveka of what ? There is aviveka between two dharma’s and two dharmi’s which are completely different. –atyanta vivikthayo. . Like for eg: the clip is called dharmi and blue color is called dharma. So dharma-dharminaho. There is no discriminatin between 2 dharmis in the form of atma and anatma and there is no discrimination between 2 dharmas. This should be interpreted carefully. Missing the distinction between two dharmis is called dharmi aviveka and missing the distinction between two dharmas is called dharma aviveka. Distinction of what ? Athyanta viviikthayoho. Who are completely different. So atma amd anatma are completely distinct like tama-prakashavat. Not only the two dharmis are different dharmas are also completely differet. The svarupa of atma is chaitanyam, nirvikarah and nature of anatma is jadam, savikarah. So even though they are both completely distinct, their distinction is missed. There is aviveka- So missing the mutual distinction between the atma and anatma dharmi and atmaanatma dharma is called itaretaraviveka. Itaretara means eachother.That is the nimmitta for adhyasa to take place. Why is there mutual superimposition because I do not know atma or anatma clearly. If I knew that I was Nirvikarah, Chaitanya Atma then this superimposition will not be there with Jada, Savikarah anatma. Because the distinction is missed there is adhyaasa. Therefore etaretara vivekena (3rd case indicates reason) due to aviveka there is adhyaasa. So Bhagvan Bhasyakara is saying, there is a reaon for adhyaasa and the cause is aviveka. If viveka is there then it will not be there. So the cause for adhyaasa is there -missing the gap is due to aviveka. The meaning of the words studied till now : Tathapi, Anyonyasmin anyonyatmakatam anyonya dharmascha, itaretaravivekena atyanta viviktayoho dharma dharminoho, naisargi koyam aham idam mama idam iti adhyasya loka vyavaharah. Nevertheless yet missing the distinction between the two distint entities and also their qualities there is superimposition of each otherness on each other and superimposition of each others qualities on each other, having superimposed there is vyavahara that ‘ I am this and this is mine’. The remaining words- Satyanrte mithuni krtya……we will see later.


Oct 20 – Ques and answers 1) What does tathapi mean and what does it suggest ? Tathapi - nevetheless . Even though adhyaasa does not seem to be proper, yet it is there. ie, The non-logicality of adhyaasa does not effect the experience of adhyaasa. 2) Two types of adhyaasa- dharma and dharmi adhyaasa . Which words suggest dharmi adhyaasa and which words suggest dharma adhyaasa? Anyonyasmin and anyonyatmakatam suggest dharmi adhyaasa Anyonya dharmascha indicates dharma adhyaasa. 3) What is the meaning of iterataravivekena ? Due to non-discrimination between each other, there is adhaasya. Missing the gap between atma and atma. That is the connection-iterataravivekena adhyasya Aviveka between what ? two entities or two qualities. 4) What is dharma dharminoho mean ? Aviveka between 2 dharmis (entities) or 2 dharmas ( types of qualities).ie, missing the distinction between two entities (atma and anatma) and also between their qualities. 3) Athyanta vivikthayoho – between two completely distinct entities or totally distinct dharmas. 4) Loka Vyavahara - verbal and mental expressions of the people. Two types of vyavaharamanasika and vachika vyavahara which is in the the form of the expression, aham idam or mama idam. The idea is - Itaretara avivekena adhyasya loka vyvaharah . Due to aviveka there is adhyaasa and because of adhyaasa there is loka vyavahara - I am this and this is mine.

Oct 20- talk 10
The Siddanti’s contention till now is – Atyanta viviktayoho dharmadharminoho itaretaravivekena, Anyonyasmin anyonyatmakatam anyonya dharmascha adhyasya, aham idam mama idam iti loka vyvaharah. The idea presented so far is There is aviveka –absence of discriminative knowledge - between two totally distinct dharmis and two totally distinct dharmas and due to that itaretara aviveka there is adhyaasa. What type of adhyaasa ? dharmi adhyaasa and dharma adhyaasa. Superimposing each otherness on each other. And superimposing each others qualities on each other. Then there is vyvaharah, Steps indicated are aviveka - adhyaasa - vyvahara. There is aviveka. Aviveka is missing the gap between atma and anatma . Because of aviveka there is adhyaasa and []based on adhyaasa there is vyavahara.


We now have to see one more word - satyanrte mithuni krtya. We have said anyonya asmin anayonya atmakatam - means superimposing anatma on atma and atma on anatma. It means both are adhyastha. Yat adhyastham tat mithya bhavati. Whatever is superimposed is unreal. Like rope–snake. Rope-snake is superimposed. And therefore on the wake of knowledge of rope the snake is dismissed. Dismissed means that it really does not exist. Whatever is adhyastha will be mithya. Here we are saying anyonyasmin anyonyatmakatam adhyasya ----we are saying atma is superimposed on anatma and anatma on atma. So both are adhyastha and in the wake of knowledge both are dismissed. Everything either comes under atma or anatma category. So when both are dismissed , what remain is zero. Sunya vada prasanghah. This is called Nihilism = Nothing exists. In Sanskrit it is called Sunya vada. In one group of Buddha’s philosophy the reality is sunya. Atma and anatma are both mithya so the reality is zero. After so much analysis what we come up with is zero. Not a good preposition. To dismiss this possibility it is said-satyanrte mithuni krtya. Mixing up satya and mithya there is vyavahara. This expression indicates adhyasya. Both adhyasya and satyanrte mithuni krtya ultimately mean the same. Adhyaasa alone is presented in another form. Adhyaasa can be presented in 3 diff ways – i) Adhistana angle -miscomprehending or mistaking the adhistana ; ii) Adhyastha angle – superimposition is the mistake. iii) Combination of both adhyastha and adhistana . Then the definitionof adhyasa will be satya anrte mithuni krtya. In this adhyaasa there is one amsha which is satya and one amsha which is mithya. Mixng up of satya and mithya is adhyaasa. On wake of knowledge, satya will continue only mithya will be dismissed. So sunya vada wll not be there. Like in rope-snake example - This is a snake. This is which is idam amsha is satyam and snake is mithya. On wake of knowledge snake is dismissed. Then what we say is, this is a rope or this is not a snake. Even on dismissal of sarpatva, what continues is this is . Idam amsha which is satya continues. Sarpa amsha which is mithya is dismissed. In adhyaasa there is combination of satya and mithya. So when mithya is dismissed satyam continues. So there is no sunya vada. Like sarpa is dismissed, idam continues. Similarly in atma-anatma adhyaasa atma is satyam and antama is mithya. On wake of knowledge, anatma being mithya is definitiely dismissed but atma being satyam, it is not dismissed. Even after knowledge of reality, atma which is satyam continues. Therefore there is no sunyavada prasanghah. Here again a question wll come. If atma is satyam and anatma is mithya and they alone combine then how do you say, anyon asmin anyon atmakatam adhyasya. Main quesion will remain. Atma is satyam and satyam cannot be adhyasta. In rope -snake example we cannot say rope is adhyastha. What we should say is -Atmani anatmanath and anatma dharmascha adhyaasah -On atma there is adhyaasa of anatma and the qualities of anatma. That is what we generally say, but when we study adhyaasa bhasyam, we are more precise. So question would be if atma is satyam it will not be adhyasta, then why do you say, anyonya asmin….


For that the answer is - there are 2 types of adhyaasa – Svarupa adhyaasa and Sansarga adhyaasa. Svarupa adhyaasa - when something was not there before and will not be there on the wake of knowledge . But only during adhyaasa it is appearing, that thing is said to be Svarupatha Adhyaasa. Like when you are seeing snake on the rope, the snake was not there before and will not be there on the wake of knowledge. But when you are seeing now, that time alone it is there. Then that snake is said to be Svarupathah Adhyaasa . When the entity itself is superimposed then it is called svarupa adhyaasa. Sansarga adhyasa- Suppose there is a crystal and near the crysal there is a red flower. Because of the red flower, the crystal appears to be red. Red color is superimposed upon the crystal . Red does not belong to crystal, but we say, it is red crystal. Crystal is really colorless . But it appears to be red. The redness is adhyasta for the crystal . But the red color really exists. The red color itself is not superimposed. Only the connection of the red color to the crystal is superimposed. The red color is there but it is connected with the flower, but we are connecting it with the crystal. Sansargah means connection. The connection of red color with crystal is superimposed. That type of adhyaasa is called Sansarga Adhyasa. The red color will continue even in the wake of knowledge. So when entity is there, but its connection with something else is superimposed, then that type of adhyaasa is called Sansarga Adhyaasa. This is not the same as dharma-dhami adhyaasa. (Whether dharma is there or not, it does not matter.) When anatma itself is mithya, then its dharma is not there. Here we say red color is there but red colors connection with crystal is not there. Entity itself is not mithya, but entities connection - tadatmya samabandha - relationship in form of identity is superimposed. In rope–snake example , rope snake itself is not there. It is not as if rope is there and snake is sitting on the rope and we thought rope is snake. Here the entity and naturally its qualities are superimposed. That is not the case here . Entity is there , but only the connection is superimposed. What matters is whether it is there or not. Dharmi adhyaasa can be Svarupa Adhyaasa. Or dharma can be Svarupa Adhyaasa. Like bluenss in vicinity of sky is not there. It is superimposed. But this does not mean there is an equation between them. Eg; suppose we make one division based on male and female and the other division based on educated and uneducated. That does not mean male is educated and female is uneducated. So similarly dharmi-dharma can be Svarupa or Sansarga adhyaasa but one is not equal to the other. Dharmi does not equal svarupa and so on… Coming to atma –anatma adhyaasa. Here the adhyaasa of anatma on atma is Svarupa Adhyasa. Svarupa Adhyaasa is of anatma only. Sansarga adhyaasa is also there. But in the case of atma there is no Svarupa Adhyaasa, only Sansarga Adhyaasa. So adhyaasa of atma on anatma is Sansarga and of anatma on atma is both Sansarga and Svarupa adhyaasa.


Let us understand that - Atma is really there, only atmas connection with anatma is not there. I am is already there. I am fat - this connection with this fat body is not there in atma. Atma is asanghah - unassociable. So atma is not really connected with anatma. Atma is there, but atma’s connection with anatma is not there. Therefore its connection or tadatmyarupa sambandhah appears to be there with anatma during adhyaasa. Atma is a very extreme case. Either no sanghah or total sanghah. In reality it has no connection, but when it seems to have connection then it appears to have close relation .ie,Tadatmya sambandha. Tadatmyam means relationship of identity or becoming one with the other as it were. So atma is there and atma sansarga is superimposed and therefore adhyaasa of atma on anatma is Samsarga adhyaasa. Second anatma in reality is not there. And therefore adhyaasa of anatma is Svarupa adhyaasa. Like snake is not there on the rope. So the adhyaasa of snake is Svarupa adhyaasa. But Svarupa Adhyaasa is not enough. After having svarupa adhyaasa anatma should be connected with atma otherwise you will be appreciating anatma very distintly. Therefore we say anatma has Sansarga Adhyasa on atma. Means the connection of anatma with atma which is unreal is superimposed. Really connection is not there but connection is taken to be there, then that type of mistaking is called Sansarga adhyaasa. When entity is not there but taken to be there, then it is Svarupa adhyasa. So adhyaasa of atma on anatma is Sansarga Adhyasa and Adhyaasa of anatma on atma is both Sansarga and Svarupa adhyaasa. Because of that when you get right knowledge, only the connection of atma with anatma is dismissed. Like when you know the crystal is cystal clear then the connection of red to cystal is falsified - understood to be non-existent. Red color continues. Similarly on wake of knowledge only Sansarga of atma ie, tadatmya sambandha of atma with anatma is dismissed. It is understood to be mithya, but atma continues to be. Whereas when you understand the real nature of atma-anatma, then anatma is also dismissed and anatma’s conection also is dismissed. Dismissed means you understand that it has no real existence of its own. When you understand that something is Svarupa Adhyaasa, then on wake of knowledge the entity itself will be dismissed. Since the connection of atma is superimposed upon anatma therefore it is said anyonya asmin anyonya atmakatam. Anatma is ofcourse superimposed Svarupatah and Sansargatah. Anatma is not a problem - we can say atmakatam anatmakatam adhyasya. But the superimposition of atma on anatma had a problem. This is resolved, when we say atmakatam is superimposed. Selfness is superimposed means tadatmya sambandha of atma is superimposed upon anatma. Anyony asmin .anyonyatmakatam..means they are interlocked with each other. But they are interlocked in a different manner. Like in marriage, husband and wife are connected but both are not wearing saree. One will be wearing dhoti and the other saree. The way they are connected is different. From anatma side there is two types of adyaasa and from atma side one type of adhyaasa. But both of them are mutual adhyaasa and therefore it was said anyony asmin anyonyatmakatam…( Even though dharma adhyaasa is there ) since adhyasa of atma is only sansarga and therefore in wake of knowledge, atma will not be falsified. It wil not be mithya and therefore sunya vada is not there. At the same time since Sansarga Adhyaasa is there real connection is not there , but connection is taken to be there. And therefore from Atma side also

adhyaasa is there. So anyonyasmin anyoyatmakatam adhyasya is correct and sunya vada not being there is also correct. This is the complete answer. Another implication of - satyanrte mithuni krtya and adhyasya. Both mean the same thing. In grammar, Adhyasya is lyap prayoga - having superimposed. Satyanrte mithuni krtya means having done adhyaasa. So it will mean adhyasya adhyasya vyavaharah. Why do we say adhyaasa twice? Like saying -having eaten, having eaten, I say I ate. This is because there is a flow of adhyaasa. And that flow of adhyaasa is indicated by repeated presentation of adhyaasa. When we say I do it day after day. It is repetition to indicate a flow. It means everyday. Similarly adhyasya adhyasya vyavaharah. Means adhyaasa has been there all the time. This flow had no beginning it has always been there and this flow of adhyaasa – samskara – adhyaasa - samskara is beginningless. This is indicated by the word naisargikah that which is natural, uncreated. Naisargikah means anaadi. vyavaharah and karana for vyvaharah is naisargikah. That means there is adhyaasa now because there is a samskara and this samskara is there because there was adhyaasa before. Samagri for adhyaasa is there is indicated by repetition of adhyasa and by the word naisargikaha. What type of samagri- samskara rupa samagri. For that smaskara to come there need not be Prama. It can be born of Bhrama. This present samskara can be born of samskara which was born of previous adhyaasa. So adhyaasa-samskara-adhyaasa-samskara.. Every time this adhyaasa is born of a samskara which is born of previous adhyaasa. So samagri for adhyaasa is suggested by using of adhyaasa twice and by the word naisargika. Adhyasya Satyanrte mithuni krtya vyvaharah. Meaning seen so far is – Missing the distinctin between 2 dharmis and 2 dharmas, there is adhyaasa of dharmi and dharma and there is mixup of satya and anrta . Having done this adhyaasa there is an expression of the people in the form of ‘ aham idam, mama idam”. So the order here is - aviveka creates adhyaasa , adhyaasa creates vyavahara which ofcourse creates samskara which creates adhyaasa. So aviveka is the platform on which this parampara of adhyaasa- samskara- adhyaasa- samakara is going on since time beginningless. It is not immemorial time. Immemorial means since time we don’t remember. Infact to say since beginningless time is better. Suppose aviveka is taken out, then this adhyaasa- samskara parmapara will stop. Adhyaasa will not be there , even if Samskara is there. Then when samskara also brings adhyaasa, then the viveka will say it is mithya and it will weaken samskara which will finally go away. So samagri is suggested. Infact main emphasis of Purvapakshi was on samskara. Samskara is not there because Prama is not there and Prama is not there because real combination is not there. That point is answered. Samgri in the form of samskara is there and adhyaas is there because of aviveka. Aviveka means missing the distinction between atma and anatma. Now the question will be, why the distinction between atma- and anatma is missed ? In other words why is it we do not have distinct knowledge of atma and anatma. All the time atma- anatma are present. It is not like Haley’s comet which has to come after so many years to have knowlegde. Atma is present all the time and anatma also is present. Why then is the

distintion missed ? There must be some veiling factor . That factor which covers the distinction between atma-anatma is called Ajnanam. That is indicated by the word mithya ajnana nimmitthah. Nimmittha means responsible. So for adhyaasa and adhyaasa born vyavahara the responsible factor is Mithyajnanam . It is a Bahurihi Samasa. Mithya ajnanan nimmitham yasya -that for which ajnanam is the cause is. Mithya jnanam is an adjective directly for vyavahara and indirectly for adhyaasa. But grammatically it is for loka vyavaharah only. So vyavahara and cause for vyavahara is because of mithya ajnanam. Mithya jnanam is the factor which is covering the distinction between atma-anatma. That which covers the nature of atma is called ajnanam. Since ajnanam is dismissed or removable in the wake of knowledge, it is called mithya. One definition of mithya is that which s remoable by knowledge is called Mithya. Jnana nivarthyam mithya. Ajnanam being removable by knowledge is called mithya. Mithya ajnana nimmithah. Adhyaasa is there because of ajnanam. Ajnanam directly does not cause adhyaasa. Ajnanam causes aviveka which cause adhyaasa. Aviveka dvara ajnanam adhyasam janayati. Through aviveka ajnanam is nimmithah for not only adhyaasa but adhyaasa born vyavahara. Therefore it is said mithyajnana nimmithah . Now u can see the chain – Ajnanam causes aviveka , Aviveka causes adhyaasa and Adhyaasa brings about Aham mama bhava purvaka Vyavaharah. Vyavahara causes raga-dvesha and Ragadvesha causes iccha and Iccha causes karma , Karma causes punya papa and samsara. So the chain is Ajnana-aviveka-adhyaasa-vyavaharah-samsara. This is infact the essence. Adhyasa and adhyaasa born vyavahara is due to mithya ajnanam. So now to see the whole Samadhana BhashyamDue to mithya ajnanam there is aviveka between dharmis and dharmas who are completely distinct and because of that there is adhyaasa of eachother ness (anyon asmin anyon atmakatam) and also that same adhyasa can be presented as satya anrte mithuni krtya. There is a mixup of satya and mithya. And because of this mixup there is aham idam and mama idam iti loka vyavaharah. Little bit more about mithya ajnana nimmitthah We say aviveka - non-discrimination is bcause of ajnanam. Ajnamam is the veiling factor which is mithya which goes in the wake of knowledge. Now the anatma with which atma has adhyaasa. Should have some material . Anatma which are so many should be the product of some common material which must be also mithya. We know there are two types of karanam - Parinami and Vivartha karanam- Vivartha karanam is that which is not really the cause but appears differently. Eg: Rope appearing to be the snake is vivartha karanam. Parinami karanam is that which modifies into becoming the effect. Eg; milk into curds undergoes change.. Here we are talking about Parinami karanam. Parinami karanam for anatma should be that which has the same reality as anatma. For eg reality of milk and curd is the same. Infact one way to define Parinami karanam is that effect which has the same reality as the cause or vice versa.. We are analyzing Parinami karanam on anatma prapancha in which atma is mixed up. Atma does not need any material because atma is nirguna, nirakara. It is non-material in nature. Anatma is

material in nature. Since it is material in nature, it should have some matter. And that matter should be mithya. We have already accepted one factor – veiling factor which is mithya. Avarana Sakthi. Now we require one more factor to be the matter for anatmas. Here Mahatmas say why postulate two different factors. Same ajnanam also called avidya is the cause for anatma also. So ajnanam, avidya, maya, sometimes called moola ajnanam is responsible for creating aviveka and also for creating anatma with which there will be adhyaasa of atma. So Avidya or Ajnanam is contributing to adhyaasa in 2 ways – 1) Creating aviveka ie, by veiling atma as it were. Without aviveka, adhyaasa cannot take place. 2) By providing anatma for mixup to take place. So we postulate 2 shakthis in Avidya - Avarna shakthi - veiling power and Vikshepa shakthi by which anatma is projected. In sastra it is considered better to postulate 2 dharmas rather than postulating 2 dharmis. Eg; nstead of asking two different people to come to do two different works. It is better to call one person who can do both work, than call two people . Because there is laghava - minimisatIon. When choice between dharmi and dharma, minimisation should be done in dharmi not in dharma. Therefore we are postulating one avidya having two shakthis rather than having two different factors –one for avarna and one for vikshepa. One factor does both jobs. . So avarna-vikshepa shakthi mati avidya - avidya having this avarna and vikshepa shakthi- power of veiling and projecting by which it veils atma and projects anatma. Really speaking it provides infrastructure for adhyaasa and also covers atma. That is why it is called mithya ajnana nimmithah. Responsible factor for adhyaasa which creates it. Even for samskara the material is avidya. For karma which is responsible for a type of adhyasa the material is avidya. We require time , we require space for adhyaasa to happen and the material for that is avidya. So instead of postulating so many causes , we are attributing causality of all the factors on one avidya. This avidya is fundamental anatma and it is upadhi for atma. It is mithya and is dismissed in the wake of knowledge. Otherwise there will be duality . Thus mithya ajnanam is nimmittah for all factors except atma involved in adhyaasa. Therefore adhyaasa and adhyaasa born vyavahara is called mithyajnanan nimmithah. On more point is there regarding mithya ajnanam – what is the nature of mithya jnanam ? There are two schools of thought. We will see that next.

47 Samadhana Bhashyam word meaning :
Tathapi, anyonyasmin anyonyatmakatam anyonya dharmascha adhyasya, Nevertheless , having superimposed each otherness on each other and each others qualities on each other itaretaravivekena atyanta viviktayoho dharmadharminoho due to missing the distinction between two totally distinct dharmis and totally distinct dharmas satyanrte mithuni krtya there being a mixup of satya and mithya (indicates type of adhyaasa) mithyajnanam nimittah naisargikoyam ‘ahamidam mameidam ‘ iti loka vyavaharah. due to avidya which is unreal, there is beginningless expression (mental and verbal) of the people ,” I am this and This is mine’. Even though adhyaasa is not-logical , nevertheless missing the distinction between atma and anatma , having superimposed two totally distinct dharmis and dharmas , having mixup of satyam and anrtam which is caused by uneal ignorance, there is beginningless expression of the people in the form of ‘I am this and this is mine ’. The chain isAjnanam – Aviveka – Adhyaasa – Vyavahara – Raga/Dvesha – Iccha – Karma – Punya/Papa – Samsara.

48 Oct 27 – Talk 11 Ques asked to Swamiji –
1) It seems like a lot of causes are postulated on Ajnanam. Why is that ? How should we understand Ajnanam? The appraoch of Sastra is if we can explain something with minimum number of entities, then we should go for that. If one person can do 10 jobs then I should not ask for 10 peole. If we can attribute 10 jobs for one entity and there is no contradiction, then according to sastra we should not postulate more entities. Avidya is Karya Anugamya , ie, It is inferred through the product. Since Jagat is there avidya is inferred . When you are inferring any entity, you should infer minimum nto maximum. In science also that rule is there. If with one equation I can give the answer , then I should not give two equations. If with one constant I can explain the phenomenon, then I should not infer 2-3 constants. Following that , here it is said that avidya alone has this. Avidya is brought into the picture to account for the experience of the world. The vision of sastra is everything is Brahman and my experience is everything is Jagat. This gap is accounted for by bringing in a factor called Avidya. That factor should be minimum number. In dharmi u can attribute some more dharmas rather than infer one more dharmi.. Avidya one factor has many shakthis. Instead of imagining two factor having two different shakthis. Only one factor is imagined with both shakthis. Therefore all the things are finally attributed to Avidya. It is easy for us to then understand ,now we have to deal with only one thing -Avidya. One swamiji gave the example. If you sweep the room then it is not that you sweep each room and throw the dust. You collect all the dust and than after collceting all the dust we throw it. Whole day we collect garbage then throw it. We don’t throw it everytime there is garbage. So the whole anatma we are putting into one avidya and then we have to deal with only one entity. That is why avidya is presented as the cause for Avarnam and also Vikshepa. 2) Parinami Karanam- Definition is that which is real becoming different. Eg; Both curd and milk are real . But here ajnanam is unreal and anatma is also unreal. How is it then Parinami Karanam ? Reality here means vyavaharika satta.- Whatever level it is. The reality of curd and milk , whatever is changing into whatever it is changing , should be the same. But in Vivartha karanam it is not like that. The reality of the rope is different from the reality of the snake.Really it depends on how we look upon it. For eg: Pot and clay. It can be taken as Vivartha karanam. Then clay is sathya and pot is mithya. But suppose you say that pot and clay have the same reality ie, pot and clay are both mithya, then we say it is Parinama karanam. We give the milk and curd example for Parinami karanam because

the change is very evident there.. The pot and clay example, we give in sastra generally for Vivartha karanam. So whenever we say karanam is satya and karyam is mithya then we say it is Vivartha karanam. When we say karanam and karyam both have same reality then we say it is Parinami karanam. Sama sattaka karanam Parinami karanam, vishama sattaka karanam Vivartha karanam. Visham means different. When degree of reality is different then that karanam is called Vivartha karanam. When the degree of reality is the same then we say it is Parinami karanam. In the case of anatma , we are enquiring into the Parinami karanam here. Therefore we say karanam should have the same degree of reality with the karyam. Anatma is mithya therefore its parinami karanam should alos be mithya. We are now in search of a karanam which is mithya. Already we have one mithya factor to veil atma , that same avidya can do the job. Anyway Brahman has married this avidya, so both the jobs it can do. That is why we say this avidya creates veiling and also creates this anatma with which atma is identified. 3) Atma’s superimposition on anatma is not very clear- we say anyonasmin anyonyatmakatam adhyasya ? Aatma ssuperimposition on anatma is not clear because atma is not svarupatah adhyastha. The entity is not superimposed. In case of atma only tadatmya sambandha is there.That is why it is not clear. In the case of anatma there is svarupatha adhyaasa, so it is very clear. The whole entity is superimposed. In the example of adhyaasa of atma on anatma – When we say This is me, it means that anatma is taken for atma. It means atma is superimposed. For what you take something that is superimposed. Like rope is taken for snake. So snake is superimposed. Anatma is taken for atma. Means atma is superimposed. 4) The degree of reality of Clay and Pot is the same, then how do we say it is Vivartha karanam? When we present the pot in example, that time we futher attribute lesser degree of reality to the pot. For Parinami karanam, we give greater degree of reality to the pot. When we present pot as an example of Vivartha karanam, we give greater degree of reality to the clay. It can be both depending how you lookat it. One secret is, in fact in ultimate sense there is no Parinami karanam. Whatever you are calling Parinma is just in a way Parinami. We say finally curd is also Vivartha of milk. Basically what you call milk is a form of energy. Same energy which is milk is appearing in the form of curd. In Vedanta we keep telling certain things , but the final thing we keep to ourselves. In Vedanta you feel like Swamiji has said everything, still something remains. Imagine I still go to my teacher to learn. My teacher does not want to hide anything. He always wants to give everything. Sometimes when we have a class, we don’t even open the book. Only discussion takes place. You can imagine how many questions I must be asking. For 27 years I am doing this. It remains like this. There are subtle nuances. The ultimate truth is very simple - I am limitless Brahman. To arrive at that there is a journey. Also Some people are designed like that. They ask so many questions. It is just a refinement. Overall understanding is correct. What I understood 20 yrs ago is almost same thing I am understanding

now. But subtle nuances you keep seeing. That keeps you coming. Same thing I am saying - You are Brahman. I am not going to improve on it. But still you come. One thing is we forget and other thing is there are certain nuances.

Questions asked by SwamijiWhat does satyanrte mithuni krtya mean ? What was the connection given to introduce this expression satyaanrte mithuni krtya ? Having mixed up of satya and anrte is satyanrte mithuni krtya.. When you say atma is superimposed on anatma and anatma on anatma, then both become adhyastha. Adhyastha is unreal . On wake of knowledge both will be destroyed. So there is sunyam. To dismiss the possibility of sunya vada, satyaanrte is introduced. How does the Siddanti negate this ? Atma is satyam and anatma is mithya. Only the mithya factor is dismissed, satyam always remains. So anatma is dismissed, but atma continues. So there is no sunya vada. Atma is satyam and anatma alone is mithya, then how will we explain this expression anyony asmin anyonyatmakatam adhyasya ? The type of adhyaasa is different. Atma to antama is sansarga adhyaasa and anatma to atma is sansarga and svarupa dhyaasa. Anyon asmin anyon atmakatam literally means superimposing atma on anatma and anatma on atma. The implication wise superimosition of anatma and its connection on atma and only atma’s connection to anatma is superimposed on atma.There is a tadmya sambandha of atma to anatma. So tadatmya samandha is impied by atma atmakatam . Therfore anyon asmin is correct and since atma itself is not superimposed sunya vada will not be there. How samagri for adhyaasa is suggested in Samadhana bhashyam ? The word satyanrte and naisargaka indicate samagri for adhyaasa. Adhyaasa is repeated twice –adhyasya and satyanrte mithuni krtya indicate the flow of adhyaasa parmapara. And that parmapara has been there is indicated by Naisargika. One adhyaasa creates the samagri in the form of samskara for other adhyaasa. Thus samgri for adhyaasa is suggested. What is the meaning of mithyajnana nimmithah ? Ajnanam which is unreal is responsible for vyavahara and cause for vyavahra ie, adhyaasa.. The idea conveyed here is adhyaasa and vyavahara are caused by mithya ajnanam. In grammatical terms, Mithya ajnanam nimmitham yasya vyavaharasya adhyaasyacha. That which is caused by mithya ajnanam. Grammatically it is an adjective for loka vyavahara and also implying cause for adhyaasa. Adyaasa and adhyaasa born vyavahara are caused by ajnanam. The karanam for adhyaasa is indicated here. How mithya ajnanam becomes the cause for adhyaasa ? Because of mithya jnanam we cannot distinguish between atma and anatma.

So mitya ajnanam veils the distinction between atma and anatma. In other words ajnanam creates aviveka. Avivek means non-discrimination between atma and anatm,a. That non-discriination is responsible for adhyaasa . Adhyaasa is responsible for aham-mama bhava purvaka vyavahara. Therefore vyavahara is called mithyajnamam nimmithah. Ajnanam is responsible for adhyaasa by creating aviveka.. In which other manner mithyajnanam is responsible ? By projecting anatma with which there is adhyaasa of atma. So avidya is causing aviveka and also it causes anatma with which there will be mutual adhyaasa of atma. Atma is not created by avidya. Atma is always there. For atma to have identification there has to be anatma so avidya provides the grounds for adhyaasa to take place and also the locus (entity) with which identificatoion of atma takes place. That is how adhyaasa is caused by mithyajnanam . Why is ajnanam qualified by the word mithya ? Ajnam will go away by knwledge. So therefore it is called mithya. In Sanskrit it is called Jnana nivarthyam – removable by knowledge. Mithya is that which is removable by knowledge. Continuation of ClassNow something more on mithyajnanam. This is little out-of syllabus topic. In the overall understanding this is not so relevant but it is very interesting to know. In Vedanta there are 2 vadah. Vadah means school of thought. In this case in one particular area. School of thought means vadah . Dictionary meaning of vada is demonsrtrated conclusion, doctrine, theory . There are 2 schools of thought1) NANA JIVA VADA 2 ) EKA JIVA VADA. Nana jiva vada means a school of thought stating that there are many Jivas. They accept multiplicity of jivas. That particular vada which accepts many (nana) jivas is called Nana Jiva Vada. The other one is Eka Jiva Vada- the school of thought accepting only one single jiva. 1) NANA JIVA VADA - This is what is generally presented in Vedanta . Its discussion is relevant because it discusses whether there are many avidyas or one avidya. Nana jIva vada it is said .. there are many jivas and every jiva has adhyaaAs. Jiva means confused. Even animals also have adhyaasa. They also have aham idam mama idam vyavahara . There is a sense of identity that I am a dog and dog goes to a dog only. This vyavahara is also adhyaasa. So every jiva has got adhyaasa and adhyaasa is there only if there is aviveka and aviveka is there only if there is veiling. And this veiling factor we call Avidya. So every jiva has avidya which is called Vyashti Avidya. When indvidual is there, then we can infer total . If every indvidual has avidya spark, spark,spark then there must be a big fire. Similarly every individual’s avidya , it must have come from one Samashti Avidya. That is called Moola Ajnanam, or Maya. This one moola ajnanam gives avidya to every jiva. This seems to be the source of all other avidyas. Vyashti avidya is a part of that mooa ajnanam. That moola ajnanam called Maya not only

gives individual Vyashti avidya, it also creates anatma. That moola ajnanam is responsible for adhyaasa of everybody in 2 ways- It provides avidya to every jiva and it also creates anatama prapancha with which there is identification of atma. Since there is many avidyas, therefore we have got many jivas. The definition of jiva is avidyopadhikam chaitanyam jivah. My vyashti avidya will go away when I, this one jiva gets knowledge. Only my avidya will go away. But yours w ill remain. Once my avidya goes away with knowledge then my aviveka,adhyaasa vyavahara, samsara all go way. So once I take care of my avidya dot, I am free. My avidya, my aviveka, my vyavahara, my samsara is gone. I do not have to think of your avidya. It is like suppose some problem is there and I need to do some electrical job. I need not call the power house, I just switch off my main switch, then my work gets done. I do not have to call the electricity board. My main switch is like Vyashti avidya. Once I close that, my job is done. I need not worry about the Samashti avidya. But even my avidya goes away, still this upadhi created by moola ajnanam will continue. As long as prarabdha is there, that association is there. But that association is Badhita – is negatable. He knows it is falselyappearing and can be dismissed. So that person who has solved his problem of his individual avidya . that person is free from adhyaasa and samsara born of vyavahara. He is a Jeevan Muktha. This Jeevan Muktha will teach somebody. If other person wants to solve his dot avidya he will teach. Otherwise he will not t each. Once his prarabdha is over, his individual upadhi also is destroyed. He need not worry about the world. If they want to be free they will go to a Jeevan Muktha. And really Jeevan Mukthas are always available. Those who fecilitate this process of knowledge to remove avidya are always available. So what a wonderful situation - adhyaasa is all the time there and the people to fecilitate the removal of adhyaasa are also there. Problem is also there and the solution is also there all the time. Only thing is they have to click. So what will happen to the world ? World will continue since there are so many jivas- ananta jiva rashi. He does not worry about the world. Ofcourse this enquiry on the world is only from the standpoint of an aviveki. From the standpoint of a wise person, he does not think there is a reality called world outside because he knows that the whole anatma prapancha is mithya. So he does not think I should do something about moola ajnanam. Moola ajnanam itself is irrelevant for him. But from the ignorant person standpoint we say that there was a person who had avidya and he became free now. You remained here. So I also want to get knowledge. In Nana Jiva Vada, your homework is just to take care of your Vyashti avidya. You don’t have to worry about enlightening others. One corner of this world is clean, you do not have to worry about Samashti avidya. Generally when we talk in Vedanta we work in this paradigm only. So in Nana Jiva Vada, there are many jivas and one moola ajnanam. But there is something more. EKA JIVA VADA There is a shift in paradigm. It says this moola ajnanam is your imagination. You are postulating moola ajnanam because you are seeing a vast world having so many Jivas. Everyone is having adhyaasa and there is avidya for all the indvidual jivas. There must be a main source for all ajnanam and a source for anatma. So you are postulating moola ajnanam because you are seeing this vast world with many jivas. But this many jivas and the worlds is itself due to the projection of your avidya which cannot be called vyashti or samshti because it is the only avidya. Due to your

avidya you are seing the world projected. In that projected world there are so many jivas and afterwards you are inferring. Really speaking the jivas themselves are your projection due to your avidya. So therefore you need not infer separate-separate avidya in each one of them . There is only one avidya. Best example is dream world. In dream world you see many people are asleep. You also slept and you got up in the dream only All of you are talking about your dream in your dream. Since you study Vedanta, you say I got this dream world because of my nidra dosha. And you got your dream world because of your nidra dosha. So we infer lot of nidra doshas. Since there are so many nidra doshas, then there must be one collective maha nidra dosha due to which all of us indvidually projected our dream world. But when you really wake up, what you find is that individuals nidra and so called maha nidra are within the scope of your nidra dosha only. Due to your nidra you had projected dream world in which you saw so many people having nidra doshah. There are so many nidra doshas so you infer Maha Nidra. But all of them are within the scope of your avidya dot or identical to your avidya. So there is only one avidya because of which the whole world is projected. In that world you see so many jivas and you infer this moola ajnanam.. Really there is no moola ajnanam. What is there is only your avidya. Really speaking one avidya resting on you is responsible for your world and also the Jivas in it. Therefore seeing this variety of jivas you are inferring moola ajnanam, but really speaking moola ajnanam is also within the scope of your ajnanam only. Since you are not seeing the fact you are inferring moola ajnanam. Really there is only one ajnanam and you are the only jiva. One atma has become jivah due to avidya and projecting this whole world in which there are so many beings. In dream world also there are so many beings and you take them to be real and therefore you infer different causes. Really all the causes are nothing but your avidya. Ther e is no seperate moola avidya. Whatever cause you imagine, it is within the scope of your avidya. Your avidya alone has been projected as different things based on which you infer moola ajananam. Karyam is projected and Karanam is also projected . Suppose you see a tree in dream then the seed of the tree also should be dream seed. Dream seed is the cause for dream tree. Karyam and karanam both are projected by that one avidya. That avidya veils the true nature and projects this world which includes anatma, body-mind-complex.. And therefore there is adhyaasa and samsara. Once you take care of your avidya then whole world disappears. You don’t think about what happens to the world. You don’t think I am free, I hope the other’s are free too. We don’t ask that question in dream. Once you wake up the whole dream world becomes irrelevant. Similarly in Eka Jiva Vada once you get the knowledge, there is no world for you. You don’t think of Moola Jnanam and all that. There is no question of what happens to others because there is no others. This is called Eka Jiva Vada is very simple but profound . It is difficult to digest in the beginning. It says you alone are the only Jiva , all others are jiva bhasah. Difficult to digest. So if you want to go by popular notion then you go for Nana Jiva Vada and resolve it in Eka Jiva Vada. In Nana there are so many jivas, but in Eka there is only one jiva who cannot be called Vyashti or Samashti. Thus Mithya ajnanam can be seen as Nana or Eka.


Coming back to Samadhana bhashyamBy saying avivekena ie, due to aviveka there is adhyaasa. By saying this adhyaasa and adhyaasa born vyavahara are due to mithyajnana mitthah, the message given by Sankaracharya is that since adhyaasa is caused by aviveka and ajnanam you work for viveka and jnanam. By highlighting cause of problem the solution in form of knowledge is highlighted. Like you say I have heartburn then doctor says acidity has caused this. So take care of acidity and burning sensation will go away. So by highlighting ajnanam , if you want to be free from samsara -aham idam mama idam bhava purvakam- go for knowedge. He also used the word mithya . Bhagavan Bhasyakara wants to say that since this ajnanam is mithya it can go by knowledge. The solution is indicated and highlighted by pesenting the cause for the problem. But one will be interested in solution only when one is interested in solving the problem. If one feels that my problem is because of aham mama bhavapurvaka vyavahara and one wants to get rid of this aham mama bhava, then only he will be interested.Vedanta is showing the exit door. But the exit door will be interesting only if you want to exit. But if you prefer to be in air- condition, then if you show exit door it will not interest. So only to a person who wants to come out of samsara, to that person this solution will interest. He wil catch it. If he is not interested then he will raise unnecessary questions. How can it be annadi, .why it is not elsewhere only here. All these questions will become too relevant. But a person who wants to get out of samsara will want to know how to get out of this. Ofcourse one who wants to get out also will want to know some also technical details because he does not want to be misled. He wants to be very sure that the path he is takng is correct. Therefore he will be interested in some details. To that person the questions are answered, technical details are given. But the main question will be how to get rid of this. To that person Adhyaasa Bhashyam is relevant. One who wants to wok for the solution. The solution is get viveka, get Jnanam. If you get viveka, adhyaasa will go away. Aham mama bhava purvaka vyaahara will go away., samsara will go away. If not interested in the solution, then the whole technical discussion will be academic. He wil not benefit much. That is why in Vedanta you cannot have missionary zeal.That is why if a person really wants then only it can be offered. If a person is intersted he can be taught. Otherwise you teach him how to be sincere to Vedanta.. In Vedanta you don’t say go away. You teach him how to be sincere. We don’t drive away the person. If the person is sincere, then we give pure Vedanta or we give some method to developing sincerety. If the person is not prepared, you help him to be prepared.. So Vedanta can be really be taught effectively only to a person who wants to get rid of samsara. Otherwise it will not work. I want to solve this problem of samsara born of aham mama bhava purvaka vyavahara. Only when I have some vairagya towards aham mama bhava pruvaka vyavahra, then only there will be desire to solve this adhyaasa. Vairagya can come by introspection, Vairagya can come by dosha darshanam - by seeing the limitation s of vyavahara. See the limitations get vairagyam , then go for efforts which will give rise to viveka. With viveka , aviveka goes away, when aviveka goes away adhyaasa goes away, adhyaasa goes away samsara goes away. So in the beginning we should have clarity of the scheme of things. Clarity with regard to both problem and the solution. How there is a chain of problems, one leading to the other. The chain of problem should be clear and chain of solution should be clear.

Ajnama –aviveka- adhyasa-vyavahara-samsara is the chain of problems. Jnanam-viveka-adhyas nivritti-vyavahra nivritti-samsar nivritti. This road map shd be clear then only ur approachtowards vedant a will be clear. That is indicated here in the Samadhana bhashyam. What is viveka - seperating atma and anatma cognitively. Distint knowledge of atma anama is called viveka. Mithya Jnanam nimmithah – What is the exact precise meaning of the word ? Mithya Jnanam nimmitham yasya. Lok vyavahara is that for which mithya ajnanam is the cause.

Nov 3 –Talk 12 :
Before going forward, a glance at what has been learnt so far. This is called Simhavalokaya Nyaya. Like the lion walking forward glances back to see there is no danger , similarly we recapitulate what we have learnt. Summary of Akshepa Bhashyam – Adhyaasa of atma-anatma is not possible because samskara of togetherness of atma-anatma is not possible and samskara is not possible because anubhava of atma-anatma together is not there. Anubhava is not possible because atma-anatma are of opposite nature. Therefore mutual adhyaasa of atma-anatma is not possible or proper. Here the author connects. Since adhyaasa is not possible, the essence of Akshepa Bhashyam is expressed nicely in this sentence. Tathacha, Bandhasya satyataya jnana nivritti rupa phalasambhavat, badha mukthayoho jiva brahmanoho aikyayogena vishaya sambavath sastram na arambaniyam iti Purvapaksha Bhashyatatparyam. Adhyaasa is not possible, so the bondage you are experiencing is satyam. Since bandhanam is real, it cannot go away by knowledge. Like rope-snake which is unreal is dismissed by knowledge of ropeness. But if the snake is real then knowledge will not remove the snake. So sastra which talks about removal of unreal bondage has no prayojanam. Since knowledge cannot remove real bondage, prayojanam is dismissed . Prayojanam is not possible, Vishaya of sastra which is jiva-brahma aikyam is also not possible . Brahman is muktha but Jiva is bound. So one who is bound and one who is free cannot be one. Sastra na arambaniyam. Since prayojanam and vishaya are not there, Brahma Sutra should not be started. This is the tatparyam of Purvapaksha Bhashyam . Summary of Samadhana Bhashyam – Nevertheless, even though adhyaasa seems illogical still adhyaasa is there. Having superimposed eachotherness and each others qualities on each other, Due to absence of mutual discrimination between two distinct dharmis and dharmas,

Having mixed-up satya and anrte which indicates adhyaasa, There is the expression of the people, “ I am this and this is mine ”. And this expression is caused by mithya Ajnanam. This is the summary of Samadhana Bhashyam or Siddanti bhashyam. The cause of the problem of adhyaasa is highlighted to highlight the solution. The tatparyam of Siddanti bhashyam is presented in this sentence – Evam samagri satvat, anubhava satvat adhyaasa asti iti yatah brahmatmaikya virodhabhavena visaya prayojanayoho satvat, sastram arambaniyam iti siddanta bhashya tatparyam. Samgri is there and anubhava for adhyaasa is there and therefore adhyaasa is possible. Logical contradicton does not effect adhyaasa. Since adhyaasa is there, therefore bondage is unreal and since bondage is unreal , it will go away by knowledge. And for knowledge we require sastram. Thus prayojanam for sastram is there. Prayojanam of satram is Jnana pradanena bandha nivritthih – By giving knowledge, removing bondage. Visaya is also there because bandhanam felt in Jiva is unreal and this unreal bondage does not create real difference between Jiva and Brahman. This real nondifference between Jiva and Brahman is the subject matter of sastram. Therefore prayojanam is there and visaya is there. Therefore sastra study should be started. This is the Samadhana or Siddantha Bhashya tatparyam. The whole thing connects with the beginning. The whole discussion is based on the first sutra – athatho brahma jignyasa. Let there be enquiry into Brahman. Now we enter into the third section of Adhyaasa Bhashyam called Lakshana Bhashyam.

3) Lakshana Bhashyam –It is a commentary dealing with the topic of Lakshana of adhyaasa –
laksha vishayaka bhashyam. What is Lakshana bhashyam ? Lakshana means definition. The part of the commentary which is dealing with definition of adhyaasa is called Lakshana bhashyam. Definition is also a concept. What is the definition of a definition ? Sastra defines Lakshanam as - Asamanya dharmah lakshanam. Peculiar characteristic of an object is called definition. Descrbing a peculiar characteristic of an object is called definition of that object.. Asadharana dharma is quality peculiar to that object. It is its characteristic mark. The word asadharanam is further explained in the sastra. A dharma will be called asadharanam when that dharma with respect to that object is free from 3 defect s- avyapti dosha, athivyapti dosha, asambhava dosha sunyah dharmah asadharana dharmah. So a quality which is free from these 3 defects is called asadharana dharma of that object. Eg: gandhavati prithvi. That which has smell is called prithvi. The peculiar quality of the 5th element earth is smell. None of the other elements have this quality. Gandhavatvam is the peculiar quality of the earh. The earth is that which has smell is the definition of earth. This definition has to be free from the 3 defects.

1) Avyapti dosha - partial non-application. Laksyaika desha vritthithvam. When the def. is going to some part of the defined entity but not covering the entire entity, then this dosha is called Avyapthi Dosha. Eg; Suppose I define a cow. A cow is one who has brown color. There will be many cows which have brown color. So the defintion covers some cows who have brown color. But there will be some cows who do not have brown color which will not be covered. So the whole cow species is not covered by this definition. The definition given by sastra for a cow is shasnadimat tvam gothvam. Cow is one who has dulap. Suppose you say cow is one who has dewlap and is brown. Then there is avyapti dosha. It will apply to some cows, but some cows will be left out. Vyapti means pervasiveness. Avyapthi means partial non-pervasiveness. 2) Athivyapti Dosha – It is covering the entire defined entity, but it is going elsewhere also. Suppose you define a cow has that which has 4 legs. It will cover all cows, but it will cover donkeys and others also. Lakshye lakshanasyavarthanam. That where it is not intended there also the definition is going then it is called athivyapti. Athivyapti means over-application. You do not want your lakshanam to go there but it does. Ayapti is under-shooting . Athiyapti is overshooting. 3) Asambhava Dosha - When lakshana is not going to any part of the lakshya at all. Non-application. It is inapplicable. Laksha matra avrithhithvam. Not staying in the entire lakshya. Some examples to understand them – Eka shafvatvam - that which has uncloven hoof is called cow. This definition is not possible. It is asambhava because all cows have cloven hoof. A human being is one who flies with his wings. This is an example of asambhava dosha. A human being is one who has flat nose.This is avyapti dosha because it is covering one part of humans only. A human being is one who eats. This is athivyapti because other species like animals also eat. If you understand the definition this way, you can see the mistakes very clearly. You will also be very careful in talking. So whenever you say anything about any object, person or concept you should see that it is free of these three doshas. Suppose you say dog is that which eats rats . It is athivyapti. Because there are other animals also who eat rats. So a quality which is free from these 3 defects is called peculiar quality of that object and the peculiar quality of that object is the definition of that object. That is called Lakshanam. Lakshana can be for the object, person or concept. Anything definable can be lakshya. Like inflation will have its characteristic . Whatever definition you give will be called lakshanam.

Lakshanam of anything should be free of these 3 defects and the quality which is free of these defects is called asadharana dharma. This is called definition. Lakshanam is different from Lakshanaa. In mahavakya we talk about Lakshanaa. Here we are talking about Lakshanam . Lakshanaa means implication from which we get Lakshyartha or implied meaning. Pada padarthayoho sambandha visheshah . A particular type of relationship between word and the meaning. Like when we say, this person is a pillar of this organisation. The word pillar has implied meaning of important person. Here Lakshanam means definition - Asadharana dharma. Though Lakshanam and Lakshanaa sound similar, latter is aakarantha strilinga like lata, mala and the former is masculine like Ramah. The difference between the two should be clear. What is the purpose of Lakshanam ? In sastra we have to have Lakshanam for everything. We develop this habit. Like in college it took me a long time to understand Trigonometry. I wanted to know what exactly is Sine-thita and Cos-thita. All the concepts should be very clear. The study of sastra gives you that. In sastra you have to be clear about everything. One purpose of lakshanam is vyavrithih - Exclusion, particularising, distinguishing them from all others. Another purpose is sabda vyavaharah. Suppose I have defined a cow. The definition is set. The sastra definition of cow is that which has dewlap is cow. Afterwards whether it is brown , white, etc does not matter. If this Laksana is there, it must be a cow. So you can do sabda vyavaharah. That is the prayojanam of Lakshanam. There is a popular sentence in sastraLakshnapramanabhyam vastu siddhih. Arriving at the object by lakshana and pramana –By definition and means of knowledge. For clear comprehension of any object you need these two things. Lakshanena svarupa siddhih. By Lakshana you arrive at the nature of a thing. When I say gandhavati prithvi. Then you understand there is something which has got gandha and that is called prithvi. By Pramanam you arrive at vastu nirnaya siddhih - Arriving at firm ascertainment of a thing. Now I have understood that a cow is that which has dewlap. Even though I have not seen a cow, the lakshana is clear. So in futur if I see an entity which has dulap, then I know it is a cow. Pramana will work when lakshana is given and lakshana will find its fulfillment when pramana is used further. Therefore lakshana is very important in undestanding any subject matter. Now we look at the words of Lakshana Bhashyam Aaha - koyamadhyaaso nameti . Ucchyate – smrtiroopah paratra poorvadrstaavabhaasah The Lakshana Bhashyam is introduced by the word Aaha. Aaha means one tells, says. It is an irregular present tense form of bru dhatu. Bru dhatu has 5 irregular forms and this is one of them. It is third person singular. Plural is aahuhu –they say. Aaha -means somebody says, ‘What is this that is called adhyaasa’ ?

Because some people do not know the word adhyaasa. One person mistook it for abhyaasa. What is that adhyaasa you are talking about ? This is the approach of sastra. It talked earlier about adhyaasa. If you are an Uttama adhikari you would have understood everything. Otherwise you may not be sure what is adhyaasa. What is the lakshana of that adhyaasa which was taken for granted in the previous section ? Then answer is given ucchyate - being said. It is passive voice of vad dhatu. These two words Aaha and ucchyate indicate there is a dialogue. In sastra this is called katha. Dialogue is mainly of 3 types-vada, jalpa and vithanda. Vada is defined as tatva nirnaya phalah katha visheshah. Vadah is a type of dialogue whose intention is to arrive at the truth. It can be between 2 equals . Suppose two people who have studied adhyaasa bhashyam and they discuss. Both have understood some points and they both discuss them. It is called Vadah. Suppose that sort of a dialogue is between guru and disciple it is called Samvada -samyak vada. The dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna is Samvada. So the word Vada is generally used to refer to a dialogue beteen two equals to arrive at the truth, The discussion is not to prove a point. When the intention is to arrive at the truth not to prove a standpoint that is Vadah. Jalpa is vijigishu katha. When a person is having a dialogue to prove his point. He wantrs to win in the discussion. He presents his point and also shows the defect in the other person’s contention. That sort of a dialogue is called Jalpa. The intention in Jalpa is to win over the other person . It is worse than Vada. You are not interested in arriving at the truth, you want to defeat the other person and prove your point. Third is Vitanda. Svapakshava sthapanahina parapaksha dushana matravasana.When you are having the dialogue only to defeat the others. You have no stand of your own. You just want to prove the other person wrong. It is different from Jalpa. In Jalpa the person has a stand point he wants to prove. But here the person has no standpoint. He is just interested in dismissing the others stand. There are some speakers who are very good at dismissing others but do not present any standpoint.You come out dismissing the other, but what is right you do not know. One thing is for sure, everybody is wrong. That type of dialogue is called Vithanda. When we discuss we have to see which of these three we are doing. Vada is very good, Jalpa is not very good, but Vithanda is worst. You are not interested in establishing anything , but in just dismissing. Here Vada is indicated by the 2 words- aaha and ucchate. Somebody is asking the question and somebody is answering. It can be samvada or vada. The definition given is smrtiroopah paratra poorvadrstaavabhaasah. Grammatically there are three words. But really there are four words - poorvadrsta and avabhaasa being two separate words. Out of these four, two words are key words . Paratara avabhaasah adhaayasah . Infact definition of adhyaasa

is in essence given only by these 2 words –paratara avabhaasa . The other 2 words are only explanations for these 2 words. What is this paratra avabhaasa ?

Nov 13- Ques and ans :
What is the essence of Akshepa Bhashyam ? The essence of Purvapakshi’s contention is that adhyaasa is not possible because Samagri of Prama janya samskara is not there for adhyaasa because anubhava is not there. So adhyaasa is not proper or logical. Since adhyaasa is not there, the bondage is real. Real bondage cannot be removed by knowledge of sastra. So prayojanam of sastra which is jnanena bandhanam nivritthih is not possible. The visaya of sastra which is jiva-brahma aikyam is also not possible. Since Jiva is bound and Brahman is free, both being opposite in nature, they cannot become one. So the study of Brahma Sutra should not be started. This is the tatparyam of Akshepa Bhashyam.

What is the essence of Samadhana bhashyam ? The essence of Siddantis contention is that Anubhava of adhyaasa is there and Samagrih is there, so adhyaasa is possible. Therefore bandhanam is unreal and since bondage is unreal, it can be removed by knowledge which can be gained from sastra study. So the prayojanam of sastra whch is removal of bondage thro’ knowledge is there and visaya of sastra which is jiva-brahma aikyam is there. What was coming in the way of establishing this jiva-brahma aikyam was bondage and since bondage is unreal therefore unreal bondage will not cause a difference between Jiva and Brahman. So jiva-brahma aikyam is possible, so visaya is possible. Therefore Brahma Sutra study should be started. So far we have completed two sections. Akshepa and Samadhana Bhashyam. We are now doing Lakshana Bhashyam. 3) Lakshana Bhashyam : It is a commentary dealing with the topic of definition of adhyaasa. Lakshanam means definition. What is the definition of a definition ? Asadharana Dharmah . Peculiar characteristic of an object. What is the meaning of asadharana dharma ? Dharmah or quality which is free from 3 doshas - avyapti, athivyapti and asambhava dharmah.

What is Prayojanam of Lakshanam ? Two prayojanam -Vyavritthih vyavaharascha lakshanasya prayojanam. i) Vyavritthih– particularizing or distinguishing from other objects. ii) Sabda vyavahara- the definition is clear so in vyavahara when you see the object, you can call it as that object. Eg; when the def. of cow is known, then when you see an entity having those characteristics, you can call it a cow. How is the dialogue suggested in Samdhana Bhashyam ? By the word aaha and ucchyate. Someone asks and someone answers. There are three types of dialogue or Katha – Vada , Jalpa and Vithanda.

Nov 13 – talk 13
LAKSHANA BHASHYAM : Aaha - koyam adhyaaso nameti ? Someone asks - What is this which is called adhyaasa ? Ucchyate – smritirupah paratra purvadrstavabhasah. It is said ( answered) – Something appearing somewhere where it is really not there (ie, in an inappropriate place ) which is like the remembered one and which is appearing due to previous perception. Main words are two- Paratra and Avabhaasah. So the question was asked - What is the lakshanam or definition of adhyaasa ? The answer was told by a Siddanti, by a teacher or by a person who knows . The Lakshana of adhyaasa is told. In this the key words are only two - Paratara and Avabhaasah. Avabhaasah can be interpreted in 2 ways depending on the type of adhyaasa. Avabhaasa means - a thing which is appearing . Avabhaasa can also mean appearance. Like in the example of rope and snake, the rope-snake is also called avabhaasah and the knowledge of ropesnake is also called avabhaasah. So there are 2 types of adhyaasa – arthadhyaasa and jnanadhyaasa. Earlier we had seen 2 types of adhyaasa- svarupa and sansarga adhyaasa. Now we are looking at adhyaasa from another angle. When we are loking at the adhyaasa from the standpoint of the object then we call it arthadhyaasa. Artha pradhanya vivakshaya. Like the rope-snake is arthadhyaasah. When we are looking at the mistake from the standpoint of the knowledge of the mistaken object, then it is called Jnanadhyaasa. Adhyastha vishaya jnanam. That knowledge is also adhyastha. So the knowledge of superimposed entity is called Jnanadhyaasa and the superimposed entity is called Arthadhyaasa. Both of them are adhyaasah because in the wake of knowledge, both are

dismissed. Sarpa is dismissd and sarpa jnanam is also dismissed. Therefore both are called adhyaasah. Since 2 types of adhyaasa are there we can see this def. from 2 angles – Arthadhyaasa angle or Jnanadhyaasa angle. Smritirupa paratra poorva dratavabhasah can be seen from both angles. First we will see from artha adhyaasa angle. Avabhaasah means avabhasayate iti avabhaasah- that which is evident, that which appears. The rope-sanke appears, so it is adhyaasa. So what is adhyaasa ? That which is appearing. But if we give only this definition, that which appears is adhyaasa. Then this pot, book etc are all appearing, but they are not adhyaasa. So another word is there – Paratra . Partara means somewhere else. Something appearing somewhere else is called adhyaasa. That which appears somewhere else is called adhyaasa. What do we mean by somewhere else? Somewhere else means ayogya adhikarne , ie, inappropriate place. That which appears in an appropriate place is called adhyaasa. Still it is hazy. What do you mean by inappropriate? Inappropriate means athyanta abhavavati adhikarane. Inappropriate locus is that where the given thing is not there. For the snake , rope is improper locus. So the rope is called ayogya adhikarna for the snake. Why ? Because in the rope there is no snake. There is athyanta abhavavati adhikarne. The place where there is absence of the snake, that place is called ayogya adhikarna for the snake. That is referred by the word Paratra. So Paratra Avabhaasa means something which is appearing in an inappropriate place. Inappropriate place means where really it is not there. So the definition is really simple, though it appears technical. When something is appearing where it is really not there. That is called adhyaasa. Lke in the example : snake is appearing on the rope. And the rope is ayogya adhikaranam - improper place for the snake. Why improper because it is not there. Something will be there, when it is supposed to be there. Suppose I say, there is a small elephant in my hand. My hand is ayogya adhikarnam because the elephant certainly cannot be in my hand. In Sanskrit there is a word athyanta abhavati adhikarnae. So where something is not there, but it appears to be there that is called adhyaasa. Paratra therefore indicates somewhere else where it is not supposed to be there. Paratravabhaasah means something appearing in a wrong place. This is called adhyaasah which is called adhyastha when we see from artha adhyaasa angle. In that sense we are saying there is adhyaasah. Like sarpah on rajju. This is the essential definition and this can be extended to any adhyaasa -sarira, mana, buddhi appearing on atma. For anatma , atma is ayogya adhikaranam. So anatma dehadi is appearing on atma which is an improper place for anatma to appear.Therefore it is adhyaasa. Anatma dharma is also appearing in an improper place, Therefore it is adhyaasa also. So we have to understand with respect to Dhrastanta ( subject matter) also. This is the essential shortest definition of adhyaasa – Paratra avabhaasah. Something appearing somewhere else where really it is not there.


How it appears is explained next ? Smritirupah. Generally smriti means memory, rememberance. But here when we are seeing the definition in terms of arthadhyaasa , then it has the meaning smaryamanah, that which is remembered. Smritrupah means smritir eva that which has the form similar to the remembered one. That which is like the remembered one. It means when you are seeing the adhyastha object, it will be like the remembered one. If we are remembering the snake, how it will be , the adhyastha will also be like that. The adhyastha will be like the remembered one. Smaryamanah sadrshah. It is like the remembered one. It is not the remembered one. When we say it is like the remembered one, means there is a similarity between them. What is the similarity between the remembered one and the adhyastha ? What is the similarity between the remembered snake and the snake which is superimposed ? Between the adhyastha sarpa and smrita sarpa - the similarity is that both of them are there because of samskarah. Smriti comes because of samaskara. I saw a snake somewhere and it created samskara and that samskara creates smriti. Smrita is samskara janya jnana vishayah that which is the object of that knowledge which is created by samskara. For remembered one- smriti to be there, samskara has to be there and for adhyaasa also samskara is required. This is the similarity betweem adhyastha and smrita. That is why it is said here smritirupa. It is like the remembered one. Which implies there is some similarity and it also implies some dis-similarity. For eg: if I say your hair is looking like natural black hair or you are looking like 35 years. It implies you are not 35 years. It indicates you have some similarity to someone who is 35 years. But there is dis-similarity also because you are not really 35 years.What is the diffence between smriti (memory) and adhyastha. For smriti we need only samskara. Samaskara matra janyatvam smrutitvam. But for adhyaasa to take place, only samskara is not enough. Adhistana ajnanam is also necessary, some samanya jnanam should be there , some vishesha ajnanam should be there, also we need some insufficient light, some defect in the organs.

For adhyaasa therefore samskara along with other things is required. That is the difference. That is why adhyastha is like the remembered one , but it is not the remembered one. Sometimes we say adhyaasa is what is in your mind. That is not correct. Smriti is in your head, but the ropesnake is outside. You don’t say I am remembering the snake, you say I am seeing the snake. So the difference is that in smriti you have the experience of thinking of the object inside your mind and in adhyaasa you see it outside. In smriti there is only thought inside, but in adhyaasa there is thought inside and the external object . Also samgrih is also different for smriti. We need only samskara, but for adhyaasa we need other things also. Like bisibhele and plain rice. Both are rice. For plain rice you need only rice. For Bisibhele you need so many other things also. Adhyaasa is something like bisibhele. Smritirupah is that which is like the remembered one and what makes it like the remembered one is samskara. And this sadrsyam between adhyastha and smrita is further explained by the word purvadrstah. The word drstah has the meaning darshanam. Purvadrsta means samskara dvara purva darshanam.

So purva drsta avabhaasa means that which is appearing due to previous perception. Purva darshanat avabhasyate. How previous experience becomes the basis for present adhyaasa to take place ? Samskara dvara - Due to samskara . Samskara dvara purva darshanam avabhasaya karanam. Purva drstah explains the word smriti rupah. Because of purva darshanam there is avabhaasa and how purva darshanam becomes the cause for adhyaasa is by creating samskara. So purva experience, adhyaasa, samskara and adhyaasa. So adhyaasa is born of samskara which is created by previous experience. Thus smriti and adhyaasa are similar because both are created by samskara. So meaning understood so far —Smritirupah paratra purvadrstavabhaasah. Something is appearing in an inappropriate place which is similar to the remembered ones and is due to samskara which is born of previous experience. This is called adhyaasa. If you see it with reference to example of rajju-sarpa, then sarpa is avabhaasa which is appearing in the rope which is inappropriate adhikarnam and the sarpa is like the remembered snake and it is appearing because of earlier experience of the sanke. Ofcourse the earlier experience need not be real. That is another point. But that earlier experince has contributed to the appearance of the present snake. Purva drsta can be interpreted in another way also. Purva drsta jatiya - that which is similar to the object seen earlier. Adhyaasa is that which is an object appearing in inappropriate locus which is like the remembered one and which is like the one seen before. This is adhyaasa. This definition is from the angle of Artha adhyaasa. So final definition of avabhaasah – Shuktau avabhasya rajatadhih smaryamanah sadrsah purva anubhava janita samskara janya jnana vishayah.…….. Avabhaasah means shining, appearing. Here the example of shukti and rajat is taken. Like silver, etc. which is appearing in mother pearl (inappropriate adhikarna) which is like the remembered ones and that which is the object of knowledge born of samsara which is created by previous experience . Simple meaning is - that which appears where it is not there. And it is appearing because of samskara and it looks like the remembered ones, but it is not the remembered one. It is not like it is in our mind only, it is really there in our experience. Our experience of adhyaasa is that when we see a false snake, we do not say we are remembering the snake. We say, we saw the snake that is why we are frightened. If we knew it was being remembered, we would not be scared. Think of a tiger and say you remember a tiger, then you won’t be frightened. Sometimes we may forget we remember, then we may feel frightened. You have forgotten whether it is rememberance or imagination. Otherwise if you are only remembering, then it is not frightening. That is why it is like the remembered one . And it is born of previous experience - purva darshana avabhaasate. Also purva drsta menas purva drsta jatiya- similar to the one seen before. It is not the same but it is similar. The similarity is also indicated by the word purva drstah. The rope snake is adhyastah because it is appearing in inappropriate place looking like the remembered one and similar to the one experienced before. That is why it is adhyaasah. It is a Lakshana .

So whevever you see a mistake, try to apply this lakshana. Infact if you start seeing , you will see them in every place. This is Arthadhyaasa. Now let us see the definition from Jnanadhyaasa angle. It will be interpreted a little diffeently. Avabhaasah means appearance , becoming evident . Jnanam which is like memory ie, like previous perception - smarna sadrsah. Earlier we had said smarnamaniya - the remembered one. Now we say like the rememberance. Paratra avabhaasah means appearing in inappropriate place and it is like the remembereance and it is like the previous experience. So sarpa jnanam is that jnanam which is taking place with reference to inappropriate adhikarnam – the rope. Rajjau adhyastha sarpa vishayaka jnanam. Knowledge of the sarpa which is appearing in the rope and it is smriti sadrsah, it is like memory of the snake and it is like purva darsahanam, it is like seeng of the snake before. Slightly different. So in jnana adhyaasa avabhaasa is appearance and artha adhyaasa, it is that which is appearing. So we can see the definition from artha dhyasa angle and jnana adhyaasa angle. The definition for Jnana adhyaasa given by the commentator is – Smriti sadrshah purvanu bhava janita samskara janyah shukthau adhyasta rajatadi vishayaka avabhaasah. The adhyaasa is appearance of the object like rajata etc. which is appearing in the mother of peral and which is like the memory and which is born of samskara created by earlier experience. If we see this lakshana and try to apply them wherever there is as mistake our approach to life will be diff. Everyehwhere you apply. This is appearing, it is in inappropriate place, it is like the remembered one and it is because of purva anubhava. If you keep applying this lakshana, then you ascertain that this is adhyaasah. Then the soln should be knowledge. Adhyaasa should go by knowledge. No other soln shd be applied. Like if you know there is malaria, then you give only malaria medicine. No other medicine should be given. Already you know it is malaria then you should not give any hifi medicine.some perole want only hifi solns. If u tell them a small tablet is enough , but they will feel it wont work. It is like homeopathic medicine . tablet looks very small, but it does work. So sometimes u need simple solution. I have a headache and my headache can be beause of stomach proble,. But I think tumor may be and do scanning etc. So once we know that it, here is adhyaasah, then my approach should be let me get knowledge. Clarity alone is the solution. Infact this we can apply with referece to our ragadvesha. What is raga? shobanadhyaasa ragah. Superimposition of niceness on something is raga. My beloved wife /husband/children is adhyaasah. He is source of my happiness and therefore I am very possessive. Some husbands are very possessive aboutt their wives. Because they are looked upon as the source of happiness. It is not there really. No person, no place, no object can be the real adhikarna for happiness. It is arogya adhikarnam. In ayogya adhikarnam you are seing happiness. So this is adhyaasah. So adhyaasah is not something u prepare for the class. You understand this adhyasa and your approach to life will be different. This topic of adhyaasa is highly analysed by different philosophers.That analysis is called Kyatih and there are diff schools of thought about this adhyaasa, reg bhrama, reg this mistake. How the mistake takes place has been analysed. Those schools of thoughts are called kyati vadah and There are 5 schools of thought giving dfferent explanation for this rajju-sarpah. There is a meaning and purpose behind this which we will see.


Nov 17- Some Ques and Ans : What is the definition of adhyaasa using all the 4 words ? It is that entity which is appearing in an inappropriate place which is like the remembered one and which is born of samskara created by previous experience. What is smritirupah ? That which is like the rememebered one. In what sense it is like the remembered one ? Samskara janyatvam is the similarity. Both being born of samskara is the similarity between them Why should we know the lakshana of adhyaasa ? So we can see the mistake we do in our life and we can correct it. Eg: raga we do shobana adhyaasa on the object which is ayogya adhikarna for happiness. Happiness is not there in the object.

Nov 17 – Talk 14:
The topic of Kyati – Erroneous conlusion, delusion or bhrama is called Khyatih. The statement there is a snake is also calledkyati. The school of thought dealing with erroneous cognition is called khyati vadah. This situation of seeing rope on snake is thoroughly anaysed by different philosophers.. This situation of rope-snake, silver on mothe pearl is based on delusion. Every body has delusions in ones life. How does it happen ? What are the factors involved ? How they contribute to the experience of this Bhrama ? For that different philosophers give different explanations. There is a book called Vibhrama Viveka written by Mandana Misra .There he analyses how different philosophers explain different kyatis. Infact there explanation is also sometimes called Khyati. So the experience of false object is called kyati and sometimes the explanation is also called khyati. But the primary meaning of Khyati is Bhrama - The experience of an unreal object. The school of thought dealing with this explanation is called Khyati vadah. This analysis is not futile. We may wonder, when we know it is false why should we analyse so much the experience that is unreal. We know the silver seen on the mother peral is unreal. Then why should we analyse it so much. Really we should analyse the experience of the real thing. Sastra says if you have analysed it clearly with respect to one thing , like what happens in relation to the rope-snake, then you can extend it wherever similar situations are there. Once you have understood it and know it is adhyaasa. Then you know the solution is knowledge only. You will not try to solve it by other means. Therefore how Brahma happens is thoroughly analysed . For this we have different contentions or Khyatis. Mainly there are 5 contentions – group of five Khyatis. There is a sloka to remember thematmakyatirasatkyatirakyatiranyatha tatha nirvachana kyatih, ithyethat kyati panchakam.


i) Atma khyati is presented by one group of Buddhists who are called Kshanika vadins. They have one explanation about this erroneous cognition. ii) Asat khyati is the explanation given by Sunya vadins. Those who believe zero is the reality. iii) Akhyati is the explanation given by Mimamsakas who say there is no delusion at all. They give a very intricate explanation. iv) Anyatha khyati is given by Nayayikas and Vaisheshikas. v) The last one is Anirvachana khyati given by Vedantins. Generally we study Purvapaksha first and then only we study Siddanta. Like in lok Sabha, the opposition will talk first and then the ruling party. First others are given a chance and the one who answers them speaks last. Generally that is the order. But here we have changed the order. We understand Anirvachaniya khyati first. The reason is this Purvapakshis are very strong in their presentation.They are very powerful and they are sounding very logical. We are unfamiliar in this territory. Since the first impression is the best . So whatever we hear first, it sets in our mind. Suppose Purvapaksha contention is explained first, then they will set well in our mind. Then when you come to Anirvachaniya khyati, you already have wrong samskara . When the mind is set in the wrong manner, it is very difficult to change the orientation. Khyati is unknown to us and whatever is said first will set in our mind. That is why my Swamiji who took adhyaasa bhashyam said let us take Siddanta paksha first. In Hrsikesh they teach different philosophers – Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta. So to study Nyaya you study a text called Tarka Sangraha. That is the introductory text of logicians. For Vendata the first text is Tattva Bodha. So one acharya said before studying Tarka Sangraha we should study Tatva Bodha. Otherwise to a person who is new to the pursuit, it will be a roblem becauseTarka Sangrah has its own style of presentation. It gives a particular style of thinking of how you should look upon different things. This gets set in our mind. Eg: Jnanam means it is a quality of atma. They have their own terminologies. They say there are seven padarthas. Afterwards if we study Tattva Bodha, then we will tend to look at it from that angle only. We try to see from the angle of what what was studied first only. We will think they are talking about jnanam which is the quality of atma. When tattva bodha says jnanam is atmasvarupa, it means it is a quality of atma. So what is set in the mind will govern your understanding later on. In certain situations it is better to teach the right thing first. If the person is strong enough that he will not be confused and can see the fallacy when the right one is presented later, then he can study the wrong thing first and then the right thing . Otherwise the right thing should be well set in our mind and afterwards if the wrong things are presented they will not cause a dent in our mind. Or there will be so much junk in our mind, there will be no space for the right thing. It is like junk in the house. That is why we are studying Anirvachaniya Khyati first. It is the explanation regarding Bhrama regarding adhyaasa situaton given by Vedanta. How adhyaasa takes place ? This explanation is quite different from the explanation given by all others. All the othere have one restriction, that they believe that the world is real. So whatever explanation they give should be based on this

primary assumption that the world is real. (Ofcourse only sunya vadis believe that the world is unreal). Therefore all their explanation has to make sure that their basic premise is not effected. They are Jagat satyatavat vadinah. So those who believe that the world is real have one sort of explanation and those who believe the wold is mithya have another type of explanation. What is there in the heart of Vedantin when he is presenting Anirvachaniya khyati ? What are the basic premises he has ? If we understand this, then only other things will fall in place. Let us first understand that. Everything we see has got its own material. If we follow the Panchamahabhuta model then we say this box is made up of prithi tattva. Prithvi is born of aapah, aapah is born of fire and fire is born of vayu and vayu is born of akasha. When we say this box is madeup of prithvi, what we mean is the material of this box is prithvi only. Prithvi is converted into this box. Prithvi is the product of water and water is product of fire and air is a product of vayu and vayu is product of akasha . So space is converted into vayu which is converted into fire which is converted into water which is converted into prithvi and which is converted into various objects. Further we say, akasha is born of Maya tattva. Ofcourse Brahman is there behind, but the basic material is Maya. So Maya is the basic material for every thing you see. This book, box, taperecorder everything is finally Maya. Maya is the fundamental material. It is there uniformly behind everyting. The question is then everything should be uniform. When the basic material is same, then why is there differences in objects. The answer given by Vedantin is - Even though the basic material is same, the in-between factors are different. For example if I make pulao and you people make pulao , even though the ingredients are the same , there will be a lot of difference in taste between your pulao and mine. Therefore there is difference in product because in-between material is different. The basic premise of Vedantin is that Maya is the material of everything and the difference in objects is due to difference in the in-between factors. Like same stone if it is polished it looks different, but if not polished it wil look different. Good example is Casio. In that there are atleast 100 or more settings. If you press the first button, another music comes out. If you press second button, different music comes. Maya is like the Casio. Like music, maya is dancing in the form of different objects. Different factors will bring out different material. So every object is the product of Maya, only the in-between factor is different. Maya is converted into the form of the mountain. Why? Because there are some jivas who have the adrsta to see,to use or stay on the mountain. So the adrsta of jivas causes the mountain. So as long as that factor is there, mountain is there. But when that factor is exhausted, then the mountain will be withdrawn and something else may come, maybe water. Mountain will go back to Maya. There will be earthquake, etc and it will be withdrawn. So as long as the in-between factors are there, Maya will be appearing in that particular form . When the in-between factors are no longer there, then Maya withdraws it in itself. Another form may come. The other form also will be governed by another in-between factors. Suppose th adrsta of jiva is different, then maya will assume a different form. It is like the lady of the house who cooks different items depending on the demand and family needs and her mood also. Here Maya has no moods. Depending on karma and vasanas of the jivas, this Maya appears as different things.


When I see the rope-snake, what is that ? Vedantin says that also is the product of maya. We don’t say the snake is not there at all. The snake has come for two minutes there from the same Maya. The same Maya from which the rope has come, from the same Maya snake has come. For the rope to come there were some factors, now for the snake to come there are other factors. Factors are different but the material is the same. So Maya can get converted into different types of objects depending on the in-between factors. That object can be for 2 mins or 200 yrs that does not matter. From the same organic material insects which live for few minustes are born. From the same material, a tortoise which lives for 100-200 yrs also comes. Similarly from the same Maya the rope which is lasting for long time can come and from the same maya the momentary snake can also come. Only thing the snake is experienced by you because certan individual factors have given rise to the production of the snake from that Maya. You had certain karmas so you had to see the snake and be frighterned by that and maya is ready for that. It creates the snake. So the same Maya creates the snake which remains for 2 mins. Only factors are different. The snake is not exactly like the real snake. It is not born of eggs , there is no mother snake and it is not poisonous. That way it is different from the real snake. The rope-snake seen now is different. The real snake which is seen by all and is available for transaction is called Vyavaharika Sarpa and snake seen because of individual factors and which is also product of Maya only is called Prathibhasika Sarpah or Apparent or subjective sarpah. But it is there. We don’t say there is nothing. And the Pratibhasika snake will go away when the factors responsible for creating the snake goes away. One of the important factors was rajju-ajnanAm which was the cause for the rope-snake. When that factor is gone, then the snake goes away. As long as the intervening factors are there, Maya will be remaining in that form. When the factors are gone, then maya will withdraw that form. Thus the snake which you are seeing is the product of the same Maya or avidya of that place. That place means where the rope is. What is meant by Maya of that place ? To understand the Maya of that place, we should understand some concepts. We should not think Maya is like some central entity throwing different objects. Maya is everywhere. Behind every object there is Maya . If we want to specify that Maya, then in sastra there is a method to specify the entities which are all pervasive. We use the concept called Avaccheda. This is a new concept to understand. We have studied in satra that conciousness is all-pervasive. Behind this object there is conciousness , behind the tree, etc there is conciousness. So in every object there is Conciousness. Even though it is the same Conciousness, I want to distinguish it from the conscious behind the other object for commuication purposes, then in sastra we say the Conciousness which is obtaining in the place where the rope is, that Conciousness is called rajjutva avacchinnah chaitanyam. Conciousness circumscribed by or conditioned by ropeness. Suppose I want to say conciousness obtaining in the tree, then I say vrikshatva avachinna chaitanyam. Avachinna means conditioned. So Conciousness in this book is called pustakatva avachinna chaitanya. Means the place wherever the bookness is, that is coverd by Conciousness. This maya or avidya which is preent in the place where the rope is, that is expessed in Sanskrit as Rajjutva avachinna chaitanya nishta avidya. Avidya or Maya which is resting on the conciousness conditioned by the place where the rope is. Nishta

means resting on. We have to say chaitanyam because avidya cannot remain without Conciousness being there behind. This avidya gets converted into the snake. The avidya which is responsible for rajju is getting converted into the snake now. Avidya has got all potential. It can get converted into anything. That is why a wise person is never surprised even if he sees a wonderful thing . Suppose somebody all of a sudden brings forth an aeroplane. He will not be surprised. He knows that this space which is where avidya is get convertd into aeroplane also. So one quality of the wise person is he is never surprised or startled by anything. Maya can get converted into anything. You apply this in day to day life also. Today somebody is nice to you, that is due to your punya,. Tomorrow the same person shouts at you. Why ? Because the intervening factor is different. The same Maya was appearing yesterday as a nice affectionate person and today as the person is angry. The intervening factor is different so you are never surprised. What appeared yesterday as a nice person is due to Maya and what appears today is also due to Maya. It is a wonderful way of looking at things. Otherwise you are upset , how come is he like this ? Suppose you see Swamiji eating bhelpuri or in front of the kabab shop, you will be shocked. Maya can appear like this also. I have seen this in the life of great Mahatmas also. I have heard the experience of how Pujya Swamiji handles situatiom. Somebody once came to the class naked. He had some mental problem . We would have shouted at the fellow. Pujya Swamiji just said, ‘ you go to your room and I will talk to you later’. He must have seen that as another form of Maya. Otherwise in our life we get shocked by different situations. Or we do not believe some situations. In Purana we hear that one rishi created an entire city by his tapah shakthi. It is possible to do that. Kapilmuni created a huge aeroplane throgh his tapah shakti. Tapah shakthi is another factor for Maya to get converted into an aeroplane. Possible. Suppose 100-200 yrs ago it was told that a small chip could do 100 funcs. You would not have believed at that time. No we know that in cellphone there is only a small chip. Now even nano-technology is coming where things will be very very small and so many functions will be there in it. But if Vedanti is told this, he would say it is possible. Mayayam sarva sambhavat. There is a beautiful sloka in the text - Atma Vidya Vilasa - about what would be the vision of a wise person ? Savitari api shitaruchau chandretikshne api adho vahati agnau mayikam idam iti janan jivan mukthau na vismayi bhavati. Suppose the sun in the sky starts giving cold rays and the moon starts giving hot rays the wise man will not be surprised and if the fire goes down also, he will not be surprised. When the sun was giving hot rays it was Mayikam and when it gives cold rays it is also Mayikam. Similarly the coolness and heat of the moon and the fire going upward or down , all of them are due to Maya. This is the basic premise of Vedantin. Whatever you see whether you see for 2 mins or for 200 yrs both are products of Maya. Only the in-between factors are different. So the rope-snake you see is the product of Maya only with different factors. What is the status of that object ? Can we call it Sat - existent. No we cannot say that. Satchet na badhyeta. Because anything which is existent cannot be dismissed. So it is not sat. If it is asat -totally non-existent , then na pratiyeta. It will not appear. Whereas rope-snake is appearing, therefore it is not asat. Since it is negated, so it is not sat. It is neither sat or asat. Neither can we say it is sat-asat . Because if something is existent then it cannot be non-existent. So something cannot be both existent and nonexistent. So it is not sat it is not asat and it is not sat-asat. It can only be different from sat and asat.

Sat asatbhyam nirvakthum ashakyam. That which cannot be categorized as either sat or asat. That is called Anirvachaniyam. Nirvachaniyam means, nisheshena vakthum yogya. That which can be categorically defined. Anirvachaniya is opposite. That which cannot be categorically defined is Anirvachinaya. So rajju-sarpa is Anirvachaniya. So Anirvachaniya kyati means Anirvachaniyasya sarpasya kyatihi pratih abhivadanamcha. Khyati means the experience . It is the experience of the inexplicable object. This presentation is called Anirvachaniya kyati vada. The idea is the rope snake you are seeing is Anirvachaniya. It is neither sat nor asat and it is the product of Maya. Only thing is the intermediary factors are different, that is why it is called Pratibhasika Sarpah. The real snake is called Vyavaharika sarpah. Both are Mayikam. For us everything is a product of Maya. This is Anirvachaniya kyati. This explanation is based on the vision of sastra. The sruti does not say rope-snake is like this. The explanation is based on the vision of the sruti. The vision of the sruti is Isvarah Sarva Shakthiman. Isvara is capable of creating anything. Isvara is Brahman + Maya. Brahman is nirguna, nirakara. Therefore all shakthi is in Maya only. So Maya alone should be sarva shakthih. Sarva shakthi is the nature of Maya. Sarva shakthi means all potential ,ie,it is capable of being converted into anything. Based on the definition given in the sastra that Isvara is Sarva Shakthiman, this explanation of Maya is given. Therefore this explanation is sruti sanmatha tarkah. It is a logical presentation based on Sruti. Ofcourse it is not conventional logic. It is unconventional logic. But it is based on the vision of Sruti. It is a new way of thinking and we have to set in our mind that everything is product of Maya which gets converted into different forms and Maya backed by Chaitanya is Isvarah. So we can say whatever you see is an expression of Isvara. So you can see Isvara everywhere. So Vedanti also appreciates Bhagvan everywhere, but in this understanding. Chaitanyam does not do anything. Maya does in the presence of chaitanyam. Thus Isvara is present everywhere . It gets expressed in different forms depending on intervening factors which can be adrsta, vasana , any factors . This is Anirvachaniya kyati which is not accepted by other philosophers. Because this is based on something unusual or unconventional. This is the thing, based on the sastra. We have to set this in our mind. We have to practice this that everyting is Maya. The rope-snake delusion you have is Maya. The same Maya which creates rope, creates the rope-snake. Once I asked a swami this avatara ,etc sounds confusing. He answered, the Lord who can create the whole world cannot he create a form for himself ? So for Maya nothing is impossible. If you remain in this understanding, nothing will effect you. Having understood Anirvachaniya Kyati, now we will enter into the other different kyatis.

Nov 24 – Ques and Answer –
1) Basic definition of Adhyaasa in Lakshana Bhaashyam ? Paratra Avabhaasah Something appearing somewhere else in an ayogya adhikarana. 2) What is the meaning of avabhaasah ? That which is appearing and the appearance. If it is appearing then it is arthadhyaasa and the appearance indicates jnana adhyaasah.

Artha and Jnana adhyaasa are 2 ways of looking at the same mistake. Snake which we are seeing is arthadhyaasa and the knowledge of the snake which is in the mind is jnanadhyaasa. They are there simultaneously. 3) What is the implication of the word Smritirupah ? Samskara Janyatvam sadrsyam – Both are born of samskara. 4) What is Vaisadrsyam between memory and adhyaasa ? Vaisadrsyam is dissimilarity. In the case of memory only smaskara is enough, but in the case of adhyaasa samskara and extra factors are required. 5) What is Khyati ? Experience of unreal object or Bhrama. Actually Khyati means prasiddi- fame. In the sense of being evident, appearance, shining, flashing, pratiti. What we call jnanadhyaasah is Khyati. The explanation is called Khyati also. 6) Vedantin believes in which Khyati ? Anirvachaniya Khyati. 7) What is Anirvachaniya Khyati ? Experience of inexplicable object. Eg : when u see rope-snake. That snake is not sat because it can be dismissed. It is not asat because it is not appearing. It is not sadasat because both cannot exist on the same locus. Sat is pervaded by the absence of asat and asat is pervaded by absence of sat. If something is asat, it necessarily has to be free from being sat. For sat to be asat it has to be different fron asat. Therefore it is said to be anirvachaniyam. That which cannot be categorically defined - nisheshena vakthum ayogya. There is pratiti or khyati of a snake which is neither sat, asat or satasat, ie, it is inexplicable . 8) What is the premise the Vedantin is working on when he talks of anirvachaniya khyati ? Everything whether it is vyvaharika or pratibhasika both are made up of Maya and the difference is because of difference in the in-between factors. Like adrsta, vasana, ajnanam, etc. are the in-between factors.

9) Wat is the difference between avidya as the cause and ajnanam as the in-between factor? Ajnanam refers to avarna shakthi and is different from avidya which gets converted into diff objectswhich is vikshepa sakthi of maya.for vikshepa sakthi to become into objects one of the factors reqd is avarn asakthi also. 9) What is diff between vyavaharika and pratibhasika ? Vyavaharika means empirically real,available for transaction. Pratibhasika means subjective or apparent reality. That which is available only to the individual. Maya of that place is behind both.


10) How do we explain Maya of that place ? Rajutva avachinna chaitanya nishta avidya. Avidya restingon that chaitanyam conditioned by ropeness. 11) Why are we analyzing this false experience ? So that we can apply to adhyaasa in our experience and know that it can go with knowledge . 12) What is the advantage of seeing everything is the product of Maya ? Your insistence or being shocked or startled will not be reduced. Anything is possible. A wise person will not be startled by anything. Nov 24 – Talk 15 Four Khyatis are presented by Purvapakshi. Infact there are 14 Khyatis, but generally 5 are popular - Khyati Panchakam. Generally we study Purvapaksha first and Siddanta later. Bhagvan Bhasyakara has not changed the order, but here we have changed the order. Acharya’s approach is very accommodative. According to some commentators, he does not even talk about Anirvachaniya khyati. He says you people have different contentions on Khyati. I don’t mind whatever opinion you have about how this experience takes place. But all of you have som consensus – something like a common minimum program and that is enough for me to extablish my adhyaasa. Bhagvan Bhashyakara is a very focused person. His intention is to show that there is adhyaasa and there are different contentions about it , so let them be there. Therefore he does not go into details or elaborately discuss or dismiss any of the khyatis. He says some people are saying like this and some peole are saying like that. He just quotes them and then he says sarvathapi tu. All the while all of them are agreeing with one thing - Paratra Avabhaasah. Sarvata pitu anyasya anyadharmavasatam na vibhicharati. His approach is very accomodative. You can have your own opinion. From your opinions I am deriving one thing- paratra avabhaasah. You are agreeing with that. If you do not agree with that I will make you agree wth that also. But the way you are presenting, you are agreeing with that and that is enough for me to establish adhyaasah. My mission is not to dismiss your contentions. Bhagvan Bhasyakara’s disciples want to dismiss them. Like soldiers are more enthusiastic than the Commander. He asks them to threaten the enemy and they go and beat them also. So some commentators take up each vada and dismiss it. Anirvachaniya khyati means there is experience of the object which cannot be categorized as sat or sat. This is based on the premises that Maya gets converted into everything whether it is vyavaharika-empirically real or pratibhasika - subjectively real. Technical difference is that vyavaharika will be dismissed by brahma jnanam only. But pratibhasika. is dismissed by other knowledge other than brahma jnanam. Brahma jnana anya jnana badhyam is pratibhasika. Brahma jnana badhyam is vyavaharika. Vyvaharika jagat we call it moolavidya karyam and pratibhasika we call it doshasahakrata

moolavidya karyam. That which is a product of Maya with a defect on the part of the person. Mountains, rivers are all born of Maya. Whereas for Pratibhasika dosha on the part of indvidual is required. So vyaharika and pratibhasika padartah are both products of Maya. Pratibhasika padartha –rajju sarpah is anirvachaniya and therefore the khyati is called Anirvachaniya khyati. But other people do not accept this because anirvachaniya khyati does not follow conventional thinking. In anirvachaniya we have to postulate Maya. Maya creates everything which other people cannot accept. Other people cannot accept that there is some instantaneous snake coming up. Imfact those who are studying Vedanta and even after having studied khyati, they think that rope is appearing as a snake. Anirvachaniya kyati says that instantaneously one snake came from Maya and that object is nothing but the product of Maya. Therefore they have got different ,different explanation for adhyaasa. That is why we have different khyatis. Infact their explanation will be more appealing sometimes because they follow conventional thinking. Sometimes the Purvapakshi sounds more powerful. That is why we took anirvachaniya khyati first. One point on anirvachaniya Khyati - What is the phenomenon taking place when the experience of rope-snake takes place ? or shuktika - rajat what actually happens. First we have to understand how there is knowledge of different objects. According to sastra the method given for perception is - the antahkarana goes out through the sense organs towards the object and assumes the shape of the object. On the object there was avarnam, and the cover is removed by this vritti. What is vritti ?. The antahkarna which has taken the shape of the object is vritti.Vishayakara antahkarnam is vritti or thought. Antahkarna goes out and assumes the shape of the object, then the antahkarna parinama, the product of antahkarna ie, the state of antahkarna is called vritti and that vritti removes the avarnam from the object. And in that vritti chaitanyam is reflecting and the reflected conciousness illumines the object. This is what happens in normal perception ie, in the perception of vyavaharika objects. But for vritti to take place light should be there, proper distance should be there, my sense organs should be defect free. All these are sahakari sadhanas. Then only antahkarna vritti will remove the avarnam which is there on the object and the object will flash. Now what happens in the case of shuktika –raja tie, silver on the mother of pearl. We will take rope snake afterwards. Antahkarana goes out through the eyes to the object where shukti is. But because of the defect of the eyes or because there is too much or less light ,whatever it is, the antahkarana goes to the shuktika desha, but because of some defect it is not able to assume the shape of the sukti ie, it does not assume shukti akara. Instead it assumes only general shape ie, idam akara . Along with idam there is some chakachikya or glittering akara. So antahkarna has objectified thisness aspect and glitter is also objectified. But it has not objectified shuktiness because of the defect of the eyes. Because chakachikya is objectified and this shuktitvam is not objectified, therefore this chakachikya is giving rise to the samskara of silver because silver also has glitter. Because of sadrsyam there is rousing of rajat (silver) samskara. So sadrsyam gives rise to silver impressions and the rajat samskara activates avidya which is there in the shuktika. In other words, it activates the avidya resting on the chaitanyam conditioned by this shuktika.

Shukti avachinna chaitanya nishta avidya is activated. That avidya is active because of rajat samskara and rajat samskara is active because of sadrsyam and also adrsta and other factors. So sadrsyam and other factors rouse samskara and samskara makes this avidya active and this active avidya which is resting on the conciouness conditioned by the rajat, that avidya gets converted into the momentary silver. Suktitva avachinna chaitanya nista avidya gets converted into rajat. So silver is the product of avidya only which is there behind this shukti. So rajat is the product of avidya which is resting on the conciousness conditioned by shuktika. This is Arthadhyaasa. So rajat silver is the product of avidya . It is produced instantaneously because of samskara which is because of sadryam etc. At the same time there is another product of avidya. That is rajat jnanam. Not only rajat is adhyaasah, rajat jnanam is also adhyaasa. It is a product of the same avidya. Bu this avidya is sattva guna pradhana. So we can say shukti avachinna chaitanya nishta sattva guna pradhana avidya gets converted into rajat jnanam. And shukti avachinna chaitanya tamo guna pradhana avidya gets converted into rajat padartha. The whole thing we can say in Sanskrit , shukti avachinna chaitanya nishta tamo guna pradhana avidya parinamah rajatam. And shuktitva avachinna chaitanya nishta sattva guna pradhana avidya parinama is rajat jnanam. In simple words, the sattva guna of avidya gets converted into rajat jnanam and tamo guna of avidya gets converted into rajat padartha. There are two things - rajat outside and jnanam of that rajat. Avidya is one, but it has got 2 aspects. One is sattva guna aspect and the other is Tamo guna aspect. Sattva guna gets converted into jnanam and tamo guna gets converted into material object. In tattva bodha we have seen that from sattva guna only mind and sense oragns have come and from tamo guna of Maya, this sthula mahabhutas have come . Following that model. This is how there is experience of rajat and rajat jnanam. And this rajat is neither sat not asat and therefore both of them are Anirvachaniya and therefore it is called Anirvachaniya khyati. This is the presentation by Vedantin. When the Vedantin is asked how this experience of shukti-rajat takes place he gives this explanation. With reference to rajju-sarpa also same thing. The antahkarna goes to the rajju desha , but it is not taking the shape of the rajju , ie, it is not objectifying rajju. So rajjuness of rajju is not objectified, so antahkarna does not assume the shape of the rajju. So rajjvakara vritti does not take place. Generally what happens is this - the antahkarana goes upto the rajjudesha and assumes rajju akara . But because of some defect of the eyes , some light was not there or some intervenng factors (sahkarnanis) are different. So what happens is when the antahkarna went to rajju desha, instead of assuming the shape of the rope, it could go only upto idam and became idam akara vritti . Also idam akara vritti included ‘something long , something round shape’. That much was objectified. So like chakachikya earlier, we have lambayamanaya bhaga, but not rope. Very minute thing. This much the antahkarna could reach - long thing and round shape it could reach, but rope it could not each. So in this situation because of sadrsyam with snake the samskara of snake was roused and the roused samskara activated avidya. Which avidya ? Rajuta avachinna chaitanya nishta avidya became active. That avidya which is activated because of samskara got modified into sarpah and sarpa jnanam. The only difference is tamo guna aspect got converted into sarpa and sattva guna aspect of that avidya got converted into sarpa jnanam.

Both of them are anirvachaniya and therefore this experience is called Anirvachaniya kyati. This is the presentation given by Vedantin on Khyati. Now we will see the other explanations on khyati – Tam kechit – anyatra anyadharmadhyaasah – iti vadanti. Now Bhagvan Bhashyakara is presenting the contentions of different people. He did not present Anirvachaniya khyati. The shishyas present it. The beauty and the greatness of bhashyakara that in one sentence he is presenting two cotentions. He is selected the words in such a way that it can stand for Anyatha khyati of Naiyayikas or atma khyati of Kshanika vadins. To explain one khyati we take so many classes. Whereas in one sentene he presents two khyatis. That is why we admire the intelligence of Bhagvan Bhashyakara. Especially his ntelligence is seen in Brahma Sutra bhashyam. He is at his best here, Those who study say how precise, how comprehensive he is. So here he is presenting two Khyatis. 1) Anyatha Khyati by Naiyayikas and Vaisheshikas. Let us understand their contention. What is the explanation given by them when we have got this experience of rajju-sarpa. What happens. One thing they say to Vedantin, there is no instantaneous unreal thing appearing. When you have the experience this is a snake actually what happens - Your eyes has some defect so your eyes goes to the rope , but because of the defect in the eyes, it is traveling upto the anthill where the real snake is there. Only mistake is your seing the real snake where the rope is. So when you are seeing the snake you are not seing unreal snake ,what you are seeing is the real snake only which is there in the anthill-Valmika. So what you are seeing is right but you are seeing it in the wrong place. Sometimes we do that mistake – right thing we do but in the wrong place. Suppose somebody is getting married. You say nobody belongs to anybody. All these are mithya relationship. We don’t know how long we will live. Right thing you are saying in the wrong place. And suppose somebody has died and you say, life is a celebration. Just celebrate. It is the right thing said in the wrong place. So Nayayikaa says that you are seeing real snake only which is far off, but you are seeing it here. That is why the khyati is called Anyata khyati. Anyata means differently. Valmikadi pradeshantare sthitha sarpasya anyatha , prakarantarena puroavasthite rajju deshe khyatihi. This is anyatha khyati. It means the snake which is there in the anthill you are seeing it differently. You should have seen it in the anthill, but instead of that you are seeing it here where the rope is. The anthill snake you are seeing differently. Differently means in the wrong place. The place for the snake is the anthill. But instead of that you are seeing it here. You are seeing the real snake only, but in the wrong place because of defect of the eyes. Then somebody will ask if I have got defect than my sight will be reduced. Whatever I am able to see I won’t see. By defect, ones capacity is reduced but you are saying the capacity is increased. There are so many things in-between and it is penetrating all of them to see the anthill. How come it is increased ? Have you ever heard that because of defect he has perceived more ? Nayayikas say, you canot say there is no example. There is an example . there is a disease called Bhasmaka roga. In that disease a persons digestive capacity increases. When a person gets the disease he eats so much. So you cannot make a rule that disease cannot increase the capacity.

Like when someone has worms in the stomach, they eat more. So defect can increase the capacity. This person has defect in the eye and because of this special capacity he is able to see that. So when you say ayam sarpah, the ayam of the rope and the real sarpa which is there in the anhill gets combined. He could see only the ayam of the rope, he could not see the entire rope. That much he agrees with the Vedantin. And seeing the ayam along with the shape roused some samskaras and he has defect in the eyes. So defect and samskara both together directed the sense organs, the eyes to go where the snake is. Samskara of the snake directs the defective eyes to where the real snake is. So Nayayika says when you say ayam sarpah - both are real. Ayam is real and sarpa is real. Only thing sarpa you should have seen it in the anthill instead of on the rope. That is the only mistake. Suppose you see a distant wall and near the wall some horse is standing. And on the wall a person is sitting. Chances are that you will see that person is sitting on the horse. Infact that is what they do in the movie. It is not like the hero is really riding the horse. One picture of the hero and one picture of the horse are combined. Here what you are seeing is the person is sitting on the horse. The person is real and the horse is also real. Only the connection between them is not real. The same thing has happened here. The snake is real, ayam is real . Even the Vedanti says ayam is real . Only thing seeing the snake on the rope is not real. That happened because of the defect of the eyes. This is the contention of the Nayayikas. Their khyati is called anyata khyati. Something is appearing differently, like the snake which is there in the anthill is appearing here. Which snake ? real snake only. It is not that you are remembering the snake. It is the real snake and you are seeing it here. In the shuktika -rajat example also it is the same thing. When you are seeing the silver you are seeing the real silver which is there in the shop. You should have seen it in the shop. Because of defect in the eyes you are seeing only the silver, but you do not see its adhikarna, locus. Here you are seeing this shukti. So what happens -the idam of this shukti and the rajat of the shop gets combined. And you have got the experience idam rajatam. This is silver. So there is no unreal thing. Real thing alone is appearing differently. This is Anyatha Khyatih . That is said here. Tam kechit Anyatra anya dharmadhyaasah iti vadanti . Tam refers to adhyaasa. Adhyaasa is avabhaasah. The Nayayikas are telling about the adhyaasa which was defined as, somewhere else(anyatra) this quality (dharma) of someone is appearing, ie, the appearance of the quality of someone, somewhere else. This is adhyaasah. This is how they present adhyaasa. Still it does not make sense . For this we have to understand the terminology of Nayayikas. How they look upon the objects ? Let us take the example of rajat. Silver has got parts ie atoms. Every object has got parts. This table has parts. In Sanskrit parts is called avayavah. All parts put together –that entity is called avayavi. So ther are silver atoms ie, parts of rajat called rajat avayavaha and the rajat is called avayavi. Like the desk all the 4 legs are called avayavaha and the desk is called avayavi. The question is what rests on what ? the entity rests on its parts. The avayavi rests on avayavah. The rajat avayavi depends on its avayavas. Avayava are support and avayavi is supported. Suppose use dharma –dharmi language. Dharma rests on dharmi. Quality resides in or depends on the substance. Now we bring that language here. What is derived there we bring here and combine them. Avayavi is like dharmas - that which is

supported. And avayavah is like dharmi –that which supports. So avayava’s are dharmi and avayavi is dharma. In the example of the silver, the silver atoms will be dharmi and silver will become dharma. The legs of the desk become dharmi and desk becomes dharma. So this rajat is a dharma of its avayavaas ie, rajat atoms. Therefore the dharma should be where the dharmi is. So rajat should be where its avayavas are. Rajat avayavas are in the shop . Therefore the rajat should appear in the shop. But it appears in the shukti – anyatra. That is what is said here. Anya dharmasya. The dharma of anya ie, rajat which is the dharma of the rajat avayavaas , instead of appearing in the shop where the rajat atoms are, they appear anyatra - somewhere else. Somewhere else means where the rajat avayavas are not there ie, they appear in the shukti. So rajat which is a dharma should appear where the rajat avayava dharmi is. Instead of appearing where dharmi is, it is appearing somewhere else. So the real rajat which is the dharma of the real siler atoms instead of appearing in silver atoms which are there in the shop, it appears in shukti. This is called adhyaasah. In simple words, real silver appears in front of the shukti. Nothing is unreal only the place is improper. This is how Nayayikas present adhyaasah. Ques asked What about if the person has not seen the object , say silver before ? If he had not seen the silver before, the experience is not possible. He will not see the silver now if he has not seen it before. So it need not be answered. Dec 1 - Talk 16 – Ques and Ans : 1) How does the experience of any vyavaharika object take place according to Vedantin ? The antahkarana goes out thro’ the sense organs and takes the shape of the object. The antahkarana which has taken the shape of the object is called vishayakara vritti. The avarna on the object is removed. The chidabhaasa which is there in the antahkarana illumines this vritti and the object flashes . That is called the knowledge of the vyavaharika object. 2) What is Vritti or thought ? Antahkaranam assuming the state of the object is called the vritti of the object-antahkarana parinam vrittih. It is nothing but a modification of antakarana. 3) In case of experience of Bhrama , rope-snake,what happens according to Vedantin ? The antahkarana goes out to the rajju desha. But it does not assume the entire shape of rajju because of defect in sense organs. Because of sadrsyam, samskara is aroused and because of which the rajju avachinna chaitanya nishta avidya is activated. The tamoguna pradhana nishta avidya gets converted into the form of sarpa and the sattva guna pradhana nishta avidya gets converted into the form of sarpa jnanam. Rajogna does not have a role now. It stays quite. The running away thought which comes later on seeing the snake is due to rajo guna.


4) Why is this called Anirvachaniya Khyati ? The object is neither sat nor asat nor sadasat . It is uncategorisable. So the experience of an object which is indeterminable or inexplicable is called Anirvachaniya khyati. 5) Who holds on to anyatha khyati ? Nayayikas and Vaisheshikas. Why is it called anyatha Khyati ? Anyatha means differently. The object appearing differently. This type of explanation is called anyatha khyati. Eg : snake appearing differently. According to Nayayika the snake is real but it is seen in the wrong place. Right thing is seen in the wrong place. 4) Why are we able to see distant object ? Because of defect of eyes. But does not defect generally reduces capacity ? Not necessary. In bhasmaka roga the disease increases the capacity. So it is possible. 5) What is anyatra ? In a different place. 6) What is anya dharmaadhyaasah ? Quality of something is appearing somewhere else. 7) How do the Nayayikas perceive objects ? Dharma = Avayavi = object = rajat or sarpa Dharmi = avayava = parts = rajat atoms or sarpa atoms. Dharma should be where the dharmi is. Eg : rajat (dharma) should be where rajat atoms (dharmi) are. The quality is the entity according to them. When the dharma or quality of something appears somewhere else . ie, It does not appear where the dharmi is. Then it is called Khyati or delusion. Dec 1 – Talk 16 – One point about Khyati – Khyati is the explanation of only Bhramatmaka anubhava. That which is referred to as delusion by all, is alone explained as Khyati. Our vyavaharika anubhava is not explained by the khyati of other philosophers. Khyati discussion is centered on analyzing the experience which is universally known as Bhrama. So anyatha kyati, etc cannot be brought in to explain kartrtva, bhoktrtva experience. But anirvachaniya can be brought in to explain them because according to Anirvachaniya khyati whatever experience is there, is the experience of Anirvachaniya. For vedantin everything is Bhrama. So called vyavaharika is also Anirvachaniya. It is not sat because it

is dimissed in the wake of knowledge. It is not asat because it is experienced. So the same logic can be extended to our body, with respect to our kartrtvam, bhoktrtvam etc which are all considered to be vyavaharika. So with regard to Anirvachaniya khyati extension is possible. With regard to atma khyati and asat khyati also extension is possible. But not in the case of Anyatha Khyati and Akhyati. This should be clear. Infact that is the purpose. When you understand the anirvacaniya khyati with respect to pratibhasika objects. It is easy later on to understand how even vyavaharika objects are anirvachaniya. Deha, mana, buddhi are all anirvachaniya. The experience of body, etc is the experience of anirvachaniya. The experience of vyavaharika jagat is also anirvchaniya because they are neither sat nor asat. Sat asatbhyam anirvachaniyam. extended. Otherwise what is generally known as Bhrama or delusion is analysed under Khyati. Let us see what is the place of the discussion of khyati? For that let us remember how this adhyaasa discussion started. The first topic was from the standpoint of Purvapakshi – Akshepa bhashyam. Akshepa was that there cannot be atma-anatma adhyaasa because there is no samskara of real togethermess because atma-anatma are opposite in nature. This was the objection raised by Purvapakshi. The answer given by Siddhanti is -- You look at your own experience. Does not your experience show that there is adhyaasa ? You have the experience you are this body. Even though you say this is my body , but your experience is I am this body. You say I am tall, short, fat, lean…, therefore don’t argue based on some logic only. Consider your experinece also. Does not your experience show there is confusion ? So based on experience we can say that there is adhyaasah. Therefore Samadhana. This can be enough for some people. Infact adhyaasa bhashya can be over with that. But some people cannot accept this. Even though anubhava pramana was shown , it may not be enough. Why because there is strong asambhavana buddhi-sense of impossibility. That this kartrvam, bhoktrtvam cannot be unreal. This jivatvam I am experiencing very intimately . I am Mr so and so, I am an individual is so intimate. And if somebody says it is unreal. It is difficult to accept. So when the asambhavana buddhi is very strong, at that time even though some evidences are shown to refute that basis of thinking, still person will not accept it. For that there is a beautiful example given in the sastra - there was a king and he had a minister called Bharchchhu. He was a favorite of the King. Any body who is favorite to the king, then he becomes the object of envy, so the others feel insignificant and they tried to drive him out. So all the other members of the court wanted to get rid of Bharchchu. They hired some robbers and asked them to do a robbery in the outskirt of the kingdom. The king got the news and the other members started saying that we are always ready to serve you, but Bharchchu is very strong, he should be given a chance. Bharchchu was very intelligent and he understood the intention of the minister. He understood that they wanted to get rid of him and he thought, why put the Raja in an embarrassing position. Being a mature person he said he will go. He went . It takes so many days to go there. In the meantime the other courtiers gave the news to the king that Bharchchu died. Bharchu has become a ghost. Raja believed that. It was told by several people in different ways. So Raja was convinced that Bharchchu died and became a ghost. Bharchchu came to know that this

type of rumor is beng spread. So he remained in the forest in the form of a tapasvi. So these people started saying that Bharchchu as taken the form of a tapasvi ghost. One day Raja goes to the forest for some reason, not to look for Bharchchu. He just happened to be there. There he happensed to see Bharchchu. But he ran away because he has already concluded in his mind that Bharchchu is a ghost. He saw real Bharchchu, but in his mind the conclusion is so strong that Bharchchu is dead and he is in the form of a ghost. So even when real Bharchchu says I am alive, he does not believe. Even though he was seeing with his pratyaksha pramana. He did not believe his own eyes. He did not believe that real Bharchchu was there in front of him. So sometimes it happens that even if pramana is used, still if there is a strong sense of impossibility, a person may not accept it. We have a strong sense with regard to our jivabhava, Our sense of individuality is really adhyaasah , it is false, a delusion we cannot accept that. Because we have a strong sense of reality with regard to jiva. How do we know ? Our response shows it. Somebody insults me, somebody does not listen to me, somebody does not reciprocate and I say I did so much for him and what has he done for me? These reactions show there is strong sense of individuality. Otherwise who has really done? This Jiva is mithya. Karta is mithya. Therefore there should be no reaction. But there is strong reaction. Therefore our statement, ‘ your anubhava shows adhyaasa ‘ may not make an impact on people. Therefore the statement - adhyasya aham idam mama idam iti loka vyavaharah- that stamement does not convince everybody that there is atma-anatma adhyaasa. It becomes like a pratigna vakya -It is a good proposition. It is a statement made which needs to be established. It has to be explained step by step. For that first of all it has to be made clear that there is something called adhyaasa. Earlier it was said in general. But now it has to be explained to people that the word adhyaasa has got corresponding padarthah. The fellow asked what is that adhyaasa you are talking about. So the Lakshana of Adhyaasa was given. But there should be a consensus about the Lakshana . It should be acceptable to all. To create that consensus, Bhagvan Bhashyakaa is presenting the different views of philosophers. Tam kechit, anyetu, kechitu… From all the opinions presented he is deriving common definitions so that general agreement is reached at. That is why Bhagwan Bhashyakara does not dismiss them or elaborate them. He presents them so briefly that in one sentence he presents 2 opinions. He does not care to dismiss them because his purpose is not to dismiss them but his purpose is to create a consensus. Like suppose I want to bring all the Mahatmas together– dvaita,visista, advaita…-together. Then I should focus on the common thread – all of us are hindus, all of us accept Vedas, all of us believe in god. I should highlight the common thread. I should keep the purpose in mind. When all of them talk and when I summarise I should not highlight the difference, their fallacy. Why ? because I want to bring them together for a cause. So I highlight the commonality because I want to show to the whole world that in certain respects we are all together. That is what Bhagvan Bhashyakara does. He does not dismiss even though he knows the fallacy. Sometimes we quote somebody to show they are wrong. Here he is quoting them to show the consensus. He is very focused. He does not go into detail of each khyati because if he went into detail of each khyati, he is getting distracted. The main point is to show that they all believe in adhyaasa. He is in that stage now. There is something called adhyaasa all philosophers accept. The way they present adhyaasa , it looks like they all accept this. Afterwards we can show that this adhyaasa which is there is possible with

atma-a natma also. That is called Sambhavana. After that is Pramanam to show atma-anatma adhyaasa IS. In Sambhavana bhashyam what is arrived at is that atma-anatma adhyaasa could be and in Pramana bhashyam it is shown that atma-anatma adhyaasa is. That is the development of the Adhyaasa Bhashyam. Now we are in Lakshana bhashyam where the Bhahsyakara is creating general agreement on adhyaasa. Therefore he does not go into so much detail. We also should be careful not to get lost in the detail. We may lose the sense of purpose. But we have to open up the front . So we briefly deal with each one of them First we did anyatha khyati. Few more points to see its fallacy. The Nayayikas said the quality of something appears somewhere else. To them the Vedantin would say – one thing is you are agreeing with our definition. Anyatra is similar to our Paratra. Adhyaasah you use is the similar to our avabhaasah. So you are also saying paratra avabhaasah. So we are in the same adhyaasa alliance. First we have to say this. After giving asana, dakshina, etc. we say, but there are a few defects in your explanation. The first defect is that when badha of rajju-sarpa takes place, when you go near the rajju. Better example is shukti rajat because in the caseof rajju-sarpa, we don’t go near sarpa to see. But seeing rajat you go near to collect it, but what you see is only shukti-mother of pearl. When you see this shukti what is your anubhava. You say, ‘ oh this is shukti only ‘. You don’t feel that I saw the rajat which was there and I superimposed it here. Nobody says in this world that I had seen the rajat of the shop, by mistake I am seeing it here on the shukti. So your explanation is not in keeping with the experience of the common man. When you go near you don’t get that feeling. So one defect is that it is not in keeping with badha anubhava - when you negate rajat, you don’t have that experience. Second you are saying that because of the defect of eyes , eyes go upto the shop. Suppose you are seeing it here and you have to go to the shop somewhere on MG road. But in-between there are so many things also. Like when the camera goes to focus on a particular place, in between also it should see different things. I should have seen the in-between places like JC nagar….How directly it went there? When you say idam rajat that time you don’t experience anything else. You don’t experience anything between the place you are standing now and the shop. In-between things are not experienced. When your sight goes there, when it is traveling there, it should see all the things on the way. Because of defect and directed by samskara, it should see all the things on the way, how ever fast it goes. But our experience does not show that. Therefore the defective eyes are seing the shop silver is not correct. Moreover what is there in front of you is shukti of a particular size and your eyes are going to the shop. How is it possible that the size of shukti and that in the shop are matching. Your eyes went exactly to the shop where the silver was and the shop was having shukti of the same size. Isn’t that too much imagination ? Therefore your explanation is not correct. Anyway inspite of our difference we can form an alliance. You are also accepting - partara avabhaasah. That is our common minimum program. That is enough for us. Next is atma khyati. Atma khyati is the explanation given by Kshanika Vigyan vadin who are one type of baudhas . There are 4 Baudhas- Madhyamikah (sunya vadi), Yogacharah (kshanika vigyan), Sautrantika, Vaibhasikah. All of them are Baudhah. For all them what Budha said is right.

But what Buddha said about that they have some disagrement. Here they have different opinions, therefore there are 4 divisions and one of them is yogachara or kshanika vigyan vadin. What is their philosophy ? They say that the reality is Vijnanam ie, knowledge or conciousness. They sound like Vedantin. But their conciousness is kshanika means momentary. Kshan means moment. Kshanika means kshanam asti asya that which is there only for a moment. That conciousness is Kshanikam. That is why they are called Kshanika Vijnan vadi. According to them the reality is momentary conciousness. It is there every moment. But every moment one conciousness comes and disappears, next moment another conciousness comes and disappears. There is a series of conciousness. Since there is a series of unbroken conciousness, it seems like there is one undivided conciousness. Every jivatma is Kshanika Vijnanam. So atma the self is nothing but momentary conciousness. Sinc it is in the form of unbroken series, it looks like a continous entity. For that they give the example of the flame of the fire. Every moment the flame is different. The previous oil is gone and new oil gives the new flame…but since it is continous it looks like one flame. We do not feel there are many flames. But technically from the stand point of the oil there are many flames. Infact your body also, every momment it is different. Every moment thousand of cells are gone and new cells are born. . But we don’t say that you are a different person. You feel you are the same. Since it is continuing, therefore it looks like one entity. So the reality is Kshanika Vijnanam. Atma is Kshanika Vijnanam. Who are you ? You are momentary conciousness –being born and dying every moment - born and gone. What aboutt the world ? World is nothing but different forms assumed by this conciousness. Eg : book is nothing but conciousness in a particular form. And the book is the dharma or property of vijnanam or conciousness which is inside but appears outside . So there is bhrama with reference to everything. Everytime we are in delusion only. Everything is nothing but the property of this atma which is inside appearing outside. Since this is the case and if you ask me what is my opinion about shuktika -rajat. My explanation is the same. What explanation I give for vyavaharika objects like gata,pata. etc., the same one I give for shuktika-rajat. The property of atma is appearing outside . This is called atma khyati. Atmanah kshanika vijnanasya, rajatadi rupena khyatihi- pratitihi atma khyatih. Khyati means pratithi- experience. It is the experience or appearance of atma only. Which type of atma ? Atma which is kshanika vijnana rupa atma.But kshanika vijnana is there in the form of rajat. So kshnaika vignyana alone is appearing as rajat. Atma kshnaika vijnana is appearing outside. It is inside ,a property of atma . but it is appearing outside. This is atma khyati. Momentary conciousness is appearing outside in the form of rajat. This is the dharma of atma which appears differently. Why it appears because of samskara. There is rememberance also. Every conciousness when it dies,it passes on its remeberance, etc to the next conciousness. Like baton is handed over,handed over… Kshanika vgnyana rupa atma -the self which is in the form of momentary conciousness appears as rajat etc. This explanation is called atma khyati. That atma khyati is presented here in Lakshana bhashyam -anyatra anyadharmadhyaasah.- it is the appearance (avabhaasah) of anya dharma ie, quality of atma (which is kshanika vijnana) and

that dharma is inside but appears outside. The quality of atma (kshnaika vijnana) in the form of rajat (quality) which is interior appears outside (anyatra). It is supposed to appear as property of atma, but it appears outside. Like a film alone has the property of horse, etc. So the horse is the property of film but appears outside. When we are watching the movie we don’t think that this horse which is in the film, is not the propertyof the screen. So horse which is (anya dharma) property of film is anyatra on the screen that is adhyaasah. Similarly this rajat which is the property of kshanika vigyan rupa atma appears outside. This is adhyaasah. Very simple explanation they have. They seem very similar to Vedantin’s Eka jiva vada. Only difference is in Vedanta we don’t say that this vritti itself is conciousness. There is something behind thought, which is conciousness. But for them vritti itself is conciousness. Vignayanam is equivalent to our vritti. But our thought has conciousness behind which is sakshi chaitanyam which is permanent . Whereas for them there is nothing behind vignyanam. Thought like vignyanam is the reality. Dharma of atma which is inside, appears outside. To this atma khyati we say thank you very much so that we can create an alliance. You are also agreeing with us- paratra avabhaasah. Anyatra-outside ; anya -somewhere else. So you are agreeing with our definition. But there are some problems. You first highlight common points and then point out the fallacies. You don’t start with the problem. When you want to show the limitations of a person. First you glorify the person and then point out the problems. Then only they will have the mind to listen to you. Here I say paratara avabhaasah and you say paratra avabhaasah too, but there are some discrepancies. We tell the Kshanika Vigyana Vadi- you see your own experience . When you see rajat and you go near it , you find shukti. What is your experience? Don’t say, oh that rajat which is the quality of atma is appearing outside. That rajat is in me. This is not everybodies experience. Nobody says the rajat was in me and I falsely saw it outside. You don’t say that. Moreover, according to you there is nothing outside. Everything is the form of atma. Infact for you in your dictionary the word outside should not be there. When you say the word outside, then you are accepting outside. One side you are saying outside and the other side you are saying there is no outside. You contention is everything is in the form of conciousness which is inside. So you seem to be a little confused. You say outside and then you say there is nothing outside, how is that possible ? According to you there is nothing outside, so the word outside should not be there at all for you. There must be some confusion. In the example you have given of the film, outside the film there is a screen. So the property of the film can be seen outside. There is a relationship outside between the film and the sreen. But you said the whole world is nothing but the form of conciousness. So for you there is nothing outside. Therefore you shd not say there is no outside. You are accepting outside and at the same time you are denying outside. So there is some discrepancy and it is not fully acceptable. But anyway you are accepting paratara avabhasah and that is enugh for us. Our approach is very reconcilatory. Bhashyakara is going to say Sarvathapi tu. From every point of view, anyasya anyavabhaasatam na vyabhicharati . There is something appearing as something else does not change . In that there is no difference. That is constant. That is our common minimum program. That is there with refence to anyatha khyati and atma khyati. Next we will see akhyati.


Dec 8 – Ques and Ans.
1) What is the place of Khyativada or how does the discussion of Khyativada comes into the picture in adhyaasa bhashyam ? What are the devts. in Adhyaasa Bhashyam ? • The Purvapakshi in Akshepa bhashyam contends that atma-anatma adhyaasa is not possible. • The Siddanti in Samadhana bhashyam shows that adhyaasa is there in our experience adhyasya ahamidam mamedam loka vyavaharah . • Even though our experience is shown as Pramanan for atma-anatma adhyaasa,it might not be accepted by most of the people because of a strong sense of impossibility-asambhavana buddhi. That is why the question was posed in Lakshana Bhashyam-koyam adhyaasah naameti ? Discussion starts afresh. By giving the Lakshana it is shown that there is something called adhyaasa and it’s nature is paratra avabhaasah. And to crerate the consensus different philosophers are quoted. That is the purpose of khyati vada discussion. Bhashyakara brings in the discussion of Khyati, to arrive at a consensus on the basic definition of adhyaasa. The purpose of Khyati is not to dismiss or criticize other philosophies but to arrive at a consensus on adhyaasa. After the consensus is arrived at, then by pramana anubhava it is shown that adhyaasa in general is possible. • Then in Sambhavana Bhashyam, a sense of possibility is created that adhyaasa can be possible with reference to atma-anatma . • In Pramana bhashyam, it is shown that atma-anatma adhyaasa IS. And therefore the problem of Samsara will go by knowledge and for that sastra vicharah kartavyah. These are the developments. This is how it connects. 2) Which stage of Adhyaasa Bhashyam are we in ? We are in the first stage of Lakshan Bhashyam showing that adhyaasa is possible in general. 3) What does the Bharchchu example indicate ? It indicates that even though evidences are shown , if the sense of impossibility is very strong in us then we don’t accept it.

4) How has the title Anyatha khyati come ? Anyatha means differently . Something seen differently is called anyatha khyati. Eg : shop silver appearing in the place where shuktika is. 5) What are the defects of Anyatha khyati ? There are 3 defects + one more added. i) Our experience does not validate the statement.

When we go near shuktika, we don’t say the shop silver is seen here. We say, oh this is shukti not silver. ii) Between the shop silver and the shukti there are a lot of things in-between. But our experience is only of idam rajat. The in-between things do not come to our experience. iii) The shape and size of silver in the shop is same as the shape and size of the rajatshuktika. That seems a little imaginative. One more objection is also raised by the Siddanti. It is a little subtle. iv) Your experience when you see silver is idam rajatam. Idam is here and silver is there in the shop. They are two separate objects which you are seeing together, then there must be some connecting factor since you ar seeing them both together. Since for you everything is real. Question is whether the connection is real or unreal. If it is real then where is the real connection ? If the connector is here in idam deshe then that connector has to be connected with the rajat. What about the other connection which connects it to rajat. Then how is that connector connected to the rajat again. So you have to keep on imagining different different connections. On the other hand, if you say it is unreal then you agree with us that something can be unreal. If you can accept the connection has unreal, why not accept the rajat also is unreal. Therefore their contention cannot be accepted. 5) What is the positive point derived from Anyatha akhyati ? The way it is presented, there is agreement on the basic Lakshana for adhyaasa paratra avabhaasah. 7) What is Atma khyati ? It is explanation given by Kshanika Vijnana vadin. Atma which is kshanika vigyana appearing in the form of rajat outside is called Atma khyati. Atmanah kshanika vijnanasya khyatihi iti atma khyatih. 8) How does Atma khyati explains anyatra anyadharmadhyaasah ? Appearance of atma dharma which is an inner quality outside. 9) What is the defect of atma khyati ? The explanation is not in keeping with experience. There is no outside for them, since the whole world is atma. Therefore there is a confusion. 10) What positive thing do we derive from atma khyati ? From them also we are deriving paratra avabhaasah. In that aspect they agree with theVedantin. 11) Can this khyati discussion be extended to dharstanta of atma-anatma ? Anirvachaniya, atma and asat khyati can be extended to atma-anatma . According to atma kyati everything is a form of atma whether it is vyavaharika or pratibhasika . For Sunya vadin , everythng is sunyam. So there contention called asat khyati can also can extended to atma-anatma adhyaasah. Only Anyatha and Akhyati cannot be extended to Darshtanta.

This explanation is mainly for focussing on the analysis of experiences which are generally called bhrama. Like rope-snake, rajat-shuktika.

Dec 8 – Talk 17
Kechitu- yatra yadadhyaasah tadvivekagrah nibhandhano bhrama iti. Whereas some people are describing the expereince which is called Bhrama As something caused by nonapprehension of viveka ie, the difference between what is superimposed and where it is superimposed. Here Akhyati is presented. This is the opinion of Mimamsakas. They also are divided into two groups - one is called Bhattah. Those who follow the mata of the famous Acharya Kumarila Bhatta. The other group is by his disciple Prabhakara. His disciples are called praabhakara . His contention is called guru matha. Their khyati is Akhyati. Akhayati means no khayati. According them there is nothing called Bhrama. Every knowledge is valid and is faithful to the object. If at all we want a division of knowledge we can say there is Pratyaksha jnanam, Smarnathmaka jnanam. Really there is no Bhrama. They have got very strong arguments. Knowledge is the basis for all transactions. You see Swamiji sitting here you do namaskara. You hear something and you have a doubt whether it is Adhyaasa bhashyam or Kaivalya Upanishad you are hearing. So every time you are doubting.You cannot lead your life. Suppose you go out and you take an auorickshaw and you have a doubt whether you are sitting in an auto or an airplane. So if you start doubting knowledge where will you end up. So every knowledge is valid knowledge. Every knowledge is faithful to the object. Yes. it is possible there can be partial knowledge. Suppose I ask what is this ? You say this is a Clip and something is written on the clip. What is written you cannot see, so your knowledge is partial. You see the clip but you don’t see the bacteria sitting on the clip. You may miss out something, but what you see is valid. So therefore there is no Bhrama at all. To say there is Bhrama is a delusion. At times we do experience things which are not there. Like we experience silver here, where it is not there. So our pravritti becomes futile. We hear somebody ring the bell. But it was really Bhrama. So how will you account for that ? You are a philosopher and in your philosophy there must be answer for everything. For a philosopher the principle of everything has to be explained. How it wil fit in the philosophy. So if we ask them we do see some futile activities, then why do you say bhrama is not there ? He says what you are calling Bhrama, that type of experience is there. But it is not Bhrama. It is not something seen as something else. Something will appear as that thing only. Your Indriyas bring right knowledge only. They don’t bring wrong knowledge. If there is some defect, then it will not do the job. But it will not do something else. Suppose a seed is spoilt then it will not germinate that’s all. It will not do something else. So that type of anubhava is there but it is not Bhrama. For what you call Bhrama we have an explanation.

When you are experiencing idam rajatam. Actually ther is not one knowledge. There are two knowledge. There is shukti in front of you. Eyes go there to shukti pradesha. Since eyes have some defect they perceive only idam part of it because partial knowledge is possible. Instead of idam shukti knowledge idam knowledge takes place. Chakachikya also it perceives. Since glitter also is perceived, therefore it rouses the samskara of silver. When samskara is aroused then there is smriti of rajat. So there is one jnanam called pratyaksha jnanam which is in the form of idam jnanam. And because of samskara you have another jnanam which is rajat smriti jnanam. But as it happens in pratyaksha, we grasped only one part idam similarly in smriti jnanam also you got smriti of rajat but you did not get the appreciation that it is smriti . Memory is there , but the awareness that it is memory, ie, memoryness of the memory is missed. If I remember a person, I don’t say hello. Suppose I miss the memoryness of the memory, then I will not be able to appreciate that it is a remote object. I am remembering the shop silver but I don’t know now that I am remembering. The rememberd silver is far off. It can be referred by the pronoun tat – that which has tatta, ie, thatness. So thatness of the silver is missed. Remoteness of the silver is missed. In Sanskrit we say thatha is missed. And missing is possible. But you cannot mistake something. Memoryness of the memory you missed and thatha of the silver you missed. Therefore the pratyaksha jnanam is of this , but it is not completed by this is sukti. Smritijnanam is of rajat but tat is missed and both of them are incomplete. In pratyaksha there is dharmi jnanam but dharma jnanam is not there. In smriti jnanam dharma (rajat) jnanam is there but dharmi (tat ) jnanam is missed. Therefore they get combined. In sastra we have got a Nyaya called “nashtasva dagda ratha nyaya”. Somebody had a chariot with horse. But his horse died. Other person also had a chariot and horse. But his chariot got burnt but only horse is there. So they combine. That is what is marriage . Woman has female energy (modern thinking). And male has male energy. So they combine. Everybody has to become Ardhanarishwara. So here also marriage is taking place between idam of pratyaksha jnanam and rajat of smriti jnanam. Really speaking they say combination is also not the right word. To use that word is giving concession. Precisely speaking the difference between idam and rajat is missed. There is asamsarga means non-relation between this and rajat. This distinctness is missed. Since it is missed it appears to be together. But they are not really together. Therefore the vyvahara takes place like this that they are together. For any activity to take placr ther should be the appreciation of the absence of gap. For eg: clip is here. I am appreciating this and also the clip. Between this and clip there is samsarga. Since there is a relation. I am appreciating the opposite ie, absence of asamsarga. Asamsargasya agrahanam asti tatra. There is non-apprehension of the non-relation. Then only we will go after this. Suppose I was seeing the gap then I would not go after this. So for any activity to take place I should not see the gap. Not seeing the gap is the reason for activity to take place. Not seeing may be because there is no gap. But sometimes the gap is there if I don’t see, then there will still be activity. Asamargasya agraha should be there. So between idam and rajat the gap is not seen even though it is there or not there. So activity takes place. We go after the rajat and see there is no rajat and therefore you call that activity futile and that knowledge you call Bhrama . Really speaking there is no Bhrama. There are only 2 knowledges. Not seeing the gap, you are just presenting both of them in one sentence. That vishista vyvahara ,

ie, the expression when two things are put together, that type of vyvahara you are calling bhrama. This sabda prayogatmaka vyvahara – idam rajatam- this expression of using these 2 words together alone is called bhrama. Really there is no Bhrama . There are two knowledges and both are real . Idam jnanam is valid and rajat jnanam is valid. The difference between these two knowledge is missed and the difference between the objects of these two knowledge is missed. Because of that some futile activity takes place and the basis of that futile activity is called Bhrama. Simple idea is that Bhrama is nothing but the basis in the form of knowledge of futile activity. That basis is due to missing the distinctness between the so called adhistana and aropya and also between the knowledge of adhistana and knowledge of aropya. Because of that you have something you call Bhrama. Really there is no Bhrama. That is what is said here. – yatra yad adhyaasah tad vivekagraha ninhandhano Bhrama iti. Yatra means where. Eg; In idam amsha there is rajat adhyaasa. Yatra idam amshe rajat adhyaasah. Yad means adhyaasa .Tad vivekagraha. Tad refers to where there is adhyaasa and of which there is adhyaasa. Both shuktika and rajat are referred by the word tad. Viveka means distinctness or difference. Agraham means non-apprehension. Nibhandhana means cause. Bhrama iti means delusion. The meaning of the words is – Delusion is something the cause of which is nonapprehension of the difference of where adhyaasa is and of what adhyaasa is. In simple words, Between idam and rajat you have missed the gap and between idam jnanam whih is pratyakshatmaka and rajat jnanam which is smirnathmaka you have missed the gap.Missing the gap between the two knowledge and the two objects is the cause for the experience you are calling Bhrama. We don’t call it Bhrama. For us it is 2 types of knowledge taking place. Missing is possible .Really speaking there is no Bhrama . Therefore it is called Akhyati vada .There is no khyati. How does the Vedantin answer them ? First of all we will make you accept there is something called bhrama. There is Vishshista Vyavahara. Visheshana means adjective. Pink is the adjective for this clip. The clip is called visheshya. That which is qualified-the substantive. Pink clip is called vishishta means qualified. When one thing is qualified by the other, and with qualification we are referring to that object, then we call the object Vishishta. Here in idam and rajat, Idam is dharmi and rajat is dharma. Rajata dharma vishihta idam. This is something which is qualified by silver there is a Vishishta vyavahara. Just as we have pink clip. ‘This silver” is also Vishishta vyavahara. Both of them have the same locus then only there can be vishihsta vyavahara. Rajat which is remote you cannot have the expresion in the form of Vishishta vyavahara , “this is silver”unless you accept that silver is seen here. So when you are accepting Vishishta vyavahara, you are accepting that the shop silver is appearing here. You are accepting idam rajatam and you are accepting that it is vishishta vyavahara and vishishta vyavahara is possible only when you

accept that smaryamana rajat appeared here. Unless you accept that you cannot accept Vishishta vyavahara. Maybe you can say remembered silver. But you have to accept that it is appearing in shukti desha. So you are also accepting bhrama. Unless you accept bhrama, you cannot accept Vishihsta vyavahara. Like we have to work a little harder here. Suppose the Purvapakshi accepts bhrama then we can somehow maneuver to show the type of bhrama. You first accept it is paratra avabhaasa. Suppose someone is ready to marry then we can convince what type of person, etc. but suppose he says he does not want to get married then we have to struggle little more to convince. Here we have to first make them see that there is bhrama because you are accepting Vishihstah vyavahara. Vishishta vyavaharasya anyathanupapathya Vishishta Bhrantheh svikaraniyatvam. You have to accept that the remembered silver or shop silver is appearing here. It means paratra avabhaasah.if that much you accept that is enough for us. Your explanation is very learned and scholastic, and we congratulate you for that, but you have to accept paratra avabhaasah. But you have some defect in your explanation.

Dec 18 – Ques and Ans :
1) What is the basic premise of Akhyati ? The basic premise of Akhyati vada is – Every knowledge is a valid means of knowledge, ie, it is true or faithful to the object. There is no invalid knowledge. 2) How do they explain the Bhrama experience or How does this experience idam rajatam happen ? The Akhyati vadins do not use the word Bhrama to describe idam rajatam experience. According to Vedantin there is one knowledge called Bhrama. But according to akhyati vadin what is called Bhrama is not a single knowledge but it is a composite of two knowledge. Idam yatharta jnanam and rajat smarnathmaka jnanam. The distinction between these two jnanams – idam pratyaksha jannam and rajatam smarnathmaka jnanam - is missed. When the distinction between the two knowledges is not grasped , consequently the distinction between the two objects is also not grasped. In this context Viveka , Asamsarga and Bheda all three means distinction. When bheda is not grasped, Vishishta vyavahara takes place and because of that activity takes place which turns out to be futile. The knowledge which is the basis for the activity which turned out to be futile is called Bhrama by people. This is how the idam rajatam experience takes place. Some clarifications given by Swamiji : a) Yathartha jnanam – There is a subtle difference when we say pratyaksha and yathartha jnanam. All knowledge is Yathartha Jnanam.

Yathartha Jnanam are of two types – Anubhava and Smruti. The former is born of Pramanam and Smruti is born of samskara. Pramanan can be pratyaksha, anumana, arthapatti…..Both pramanam and smruti are valid knowledge, ie, yathartha Jnanam. b) Dharma & Dharmi - In Pratyaksha jnanam the dharmi idam is known, but dharma shuktika is missed. In Smarna jnanam dharma rajat is known but dharmi tatha is missed because the memoryness is missed. The general rule for dharmi and dharma is what is distinguished is dharmi and the distinguishing factor is called dharma. But really both are mutually transferable depending upon what you want to highlight. (Here we say dharmi idam is missed and dharma tat (memoryness) is missed.) 3) What happens when there is real silver experience ? Our experience is this is silver. Between this and real silver there is samsarga, identity. There is no bheda. So we will not be grasping bheda. So there is bheda agraha. Agraha means non-cognition. Therefore in real silver experience there is non-cognition of difference. When bheda is not grasped then only there is activity.

Dec 18 – Talk 18
Recap of Akhyati Vada : According Akhyati, every jnanam is Yathartha Jnanam . If we start doubting jnanam then we can’t trust anything. The so-called Bhrama is also something which is born of some knowledge which is born of agraha (non-cognition) of bheda (difference) between where there is adhyaasa and of what there is adhyaasa. Tad vivekagraha . Viveka means difference . The difference between idam amsha and rajat and difference between their knowledge is not grasped. This non-cognition of the two knowledges and of the object is the cause for the experience called Bhrama. Bhrama is the experience which is having the cause (nibhandhana) in the form of non-cognition (agraha) of the difference (viveka) between where adhyaasa is (idam amsha) and of what adhyaasa is (rajat amsha). You are not able to grasp the difference between idam and rajat because you could not grasp the difference between idam jnanam and smarana jnanam. Idam jnanam is pratyaksha jnanam because it is born of indriya samyoga or sense contact. You grasped this. Your eyes went to shuktika desha, it could grasp only idam. This idam jnanam was also having some chakachikya as its vishaya, some glitter which was grasped. Also because there was sadrsyam and there was also some defect in the eye and also pramatha had some greed, so because of all these factors, samskara of rajat was born. That samskara gave rise to smaranam of rajat. Thus there was two jnanam -pratyaksha jnanam of idam and smarna jnanam of rajat. The difference between them was not grasped. Why it was not grasped ? Because the memoryness of the memory was not grasped. The fact that it is different from Pratyaksha

was not grasped. If memoryness was grasped then there would not be confusion or vyavahara. But somehow memoryness was not grasped. Therefore the difference between these two objects – that rajata is object of smarna and idam is tat born of pratyaksha was also not grasped . Means the bheda between two objects was not grasped because the bheda between the two jnanam was not grasped. This is the cause for what is called Bhrama. When you have the knowledge of real silver and you get the jnanam this is silver. That time the bheda between this and silver is not grasped. In Yathartha Jnanam of real silver there was agraha of the difference. In real silver experience there is bheda agraha. Bheda is otherwise called Asamsarga. Samsarga means connection or relation, Asamsarga means non-relation. Between this and silver there is samsarga. It means there is no asamsarga and since there is no asamsarga it is not grasped. Therefore in the experience of real silver there is bheda agraha or asamsarga agraha. Here in delusion situation - between this and silver there is bheda agraha even though idam is the object of pratyaksha jnanam and rajat is the object of smaranam of the rajat seen in the shop and now remembered. Therefore really there is a difference in the delusion situation but this difference is not grasped. So there is bheda agraha. So in both real silver and delusion situation , there is bheda agraha - non-cognition of difference. In the real silver situation there was bheda agraha because there was no bheda ie, non-cognition of the difference which is really not there. But in delusion situation there is bheda agraha because there was some factors which did not allow the diference to be grasped. Finally in both situations there is bheda agraha. Because of this similarity with the experience of real silver there is activity. Abheda vyavahara. This and silver are identified wth each other because bheda grahanam has not taken place. If bheda grahanam (cognition of difference) had been there there would be no activity. But because of bheda agraha (non-cognition of difference) there is Pravritti. There is Vyavahara. Because of the similarity between the two knowledges –the composite of the two knowledge and the experience of real silver -samicheena rajata jnanam - there is a similarity - bheda agraha. Since in the case of real silver, bheda agraha was there activity took place and here in the idam-rajat situation also bheda agraha was there so activity takes place. So bheda agraha has to be there for activity to take place. So there is no problem for activity to take place. Later when a person goes near shuktika and says nedam- this is not silver . This nedham pratyaya becomes negator knowledge, so the knowledge which was there earlier (this is rajat) is called Bhrama, since it stands negated. But really there is no Bhrama experience. This is called Akhyati presented by Prabhakara who is called guru. There is an interesting story of why he was called guru. Once the teacher of Prabhakara was teaching when he came across one sentence.

Atra tunoktam tatrapinoktam iti paunaruktyam. The teacher could not understand the sentence. Paunaruktham means repetition. Tunoktam and pinoktam how can there be paunaruktam, repetition ? So the teacher was not clear. So the teacher said we will see it later and he must have concluded the class. Prabhakara was siting there and he understood. He was brilliant. Since so many disciples were sitting there, and he did not want to tell the teacher in front of them. He was very conscious that his guru’s dignity should not be effected. Sometimes your mind gets stuck on small things and it does not understand. It happens to anybody. So what he did, when the guru went out he took gurujis book and wrote – tunoktam means tu sabdena uktam and apinoktam means api sabdena uktam. Tu and api have the same meaning, therefore there is repetition. The teacher came in the next class and he saw the note in the book and he said who has written this ? Then some disciple told that Prabhakara had written it. So the teacher said, ‘he is turned out to be my guru’. Then onwards he was called guru. That is why his mata is also called guru mata. It is very very intricate and it seems like it is the thing. It is a strong presentation. So to Akhyati vadin also the Vedantin says thank you for joining our alliance. The akhyati vadin says, we don’t believe in bhrama so how can we join your alliance ? But the Vedantin emphatically asserts, you have to accept it. You say there is a Vishishta vyavhara. People do say idam rajatam. Rajat visheshana and idam visheshya is combined and this expression is called Vishishta vyavahara -Rajat vishesana yukta vyavahara. Now where is idam ? Here . The question is when a person is experiencing rajat , is he experiencing rajat in his mind or outside in front of him ? Really he is experiencing the rajat in front of him because he goes after it. It means at that time when he saw idam he saw rajat also. Idam and rajat were both seen in the same locus. Therefore rajat is paratra avabhaasah. Whether rajat is from the shop or from the mind, but it is seen somewhere else where the idam is. So seeing something somewhere else is Bhrama. Therefore if you accept Vishishta vyavahara you have to accept Bhrama. And Bhrama is paratra avabhaasah. Therefore whether you like it or not you are in our alliance. Also though your explanation is intricate, it has some defects. 1) It is not in keeping with experience. When we go closer to the shukti which we thought was rajat, what we say is, ‘oh it is shukti not rajat’ . Nobody feels that actually I have rememberance of rajat and it is mixed up with this pratyaksha. To this the Akhyati vadins may say that people may not have really thought over it. If they think a little they would have discovered it. There is another defect also. 2) Any Vyavahara takes place based on positive grahanam not by the absence of the grahanam. Grahanam eva chetanasya vyvahara hetuh na agrahanam. Any vyavahara is based on positive something. But you are saying there is absence of grahanam and therefore there is activity.Usually you go after something because you have the knowledge of something. Absence of knowledge cannot be the basis for activity. But you are

postulating agrahanam to be the basis for abheda vyavahara and the activities and that is not in accordance with experience. The Akhyati vadin says that I am not saying agrahanam is the basis for activity. Really Smaranam and Pratyaksha jnanam which are positive things are the basis for activity. Only thing they have sadrsyam with the samicheena rajat jnanam ie, experience of real silver. Bheda agraha is the sadrsyam. These 2 jnanam are the really basis for activity. The Vedantin says this sadrsyam you are emphasizing so much, is the sadrsyam known to the person who is going after rajatam that there is similarity in the bhrama and real silver situation. Is grhyahmana sadrsyam or agrhyamana sadrsyam the basis for vyavahara ? Grhyahmana sadrsyam means is it grasped at that time that the knowledge I have is similar to the knowledge I had earlier. Suppose you say that known (gryhamana sadrsyam) is the basis then I will say that if sadrsyam is known then pravritti will not be there. Suppose someone says that my knowledge is like the knowledge of real silver then activity will not take place. Like suppose this person is looking like Mr Ram, I don’t go and call him by that name. Only when I am sure that is his name, then only I will call him. Whenever it is said looking like, that means it is not that. So if sadrsyam is known, activity will not be there. Supose you say that sadrsyam by satta causes activity, ie, Smaranam and Grahanam which have got sadrsyam because of that characteristic itself, activity takes place. Just because similarity is there, activity takes place. Really speaking graham and smarana are the real basis only thing they have got sadrsyam which causes activity. Then we will ask, the absence of cognition of bheda that itself becomes the cause. Grahanam itself ie, idam jnanam itself or rajat smarnam itself – any of them would not independently become the cause. It is bheda agraha only which becomes the cause. Here we Vedantins say that absence of jnanam or ajnanam cannot be the cause for activity. You have to say that bheda agraha became the basis for bhrama jnanam and then activity took place. Without accepting bhrama jnanam you can’t make this bheda agraha itself the basis of activity and you are very emphatically saying that bheda agraha itself is becoming the basis for activity. Therefore you are contradicting with experience and therefore your mata has defects. Though you have an intricate explanation, there are some defects but paratra avabhaasah is there and that is enough for us. Consensus is arrived at and that is the main thing. Bheda agraha we can accept. But bheda agraha becoming the basis for activity is not acceptable. You have to accept bhrama in between. Then only bheda agraha can become the source of actitvity. ASAT KHYATIIt is presented by Sunya vadis. They are Baudhas called Madhyamikas - Nihilists.

Every object is asat or zero. Void or nullity is the reality. Idam rajatam is also the same. It is asat. Asatah rajatasya khyatih pratitihi Asat khyati. The experience of non-existent silver is called Asat khyati. Not only rajat is asat, even the basis shuktika is asat. The reality of everything is nonexistence. Experiencer and experienced both are zero. You dissolve everything into nothing. Otherwise their explanation is very close to Vedantins. Bhagvan Bhashyakara says suppose insteadof zero you accept Brahman then you are in our party. How can there be a substratumless Bhrama ? There should be some basis. According to them there is an example. Suppose you close your eyes and press it, you see some hairlike thing. It is not really there, but you experience it. So nir-adhistana bhrama is possible. From nothing everything appears to be. Really there is nothing. It is mithya without substratum. So idam rajat anubhava is asatah anubhava. Non-existent silver is experiened. Therefore it is called Asat khyati. It is a very simple khyati. Rajat is false appearance of shukti and shukti is false appearance of zero. Finally there is sunyam. Sunyasya shukthyatmana vivarthamanasya rajat rupena vivarthah that is rajat anubhava. Sunya which is falsely appearing as shukti is further falsely appearing as rajat. So sunya only is appearing as rajat. Only thing is, if something is experienced for a long time we call it Vyavaharika and something is negated you call it Bhrama. That is the only difference between so called real and delusion. Finally everything is Asat. Coming to Adhyaasa bhashyam – Anyetu-yatra yadadhyaasah tasyaiva viprita dharmatva kalpanam achakshathe iti. Others say - where there is adhyaasa, there only there is superimposition of opposite qualities. Yatra adhyaasah means where there is adhyaasah of something ie, in adhistana. Like in shuktika there is adhyaasah. In that situation what happens - Tasyaiva means of adhishtana only. Yatra and tasya are connected. Where there is adhyasa means on the adhistana there is vipirita dharma kalpanam. There is superimposition of opposite qualities. Experientially there is rajat which is superimposition of a different thing. Rajat and shuktika can be called opposite things. Why ? because rajat has got the absence of shuktika and shuktika has the absence of rajat. A is not B and B is not A and in that sense they are vipirita -opposite. In shuktika deshe, ie, in shuktika there is kalpanam (superimposition) of vipirita dharma (opposite quality) of silver . In this case rajatatva quality. ie, in shuktika there is superimposition of opposite qualities in the form of silver. Ths is adhyaasa. It is very similar to Vedanta. Shuktika which is Vyvaharika drstya is appearing falsely as rajat. In other words, shuktika which is the false appearance of zero is further falsely appearing as rajat. Everything is false . This is called Sunya vada and their mata is called Asat khyati.

Why is rajat jnanam is bhrama ? because afterwards there is negation. You say this is not rajatam –nedam rajatam. You don’t say this is not shukti, that is why rajat jnanam is called bhrama jnanam. Therefore we say shuktika is the adhistanam and rajat is aropya. But absolutely speaking shuktika also is aropya, superimposed on zero. This is Asatah khyati -the experience of a non-existent thing. For them also the Vedantin says thank you. You are also accepting paratra avabhaasah very clearly. Infact you are our closest friend because you clearly say –vipirita dharmasya kalpana-adhistanam is appearing differently. Shuktika is not the adhikarnam for rajat and rajat is opposite and still it is appearing in shukti deshe. So partara avabhaash you are accepting . But there are some defects in your explanation 1) First non-existent can never appear as somethng. Something can appear as something else. But nothing cannot appear as something. So your explanation is not correct. Even the example you gave for substratumless bhrama - kesavan draka -the woollike substance you see when you close your eyes – there also if you analyse, the rays of light are the substratum. If light is not there, then you cannot experience that also. Substratum has to always be there. Substratumless delusion is not possible - niradhishtana bhrama na sambhavati. So your explanation is not acceptable but as fas as consensus is concerned you are also accepting paratra avabhaasah and that is enough. Thus Bhagvan Bhashyakara presented different khyatis. But what about Vedantins khyati ? Most of the commentators do not present Anirvachniya khyati because in the bhashyam Bhasyakara’s intention is not to present his view but to create a consensus. And therefore he presents other views. Paratra avabhaasah expresses his view. He wants to bring a consensus to this basic premise. He does not want to fight with the others as to which khyati is right. Then there will be confusion - kolahala. Therefore he has not quoted his contention. By quoting others and bringing them to a consensus he has done his job. But there are some commentators who say that in this last sentence, we can read Anivachaniya khyati. In shuktika(yatra)there is appearance (adhyaasah)of rajat (yad) which has different qualities (vipirita dharma kalpanam). We are saying almost the same thing as what the Sunya vadi says except that ultimate reality is not zero. Ofcourse this is a very simplistic presentation of Vedantic contention. He has many more details to give. Like it is not shuktika which is appearing as rajat. What is appearing as rajat is shuktitva avachinna chaitanya nishta avidya. But that would be too much. So simply we say where there was experience of rajat and when a person goes there there is no rajat, but shuktika. So shuktika alone appeared as rajat. This is simpe presentation of Vedanta mata. When somebody asks how did this happen, then we have Anirvachaniya khyati. There is no pressure to present his khyati. Bhasyakara is so focussed that he does not give any unnecessary point. Even though he has many points he gives only 1 or 2 which is necessary and then goes on.

Thus Anirvachaniya khyati is also expressed here. Finally Shankaracharyaji concludes by saying that there is a general agreement on adhyaasa. A consensus is there which he says in the last line of the Laskshana Bhashyam.

January 5th – Ques and Answers –
1) 1) What does Akhyati say ? • All knowledge is true to the object. • There are two types of Jnanam – Pratyaksha Jnanam and Smarna Jnanam. • There is non-apprehension of the distinction ie, bheda agraha, between idam jnanam and rajat jnanam and the objects of these two jnanams. • Because of that there is Vishishta Vyavahara - the expression “idam rajatam” • Which causes futile activity of going near the rajat and finding it is not there. • This is what is called Bhrama by others. But really there is no bhrama. 2) What is the object of Pratyaksha Jnanam ? and Smarna Jnanam ? Idam is the object of Pratyaksha jnanam and Rajat is the object of Smarnathmaka jnanam. 3) Because of bheda agraha , how activity takes place ? Activity takes place because of sadrsyam between the real silver experience ( sameechana rajata jnanam) and the so-called Bhrama experience. Both real silver experience and false silver experience have bheda agraha as the common factor though the reason for it is different. In real silver experience there is non-apprehension of difference which is not there. There is only one knowledge which has two objects – this and rajat. In the real silver experience bheda agraha is the cause for activity . In so-callede bhrama experience, non-apprehension of difference is really there . There are two types of knowledge –idam pratyaksha jnanam and rajat smarna jnanam. Because of dosha in the pramatha - the knower, this bheda is not grasped. Because of this similarity, there is samanidhikarna vyapadesha which means the expression of idam and rajatam being on the same locus takes place. Thus because of bheda agraha activity takes place of going near the silver which proves to be futile. Later on when the person goes there he sees there is no silver then he says nedham rajatam which is badhak jnanam. The earlier knowledge is called Bhrama because it is negated by the later knowledge. 4) What is the Siddanti’s response ?

You say there is vishishta vyavahara –the expression in the form of idam rajatam. Vishishta vyavhara is possible only if idam and rajat are on the same locus. Without Bhrama, Vishishta Vyavahara is not possible. So you have to accept Bhrama. Therefore your explanation has some defects. However, Rajat which is in the mind or in the shop is seen outside and therefore you are also accepting paratra avabhaasah and that is enough for us. 5) What are the defects ? a) Their explanation is not based on experience. Our experience is that the person goes to idam deshe. It means he is experiencing rajat in idam deshe. But according to your explanation he is having rajata smaranam. After negation, his experience is this is not rajat. He does not think I remembered rajat and I saw it there. b) Non-apprehension of bheda cannot become the basis for activity. Absence of knowledge cannot become the basis of activity. Positive knowledge of something causes activity, Abheda graha means apprehension of nondifference, which is a positive understanding, can become the basis of activity. Vyvahara and vyapadesha can be possible not based on bheda agraha but it is possible only based on abheda grahanam. 6) What is Asat Khyati ? The experience of non-existent object is called Asat khyati. This is a khyati presented by the sunya vadins who are a group of Baudhas called Madhyamikas. Asatah sunyasya rajatatmana khyatihi Asat khyatihi - Asat alone is appearing as rajat. 7) What is the reality according to akhyati vadi ? Everything is Sunya or Zero. Zero or Asat is appearing as shuktika which is further appearing as rajat. So finally what is appearing as rajat is nothing but zero. 8) In Adhyaasa bhasyam, why is it said ‘vipirita dharma kalpanam’ ? It means superimposition of opposite qualities - shuktika and rajatam are opposite in qualities. Shuktika does not have rajatatva qualities and rajat does not have shuktikatva qualities. The qualities of rajat are superimposed on shuktika . Finally shukti is false appearance of zero. 9) What is the meaning of ‘ yatra yad adhyaasah vivekaagraha nibhandano bhrama iti ’? Bhrama is the experience, the cause for which is non-apprehension of distinction between where adhyaasa is and of what adhyaasa is. 10) Clarification regarding Yathartha Jnanam - what is Yathartha jnanam ? Akhyati vada says there is no invalid knowledge. In Sanskrit valid is called yathartha jnanam whether it be pratyakshatmaka or smarnathmaka. Therefore all jnanam are called Yathartha Jnanam. Yathartha jnanam is of two types- Anubhava and Smriti. Anubhava can be Pratyaksha,

Anumana, anupapathi,etc. That which is pramana-born is called Anubhava and that which is samskara born is called Smarna jnanam. Both of them are Yathartha jnanam. Bhrama is called Ayathartha Anubhava. According to akhyati vadin, there is no ayathrtha Anubhava.

Yathartha means - yatha arthah bhavati tatha jnanam bhavati. As the object is so the knowledge is ie, it is true to the object. All knowledge are Yathartha Jnanam. But how can Smarna jnanam be Yathartha jnanam ? Because smarnam is also born of samskara which is born of valid knowledge So smaranam also is Yathartha Jnanam. Means all knowledge is faithful to the object. Object is something and knowledge is something, that cannot happen. There can be sometimes combination of two knowledge, or there can be partial knowledge or missing some detail. But here is no mistake. Knowledge is always true to the object. There cannot be no rajat and the knowledge of rajat takes place. The object has to be there. Otherwise there will be confusion. There will be doubt and one cannot lead one’s life. So knowledge has to be Yathartha jnanam. It can be Anubhava or Smriti Jnanam. 11) What is the Siddanti’s response to this valid point that all knowledge is Yathartha Jnanam ? Siddanti says, ‘We are not doubting the pramanas as such’. We accept the self-authenticity of the pramanam. Every means of knowledge is authentic, unless it proves itself otherwise. This is the principle. We start with trust only. We are not advocating distrust at every step .We start with trusting our eyes, but suppose it is proved by other meansof knowedge that what I saw was wrong. I should be able to accept that my eyes did not see properly. I should be able to accept that defective eyes may bring defective knowledge. This is our approach. We are not imagining the defect. We are not imagining the invalidity. But if there is a basis to doubt then you doubt. This is an intelligent way of living. If there is no basis to doubt and you doubt, then you are paranoid. If there is basis to doubt, and still you do not doubt then you are gullible. If there is basis to doubt then you doubt and if there is no basis to doubt then you don’t doubt, then you are intelligent. This is our approach and our life runs smoothly based on this. We are leading our life intelligently. Everytime avyabhichara nischaya is not required, but there should be vyabhichara nischaya abhava should be there. This is a technical way of saying it. Everytime we don’t have to check our eyes , mind properly to see whether they are working . Every time pramana does not have to say I am defect free…so avyabhicahra nischaya bhava which means ascertainment of faithfulness is not required everytime. But there should be absence of vyabhichara nischaya. Vyabhicharya nischaya abhava means absence of ascertainment of the unfaithfulness ,ie, absence of the ascertainment that it is defective..... Eg: My eyes are not able to see the object as they are. Absence of this has to be there. Suppose I know my eyes have a problem, then I have vyabhicharya nischaya.I know my eyes are not alright . Then I have reason to doubt what I see. So absence of vyabhichara nischaya should be there.

We don’t have to acquire it. When vyabhichara thought has not come, then it is already there. Suppose avyabhichara nischaya has to be there, then it is a problem. Everytime I have to check my eyes,ears, my mind under test. (The okayness of the object need not be ascertained , but the absence of non-okayness needs to be ascertained.)

Jan 5, 2007- Talk 19
Sarvathapi tu anyasya anya dharmava bhaasatam (adhyaasah) na vyabhicharti. However ( from all points of view) Adhyaasa does not deviate from the appearance of one thing having the qualities of the other. Bhasyakara is now arriving at the concsensus which was the purpose for the presentation of all the khyatis. Bhagvan Bhashyakara is not interested in presenting all the different khyatis nor is he interested in establishing his khyati . His intention is to arrive at the presence of adhyaasa and the Lakshana of adhyaasa. Adhyaasa is and adhyaasa is in the form of paratra avabhaasah - That much he wants to arrive at. That is what he is arriving at here after presenting several khyatis. Sarvatha api tu means however (tu) from all points of view. Anyasya anya dharma bhaasatam na vyabhicharati. Here we have to add the subject-adhyaasa. Vyabhicharati means to deviate. That adhyaasa which is presented by all philosophers does not deviate from the property of appearance of one thing having the qualities of the other thing. ie, something appearing as something else is a definition which is common to all philosophers. In different presentations given by different philosophers, this quality is common - anyasya anya dharmava bhaasatam.That is nothing but paratra avabhaasah ie, something appearing as the one having the quality of something else. Suktika deshe is appearing as rajat. This is a common factor in all khyatis. Shuktika is not having the quality of rajat. But rajat is appearing as shuktika. Shuktika is the ayogya adhikarnam for rajat, but rajat is appearing where shuktika is. Appearance of rajat as Shuktika is anyasya anya dharmaavabhaasatam which refers to paratra avabhaasah. So what Bhashyakara wants to say that paratra avabhaasah is common to all. So what Bhagvan Bhashyakara wants to say is paratra avabhasah is there everywhere. In the first Lakshana – anyatra anya dharmavabhaasatam – it was said the quality of something appearing somewhere else. In the second Lakshana - yatra yad adhyaasah tad vivekagraha nibhandano bhrama iti - to them we had to make them see that you are also accepting paratra avabhaasah. Vishishta Vyavahara you are accepting, so there is something people are calling adhyaasa. In the third Lakshana -yatra yad adhyaasah tasyaiva vipirita dharma kalpanam achakshathe iti. The sunya vadin is accepting paratra avabhaasah very clearly. Somewhere something else is appearing with opposite qualities.

So in all these Lakshanas, adhyaasa is not deviating from this property –paratravabhaasah or anyasya anya dharmavabhaasah. The idea indicated is that there is a consensus of the presence of adhyaasa and about the Lakshana of adhyaasa. Now Bhashyakara says, really I do not have to give all these logic because it is already experienced by a layman. This adhyaasa is not a subject mater of some very elite group only for those who are highly qualified and who understand the concept of adhyaasa. So in the next sentence he says that this adhyaasa is experienced by even an ordinary person. Tathacha loke anubhavah - shuktikahi rajatavad avabhaasate ; ekaschandraha sadvitiyavad iti. In that manner, there is experience in the world – indeed shuktika appears like rajat ; one moon appears along with the second. Tathacha means likewise, in that manner. Loke anubhava –there is experience in the world. Likewise means as it is discussed by the philosophers. As it is presented here -paratra avabhaasah - is experienced by people. It is not some philosophical subject matter, it is not something esoteric,.. it is something which is experienced by people. That is why he says likewise or thus is the experience of people. What is that experience ? shuktikahi rajatavad avabhaasate - The mother of pearl or nacre appears as rajat. Hi means indeed. Indeed shuktika appears like rajat. Here shuktika is appearing as rajat, this statement can be made only after negation of rajat. When the person is seeing the silver in the mother of pearl, at that time he does not say ‘ shuktika is appearing as rajat ’. Infact if we sees shuktika , he will not see rajat. So the Bhashyakara says, shuktika rajatavat avabhaasate is badhakalina anubhava. After he has negated this rajat, now he is saying that sometimes it happens that shuktika appears like rajat. He I was going there and I saw silver. I thought I would take it before somebody else sees it. When I went near, I saw it was shuktika. So it happened that shuktika rajatavat avabhaasathe. This is the statement made by a person after negation. Here the word vat is used to indicate that rajat is mithya. It was not real silver . To indicate the mithyatvam of the rajat, the word vat is used. What the person is trying to say is that first time I saw only rajat, I did not see shukti. But when I went and checked I found it is shuktika. So shuktika was there , but I found it to be rajat. This does not mean that shuktika was transformed into rajat. What it means is that when rajat was found shuktika is not seen and when shuktika was found rajat is not seen anymore. This is what he means by shuktika rajatavat bhaasate. There is only shuktika. But I saw rajatavat , ie, I saw mithya rajat. What we technically call anirvachaniya rajat. That which cannot be called sat or asat - sadasadbhyam anirvachaniya. Anirvachaniya does not mean that which cannot be described. We are describing it as that which is neither sat nor asat. Infact we have a single word also – Pratibhasika. That which appears as an empirical thing , but really it is not empirical. In other words it is mithya. This is one example. Now he gives another example. Ekah Chandra satdvitiyavat (avabhaasayate). One moon appears with the second, ie, one appears as two moons. If we press your eyes and see, we see two things. Moon is one but it appears as two . Sadvitya means along with the second. There is appearance of

twoness. Twoness will be there, where two are there . It will be in the adhikarana which is two. So twoness is appearing in one moon, therefore it is paratra avabhaasah. Moon is one so there should be oneness. But in one moon twoness is appearing. So for twoness, one is ayogya adhikarna. In one, two is not there. There is abhava of twoness. Since one is appearing as two so there is paratra avabhaasah.

Here two examples are given to show that adhyaasa is experienced by even an ordinary layman. Due to eye defect some people see everything as two. Ofcourse this is the view of the ordinary person, so here he does not say maya is appearing as rajat or as two moons…this is the job of philosophers. But his version is shuktika is appearing as rajat. One moon is appearing as two. Something is appearing somewhere else. This is adhyaasa. Both are examples of adhyaasa. Here the question may come why two examples are given ? one example is given to show how atma can appear as anatma. And anatma can appear as atma. Another example is given to show how one Brahman can appear as many jivas. Thus Lakshana Bhashyam is concluded here. The essence of Lakshana Bhashyam is – 1) First thing is to establish there is something called adhyaasa. 2) That adhyaasa has got one Lakshanam –‘ paratra avabhaasah ’. 3) Among the philosophers even though they have got divergent views of what adhyaasa I,s there is consensus that there is adhyaasah and that adhyaasah is in the form of paratra avabhaasah. 4) Even an ordinary person experiences adhyaasa. THUS ADHYAASA IS AND ADHYAASA IS PARATRA AVABHAASAH. This much is established. Atma anatma is not established so far. Only that there is something called adhyaasa and it is in the form of paratra avabhaasah is established. Incidentally all khyatis also were discussed. Bhagvan Bhashyakara’s intention was not to discuss khyatis. But we discussed the five khyatis. We elaborately discussed Anirvachaniya khyati. Anirvachaniya khyati means in Bhrama experience the object is neither sat nor asat. Therefore it is called Anirvachaniya. In Brahma situation there is experience of the object which is Anirvachaniya. This type of statement is called Anirvachaniya. The experience or pratithi is called Anirvachaniya khyati and also the statement is called Anirvachaniya khyati vada. In Anirvachaniya khyati there is experience of an inexplicable object is based on the premise that Maya gets converted into everything depending upon intervening factors. This is the premise on which Anirvachaniya khyati is presented. This premise is not stated in the khyati. It only says in Bhrama there is experience of Anirvachaniya object. But when further analysis is done for our understanding of how there is experience of this Anirvachaniya object, we come to this understanding. Otherwise to present Anirvachaniya khyati we need not go into this assumption. This is for our further understanding - what is the basis for that ? how it works ? how there is the

experience of Anirvachaniya object ? How actually things happen ? For that we have got this premise that Maya gets converted into different things depending upon intervening factors. This particular premise which is an important premise in Vedanta can be internalized in our life so that our reactions will be reduced. Our approach to life will be proper. This Anirvachaniya khyati as a khyati it is not so important. In the study of adhyaasa, Bhashyakara is not very particular of establishing Anirvachaniya khyati. But this particular assumption that Maya gets converted into different different things depending on intervening factors , if we contemplate on this then it is very useful. First thing we should understand is that everything is a product of Maya , ie, Maya gets converted into everything. This does not mean there is chaos. Anything can happen from Maya. Mayayam sarva sambhavat. That is true. But there is a method in its madness. It means intervening factors play an important role. We cannot say Maya creates sukha-dukha for us. Really speaking maya itself does not create sukha-dukha. Maya gets converted into different situations, different conditions of the body and mind depending on intervenng factors. If the intervening factors can be taken care of, then maya can be directed to get converted into different different factors. We cannot directly control Maya. We cannot order Maya. But we can have some control by controlling the factors which are influencing Maya to get converted into different objects, different situations. One factor is our samskara. Maya alone gets converted into different thoughts. When you have anger now that is a product of maya. When you have compassion that is also a product of maya. Disease also is a product of maya. Particular thought is a product of maya. Rain or Cyclone somewhere outside is also a product of maya. Whether it is outside or inside, all are product of maya. But especially these inside things – our thought world is a product of maya but for that one important factor is our samskaras. What type of samskaras you had, depending on that maya gets converted into different different thought modifications. If you have positive samskaras of karuna, sneha then maya gets converted into that same samskara of compassion, love.. Suppose you have samskara of anger, hatred then maya gets converted into that. If samskara we change then maya will produce different products. If we change our samskara, then samskara will influence maya then maya will get converted into different type of thought world. Second factor is our karma called punya and papa. That is also an important factor. If we have got punyam, then what is to be avoided we can avoid. What type of frame of mind to be attained will be attained. Suppose you have papam, then whatever is to be avoided we cannot avoid. Then what is to be attained cannot be attained. Sometimes there is punyam , even if so much provocation is there from outside, but still one remains calm. But sometimes papam is more, then slight provocation can cause anger. So punyam and papam are important factors. So we directly cannot control maya. But if we acquire more punyam and avoid papam, then indirectly we are directing maya to get converted into favorable situations. The seeker has the approach of maximizing punyam. Getting more and more punyam and reducing papam. Because he knows that punya and papa are very important factors in maya getting converted ito different situations. Infact because of this punyam alone you will have conducive situations and because of that conducive situations,

you will get this self-knowledge. And because of this self knowledge maya will become defunct for you. All this will be possible when maya gets converted into comfortable or conducive situations. What a strange situation. To get rid of maya we need the co-operation of maya. How can I get the cooperation of the mind by doing punyam ? When I do punyam, I get the conducive situation and with that conducive situation I pursue selfknowledge. Conducive situation also includes getting the right teacher. So I do sravanam, mananam and nidhidhyasanam by which maya is neutralised. Maya is neutral. If you do punyam it will help you. What you are neutralizing is really the veiling power of maya. The ability of maya to project different different things for you (nana jiva vada) only, it will stop. Maya will stop giving you different different situations. Because jivatvam itself is neutralized. For you maya becomes defunct. So punyam can be utilised for getting jnanam , so that finally you can be free from maya. Self knowledge removes ignorance and maya cannot function when ignorance is gone. So maya becomes defunct for you. This presumption that everything gets converted into maya does not imply there is chaos. But at the same time we do say that everything is nothing but product of Maya. Rajju-sarpa is also product of maya, though it appears only for 2-3 mins. The intervening factor was ignorance which was for that much time, so it lasted that much time. It is not that Pratibhasika objects last only for a short time. If the in-between factor lasts for a long time, then product will also remain. Thus everything is a product of maya that premise was used to present Anirvachaniya khyati. Anirvachaniya khyati is the khyati of Siddanti but here Bhashyakara did not present this, because his focus was to present consensus on adhyaasa and Lakshana of adhyaasa. With this Lakshana Bhashyam is over and we will next enter into Sambhavana Bhashyam. The basis for this sambhavana bhashyam , why there is a scope for sambhavana and the need for Sambhavana bhashyam.1.10

LAKSHANA BHASHYAM Aaha – koyam adhyaso nameti ? It is asked – what is this called adhyaasah ? Uccyate - Smritirupah paratra purvadrstava bhaasah . It is said - Adhyaasah is something appearing somewhere else which is like the remembered one and is born of previous experience. ( or is like the one seen before.) Tam kechit – Anyatranya dharmadhyaasa - iti vadanti. Some say (anyatha khyati, atma khyati) – When dharma of something appears somewhere else, it is called adhyaasa.


Kechitu – Yatra yadadhyaasah tad vivekagraha nibhandhano bhrama – iti. Some others say (akhyati) – Non-cognition of the difference of where adhyaasa is and of what adhyaasa is , is the cause for the experience called Bhrama. Anye tu – Yatra yadadyaasah tasyaiva vipirita dharmatva kalpanam achakshate – iti. Others say (asat khyati, anirvachaniya khyati). – Where there is adhyaasa of something, there only there is superimposition of opposite qualities. Sarvathapi tu anyasyanya dharmava bhasatam (adhyaasah) na vyabhicharati. From all points of view, adhyaasa does not deviate from the property of something appearing somewhere else. Tatha cha loke anubhavah – suktika hi rajatavadavabhaasate , In this manner there is the experience in the world – Indeed shuktika appears like rajat ; ekaschandrah sadvitiyavaditi. One moon only appears along with the second.

Jan 12th,2007 – RECAPUTALATION 1)What is sarvathapitu ? From all points of view or form all standpoints. 2) What is the meaning of anyasyanya dharmavabhaasatham ? Something appearing as the one having the quality of the other. Rajju appering as something else having the quality of sarpa. Avabhaasatham means appearance. Anya dharma means the one having the quality of other. Anya dhama avabhaasatham means appearance of one having the quality of another. 3)What does this sentence indicate ? It indicates the lakshana of adhyaasa. 4)Which word is to be supplied in this anyasya anya dharamava bhaastam. The word Adhyaasa is implied. 5)What does Anyasyanyava bhaasatam remind us of ? Paratra avabhaasah.

6) What does na vyabhicharati mean ? Adhyaasa does not deviate from the quality of being paratra avabhaasah. 7) What is the connection given for the sentence-tathacha loke anubhavah ? That adhyaasa is evident to everyone . It is not the subject matter of some elite group, but it is experienced by all. 8) What is the word meaning of tathacha ? And in this manner or and likewise. 9) Which examples were given ? Shuktika rajatavad avabhaasate. Ekaschandra sadvitiyavaditi. 10) What is the exact meaning of sadvitiyavaditi ? Like along with the second. 11) How does one apply the Lakshana of adhyaasa here in ekaschandra…..? One is ayogya adhikarana for twoness. Twoness should be on two but it appears on one. Therefore it is adhyaasa.

12) Why two examples are given ? How atma appears as anatma like shuktika appears as rajat How atma even though one appears as many like one moon appears as two. 13) How many essential points in Lakshana Bhashyam ? There are four essential points in Lakshana Bhashyam. i) There is something called adhyaasa. ii) It is in the form of paratra avabhasah. iii) Different khyatis vadis are presented to show their consensus on lakshana of adhyaasa. iv) Adhyaasa is experienced by a layman also. 14) According to Akhyati vadi there is anly two knowledges. All knowledge is valid knowledge. to that what is the Siddantis answer ? Avyabhichara nischaya is not required, ie, ascertainment of the faithfulness is not required everytime. There should be Vyabhichara nischaya abhava ie, absence of ascertainment of unfaithfulness should be there. 15) We have divided people into 3 categories based on this ? i) Those who doubt when there is no reason to doubt, they are paranoid.

ii) Those who do not doubt when there is reason to doubt they are gullible. iii)Those who doubt when there is reason to doubt and do not doubt when there is no reason to doubt, thaey are intelligent. 16) How to apply Anirvachaniya Khyati in our life ? By influencing intervening factors Maya can be converted into favorable situations. The main intervening factors that can be change are- samskara, karma and ajnanam. First if samskaras are positive then our thoughts and responses will be positive. Everything whether external or internal are all products of Maya. Body is alos product of Maya based on intervening factor of your karma. Second by maximizing punyam and minimising papam, then Maya gets converted into favorable situations . This punyam can be used to gain self knowledge. Then Maya becomes defunct for you. Punya can be maixmised by doing the panchayagnas everyday. Do japa, vrata, puja,dhanam…all help to maximize punyam. Then make the sankalpa that all the punyam is directed towards chitta shuddhi. By self-knowledge ajnanam is removed. Ajnanam or the veiling factor of Maya is an intervening factor which can be removed by atma jnanam. Maya then becomes defunct. This way we can apply Anirvahaniya Khyati in our life.

Swamiji asked these two question to everybody and got various answers. The gist of all the answers . 1) What is adhyaasa ? Something appearing as something else is adhyaasa. We think it is something, bu it is really something else. Th reality of the object is different from what we think it is. Paratra Avabhaasah 2) How many parts of the adhyaasa bhasyam have we completed ? We have completed three parts - Akshepa Bhasyam, Samadhana Bhasyam and Lakshana Bhashyam. 3) How has adhyaasa Bhashyam study helped in my life ? (I have just used everybody’s input to present our understanding.) It has had a profound effect on our life and in our understanding . Initially there was a rejection of the idea due to samskara. But slowly the intelligence of it grows on us and we see the plausibility of the explanation and how all the pieces fit in. 1) We are able to judge situations and people more correctly. Adhyaasa Bhashyam has given us a different way to approach things and made us realize that our earlier responses could be due to wrong understanding. 2) We are more objective in our approach and less subjective. 3) Our reaction to people and situations outside is less. Our energy from this can be better channelised for study and introspection.

All these may be also due to our Vedantic study. But adhyaasa bhashyam study has definitely helped to enhance it. 4) We see the profoundity of Sankaryacharyaji’s understanding in the Adhyaasa Bhashyam. Our respect for the seers has increased. Now we are able to say much more easily-“ As per what the sastra says”! 5) Greater clarity regarding the vision of the sastra. What we have studied elsewhere has become more clear. 6) Our intellect gets sharpened. Our mind becomes subtle to grasp the depth of the meaning of the words. 7) Knowing that everything is adhyaasa, the inner pressure is reduced . We feel more relaxed as a person. 8) It keeps our mind well-occupied. It gives great material for contemplation. .

Jan 19th - Talk 21
We have been talking about what adhyaasa is and impact of adhyaasa. Adhyaasa is Paratra avabhaasah. Something appearing somewhere else in ayogya adhikaranam ie, where something is not there. The appearance and the appeared are both called adhyaasa –arthadhyaasa and jnana adhyaasa. One more understanding about Adhyaasa. The word adhyaasah is grammatically derived from “as” dhatu. As means to throw. Adhi is the preposition. So “adhi purvaka as” dhathu. The root is “as” which is prefixed with “adhi.” It is a 4th conjugation and the third person singular form is asyati. Adhi means upon and ‘as’ means to throw. So adhyaasa is in a way, throwing something upon something else. Here throwing is in the sense of superimposing. So adhyaasa is superimposition of something upon something else. Throwing something upon somewhere where really it is not there. That is adhyaasa. When you are experiencing adhyaasa that time you don’t know that it is unreal. That time it appears real. Later on it is negated. That which appears to be real now and later on it is negated, that is adhyaasa. That is neither sat or asat. It is not sat because it is negated and it is not asat because it is appearing. Therefore we call it Anirvachaniya. So in the word adhyaasa both meanings are implied - adhyastha ,ie, that which is superimposed and adhyasanam ie, the superimposition – both are adhyaasa. Such situations we do experience in our life. With this Lakshana Bhashyam is concluded. The two main points we arrived at is : 1) There is something called adhyaasa 2) That adhyaasa is in the form of paratra avabhaasah. Now Purvapakshi has to accept that there is adhyaasa . In the beginning he had asked this question, what is this adhyaasa you had talked about ? That particular question had a hint of non-acceptance of adhyaasa. He was not ready to accept adhyaasa per se. But now he has to accept. But Purvapakshi will say, let there be adhyaasa in rajju and shuktika.. How does that matter in our life? Adhyaasa may be there on outside objects, but adhyaasa cannot be there on

atma-anatma. This is called asambhavana buddhi. Little bit he has come down, but he still asserts that atma-anatma adhyaasa is not possible. It is like one girl was saying that there should not be an institution of marriage at all. It enslaves women. It is something man has ceated to imprison women. Now I am talking to her. I tell her, “See men and women need some emotional support, some physical support. There are some requirements which are met through marriage. Some people may be like that, but marriage is generally required because all cannot stand on their own..” So now she is ready to accept that marriage is required for some people, but not for me. Okay there are some weak minded girls who need support , but that is not me. So still my purpose is not served, I have to pursue little more. Similarly here, the Purvapakshi says bhavatu adhyaasa, but not on atma-anatma. So there is strong asambhavana buddhi and sambhavana or possibility is to be created. There can be adhyaasa with reference to atma-anatma. Ofcourse in Samadhana bhasyam Siddanti had already presented atma-anatma adhyaasa, when he says, anyonaamin anyonatmakatam ….aham idam mama idam naisargikoyam….. but it was just a proposition, just a statement whch needs to be substantiated. So the discussion is started afresh in koyam adhyaaso nameti. Point by point answer is being given later. Now the Purvapakshi is saying that atma-anatma adhyaasa is not possible. Siddanti presented anyon asmin anyon atmakatam…. there is adhyaasa of atma on anatma and anatma on atma. Two-fold adhyaasa is there. But here mainly we are concentrating on adhyaasa of anatma on atma.. The Purvapakshi is not discussing the possibility of adhyaasa of atma on anatma. He is showing the impossiblity of adhyaasa of anatma and anatma dharma on atma. The asambhavana buddhi is to be neutralized and sambhavana buddhi is to be created ,ie, the sense of possibility is to be created. That is why this portion of bhashyam is called Sambhavana Bhashyam. It starts from ‘katham punah’ till ‘na sambhadhyate’. Upto that there is Sambhavana Bhashyam. Now we have to understand why Sambhavana is presented. Generally it is said, Lakshana pramananbhyam vastu siddhih – the establishment of anything is by two things-lakshana ad Pramanam. After giving the Lakshana of a thing, there should be Pramana bhashyam. It is going to come. But why there is Sambhavana bhashyam is there in between. We have seen this earlier. If asambhavana buddhi is not neutralised and sambhavan buddhi is not created. If directly pramanam is given, and if asambhavana buddhi is very strong, then there can be rejection of pramanam. We have seen the example of Bharcchu . Of how in Bahrcchu story, his colleagues get rid of him and tell the king he is a ghost and he is not alive. When the king goes to the forest and sees the real Bharcchu. He is using his eyes ie pramana vyapara is there, but still he rejects the real Bharcchu because he has strong asambhavana buddhi that Bharcchu is a ghost. So asambhavana buddhi will not allow you to accept pramana. That is why before giving Pramanam, Sambhavana bhashyam is there. Otherwise pramanam only is going to establish the thing. Pramanam eva nischaya. Ascertainment will take place only by pramanam. But if pramanam is given directly it will not work. Sambhavana is like in between. Like suppose there is old nut bolt and you want to remove it. Then you have to put kerosene. The spanner only will not work though it is the main instrument. Suppose it is 30-40 yrs old nut bolt, then it will not open, spanner will break. Then you have to apply some kerosene or something . Sambhavana bhashyam is something like that. It makes your mind ready to receive the Pramanam. In many situations you have to be like this. Like the lady I was talking. If I said you

need marriage, she will not understand. I have to say first that marriage is required. And afterwards she will come around and then I say for you also it is required. Some people say , I am not going to marry. One boy said that. I told him what you should say is now I don’t want to marry . Otherwise your statement itself will imprison you. It becomes an ego problem. So you say right now I don’t want to marry. And it happened like that. This boy who said I don’t want to marry, got married and he has a child also. So Asambhavana Buddhi is there and you have to create a sense of possibility. First you accept that I also can marry and when the time comes or when the right person comes then I will consider. So I have to go stage by stage. That is why a negotiators job is not easy. The person is saying the opposite and he has to make a 180 degrees turn around. That is why Sambhavana Bhashyam is introduced. Even though the decisive thing is Pramanam only but in between Sambhavana has to be there so the mind can receive this Pramanam.

The Sambhavana bhashyam starts with an Asambhavana statement by Purvapakshi. Katham punah pratyagatmani avishaye adhyasah vishayatad dharmanam, sarvo hi purovasthite vishaye vishayantaram adhyasyati, yushmat pratyaya petasya cha pratyagatmanah avishaytvam bravishi ? Upto this there is Purvapaksha or objection. Punah here means but. What he wants to say that adhyaasah by itself maybe possible , but how it is possible on atma-anatma ? On rajjusarpashuktika rajat it is possible, but atma-anatma it is not possible. The way you are presenting atma, atma cannot become the basis for adhyaasa. The background for Purvapakshi to raise an objection is this - In all the examples you have presented, the objects are all external objects. They have one common phenomenon - one external object is superimposed on another external object. So the adhistanam is external object . External object is that which is grasped or referable by idam pratyaya. So on one yusmat pratyaya vishaya, another yusmat pratyaya vishaya is superimposed. Here in the case of atma-anatma what is to be superimposed is yusmat pratyaya vishaya. That even Siddanti also accepts. In the example adhishtanam is also yusmat pratyaya vishaya. Not only it is external but it is having the status of being connected with sense organise, ie, It is yusmat pratyaya gochara vishaya and indriya samyukta. Here we are talking about pratyaksha brahma , not about paroksha brahma ie, delusion about the remote object. That which is outside the sense perception range. Eg: seeing the dust I inferred fire. So I have got the knowledge now that there is fire on the mountain. This type of knowledge is paroksha brahma. It is delusion about the object which is outside the range of perception. I am inferring something which is wrong. That is called parokha brahma. Like in US they talk about east coast and west coast. A person tells me that I reached NYwhich is in the east coast and immediately reached LA. I now infer that LA must also be in the east coast because he reached immediately . Really it is in the west coast. This is paroksha brahma. This is modern example. But classical example is , seeing the dust I thought there was smoke. From far –off dust I inferred fire. But here we are not talking about that type of paroksha Brahma. We are talking about

aparoksha brahma. Where indriya sanyukthatvam should also be there. You cannot have delusion about mother of pearl as rajat if eyes have not contacted it. There should be sense contact. So the second condition indriya sanyukthathvam is also required. Technically it is called vyapthih, ie, invariable concomitance. Yatra dhoomah tatra agnihi - Where there is smoke there is fire. This is called vyapti. In English it is called invariable concomitance ie, the state of accompanying. When two things are invariably accompanying each other then we say there is vyapti or concomitance between them. In vyapti there will be two factors –vyapya or that which is pervaded and vyapaka or that which is pervasive. Doomah will be called vyapya or pervaded. Tatra agnihi – agni is called vyapaka or pervasive. Another example- yatra jeevanam, tatra prana vayuh –where there is life there will be oxygen. Here prana vayuh is vyapaka and jeevanam is vyapya. Another example - yatra matrtvam, tatra naritvam -Where there is motherhood there is womanhood. Here naritvam is vyapaka and matrtvam is vyapya. Another example - Yatra manushyatvam tatra jivitatvam - Where there is human status there will be living being status. Jivitatvam is vyapaka and manushyatvam is vyapya. If this is clear, then here in our example - yatra dhoomah tatra agnihi - Where there is smoke there is fire. Here agnihi is vyapaka and dhooma is vyapya. We can say that where vyapya is, vyapaka will be there. This is called Anvaya vyapti or positive concomitance. Suppose I want to present the same thing in a negative way then I have to be careful. I cannot say where there is no dhooma (vyapya) there there is no agni(vyapaka). That is not correct. In electric stove there is no smoke, but fire is there. So here we have to say the opposite. Where agni (vyapaka) is not there there dhoomah (vyapya) is not there. Where agni abhava tatra dhooma abhava. Where vyapaka is not there, there vyapyam will not be there. Like in the example I gave earlier where there is motherhood there will be womanhood. This can be stated as where there is no womanhood there is no motherhood. There is a rare case where an eunuch man gave birth to a child. But that is a rare exception only. Generally yatra naritvam nasti tatra matrtvam nasti. This is called vyathirekha vyapti. Here Purvapakshi is presenting this vyapti. What he says is yatra adhistanatavam tatra vishayatavam indriyasamyuktatvam cha. He says wherever there is adhistana status there will be status of being the object and also the status of being contacted with sense organs. Here adhistanatvam is vyapya and vyapaka’s are two - vishayatavam and indriyasanyuktatvam. Now he is telling yatra vyapaka abhava tatra vyapyasapi abhava. Where vyapaka or pervasive is not there vyapya or pervaded will not be there. Where fire is not there smoke will not be there. Here where visayatvam or indriya sanyuktatvam is not there, adhistanam cannot be there. Let us take one vyapaka only. In atma visayatvam or idam pratyaya gocharivam is not there, there adhistanam cannot be there. Similarly being contacted wih sense organs is not there. You only are saying atma is nirgunam, akhanda, satchidananda, indriya agrahyam ,svaprakasha.. the way you are presenting atma, indriya sanyuktatvam cannot be there. Since vyapaka is not there vyapya ie, adhistanatvam cannot be there. Yatra adhistanatvam tattra vishayatvam indriyasanyuktatvam cha, atra atmani vyapaka abhavath Vyapasya adhistanatvasya abhavah. Here the 2 vyapakas are not there, therefore vyapya adhistanam will not be there.

This is a technical way of putting it. Simple way of saying it, is atma cannot be the object ie, it is not idam pratyaya vishaya and atma cannot be perceived thro the sense organs therefore atma cannot become the adhistanam of any Bhrama. Because whatever is adhistanam is the object and also available for sense perception. One more point is there - anything will become the adhistanam for Bhrama when it is available for sense contact, but it is not fully perceived by sense organs. Suppose my eyes have seen the mother of pearl completely, then there will not be delusion of rajat. My eyes should contact rajat but contact should be partial. For partial sense contact to happen there can be any number of possibilities. Either due to defect in sense organ or light is not enough, whatever be the reason. But one thing has to be there in adhistanam – amsha should be there. It should have parts. That which has parts can only be partly grasped and partly not grasped. It should have samanya vishesha bhava. So one more condition is adhistanam should be Savayava or Samshaha. So three conditions required for adhyasa – vishayatvam, indriya sanyuktatvam and third is samshatvam. Two conditions we already saw. You yourself are saying that atma is not idam pratyaya gochare vishaya and moreover it is not availabe for sense organs because atma does not have sabda, sparsha, roopa, rasa ,gandha. And you only are saying that atma is akahandah, nirvikalpah ie, partless so the third condition atma is samshaha is not there. Since all three conditions are not there in atma, therefore atma cannot be the adhistanam for any bhrama. Means atma cannot be the adhistanam for anatma and anatma dharma. These things were discussed to some extent in Purvapaksha Bhashyam and Samadhana Bhashyam. But these things were not clearly mentioned by Purvapakshi. Main point he mentioned there was samskara part. But these things were implied there and siddanti also did not bring out these points explicitly in his answer. We brought it out. They were implicit. Mainly samdhana bhashyam emphasized that you have the experience of Bhrama. But other points were implictly asked and implicity answered. Points which were implict earlier are now clearly brought out by Purvapakshi. Therefore the Siddanti is now answering the question explicitly. That is what is being done in Sambhavana Bhashyam. Let us see the Samadhana BhashyamKatham punah pratyagatmani adhyaasah is the main question. How there is adhyaasa on pratyagatma? Pratyagatma means inner self. Why inner self is used. Not that there is 5-6 selfs. Generally body, senses etc are also considered to be the self by ignorant people. We say I myself will go. Who goes is the body . Body is considered to be the self. We say I myself was thinking like that. The mind is also considered as the self. Generally the word self is also used in relation to things which are not the self. Therefore we have to point out the real self we have to say inmost self. It is something like they say this is real janata dal. Every faction says they are the real Janata dal. Earlier they didn’t say like this. Since so many are there so we have to identify the real one.

Another example we give is ghee. 200-300 years ago there was no word called pure ghee. there was only one ghee. In Sanskrit also we don’t say shudhah sarpihi. But since vegetable ghee has come, we have to use the word pure ghee. Like we say dairy milk now. Why because there is nondairy milk also. Similarly to indicate the real self we have to add another word -pratyagatma. Infact that is the only atma. But because so many are referred by that word, we have to distinguish it by saying pratyagatma. Pratyagatmani adhyaasa katham ? - how there is adhyaasa on inmost self ? This is the main question. How there is adhyaasa on inmost atma ? and of what there is adhyaasa - vishaya tad dharmanam of anatma and qualities of anatma . Body, mind are anatm and their qualities. Why it is not possible he indicates by avishaye or non-object. On the self which is non-object how can there be superimposition of anatma and its qualtites. Purvapakshi is himself explaining why it is not possible to have adhyaasa of anatma on atma. He gives a hint. Atma is avishaye. Therefore it cannot be adhistanam for adhyaasa. “But let it not be the object but still it can be adhistanam for adhyaasa”. If this is the question from Siddanti then he says further. Why it is not possible he explains in the next line. Sarvohi puroavasthithe vishaye vishayantaram adhyasati. Because (hi) all those who commit mistake, they superimpose upon the object which is puroavastithe ie, which is in front of the person and available for sense contact. Puroavasthithe indicates one condition - indriya sanyuktatvam. Vishaya ofcourse indicates it should be idam pratyaya gochare. Vishayaantaram means another object. So all people superimpose on the object in front another object. Here two conditions are told. All people are having adhyaasa only with reference to vishaya and also it should be purovasthithe. Something which is indriya sanyuktha and vishaya that alone becomes the adhistanam for any adhyaasa. Here one more condition we have to understand which is implied. That is samshatvam ie, having parts. Any thing can become adhistanam only if it has parts. To be adhistanam it should be partly known partly unknown and for that it should have parts. Therefore it should have samshatvam also. These three conditions should be there. So somebody who does not know atma and is somehow very anxious to prove adhyaasa may say atma has all these things. Like some shopkeepers always say we have everything. So Purvapakshi is saying you cannot get away with saying there is adhyaasa of atma because these three conditions are not fulfilled in pratyagatma. That is what he says in the next lineYusmatpratyayapetasya cha pratyagatmanah avishayatvam bravishi . Bravishi means you are telling like this. The Purvapakshi is telling Siddanti when you talk about atma this is what you say. One thing is pratyagatma is yusmat pratyayapeta . Apeta means different, far away. Atma is far away from yusmat pratyaya. Means yushmat pratyaya is not available to be loaded by Pratyagatma. Pratyagatma cannot be referred by yusmat pratyaya. Yusmat pratyaya apeta is an adjective for pratyagatma. It is not available for objectification by yusmat pratyaya . In sanskrit it is called idam pratyayanarhasya. Anarah means unfit. Atma is not fit to be the object of idam

pratyaya. By that he is dismissing the vishayatvam of atma. Pratyagatma is not available for objectification. One more thing he says by avishayatvam bravishi. He is dismissing indriya vishayatvam. Atma is not available for individual sense contact. Avishayatvam means the status of not being the object of sense contact. So you are saying that atma is not available for sense contact and is not the object of sense contact. So vishayatvam and indriya samyuktatvam are not there. Ofcourse samshayatvam or partfulness is also not there. That is not mentioned but it is implied here. So atma does not have any of the conditions to be adhistanam. It is something like a person to be President should be Indian citizen, above 35 years and have good mental health. This fellow is not from Inida, is 25 years and is admitted in Nimhans. Therefore he cannot become the president. Similarly atma cannot become the adhistanam for adhyaasa. By saying bravishi what the Purvapakshi wants to hint is, suppose you are too anxious to prove Adhyaaa and therefore you say all 3 conditions are fulfilled. Then you are deviating from your originam stand about atma. That atma is satchitananda, akhanda…you are deviating from that description of atma. When it comes to adhyaasa you are anxious to deviate. So if you have greed to prove adhyaasa then your main doctrine will be degraded. Sruti itself will be negated. Like children who says I am so sleepy I cannot study. Then you put him in bed and he starts to read a novel for one hour. So what happened to his sleep ? So don’t do like that. You have to be consistent in your stand. You should not deviate from your stand. That is why he says bravishi. You are saying atma is yusmat pratyaya apeta. Atma does not have vishayatvam, and now you are so anxious to prove adhyaasa therefore you are forgetting all the things you said about atma. There is anxiety . Therefore there is inconsistency. What is the inconsistency ? If atma that you are talking about as akhanda, nirguna indriya agochara. That type of atmas cannot be the adhistanam for adhyaasa. If it is adhistanam then it cannot be akhanda, nirguna.. and if it is akhanda, nirguna then it cannot be adhistana. So you have to lose one thing. Either adhyaasa or your understanding of atma. I think you will not want to give up your main understanding about atma. So you forget about adhyaasa.

Jan 27th – Ques and Ans. 1) Which Bhashyam have we entered ? Sambhavana bhashyam What was the Bhashyam before that ? Lakshana bhashyam. 2) Generally it is said that ascertainment of anything is by Lakshna and Pramana so why Sambhavana bhashyam? Because there is strong asambhavana buddhi regarding atma-anatma adhyaasa . The Purvapakshi after Lakshana bhashyam is ready to accept general adhyaasa of raaju-sarpa and of shuktika- rajat,

but adhyaasa of anatma and antama dharma on atma is not acceptabe . To neutralize this strong asambhavana buddhi Sambhavana bhashyam is given. 3) Under the circumstance, after Lakshana bhashyam if Pramana bhashyam was given what would happen then ? There would be rejection of the Pramana because of asambhavana buddhi. Even though pramana vyapara is there, the asambhavana buddhi will not let him accept the Pramana. Like in the Bharrchu story. 4) How does the Sambhavana bhashyam start ? It starts with asambhavana statement of Purvapakshi. 5) What is Vyaptihi ? Invariable concomitance ie, when two things invariably accompany each other. Classical example is - Yatra dhoomah tatra agnihi .Where there is smoke there is fire. What are the two factors in vyaptihi ? which is the bigger one ? Vyapya is that which is pervaded and Vyapaka is that which is pervasive. Vyapaka is bigger than Vyapya. In the example dhoomah is vyapya and agnihi is vyapaka. What are the two types of Vyapti ? Anvaya Vyapti or positive concomitance or Vyatirekha vyapti or negative concomitance. Yatra dhoomah tatra agnihi is an example of Anvaya Vyapti. Yatra agnihi nasti tatra dhoomah nasti is an example of Vyatirekha vyapti. 6) Suppose we say Yatra dhoomah nasti tatra agnihi nasti what is the problem ? This will not be correct. Because there are cases where smoke is not there, but fire is there. Like electric stove. There is fire but no smoke. 7) What are the other examples for Anvaya vyapti ? Yatra jeevanam (vyapya), tatra prana vyahu (vyapaka . Yatra matrtvam (vyapya), tatra naritatvam (vyapaka). Yatra manushyatvam (vyapya), tatra jeevitatvam (vyapaka). 8)Here what type of Vyapti Purvapakshi is assuming ? The vyapti implied by Purvapakshi is – Where the status of adhistanam is there, there status of being the object (vishayatvam) and status of being contacted with sense organs (indriya samyuktatavam) has to be there. This is Anvaya vyapti . Where vishayatavam and indriya samyuktatavam is not there there adhistanam is not there. This is Vyatirekha vyapti. This is implied in katham punah pratyagatmani… 9) Why pratyagatma is said instead of just atma? Since other things like body, mind, senses, etc. are also taken to be atma. Therefore to specify the real self as being distinct from all these, the word Pratyagatma or innermost self is said.


10) What does the word Puroavasthithe mean? It means in it is in front of the person and it is available for sense contact. 11) What does Yusmat pratyayapetasya mean ? That which is not referable by yusmat pratyaya. Apeta means different or away. The other Sanskrit word for that was idam pratyaya anarhasya - that which is not fit to be objectified or loaded by idam pratyaya. It indicates that atma is not vishaya. 12) What does Avishayatvam indicate ? Avishayatavam indicates that atma is not available for sense contact. It means indriya avishayatvam. 13) What is the reason to derive indriya samyuktatavam and not avishaya by the word Avisayatavam ? Avisayatvam can mean both - avisaya and indriya asamyuktatvam.But we take the latter meaning. There is a reason for that. We want to derive two things – that atma is avisaya and atma is indriya sanyuktatavam and for that two words are there –yusmat pratyaya apetasya and avisayatavam. From yusmat pratyaya we cannot derive indriya asanyuktatavam. That idam pratyaya is not able to cover atma can be indicated by yusmat…apeta. In that sense it is away or apeta. But from avisayatavam we can derive indriya asamyuktatvam. That which cannot be objectified by the senses. That is why indriya asamyuktatavam is derived from avisayatvam and avisayatvam from yusmat pratyayapeta. 14) What is hinted by the word Bravishi ? Purvapakshi wants to say that suppose for the greed to push the idea of adhyaasa you say that all conditions are met with, then you will be contradicting yourself. Because you have already presented atma as akhanda, svaprakasha, nirguna…. Bravishi indicates you yourself are telling like this, and just to prove adhyaasa you will be deviating from your description of atma. 17) Which type of atma-anatma adhyaasa is discussed here? The adhyaasa of anatma and anatma dharma on atma is not accepted by the Purvapakshi and that is discussed here.

Jan 26 – talk 22 :
From katham punah to bravishi the objection to adhyaasa is stated. The word punah means but and but means adhyaasa in general is possible. Adhyaasa of rajat on shukti is possible. Adhyaasa of sarpa on rajju is possible. But adhyaasa of anatma and anatma dharma on atma is not possible. For that the reason is - adhyaasa is possible if atma has the capacity to become adhistanam of anatma. All the examples given are of external objects superimposed upon some other external object. External means it is vishaya and indriya samyukta. Third condition implied is samsatvam ie,having parts. How having parts comes in the picture ? Something can be adhistanam only if it is partly known and partly unknown. If something is completely not knowN then it will not become the adhistanam. Like the rope in complete darkness. If something is completely known then it will

not become adhistanam. So it has to be partly known and partly unknown. For this it should have parts. This is called savAyava or samshah. Sa means along with. Savayava means along with parts. So adhistanam has to be samshah. Whereas atma is not having any one of these 3 conditions. Atma is not vishaya . You yourself are saying atma is not idam pratyaya gochara. Atma is not available for sense perception so indriya samyuktatavam is not possible. It means it has to be in front of sense rgans to be in contact whereas atma is behind the sense organs. Therefore it camnot be contaced by sense organs. Third thing atma is not having parts. You yourself are saying this. In Mundaka Upanishad it is said - ‘hiranmaye parekoshe virajam brahma nishkalam ‘. Nishkalam means partless. Sruti says this and you also accept this. Since to be adhistanam it should have parts and atma does not have parts. So atma cannot be adhistanam. So all 3 things are not met with. Therefore adhyasa is not possible on atma. This is asambhavana buddhi. Means what is experienced by me that I am karta, bhokta, etc.. are not adhyasathah. It is real. For that these are the technical reasons. But there is another background as to why there is strong sense of impossibility of adhyaasa on atma. Why this kartrtvam and bhoktrtvam cannot be adhyaasa on atma ? There is an experiential or observational background also. A common man also with little bit exposure to Vedanta will think Vedanta is saying that this karta, bhokta are all adhyaasa on atma. What I observe in the world is that if anything is adhyaasa then in the wake of knowledge adhyaasa should go away. The moment I came to know the rope, the snake disappeared. The moment I came to know the mother of pearl, silver disappeared. But here we have attended tattva bodha classes which said that,” I am Brahman”, ‘aham atma’. But my kartrtva, jeevatva don’t go away. Now also if my spouse praises my good cooking, I feel good and if he does not say anything about it then I feel very bad. Suppose in the class I am asked something, and I do not know, then I feel embarrassed. Motivation is ok, but we feel embarrased. If Swamiji gives some example connected to my life, then I don’t like it. So my jeevatvam does not seem to go away. As per the law of adhyaasa, it should go away. So I think there cannot be adhyaasa on atma. It may be possible outside, but not in the case of atma. Even those who attend Vedanta class for 20 yrs still they push. Even Swamis don’t give up their kartrvam and bhoktrtvam. This point is raised in the 4th sutra of Brahma sutra where Purvapakshi says that the people who know Brahman, they also have samsaritvam. Yatha purva samsaritva darshanat. They had samsaritvam before Brahma-jnanam they have it after Brahma -jnanam. Those who know Brahman, even for them kartrtvam, bhoktrtvam seems to continue. So adhyaasa is not possible. This point is raised. That also may be the background to raise this doubt in the form of technical objection. First we have decided then we find a reason. That is what we do in our life. We have not done our homework, but then you find a reason why you have not done homework. Like our political officials decide they want to visit a European country. After that they find a reason why they should go there and they somehow get invited so that they can make it an official visit. Our mind is also like that. First it decides then it finds a reason. This is also background. This particular question that if a person who knows Brahman even after knowledge, samsaritam still continues , then it cannot be adyaasa. This is there in the background. The answer for that is there which will come.

So with this background both technical and experiential, the Purvapakshi has raised the doubt. That atma cannot become the adhistana for anatma and anatma dharma . Therefore adhyaasa of anatma on atma is not possible. This is the contention. Now the Siddanti is answering. Ucchyate – na tavatayam ekantena avishayah asmatpratyaya vishayatvat aparokshatvat ca pratyagatma prasidde. This is one of the most baffling sentences of adhyaasa bhashyam. It is so profound that for days together contemplation was required. There are different interpretations to this also. Meaning really is so simple. But the profoundity of how it is said is amazing. The sentence looks innocent, but one can see so much of intricacies in it and also nice concepts are brought out . Uccyate means being told. It implies the answer or Samadhanam is told. It is a passive voice. Let us understand first what he says. Siddanti says for anything to be adhistanam what is required is there in atma and what is not there as we said earlier is not required. You are saying that for atma to be adhistanam it should be visayah. I am telling yes, it is vishayah, but not the way you have understood vishayah. You have a narrow concept of the word vishayah. Like somebody hears the sentence – “this person is in the hospital”. Immedaitely you conclude,” oh he must not be well”. Or suppose you hear somebody went to jail. What is your conclusion ? He is a criminal. If he is not a criminal how can he be in jail. Similarly, If he is not sick how can he be in the hospital? This is what you will think because your concept of being in hospital means being sick. Your concept of being in jail means being a criminal. Why don’t you think of other possibilities. A doctor also can be in the hospital. A compounder, a nurse, a Med Rep. can also go to the hospital. But the moment you hear hospital generally you think he must be sick. Similarly jail superintendent is in the jail premises, a jailer is in the jail. So you have to broaden your concept of being in jail or hospital. Similarly you have to broaden your concept of vishayatvam.You have this understanding that if something is vishaya, it is idam pratyaya vishayam. Atma is not idam pratyaya vishaya therefore atma is not vishaya according to you. Therefore Bhagvan Bhashyakara says tavad - first of all at the outset. Avishaya means non-object. Ekantena means totally. This Atma is not totally non-object . Means in a way it is vishaya also. Why does he use the word ekantena ? What Bhashyakara wishes to say is in the conventional sense, the way it is generally understood, atma is not vishaya. You are right about that. Generally vishaya means the object is in front and contacted thro’ sense organs. Then idam akara vritti will be formed and this object will be there in that vritti and it will be illumined by chidabhasa. All these things will happen, then it is called Vishaya. This is the conventional thinking of something being vishaya. Now atma is not like that. Atma is not in front of the sense organs. It is not being the object of idam pratyaya. Atma is not illumined by chidabhasa or reflected conciousness. That way atma is not vishaya. But if you broaden your concept of vishayatvam, then atma is vishaya also. Atma is not totally not object. If you have a rigid thinking about vishaya then atma is not vishaya. But if you broaden your understanding of vishaya, then atma is vishaya also in a way. It is something like one person was thinking and saying that I am poor , I have nothing. Bhagvan has given me nothing. I have no wife, house, child, vehicle…. One day he goes to a Mahatma and repeats the same thing. He says you say that Bhagvan is dayasindhu, but he has not gien me

anything. Then the Mahatma says that ok then will you give me one eye of yours ? I will get you Rs10 lacs. You can see with the other eye. There are 100s of people waiting for eye donation. What about one kidney, you have two, you can manage with one. I will get you Rs 20 lacs. Already it is Rs 30 lacs. Some blood you give, I will get you a few thousands. If you give your liver then I could get you Rs 50000. But unfortunately you cannot live without a liver. So see how many lacs you can have. Why do you say you don’t have anything. You have legs to walk, a mind to think. But for you that is not something. For you something means cash, house… Then only you feel you have something. Why don’t you say instead that a few things I have and a few things I don’t have. This is the case with everybody in the world. There is no person in the world who can say I have everything. Everybody has somethings and does not have something else. So the Mahatma says - bhavan ekantena na asampannah-You totally are not unendowed with anything. That is you are not totally poor or worthess. You have so many useful worthwhile things with you. But you have got a narrow concept. It is like some retired people, they have some Rs 10 lacs in FD. But they don’t count it . If they don’t have much in their savings account , then they say I have money problems… FD’s are also money. Yet in their mind what is there in Savings account alone is available for spending. We suffer or reject so many things because of our narrow thinking. In life it happens. Here Purvapakshi thinks atma is not available for idam pratyaya, therefore it is not vishaya. Not being vishaya means it is not available for idam pratyaya. Therefore adhyaasa of atma on anatma is not possible. That is why Bhashyakara says here atma is not totally avishaya. How ? because it is asmatpratya visayatvat. It is the object of I (asmat) thought not you (yusmat) thought.what you want is vishayatvam and that is there. Atma is the object of asmat pratyaya and that is enough. Do not insist on yusmat pratyaya vishayatvam. It is the object of some thought. I thought is also a thought. Thus atma being asmat pratyaya vishayah, it is not avisayah. So your objection that atma is avisaya is dismissed. Atma is asmat pratyaya vishaya. Like this person who can be in the hospital not as a patient but he is there as the doctor. Similarly atma need not be the object of idam pratyaya to be vishaya . It can be asmat pratyaya vishaya.

What is asmat pratyaya vishaya ? In every experience you have this - I am going, I am speaking. I am Mr so & so. All this is asmat pratyaya. Idam pratyaya means this is an object called box. When you say I am ….. then it is aham pratyaya. In every aham pratyaya atma is present. Here let us understand vishaya . Vishaya does not mean that atma is perceived thro’ sense organs , which create vritti called I thought in which atma is present and which is being illumined by chidabhasa. that is not so . Vishayatvam means being present in the vritti and also it is evident. When ths box is present in the vritti and it is evident then this box is called vishaya of the vritti.What is required is to be present in the vritti ie, to be contained in the vritti. Atma is obtaining or contained in aham vritti, therefore it is asmat pratyaya vishaya. It is not that asmat pratyaya is illumining that. Idea is whether atma is present in asmat pratyaya or not. It is present. How do you say it is present in asmat pratyaya ?

Asmat pratyaya primarily reveals ahankarah, which is anatma ? How this aham is recognized ? In your experience it is never recognized as jadam. Whenever you say I am seeing, I am walking, the aham which is the vishaya is experienced as chetanah. It means along with ahankara chetanatvam must also be present. If chetanatvam is not there this ahankara will not be experienced or recognized as chetana Therefore this chetanatavam which is pratyagatma is also obtaining in asmat pratyaya vishaya. Even though asmat pratyaya vishaya is really not primarily meant for objectifying this atma. But this atma is also present in it. You will understand it better with an example. Suppose we are sitting here and 2 people are talking there. One person says, there is a car. I hear the words car. The word car reveals the object car. So vishaya of the word car is the object car. I get the feeling that she is talking about car. The word car revealed the object car. Along with it, I understand one more thing . This word was spoken by Mrs Rama. Rama is sitting there and Rama is telling this. Even though the word car conventionally does not directly objectify the person. It only reveals the spoken thing. But really it reveals the speaker of the word also. Thus the vishaya of the word car is not only the object car, but also the speaker of the word. Similarly this asmat pratyaya conventionally reveals only ahankara. But unconventionally if we see, then atma also is present. Because atma alone is chaitanyam and ahankara present in asmat pratyaya is chetana. Therefore chaitanyam also is revealed. That way asmat pratyaya has got chetana also as visaya but not in the conventional sense. Just as in conventional sense the word car reveals the vehicle car. But if we think in broader sense, whatever is revealed thro’ the word is vishaya, then the speaker of the word also is the object. Similarly thro’asmat pratyaya conventionally what is revealed is ahankara, but unconventionally chaitanyam also can be recognized. In that way atma is asmat pratyaya vishaya. It is not avishaya. It is evident. It is obtaining in every I thought and there is no dearth of I thought. In every experience there is I thought. Therefore atma is available as asmat pratyaya and therefore it can be mistaken – asmat pratyaya vishayatvat. In simple words, atma is present all the time as I, I, …therefore atma is evident. Therefore it can be mistaken . For something to be mistaken it should be visaya. Atma is evident as asmat pratyaya visaya. It is therefore not avisaya. And therefore it can become adhistanam.

Feb 2 – Ques and Ans :
1) In the Siddantis reply in Sambhavana Bhashyam, what is the meaning of the word tavad ? It means first of all or at the outset. What does ayam refer to ? Ayam means this. It refers to atma. 2)What does ekantena mean ? Totally or in the absolute sense. 3)What does na ekantena avishaya indicate ? That it is totally not unknown.

4)By saying ekantena what does Bhashyakara want to say ? Conventionally it is not vishaya. But it is also vishaya in an unconventional way. 5) What is vishaya in the conventional sense ? Idam pratyaya vishayatvam is visahya in the conventional sense ie, yusmat pratyaya vishaya Idam akara vritti is formed by sense organs coming in contact with the object . The idam akara vritti is illumined by chidabhasa and object becomes evident. This is vishaya in the conventional sense. 6) What is the example of ekantena avishayah ? Conventionally we think that if a person goes to a hospital, he is sick or if a person goes to the jail he is a criminal. But really that need not be so. A person can be doctor, nurse or MR and go to the hospital. Person can be a jailor and go to the jail.( Like I went to the Indore jail to give a talk.) This is unconventional vishaya. 7)What vyapti is implied by purvapakshi? Yatra adhistanam tatra vishyatam indriya samyuktatvamcha. Where there is adhistana status, there is staust of being and stautus of being contected with sense organs. 8) How vishayatvam is there in atma ? The vishayatvam in the case of atma is asmat pratyaya vishaytavam not yusmat pratyaya vishayatvam. 9) What is the meaning of asmat pratyay vishayatvat ? That which is present in aham pratyaya and also it is evident. These two aspects of vishayatvam are there in atma. Like in pot , it is present and it is evident in pot thought. 10) What is the example I gave to show the pecularity of asmat pratyaya vishayatvat ? Like in the word car - Conventionally the object car is revealed and unconventionally the speaker is also revealed. Similarly in every I thought, atma is evident (like speaker) along with ahankara (like car). Ahankara is experienced as chetana. So along with ahankara chetanatatvam is also revealed. Another point, really speaking Atma is present in all vrittis. It is there is idam vritti also. But here we want to highlight that atma is vishaya. Atma’s presence is very evident in asmat pratyaya. Because in asmat pratyaya what is revealed directly is ahankara and ahankara is always chetana. So it is easier to appreciate the presence of atma . So vishayatvam is there for atma and therefore atma can become adhistanam. 11) What is ahankara ? Ahankara simply means sense of individuality which extends upto the body, senses and mind. Generally ahankara is the specific aspect of the athankarna - Mano dharma vishista ahankarah . Along with ahankara, chetanatatvam is also revealed.That is why chetanatvam is asmat pratyaya vishaya.


Feb 2 –Talk 23 :
So far it was said by Siddanti that Atma is not a non-object . It is not totally avishaya. In a way it is vishaya also. How ? It is asmat pratayay vishaya. It is present and evident in asmat pratyaya. It is present in other thoughts also, but in asmat pratyaya, it is much more clear. Because Ahankara is always experienced as chetana. Whereas the object of other thoughts are not experienced as chetana. Since it is easier to appreciate therefore it is said asmat pratyaya vishaya. Purvapakshi may raise the doubt that generally something is said to be vishaya , if it is the object of chidabhaasa manifesting in vritti. Then only the object is revealed. But that is not happening in the case of atma. Therefore atma cannot be vishaya because it is not objectified or illumined by chidabhaasa. Just like the reflected sun will not objectify the original sun. Therefore pratyagatma does not have vishayatvam. Another argument is given - you are telling that atma is asmat pratyaya vishaya ie, ahankara vishaya. Ahankara itself is adhyaasa. In that adhyaasa visayaka pratyaya, atma is present. Based on the presence of atma in asmat pratyaya, you are establishing the adhistanatvam in atma. To make it more clear - we said that atma is asmat pratyaya vishaya. Therefore it can be adhistanam and therefore adhyaasa is possible. The argument of Purvapakshi could be that asmat pratyaya is ahankara which itself is adhyaasa. To establish adhyaasa, atma should have adhistanatvam and to have adhistanatvam, atma should have vishayatvam. To have vishayatam it should be the object of asmat pratyaya . But asmat pratyaya vishaya which is ahankara, that itself is adhyaasa. In other words asmat pratyaya which is adhyaasa to be there, ahankara should be there and ahankara is adhyaasa . For that adhyaasa to be there, atma should be adhistanam. For atma to be adhistanam, it has to be vishaya and you say that the self is asmat pratyaya ishaya. It menas for asmat pratyaya to be there, there should be vishayatvam in atma and for vishayatvam in atma there should be asmat pratyaya. There is anyonya ashraya -mutual dependence. Eg: like a boy who is not getting married because he is not mentally stable. Problem is who will give him the girl ? Only if he gets married he will be well and only if he is well he will get a girl. This is called mutual dependence. Similarly if ahankara is there , then atma will have asmat pratyaya vishayatvam. And if asmat pratya vishayatavam is there then only ahankara will be there. Since ahankara itself is adhyaasa. So adhyaasa is there, then vishayatvam can come and if vishayatvam is there, adhyaasa can be established. When mutual dependence is there, whatever is presented is null and void.You said asmat pratyaya visayatvam is there and therefore atma is vishaya, therefore atma is adhistana and adhyaasa of anatma on atma is possible. All this depends on asmat pratyya vishayatvam which itself depends on adhyaasa. Ahyaasa itself is under question. It is something like if you become the chief minister then you get the majority. But only if you get the majority, then you can become the chief minister. Similarly you are telling that adhyaasa will be established since asmat pratyaya vishayatvam is there and asmat pratyaya vishayatvam is possible only if adhyaasa is there. How to resolve this catch 22 situation ? How much our Acharyas have thought ? They thought of the doubts that could be raised also.

For that two answers are given . Adhyaasa is anaadi. This flow of adhyaasa is continous. It never started. Everytime different different adhyaasa is there. Atma which was present in previous asmat pratyaya becomes the adhistana for the adhyaasa of next asmat pratyaya vishaya. This is one answer. The other reason is given by the word - aparokshatvat cha. Atma is aparokshah –self-effulgent. Vyaparam antarena bhaasamanah. That which is shining without operation on the part of any other agency. That is svayam parakasah. Things become evident in three ways. Something is known , it can be known as pratyakshatah jnatam or directly known thro’ sense organs. Other is called parokshatah jnatam - indirectly known . Third is aparokshatah – immediately known. Being known without even the media of sense organs. That is called aparokshatah jnatam. With the example of the light it is clear. Something is illumined directly by sunlight. That is like pratyaksha. Sometimes it is not directly illumined. Like in Ellora there are so many caves and they are dark. There is no electricity. To see the beautiful carving of Buddha they put a mirror and sunlight is focused on that, so that the idol of buddha becomes clear. That is called indirectly illumined. This is the example for Paroksha or known through inference or presumption. But what about the sun ? How is it known ? It is self illumined. This is Aparoksha. So there are 3 ways to know - pratyakshataha jnatam, parokshatah jnatam or aparokshatah jnatam. Atma is known as aparokshatah without any medium. So the answer to the doubt about mutual dependency is that it is not asmat pratyaya which is making atma evident. Atma is already evident. Evidently it is present in asmat pratyaya. It is not like pot thought. When the thought of the pot comes then only it becomes evident. In other words antahkarana has to spread itself on the object and in that antahkarana there is chidabhaasa which illumines it. Only after coming in the fold of antahkaranam then only the pot is illumined. This is not so in the case of atma. It is self-evidently present. It does not depend on asmat pratyaya visaya to be evident. To manifest as aham it needs asmat pratyaya. But to be illumined it does not need asmat pratyaya. It is something like in hot water you put rice. Water is hot so rice also becomes hot. So in the hot water rice is present and because of that rice is hot which is one way of being present in hot water. Now fire is also present in hot water. But we can’t say that like rice, fire becomes hot because of association with hot water. It is present in hot water not to be heated by hot water, but it is the very heating principle of hot water. Similarly, Atma is present in asmat pratyaya something like the fire in hot water. Not like rice in hot water. Pot is in pot thought like rice is in hot water. Because of the vritti, atma gets illumined. But atma is not illumined because of asmat pratyaya. It is sva-prakashah. How do you establish sva-prakashatvam of atma ? We have got the sruti vakya sakshaat aparokshat brahma. Sruti vakya is not the only pramana, but we have got the pramanam in the form of anubhava of everybody . That is said in the next sentence - pratyagatma prasiddhe. Atma is known to everybody. The commentators say, starting from the child who has studied nothing upto the pandita who has studied, everybody has the experience of I am. There is no doubt at all. Like nobody has doubt they are there are not. Even though you don’t have identity card, still you don’t have a doubt who you are. Swami Parmarthananda was jocularly saying that I dont have any document to prove my identity. But I have some disciples and they will not go to a nonexistent teacher to study. So I must be existing ! Really we don’t really need anything to know we exist. What I am, I may have a doubt. But thatI am, nobody will have a doubt. There is asamsaya

abhava. “I am not”, is viparyayaya. Viparyaya means opposite. Nobody has this viparyaya that I am not there. This means atma is evident to everybody. If something is not self-evident. Then it can be known sometime, unknown sometime, away sometime. But if something is self-evident, then only it is possible that it is known to everybody all the time. It is like if something is illumined by something else. Then it may be illumined sometimes, not illumined, less illumined or more illumined. But if something is self-illumined it will be all the time luminous. Like some gems are self-luminous. They emit light. They don’t require the presence of other factors to illumine. It is all the time evident. So something which is all the time evident to everybody is self-evident. Therefore it is said pratyagatma prasidhehe. Since it is known to everybody it is svaprakasha. Since it is svaprakahsa it need not be the object of chidabhaasa. That was the doubt raised. Answer is : It has to be the object of chidabhaasa just to be evident. But if something is self evident , it need not be made evident by chidabhaasa. Only that which is not evident can be made evident by chidabhaasa. Therefore for vishayatvam what is required is being evident. Bhaasamanatvam is enough. Chidabhaasa Bhaasayatvam is not necessary. It is not necessary it should be made evident by chidabhaasa. That is why it is said pratyagatma prasidhehe aparokshatvatcha asmat pratyaya visayatvat ayam ekantena avishaya. The commentator says in this how nicely the order of ideas is expressed. Pratyagatma prasiddivashat atmanah svaprakashatvam. This is the how we have to understand. Since Prayagatma is prasiddh ie, known to everybody all the time , therefore atma is svaprakashah. Pratyagatma prasiddi is the hetu for the word svaprakashatvam referred by the word aparokshatvat. Ahankara sambhandhatvat asmat pratyaya visayatvatcha.When it is referred as the one present in asmat pratyaya it is called asmat pratyaya vishaya.When it is seen along with ahankarah it becomes asmat pratyaya visayah. Tatah na avishaya niyama . Therefore you cannot make the rule that atma is avisaya. Atma is visaya. Since atma is visaya it can become adhistanam.

This is the idea- atma is prasiddha so svaprakasha. Atma when associated with ahankara is asmat pratyaya visaya. And since it is visaya it is evident. For something to be adhistanam what it needs is to be evident. Atma is evident. How is it evident ? As asmat pratyaya visaya (object of I thought) it is evident or it is self-evident . Either way you take it, it is evident and therefore it can be adhistanam. Being idam pratyaya is superfluous. What is required is being evident and atma is evident. Therefore it is capable of being adhistanam. Thus visayatvam part raised by Purvapakshi is answered. The vyapti said by Purvapakshi earlier was yatra adhistanatvam tatra visayatam indriya samyuktatavamcha. Wherever there is status of adhistanam, there should be visayatvam and indriya samyuktatvam. The first vyapti is answered. Visayatvam is there. The type of vishayatvam you expressed is not there, but the vishayatvam required is there. What is expected is not there, but what is required is there. Bhagvam may not fulfill whatver we expect, but he will definitely give me what I need. That should be our approach in life. Sometime what I expect may be wrong.

Somebody may want someone to die. That is wrong. But what is needed Bhagvan will give. That sort of connection a devotee should have. This is what we are telling the Purvapakshi. What is important is what is required should be there. And if expected by Purvapakshi, and it is required and is there, then adhyaasa will be there. But if expected, not required and it is not there, adhyaasa can happen. But if expected, required and it is not there, adhyaasa will not happen. So what is expected does not really matter. What really matters is what is required. So here the way you want vishayatvam is not there, but the way it can be managed that is there, then adhyaasa is possible. What is essentially required is vishayatvam and that is there. Don’t insist on idam pratyaya vishayatam . Asmat pratyaya visayatvam is enough. So adhyaasa will take place. The second doubt of Purvapakshi - indriya samyuktatavam - being contacted with sense organs. Purvapakshi’s contention is that anything can become adhistanam only when it is contacted thro’sense organs. Like shuktika can become adhistanam because it can be perceived thro’ sense organs. That is certainly not there in atma. Vishayatvam you somehow managed. But indriya samyuktatvam can never be there in atma. There is a vyapti. Yatra indriya samyukatatvam tatra sagunavatvam. This is Anvaya vyapti or Co-presence. Indriya samyukatatvam is vyapya and Guna is vyapaka. Now we have to convert that into Vyatirekha Vyapti. Yatra gunah abhavah tatra indriya samyuktatva abhavah. Where qualities are not there, there sense contact will not be possible. This is called Vyatirekha vyapti or Co-absence. In atma there is no quality. Atma is nirguna. Therefore vyapya – guna is not there. ThereforeVyapaka – indriya samyuktatva is not there ie, where there is absence of guna there is absence of sense contact. If we see from the standpoint of Vyatirekha Vyapti , In atma vyapya is not there, therefore vyapaka will not be there. This is technical way of putting it. Simple way of saying it is - since guna (sabda sparsha, roopa…) is not there in atma, therefore atma cannot be the object of sense contact. This is what the Purvapakshi is saying. For that Siddanti is saying – Ok, what you are establishing is that there will not be sense contact. But why are you connecting sense contact with adhistanam. In your mind, you have unneccasrily formed a rule that something can become adhistanam only if it is available for sense contact. That rule - yatra adhistanam tatra indriya samyuktatavam - is not correct. We are attacking the rule. Like in parliament some rule is passed, but there is a challenge IN the supreme court. The supreme court can make it null and void. Similarly the rule you have formed that for something to be adhistanam there should be sense contact is a general observation. Generally it happens. But it is not a strict rule. But unfortunately Purvapakshi has a mind-set. Like some women have the mind-set that without onions how can you cook ? But it is possible to cook without onions. Let us go further. Some people think if money is not there how can you be happy. Kopina vanthah khalubhagyavanthah. Someone has only a kopina and he is happy. But somebody may not be able to accept it . How can you be happy without money ? Other way around also. If he has money how can he be unhappy. You have a nice house, nice children, good bank balance. Why should you be unhappy ? This is mindset. Person going in Honda City have to be happy. Not only we have a mindset about situations but we have so many conclusions about what exactly causes what . I like this person because he is a learned man. But you don’t like all learned men. It means for liking something else is there. People say I eat non-veg because it gives me protein. But there are so many things which have protein. You can say I eat non-veg because I like it. That is a better

reason. Suppose somebody asks me why do you put Bhasma ? I say that this is just to remind me that ultimately we merge into ashes. If that is so, then you should put it everyday. When you go out, you don’t put it. It means for putting bhasma there is another reason. Simply we fool others and sometimes we fool ourselves. Suppose you left your house at 6.20 pm . It takes 20 mins to come to the ashram. You started 10 mins late. Instead of 6.10 pm , you started at 6.20 pm. On the way you were delayed by traffic. You reach 10 mins late to the ashram. What do you say - I am late because of traffic jam. Then you talk about Bangalore traffic. Divert the topic. You don’t say I started late. Actually if you had started on time you would be here on time inspite of traffic. Because generally you would take 20 mins, but today you took 10 mins for you which means in some parts the traffic was smooth and you could go fast. Still when you come here the reason which comes to your mind is traffic jam. So what exactly causes what sometime we don’t know and sometimes perhaps we don’t want to know. We fool ourselves and we fool others. This is a mindset. Generally we like to present the cause which is presentable, not what is the real cause. Here Purvapakshi is like that. He has the mindset that anything can become evident only if it is available for sense contact. Like us he is imprisoned by his mindset. His line of thinking is atma is Nirguna, therefore it cannot become the object of sense organs, therefore it cannot become adhistanam. Therefore adhyaasa of anatma on atma is not possible. In his mind the chain is this - sense contact, becoming evident , becoming adhistanam . The Siddanti is saying why are you so particular about the first link ? What is required is that it should be evident. If that is there, it is enough. Infact sense contact is required to make it evident. If something is already evident why should you insist on sense contact. It is something like in Guruvayoor every man has to remove his shirt and go in. But suppose he is not wearing a shirt , then you cannot insist on removing the shirt. Another example - One person is talking to me on the telephone every Thursday. She says I really enjoying talking to you on telepone. One Thursday she happens to be in Bangalore. She comes to see me here. Will she insist that I enjoy talking to you on telephone so let us talk on telephone. Being right here she will not insist on telehone. Telephone is required for connecting. When connection is already established, then telephone is not required. In olden days we use to have wires in telephone. Wires are required to carry the signal to the telephone. Now the cellphone can catch the signal directly. Can we insist wires are not here so telephone cannot work. Something like this Purvapakshi is insisting. Therefore Siddanti says – na chayamasti niyamah.

SAMBHAVANA BHASHYAM : 1) Purvapakshis doubt regarding atma-anatma adhyaasas is statedKatham punah pratyagatmani avishaye adhyaasah vishaya taddharmanam ? How but on inmost atma which is non-object, there is superimposition of object and its qualities ? Sarvo hi puroavasthithe vishaye vishayantaram adhyasti,

Indeed all ( those who commit mistake )superimpose some object on some other object which is in front of them which is available for sense contact . yusmat pratyaya apetasya ca pratyagatmani avishayatvam Atma is different from you thought (vishaya) and not available for sense contact (indriya samyuktatavam), bravishi . you yourself are telling. Meaning : (Though adhyaasa in general is possible), but how on inmost atma which is non-object, there is superimposition of object and its qualities ? Indeed everybody superimposes on the object which is in front of them (visayatavam) ( and which is available for sense contact-indriya samyukatatvam) another object. You yourself are telling that atma is different from you thought and not available for sense contact. 2) Siddantis answer to the doubt is stated – Ucchyate - Na tavad ayam ekantena avishayah asmat pratyaya vishayatvat aparokshatvat It is told – First of all atma is not totally non-object being the object of I thought and being self-evident Ca pratyagatma siddheh. Being known to everybody it is self-evident . Meaning : It is told –First of all atma is not totally non-object being the object of I thought and being known to everybody it is self-evident.

Feb 10 –Ques and Ans
1) What is the meaning of aparokshatvatcha ? It means “And being self-evident”. 2) With which part of the sentence is it connected? Aparokshatvat kim? The connection is Aparokshatvatcha na ekantena avisaya; Since atma is self-evident , it is not totally non-object. 3 ) Earlier we had said asmat pratyaya visayatvat na ekantena avisayah ? What does it mean ? Since atma is object of I thought , it is not totally non-object. Also since atma is self evident , it is not totally non-object. Thus ekantena avisaya connects to both asmat pratyaya and aparokshatvatcha. 3) What is the connection between aparokshatvatcha and pratyagatmani prasiddeh ?

There are several meanings, but the meaning derived by us here is – Since pratyagatma is known to everybody, it is self-evident . aparoksha. Being aparoksha it is not avisaya. 4) When something is aparoksha , what does it mean ? It is svayam prakashah. It does not require any other external agency to be illumined unlike pot, etc which has to be illumined by Chidabhaasa. 5) What are the two doubts of Purvapakshi to introduce the word aparokshatvat ? One doubt raised was - Atma is not visaya because it is not illumined by Chidabhaasa. Second doubt is – There is anonya asraya or mutual dependence. Adhyaasa is possible if asmat pratyaya visayatvam is there and asmat pratyaya visayatvam is possible if adhyaasa is there. When there is mutual dependence it is null and void. 6) The doubt of mutual dependence was resolved in 2 ways. How ? By saying adhyaasah is anaadi and atma is sva-prakasham. 7) How anaaditvat and aparokshatvat resolves the doubt ? Adhyaasa being anaadi, the previous asmat pratyaya visaya atma becomes the adhistanam of the present asmat pratyaya adhyaaropa. Anaaditvam resolves it. Since atma is svaprakashah it is not dependent on asmat pratyaya to be illumine. By itself it is self-illumined. So even if asmat pratyaya is not there, illumination will not go away. It needs asmat pratyaya only to manifest. There is no dependency. So svayam bhaasmanatvam is there. In any adhyaasa, atma is present as asmat pratyaya visaya and it is always self effulgent. Being sef-effulgent it does not depend on asmat pratyaya to be illumined. Therefore atma is aparokshatvat. Being sva-prakasah, atma has the capacity to be visaya and therefore adhistanam for adhyaasa. Like the sun in the sky is self-effulgent . It does not require external light to be illumined. Other objects like mountain, etc need external light. Only for the sun to be manifest outside it needs a medium or pratyaya. But it does not need anything to be illumined. 9) What does pratyagatma prasiddhe imply ? How aprokshatvam is there is explained by experience . Everybody knows I am. This is implied by pratyagatma prasiddhe. Samsaya viparyaasa avishayatvena svatah siddhah. Atma is never the object of doubt, there is never a doubt whether I am there. That is samsaya -avishaya Atma is never the object of the thought that I am not there. That is viparyaasa avishaya. Both this is indicated by pratyagatma prasiddhi. 10) How pratyagatma prasiddhi becomes the hetu for sva- prakasatvam of atma ? Unless it is self-effulgent, it will not be evident to all the people all the time. Like some gems give light by themselves . Therefore shine all the time.

11) Since asmat and yusmat pratyaya visaya ie, ahankara and external objects are both inert. Then how is atma experienced in asmat pratyaya and not in yusmat pratyaya ? In reality ahankara and external objects are both inert. Atma is present in both . But experientially, the object of Yusmat pratyaya is experienced as jada object . “I am knowing this book.’ This book is not experienced as chetana. But ahankara “I am “ is experienced by us as chetana. It is easy for us to experience ahankara as chetana and thereby the presence of chaitanyam. 12) What was the connection given for the next sentence ? Unless indriya samyuktatvam is there atma cannot be adhistanam. Indriya samyuktatavam cannot be there because atma is nirguna. So this vyapti isthere : Yatra indriya samyuktatavam , tatra sagunatvam. Yatra gunabhavah tatra indriya samyuktatavam nasti.

Feb 10- Talk 24
Purvapakshi had raised the doubt that atma cannot become the adhistanam for adhyaasa of anatma and anatma dharma. Because for anything to become adhistanam it requires two conditions One it should be vishaya and by vishaya he means idam pratyaya vishaya. Second it should be indriya samyukta ie, connected with sense organs. The visayatvam part is answered first by saying na tavadena ayamekantena avishaya. Atma is not totally non-object. It means in a way it is object also. Since it is not non-object it is available to be adhistanam. It is not a non-object because it is asmat pratyaya vishayatvat ie, Atma is object of I thought . Therefore it has visayatvam. Even though it is not idam pratyaya vishayatvam in conventional sense, asmat pratyaya vishayatvam is there. For example, I may not have a big house, but I have a house. Therefore I also can be called grihi. Similarly atma can be called adhistanam. Here a doubt is raised. You are saying atma is asmat pratyaya visaya. What is this asmat pratyaya? Asmat prayaya means I thought and it is nothing but ahankara. It is a sense of identity that I am so and so or I am a doer or enjoyer. This is called ahankara. Aham iti abhimanah iti ahankarah. “I am an individual” This sense of individuality is called ahankarah. I am a male , female, graduate, nongraduate, doer of this or that. This is called ahankara. The aham pratyaya is always there in every transaction you do. Purvapakshi says that in that aham pratyaya atma is also present. Therefore atma is asmat pratyaya vishaya. This asmat pratyaya which is in the form of pratyaya is nothng but ahankara. So ahankara is in the form of a thought and this ahankara pratyaya itself is adhyaasah. This sense of individuality itself is a mistake. Based on this adhyaasa you are proving visayatvam of atma. You are saying atma is present in asmat pratyaya, so atma has visayatvam. Asmat pratyaya which is an adhyaasa requires some adhistanam. It is anatma adhyaasa on atma. This ahankara adhyaasa

needs adhistanam in the form of atma. ie, ahankara adhyaasa is possible only if atma is adhistanam and atma can become adhistanam only if it has got visayatvam. Now you are telling atma has asmat pratyaya visayatvam. This is possible only if asmat pratyaya is there. The object of I thought willl be possible only when I thought is there. So for atma to be visaya , asmat pratyaya ahankara has to be there. For ahankara to be there, atma has to be adhistanam. For atma to be adhistanam , it should have visayatvam ie, asmat pratyaya visayatvam. And asmat pratyaya visayatvam again requires ahankara. Really speaking it is a circular problem. In Sanskrit it is called Chakrakapathih or Chakraka doshah. It is not directly mutually dependent. Like if A depends upon B and B depends upon C and C again depends upon A, then this type of situation is called Chakraka doshah. It implies that this situation will never happen. Sppose A requires B to be rich and B requires C to be rich and C depends on A to be rich. Then none of them will become rich. This is a circular problem. You remain in the circle. A good example for this is – A poor country has infrastructure problem. If infrastructure is there, people will have more income and if they have more income then government will have more revenue . If more revenue then govt will be able to put in better infrastructure. This is why many countries do not come out of poverty. In such situations you have to introduce another factor. Otherwise they will remain in that circular problem. This is called Chakrakapathih. For Chakrakapathih there can be any number of factors. But the important thing is it should come back to the first. In a way it is mutual dependence. When we say A depends on B, B on C and C on A. So A is depending on C and C is depending on A. There is mutual dependence, but through some other factor. This type of situation is called Chakraka. Here chakraka is there- For adhyaasa to be there atma has to adhistanam. For atma to be adhistanam it should be asmat pratyaya visaya. For atma to be asmat pratyaya visaya, there should be asmat pratyaya ahankara which is adhyaasa . Therefore we remain in a circle. Therefore atma being asmat pratyaya visaya cannot become adhistanam. Means based on asmat pratyaya visayatvam you cannot establish adhistanatvam. That is why asmat pratyaya visayatam is not a proper reason to establish adhistanatvam of atma. The answer given for that is, there is no Chakraka problem because asmat pratyaya visayatvam is possible because there was adhyaasa before. This present adhyaasa is possible because of previous adhyaasa in the form of aham pratyaya in which atma was present and it (atma) became the adhistanam for next adhyaasa. Thus anaaditvam solves the problem of chakraka. It as if straigtens the circle out. Another answer is atma is aparokshatvat. Really the more appropriate answer is anaaditvam. It is such a thing that it cannot be caught. The Vedantins have two shields so you cannot catch him- anaaditvam and mayayam sarva sambhavat. Here Purvapakshi is telling Siddanti-okay suppose even if you managed visayatvam somehow, but what about indriya samyuktatvam. You are talking based on experience – aham idam mame idam loka vyavaharah. Well I am also talking based on experience. We see in our experinece that anything becomes adhistanam only if it is indriya visayah. And atma cannot be contacted thro’ sense organs.

Because you are telling atma does not have guna. Only that which has guna can be contacted through sense organs. Yatra indriya samyuktatvam , tatra sagunatvam. So atma being free from gunas is indriya asamyukta. So atma cannot become adhistanam for adhyaasah. Siddanti tells the Purvapakshi, the problem is you have a mindset . Everybody has a mindset about something. Somebody feels he cannot be happy unless he has a billion rupees. That is a mindset. This can happen only if the other thing happens . So if other thing does not happen the other thing cannot happen also. We reject it, how can it be possible. We have a mindset even about words also. Suppose you understand the word dear has being reserved for husband and wife, then how can you use the word dear in addressing someone else ? Similarly even the word I love you indicates to some only love between husband and wife or between lovers. But there are so many other types of love which could be expressed with those words. Another example, the word Kama means any desire. But in some places people think, Kama means sexual desire only. Similarly Bhoga does not mean just eating. Any type of sense pleasure is Bhoga. All this is a mindset. Similarly the Purvapakshi has a mindset that for something to be adhistanam there shoud be indriya samyukta. Generally this may be right, but it is not necessary. We have to know clearly what is the main cause and what is the secondary cause. Like sometimes I will be talking to somebody on telephone. Telephone connects peole. But if the person is present then telephone is secondary cause. In life it is very important to know what is the main cause for something and what is the secondary cause. Otherwise you will be spending lot of time on secondary cause and neglecting the main cause. Suppose I want to make a person favorable to me. People think what is required is to give some gifts and do whatever we want to do afterwards. But it does not work this way. This is the hard truth lot of companies discovered. They felt, If they give high salary anybody will work for us. But that is not so. Person also needs satisfaction. Giving high salary may be a contributory or secondary factor. But it is not the main factor. If satisfaction is not there on the part of the employee, he may leave the job. Somebody may feel I do so much and Swamiji is not happy with me whereas somebody who does not do anything Swamiji is so favorable to that person. So in life we should be very clear what really causes what. What is the main cause and what is the incidental or secondary cause. Otherwise we will be struggling. Like suppose somebody brings food for Swamiji everyday and is always late. Swamiji is very particular about time. Somebody brings nice food but comes late for whatever reason. One day Swamiji says don’t bring food. The person feels bad because he/she feels I was preparing with all my heart and bringing a variety of food cooked with so much of care whereas the other person brings the same food everytime. Why this happens? Because what is main thing for Swamiji is not taken care of . The secondary thing is taken care of. Husband thinks to please his wife he should bring sarees and jewellry, still the wife is not happy. So next time he brings more sarees and jewelry, but still she is not happy whereas his friends wife is so happy when her husband brings her jewelry and sarees. Why ? because the husband has not understood what matters to his wife. Sarees and jewelry may contribute. But that is not the main thing. This fact we somehow miss in life.

I want spiritual progress. I am spending 3 hrs now and I will increase it to 5 hrs a day on study.then I should have more progress. Not necessary. What is exactly required for progress that alone I should do. I feel I spend so many hours but nothing is happening. Whereas the other person spends so little time and he is growing. Why because main thing is taken care of. So In life we should know what exactly is required for something to happen and what is redundant. One should be clear what is the main thing, what is incidental and what is redundant. We should know this properly. So here Siddanti is saying Mr. Purvapakshi what is required is that adhistanam should be evident. But how it is evident does not matter. Like int eh earlier example of husband and wife, the chord of the wife’s heart should be touched by the husband. That is what is required to make the wife happy. Similarly here what is required is that adhistanam should be evident whether it is made evident through sense organs or otherwise that really does not matter. So don’t insist on indriya samyuktatvam, it is incidental. Indriya samyuktatavam itself is not the end. It is incidental . It contributes to make adhistanam evident . Some adhistanam’s are not evident by themselves. Therefore they need contact with sens organs. But don’t insist on that. But Purvapakshi says that is how it is seen. How can you contradict our experience. So our rule is based on experience. The Siddanti answers the Purvapakshi - Your rule is not foolproof because there are transgressions or violations. In Sanskrit violations are called vyabhicharah. Once we show the violation in one place then we can show that your rule is not strict. Violation is possible elsewhere also. So your rule is slackened. You can say generally it is like this. That we agree. But you cannot insist that is how it has to be. For that vyabhichara sthana is shown in the form of akashah. Akashah is not indriya samyukta still it becomes the adhistanam. Atma also like akasha even though there is no indriya samyukta can become adhistanam. We will see this in the next class.

FEB 16TH SIVARATRI NO CLASS Feb 23 - Ques & Ans.
1) Which Bhasyam are we in now ? We are in Sambhavana Bhashyam. 2) What is the vyapti implied by Purvapakshi who is objecting to the Sambhavana of adhyaasa ? Yatra adhistaanatvam tatra vishayatvam indriya samyuktatvam cha. Where there is status of being adhistanam, there is status of being object and being connected with sense organs. In the case of atma both are not there, so it cannot be adhistanam. 3) What type of vishayatvam does Purvapakshi expect ? He expects yusmat or idam pratyaya visayatvam.

4) How Siddanti is tackling the condition of Vishayatvam put by Purvapakshi ? Siddanti’s contention is that , Atma is not totally non-object. Atma has got vishayatvam but not as expected by Purvapakshi. Idam pratyaya vishaytavam is not there, but asmat pratyaya vishayatvam is there. That is enough for atma to be adhistanam. 5) How was aparokshatvatcha introduced ? Two doubts were raised which made the Siddanti introduce aparokhatvatcha. First doubt is atma is not illumined by chidabhaasa, so it is not visayah. Second doubt is that there is mutual dependence since asmat pratyaya itself is adhyaasa . For adhyaasa to take place there should be adhistanam in the form of atma and for atma to be adhistanam it should have visayatvam and for visayatvam it has to be asmat pratyaya visaya for which asmat pratyaya ahankara should be there which is adhyaasa. To have asmat pratyaya there has to be adhyaasa and to have adhyaasa there should be vishayatvam for which asmat pratyaya should be there. This is called chakrakapati. 6) What is the difference between vicious circle and chakrakapati? In vicious circle we are showing how wrong things are happening. In chakrakapathi we are showing the improbability of something happening. If chakrakapathi is presented in opposite way it would be vicious circle. But the purpose of chakrakapati is not meant for showing evil happening or to show vicious circle. In the example of infrastructure, it shows how progress is not happening. Wheras in vicious circle we show how wrong things are happening. 7) How was the first doubt that atma is not illumined by Chidabhaasa answered ? Aparokshatvat answeres the first doubt. Atma being self-evident , it does not need to be illumined by chidabhaasa. So chidabhaasabhaasyatvam is not a must. The purpose of chidabhaasa is to make something evident . And atma being self evident. What is required is there in atma. So atma can be visaya. Here visaya means evident. 6) How was the second doubt of mutual dependence answered ? Anaaditvam and aparokshatvatcha answer the second doubt. i) Anaaditvam is the main point. Atma being anaadi is present in previous asmat pratyaya which becomes adhistaanam for present asmat pratyaya adhyaasa. ii) Next answer is aparokshatvatcha. Atma does not depend on asmat pratyaya to shine. It needs asmat pratyaya only to manifest . So asmat pratyaya does not illumine atma. It makes it manifest as aham. Since there is no dependency chakarakapati will not come. Also whenever manifestation is required atma is always available. Therefore question of mutual dependence does not come. 7) What is the difference between anonya asraya and chakrakapati ? In anonya asraya there are only two factors .

A depends upon B and B depends upon A. Then there is anonya asraya. But when A depends on B and B depends on C and C depends on A. Then there is chakarakapati. 8) What is the connection between aparokshatvatcha and pratyagatma prasiddeh ? Pratyagatma prasiddeh is the hetu for establishing Aparokshatvat . Since it is known to everybody all the time therefore it has to be aparoksha. 9) How do we understand the Siddanti’s answer – Na tavad ayam ekantena avisaya asmat pratyaya visayatvat aparokshatvatcha ? For this there are two interpretations. a) In the first interpretation, there are two separate reasons for atma being not totally non-object – i)Asmat pratyaya visayatvat atma na avisaya. Being the object of I thought, atma is not non-object. ii)Pratyagatma prasiddeh na parokshatatcha. Being self-evident because it is known to everybody all the time, it is not avisaya ie, non-object. b)Another interpretation is – There is only one reason for atma being avisaya ie, asmat pratyaya vishayatyvat Aparokshatvatcha only just clarifies the doubt regarding chidabhaasayatvam or mutual dependence. The word Cha is taken as sanka nirasarthah. Cha just clarifies the doubt. It does not add-on to the asmat pratyaya visaya. The second interpretation can be stated this – Athah svaprakashatvena bhaasamanatvat atmanah na avisayatvam. Being self-evident atma is shining, therefore it is not avisaya. Just being asmat pratyaya is enough for atma to be adhistanam.

10) What was the second condition put by Purvapakshi ? For Atma to be adhistanam there should be indriya samyuktatvam. 11) How is that condition not fulfilled in the case of atma ? The vyapti or rule is – Yatra indriya samyuktatvam tatra sagunatvam. Yatra guna abhava tatra indriya samyuktavam nasti. Where there is contact with sense organs there is gunas. Where there is absence of gunas there will be absence of contact with sense organs . Atma is Nirguna. Since atma has no gunas, it cannot have sense contact. 12) What is the answer of Siddanti to this vyapti? You have a wrong mindset on this matter .

yatra adhistanatvam tatra indriya samyuktatavam is not correct rule. Wherever there is adhistanam there should be indriya samuktatvam is not correct. Note : What is meant by mindset here ? Etymologially it means some set ideas. Contextually mind set here means crystallized (set) wrong ideas. Wrong connections set in the mind is called mind set here. So here right ideas we are not calling a mindset. Only if it is wrong ideas here we call it is a mindset.

Feb 23 – Talk 25
Purvapakshi had presented 2 conditions for anything or anyone to become adhistanam for any adhyaasah. One condition was visayatvam and the other was indriya samyuktatvam. Answering the first condition the Siddanti said - na tavadena ekantena avisayah. First of all this atma is not totally non-object being asmat pratayaya visayatvat. Second reason is pratyagatmani prasiddeh aparokshatvat. It is aparokshah therefore it is not non-object. The aparokshatvam was substantiated by the word pratyagatma prasiddeh. So the Anvaya is – Asmat pratyaya visayatvat na avisaya, pratyagatma prasiddeh aparokshatvatcha na avisayah. This is one interpretation. The second interpretation is – Asmat pratyaya visayatvat na avisaya. Since it is the object of I thought it is not avisaya. And regarding asmat pratyaya visayatvam if there is a doubt , that was answered by pratyagatma prasiddeh aparokshatvat. There is only one hetu to show that atma is not a non-object ie, asmat pratyaya visayatvat. Regarding atma which is asmat pratyaya visaya being non-object if there is a doubt that was answered by aparokshatvatcha pratyagatma prasiddeh . Anaaditvam giing answer to a doubt is seen outside the bhashyam. The second condition is being dealt with by saying nachayamasti niyamah - this rule or vyapti is not there. The rule mentioned by Purvapakshi is stated by Bhashyakara here – Puroavasthithe vishaye vishayantaram adhyasitavyam. On the object which is present in front of the sense organs, on that object only another object will be superimposed. Means for something to be adhistanam it should be in touch with sense organs. This type of rule is not there. If something is non-evident by sense organs. They have to be made evident by sense organs. This rule is stated by Purvapakshi because most of the things are not evident by themselves. In most of the cases, sense organs are required. It is something like most of the people go to the hospital because they are not well. But you cannot make a rule . There may be some who go to the hospoital for some other reason. Similarly to make something which is not evident , sense organs can be used. But if something is evident otherwise, then sense organs are not required. Sense contact is not an end in itself. It is

only a means to make something evident. So sense contact is the contributory cause for something to be adhistanam. The primary cause is that it should become evident. Becoming evident qualifies it to be adhistanam. Sense contact by itself does not make it adhistanam. Sense contact makes it evident and being evident it can become adhistanam for adhyaasa. So if the contributory cause is not there but the primary cause is there, then the effect will happen. How it has happened does not matter. Suppose I have to appease my hunger, generally I have to cook. I cook then I get food, then only I can appease hunger. In my mind I make a rule that without cooking I cannot appease my hunger. Someday suppose I am not able to cook, then I will say how can I appease my hunger ? This is a mindset. Suppose I get readymade food, I need not cook. But if I feel I have to do the exercise of cooking to eat , then I am foolish. Similarly sense contact is necessary to make something evident. But if it is already evident, then you do not need sense contact. Nowadays you get so many things readymade. Sombody brings readymade dhokla, then I shoud not cook it again.. Something is to be cooked only if it needs cooking. If something is already cooked, it need not be cooked again. It will get spoiled. Similarly for making something evident, sense contact is required. Atma is self evident and therefore it does not require sense contact. In some sloka it is nicely said akkecheth madhu vindeta , kimartham parvatam vrajet; Ishtasyartha samsiddhau ko vidvanyatnamacharet. If you get honey closeby in your garden , then why should you go to the mountain to get honey. Next this idea is put in general - When desired end is achieved, then which intelligent person will make efforts. Suppose this class is conducting conducted close to your house in Sanjaynagar, then you have the choice to come to the ashram or Sanjaynagar class. Who will then come to the ashram ? That is why lot of people like video, cds . They can listen when they want and they can also stop it when they want. Whereas at the ashram you do not usually get up and go. Though some people even do that. In a video you can do rewind/fast forward. So some people prefer that. So when atma is already evident why should you expect sense contact to make it evident. So you cannot make a niyama that for something to be evident , there should be sense contact. Na chayamasti niyamah. Sometimes we unnecessarily make some rules and suffer. We have got so many complexes based on such mindsets. Some people feel suppose we become very deliberate about everything, then we become cunning. This is a mindset. That is not necessary. You can remain deliberate without becoming manipulative. Some people have a mindset that we are born in a non-brahmin family so how can we progress. This is also a mindset. I had read a beautiful story – there was a country fair and there was a balloon man with balloons of different colors. There was a black boy who was watching the balloons. To attract customers, the balloon man was releasing some balloons . First he released a red ballon. They were gas balloons so it soared very high. Then he released a yellow balloon and that went high. Then he released a blue balloon which went up really high. This black boy was looking at the black balloon. He thought that this balloon man is releasing all the other color ballons and they go high. But he is not

releasing the black balloon . Maybe black balloon does not go high because it is black. Still he wanted to confirm. So he asked the balloon man, suppose you release the black balloon will it go as high as the others. The balloon man understood and he snapped the thread and released the black balloon also. Then he told the boy -“ My son, it is not the color but what is there inside the balloon that makes it rise.” This black boy had this complex. Anything which is black will not rise. In his life he had seen that, so he decides anything black will not come up. It is a mindset. It is not correct. We have so many such complexes based on the mindset. So here the Siddanti is telling Purvapakshi. It is better you be free from mindset. You are rejecting this adhyaasa and if you accept adhyaasa you will be benefitted. Because your direction of working on the problem will be more correct. But what comes in your way of accePting atma as adhistanam is your mindset that how it can be adhistanam when there is no indriya samyoga. Don’t have that rule. Then Purvapakshi will say this is the way we see everything. For eg. Shukti it is indriya samyukta. We see through the eyes and it is adhistanam. Rajju is seen thro’ the eyes. It becomes adhistanam. So whatever we have seen or perceived through the senses is ony adhistanam. Everything is indriya samyukta. Can you give any example where this rule is not followed. Siddanti says –yes. Apratyakshe api hi akashe balaha talamalinatadi adhyasyanti. Hi means indeed, it is very well-known. Balah literally means children. But here it means childish people, people who do not think much. That even on the space which is imperceptible, ignorant people superimpose the concave surface of the sky or some dirt, blue color etc. Here the example is given to show the violation of the rule formed by Purvapakshi. The rule formed by Purvapakshi is that something can be adhistanam only if it is contacted by sense organs. That rule is violated in the case of akasha. How ? First akasha is not perceived through sense organs. Akasha or space is sensed by you, not perceived by you. You may say that I see space between two objects or people. Really you can see only that which has form and color. Space is formless , colorless. So space cannot be seen by you. But we know akasha is there. That is what is called in technical language sakshi bhasya. That which is known to you at the sametime sense organs are not used, anumanam is also not used, it is sensed by you. That is called sakshi bhasyam. One more example for this is ignorance. Ajnanam is sakshi bhasya. You have got ignorance of Chinese language. How do you know ? Do you see your ignorance. You do not perceive it , but at the same time you sense ignorance. Ignorance is sakshi bhasya. Akasha is like that. Technically it is expressed as alokakara chakshush vritti abhivyakta sakshi vedyatvam. It is known by sakshi but antahkarana vritti based on sense organs is not used, then it is called sakshi vedyam. What type of sakshi vedyam , Aloka means prakasha. There is a prakashakara vritti when you see an object with your eyes. So what you are really seeing is prakasha. Different sense organs bring different objects to the mind. When the vritti is brought about by the eyes it is called chaksusha vritti. So vritti in the shape of Prakasha which is brought about by the eyes is called alokakara chakshusha vritti. Chakshusha vritti means vritti which is brought about by the eyes. In that vritti, sakshi is there and that sakshi illumines this akasha. Vedyam means that which is known . By whom ? By the sakshi manifesting in the vritti centered on the light brought about by the eyes.. That is why this akasha is called alokakara….vedyatam. This is a technical way of putting it. Simple way of putting it is that when we see any form along with it , akasha is also sensed. Especially when we see two objects then along with it, akasha is also sensed. Space is not objectified by the

eyes, but it just comes along with the 2 objects. So when we see any form, akasha is sensed along with it as it were. That is why we say akasha is not indriya pratyakasha. Still it becomes adhistanam for adhyaasa. Akasha does not have any surface at all, it looks like a concave cauldron. This is adhyaasa. Dirt is not there in akasha. But dirt is superimposed on akasha. So though akasha is not pratyaksha, it is adhistanam . So apratyakshatvam and adhistanatvam can go together. According to Purvapakshi they cannot go together. Wherever adhistanatvam is there, pratyakshatvam has to be there. But Siddanti says it need not be so. Like in akasha there is superimposition of surface and dirt, but it is not pratyaksha. Therefore your rule that anything which is pratyaksha alone can be adhistanam is not correct. Something can become adhistanam without being pratyaksha. Once the rule is violated, then other situations can apply. So atma can also become adhistanam like akasha. So don’t have this strict mindset. You can say that generally it is found so, but the word generally gives enough scope for atma to be the exception. Why generally we require sense contact has been explained because things are not self-evident. Sense contact is required to make it evident. But if something is selfevident or sakshi vaidya then sense contact is not necessary. In case of akasha it is sakshi vaidya to illumine it. But atma is more than akasha also. It does not require sakshibhasyatvam also. Therefore atma being self-evident does not require indriya samyoga. Your rule is not correct. Therefore it is said - Evam aviruddhah pratyagatmani api anatma adhyaasah. Evam means in this manner ie, by the dismissal of all the objections raised. Aviruddhah means uncontradicted. Whatever contradiction you have raised, each one is answered.What is uncontradicted is adhyaasah ie, superimposition. Where is this adhyaasa ? On pratyagatma By saying also (api) it is implied that on anatma, atma adhyaasa is possible. But on atma also anatma adhyaasa is possible. So the meaning is even on pratyagatma the adhyaasa of anatma is uncontradicted. Whatever contradiction raised has been answered.

Mar 2 – Ques and Ans –
1) What Vyapti is indicated when Bhashyakara says “Nachayamasti niyama” ? Yatra adhistanatvam tatra indriya samyuktatvam. Where there is adhistanam, there is sense contact. 2) In ” nachayamasti niyamah puroavasthite eva vishaya…..adhyasitavyamiti” which word is indicating indriya samyuktatvam ? The word Puroavasthite (in front of ) implies indriya samyuktatvam. 3)What is the word for violation in Sanskrit ? Vyabhicharah. 4) How does akasha become a place showing the violation ? Akasha is apratyaksha therefore it is not indriya samyuktatvam. But still it becomes adhistanam. So it is a violation of the vyapti -yatra adhistanatvam tatra indriya samyuktatvam. 5) Whis is bigger vyapaka or vyapya ?

Vyapaka (pervasive) is bigger than vyapya (that which is pervaded). Where vyapaka is, vyapya has to be there - Where big is there, small has to be there. Where vyapya is not there, vyapaka can be there - Where small is not there, big can be there. Where vyapya is there, vyapaka has to be there - Where small is there, big has be there. 6) What is the meaning of “Balah tala malinatadi “ ? Tala means surface. Malinata means dirtyness. Adi implies blueness, etc. It means surface dirtyness,etc. 7) What does “Balah’ indicate ? Balah indicates avivekinah – paradarshita darshinah. Those who see thro’ other’s eyes. Those who do not have their own thinking. Wrong thinking or non-thinking people are called childish - balah. 8) How akasha is considered to be apratyaksha ? It is apratyaksha because it is not perceived thro’ any of the five sense organs. Only that which has form and color is perceived by the eyes.Akasha is formless and colorless. 9) Then how do we sense it ? We sense the space between two objects. Akasha is sakshi vaidya. It is alokakara chakshusha vritti abhivyaktha sakshi vaidya. The antahkarana vritti in which sakshi is present illumines akasha. 10) What is Prasaktasya pratishedah ? What needs to be dismissed should be dismissed. There should be a reason to dismiss something. 11) Difference between chit , sakshi and chidbhaasa? All three are present in antahkarana. But they are used in different context. Chit refers to pure conciousness without upadhi. Sakshi refers to conciousness present in antahkarana vritti. It is the one who is witnessing. The conciousness for which antahkarana vritti is upadi is called sakshi. Chidabhaasa is the same as Sakshi but used in a different context . Chidabhasa is used to indicate how vritti which is jadam becomes luminous because of chidabhaasa. 12) What is sakshi bhaasyam ? Everything is sakshi bhaasyam. But that which is not available for pramanam but still it is known then we call it Sakshi Bhaasyam.Like Akasha is sensed by us but not available for pratyaksha pramana. Then we call it sakshi bhaasyam. But when antahkarana vritti itself is objectifying it thro’ the sense organs, then it is called pramatra bhaasyam. That which is known but not thro’ pramana like pratyaksha, anumana etc is sakshi bhaasyam. So it can be negated. Adhyaasa is also sakshi bhaasyam. We have so many things which are sakshi bhaasyam. Our mind , raga desha, emotions-anger, ignorance etc are all sakshi bhaasyam. Known but not thro’ means of knowledge. Sakshi bhaasya are those type of objects which is known but pratyakshaadi pramanam is not used.

In sakshi bhaasya vritti is required to know. Therefore it is not the same as being self-evident. 13) What does it mean – “alokakakara chakshusha vritti abhivyakta sakshi edya or bhaasya akashah ” ? Vedya indicates that first of all akasha is illumined by sakshi.But we want to specify akasha even though not identified by chakshusha vritti, but still if chakshusha vritti is not there akasha would not be known. For eg: You buy a 3 bedroom house but you don’t buy 200 cubic ft of space. We buy a pot, but pot space also comes with it and water is filled in space. So space cannot be brought without pot. Similarly here even though chakshusha vritti (vriiti brought about by eyes) does not objectify space but if it is not there space will not be sensed. When chakshusha vritti is objectifying the objects, the vritti should have some shape. It is alokakara or prakashakara. Along with the object the chakshusha vritti is objectifying, space is also sensed. So we have 2 situations – one is chakshusha vritti cannot objectify space and second is without chakshusha vritti space cannot be sensed. Both these situations are indicated by the expression alokakara……Akasha is therefore sakshi bhaasya. Akasha cannot be objectified by chakshuh and without chakshusha vritti akasha cannot be sensed. Vritti is required, but not enough. Technically it is said that chakshusha vritti anvaya vyatireka is there. When chakshusha vritti is there akasha sensing is there, if chakshusha vritti is not there then akasha cannot be sensed. Therefore it is technically said anvaya yvathireka anuvidhayi means they go along with chakshusha vritti. Sakshi vedyatvam implies that chakshusha vritti is not illumining akasha. Alokakara chakshusha vritti indicates object of chakshusha vritti. Alokakara qualifies chakhsusha vritti for any visaya ie, chakshusha vritti which is having the shape of aloka. And in that chakshusha vritti , sakshi is manifesting. That sakshi is illumining akasha. Aloka means prakasha, external light of the eyes which perceives the object. The complete expression implies that chakshusha vritti is required to sense akasha. Abhivyakta means manifesting , evidently present in the vritti. Simply speaking, when something is sensed and sense organs are not used. Anumanam is not used. We cannot infer akasha. When we sense space, our experience is that I perceive space, not that I infer space. So it has to be pratyaksha. But it is not indriya pratyaksha, it is sakshi pratyaksha. Something I know but not thro’ any pramana.

Talk 26 - Mar 2 Continuing Sambhavana Bhashyam - Evam avirudhaha adhyaasah pratyagatmani api anatma. In this manner, superimposition of anatma even on pratyagatma is uncontradicted. Practically but not actually Sambhavana Bhashyam is concluded here. In this manner indicates by dismissing or answering all the objections. Avirudhah means sambhavitah ie, It is established or shown that it is possible. According to Purvapakshi atma adhyaasah on anatma may be possible. They had problem only with anatma adhyaasah on atma. That also is possible is indicated by api. Another meaning for Api – it refers to not only adhyaasa of one anatma on another anatma which is possible and is agreed by Purvapakshi. But adhyaasa of anatma on atma is also possible. That was the objection. Then api means even on atma, anatma can be superimposed.


Essence of Sambhavana Bhasyam is – Purvapakshi raised the objection that one object can be superimposed on another object. But anatma cannot be superimposed on atma. In other words atma cannot be adhistanam for adhyaasa. Why ? because for something to be adhistanam two conditions have to be fulfilled – vishayatvam and indriya samyuktatvam. Both conditions are not there in atma. So atma cannot become adhistanam for anatma adhyaasa. Both the conditions are answered by Siddanti. First condition is vishayatam -there is vishayatvam in atma – asmat pratyay visaya not the way you want it as yusmat pratyaya visaya . You need not insist that chidabhaasatvam is not there. Vishayatvam is not there. That is not necessary because atma is aparokshah. How do you say that? Because it is known to everybody, therefore it is aparoksha. Since it is self-evident it does not require to be illumined by chidabhaasa. But at the same time it is evidently present in asmat pratyaya visaya . Therefore it has got visayatvam. Visayatvam condition is fulfilled. What about indriya samyuktatvam condition. For that answer is – indriya samyuktatvam is not required. Sense contact is required to make something evident. If something is evident without sense organs, then we should not insist on sense organs contact. So by showing the violation in the rule ,the second condition was also answered. Once the rule is violated in one place it can be violated elsewhere also. In this manner superimposition of anatma on atma is uncontradicted. To put it even more simply in few words - Atma is present and evident , therefore it can be adhistanam. Purvapakshi said it cannot be adhistanam and Siddanti said it can be adhistanam because it is evident. What is required to be adhistanam is there and what is not there is not required.That is the essence of Sambhavana bhashyam. With this Sambhavana is established. With this the Purapakshi has to say that there is possibility of adhyaasa of anatma on atma. The next three sentences are giving some incidental details about adhyaasa. And it also creates ground for next bhashyam -pramana bhashyam. Even though the next 3 lines are a part of Sambhavana bhashyam , they are given a separate name sometimes called Sadbhava bhashyam. Sat means existent and bhava means ness. So sadbhava means existentness or existence. Sadbhava bhashyam means bhashyam which is dealing with the sadbhava of adhyaasa. Bhashyam dealing with the acceptance of the sense of possibility of adhyaasah or existence of adhyaasa. Both Sambhavana and Sadbhava are almost the same in this context. This subtitle is not given by any commentator. But conventionally it is given. It is not a very formal or authentic title. The connection for the next sentence is given by a commentator. I will give one of them though there are many more. This adhyaasa bhashyam is introduction to whole Brahma sutra and specifically introduces first sutra - athatho brahma jignasa. The meaning is Moksha praptyartham Brhama jnanaya brahma vicharah kartavya. Do brahma vichara to gain brahma jnanam is the important message. The emphasis is thus on brahma jnanam. So in the introductoion the discussion should be on brahma jnanam. Even if this is not so then atleast you should discuss that which is removed by brahma jnanam. You should discuss brahma ajnanam or avidya. So you

should discuss avidya. Why are you discussing adhyaasa ?Instead of discussing about avidya which is removed by brahma jnanam which is talked about in the first sutra, why are you talking about adhyaasa ? This question is raised and the answer to that is given in the next 3 lines. Tametam evam lakshanam adhyaasah panditah manyante. It means learned people consider adhyaasa itself to be avidya. This is the essence. Which adhyaasa ? – tametam evam adhyaasa. Tam (acc 2nd case of tat) means that and etam means this. Evam lakshanam means of this nature or character. These three words are used to qualify adhyaasa. Learned people consider that this adhyaasa of this character to be avidya. What does tametam evam lakshanam mean? This is the style of sruti, but it is all meaningful. Tam means that which was objected to and clarified by akshepa samadhanabhashyabhyam vyutpaditam.That adhyaasa about which there was objection and about which there was clarification of objection is referred to by tam. Etam means sambhavitam. Etam is this. It is closer. The possibility of which was established by Sambhavana bhashyam, that adhyaasa is referred to by etam. Evam lakshana the definition of which was given earlier as smritrupa paratrapurva drstavabhaasah. Adhyaasa in general is called avidya. But Bhashyakara wants to clarify which adhyaasa is called avidya. He wants to say that specifically atma-anatma adhyaasa is considered to be avidya. Learned people call this adhyaasa itself avidya. Even though avidya has its own meaning – That which is covering the atma as it were is called avidya. That which is the veiling factor because of which atma is not known. That is the real meaning of avidya. But adhyaasa being the product of avidya is also called avidya. Avidya karyatvat adhyaasah avidya iti manyate. Since it is the product of avidya, adhyaasa is called avidya. Like doctor says don’t take sugar. You tell the doctor that I don’t take sugar at all bcause you don’t take sugar cubes directly. But sugar means sugar product should not be eaten. Generally in sastra, karanam is known by its karyam. But here we have to go the other way from karya to karanam . Karana vachaka sabdena karyam avidhiyate. Karyam is known through the word which is really the revealer of karanam. Karana vachaka sabda is avidya. This word is used for adhyaasa which is karyam. Adhyaasa which is the karyam is therefore nothing but avidya. How do you say it avidya karya ? By Anvaya vyatirekha nyayena.

Mar 9 –Ques and Ans –
1)What is the name given for the part of the bhashyam from “tametam to na sambhadyate” ? It is called Sadbhava Bhashyam. 2)Why it is called sadbhava bhashyam ? Sadbhava means existence. It is dealing with the possibility of the acceptance of the existence of adhyaasa - That anatma-atma adhyaasa is . 3) What is the status of akasha ? Akasha is Sakshi Bhaasya. That which is not available for pramana but it is still known.


4) What is the technical way of presenting sakshi bhaasya ? Alokakara chakshusha vritti abhivyakta sakshi bhaasyam. Vritti brought about by eyes which is in the shape of light in which sakshi is manifesting is called sakshi bhaasyam. 5) What are the two parts in this expression ? One is alokakara chakshusha vritti which indicates that chakshusha vritti is needed for akasha to be sensed. Second is sakshi bhaasya indicates that chakshusha vritti does not objectify akasha. Eg : 100 Kauravas and 5 Pandavas. Kauravas name is because they were born in the Kuru family. Pandavas also belong to the Kuru family. So they are also Kauravas. Similarly everything is sakshi bhaasyam. But when we specifically mention sakshi bhaasyam, we are excluding pramatra bhaasyam which is objectifiable by vritti brought about by pramana. 6) Why does Siddanti make the point that akasha is sakshi bhaasya ? To show the violation to the general rule put forward by Purvapakshi – yatra adhistanatvam tatra indriya samyuktatvam. 7) How violation is shown ? Akasha is adhistanam , though indriya samyuktatvam is not there. Vyapya is there vyapaka is not there. This is not possible if the rule is correct. So the rule is not correct.

9) What is the meaning of api ? According to Purvapakshi atma adhyaasah on anatma may be possible. They had problem only with anatma adhyaasah on atma. That also is possible is indicated by api. 10) How does it become aviruddhah ? It is uncontradicted because whatever objections which have been raised have been dismissed or answered. 11) What is the meaning of tam ? Tam means that. That which was objected to in Akshepa bhashyam and answered in Samadhana Bhashyam. 12) What is the meaning of etam ? Etam means this. It indicates sambhavita . Adhyaasa which was shown to be possible in Sambhavana bhashyam. 13) What is evam lakshanam ? Of which (adhyaasa) character which was said in Lakshana bhashyam.


14) What is the overall meaning of this sentence –tametam eve lakshanam….pandita manyante. Learned people consider this adhyaasa which was talked of and defined earlier to be avidya. 15) What do they consider to be avidya ? Adhyaasa which is the karya or product of avidya is considered to be avidya. 16) What is the cause and the effect here ? Avidya is the cause or karanam and adhyaasa is the karyam. Product is known by the word indicating the cause. Eg : product of sugar, salt or maida is called sugar,etc. Similarly adhyaasa is a product of avidya so it is called avidya.

Talk 27 – Mar 9 – Tametam evam lakshanam adhyaasam pandita avidya iti manyante.
That (adhyaasa talked of earlier in akshepa and samadhana bhashyam), this (adhyaasa defined in Lakshana bhashyam) of this nature, learned people consider this adhyaasa to be avidya. Why ? 1) One reason is because adhyaasa is a product of avidya. How do we say it is a product of avidya ? a) It is established by Anvaya vyatireka nyaya ie,The method of Anvaya vyatireka. Yat satve yat satvam. Yad abhave yad abhavah. Tat tasya karanam. Putting in mathematical language – If A is B is. If A is not there, B is not there. So A is the cause for B. This is anvaya vyatireka nyaya. Anvaya is - If A is B is .Vyatireka is - If A is not B is not. By the concommittance of presence and absence , we arrive at the karana-karya bhava between A & B. For eg : Clay is, pot is. Clay is not there, pot is not there. So clay is the cause for the pot. Or we say sugar is sweet. When sugar is, sweetness is there. There is a cause-effect relation between sugar and sweetness. Similarly here if avidya is there, adhyaasa is there. If avidya is not there, adhyaasa will not be there. Then we can say that avidya is the cause for adhyaasa. Experientially also we can see that. I do not know myself to be limitless Brahman. Therefore only I have adhyaasa in the form of taking myself to be a jiva. If this avidya goes away by the knowledge that I am Brahman , then there is no more jiva bhava. So when avidya goes away, then jivatvam which is adhyaasa goes away. b) Further we can see how avidya is karanam and adhyaasa is karyam. Adhyaasa is a mixup of satya and mithya – it was said earlier satyanrte mithuni krtya . Mixup is possible only when you don’t have viveka ie, when you don’t have the knowledge of the distinction between two things. So adhyaasa presupposes aviveka. And not having viveka is possible only if there is ignorance of both things. Knowledge of distinction is not there because knowledge of both things is not there. Absence of knowledge of distinction between A & B means there is ignorance of A & B. Why? Because there must be some veiling factor which is called avidya. So adhyaasa which is a mix-up

presupposes aviveka and aviveka presupposes ignorance and ignorance is avidya which is the veiling factor. So avidya has to be there for aviveka to be there and aviveka has to be there for adhyaasa to be there. Adhyaasa-aviveka-avidya. Therefore we say adhyaasa is a product of avidya thro’ aviveka. Since we say that avidya is the cause and adhyaasa is the effect. The effect is known by the word avidya which is the cause. Therefore panditah avidya iti manyante. Panditah means panda asti asya sah. Panda is knowledge. Panda means both knowing and going. People who have knowledge are called panditah. It is in the plural – knowledgeable people like Ved Vyasa in the Purana and Bhagavatam and Patanjali, etc use the word avidya for the product of avidya . In bhagavatam moha,mahamoha, tamisra, andha tamisra which are all modes of avidya, but they are presented as avidya vrittis only. Patanjali in Yoga sutras is clearly using the word avidya for confusion. There is a sutra which says – anitya asuchi dukha anatmasu, nitya suchi sukhatma khyatihi avidya. This khyati or cognition of considering anitya to be nitya, impure to be pure, dukha to be sukha, anatma to be atma –this sort of wrong understanding is called avidya. They are calling confusion itself to be avidya. Therfore it is said – panditah avidya iti manyante. 2) The second reason is to highlight the importance of adhyaasa in creating suffering. Earlier reason given was that adhyaasa is the product of avidya. And a product can be known by its cause. Why product is presented by the word indicating the cause ? The acharyas want to highlight the importance of the role played by adhyaasa in our suffering. They want to highlight that suffering is caused by adhyaasa. Even though the root cause is avidya only. Avidya itself does not cause suffering. How can we say that ? In susupti , avidya is there,suffering is not there. Avidya by itself is not a problem. But the product of avidya in the form of adhyaasa creates suffering. We are always particular to remove the suffering. So if it is said that by removing adhyaasa suffering will go. It will motivate. Suppose it is said that if you know this, avidya will go away. Then one may feel it is okay, if avidya does not go . Avidya does not seem to create the problem. Also avidya is not that tangible whereas adhyaasa is more evident to us. Avidya can still remain a concept to us whereas adhyaasa is experienced by us. Even though I am not this body , still how I think I am male, female, tall, short. Ahamidam mameidam naisargikoyam loka vyavaharah. We can connect this suffering with adhyaasah very clearly. Thus to highlight the importance of the role played by adhyaasah in suffering, adhyaasa itself is called avidya. Sastra says avidya is the root cause of the problem. But we cannot see it very clearly. But adhyaasa we can see. So that is the one to be dealt with. That is something we have to directly confront. For eg : a king of a contry wants to attack this country. He hates this country and wants to attack. He is the real enemy of this country. But he himself does not come to fight. He sends his armies. We have to deal with the armies only now. Similarly even thought avidya is the root of the root of the problem, what we have to deal with is adhyaasa. Ofcourse for dealing with adhyaasa you have to finally remove avidya and for that you have to bring vidya. Once you bring vidya, avidya will go away and adhyaasa will go away. But what is in front of you now to be handled is adhyaasa.

Therefore adhyaasa is called avidya to highlight the role played by this adhyaasa so that we are motivated sufficiently to remove it. So the second reason is to highlight the importance of adhyaasa in creating suffering. 3) Third reason is adhyaasa like avidya goes away by vidya. Adhyaasa like avidya goes by vidya. Vidya nivartyatvat adhyaasvapi avidyatvam. That which is removed by vidya can be called avidya and like avidya adhyaasa also is removed by vidya and therefore adhyaasa is called avidya. Like suppose there is a smoky fire. Fire doe not bother you much, but smoke bothers you. Now once you pour so much water then fire goes away and smoke also goes away. Similarly by vidya, avidya goes away and adhyaasa also goes away. Therefore both of them being vidya nivartya are called avidya. Both are removed by vidya. Here an important point has to be noted – when we say that adhyaasa itself is considered to avidya, that does not mean there was no original avidya. Avidya is there. But adhyaasa is alos called avidya. Suppose in some kingdom the real king is called Mr X. But he so ineffective that somebody else rules in his name-king defacto. Duryodhana was the king defacto. Drtharashtra was the real king. Though the real king was there for all practical purpose Duryodhana was the king. Similarly original avidya is there. Lot of great scholars make the mistake of saying that adhyaasa itself is avidya so don’t talk about avidya at all. There is no avidya only adhyaasa. Though Duryodhana is king for all practical purposes, but the real king is there. Similarly practically adhyaasa is avidya, but the original avidya is there. Like we should not say acharya-in-charge which can means he is not the real acharya. King defacto means that he is not the real king. In our country also we can say that for all practical purposes Sonia Gandhi is the Prime minister. That does not mean prime minister is not there. manmohan singh is the prime misniter. So adhyaasa is considered to be avidya but there is real avidya. Because adhyaasa is not possible without avidya being there. Adhyaasa which is a mix up is not possible without aviveka and aviveka is not possible without ignorance and ignorance is not possible without avidya. So the covering factor because of which a real nature of a thing is veiled and that factor is avidya and that is the real meaning of the word avidya whch is very much there. Adhyaasa is called avidya in the secondary sense. In sanskrit it is called gauna prayoga ie, a figuratie expression. Eg: this child is a lion which really means he is like a lion not a real lion. Similarly adhyaasa is called avidya and avidya is erymuch there. But to highlight the imp of adhyaasa it is called avidya. Avidya goes by knowledge and adhyaasa also goes by knowledge and that is indicated by the next sentence. Tat vivekena cha vastusvarupavadharanam vidyam (panditam) aahuh. The ascertainment of the nature of a real entity derived through viveka is called vidya by panditas. Two things are talked about here - One is viveka and the other is vidya. Viveka means the process of separating. Tat refers to that which is superimposed-Adhyasta. The process of separating adhyasta from adhistanam is called viveka. Eg : suppose you are seeing in the darkness a ghost on the post. Really there is only a post. At that time somebody tells you to verify. Then you see and say what I thought was the hands are really the branches of the tree and what I thought

wa the body is the trunk of the tree. What I thought were the long matted locks or hair is really the leaves. This process of negating the adhyasta –not this, not this- from the adhistanam. This is called viveka. In the example of silver –nedam rajatah- this is not silver. Or in ghost-post example –nayam purushah - this is not the ghost. This is called vivekah. Adhyasatya vivekah tadatmya vilayanam. Earlier there was a identity. This is a ghost. This and ghost were confused. Now we are saying this is not the ghost. So from this, ghost is separated. This is called vivekah. Separating the adhyasta, the superimposed from the adhistanam is called vivekah. Incase of atma –anatma, viveka is not like physical separation because atma is not available for objectification like other objects. Atma is asmat pratyay visaya not idam pratyay visaya. Generally idam pratyaya visaya can be separated easily. This is donkey this is horse. When 2 things are objects of idam pratyaya it is easy to separate. But here atma is not available for such visual objectification. That is why viveka will be a little different. We are aware of this body, mind, senses, etc. So we have to ascertain the fact that this body is not atma. The senses, mind are anatma. Ascertainment of this body, mind, senses being anatma is called viveka. When this viveka is done then only we will know that atma is satchitananda. Like in the ghost-post example, once you have ascertained that ayam is not this, not this, then comes the understanding- ayam sthanuh eva. This is what is called here as vastusvarupavavadharanam. Avadharanam means nischaya or ascertainment. Svarupa means nature and vakthum means real entity. The ascertainment of the nature of the real entity. Here the real entity is ayam and the svarupa of that ayam is sthanuh eva This is post only. This is called vidya. In darstanta with reference to atma-anatma, atma is satchitananda only, nitya only, nirvikara only, brahman only- ayam atma brahma. This is called vidya. By this vidya avidya goes away and adhyaasa aalso goes away. Earlier adhyaasa had gone and now it is gone again. So what is the difference ? Earlier only samsarga adhyaasa had gone – this is not atma. Now we say anatma was never there in atma. Now there is complete dismissal of adhyaasa. Thus three stages are there - viveka, vidya and adhyaasasya athyantika nivritti. That is indicated here. Tatvivekaena------vidyamahuh. First viveka has to be done - complete disidentification from BMC, ascertaining them to be anatma. This is viveka. Then only the final clarity that I am satchitananda will come. So vidya will come only when viveka between atma-anatma is there. Before the first stage we have to have one step – distancing oneself from mamakara visaya. (Remind swamiji to talk about evam avirudhah - samsatvam and also the experential background of Purvapakshi to raise the objection.)


Mar 16 – Ques & Ans
1) Who were referred by the word Panditah ? What is their view ?. Veda Vyasa and Sage Patanjali. Their view is that adhyaasa can be called avidya. 2) How can we quote Vyasa and Patanjali to say that Panditah consider adhyaasa to be avidya ? Vyasa says, Avidya panchaparamesha. Avidya is of five modes. Patanjali says, considering or mistaking anitya to be nitya , asuchi to be suchi and anatma to be atma - that confusion of taking something for something else is called avidya by Patanjali. 3) Why adhyaasa is referred by the word avidya ? One reason why adhyaasa is called avidya is because adhyaasa is a product of avidya. 4) How do we say that adhyaasa is the product of avidya ? By the method of anvaya-vyatirekha nyaya. What does it say ?

If avidya is there, adhyaasa is there . If avidya is not there, adhyaasa is not there. Therefore Avidya is the cause of Adhyaasa. 5) What is the second reason why adhyaasa is called avidya ? To highlight the importance of the role of adhyaasa in causing suffering. Thought avidya is the final cause, Adhyaasa is the immediate reason for causing suffering which is most evident to us. 6) Adhyaasa is called avidya. Which type of usage is this ? It is called Gauna prayoga. What is the example given in this context ? Eg : Child is a lion . 7) What is the example given to indicate adhyaasa is product of avidya ? Example of sugar products being called sugar ; or salt products being called salt. 8) What is the primary meaning of avidya ? The primary meaning of avidya is veiling factor. That which veils the real nature of adhistanam is the primary meaning of avidya. 9) What is the third reason why adhyaasa is called avidya ? Both adhyaasa and avidya can be removed by Knowledge. Vidya nivartyatvat avidya That which is removed by vidya is called avidya. What is the example given to indicate this ? Example is both fire and smoke are removed by putting water on fire.

10) When calling adhyaasa to be avidya , what is the cautionary note put ? By calling adhyaasa to be avidya, one should not think that avidya is not there. The primary meaning of the word avidya ie, veiling factor is still very much there. We cannot dismiss it. Eg: Like Duryodhana is called the king, but this does not mean the real king, Drtarashtra is not there. 11) Why cannot we dismiss avidya ? Adhyaasa will not be possible without aviveka being there and aviveka will not be possible without avidya being there. Therefore we cannot by-pass avidya. 12) What was the connection given for - tametam eva lakshanam….? The first sutra of brahma sutra-athato brahma jignyasa – emphasizes brahma jnanam should be done. But here why are we talking about adhyaasa instead of talking about brahma jnanam or about avidya which is removed by Brahma Jnanam ? For that this sentence is introduced.

13) Tad vivekena vastusvarupanudharanam vidyam aahuh – what is the overall meaning of this sentence ? The Panditah’s call this ascertainment of the nature of the real entity thro’ viveka as vidya. 14) What does” tat vivekena” mean ? The process of separating the adhyasta from adhistanam. Seperating means dismissing (vilayanam) Eg : post and the ghost. Dismissing the ghostness of “this”. 15) What does vastusvarupa avadharanam mean ? Ascertainment of the nature of the real entity. What is the example for this ? Ayam sthanuh eva. This is post only. 16) What are the three stages given for this ascertainment ? Viveka, Vidya and adhyaasasya athyantika nivrittih ie, complete dismissal of adhyaasa. 17) At viveka stage we dismiss what type of adhyaasa ? We dismiss Samsarga adhyaasa.

Talk 28 – Mar 16 (Few points on Sambhavana Bhashyam not covered earlier are covered now.) Evam aviruddhah pratyagatmani api anatmadhyaasah. In this manner uncontradicted . Another word for aviruddhah is sambhavitah ie, shown to be possible. Adhyaasa of anatma on atma is uncontradicted or adhyaasa of anatma even on pratyagatma is shown to be possible. Aviruddhah we are able to say at the end of the discussion because all the objections raised by Purvapakshi were answered. In the bhashyam mainly 2 objections were raised - Vishayatam and Indriya samyuktatvam. Both were answered. One more point we had seen outside the bhashyam was Samsatvam. Samsatvam means partfulness. According to Purvapakshi one more condition for something to be adhistanam was Samsatvam. Adhistanam should have parts. Because adhyaasa takes place if something is partly known and partly not known. For something to be partly known and partly unknown it should have parts. So adhistanam should have parts for adhyaasa to take place. But Purvapakshi says by your own definition atma is niramshah . Therefore atma cannot become adhistanam. The Siddanti anwers this objection from three angles. 1) Niramshatvam is itself not the guarantee against the experience of adhyaasa. The Purvapakshis objection is that atma is niramshah so it cannot be adhistanam for adhyaasah. Therefore adhyaasa on atma should not be there. But to that Siddanti is saying that niramshtvam of atma is the reality. But the reality itself is not a guarantee against the experience of adhyaasa.

Example : i) Like your being healthy is a fact . But your being healthy is not a guarantee against feeling sick. Somebody who is a hypochondriac even thought he is physically alright , he imagines big-big diseases. So being healthy is not against the experience of feeling sick. ii) Like being rich is not a guarantee against feeling poor. Somebody who is real rich may feel poor, due to some mental problem. iii) Like being innocent is not a guarantee against being tried in the court. An innocent person also can be tried in the court and even punished. Other day I read about a man who was accused by his own daughter of rape. He was given a sentence of 15 years. Ater 12 years the daughter says that her father really did not rape her, but mother had asked her to accuse him, so she had. What would be the mental state of the father who was really innocent ? So being innocent is not a guarantee against being tried or being punished even. Similarly just because atma is niramshah it is not that you will not have the experience of adhyaasah. The knowledge of atma being niramshah is a guarantee agains adhyaasah being there. Knowledge of being rich is a guarantee against feeling of poverty. If I know I am rich, then I don’t feel poor. Similarly knowledge of niramshatva is the guarantee, not the niramshatvam itself. Atma is niramshah, but if it is not known to be niramshah still it can become adhistanam for superimposition. Purvapakshi may say that for anything to be adhistanam it has to be samshah. Atma does not have the quality which is required for the experience of being samshah. Like the richman has got the possibility of beng poor, therefore he misses his richness and feel poor. The innocent man has the possibility of committing a crime. Therefore he is accused and tried. But atma being niramshah how can it become adhistanam ? My question still remains .

2) The second answer given for this is – shudh atma is niramshah. Shudh atma cannot be the adhistanam for adhyaasah. Only sopadhika atma can become the adhistanam for adhyaasah. Atma with some upadhi alone becomes the adhistanam for superimposition of any anatma. Sopadhika atma alone becomes adhistanam. Upadhi which is anatma has amshah therefore sopadhika atma also has samshah. Like a lady does not have money. But her husband has money. So the couple is called rich. Like we say Shiva in his true nature is akarta, abhokta, nishkriyah. But Sambha Shiva (Shiva along with amba) is sarvagnah. Similarly shudh atma is partless, but sopadhika atma is partful because upadhi has got parts. So with upadhi, atma can be said to be amshah. Sopadhika atma alone becomes adhistanam for adhyaasah. Therefore there is no contradiction. Purvapakshi was seeing contradiction because on one side Siddanti was saying atma is niramshah and on the other side he is saying atma is adhistanam and for atma to become adhistanam it has to be samshah. But we are clarifying that shudh atma is niramshah and cannot become adhistanam. When we say atma becomes adhistanam we are talking about sopadhika atma which is samshah. So there is no contradiction. Moreover there is never a time that upadhis is not there for atma. Someone may say that sometimes atma can be without upadhi, so how can adhyaasa take place ?

For that the answer is atma is always with some upadhi. Minimum upadhi atma always has is ajnanam. With ajnanam upadhi atma is sopadhika atma. This sopadhika atma becomes adhistanam for subsequesnt adhyaasa - ahankara,indriya,etc.. How do we say that minimum upadhi ajnanam is there ? because when adhyaasa takes place atma is partly known and partly unknown. Adhyaasa is possible only when atma is not known and for atma to be not known there should be ignorance and for ignorance to be there, some veiling factor should be there. Veiling factor is avidya. Therefore adhyaasa is possible only when avidya is there. Thus avidya upadhi is already present. In prasakti ie, when the possibility of adhyaasa comes, avidya will definitely be there and with avidya upadhi, atma is sopadhika and this sopadhika atma is samshah because avidya has got amshah. Therefore atma which is becoming adhistanam is sopadhika atma which is samshah and therefore there is no contradiction. You may ask, for all other adhyaasa to take place there was some upadhi. So there must be a first upadhi which got connected. When it got connected atma must be pure because it was the first upadhi. For that the answer is this upadhi is anaadi. There was never a time that ajnana upadhi was not there with atma. All this seems a little difficult to swallow. It looks like can swallow it only with the water of shraddha. Really you don’t need the waterof shraddha to accept it. You have infact accepted so many things anaadi. Only in other things you have not done any thinking. You just accept it at its face value. That is why anaaditvam does not come into the picture. Really one can show anaaditvam in anything. For eg : clip is plastic. Plastic is from petrol. Petrol is made from fossil oil. Fossil comes from trees. Trees comes from seeds and seeds come from potential to become a tree which is anaadi. If you go to the root of anything, you will find it is anaadi. One’s body can also be traced back to anaadi. The potential for seed is always there, so it is anaadi. So everywhere there is anaadi. Anaaditvam you have to accept in anything . Only thing is we don’t think and if we think then we have to reach annaditvam. There is no thing the real beginning of which can be traced. This should be perfectly clear. So avidya which is adhyaasa on atma is anaadi adhyaasa. Dehadi adhyaasa also we call anaadi. But there is some difference. One is calld karana adhyaasa and other karya adhyaasa. The adhyaasa of avidya is called karana adhyaasa and adhyaasa of everything other than avidya is called karya adhyaasa. Both karana and karya adhyaasa are anaadi. But there is a difference. Karana adhyaasa is svatah anaadi , whereas karya adhyaasa is pravahatah anaadi. For eg : Supose I say this earth has been there for the last 5 billion years. This cockroach has been on this earth for 1 million year . Cockroach means not this cockroach, but its grandfather, grandfather’s grandfather…. This pravahatah cockroach has been there for 1 million years.. Whereas when I say this earth is billions of years, I mean this earth itself only. Similarly avidya has been there is svatah anaaditah. But dehadhyaasa is pravahatah anaadi. Why I have deha adhyaasa now is because I had deha adhyaasa before. There is a flow or pravaha of the entities of adhyaasa. Deha adhyaasa – samskara - deha adhyaasa - samskara flow is there. Therefore atma is sopadhika always for adhyaasa to take place . And this sopadhika adhyaasa becomes adhistanam for further adhyaasa. Like some garbage is there and other peole put further garbage, further garbage.. That is how it happens. In other words mistaken is remistaken. That which has already got adhyaasa becomes

the basis for further adhyaasa. We are going to see how parampara of adhyaasa is there. That which is already having adhyaasa is further subjected to adhyaasa. In life also it happens. Suppose you have mistaken the person in one area. Then you commit the mistake again also. If you think the head of the organisation is partial. That is not true. That is adhyssas. But once you have done this adhyaasa of partiality then you say he is partial to rich prople. Another adhyaasa. He is after money. Another adhyaasa. Like once a person feels that my husband is not loyal to me or my wife is not loyal to me. Then if the husband says I am going out for A trip, the wife feels that he is going there. Adhyaasa. Suppose he says he lost some money. Then immediately she thinks he gave it to her. Another adhyaasa. What is mistaken is further mistaken. That is why in life it is so important that one should not take relationships for granted. Have an atmosphere of clarity. Because once this adhyaasa comes then it just builds up. One thing has come and the other things keep coming. So the answer of Siddanti is shudh atma does not become adhistanam. Shudh atma is niramshah. So your objection is right as to how shudh atma can become adhistanam. But that which is niramshah is not becoming adhistanam. Who is becoming adhistanam is sopadhika atma not shudh atma. Sopadhika atma is samshah and therefore there is no contradiction. 3) Third way to explain samsayatvam is experience. I know I am but I do not know I am Brahman. So your experience itself shows that you know yourself partly and partly you do not know. You do not have to go for anything else. Your experience itself shows that atma is samshah - partly known partly unknown.. The atma which you know is sopadhika atma which is samshah. This atma only becomes the adhistanam and therefore there is no contradiction in atma being the adhistanam. Thus samsatvam issue is resolved. Here one more condition which was earlier raised by Purvapakshi is Sadrsyam. This also is answered by Siddanti. Between adhistanam and aropya generally we see sadrsyam. We always see snake on the rope not elephant on the rope. Beteeen atma and anatma there is no sadrsyam. The how can you say atma is adhistanam ? For that we had already given one answer. Sadrsyam is not essential. Eg: There is no sadrsyam between akasha and blueness. Still blue can be superimposed and akasha. This is one answer. Suppose you still insist on sadrsyam. Then we can say okay sadrsyam is there. Like for example suppose somebody comes for donation to the ashram for Ganesh chaturthi, holi.. Swamiji says this is an ashram. Means you give, you don’t ask for donation. But then Swamiji gives some donation. Similarly first Siddanti says sadrsyam is not required and then says I will show you sadrsyam also. Adhyaasa of any anatma is taking place on sopadhika atma. That which is becoming adhistanam is already having the upadhi. AU = Atma +upadhi (ajananam) is adhistanam for adhyaasa of some upadhi say u1 . So u1 has no similarity with A, but has similarity with AU because it has got similarity with U. So Nirupadhika atma does not have similarity with anatma which is superimposed on atma , but sopadhika atma AU has similarity with anatma u1. So atma will

become AUui. On that another upadhi u2 is superimposed. U2 does not have similarity with A, but it has similarity with AUu1. So atma has become AUu1u2. Similarly u3 will come and u3 has got similarity with AUu1u2. So similarity is there . Sopadhika atma alone is becoming adhistanam for adhyaasa. That which has been already superimposed upon is being further superimposed. Confused is getting further confused . Designated alone is being further designated. Some of you have become grandmothers. Who has become grandmother ? Someone who is already a mother-in-law. If you are not a mother-in-law, you cannot become grandmother now. Already one status is there and on that another status is superimposed. Who has become a mother-in law ? One who already had the status of mother. Who is a mother ? One who earlier had the status of a wife officially or unofficially. Before that you had the status of being a daughter and you are born with the status of being a daughter or son. This status like avidya is already there. To that the others are further added. Similarly Sopadhikatma already had one upadhi called avidya. On that further upadhi is added. On sopadhika atma alone, upadhi is superimposed. That upadhi which is being superimposed has the similarity with the adhistanam which is sopadhika. Therefore sadrsyam is also there. So samsatvam answer is clear, sadrsyam is clear. Therefore it is said aviruddhah. What about the response of the Siddanti to the background objection – which we discussed earlier in katham punah.. Purvapakshi is raising this objection because he has some experiential objection. If kartrtva, bhokrta, samsara is really adhyaasa then the moment I know the nature of atma which is Brahman then adhyaasa should disappear. That is what I see in the example. The moment I know the rope, the snake disappears. Whereas here it is not happening. I am attending vedanta class for so long and I know atma is Brahman. But still my kartrtvam, bhoktrtvam is there. So adhyaasa is so stromg. How can you say by knowing atma, adhyaasa will go away. It seems like a cock and bull story. That is a real objection because we identify with that objection. Here also Siddanti has three answers. This particular point is raised in the fourth sutra of Brahma sutra-tattu samanvayat. The objection is raised that a person can be listening to Vedanta, but nothing seems to happen. He was angry before and he continues to be angry. For that Siddanti gives a very beautiful answer. We have to divide the knowers of Brahman into two categories. One type is called Shruta Brahma who is a person who has heard about Brahman. In other words who is attending vedanta clasees for so long time. Shrutam Brahmayena –one who is a shruta brahma. He is a paroksha jnanavan. His knowledge is not intimate, is not assimilated . Sa pratibandha jnanam. Knowledge which is fraught with obstacles in the form of doubts and habitual errors. The other type of person is called Avagatha Brahma -the one who has listened about Braman and also assimilated the knowledge of Brahman. So Bhashyakara says that the person you are quoting is a shruta brahma. For him samsaritvam does not go away. There will be some change no doubt. Like one person told Pujya swamiji, my motherin-law is attending Vedanta classes for 2 years still there is no change in her. Pujya swamiji said , she could have been worse ! Some effect is definitely there, but we do not see the effect promised. So those you are talking about are shruta Brahma. But there are people who are avagatha brahma

and there samsaritvam does not show. They don’t consider themselves to be karta, bhokta…How do we know? From their response we know. Any amount of harassment but still his understanding remains. Swami Vivekanannda gives a very good example. In 1859 when the mutiny was there at that time a monk was being killed by a Britisher. When he was dying he told the British soldier, you are that Lord - tat tvam asi. What wisdom he must have had to say that. Otherwise our response would be different. So there are people. You cannot say that this knowledge has not done anything. Unfortunately you did not meet the right person in whose life knowledge has brought about a great change. It is something like some girl says I do not want to get married, marriage is useless. Then 10 years later you meet her and she is married and has a child also. So you conclude people simply say no marriage,etc. but finally nobody can remain without it. but it is not so. Or like somebody says I do not want to go to the US, but he is offerd a job and he goes. But you cannot say that there is no such person who really has vairagyam for the US. Similarly there are people whose knowledge is well-assimilated and whose life has been changed .

Mar 23 – Ques. & Answer :
1)What is the meaning of Aviruddhah ? Aviruddhah means uncontradicted. 2) How is it uncontradicted ? By clarifying or dismissing all the objections raised by Purvapakshi. 3) What were the objections raised by Purvapakshi ? For atma to be adhistanam it should have visayatvam, indriya samyuktatvam and outside the Bhashyam another objection raised is samsatvam. 4) How samsatvam is resolved ? Samsatvam is resolved from 3 angles. a) Niramshatvam of atma is not opposed to the experience of adhyaasa. The knowledge of niramshatvam or knowing atma in its true nature is opposite to experience of adhyaasa.

b) Shudh atma never becomes the adhistanam for adhyaasa. Only sopadhika atma becomes adhistanam for adhyaasa. c) My own experience shows me that I take myself to be samshah. I know I am , but I do not know I am Brahman. So I am partly known and partly unknown. For something to be adhistanam it should be aprtly known and partly unknown. 5) How does sopadhika atma become samshah ? Sopadhikatma has upadhi and upadhi has parts or different aspects, therefore sopadhika atma is samshah. 6) What is the example given to show how something which is niramshah itself can become samshah ? Shiva who is akarta, abhokta is niramshah. But Sambashiva (shiva along with shakti) is samshah. Wife may be poor, but husband may be rich. So the couple is called rich. Something is of a particular nature, but in association with something else it has got different nature. 7) How is the first upadhi superimposed on atma. ? The first upadhi on atma is avidya which is anaadi . This adhyaasa is called anaadi adhyaasa or Karana adhyaasa. 8) What is Karya adhyaasa ? Karya means the effect. Anything which is superimposed on atma other than avidya is called karya adhyaasa. 9) What is the difference in the anaaditvam of karana and karya adhyaasa ? Karana adhyaasa is svatah anaadi ie, it is annadi by itself . Eg: earth itself is 5 million years old. Karya adhyaasah is pravahatah anaadi ie, it is annadi in terms of flow of entities of adhyaasa.. Eg : Cockroach is a million years old. It is not the present cockroach, but from the grandfather,great grandfather cockroach which has been there for a million years. Similarly body is also is Pravahatah annadi. It is not the present body but the flow of bodies through time. 10) What is the answer of Siddanti for the requirement of sadrsyam ? First he says sadrsyam is not required at all. Eg : sky and blueness are not similar. Still blueness is superimposed on the sky. In case you feel sadrsyam is necessary, then adhyaasa is taking place only on sopadhika atma which has upadhi. There is similarity between upadhi which is being superimposed and sopadhika atma which has upadhi. Therefore from upadhi aspect, sopadhika atma has sadrsyam. One sopadhikatma becomes the adhistanam for another upadhi . The mistaken is remistaken. 11) What was the other objection raised ?

Experential or background objection. In the case of rope-snake, as soon as we know it is not snake, the snake disappears. But in the case of atma-anatma adhyaasa, even knowing there is only atma, adhyaasa does not seem to go. Our kartrvam, bhoktrtvam does not seem to go. This is a strong objection based on experience. 12) How is this objection answered ? There are two types of knowers of Brahman – Shruta Brahma and Avagatha Brahma. What you are talking is with reference to Shruta Brahma. 13) What is shruta Brahma and avagatha Brahma ? One who knows he is Brahman but has not assimilated the knowledge is called Shruta brahma. They have paroksha jnanam. On the other hand, one who has assimilated and internalized the understanding that he is limitless is called Avagatha Brahma. 14) How does this particular division answer the Purvapakshi’ question? Shruta Brahman are those who know but their samsaritvam has not gone. The Purvapakshi is referring to those who belong to the shruta brahma class not to the avagatha Brahman in whom the knowledge has brought about a change. 15) What are the two examples given in this regard ? i) Person says she does not want to get married at all because she hates marriage. But a few years later she is married and has children. She belongs to shruta brahma class. So you conclude that all people who say marriage is useless do not mean it. But there are really a few, who say they don’t want to get married and do not get married and they are like avagatha brahma. ii) Person says that he does not want to go to US, but when he gets an opportunity to go, he goes there. So you conclude that all persons who say they don’t want to go, do not mean it. But there are some who say they do not want to go to the US and they really mean it and when opportunity comes also they don’t go. They are called avagatha America asaratva . In the case of the former , viveka has not matured into vairagyam. But in the latter case, viveka has matured into vairagyam. 17) What do we derive from this drastanta ? Those who have heard about Brahman but not assimilated it , for them samsaritvam continues. But there are really some people who have assimilated this knowledge of the limitless. Then for them transformation takes place. So just by seeing sruta brahma , you cannot generalize that there is no transformation. It just means the Purvapakshi has not met the right people in whom transformation has taken place. Based on aparipakva vairagya you cannot conclude that nobody can have vairagyam. Viveka gives rise to vairagyam. But that viveka should be mature viveka. Somebody seems to have viveka, but does not have vairagyam so you conclude that viveka does not give rise to vairagyam. But there

are mature people who have both viveka and vairagyam. So your conclusion based on your experience is not correct. Question asked by a student about Lakshana Bhashyam How is the Lakshana of adhyaasa applicable to atma-anatma ? In atma there is no anatma, but you are seeing anatma in atma. Therefore it is paratra avabhaasah. Earlier also there was adhyaasa. Present adhyaasa is like the experience of adhyaasa of the previous moment. So it is purvadrsta. It is born of samskara which is one of the samagrihs for adhyaasa, so it is smritirupah.

Talk 29 - Mar 23 –
Evam aviruddhah pratyagatmanyapi anatmadhyaasah. In this manner uncontradicted there is superimposition even of anatma on atma because whatever objection was raised was answered. The objections raised were indriya samyuktatvam,visayatvam and samsatvam and sadrsyam. Now we are answering the background objection. The answer has three points : i) The first point we already saw. That your conclusion that the knowledge of adhistanam does not remove adhyaasa or bring about any change is based on your observation of shruta Brahma and not avagatha brahma. Sruta brahma have paroksha jnanam and there is a rule that paroksha jnanam does not remove aparoksha Bhrama. The delusion I am karta, bhokta is aparoksha. I don’t infer I am a karta , I am a bhokta. It is immediately available about my self or it is knowledge about the subject which is very firm and is the basis of my response. This is called aparoksha. We feel hurt when we are not recognised. Even when we give things , we don’t let go of it. We are possessive about it – we feel these are mine. Possessiveness indicates a strong sense of I am karta, bhokta. They are very strong and indicate a sense of aparoksha Bhrama and it cannot go by paroksha prama. It needs aparoksha prama ie, It should be apratibhadha prama. There should not be pratibhadhakas ie, there should not be samsaya , viparya. Therefore I am Brahman understanding does not seem to remain in the mind. Only when I meditate I feel I am Brahman . But the moment I get up, I feel I am a jiva – My kartrtvam, bhoktrtvam comes back. It means my jnanam is not aparoksha. It is fraught with viparita bhavana. That paroksha jnanam is not strong enough to neutralize aparoksha Bhrama. That is the case with most of the shruta brahma who are in the process of becoming avagatha brahma. Seeing this, you should not dismiss the whole phenomenon of how adhyaasa is the cause and how it is removed by vidya. 1) When there is emotional entanglement with adhyaasa , ie, with that which is superimposed, then it takes time to get rid of adhyaasa. The Purvapakshi may say that once you know it, it should go. The shruta brhama itself should have the effect of avagatha brahma ie, freedon from adhyaasa. Because shruta brahma also knows that that I am Brahman. Somehow Purvapakshi does not give up. So we say that in the example of rope-snake there is no emotional entanglement with the snake. You don’t want to retain the snake. There is relative objectivity about it. But here with anatma and

anatma born situations there is entanglement. Because of the identification with upadhi alone the various bhogas are possible. Therefore there is emotional entanglement with adhyaasa. When this is there it is very difficult to get rid of adhyaasa. Even if a person knows that adhyaasa is the root cause of the problem and I want to be free from that, but his attachments to the bhogas brought about by adhyaasa does not let him get rid of the adhyaasa. So if emotional entanglement is there, then it takes a longer time to be free from adhyaasa. Infact he has to be first free from emotional entanglement then only he can be free from adhyaasa. Otherwise he cannot be free. Like somebody wants to get rid of his wife. But he is very attached to parents-in-law and their property and the parents-in law are very much attached to the daughter. So this fellow has to somehow manage with her because of his attachment to the property of inlaws . Similarly even though person understands he has to get rid of adhyaasa. But he has so much entanglement with the bhogas, the situations brought about by adhyaasa that he cannot let go of adhyaasa. We will see later that all our experiences are there because of adhyaasa. Therefore we have to have vairagyam. Most people do not have vairagyam. Therefore it becomes difficult to get rid of adhyaasa even after knowing that it is adhyaasa. Even in the rope-snake example, suppose you were very frightened on seeing the delusive snake, then the effect of the snake will remain for a few minutes. Like when you wake up from nightmare you are still shivering for sometime. Similarly if you have some attachment to the adhyasta, then it becomes difficult for you to get rid of the adhyaasa. For one hour adhyaasa of rope-snake, it took few minutes. So how long this anaadi adhyaasa will take ? Even if it takes a long time, it is still understandable. Thus where there is emotional entanglement with adhyasta , it takes time. Suppose you saw the silver in the mother-of pearl and you are greedy for silver. Even after you know it is not silver, because of your attachment to silver you may think perhaps it is silver and go for second verification. It means the first glimpse was not enough for you because of your attachment. Otherwise it would have gone in the first glimpse itself. 2) Sometimes there is an extra factor in the appearance of something. For eg : when you saw blue sky then before you had knowledge you took it for granted that it was blue. That is why we have the name sky-blue. Now with knowledge you know that the sky is not really blue. It is due to the refraction of the earth that the sky appears to be blue. Now we understand that it is because of this particular phenomenon sky appears blue. Even after knowing, the sky continues to look blue. Because there is an extra factor -the phenomenon of refraction which continues to be. So therefore even after knowing sky is not blue, it continues to be. Similarly the horizon is the meeting point of sky and earth. But all of us know that they don’t really meet. It is only the limitation of our eyes which gives the feeling of meeting. It is adhyaasah. Really it is not there but appears to be there. Now you know that really there is no horizon. But after knowing this also horizon continues to appear.

Why ? because of the limitation of the sight. Our eyes have got limited sight. Because of this extra factor the appearance of adhyaasa continues. It may not delude you anymore, but the appearance continues. This type of Bhrama is called sopadhika brahma. Bhrama which has an extra factor which makes adhyaasa continue to appear is called upadhi and brahma with upadhi is called sopadhika bhrama. Whereas in the case of rope-snake the extra factor is not there. The moment you get the knowledge, the snake disappears. Such brahma which disappears in the wake of knowledge are called nirupadhika bhramah. Since ignorance was the only factor, so when ignorance is gone, brahma is gone. But in the case of sopadhika bhrama appearance will continue but delusion will not be there ie, illusion (false appearance) will continue but delusion will not be there. This bhrama of aham buddhi is sopadhika bhrama and prarabdha is the upadhi. Because of prarabdha the aham bhava which is adhyaasa keeps coming back. But because of the knowledge an avagatha brahma keeps dismissing the aham buddhi. Like even though we see the sky is blue, but we know sky is not blue. We see the sun rising but we know the sun does not rise. Therefore even if we do not see sun rise one day due to cloudy weather, then we don’t feel the sun has been kidnapped or something. We don’t have such fear because we know that sun never rises. Similarly a wise person even though because of prarabdha this aham buddhi seems to come back , but immediately he dismisses it. It is Bhranti. The effect of it is that since he understands it to be bhranti he will not be overwhelmed by any situation. Because he knows that aham buddhi is bhrama. Suppose there is some pain in body or loss of property he is objective about it. Een though aham buddhi comes because of prarabdha but he dismisses it. It is something like somebody is intoxicated with Bhung during Holi. Then you give some thing by which the effect goes away. The effect does not go immediately but little by little ie, gradually. There will be a stage when the effect of drink is not fully gone but the building still seems to rotate around. He knows that the building is not really rotating, but he sees the building to be moving. Infact when he was in full spell of the drink he took the building moving as real. But now even though he has the feeling it is moving, but he knows it is because of the drink. So he does not shout or exclaim. Similarly, the wise person because of prarabdha there is a hangover for sometime, but he knows it is mithya and it does not create any reaction. Thus avagatha brahma does have great benefit because of this wsdom. Becauseof prarabdha aham comes back but he immedialely dismisses it. So he is free from samsara. But this does nt happen in the case of shruta brahma. He is as good as ajnata brahma ie, one who has not understood Brahman. Unfortunately you saw only shruta brahma because there are more of this kind. Fakes are always more, original is few. Like ekamukhi rudraksha is very very rare. But you go to haridwar, you will see a lot of rudraksha being sold as ekamukhi. They are fakes and sold cheap. But the price of ekamukhi is much more. Similarly the price to see original

Brahma jnani is punyam. Perhaps Purvapakshi does not seem to have enough punyam to see or appreciate an avagatha brahma. Because no avagatha brahma will say that he is avagatha brahma. Therefore based on shruta brahma you should not derive a conclusion that adhistana jnanam does not make a difference. If you still continue to hae the conclusion, then you are the loser. If you think vedanta does not do anything then it will not do anything. If you think something will happen, then something will happen. You only make it happen or not make it happen. This is a heart objection so the answer is also emotional. So acquire punyam, see avagatha brahma, get motivated get vidya and remove adhyaasa. This is the answer given by Siddanti to background objection of Purvapakshi. With this practically the Sambhavana bhashyam is over. But Bhashyakara wants to give some more details, the next three sentences are given. It is considered to be apart of Sambhavana Bhashyam. Sometimes they are given a separate main called Sadbhava Bhashyam. The conection is given for this. Why are you talking about all this adhyaasa ? This is an introduction to Brahma sutra. The first sutra is athatho brahma jignyasa -Do brahma jnanam by vichara. By brahma jnanam, brahma ajnanam will go away. So either you should talk about brahma jnanam or you should talk about what is going away by brahma jnanam. Jnanam only does one thing it removes ajnanam. Like most of the people do not come to the main point directly. Especially over telephone they go on round and round. In vyavahara it is okay, but not in sastra. Here we should talk about avidya, why are you talking about adhyaasa ? As an answer to this it was saidTametam evam lakshanam adhyasam avidyam iti manyante. That this of this character, adhyaasa is considered to be avidya by panditahs. For this 3 reasons are given. 1) Adhyaasa is the product of avidya that is why it is called avidya. Avidyatmakatvat avidya - it is of the nature of avidya. Because it is the product of avidya. Like pot is mrdatmakah. It is of the nature of clay because it is product of clay. 2) To highlight the importance of adhyaasa in creating suffering. We can see the role of adhyaasa causing suffering very evidently. Infact if adhyaasa is not there and even though moola avidya is there, there is no suffereing. Eg : in suspti - avidya is there but there is no adhyaasa and no suffering. So if avidya alone is there, then there is no problem. But when avidya gets converted into adhyaasa, it becomes the cause of our suffering. Therefore avidya itself is talked about in the form of adhyaasa. The question raised as a conection to sadbhava bhashyam : Why adhyaasa is discussed instead of avidya ? One answer is that when we are discussing adhyaasa we are discussing avidya only. Because adhyaasa is the product of avidya. It is something lke Ramayana-ramasya ayanam-the movement of Rama. It is the story of Rama, but that does not mean

there are no other characters in the story. Dasaratha’story, Luva -Kusha story is also there. But still it is called Ramayana. Similarly when we are discussing adhyaasa we are discussing avidya only. But the person may still ask why don’t you talk about avidya directly. The reason is adhyaasa as the cause of suffering can be seen very clearly. To see the original avidya or veiling factor as the cause for suffering we have to put in-between so many stages. The causal nature of avidya for suffering is difficult to show. But adhyaasa as the cause for suffering is easy to show. Somebody may say in susupti there is no suffering and there is avidya. That is why adhyaasa abeing the direct cause is highlighted. At the same tme we don’t say that aidya is not there. avidya is the veiling factor because of which Brahman is veiled and there is aiveka. That original avidya is there. It cause sthe problem ultimaytely. The suffering can be traced to adhyaasa directly very easily. Thus adhyaasa being immediate cause for suffering is talked about. 3) Third reason-vidya nivartyatvat avidya- that which is removed by vidya is avidya. Ignorance or veinling factor and adhyaasa are both removed by vidya. Therefore they are both called avidya. panditah vastusvarupvdharanam vidyam ahuhu. Learned people call the ascertainment of real entity thro’ viveka as vidya. Viveka of what -adhyastasya . Seperating superimposed from adhistanam is viveka. That viveka leads to ascertainment of nature of real entity. That ascertainment is vidya. The stages are –viveka, vidya and adhyaasasya athyantika nivritthi. But this viveka ,this adhyasaya nisheda ie, negation of superimposed is very clear in drstanta. We say Nayam sarpah-it is not a snake –this is viveka. Iyam rajjuh eva- this is rope – this is vidya. But in darstanta we say- ayam dehah anatma. This body is not atma. This mind is not atma. What we popularly call as atma-anatma viveka is called viveka here. Vastu svarupa vadharanam –vastu refers to atma which is adhistanam. This adhistanam is satchitananda svarupa. This knowledge is called vidya.

March 30 – Ques and Ans. :
1) What do we mean by background objection ? This is the objection that is unexpressed but is at the back of the mind of the Purvapakshi. It is the basis or the heart behind the technical objections raised by him. It is the basis for the asambhavana buddhi of Purvapakshi on atma-anatma adhyaasa. 2) What was the background objection ? If samsaritvam had been adhyaasa, then in the wake of knowledge it should have disappeared. But our experience is that kartvam, bhoktrtvam continues even in the wake of knowledge. Therefore it is not adhyaasa, it is the reality. Thus the knowledge of adhistanam ie, atma does not remove adhyaasa. Thus the Siddanti’s contention that jivatvam, etc are adhyaasa is not correct. So what is true in the case of the example of rope-snake is not true in the case of atma .


3) What is the Siddanti’s answer to this background objection ? Siddanti answers this question from 3 angles : i) The objection of Purvapakshi that samsaritvam does not go away is based on the observation of Shruta Brahma who has not assimilated the knoweldge.Their knowledge is paroksha (not intimate) and it cannot remove aparoksha brahma that I am karta, bhokta, etc. But there are other knowers of Brahman called Avagatha brahma who have assimilated the knowledge. They have aparoksha jnanam which can remove adhyaasa. To such people the knowledge of adhistanam will bring about a change. Therefore the gap observed by you is due to the gap between Shruta brahma’s understanding and Avagatha brahma’s understanding. ii) If there is emotional entanglement with adhyasta then it takes longer for adhyaasa to go away. Even if somebody has understood, but due to identification with the product of adhyaasa (bhoga,etc) , knowledge does not bring about a change. We have to introspect on the fact and see what all emotional entanglement makes the job of removing adhyaasa difficult for me. iii) Sometimes there is an extra factor involved which causes the continuation of this adhyaasa to appear . It is called Upadhi and the bhrama is called Sopadhika Bhrama. Eg: phenomenon of refraction or rreflection of light that causes blueness of the sky which continues even after knowing that the sky is not blue. In the case of atma-anatma adhyaasa, prarabdha is the extra factor which causes aham buddhi. An avagatha brahma will have this experience of aham buddhi , but he dismisses it everytime it comes up. It arises because of prarabdha but he dismisses it because of knowledge and because of that it will makes a difference in his response. He won’t think himself to be a karta, bhokta. It will not create any reaction in him. Thus there is definitely a change in an avagatha brahma, but in a shruta Brahma adhyaasa continues and once in a while he thinks he is Brahman. Like the conclusion and response of a person who thinks the sky is blue will be different from a person who knows it is not really blue. Thus by these 3 points the objections of Purvapakshi were answered.

Mar 30 – Talk 30Now we will take up the Sadbhava Bhashyam. Tametam evam lakshanam adhyaasam panditah avidyeti manyante. Tad vivekena vastu svarupavadharanam vidyam ahuhu. Pramana kusalah or learned people consider adhyaasa itself to be avidya. Which adhyaasa ? Adhyaasa which was objected to and clarified in Akshepa and Samadhana bhashyam (tam) and which was shown to be possible in Sambhavana bhashyam (etam)which is of

this nature -smritirupah paratra purvadrstavabhaasah – this adhyaasa is called avidya by learned people. For that three reasons are given : i) Adhyaasa is called avidya because adhyaasa is a product of avidya. Sometimes a product is known by a name denoting the cause. ii) To highlight the cause of suffering. The link between suffering and adhyaasa is more evident. Infact that is the reason we are discussing adhyaasa. Purvapakshi had asked why are you discussing adhyaasa instead of avidya ? Siddanti shows that avidya discussion is nothing but adhyaasa discussion only. Moreover we are discussing adhyaasa because it is the immediate cause of suffering. iii) Like Avidya, adhyaasa is also removed by knowledge. Vidya nivartyatvat adhyaasasyapi avidyatvam. Just as veiling factor is removed by vidya and therefore it is called avidya ; Similarly adhyaasa is also removed by vidya and therefore it is called avidya. That is indiated by the next line - tad vivekena vastusvarupavadharanam vidyam ahuhu. Ahuhu means they call. Vastusvarupavadharanam - The ascertainment of the nature of the real entity which is gained thro’ viveka as vidya. Vastu means that which really is. In the context of adhyaasa it is the adhistanam. Adhistanasvarupavadharanam vidyam ahuhu. So Vidya is ascertainment of the nature of adhistanam. How is it gained ? tad vivekena. Gained through the viveka of adhyasta (tad). Viveka here means nisheda, vilayanam or dismissal of adhyasta. The dismissal of adhyasta is called viveka. This is expressed in the example as nayam sarpah -this is not a snake. This is called tad vivekah. Ayam is separated from sarpah. Ayam sarpah na . In sanskrit we say adhistanasya adhyasta rupatvasya nishedah. On this adhistanam there was superimposition of snakeness. The snakeness of ‘this’ is dismissed. The identification with the snake is dismissed. This is called vivekah. And we arrive at iyam rajjuh eva –this is rope only. This is called vidya. The adhistanam iyam is ascertained to be the rope. This is called vidya and this vidya dismisses adhyaasa completely. Adyaasasya athyantika nivrittih. Even at the stage of viveka there was some clarity regarding what this is. This seems to be a rope, since it does not have the qualities of a snake like movement, mouth, etc. Infact the dismissal of adhyaasa and clarity of adhistanam are both growing. In viveka stage there is more emphasis on dismissal of adhyasta. In vidya stage the emphasis is on this is rope and rope only . Infact viveka is in a way vidya only. It is pre-stage of vidya. Thus first there is nishedha of adyastha (viveka) and then avadharanam of adhistanam (vidya). Once you have ascertained it is rope and rope only, then there is no question of snake buddhi coming. If it comes because of samskara immediately it is dismissed. In the drstanta , tad viveka means separating snake from the rope and vidya is ascertaining this is a rope only. In the darstanta, in the case of atma-anatma viveka is saying body is not atma. The senses, prana, mind and intellect are also not atma - this is viveka. The qualities of BMC is also not of atma.

Even qualities are dismissed. Thus in viveka stage samsarga adhyaasa is dismissed. There was connection between atma-anatma and that connection is snapped at viveka stage. Like the connection between this and snake was snapped. This is generally called atma-anatma viveka. Svarupa adhyaasa is dismissed later. At viveka stage samsarga adhyaasa is dismissed. Then comes avadharanam of the nature of atma. Atma is satchitananda svarupa. What is getting destroyed is anatma only. Atma is never destroyed. Atma is sat. What is getting shining is atma not anatma. So atma is chit. What is limited is anatma only. So atma is ananda. Thus we come to the ascertainment of the nature of atma - atma is satchitananda. This type of clear knowledge is called vidya. Thus first we have atma-anatma viveka and then comes ascertainment of the true nature of atma. But this atma-anatma viveka which is in the form of disidentification from this upadhi is in other words the dismissal of the atma status of this body, mind complex which it was having so far. This disidentification from anatma is called viveka. Thus first is dismissal of samsarga adhyaasa at viveka stage . Second is vidya stage, knowing the real nature of atma and third stage is by vidya there is complete dismissal of svarupa adhyaasa of anatma. Anatma is not there at all, Atma alone is. These are the three stages , but there is one more stage which precedes viveka stage. This stage is necessitated by the viveka stage. This pre-viveka stage is getting detached from external objects. If I identify with external objects then I cannot disidentify from this body, mind complex completely.

In other words, if I cannot detach from mamakara visayah then I cannot disidentify from ahankara visaya. Body-mind-complex is that with whch I have identification in the form of aham bhava. With external objects ie, with regard to my son, daughter, property, my name and my fame I have mama bhava. And the acharyas clearly say without disidentifying from mama bhava, you cannot disidentify from aham bhava. In other words you cannot succeed in viveka stage unless you have disidentified from mamakara vishaya. So first we have to detach from mamakara visaya. Disidentifying means seeing that really there is no connection , coincidentially we happen to be together due to prarabdha. There is no permanent connection. If I can be detached from external objects then only I will be able to disidentify from BMC. Why this is so ? because my entanglement with external objects is due to my identification with upadhi. If upadhi identification is not there, external object identification will not be there. I am connected with this body and therefore body-related people become my people. If no identification with body then no identification with people. That is why in susupti, there is no identification with the body, so there is no identification even with your spouse who may be next to you. So attachment with external objects presupposes my identification with upadhi. If I have so

much attachment with external object, then this attachment will not allow me to loosen my identification with upadhi. Suppose I am too much obsessed or passionate about some program run by the Trust. Then I cannot be detached from the people who are supporting the project. To be detached from these people, first I must be detached from the project. In the example I gave in the last class, if I am attached to the in-laws property then I cannot detach from my spouse. First I have to detach from the property before I can detach from the person connected with it. Similarly here, if I am attached to external objects that attachment will not allow me to disidentify from upadhi. Because identification with upadhi is a must. That is why it is necessary that I disidentify from external objects. Also it becomes a training ground to practice disidentification from upadhi. It is relatively easy to disidentify from external objects which are gross wheras upadhi is subtle because atma bhava is there. If I canot succeed in gross things, then I cannot succeed in subtle things. Like if you cannot make simple rice, you cannot make bisibhele. Similarly if you cannot give up identification with gross objects then forget about giving up identification with subtle upadhis. First I should learn to disidentify from these gross objects. One technique for that is to visualize the absence of that object, person or situation to which you are highly attached to. Once upon a time it was not there, it may not be there in future, it just now appears to be and anytime it can go, then why so much attachment. Without it also I am okay and I can survive. Visualizing does not mean you are wishing it. How can I wish my spouse’s death ? If you wish that , then there is another opposite problem -hatred. You should not wish somebody’s death. But you must be ready for anybody’s death. Someone may say that it is very amangalam to think like that. But however amangalam it is, it is the reality. Many times we would have helplessly thought it also. Suppose your spouse or child does not come, don’t you think something bad could have happened. There you are thinking helplessly. But here you are thinking under controlled conditions. By visualising something, it does not really happen. But you are doing this for a purpose -to get rid of attachment. Suppose you are not attached then you need not do it. Like I did visualize the absence of people like my teacher who really mattered so much in my life. I visualized if my teacher is not there then what. I was able to get detached and see that I would feel sad about it , I would be very sorry if he was not there, but my life will continue , there will not be a void. It made me more relaxed. However, one should know that there is nothing wrong with close association with one’s teacher in the initial stages of ones spiritual pursuit. One should be dependent at this stage. But the attachment should be spiritual not material or physical. Then only the student can grow. Gradually the emotional dependence should get reduced and then finally intellectual dependence also should go. If you want to get rid of samsara then in a controlled atmosphere you practice this. This is one of the techniques for getting detached. Without that , disidentification from upadhi will not happen. If that does not happen vidya will not happen. If vidya does not happed svarupa adhyaasa will not happen. If that does not happen then samsara will not go completely. That is why try first to be detached from external objects.

What is the sign of being detached from people , objects and situations ? i) One sign is you will not have unnecessary inquisitiveness. ii) You will not have the need to control. Control indicates some attachment. iii) Interference is not there. Playing a role is there. Suppose you are a mother and you have to tell your child to study, then you play the role. But decide how many times you should say it and stick to it. If you are attached then you will find yourself going beyond your quota. You will not be careless, but you will not be unduly concerned. You will do what is to be done. Bhagavan Krishna tried to make a truce between two groups of Yadavas. He did not succed. He let them fight and die. Obectivity is the ground for vivekah, then vidya and then adhyaasasya athyantika nivritti. This is one interpretation where adhyaasa is taken in general and seen in drstanta and darstanta. Here Viveka means separating the adhistanam from adhyasta like sarpadi. Vidya means ascertaining the nature of adhistanam. This is one interpretation where adhyaasa and viveka are taken in general for all cases including atma-anatma. The other interpretation given by one acharya is especially in the context of atma-anatma. Tad Viveka means asangha jnanena. Tasmat adhyastat anatmanah sakashat vivekena. Seperating atma from upadhi anatma which is adhyastah. In other words, knowing atma to be asanghah is tad vivekah. I am unassociated from this body-mind-complex upadhi and its qualities that is asanghah atma jnanam and that is referred to by the word tad vivekena. I atma am different from anatma which is adhyasta, when that viveka is done what I am doing is separating atma from anatma but I am still accepting duality. Still there are two entities - atma and anatma. But in the next stage when I further enquire then I understand that the nature of this upadhi is mithya. After asangha atma jnanam I understand that this upadhi from which I had disassociated myself is unreal. I the self alone am. This advitiya atma jnanam is called vidya. Thus Vastunah atmanah advitiya svarupavdharanam vidyam ahuhu. This is the interpretation of the bhashyam sentence. Ascertaining the nature of atma to be non-dual is called vidya. Viveka is asangah atma jnanam and Vidya is advitiya atma jnanam. In between there is upadhi mithyatma nischaya. Without seeing the mithyatvam of upadhi you cannot arrive at advityatvam of atma. Thus the steps are – asangha atma jnanam, upadhi mithyatva nischaya and advitiya atma nischaya. i) Asanghah atma jnanam. Knowing atma to be unassociated from upadhi is viveka. ii) Mithyatva nischaya - Dismissing the reality of upadhi. iii) Advitiya atma jnanam -Ascertaining the non-dual nature of atma is vidya. These are the 3 stages. In between these two - asanghah atma jnanam and advitiya atma jnanam there is a connection. Without knowing atma to be asanghah , you cannot arrive at advityatvam of atma. To arrive at the advitiyam of atma you have to dismiss upadhi ie, mithyatvanischaya of upadhis hould be there. For this you have to anayse the upadhi very clearly and objectively and that is possible only when you have disidentified from upadhi. Only if you have disidentified from upadhi, then only you can ascertain the mithyatvam of upadhi effectively. Then only you will arrive at advitiya atma svarupa jnanam which is vidya.

Here also I have to have relative detachment from external objects, people and situations. If this is not there, then my asanghatvam with reference to BMC will not be possible. First of all I should have relative asanghatvam from objects then only I can dissociate myself from this upadhi even cognitively. That is why the stages will be - relative asanghatvam, then knowing atma to be asangha from upadhi, then becoming objective about upadhi, dismissing the realty of upadhi and then advitiya atma jnanam. Our reactions will show whether we are attached or not. If something happens to the object or person we like, then how disturbed we feel. If we are not objective at this level then it is something like not being able to make simple rice, forget bisibhele. You can only dream about it you cannot make it. People feel without attachment our life will be very bland like tofu. Really without attachment you can enjoy the present better. Every moment whatever happens you are ready to welcome because you are not particular of this or that to happen. First of all the person has to see the beauty of detachment. In Bhagavatam it is said - vairagya raga rasiko bhava.Develop the taste for vairagyam. Not talking about vairagyam. Actually talking too much about vairagyam may become an escape route from working on it. Some people say we will do social service, serve the country. But they do not do anything. By talking only they are satisfied. They have this vicarious satisfaction by discussion only. Ofcourse the concept should be clear of what vairagyam is and what it is not. But it should not stop there, it should develop. Whatever needs to be done for it , you should do it.

April 6 –Ques & Ans. : 1)Which Bhashyam are we in ? Sadbhava Bhashyam which is a section of Sambhavana Bhashyam. 2) What is meant by Sadbhava Bhashyam ? The Bhashyam which deals with the existence of Adhyaasa is called Sadbhava Bhashyam. 3) What is the first sentence of Sadbhava Bhashyam ? Tametameva lakshanam adhyaasam panditah avidyeti manyante. What is the brief meaning of this sentence ? Adhyaasa which was earlier talked about is considered to be Avidya by learned people. 4) How many reasons are given for calling adhyaasa to be avidya and state them briefly ? Three reasons are given why adhyaasa is called avidya.

i) Adhyaasa being a product of avidya is called by the name which denotes the cause. ii) To highlight the importance of adhyaasa which is the immediate cause for suffering. iii) Avidya and adhyaasa are both removed by Vidya. Therefore adhyaasa is called avidya. 5) What is the second sentence of Sadbhava Bhashyam ? Tadvivekena cha vastusvarupavadharanam vidyam ahuhu. What is the brief meaning of this sentence ? Ascertainment of the nature of the real entity which is brought about by viveka is called Vidya (by Panditahs). 6) What is the meaning of tad vivekena ? Tad means that and refers to adhyasta. Viveka means separation. It implies vilayanam or dissolution of samsarga adhyaasa. Tad vivekana means by that process of separating the adhyasta from the adhistanam. 7) What does the word vastu refer to in vastusvarupavadharanam ? The word vastu refers to adhistanam. Ascertaining the nature of the adhistanam. 8)What are the two interpretations for this sentence ? The first interpretation is applicable to all adhyaasa ie, to rope-snake, shuktika-rajat and atmaannatma. Tad vivekena means the process of separating the adhyasta from adhistanam and vastusarupavadharanam is arriving at the nature of the adhistanam. This is called Vidya. The second interpretation is specific to atma-anatma. Tad vivekana means asanghah atma jnanena and vastusvarupavadharanam means advitiya atma jnanam . Thus ascertaining the nature of adhistanam atma to be non-dual thro’ asangha atma jnanam is called Vidya. 8) What is the pre-viveka preparation necessary ? One has to first disindentify from external objects ie, mamakara visya. Why is it necessary to disidentify from external objects ? Mamabhava presupposes aham bhava. My attachment to objects, people and situations necessitates my identification with Bodymind-complex (BMC). As long as the attachment with external objects is there, one cannot disidentify from whatever is necessary for that attachment. Therefore one has to detach from mamakara visaya before one can detach from ahamkara visaya. So viveka is not possible until one has detached from external objects. Eg : Attachment to project means attachment to people associated with project. Detachment from project (which is like mamakara visaya) is necessary to detach from the people (which is like ahamkara visaya) associated with it. 9) What is one of the techniques to disassociate from mamakara visaya ?

Visualising the absence of the object, people or situation is one technique to detach from external objects. 10) What are the signs of being attached to external objects ? Interference in others affairs, need to control, inquisitiveness and undue concern are signs of being attached. Also helplessly thinking about the person or object all the time. All these indicate there is raga or dvesha for the object.

April 6th –Talk 31
Tametam evam lakshanam adhyaasam panditah avidyeti manyante. Tad vivekena ca vastusvarupavadharanam vidyam ahuhu. In the first sentence of the Sadbhava Bhashyam it was said that adhyaasa is considerd to be avidya. In the next sentence what is vidya was described. The ascertainment of the nature of the real entity which is brought about by viveka is called Vidya. Vidya referred to here is that which is avidya nivarthika. The emphasis is on vidya here. Adhyaasa is called avidya because it is vidya nivarthya. Therefore Vidya is defined here. Viveka from adhyasta which brings about ascertainment of adhistanam is Vidya. In the darstanta, viveka is seperation of anatma from atma. By atma-anatma viveka one gets ascertainment of the nature of adhistanam which is atma. Therefore we had seen in the second interpretation, there are 3 stages i) asangha atma jnanam – seperating atma from anatma , ii) upadhi mithvatya nischaya – understanding upadhi to be mithya iii) advitiya atma nischaya - arriving at non-dual nature of atma. There is a connection between asangha atma jnanam and advitiya atma jnanam. To arrive at advitiya atma jnanam , you have to ascertain the mithyatvam of the upadhi. Mithyatvam of anatma will be understood effectively only when you are objective about anatma upadhi. You will be objective only when you have dis-identified. Therefore asangha atma jnanam or disidentification from anatma is necessary for arriving at mithyatva nischaya of upadhi. So viveka, mithyatva nischaya and advitya atma jnanam. Before that what is needed is disidentification from external objects. Without disidentifying from mamakara visaya I cannot give up my aham bhava in body-mind-intellect (BMI). This we see several times. But my entanglement with external objects,people and situations (OPS) presupposes the identification with upadhi. My entanglement with OPS will not allow me to disidentify from BMI. That is why one has to first disidentify from OPS to detach from BMI. One has to see this connection between the two very clearly. One cannot say, I am 60 yrs and I want to hurry up up my Vedanta study. So I will start with atma-anatma viveka. This hurrying up will not work. It has to happen gradually however anxious you are. Suppose someone is in a hurry to reach Mount Everest and does not taken evn an oxygen mask. He goes to a certain height and feels miserable and has to come back to base camp. His time is wasted. Suppose he had taken all the neccessary things correctly, then he would not have to come back. Similarly in Vedanta no step can be by-passed. I cannot say I want everything to happen according to my fancy , but I will do atma-anatma viveka by attending all Swamijis classes every fri, sat and

Sunday. It will not work. It is something like making the journey on the mountain without oxygen mask. You require that. First of all detachment from external objects should be my practical exercise along with the study of Vedanta ofcourse. It is more a mental exercise - whether I am mentally entangled or not. If possible physically also but more mentally one has to disentangle from OPS. Physical disentanglement helps to give more time for atma-anatma viveka. One may ask, how can a grahasta practice detachment from family ? Only a sanyasi can detach completely. That is why we say. even if physical detachment is not practical, mental detachment should be there. One incidental subtle point here is that if you have commitment to detachment from OPS, then your perception of lucky and unlucky will also change. Generally a person from a huge family who is loved by all, respected and cared for , such a person is considered to be lucky. A person whose parents have died in early childhood, not cared by anybody, not loved, frequently stung by the world then generally from the worldly standpoint he is considered to be unlucky. But from spiritual standpoint when your purpose is to have detachment from the world and maximum time for yourself then the second situation is a lucky situation. Your perception changes. Suppose your dear and near one insults you. It is considered to be unlucky. See she did so much for him and see what he is doing to her. She is very unlucky. Suppose she is spiritual person and she wants to disentangle both physically and mentally. Then she will consider it to be a blessing. Now half the job is done. Detachment is easier now. When you detach you have to be sure that the other person does not get hurt. Now half job is done, I do not have to do anything to makethe other person detach. Only I have to drop now. If two people are holding then the bond is very strong. If one person is holding, then bond is weak and a weak bond is always easy to drop. Something is lost then you should be happy that there is one less thing to detach from. One Swamiji had printed so many books. One book Bhagavatam he had kept in some cellar in Bombay. There was floods and all the books got spoiled. Swamiji said good, now we do not have to keep an account of the books ! That should be the attitude. When you have the spiritual angle then your perception of lucky and unlucky will change. Narsimha Mehta, the person who wrote the patriotic poem ‘vaishnava jana to tere…’a song which was very much liked by Gandhiji lived with his brother. He was mistreated by his sister-in-law and one day she ill-treated him so much that he had to leave the house. He goes to the forest and sits near Shivalinga and he tells Bhagvan, you alone are mine. Nothing else belongs to me, only Bhagvan alone is there. He got so much devotion that in a few days he got the darshan of Lord Shiva. Then he goes and thanks his sister-in-law for doing an unpleasant thankless job because of which he got the darshan of Lord Shiva. That should be the approach of the seeker. What is considered negative from worldly angle, he considers positive. There is a loss of people, loss of things, it is Ok. In India, we have better chance of getting vairagyam. Nothing moves very easily. Everything is a struggle. So it is easier to get vairagyam. Whereas in other countires through the internet you do everything very easily, so there is no hardship. So people may say things are inefficient in India, but for those who want vairagyam it is good. If people in society behave in a rude manner we

should thank them. Then you will not have attachment. If they are very nice to you, then it is difficult to give up the attachment. Suppose some physical disease is there by which your movements are restricted then also we should thank Bhagvan. We cannot go out so much therefore we cannot get extroverted. Thank you, O Lord. There is a nice poem in Hindi whose meaning is –“ I thank the situation where my legs are crippled because I cannot go anywhere else but sit in front of your temple and I cannot move. Thank you God.” This is an extreme stand. But it is to show what height you can go to see something which is negative as positive. Our pursuit should be to be more and more introvert and if that is your commitment then so called negative becomes positive. You say thanks. Swamiji gave a very good example. Somebody was lost in the forest and it was getting dark. He missed the route. All of a sudden he sees a wild animal coming after him. He runs away and he runs in which ever direction available with the animal chasing behind him. After a sometime he is out of the forest and he finds he is exactly in the direction that he wanted to go. And the animal also stops at the edge of the forest. So this animal chasing the person was a blessing otherwise he would have been lost the whole night in the forest. But the animal chased him out of the forest and that was a blessing. Similarly in society if some people chase us out from a particular group, in a way we should be happy. When our perception is to get vairagyam, then our definition of lucky and unlucky changes. Most of the time we have got pain because we feel we are facing what seems in the worldly angle an unlucky situation. But for a mumukshu it becomes a lucky situation. Then only you can say you have commitment to vairagyam. Otherwise we simply say that we have vairagyam. Therefore vairagyam has to become my initial commitment if I want atma-anatma viveka effectively. Otherwise to say - that I am not the body, mind senses is not very difficult to understand or remember. But to see the implication is very difficult. Therefore one has to have vairagyam. Infact Vedanta satsang is called vitaraga katha. It is the subject matter for people who have vairagyam. If somebody is afraid of vairagyam, then he better keep Vedanta away. Because it will not make much dent on him. The whole pursuit is that of dropping. People who are miserly all the time, always holding on to things not giving, sharing. For them Vedanta does not make much impact. This is the bitter truth. Therefore one has to work on this first. Atma-anatma viveka seems easy – manobuddhi ahankara chittani naham na cha shrotra jihvhe na cha grananetre….we have been chanting this for so long but nothing much has happened. Why ? because the prerequisite is not fulfilled. Sometimes when I am very hungry and I have to cook. That is not a good combination. I want to do it fast, so I put the cooker on the gas without keeping anything else ready. Then I get the rest of the things like oil, vegs, rice.. What happens is the cooker gets burnt. This is what happens to our jnana yoga. Jnana yoga gets burnt and smoke comes out. So first prepare yourself . Without preparation it does not work. So vairagya with reference to external objects should be there for viveka to start. Then only vidya comes. Once vidya comes then adhyaasa will go. Adhyaasa born suffering will go. By chance if adhyaasa comes back due to samskara, then you recall back vidya which is already there which will immediately remove adhyaasa. Therefore anytime any problem call the infrastructure of vidya. It is like you have hired a watchman. Any intruder will be thrown out by the watchman. In consulate offices they do this. Similarly vidya is ready. Any adhyaasa, any suffering, press the

button of vidya and adhyaasa goes away. So vidya is not only a sure remedy, but the only remedy for adhyaasa and adhyaasa born suffering. Once I am convinced about this then I will be ready to sacrifice anything for it. Peope sacrifice much for small-small things. To get money they go to another country and there they are humilated many a time. But they put up with all this because they want dollars or pounds. For fame you put up with so many inconveniences and people. For all these small things which don’t give you permanent solutions you put up with so much, but cannot you sacrifice for vidya which will really solve the problem. For that I should be very well convinced that vidya will solve the probem. My problem is adhyaasa and adhyaasa can go by vidya and vidya only. With this attitude we try to get whatever is necessary to gain vidya. For vidya, atma-anatma viveka is necessary. For atma-anatma viveka, vairagyam from external objects is necessary. Suppose I want a passport or visa, I have to do whatever is required whether it makes sense or not. When I am convinced of something then I must be ready to give whatever is necessary. So first I must be convinced about vidya, then only motivation will be there to work for atma-anatma viveka and vairagyam towards external objects. This is about Vidya. The next sentence talks about the result of adhyaasa nivritti. Tatraivam sati yatra yad adhyaasah tad krtena doshena gunena vanumatrena api sa na sambhadhyate. This sentence is indicating the result of dismissal of adhyaasa. First the word meaning – Tatra - that refers to adhyaasa in general. Evam sati means being so ie, Adhyaasa being the product of avidya. Yatra –where refers to adhistanam. Yad adhyaasa – there is superimposition of something. Tad krtena, doshena gunena va – by the defect or demerit, virtue or merit brought about by adhyasta (tad). na sambhadyate- is not affected or associated. Anumatrenapi-even by an iota or even by little measure.

So the full meaning is – Since adhyaasa is of this nature, adhistanam on which there is superimposition of something is not affected by its merit or demerit brought about by adhyasta, even by a small measure. In short adhistanam is never affected by the positive or negative quality of adhyasta. Adhistanam ever remains untouched by the quality of adhyasta. Eg : The snake which is superimposed does not make the rope poisonous. The mirage water which is superimposed upon the land is not wetting the land. Similarly the dosha or guna of adhyasta anatma does not effect the adhistanam atma. This is a very relieving sentence . It relieves you from all types of complexes, insecurities, guilt. You are relaxed when you understand this sentence and assimilate it well. When you have assimilated this sentence then you are free from all problems of samsara. Why ? because my understanding is that I am the adhistanam atma and everything else is anatma and anatma qualities cannot touch me. Suppose there is some limitation of the body, intellect it does not

restrict me. Even if one does not know the answer to even a simple question then it should not effect . We have so many complexes based on limitation of upadhi. We should have the strength to drop our conclusions . Then there is no pressure to prove anything. Just as we have no pressure to prove that we are Satchidananda because we know the other person is also Satchitananda. I am the ultimate. I do not have to prove anything to anybody. This gives you permanent relaxation.

April 13th – Ques & Ans.: 1) What was the incidental point we were seeing, while discussing viveka ?
There is an incidental change that takes place when developing detachment from object people and situation. One’s perception of lucky and unlucky undergoes a change. What is considered to be lucky in worldly transaction, may not be lucky from spiritual point of view. Similarly what is termed unlucky from worldly standpoint may be lucky for spiritual growth. 2) How is the perception of a seeker different ? He will see so-called unlucky situations as positive for his spiritual growth and consider it to be a blessing in disguise. 3) How does an unlucky situation becomea blessing for a seeker ? The area of entanglement will become less. He has one less situation to disentangle from.

He also has more time and energy for his spiritual pursuit. So the unlucky situation becomes a blessing in disguise. Note : This type of thinking should not encourage any carelessness towards situation. One should not create such negative situations. If it happens due to the other person’s raga dvesha and my contribution to it is zero, then my response to the situation should be one of detachment. It should be my genuine response. That is the idea conveyed. 4) What is the connection to the next sentence –‘ tatraivam sati …….sa na sambhadhyate.’. The next sentence tells the result of knowing adhyaasa to be avidyatmaka. 5) What is the meaning o f- tatraivam sati ? Tatra means that and refers to adhyaasa. Evam sati means - adhyaasa being of the nature of avidya (avidyatmika). 6) What does -Yatra yad adhyaasa - mean? Yatra means where. It implies where there is adhyaasa ie, in adhistanam. Yad adhyaasah means yasya adhyaasah - the superimposition of something. 7)What is the essence of the meaning of -‘‘doshena gunena va sa na sambhadhyate ?” It means adhistanam is not affected by the positive and negative qualities of the adhyasta. 8) What is the meaning of anumatrenapi ? Even by an iota ie, not even by a little measure. 9) What is the essence of this sentence ? Adhistanam is not effected even by an iota by the merits and demerits of the adhyasta.

10)What is the implication of this sentence ? How is it useful ? I am that adhistanam and the upadhi is adhyasta and the qualities of the adhyasta do not affect me. If we understand this sentence well, then we will be free of all complexes. Our mind can be relaxed.

April 13 – Talk 32 –
We are seeing the third sentence of the Sadbhava Bhashyam. In the earlier two sentences it was said – Panditahs consider adhyaasa to be avidya since it is a product of avidya and since both adhyaasa and avidya are removed by vidya. What is Vidya ? Vidya is the ascertainment of the nature of the real entity ie, adhistanam. This ascertainment comes with the help of the viveka of adhyasta ie, by separating the adhistanam from adhyasta. So viveka, avadharanam and that avadharnam is called vidya. With vidya, adhyaasa is completely dismissed. In the initial stage also it is dismissed, but

when vidya comes it is totally dismissed-athyantika nivrittih ie, in no period of time adhyasta was there. It is not just gone now. It is never there. Before that for atma-anatma viveka to happen we need some vairagyam from mamakara visaya. If one has raga, then that raga will not allow me to dismiss this upadhi with which I have aham bhava. Mamabhava visaya will remain as long as there is aham bhava . Mine can be there only when I is there. So my attachment to mamakara visaya will not allow me to dismiss the samsarga adhyaasa ie, the superimposed connection between atma- anatma. The ground will not be created for viveka. So first we have to dismiss mamakara visaya. This is very difficult. Because we have so much attachment to things, people and situations. How do we drop it ? First we have to drop it in areas where our attachment is less. Suppose I ask you to drop your mamakara from the house you are staying. It is very difficult. But suppose you have six houses and you are staying only in one. One of the houses is very far and is very small and not suitable to you. So if somebody asks for it you will give it because your mamakara is less. So you start by dropping where your bond is less . It is easy and then you discover the joy of dropping. So out of six you have dropped one house headache. But don’t stop with that. Again where you have least mamakra you drop. Just as you drop mamkara with your garbage every day. But that is not enogh. You have to go ahead and drop a little more mamakara than just for garbage. Even with people also. Reduce mamkara with those people you have less attachment. Then don’t stop there. Let it be a constant exercise to drop mamakara. By chance people themselves drop their connection with you. The you should thank God. But it should be heartfelt. It should not be mere pretense or a means to suppress your sense of loss. One can take as long as one wants, to realize that the loss was not really a loss but one type of freedom. Similarly when I feel people don’t care for me, it should translate in my mind as people fortunately don’t bother me. When they care they have to interact with me. But now that problem is not there. Otherwise people not caring can be an agonizing situation. So much bitterness is there when you feel ,”I did so much and they don’t care for me when I need them. They don’t even call me”. You should be happy because you don’t have to find excuses now. Either by other people’s humiliation , withdrawal or anything I should feel okay. Then I will be really progressing in the area of detachment. It should be taken as a blessing. Bhagvan has made it easy for me. Like suppose I go to someone’s house for dinner and the lady has prepared something I don’t like. Like chatni with garlic which she has made enthusiastically and she makes very well. If she serves it , I will have to say no. But suppose she forgot to serve, then my feeling will be one of relief. She made my job easy. Suppose people who I care for, they themselves go away not because I did something but because of their own need. Then my job is easy. Ground is clear. There should not be a sense of loss or loneliness. We hear film songs sung in all languages expressing this sense of loss. We identify with those songs and like them. But when I feel that whatever has happened is a blessing, then there is really progress. That is why lucky and unlucky is a matter of perception. There is this story of two sadhus higly dispassionate and great tapasvis staying together . The king came to know about their dispassion. He wanted to see them and sent a message to them. From

the worldly standpoint it is a lucky situation because the king himself is coming o see them. He will not come empty handed, he will bring a lot of gifts. Because the king came, many others will also want to visit them. They could have many ashrams and devotees. From the worldly standpoint the king coming was a lucky situation. But the sadhus thought , “my god wherefrom this has come”. The place was convenient for their sadhana so they wanted to continue there. But if the king comes and he likes them then there will be a big crowd . So what they did, when they saw the king coming they started fighting for half a roti. They started shouting at each other. The king came and saw them fighting for a roti. He felt he was misinformed. So he simply came and did namaskara and went away. He told later that they are useless fellows. The sadhus felt very relieved. So what is considered to be lucky situation, they considered to be unlucky . One swamiji became the Mattadipathi of a reputed ashram -the head of the matha is called a Mahamandaleswar. Hearing this one of his disciple cried. He should be very happy because he will have so much importance as the Mathadipati’s shisya. But he felt that his guru will be busy with mattha things and he will not have as much time to teach me . Further it happened that the shisya was asked afterwards to take his guru’s place who had become old and wanted to retire. But the shisya refused. So some other person took the guru’s place as Mathadipathi. Then something happened to him and again the Mathadipathi position was vacant. The shisya was asked again . But he says no the second time. The guru says I will curse you, if you do not follow my instructions. The shisya says I will accept your curse and hold it on my head, but I cannot take the position. The guru was later happy that he had a disciple who was greater than him because he had rejected such an irresistible offer. So what is lucky for somebody is unlucky for someone else. Depending on your perception, you interpret. Suppose your name came in newspaper, some people think you are lucky. What is there to feel lucky about it ? It is a difference in perception provided one has the maturity to see from that angle. The journey will be easy then, otherwise you will be struggling. That is why it is emphasised that before atma-anatma viveka one attempts for detachment from external objects. And one way of attempting is to see all the loss as a blessing. That was the incidental point with regard to mamakara visaya. We will see the connection to the next sentence – Tatraivam sati yatra yad adhyaasah tad krtena doshena gunena vanumatrenapi sah na sambhadhyate. In the Sadbhava Bhashyam it was said adhyaasa is considered to be avidya. What is the relevance of knowing adhyaasa is avidyatmaka ? That is suggested in the next sentence. Tatraivam sati - Since adhyaasa is of the nature of avidya ie, That being so. Yatra yad adhyaasa – where (on adhistanam) there is superimposition of adhyasta. Tad krtena – brought about by adhyasta Doshena gunena va-the merits or demerits ie, positive and negative qualities. Sah refers to adhistanam Sah na sambhadyate - adhistanam is never affected

Anumatrenapi - not even by a small measure. So adhistanam where there is superimposition of something is not affected even in a small measure by the merit or demerit brought about by adhyasta. In short, adhyasta does not affect adhistanam . Why it does not effect adhistanam ? Tatra evam sati- because adhyaasa is of the nature of avidya. Means adhyaasa is created by ignorance and it goes away by knowledge . That is one implication of tatra evam sati. What is the connection ? Since it is avidyatmaka and since it is removed by vidya therefore adhistanam is not effected by adhyasta. The implication of this is that since it is avidya (adhyaasa)whatever is created is due to ignorance and can go away only by knowledge and knowledge does not really destroy any real thing. Only thing that happens in the wake of knowledge is ignorance and ignorance born unreal things go away. Real thing does not go away in the wake of knowledge. Eg: Suppose there was a real snake and somehow I mistake it to be a rope. When I go near , I get bitten because it was really a sanke. My thinking that it is a rope does not make the snake go away. Only if it is not real will it go away. In adhyaasa there are 2 factors - Adhyasta and Adhistanam. Adhyasta, the superimposed appears because there is ignorance. When the ignorance of adhistanam goes, then adhyasta goes away. Adhyasta being born of avidya is unreal. Being unreal it cannot affect the real. So adhistanam is real and adhyasta is unreal being a product of avidya. Being unreal, therefore adhyasta has no impact on adhistanam . Eg: rope is not made poisonous by the superimposition of snake. Suppose in the place of rope you saw a garland. Then also the rope will not get the fragrance brought about by the garland. The rope is not touched by the positive merit of the superimposed garland. Similarly the rope is not affected by the demerit of the superimposed snake. That is what is indicated by tad krtena doshena gunenava na sambhadyate. The poison of the snake does not make the rope poisonous nor the fragrance of the garland make the rope fragrant. Also adhyaasa can be for any number of years. It is not that it will effect in course of time. Even for 100 years people can have adhyaasa that there was a snake . This is in the drastanta still the rope will not be affected by the poison of the snake. In the darstanta , there is a double adhyaasa of atma on anatma and anatma on atma. One commentator shows it both ways. Adhistanam can be atma or anatma. So Yatra yad adhyaasa can be seen in 2 ways : Where on the self (yatra yad adhyaasah) there was superimposition of anatma, that atma (sah) on which there is superimposition is not affected (na sambhadhyate) by any glories or defects of anatma (doshena gunena va). Body has the defect of mortality, disease, many changes take place, so many problems it has. Similarly the mind is moody. Sometimes it is in a good mood. It has a positive spark. After few weeks the spark is gone. I would tell the person stabilize your mood. But they don’t like to be told that at that time. Similarly the intellect is sometimes sharp, sometimes dull. Body, mind, intellect, even memory have limitations, But whatever happens I am not

effected. I don’t have any limitations.This is not something to be believed , but it is a fact to be understood. This is one interpretation of yatra yad adhyaasah….where atma is adhistanam. Another interpretation is where anatma is adhistanam.Yatra anatmani – on that anatma there is samsarga adhyaasa of atma. Tad krtena - On that anatma there is superimposition of atma because of which BMC is said to have the guna of chetanatvam. But that anatma which is adhistanam really does not become chetana. This we are not used to hearing . Also it is not very relevant because that is not our issue. Our issue is that I am feeling limited. Body is chetana is not our issue. Let it look conscious, but I am feeling I am mortal, suffering, going to die. I am wrinkled and my hair turns totally grey and no dye can change it, but I know I am unaffected. Lord Shiva really symbolizes this. His dress , snake round the neck, wearing tiger skin and wearing smashana bhasma. It seems like all things connected with Shiva are amangalam but Shiva is the embodiment of auspiciousness. Let everything that is superimposed on me be amangalam, but I am mangala svarupah. Whatever be the external situations, I am auspiciousness. Let people say you are unlucky, but I feel I am auspicious. I assert this fact in my mind. This upadhi may be amangalam to somebody, but I am mangalam. That is why there is more emphasis on the superimposition of anatma on atma and we say that the quality of anatma does not affect the adhistanam which is atma. It is not my anatma, but I am atma. If I understand this, there is so much relief. All the complexes are based on upadhi only. Suppose I feel I am fair or dark. What is looking fair or dark ? It is the body which is fair or dark and we get complex about it. In sastra we say that white is associated with sattva guna, red with rajo guna and black with tamo guna . So we read this and get a complex. But that is not so. Maybe to remove this complex Krishna was born black. It is unnecessary complex, but if I understand this that I am never affected by any quality, not only negative but even positive glory of the body is not mine. Suppose you identify with glory you cannot escape from the defects. It is not like when sweet comes you gulp it and when bitter comes you spit it out . It will not work here. If somebody says you look very smart you preen your hair. Hair has got so much ahankara. Afterwards if somebody says your hair looks naturally black. That means he understood it is not natural. Then you feel bad. So all complexes are related to body, mind or senses only. Suppose you have a hearing problem then you cannot hear properly. But you don’t want others to know that you have a hearing problem. If I have eye problem and wear glasses I don’t feel so bad as when I have a hearing problem. That is why they make hearing aids which look like glasses. All due to complexes. We have complexes based on our mind. Suppose I get angry, I immediately deny it. I do not want to admit I get angry. Similarly if you have jealousy, you say I am not jealous. The person does not want to accept that. Similarly the intellect. We don’t know something in class, we feel small. Why? Because I am not able to see that the intellect also has limitations. But when you have assimilated this sentence, then you are free from all complexes. You are also free from insecurity. Insecurity comes when you have identified with upadhi. Someone says – “ Swamiji, I have money upto 72 yrs. But suppose I live beyond that then what “ ? It is simple logic, if you have prarabdha to live beyond 72 yrs, then the prarabdha which gives you life beyond 72 yrs will give you the means to sustain. Why should you bother about it. It is Bhagvan’s job. He has given life and he will sustain. But you say, it will be difficult to sustain. But

that difficulty you cannot escape. You had problems before also and now also you have problems. But the fact that the problems belong to the body and not me is a great relief. You are no longer afraid of the problem, so it does not loom large. You just face it. Suppose you are used to traveling by plane and you don’t get flight tickets. So you have to go by sleeper non-AC. You feel restless and get angry with travel agent . Like I once went by flight from here to Bombay and from Bombay I had to take a train to Baroda traveling in an unreserved overfull compartment and standing near the bathroom door all night. It was a real contrast from air flight to unreserved train . But really speaking if you have the mind then you know this too should pass. It belongs to upadhi. The upadhi has to go through this situation. So when we realize it belongs to upadhi , then you don’t have insecurities. Then many behaviours you have due to insecurities will go away. Because of insecurity you have compromised with your values. Because of insecurities you have buttered so many people. You feel wretched and helpless. And you have to get obligated to wrong people which creates an unpleasant obligation. All this because of insecurity. Suppose I say let it be so. Then there is no compromise, no insecurity, no fear. You become a light person with no complexes. Otherwise you find that fear governs your life. Sometimes it is in your conscious mind and sometimes in your unconscious mind. But all this goes away when you understand that I am adhistana svarupa atma. This fact that I am not affected is not happening only now. In the past also I was not affected . In the future also I will not be affected. Whatever happened in the past was due to the upadhi even though I did not know this fact. In future also I will not be touched. Therefore no brooding over the past and no worrying about the future. That is why it is nicely said about a wise peron – atitam nanu sandhate, bhavishyananu chintayan, vartamananimeshantu hasanevanu vartatu. A wise man does not brood about the past nor does he worry about the future and the present moment he is spending with a smile. I have to really assimilate this fact that I am asangha atma adhistanam on which there is superimposition of anatma. This is an eternal fact. But the fact itself does not remove sorrow from the mind. My knowledge of this fact only removes sorrow, insecurity and fear. So atma being untocuhed is always there. It is not as if we are making atma untouched. Even when I did not know this fact, I the self was never effected. Not knowing this fact, there is sorrow in the mind. The mind has to appreciate this. So there is no change taking place in atma. But a change is definitely taking place in the mind. What type of change ? Earlier I was thinking I was affected and now I assimilate the fact that I the self am not affected. This understanding is taking place in the mind only. But this understanding is about atma. This understanding is not in atma. But it is taking place in the mind about atma. That makes the mind very relaxed. Atma was always shanta svarupah. Then who has the problem ? It is the jiva who has problems.That jiva entity , which is the chaitanyam identifying with the BMC , has this problem. Now that goes away in the wake of this understanding.

April 20 – Ques and Ans. –
1) How does a person who is working on detachment from mamakara visaya perceive situations ?

He will consider so called unlucky situations (like humiliation, etc.) to be lucky and so-called lucky situations to be unlucky. 2) What care one has to take in adopting that policy ? a) It should be a genuine feeling and situation should happen on its own . b) One should not be irresponsible and hurt people in the name of vairaghyam. c) One should be ready to apologise for any mistakes one has done. d) Carelessness may appear as vairagyam, but both are really different. One should therefore be careful not to be careless. 4) What is the example given how lucky situation appears to be obstacle ? The story of the King who wants to visit 2 sadhus who are practicing their sadhana. The arrival of the King would bring them prosperity and fame. But the sadhus felt it would affect their sadhana. The so called lucky situation of the King visiting was considered by the sadhus as unlucky. 5) What is the connection given to tatra evam sathi? Tatra evam sathi means that being so . Tatra refers to adhyaasa. And evam sathi refers to what was said earlier - adhyaasa being avidyatmika. The connection to this sentence is – What is the benefit of knowing adhyaasa is avidyatmaka and adhyaasa like avidya is removed by vidya ? 6) What is the meaning of Yatra yad adhyaasah ? Yatra means where - in adhistanam. Yad adhyaasah means superimposition of something. The meaning of the expression is –in adhistanam where there is superimposition of something.

7) What is the meaning of sa na sambhadhyate ? Sa refers to adhistanam. Na sambhadhyate means it is not affected. So adhistanam is not affected by adhyasta. 8) What is the meaning of tat krtena doshena gunena va ? Tat krtena means brought abt by adhyasta. Na doshena gunena va means by the merits or demerits of adhyasta. By the merits or demerits brought about by the adhyasta. 9) What is the meaning of na anumatrenapi ? Not even by an iota or even in a small measure .

10) What is the overall meaning of this sentence ?

Adhyaasa being avidyatmika, the Adhistanam is not affected even in a small measure by the merits or demerits brought about by the adhyasta. 11) How many angles can this sentence be seen from ? It can be seen from 2 angles Anatma adhyaasa on atma and Atma adhyaasa on anatma. 12) Where will the meaning change ? From the first angle, yatra yad adhyaasa will be seen as yatra atmani anatma adhyaasah. Where on adhistanam atma there is superimposition of anatma, the defects or glories of anatma will not affect atma. From the second angle, yatra yad adhyaasa is seen as yatra anatmani atma adhyaasah. Where there is adhyaasa of atma on adhistanam anatma, the chetanatvam of atma will not touch anatma ie, anatma will not really become chetana. 13) What is our main issue atma on anatma or anatma on atma? Our main issue is anatma on atma. Anatma has limitations and atma is limitless. The demerit of anatma does not affect atma. That is relevant. 14) What is the benefit of this understanding ? We become relaxed. We are free of all the complexes born of limitations of anatma . 15) How does one get free from complexes based on anatma ? One cannot be free from limitations of anatma, unless one sops claiming the glories of anatma also. You cannot take only the good and disassociate from the bad. You have to dissociate from both.

April 20 - Talk 33 –
Tatra evam sati yatra yad adhyaasah tat krtena gunena doshena va tadanumatrenapi sa na sambhadhyate. Tatra evam sati - this being so. Adhyaasa being avidyatmika and removed by Knowledge, the adhistanam is never affected at all by the guna or dosha of adhyasta. For that there is a nice sloka – aaropitam nasrayadusakam bhavetkadapi, mudhaih matidoshadusitaih. Something which is superimposed by deluded people who are polluted by the defect of the intellect. That superimposed never pollutes the asraya or adhistanam. For that he gives an example - na adriy karoti usara bhoomibhagam maricikavari mahapravahah. Suppose a person sees a huge stream of mirage water. That big flow of mirage water does not wet the desert land. The desert continues to be dry. Once we know that the aaropita does not affect the adhistanam, then we are relieved. How relief can come, for that we have to think a little more.

Every individual is a combination of 2 aspects- chetana or conciousness aspect and jada or BMC aspect. This is who I am . I the individual is made up of several aspects- physical, mental,sensory, intellectual and conciousness aspect. I have many facets, but what is really the core of the individual being ? To find out that, we have to keep one rule in our mind - that which never leaves the person is the core. If we analyse with the help of sastra which gives us avasthatraya viveka , then we find that this physical body is not there in svapna avastha. That is why I feel hungry, thirsty even though I have eaten well. Sometimes I feel sick in the dream even though I am healthy. So in dream state this physical body is dropped, still I am there. In susupti avastha , even the subtle body is dropped, but still I am there. It means this gross and subtle body cannot be the core. What is the core then ? the core is the conciousness which remains in jagrat,svapna and susupti. How is conciousness there in suspti ? because when I get up I have memory. So there must be conciousnes in deep sleep which gives me the memory of having slept well. Once I know that I the conciousness am the core of the individual and the rest of them are anatma which are superimposed, then I am relaxed. Because what matters is the core. Suppose some businessman has got ten business units and out of them one is core or flagship business. Ninety percent of his turnover is from his core business and from the other nine business his turnover is the remaining 10 %. Suppose this year he made 70 % profit in his core business and in the others, some he made 3-5 % loss and some about 1-2 % profit. He will be happy because his core business is not affected. From the core business he got a profit which was 20 times more than the loss from the other business. Therefore it does not matter. The core only matters. Just like in 12th std the students count only the marks of core subjects. They study Kannada and others just to score 35 % . Similarly if I , the jiva understands this that the core of my being which is conciousness is secure, full and pure, then if anything happens in insignificant anatma it does not matter. This understanding that the core is always doing well should be well-assimilated. Then the person will be relaxed. In the example even though there was a real loss, but in the core business there was a profit so the business is not affected by the loss. When the real loss does not affect when a person knows that his main business is doing well, then what to talk about this conciousness which is the only reality and any loss happening in this anatma is something like the loss happening in dream. So once I have understood this well, that I am the core I which is conciousness then the other things are insignificant, then he does not get tensed up . He is all the time relaxed. One has to see this fact all the time that the core of my being or personalityis conciousness which is always full. This is Vidya. So Vidya has to be brought in, that is why it is Purushartha. It comes by proper pursuit. When this Vidya comes, then it solves all my problems. If this understood well then there is commitment for Vidya. First of all person should be convinced that vidya alone solves the problem of samsara, then only a person has commitment to work for Vidya. Once Vidya has come then avidya and avidya born problems will go away. Even if it comes he recalls Vidya. That is how sadhaka is occupied calling Vidya whenever required. Afterwards it becomes very natural for the seeker. Vidya becomes a part of the person. He is free from samsara. Such a person is called jeevan mukthah with whom Vidya is there all the time. He is not affected by the problems caused by avidya and adhyaasa. With this the Sambhavana Bhashyam is over. RECAPITULATION OF SAMBHAVANA BHASHYAM –

In Sambhavana Bhahyam there are 3 parts – 1) Objection to atma-anatma adhyaasah. The objections raised were that atma cannot be adhistanam because atma does not have visayatvam and indriya samyuktatvam. 2) The answer to the objections. Siddanti had answered that visayatvam is there in the form of asmat pratyaya visaya and indriya samyuktatvam is not necessary . Without indriya sanyoga also adhyaasa can take place like in akasha. 3) Then Sadbhava Bhashyam consisting of 3 sentences. First sentence is about adhyaasa being called avidya since it is the product of avidya. The second sentence talks about what is vidya and the third sentence is showing the benefit of knowing that adhyaasa is product of avidya and is removed by Vidya. Next Bhashyam will be Pramana Bhashyam. In Sambhavana the possibility of atma - anatma adhyaasa is established. When Sambhavana is established, then only Pramanam will work. That is why after Sambhavana bhashyam there is Pramana bhashyam. Infact after establishing possibility of adhyaasa, really speaking all the objections raised by Purvapakshi have been answered. So the Purvapakshi should not have any problem to accept atma-anatma adhyaasa. Like if you go to a shop to buy a particular product. But shopkeeer shows you something different from what you thought of. So you raise all the problems itmay have. After satisfactorily answering all the problems raised, you should buy the product. But still you say, I will check with my friend to be sure it is worth buying. Similarly Purvapakshi raised some objections, Siddanti answered them. So the Purvapakshi should now accept that atma-anatma adhyaasa is there. But Purvapakshi will still say, now you have just resolved my objections. Is there any positive pramana which will establish adhyaasa ? It is something like I was in the basement and now you have brought me to ground level. Give me some height of Pramana so that I can see adhyaasa. Supose someone has a back problem. He goes to the doctor and the doctor says you need surgery. You do not want surgery. So you raise so many objections. All the objections are answered by the doctor. He will say surgery is required. You should be ready, but you will say or atleast feel that you would like another opinion. Similarly here the Purvapakshi wants some positive Pramanam and that is why the next bhashyam deals with Pramanam for establishing adhyaasa. This Pramanam has to come only after Sambhavana because the transformation in our understanding takes place only gradually. Suppose I have strong misunderstanding about somebody. I feel he is very cunning. But really he is very innocent but talks less. From this strong feeling of cunningness to come to this reality that the person is innocent, it cannot happen all of a sudden. I have to bring the person around gradually. The transformation from strong misunderstanding to clear understanding is gradual. In our sastra , all types of knowledge are called Jnanam only. Suppose I have wrong understanding or doubtful understanding, they are all called jnanam. Right understanding is also called jnanam. Onlywe have different adjectives for each one. Generally there are five stages of cognitive transformation.

1) Viparyayah. Strong wrong understanding. Something is taken for something else very seriously. For eg: in rope-snake example, he firmly believes it is a snake. So he runs away and stops anybody from going near. This is called viparyayah where wrong understanding is 100 % and right understanding has no standing. 2) Then his friend in daytime says maybe it is a rope there, why don’t we see. This person says no that has to be a snake. It cannot be a rope. This particular type of mental state is called asambhavana. The stubbornness of the person seems to be the same as in viparyaya. But unknowingly he has come down . Earlier he was saying that it is a snake and he did not mention rope at all and now he says it has to be a snake and he mentions a rope. This is how we have to bring people around. 100 % snake buddhi has come down to 75 % and rope buddhi is 25 %. 3) Further his friend says let us throw a stone from a distance and check. His friend throws a stone and observes there is no movement. Now he has come to the state of samsaya. It could be a snake or it could be a rope. Now it has come down to 50 % -50 %. Maybe a snake maybe a rope. 4) But the friend is very confident it is a rope. So he goes nearer and throws exactly on that object. No movement still. The person now feels it seems to be a rope. This is called Sambavana. Perhaps it is a rope and not a snake. Now it is 25 % snake buddhi and 75 % rope buddhi. 5) Now the friend takes a stick and lifts it and shows that it is a rope only. This is called yathartha nischaya born of Pramanam. Now it is 0% snake and 100 % rope. So Pramanam can work only when a person has come to 25-75 % point. A person who is in viparyaya or asambhavana stage and if you give him pramanam it will be rejected. Even if the friend lifts the rope and shows, the person will run away out of fear. This cognitive transformation takes place gradually. There should not be a ny jerky movement. It should be smooth and gradual. Then only Pramanam will work. There is a beautiful story. One person strayed into a land of fools where all fools lived. He saw many people instead of harvesting were running away from the field full of wheatstalks. They told him that there was a monster there. He looked and saw a big watermelon in the field. These people had never seen a water melon before. So this person from another land told the fools that he would catch the monster. All the fools were watching and this person went there took the watermelon and cut it and ate it also. The fools were shocked. They thought that this person must be a bigger monster who can eat another monster. So they drove him out. He tried to enlighten them in one go. That does not happen. Now another person came from another land. Similar thing happened - He was told there was a monster. He also ran away with them and then he slowly educated them. He told them that there are some big and small fruits and then he talked about different fruits and slowly he brought them to the place and showed them a big fruit. He slowly educated them . Understanding takes place only gradually. There was one girl who was dead against arranged marriage. She was only for marriage by choice . I told her your thinking is right but you should just consider the other possibility .

Keep it open in your mind since it is not a bad idea. You need not have it but do not reject it. It has worked for many people, so maybe it has got some merits. Afterwards I learnt that she had agreed for an arranged marriage. If I had told her that only arranged marriage is good then she would have rejected it. So when someone has a strong conviction about something don’t insist too much on something opposite. But open a little room of possibility first and then slowly bring around the person by 5- 5 degrees everytime. Like a person I know well once tried to convince an owner of a house to rent it to someone from one particular community. Maybe because he had some bad experience earlier. He slowly convinced him by saying that suppose you had 3 daughters and one daughters got a bad husband from that community. Does that mean you will not consider someone good from the community for the other daughters ? One cannot generalise based on one experience. So the way he convinced, the owner gradually came around. So you take one step at a time. First ther is viparyayam, asambhavana, samsaya, sambhavana and thro pramana you come to nischayah. In Vedanta also you do the same thing. The person has this conculsion - I am jivah. There is no thought of atma.This is Viparyaya stage. Then he is told that sastra says that you are asangha atma. Then he says - No, I have to be jivah, I cannot be asangha atma. This is asambhavana stage. Then he is told that in deep sleep experience you are not samsari. So now he cannot dismiss the logic and at the same time he has the experience of being a samsari. He is 50-50 % .This is Samsaya stage. Now further logic is given that you experience that you are happy and you are not a wanting person all the time. If samsara was your nature you woud not have this feeling. So he gets Sambhavana that he may not be samsari but asanghah. At that stage Pramanam works and then you get yathartha nischayah. Yes, I am asanghah. The stages of transformation areFirst stage is I am jivah . Second is I have to be jivah, I cannot be asanghah. Third is I can be asanghah or I can be jivah . Fourth I seem to be asanghah , But what about my experience. Finally I am asanghah atma only. Only when 75 % work is done then Pramanam will come and bring yathartha nischaya. Suppose a person is in viparya or samsaya stage, if you give pramanam it will not work. Pramanam’s work starts only when the person has come to Sambhavana buddhi. Here also with reference to adhyaasa also a person is thinking I am really samsari. Before coming to adhyaasa bhashyam that was our understanding - I am really Mr So and So. Sometimes I am happy and sometimes I am unhappy. I am born and will die - In this viparyaya stage there is no adhyaasa. Then adhyaasa bhashyam comes and tells you that it can be unreal. Then we say, No I have to be a samsari. There cannot be adhyaasa. This is asambhavana. Further study makes you feel why not adhyaasa. How many times we commit mistakes. So samsaya comes I may be samsari, I may be atma. This is samsaya stage. Then further you think how can atma be adhistanam when it is not visaya. Then Bhashyakara says that atma is evident so it can be adhistanam for adhyaasa. Then you ask if it is evident why are we

committing mistake. Then you say, It is evident to become the adhistanam for committing mistake . But not evident enough to avoid adhyaasa. Therefor adhyaasa is possible. There is sambhavana. Now Pramanam will come and clinch the matter. Pramanam will establish adhyaasa. Therefore there is this order. In sastra upadesha should be given keeping the mental state of the person in mind. Where the person is ? If the person is in viparyaya stage, just show him the other stand . Suppose he is in asambhavana create doubt. Suppose he is in samsaya stage, then of the 2 options strenghthen the right option. Then he will come to sambhavana stage. In sambhavana stage, he is given pramanam . Then he will come to right understanding. When the right understanding has come, then only Nidhidyasanam can come. After getting yathartha nischaya there will be some habitual errors. To remove the habitual errors , nidhidyasana is prescribed. Nidhidyasanm will not work if the person is in viparyaya, samsaya or sambhavana stage.’ I am atma’ meditation will work only if he is in the fifth stage. Therefore one has to see where the person is and then give upadesha. There is a beautiful sloka - desa kala vayovastha buddhi saktyanarupatah, dharmopadesho bheshajyam, vakthavyam dharma paragaihi. The upadesha of dharma which is like a medicine should be given by the knowers of dharma in accordance with several factors – desha, kalah, vaiyah,avastha,buddhi, sakthi. Desa we have to see. Suppose you go to a restaurant and there is pop music going on and you say let us discuss adhyaasa. It will not work. Place we have to see. Somebody dies and you go there with a friend and you discuss adhyaasa there. That is not proper place. Kalah is important. Suppose we have midnight adhyaasa abhashyam clas. It is not appropriate time. If something is told in the wrong time it will misfire. Vayah is taking into account the age of the person. For a child you explain moksha differently than for an adult. Avastha means physical, emotional stage of the person. Suppose a person is in the hospital in pain and you discuss adhyaasa bhashyam or a person is mentally disturbed due to family problems at home and you talk to him about Vedanta. At such times some appropriate thing like prayer, chanting should be recommended. Last Buddhi refers to what is the intellectual capacity or cognitive background of the person ? Suppose one does not have the background of Vedanta, then you teach him at the level he will understand. You don’t teach him adhyaasa bhashyam. Sakthi refers to what is the physical capacity of the person. If I recommend upavasa and pradakshina to a person who is very weak, that is not proper. Similarly here Viparyaya, asambhavana, samsaya stage is over. The Bhashyakara has brought us to the Sambhavana stage and now he is introducing pramanam for atma-anatma adhyaasa in the next bhashyam called Pramana Bhashyam.


July 6 - Talk 34 –Review after holidays
QUES & ANSWER : What is the meaning of adhyaasa bhashyam ? Adhyaasa Bhashyam is a commentary dealing with adhyaasa. It is an introduction to a text called Brahma Sutra Adhyaasa Bhashyam has 6 sections – Akshepa bhashyam , Samadhana bhashyam , Lakshana bhashyam , Sambhavana bhashyam , Pramana bhashyam and Upasamhara bhashyam.

Questions on Akshepa Bhashyam :
What is Akshepa bhashyam. What is the main contention of this bhashyam ? Akshepa bhashyam is the commentary which is describing the objection of the Purvapakshi.

The main contention of the Purvapakshi is that atma-anatma adhyaasa is not possible. For adhyaasa samskara is required, for samskara Prama or Yatharta anubhava is required, for prama real combination is required. The chain is - real situation, prama, samskara, adhyaasa. In the case of atma-anatma , both have never really come together, so prama is not there, therefore samskara is not there and hence adhyaasa is not there. Why atma anatma cannot come Atma and anatma are opposite in nature like darkness and light. They can never come together. togther ?

What are the words used to describe atma and anatma ? Therefore anatma is yusmat pratyaya gochar and atma is asmat pratyaya gochar. Atma is visayi, the subject – the one who objectifies and anatma is visaya, the object -that which is objectified. What is the meaning of- iteratara bhava anupapatau? Transference of each otherness is not tenable. What is the meaning of - Tad dharmanapi sutaram itaretara bhavanupatthih ? If the entity cannot be superimposed, then all the more (sutaram) their qualities cannot be superimposed. What is the connection to the first part of the sentence ? The connection is - Mithyeti bhavitum yuktam – adhyaasa as described should not be there. It is a negation of adhyaasa.

What are the 2 types of adhyaasa talked about in Akshepa Bhashyam ? Dharma adhyaasa and dharmi adhyaasa from one angle . From another angle, atma adhyaasa on anatma and anatma adhyaasa on atma.

Questions on Samadhana Bhashyam –
What does “ tathapi ‘’ in Samadhana Bhashyam indicate ? Tathapi means nevertheless. The Siddanti says, I accept your objection that adhyaasa to be there is basically not proper , but still it is experienced. Which adhyaasa is indicated by anyonasmin and anyonatmakatam ? Dharmi adhyaasa . Atma and anatm are the 2 dharmis and the adhyaasa of atma on anatma and anatma on atma is called dharmi adhyaasa.

Which adhyaasa is indicated by Anyondharmasca ? Dharma adhyaasa. The qualities of atma and anatma being mutually superimposed on each other. What is the relevance of - itaretara vivivekene ? It indicates that adhyaasa takes place because of aviveka. What is the meaning of aviveka ? Missing the distinction between 2 dharmis and 2 dharmas. There is aviveka between 2 dharmis - atma and anatma and 2 dharmas – atma dharma and anatma dharma. What is - mithya ajnana nimmittah- and what is it grammatically connected to ? Mithya ajnanam refers to avidya . Mithya indicates that it is negatable by knowledge. Nimittah indicates it is the cause. It is connected to Loka vyavaharah. Mithya ajnanam nimmittah yasya vyavaharasya. Mithya ajnanam is the cause for loka vyvaharah. What is Satyanrte mithuni krtya ? It indicates the nature of adhyaasa . The Bhashyakara mentions this to negate Sunyavada. When the truth of the adhistanam is known, the adyastha is negated . When atma and anatma are superimposed on each other – anyonasmin anyonatmakatam- then both of them will be negated. So nothing remains. It is sunya vada prasangah. How is this sunya vada negated by satyanrte mithuni krtya ? Adhyaasa has got 2 elements – satya and anrta. Satya will continue to be there in the wake of right knowledge. Only mithya will get negated. If satya and anrta are there in adhyaasa, then how do we reconcile that with the earlier statement anyonasmin andyonatmakatam ? There are 2 types of adhyaasa - samsarga and svarupa adhyaasa. Anatma adhyaasa on atma is both svarupa and samsarga adhyaasa and atma adhyaasa on anatma is only samsarga adhyaasa. Being samsarga adhyaasa only the connection is negated, not the entity atma. What does naisargikah indicate ? Anaaditvam or Beginningless. In what other way is anaaditvam indicated in Samadhana Bhashyam? Adhyasya and satyanrte mithuni krtya both indicate adhyaasa. By repetition of the same phenomenon adhyaasa differently, anaaditvam is indicated.

What is ahamidam and mama idam ? Ahamidam means ‘I am this’ . This refers to the body. I am identifying atma with anatma. and mamedam means ‘this is mine’. This may refer to external objects. Only if I have aham bhava in this body then anything related to aham will be mine. To have mamabhava, we should have aham bhava first. What is the significance of this statement - aham idam, mamedam naisargikoyam loka vyavahara ? Bhashyakara is taking Vyvahara as the basis to show adhyaasa. This type of mental or verbal expression shows adhyaasa and it is there since beginningless time. Our experience is– I am male ,female, I am short, tall. This is my son, wife,etc... Whether you accept it or not, it is there in our daily expression.

Questions on Lakshana Bhashyam –
What are the imp words in the def of adhyaasa ? Paratra avabhaasah. Paratara means somewhere else in an appropriate place. Avabhaasah means appearance. What are the 2 angles from which this definition can be seen ? Artha adyaasah -appeared and jnana adhyaasa - appearance. What does appearing somewhere else mean ? It appears where it is not supposed to be - ayogya adhikarna. Eg : Inapproriateness of rope to be the adikaranam for snake. That means snake is really not there.

What does smrtirupah mean ? Like the remembered one. In what sense is adhyaasa like the remembered one (smritirupah ) ? Both smriti and adhyaasa are both born of samskara. That is the similarity between the two. But adhyaasa needs other factors also and it is not just in the mind but seen outside also. In this way it is different from smriti. That is why it is said to be like the remembered one , but not smriti. What is purva drsta and how does it connect ? It explains smriti rupah. Smaryamanah sadrsha is explained by the word purva drsta. The remembered one is like the previous experience. It was seen earlier. What is the meaning of Khyati ?

Pratitihi. Experience of an unreal object or delusion is Khyati. How many Khyatis are there ? There are 5 khyatis – atmakhyati, asatkhyati, akhyati, anyathakhyati, anirvachaniya khyati. In the first sentence - anyatranya dharmadhyaasah – which khyati is talked about ? Anyatha khyati of Vaisheshikas and Naiyayikas. Also atma khyati of Kshanika vijnanavadins (Baudhas). In the second sentence – yatra yad adhyaasah tad vivekagraha nibhandhano bhrama iti ? Akhyati of Mimamsakas like Prabhakara. What is the main contention of Prabhakara ? According to them, there is no delusion at all. Every knowledge is valid knowledge. You cannot doubt it. According to them, there are two types of knowledge and visayas -- pratyaksha jnanam and visaya and smarnathmaka jnanam and visaya. Adhyaasa is caused by missing the distinction between these two types of knowledge and subsequently missing the distinction between the objects of these two types of knowledge Vivekagraha means missing the distinction .Tad indicates visaya and jnanam. In the third sentence –yatra yad adhyaasa tasyaiva viparita dharmatva kalanamachakshate iti ? It indicates Asat khyati. According to them reality is zero. What is experienced is zero. Asatah khyatihi pratitihi asatkhyati. It is pesented by the Sunyavadins (Baudhas). Can we see any other khyati in the third sentence ? We can also see Anirvachaniya Khyati.

What is the purpose of presenting all these khyatis ? Which sentence in the Bhashyam indicates this purpose ? The purpose of khyati presdentation is to arrive at a consensus about the definition of adhyaasa is paratara avabhaasah. Sarvatapitu anyasya anyavabhaastam na vyabhicharati indicates this . - All of them do not deviate from the definition of adhyaasa as something appearing somewhere else. What were the two examples given in this respect and what is their significance ? Shuktikahi rajatavad avabhaasate ; ekaschandra sadvitiyavad iti. - Mother of pearl is appearing like silver and one moon is appearing as two. The first is an example of one entity appearing as another entity ie,atma appearing as anatma. The second is an example of how one reality can appear as many ie,one atma appears as many atmas.


Questions on Sambhavana Bhashyam –
What is meaning of Sambhavana Bhashyam ? The commentary on the possibility of adhyaasa. What is the contention of the Purvapakshi in Sambhavana Bhashyam ? For anything to be adhistanam for adhyaasa Visayatvam and Indriya samyuktatvam are two necessary conditions. Both of them are not there. Therefore adhyaasa cannot take place mainly in the case of anatma on atma ie, atma canot be the adhistanam for adhyaasa. What is the Siddantis answer to the Purvapakshi’s contention ? Atma is asmat pratyaya visaya. So visayatvam is there. Atma is self evident (aparokshatvat). Therefore atma has visayatvam and can be adhistanam for adhyaasa. How is self-evidency of atma established ? Pratyagatma prasiddeh. - Atma is known to everybody, therefore it is self evident. Asmat pratyaya visaya and aparokshatvat answer the objection of visayatvam. What is the answer to the indriya samyuktatavam objection ? Even if indriya samyuktatavam is not there adhyaasa is possible. Atma should be evident , but not necessarily thro’ sense contact. The rule that for something to be adhistanam it should have indriya samyuktatavam is violated in the case of akasha. Akasha is sakshi bhasya, it is not indriya samyukta yet concavity, blue color, dirt are superimposed on akasha. If the rule is violated once further violations are possible also. Thus atma being self evident can be adhistanam for adhyaasa. What is the meaning of evam aviruddhah ? Evam sambhavitah. Being uncontradicted. What is the last portion of the Sambhavana bhashyam called ? The last portion of the Sambhavana Bhashyam is called Sadbhava Bhashyam. What does the first sentence of Sadbhava Bhashyam indicate ? Adhyaasa being a product of avidya is also called avidya. The effect is known by the name denoting the cause. Both are vidya nivartyatvat –removable by knowledge. Hence learned people call adhyaasa as avidya. Another reason is to highlight the direct causality of adhyaasa in causing suffering.

What is the primary meaning of avidya ? The primary meaning of avidya is ignorance or ajnanam. What is the secondary meaning of avidya ? The secondary meaning is Adhyaasa. This is by Gauna prayoga - Gunam ashritya prayogah. Based on gunas (mentioned earlier like vidya nivartyatvat…) avidya is called adhyaasa. What does the second sentence of Sadbhava bhashyam indicate ? It defines Vidya – vastusvarupavadharanam vidyam ahuh -Ascertaining the real nature of the adhistanam is called Vidya. Vastu refers to adhistanam. Tad vivekena means by separating adhistanam from adhyasta. What type of adhyaasa is dismissed here? Samsarga adhyaasa is dismissed here by tad vivekena. The stages of adhyaasa nivritti are indicated here. First viveka, then vidya and then complete removal of adhyaasa. Even svarupa adhyaasa is removed by vidya. What is separated from what in Darstanta ? In darstanta, the separation is of atma from anatma. We are dismissing aham bhava in the body. What does dismissal of aham bhava presuppose ? It presupposes reduction of mama bhava first. As long as there is mama bhava , it will not allow one to dismiss aham bhava. As long as there is emotional entanglement with the adhyasta,one cannot disentagle from it. So mamabhava has to be slackened first before aham bhava can be removed. Finally mama bhava will go completely only when aham bhava is dismissed. What is the meaning of the last sentence of the Sadbhava Bhashyam ? It connects to the first two sentences of the Sadbhava Bhashyam. It gives the benefit. Tatra refers to adhyaasa . Tatra evam sati means tht (adhyaasa) being so. Being so means adhyaasa being avidyatmika and being removed by vidya. Therefore …… Yatrayad adhyaasa - On the adhistanam where there is superimposition of something. Tad krtena means being brought about by adhyasta . Dosena , gunena va – by the merits and demerits of the adhyasta. Anumatrenapi – not even by an iota. Sa na sambhadyate – adhistanam is not effected. The overall meaing of the sentence is - the adhistanam is not effected even by an iota by the merits or demerits of the adhyasta. What is the benefit of this sentence ? It brings relaxation. Knowing that the body-mind-complex will not effect me, the self.

I am okay. Any happening is possible only in anatma and I am not that anatma. Nothing can touch me, I am untouchable. I own up to this fact. Never was I touched and never will I be touched. Nobody can do anything to me. I am free from guilt , hurt and complexes. I can then be relaxed in any situation. Bhagvan said in the Gita – Apichedasi papebyah sarvebyah papakratamah … - Even if you are the greatest sinner then also any moment you have this weapon in your hand. If you assimilate this you own up to your freedom. This is the significance of the last sentence of the Sadbhava Bhashyam. What is the next bhashyam after Sambhavana Bhashyam ? The next bhashyam is Pramana bhashyam. Why this order of Bhashyams ? This is because transformation takes place gradually. There are 5 stages to transformation . a)Viparyaya – Complete or 100% wrong understanding. Eg: It is snake only. b) Asambhavana – 25% right understanding and 75 % wrong understanding. Eg: Rope is not there. It is snake. One mentions the word rope atleast. c) Samsaya – Doubt. 50 % right and 50 % wrong understanding. Eg; It can be rope or it can be snake. d) Sambhavana – 25% wrong understanding and 75% right understanding. Eg: It looks like snake but it can be a rope. e)Yatharta nischaya – thro’ Pramanam one has 100 % right understanding. Eg: one goes near and confirms this is rope only. Sixth stage also can be added after yatharta nischaya. f)Drda nischaya – By Nididhyasanam all habitual errors are removed also. By these six stages, transformation in understanding takes place. What is the significance of having the clarity of these stages for a communicator ? To a person who is in the viparyaya and asambhavana stage, if pramanam is given, it will not have any effect. Only if a person is in the sambhavana stage will the Pramanam work. So one has to communicate keeping the stage of the person in mind.

July 13 : RECAP Summary from Adhyaasa bhashyam till Sadbhava bhashyam : In the first portion of Adhyaasa bhashyam called Akshepa bhashyam the objection was raised regarding atma-anatma adhyaasah. There cannot be adhyaasa because samskara is not there. Samskara is not there because prama is not there since real combination of atmaanatma has never taken place. So many other objections were implied there.

They were answered by the Siddanti in the Samadhana bhashyam by saying that though adhyaasa looks illogical, we cannot deny the existence of adhyaasa because we have the experience – I am this and this is mine. This expression indicates adhyaasa. Since body is not me, the things related to the body are not mine. This adhyaasa is caused by aviveka and this aviveka is caused by mithya jnanam. Different types of adhysaasas were talked about. There is dharmi adhyaasa, dharma adhyaasa, svarupa adhyaasa and samsarga adhyaasa. So many themes were talked about by Siddanti in one sentence of the Samadhana bhashyam. Samadhanam is given that adhyaasa is possible. Really speaking the essence of the Adhyaasa Bhashyam is the Siddanta or Samadhana Bhashyam. The rest of the things are elaborations. So Bhashyakara starts afresh in Lakshana Bhashyam –what is adhyaasa ? Definition was given- smriti rupah paratra purvadrstavabhasah. Somethng appearing somewhere else born of samskara of previous experience. Then various opinions were given about adhyaasa. Various khyatis were taked about but the idea of the khyativada was to show the consensus among all of them on the basic definition of adhyaasa - paratra avabhaasah. Then examples were given. Thus there is something called adhyaasa in general was shown. After that Asambhavana was raised regarding specific adhyaasa of anatma on atma. This is really an elaboration of Siddanta bhashyam to show that the conditions for adhyaasa apply to atma-anatma also. First the objection was stated – katham punam pratyagatmanyapi avisaye anatma adhyaasah? The objection was atma does not have visayatvam and indriya samyuktatavam, so atma cannot be adhistananm for adhyaasa. But this objection was shown to be not valid. Atma does have visaytavam but not the way you want it. It is not idam pratya visaya. Visayatvam means it is occuring in vritti and that is there in atma. Atma is asmat pratyaya visayah. The first objection is answered. The second objection indriya samyuktatavam is not required. It is required only if it is not self-evident . In that case some external means of knowledge is required. Sense contact is necessary to make it evident. If it is evident then you need not insist. Like if you go to Guruvayoor temple and as per rules there you do not wear a shirt . Then you cannot insist that the person should remove the shirt because he is not wearing a shirt. Or to buy a house you take a loan. But you need not take a loan, if you have the money. Similarly Atma is aparokshah, it need not be made evident by indriya samyogah. In Sadbhava Bhashyam it is said that this adhyaasa which is a prouct of avidya is called avidya and it is removed by knowledge. Ascertainment of the nature of adhiustanam is called vidya. Finally it was said that since the adhyaasa is avidyakam and removed by vidya, whatever the merit or demerit of adhyasta will not effect the adhistanam even a little.

July 13 – Talk 35 –
The 5th Bhashyam Pramana Bhashyam is the longest bhashyam –

Tametamavidyakyam atmanatmano pramanaprameya vyavaharah laukika vidhipratishedamokshaparani. itaretaradhyaasam puraskrtya sarve vaidikascha pravrttah, sarvani sastrani

In this opening statement of Pramana bhashyam, Bhashyakara is presenting one pramanam Pratyaksha pramanam - for adhyaasa being there. What is Pramanam ? Prama karanam pramanam. Karanam is means and prama means valid knowledge. The means for valid knowledge is pramanam. What is Prama ? Prama mean valid knowledge. It is abhadhita jnanam or yathartha jannam ie, knowledge which is not negated. Like knowledge of rope is prama and knowledge of rope-sanke is bhrama or ayathartha jnanam. There are various types of Prama and therefore we have various types of Pramanam. There is no consensus about how may Pramanams are there. Different philosophers present different number of pramanams. Charvakas accept only one pramanam - pratyaksha pramanam which is generally understood as sense organs. I believe what I see, touch, taste or smell. Vaisheshikas and Baudhas accept 2 pramanams - Pratyaksha and Anumanam. Sankhya and yoga accept three pramanams - Pratyaksha, Anumanam, Agama or sabda. Naiyayikas accept four pramanams -Pratayaksha, Anumanam , Agama and Upamana. Vedantins and one group of Mimamsakas called Bhattas accept six Pramanams – Pratyaksha, Anumana, Agama, Upamana, Arthapatti and Anupalabdhi. There are some who accept 18 etc. But these pramanams are not accepted by the Vedantins. The six pramanams accepted by the Vedantins are to be understood properly 1) Pratyaksha Pramanam – Pratyaksha pramaayaha karanam. The means for direct knowledge is called Pratyaksha pramanam. Pratyaksha means perception. The definition of perception give by Naiyayikas is - indriya samyogya jnanam pratyaksha jnanam or indriyartha sannikarsha janya jnanam is called pratyaksha jnanam. Knowledge which is born of association with sense organs , that knowledge is called Pratyaksha pramanam. Contact between sense organs and object is called sannikarsha. Knowledge born of the contact between sense organs and object is called Pratyaksha jnanam. In Pratyaksha there are 2 words -prati and aksha. Prati indicates pratigatam or asritam or dependent and aksha means sense organs. Knowledge dependent on sense organs is called Pratyaksha. The means is also called pratyaksham. Prati gatam aksham yat pratyaksham. The means on which the knowledge is dependent is also called Pratyaksha pramanam. Stated simply Pratyaksha pramanam is the means for Pratyaksha jnanam and Pratyaksha jnanam is that which is born of sense contact. This is what the Naiyayikas say.

But Vedantins don’t agree with this definition. But they manage with it, but technically they don’t accept it. The Vedantin says that if indriya samyoga jnanam is pratyaksha jnanam then what about knowledge of my happiness. I says,” I am happy”. I clearly knows that I am happy. How does one know that ? Sukhasya api anubhava bhavati. So happiness is also an object . Knowledge of another’s happiness is no doubt objective, but here I am talking about my happiness. My sukha pratyaya is not born of sense organs. So the definition will not work here. This is one of the arguments. There are more detailed arguments. But the main thing is you have got sukha, anger, restlessness of the mind. You have knowledge of this. But it is not indriya samyogya janya. You are not seeing your happiness thro’ the eyes or any other sense organs. But you know you are happy, angry,restless. So therefore this definition cannot be accepted. The knowledge born of sense contact is Pratyaksha , but ther are some more pratyakshas also. What makes the knowledge pratyaksha ? What is the prayojaka or criterion for any knowledge being pratyaksha ? Pramana chaitanyasya prameya chaitanyena abhedah pratyakshyatva prayojaka. This critrerion or norm has to be understood. Let us take the example of sight. In sastra we have a phenomenon of how perception in the form of sight takes place. We have an inner means called antahkaranam. Antahkarnanam is a product of sattva guna. Therefore it is very luminous. It is something like jelly. This antahkarana is there in the whole body. This antahkaranam comes out thro’ the eyes and pervades the object and assumes the shape of the object. That part of that antahkarana which assumes the shape of the object is called antahkarana vritti. That object is called prameya and where prameya is, there is conciousness. Conciousness is all-pervasive but depending on the conditioning factor we give different names. So there are as though 3 chaitanyams – i) Conciousness conditioned by the object is called prameya chaitanyam. ii) Conciousness which is conditioned by the antahkaranam is called pramatra chaitanya or pramata. iii) This antahkarana vritti which has come out and assumed the shape of the object and which is pervading the prameya is called pramana chaitanyam. Chaitanyam is one , but depending on the upadhi they are given different names. Like akasha is one, but depending on the conditioning factor it gets the name pot space, house space, etc. Definition of Pratyaksha is – The knowledge by which pramana chaitanyam and prameya chaitanyam have become one, that type of knowledge is Pratyaksha jnanam. Pramana chaitanya is conditioned by pramana and prameya chaitanya is conditioned by prameya. Both pramana and prameya are upadhis for conciousness. Becoming one means when both the upadhis are in the same place, then they cease to create a difference in the upahita chaitanya. So far the difference was there, that one is pramana chaitanya and the other is prameya chaitanya. Now both of them are

occurring in the same place. Therefore both the upadhis lose their capacity to create a difference in conciousness. That is what is meant by becoming one. Simply said. When Pramanam and prameya are becoming one, then knowledge is called pratyaksha. One can understand this better by seing the other pramanams. In othe pramanams like anumanam this does not happen. Anumanam means inference. Seeing smoke I assume fire. Knowledge of smoke is pratyaksha, but knowledge of fire is inferential. What this means is that the antahkarana vritti has not gone to where the fire is. It has only gone to where the smoke is. Therefore the prameya chaitanyam ie, conciousness conditioned by fire has not become one with pramana chaitanyam, conciousness conditioned by smoke. In anumitti ie, inferential knowledge the pramana and prameya chaitanyam do not become one. Therefore in the case of smoke it is not Pratyaksha. For any knowledge to become one the criterion is that pramana and prameya chaitanyam should become one. This can be born of sense organs or anything else. That type of knowledge is Pratyaksha. For eg : In the case of experience of sukha , antahkarana sukhakara vritti which is the pramana chaitanyam and sukha avachinna chaitanyam which is prameya chaitanyam , both are one and the same. Therefore pramana and prameya chaitanya aikyam is there and therefore sukha jnanam is Pratyaksha. Thus knowledge where pramana and prameya chaitanya are both one is called Pratyaksha jnanam. In the case of chakshu and shrotra the antahkarana goes out, but for experiencing smell our nose does not go out , the object comes there. Antahkarana is pervading the whole body, so what is happening is prameya gandha and pramana gandha akara vritti are in the same place, therefore that knowledge will be Pratyaksha. The criterion for knowledge to be pratyaksha is pramana and prameya chaitanyam should become identical. The oneness of both of them makes the knowledge Pratyaksha. Pratyaksha jnanam is of 2 types – Pramatru pratyaksha and Sakshi pratyaksha. Pramatru pratyaksha is the pratyaksha where antahkarana vritti is born of sense organs. ie, sense organs are involved in creating the vritti. Generally we are familiar with pramatru pratyaksha. Sakshi pratyaksha is where pratyaksha jnanam is there, but sense organs are not used. Like the knowledge of happiness is Sakshi pratyaksha. Even akasha pratyaksha is sakshi pratyaksha because sense organs are not used to know akasha. Akasha itself is not objectified by the sense organs. Where pratyaksha is there but sense organs are not used then it is called Sakshi pratyaksha. Adhyaasa also is Sakshi pratyaksha. Physically we are not seeing adhyaasa, but the feeling I am this and this is mine is very direct. In common parlance, Sakshi pratyaksha is called anubhava. There is anubhava that there is adhyaasa. Like I have anubhava that I am happy. Anubhava is not a very approrpriate word, but it is generally used for Sakshi pratyaksha. 2)Anumanam – It is also a means of knowledge for inferential knowledge.

Anumiti karanam anumanam. The means for inferential knowledge is called Anumanam. What is this anumitti? Knowledge which is born of Vyapti jnanam. Vyapti jnana janya prama anumittihi. Vyapti means con-committance. Co-presence or co-absence is called Vyapti. In Sanskrit we say yatra dhoomah tatra vahnihi. Being together is called vyapti. Vyapti jnanam gives rise to a particular type of knowledge called anumittih. Suppose I have this vyapti jnanam then when the momemt I see the indicator ie, smoke, immediately the samskara of the vyapti jnanam will give rise to knowledge. Parvato vahnivan – the hill has got fire. This type of of jnanam is called anumittihi. Vyapti janya jnanam is called anumitihi. Tad karanam is called anumanam ie, the means for inferential knowledge is called anumanam. Anumanam is also of two types – Svarthanumanam and Pararthanumanam. When the inference is meant for my inferential knowledge , then it is called svarthanumanam. When I want to make the other person understand something ie, the inference is meant for giving rise to inferential knowledge in others, it is called Pararthanumanam. Like if one wants to commit suicide then one small blade is enough. Suppose you have to fight in the battlefield, then one knife is not enough. Pararthanumanam is like this. For myself the method is different and for others the method is different. The anumitti appearing in myself is vyapti janya jnanam. So what is being talked of so far is vyapti jnanam. Pararthanumanam is in the form of Nyaya. Nyaya sadhyam Pararthanumanam. Nyaya is avayava samudaya - syllogism. Syllogism means reasoning. Pararthanumanam is in the form of three components – pratignya, hetu and udaharanam. i)Pratignya means proposition. Proposition is a statement which is to be established. Like parvatho vahnivan – the hill has caught fire. A statement is made, but it is not substantiated yet. That type of statement is called pratignya. A statement which is talking about what is to be proved - the sadhyam and where it is to be proved – paksha. Statement showing the sadhyam and paksha is called pratignya. For eg. In the proposition - parvatho vahniman , parvathah is paksha and vahnivan is sadhya. ii) Hetu means the reason. Eg: Dhoomavatvat – because it has got fire. The reason for parvatho vahnivan is given . iii) Udaharanam – vyapti vishishta vachanam. Yatra yatra dhoomah tatratatra vahnihi yatha pakashalayam. Wherever there is smoke there is fire like in cooking. Cooking is the example. Sometimes we shorten it and say only yatha pakashalayam. With the help of these 3 syllogisms we can create inferential knowledge in others. This group of three components is called pararthanumanam. The same knowledge is both svartha and parartha anumanam. Generally what we use in sastra is pararthanumanam. The writing or teaching of the sastrakara is for others. The teacher gets it first (svartha anumanam) and then he gives it to others (parartha anumanam.)

3) Upamanam – means similarity. Sadrsya pramakaranam upamanam. The knowledge of similarity (sadrsya prama) is called upamitthi. The means for the knowledge of similarity (karanam) is called upamanam. This knowledge is highy technical in nature and is very rarely used. Suppose somebody has seen a cow. He goes to the forest and sees an animal which looks similar to the cow. In Sanskrit it is called gavaya or wild cow. He gets pratyaksha jnanam then that ths animal is like my cow. Because of that he gets the knowledge that my cow is like this animal. My cow is like this animal is upamitthi and this animal is like my cow is upamanam. 4) Arthapatti – Presumption or postulation. Upapadhya jnanena upapadhaka kalpanam is called Arthapatti. Somebody is not eating during the daytime, still he is very stout. The stock example in sastra is - Devaduttah pinah, diva abhunjanaha rathrau khadayanti. So the presumption is he must be eating at night. He does not eat during the day and still he is stout is the basis which makes me postulate that he must be eating during the night. The knowledge of ratri bhojanam is Arthapatti prama and knowledge of his being stout inspite of not eating during the daytime is called Arthapatti pramanam. What is upapadhya ? Yena vina yad anupapanam tad upapadhyam. That which is not tenable or logically acceptable is called upapadhya. This pinatvam or stoutness is not possible without rathri bhojanam. So pinatvam is called upapadhya. What is upapadhka ? Yasya abhave yad anupapanam. In the absence of which something is untenable is called upapadhka. Like in the absence of ratri bhojanam stoutness is not possible. So ratri bhojanam is called Upapadhaka. By upapadhya jnanam you get upapadhaka jnanam. This is called Arthapatti pramanam.

July 20 – Ques and Ans –
1) What is Pramana bhashyam ? Pramana bhashyam is the bhashyam dealing with Pramanam. 2) What is Pramanam ? The means for valid knowledge is Pramanam. Prama karanam pramanam. 3) How many Pramanams are accepted by Vedantins ? Six pramanams are accepted by Vedantin. Pratyaksha, anumanam, upamanam, arthapatti, anupalabdhi and sabda.

4) Who accepts the minimum number of pramanams ? The Charvakas accept the minimum number of pramanams. 5) How many Pramanams is accepted by Sankhya yoga ? They accept three Pramanams – pratyaksha, anumana and sabda. 6) Who accepts four Pramanams? Naiyayekas accept four Pramanams – pratyaksha, anumana, upamana and sabda. 7) What is aithiha pramana ? It is derived from iti ha -this is how it was. Some pauranikas accept legends as a Pramanam . 8) What is the general belief about pratyaksha pramanam ? Pratyaksha pramanam is the means of direct knowledge thro’ sense organs. Pratyaksha prama is knowledge gained thro’ sense organs. 9) How is the word pratyaksha derived ? prati gatam aksham pratyaksham. That which is dependent on sense organs. 10) Does the Vedantin accept this definition of pratyaksham ? He accepts it as a general definition. But he feels that there is something more to it. Why is he not able to accept this definition completely ? There are some types of direct knowledge like the emotion of happiness, anger, etc which are not covered by this definition. 11) What is the criterion for any knowledge to be called pratyaksha ? Pramana chaitanyasya prameya chaitanyena abhedah pratyakshatva prayojakah. Conciousness conditioned by pramanam and the conciousness conditioned by prameya becoming one . That is the criterion for pratyaksha. 12) What is pramatru chaitanya ? Dehastha antahkarna avachinna chaitanya. Conciousness conditioned by the antahkarana which is there in the body is called pramatru chaitanya. 13) Does pramana chaitanya and prameya chaitanya become one in anumanam ? No. Both chaitanyams don’t become one. Eg: Conciousness conditioned by fire which is prameya is not becoming one with conciousness conditioned by the antahkarana vritti which is pramanam for fire. The antakarana vritti will have the shape of agni astitva ie, existence of fire, but it will not be in contact with the prameya chaitanya, fire conciousness. The existence of fire is inferred by vyapti jnanam from the smoke.

15) What are the two types of anumanam ? Svarthanumanam - where the inference is for one’s own knowledge. Pararthanumanam - where the inference is to convey to the another person. 16) What is the nature of svarthanumanam ? It is in the form of vyapti jnanam. 17) What is the definition of anumitti ? Vyapti jnana janya pramittih. Knowledge born of vyapti jnanam is called anumitti. 18) What type of jnanam is vyapti jnanam ? It is svararthanumanam. First vyapti jnanam takes place by seeing fire and smoke together -yatra dhoomah tatra vahnih. Then when you see the smoke again without seeing the fire, then the vyapti jnanam thro’ samskara coupled with dhoomah jnanam seen now, gives rise to knowledge of fire even without seeing fire. 19) What is the nature or form of Pararthanumanam ? Nyaya or reasoning. 20) What is definition of Nyaya ? Avayava samudayah - group of components. 21) How many avayavas are there? There are three avayavas – pratigna, hetuh and udaharanam. 22)What is pratigna ? A statement or proposition yet to be established. sadhya vishishta paksha bodhaka vachanam.

23) What is hetu ? Hetu is the reason . Dhoomavatvat is the reason for fire on the hill. 24) What is udaharanam ? Vyapti vishishta drstanta vachanam. A statement giving the example along with vyapti. 25) What is the definition of upamanam ? Sadrsya pramakaranam ie, the means of knowledge of similarity is called upamanam. What is the example given for upamanam ? The example of cow and wild cow. This animal is like my cow is upamanam and my cow is like this animal is upamitti. 26) What is arthapatti ?

It means presumption or postulate. Upapadya jnanena upapadaka kanlpanam. Both prama and pramanam is called Arthapatti. 27) What is arthapatti pramanam and prama ? Upapadya jnanam is pramanam and upapadaka jnanam is prameya. 28) What is upapadyam ? Yena vina yad anupamanam. The thing which is explained. That which is not logically tenable or which is unintelligible in the absence of something. 29) What is upapadaka ? The thing which is explaining. The explanatory fact. In the absence of which something is untenable. Eg : ratri bhojanam is the explanatory fact for pinatvam. Upapadya will not be there without upapadaka being there. Or we can say since upapadaka is there, upapadya can be there. So we see upapadya and postulate upapadaka. 30) What are the 2 types of pratyaksha ? Pramatru pratyaksha and sakshi pratyaksha. That which is known thro’ sense contact is pramatru pratyaksha. That which is not known thro’ sense contact is sakshi pratyaksha. Sakshi bhasya is a wider terminology used. Sakshi bhashya is the object which is known without any valid means of knowledge like sense organs, inference, etc. being used. For eg : bhranti is sakshi bhashya.

July 20 –Talk 36 –
This bhashyam is dealing with Pramanam. Vedantins accept 6 means of knowledge. The first one is Pratyaksha Pramanam. We will see a little more about Pratyaksha pramanam. Pratyaksha prama karanam iti pratyaksha pramanam. What is pratyaksha prama ? It is that in which the pramana chaitanyam and prameya chaitanyam become one. How does this happen ?

Through the sense organs the antahkarana goes out and assumes the shape of the object. The antahkarana vritti which is called pramanam and this prameya become one. Therefore the conciousness conditioned by this pramana and prameya becomes one. This prameya chaitanyam has become one with pramana chaitanyam. This does not happen in the case of anumanam. Suppose there is fire and smoke is coming out. You see the smoke ie, the antahkarana has gone to smoke desha , but it has not gone where the fire really is. So the agni chaitanyam (prameya) has not become one with pramana chaitanyam. The object is called prameya and the conciousness conditioned by the object is called prameya chaitanyam. This antahkarnam is the pramatha. It alone has come out to become the pramanam. So pramana chaitanyam is nothing but a part of pramatha chaitanyam. This becomes one with prameya chaitanyam. In Vedanta Sidddanta , chaitanyam alone is pratyaksha prama or knowledge. The flashing of the object is pratyaksha prama and that flashing is in the form of conciousness. Question may be asked that if conciousness itself is prama then this knowledge should be there all the time ? But that does not happen because chaitanya becomes prama only when manifesting thro’ the vritti. Vritti abhivyaktha chaitanyam is pratyaksha prama. When prameya chaitanyam is becoming one with pramana chaitanyam it is flashing (sphooranam), that itself is called pramitti or prama. So if you ask the question that consiousness is there anaadikale and therefore pratyaksha prama should be there all the time. The answer to that is - though conciousness is there all the time, the vritti is not there all the time. Indriya vyapara is required for vritti to be formed. The operation of sense organs is required for vritti to be formed. So indriya vyapara is saadi ie, it has a beginning - aadi varthate yasya is called saadi. So though chaitanyam is anaadi by itself, the vritti abhivyakatha chaitanyam ie, conciousness conditioned by vritti is saadi. Therefore even though conciousness is there all the time , prama is not there all the time. Like sunlight is there all the time, but the sunlight which is passing thro’ the magnifying glass which will burn the paper is not there all the time. So burning of paper does not happen. Similarly pratyaksha prama manifesting thro’ vritti is chaitanyameva. What is prama ? Prameya chaitanyam when it has become one with Pramana chaitanyam , that prameya chatanyam is called prama or we can say part of pramana chaitanyam which has become one with the prameya chaitanyam is called prama. Both ways you can see. Primarily, conciousness is prama but since vritti is the instrument in giving the status of prama to conciousness, vritti is also called prama and the sense organs giving rise to vritti is called pramana in a way. What about sakshi pratyaksha ?

Sakshi pratyaksha is also conciousness which is manifesting in the vritti. That itself is illumining the object. But in some cases we don’t use the word antahkaranam in the case of sakshi pratyaksha. The antahkarana vritti is formed by pramana and since pramana in the form of sense organs is not there in the case of sakshi pratyaksha, we use the word avidya vritti. So avidya vritti which is objectifying the sakshi pratyaksha objects like adhyaasa, dream objects, etc. In that avidya vritti conciouness is manifesting and that conciousness is called sakshi and that sakshi illumines that object. What is avidya vritti ? Pramana ajanya vrittih is avidya vrittih. Antahkarana vritti which is not formed thro’ the pramanam is called avidya vritti. Material is the same but when the material is getting modified without the operation of pramanam, then that vritti is called avidya vritti. What about when I say, I am happy ? Is this sukha an avidya vritti? No. When I say I am happy, there is sukha which is itself an antahkarana vritti akara. In that Antahkarana vritti, there is sakshi and that itself illumines sukha. So we don’t require another vritti to objectify sukha. So sukha which is in the form of a mental frame has 2 aspects or avachedakas – from one angle it is prameya and another angle it is pramanam. In that antahkarna vritti, chaitanyam is there which is illumining the sukha akara vritti . Therefore happiness is known. Avidya vritti is not required here. Avidya vritti is required when there are some outside things which are known, but antahkarana vritti born of pramana is not formed like in adhyaasa. We cannot call such objects antahkarana vritti vishaya. Since this vritti is born of avidya, it is called avidya vritti. Like rope - snake is experienced by avidya vritti. Avidya itself is getting modified into the knowledge of rope-snake which is jnana adhyaasa and the object snake which is artha adhyaasa. Sattva aspect of avidya is getting modifies into sarpa jnanam and the tamasic aspect of avidya gets modified into the form of sarpa. That avidya vritti which is the product of avidya is becoming the means for the adhyaasic object to be flashed. Thus when I say, I am happy - Happiness is an object which is objectified by me. I don’t perceive it thro’ the sense organs at the same time there is the knowledge of happiness. This experience of happiness happens because of sakshi manifesting in antahkarana. Simply said, in antahkarana there is happiness and antahkarana is luminous. So whatever comes in antahkarnam gets illumined by the sakshi which is present there all the time. There cannot be an unillumined antahkaranam. Sakshi is always present there. Whatever comes in antahkarna is illumined, similarly when sukha akara comes that is also illumined by antahkarana. So in sakshi pratyaksha the sense organs or any other valid means is not used, for knowing happiness, still the experience of happiness is there. In pramatru bhashya, pramanam are used and vritti is formed and is illumined by the conciousness. Vritti is required for both types of knowledge to take place. But this division depends on whether the vritti is formed with the help of indriya, etc or without it.


According to Siddanta, pratyaksha prama is only conciousness. Every moment there is conciousness in thr form of knowledge. The other two pramanams we saw was - Anumanam and Upamanam. The fourth pramanam is Arthapatti. 4) Arthapatti – means presumption. Upapadya jnanena upapadaka kalpanam is Arthapatti. By the knowledge of upapadya, upapadaka is postulated. There are two types of Arthapatti – Drstarthapatti and Srutarthapatti. When presumption is based on the object or situation experienced then it is called drstarthapatti. You are seeing something and based on that you postulate something else . What you see is upapadya and based on that what is postulated is upapadaka . Their respective knowledge is called upapadya or upapadaka jnanam. For eg : Devadutta is stout though he does not eat during the day. The stoutness of Devadutta is something which is seen and based on that we postulate ratri bhojanam. Pinatvam is upapadya and ratri bhojanam is upapadaka. Another example given in Vedanta is – First you see that there is silver and now you are experiencing that there is no silver. Means that the silver is being negated. This is drstartha. This negation of the silver which was seen earlier is not possible unless it was mithya. Nishidhyamanatvam or negation of silver is upapadya. From that I postulate unreal silver. Unreality of silver is upapadaka or explanatory fact. Without silver being unreal, negation of silver is not possible. So the definition of drstarthapatti is – Drstasya upapadyasya jnanena upapadaka kalpanam ie, based on what you are perceiving , you postulate something. Postulation based on what is heard is Srutarthapatti. The definition of Srutharthapatti is Sruyamana vakyasya svarthanupapatti mukhena arthantharasya kalpanam. ie, Postulating some different meaning on account of untenability of the primary meaning of the sentence which is heard is called srutarthapatti. Suppose you hear a sentence – Jivi Devadutta grihe nasti - Devadutta who is alive is not home. Hearing this sentence we postulate that he is outside the house. When you hear this sentence the primary meaning is - Live Devadutta is not at home. This is called sruyamana vakyasya svartha. This artha will not be tenable if Devadutta is not outside. Anupapatti means untenability. The untenability of the meaning you have heard will give rise to one type of knowledge that Devadutta must be outside. This is called arthantara kalpanam.

Here Devadutta grihe nasti is upapadya and its knowledge is called pramanam and Devadutta bahir asti is upapadaka and its knowledge is called prama. In simple terms - When you hear something, then that meaning itself will give rise to another meaning. This is called Srutarthapatti. Without the other situation this meaning of the sentence is not possible. Therefore you presume. This is with reference to Laukika vakya. More important we have to see this in Vedanta vakya. It is said – tarati shokam atmavit - The knower of the self crosses over samsara. In Vedanta it is said that by self knowledge, the bondage of the self is removed. This is Srutartha. Based on that we postulate that this bandhanam must be mithya. This Sruthartha jnanam is untenable if this bondage is real. Unless bondage is unreal, the removal of samsara by self-knowledge is not possible. Sruti is telling that knowledge of the self removes the bondage . So the srutharta is there. Therefore we postulate that bandhanam must be mithya. This is shrutarthapatti Here tarati shokam atmavit is upapadya and the postulation that bandhanam is mithya is upapadaka. We had done a sloka earlier which conveys the same idea – Jnatva devam sarva pasha pa hanihi Nanyah panthah scheti vachobhih Jnapte sakshan mukti hetutva siddhau Adhyasatvam bandhanasyartha siddam. Artha sidham is srutartapatti prama. What is implied is - Bandhanasya adhyasatvam which is upapadaka jnanam or prama. Jnapte sakskasaat mukti hetutva is upapadya jnanam or pramanam. Sruti says something and based on that something else is implied. What is implied is gained by Sruthartapatti. Deriving or presuming the implication of the sruti is called Srutarthapatti. 5) Anupalabdhi – Abhava jnana asadharana karnam. A specific means for the knowledge of absence. Eg: If I say - Is there an elephant in my hand ? Answer is - No. This is called abhava jnanam. Knowledge of absence of elephant is abhava jnanam. The means for this knowledge of absence of the elephant is called anupalabdhi. We think we are seeing the absence of a thing, but that is not possible. We cannot see the absence of a thing because eyes can see only that which has form and color and therefore it is not pratyaksha pramanam. So there is a specific means of knowledge called anupalabdhi. Anupalabdhi means non-cognition or non-appreciation. What is the nature of this anupalabdhi pramanam ?

Jnanasya abhava. Absence of the knowledge is the means for the knowledge of the absence. Absence of knowledge is anupalabdhi pramanam and the knowledge of the absence is anupalabdhi prama.

July 27- Ques & Ans. :
1) What is pratyaksha jnanam ? When pramana chaitanyam and prameya chaitanyam become one, then it is called pratyaksha jnanam. 2) What is the nature of pratyaksha prama ? Chaitanyameva pratyaksha prama. Conciousness alone is the nature of pratyaksha prama. 3) What are the types of pratyaksha ? There are 2 types of pratyaksha – pramatru pratyaksha and sakshi pratyaksha. The object whose knowledge is born of sense contact is called pramatru pratyaksha. The object , the knowledge of which does not require sense contact is called sakshi pratyaksha . 4) What are the 2 ways in which sakshi pratyaksha is possible ? First way is thro’ Avidya vritti and the second way is by directly illumining the shape of the antahkarana without avidya vritti.

5 a) In which situation, sakshi pratyaksha needs avidya vritti ? In the case of adhyastha objects in jagrat avastha and for svapna padartha avidya vritti is required. 5 b) In which case sakshi pratyaksha is possible without avidya vritti being there ? In the case of emotions like sukha, dukha, krodha, etc. The antahkarana itself takes the shape of the emotion and the chaitanyam in the antahkarana illumines anything which is there in antahkarana. For eg: Happiness is directly illumined by sakshi chaitanyam without having any other vritti. The antahkaranam itself takes the shape of happiness. The chaitanyam which is already there in the antahkarana directly illumines it. In the case of akasha also, it is illumined by sakshi chaitanyam which is manifesting thro’ aloka akara chakshusha vritti. For perception of akasha, indriya vyapara is not required. So there is no indriya janya vritti nor avidya vritti. But still it is known directly by sakshi . 6) What is the definition of Arthapatti ?

Upapadya jnanena upapadaka kalpanam. By knowledge of upapadya, the upapadka is known. 6) What is upapadya ? The phenomenon which is untenable without something. It is pramana rupa jnana visaya ie, object of knowledge which is pramanam. Upapadya jnanam is pramanam. Eg : Pinnatvam or stoutness of Devadutta is upapadya. And knowledge of stoutness characterized by absence of eating during the day time is upapadya jnanam. 7) What is upapadaka ? In the absence of which something is not tenable. Eg: Ratri bhojanam is upapadaka or prama visaya. The corresponding upapadaka jnanam is called prama. 8) In upapadya jnanam & upapadaka jnanam which one is the cause and which one is the effect ? Upapada jnanam is the cause and upapadaka jnanam is the effect. Upapadya jnanam gives rise to upapadaka jnanam. Eg: Knowledge of stoutness is the cause to postulate ratri bhojanam. In the case of visaya, it is the opposite . Upapadaka is the cause and upapadya is the effect. Eg: Ratri bhojanam is the cause for pinnatvam. 9) What are the 2 types of arthapatti ? Drstarthapatti and srutarthapatti. Drstasya upapadyasya jnanena upapadaka kalpanam. Postulation based on experience of object or situation is called drstarthapatti. Eg : One example is - Devadattasya diva abhunjanasya pinnatvam. The other example is - idam rajat nasti. Negation of silver which is the upapadya is drstartha ie, the experienced object. . The mithyatvam of silver is upapadaka. It postulates unreal nature of the silver which was seen earlier . What is arthapatti prama in this example ? Knowledge that silver is mithya is Arthapatti prama or upapadaka jnanam. What is arthapatti pramanam in this expamle ? The knowledge of negatibility of silver is Arthapatti pramanam or upapadya jnanam. 11) What is Sruthartapatti ? Sruyamana vakyasya svarthanupapatti jnanena arthantarasya kalpanam. Postulating some implied meaning based on the sentence heard is called Sruthartapatti. ie, You hear some meaning and based on that you postulate some other meaning.

12) What is the laukika example for this ? Jivi Devadatta grihe nasti. The primary meaning is - Alive devadatta is not at home - which is upapadya. The implied meaning postulated from this sentence is - Devadatta must be outside. What is the upapadya and the upapadaka jnanam in this example ? The knowledge that alive Devadatta is not inside is upapadya jnanam .This is Arthapatti pramanam. From this we get upapadaka jnanam that Devadatta is outside.This is Arthapatti prama.

13) What is the sigmificance of the word - Jivi ? To negate the possibility of his being dead. Because if he is not inside, he could be dead, not outside. The upapadya is made so tight that it can lead only to the upapadaka. That is why arthapatti is also called anyathanupapatti. 14) What is the example of Vedanta vakya for Srutarthapatti ? Tarati shokam atmavit. - The knower of Atma corsses over the bondage of samsara. Upapadya is – Removability of the bondage by knowledge- this is heard. Upapadaka is – Unreality of bondage . Its jnanam is called Srutarthapatti. Srutarthapatti prama is otherwise called arthat siddham ie, acomplished by implication. Srutarthapatti is the knowledge and what is known is called arthat siddham. Sruthartapatti is in the sense of pramanam and prama, not in terms of visaya. Depending on the type of jnanam, the interpretation of Arthartapatti is different. Arthasya apathih kalpanam – Knowledge of the implied meaning - this is the definition in terms of Arthartapatti prama. It can be either Drstarthapatti prama or Sruthartapatti prama. Arthasya apathih yasmat –because of which there is postulation of an object– this is definition in terms of Arthartapatti pramanam. It can be either Drstarthapatti pramanam or Sruthartapatti pramanam. 15) What is Anupalabdhi pramanam ? Abhava Jnanasya asadharana karanam – Specific means for knowledge of the absence . What is the nature of anupalabdhi pramanam ? Jnanasya abhavah- known absence of knowledge is the nature Anupalabdhi pramanam. What is the nature of anupalabdhi prama ? Abhavasya jnanam – knowledge of absence is the nature of Anupalabdhi prama. Eg: Is there an elephant ? The absence of knowledge of elephant which is known is the pramanam for the knowledge of absence of elephant - No, there is no elephant – which is the prama .

212 July 27- Talk 37 – Sabda Pramanam –
The means of knowledge in the form of words or verbal testimony. Sabda pramanam is otherwise called Agama pramanam – agamyate arthah yena. It is called Agama because ‘Aa’ means samyak ie, properly. ‘Gam’ means to go. That by which the meaning is known very well is called Agama. We have some idea of sabda pramanam but there may not be sufficient clarity. We hear a sentence - ramah gramam gachati. The sentence is consisting of words. So you get sabda jnanam. Some people take it this way - That hearing the words itself is sabda jnanam. That is not so. It is pratyaksha prama for which shrotra (ears) are used and it is not sabdi prama. Then what is sabda pramanam ? Tatparya vishayi bhoota, abadhya padartha samsarga bodhakam vakyam sabda pramanam. Sabda pramanam is in the form of a sentence which is revealing a particular connection among the meanings of the words and that connection should be the object of the intention of the speaker and that connection should be abadhya ie, non-negatable by other pramanams. Sabda pramanam is not just hearing the sentence. Suppose I say - ekona vimshati varsiyaha sah. You heard the sentence, but you did not get word-based knowledge or sabdi prama. You may be able to repeat it also . Just merely hearing the sentence does not mean that you have got sabda jnanam. Then what is sabda jnanam ? Samsarga bodha is sabda jnanam and samsarga bodhakam vakyam is sabda pramanam which is the sentence revealing a particular connection among the meaning of the words . What is samsarga ? When I say – Ramah vanam gachati. You hear the word Rama and the meaning flashes in your mind of a person or agent . Going will indicate an act of going. To the forest indicates where the act of going is done. So all the three meanings are connected. Ramah indicates he is a karta. Gachati means there is the action of going. Vanam is an object of action of going. So when you hear a sentence you understand that there is going happening for which the karta is Ramah and the object is the forest. In Sanskrit we say - Rama kartraka, vanam karmaka gamanam from the standpoint of action. From the standpoint of the agent we say - gamananukula krtiman ramah. Rama is the agent for the act of going for which the object is forest. The connection between the meanings of the word Rama and going and going and forest is called samsarga. There is a connection between the karta and kriya and kriya and the karma. That particular connection among the meaning of the words is called the meaning of a sentence. Even though the sentence is a group of words, the meaning of a sentence is more than the meaning of the individual words. There is a saying - A whole is more than the sum total of all the parts.

Suppose you have five coloured powders and you put them in particular way and you get a particular design say a swastika. The swastika design is something more than the sum total of individual colors. Suppose you don’t put the colors in a particular way, the design will not come. The meaning of the sentence is something like the design and each individual color is likethe word meaning. The sentence meanng or the vakyartah is in the form of samsargah. So the connection between the word meanings is called samsargah and the sentence which is revealing the particular connection among the word meaning is called sabda pramanam. For eg : Ramah vanam gachati. The connection between Ramah , gachati and vanam is called the meaning of the sentence and the sentence or vakyam which is revealing this connection is called sabda pramanam. The connection among the meanings occurs to you then you have sabdi prama. The samsarga bodhah or the knowledge of the connection among the word meanings is called sabdi prama. Words by themselves are not pramanm. So first we hear the word. When we hear the word Ramah we understad there is an agent , then gachati indicates the action done by Ramah and the object of action is indicated by the word forest. A sentence when it reveals this connection is sabda pramanam. What type of connection ? Tatparya vishayi bhoota. The samsarga should be intended by the speaker. The speaker will have some meaning in his mind which he is expressing thro’ the sentence. A classical example : Saindhavam Anaya. Saindhavam means salt or it also means horses from Sindhu desha. Now when yo use the sentence saindhavam Anay,a then the listener has to ascertain whether the connection is between salt and bringing or horse and bringing. He has to see the connection. Suppose the master is going out then saindhavam will refer to horse. Suppose he is sitting in the the dining table, then saindavam will refer to salt. So the samsarga is tatparya vishayi bhoota. He has to understand the tatparya of the apeaker. This samsarga being a pramanm has to be abadhya . Suppose you say - vahnina sinchati ie, He sprinkles with fire. Suppose we have to see the samsarga that sprinkling is the action and vahni is the instrument. This samsarga is not possible. It is pratyaksha pramana badhya. It is negated by other means. Therefore it should be abadhya samsarga. Thus the main important thing is samsarga bodhakam vakyam is sabda pramnam and abadhya and tatparya vishayi bhoota give the details of what type of samsarga. There is a vedic example - jnanartham gurum abhigachet. Here Sruti is making a statement that go to a teacher to get jnanam. Sruti is revealing a connection between attainment of knowledge and going to the teacher. This is samsarga and it is the meaning of the sentence. This sentence is a pramanam because it reveals a connection. The listener has to get the same meaning which is intended by the speaker. Then only really sabda bodha has taken place. If you hear something and understand something else, then the samsarga is not revealed. Sabdi prama is samsarga bodha. Ofcourse for this we have to hear the words to know the connection. There is a beautiful sloka which expresses the process of sabda jnanam. In our sastra there is a

very huge analysis of how sabda pramanam takes place. Padajnanam tu karanam, dvaram tatra padarthadhihi, sabda bodhah phalam tatra, sakthidhis sahakarini. Knowledge of the words is the instrument. Like - ramah vanam gachati . You should have pratyaksha jnanam of each of the words – ramah, gachati and vanam. But padajnanam by itself will not do the job. So padajnanam has to have some other factors also. Padarthadhihi – the knowledge of the meaning of the word. That is the intermediatiary factor. So first there is pada jnanam –hearing the word and then there is padarta jnanam – the knowledge of the meaning of the word. But the knowledge of the meaning of the word is possible only if you have the connection of the word and its meaning in your mind earlier. If you have not heard the word before, then even if you hear the word, padarta jnanam does not take place and if padartha jnanam does not take place vakyartha jnanam cannot take place. So in-between pada jnanam and padartha jnanam one factor is required –shaktidhihi. Shakti means the capacity of the word to reveal its meaning. Every particular word has got the capacity to reveal a particular meaning and dhi means knowledge. One should have the knowledge of the capacity of a particular word to reveal a particular meaning . Eg: Gachati is a word. Going is the meaning. I should have the knowledge of the connection between the word gachati and going. That connection is called shakti. Or the capacity of the word gachati to reveal the meaning going is shakti. Either way we can say it. The connection andthe capacity of the word to reveal are both called shakti. One should have knowledge of this shakti. Padajnanam will give rise to padartha jnanam and because of shakti jnanam , padartha jnanam will give rise to vakyartha jnanam which is samsarga jnanam. This is sabdi prama or word-based knowledge for which the group of sentence is the pramanam. Padajnanam---------------padarta jnanam----------vakyartha jnanam = sabdi prama. Shaktidhihi which is the knowledge of the connectionbetween word and meaning is the in-between factor between pada jnanam and padartha jnanam. We simply use the word, vakya for this. That which gives rise to sabdi prama is called vakyam. This is how sabda pramanam works. So sabda pramanam is a sentence revealing a peculiar connection among the word meanings. With this the analysis of all the six pramanams are over. Now we go to the main bhashyam.

Pramana Bhashyam –
Tametam avidyakhyam atmanatamanoh itaretaradhyasam, puraskrtya sarve pramanaprameya vyavahara laukika vaidikascha pravrtah sarvani ca sastrani vidhipratishedha mokshaparani.


Here in the first sentence the Bhashyakara is giving pratyaksha pramanam for adhyaasa. That is revealed by the word etam. Tam means that which has been discussd so far and etam means this which is evident. That which is available thro’ pratyaksha pramanam. What is available ? Atmanatmano iteretaradhyasah - The mutual adhyaasa of atma and anatma. Puraskrtya literally means keeping in front. Here it means presupposing adhyaasa. Avidyakhyam - which is called avidya. Sarve pramana prameya vyavaharah pravrtah - all ativities of pramana and prameya are started. The meaning so far is - All activites of pramana and prameya are started, presupposing this mutual superimpositomn of self and non-self which is known as avidya which is evident and which is discussed so far. Here pratyaksha pramana is presented for establishing adhyaasa.

Aug 3 – Ques & Ans –
1) What is another name for Sabda pramanam ? Another name for Sabda pramnam is Agama pramanam - That through which the meaning is clearly known . 2) What is sabda pramanam ? Samsarga bodhaka vakyam. Bodhaka means revealing. The sentence revealing the connection between the meanings of the words is sabda pramanam. 3) What is samsarga ? The connection between the meaning of the words is called samsarga. 4) What are the 2 qualifications required for a sentence to reveal its meaning ?

i) The connection should be tatparya vishayi bhoota ie, the samsarga which is revealed by the sentence should be the object of the intention of the speaker. Eg: Saindhavan Anaya. Saindhavam means both salt and horse. The meaning of saindhavam will depend on the purport of the speaker - as indicated by the context -whether he is referring to horse or salt. ii) The connection should be abadhya padartha ie, not negatable by any othe pramanam. Eg : vahnina sinchati – sprinkling with fire. This sentence will not be a sabda pramanam for this meaning because it can be negated by other pramanams. If there is an implied meaning like sprinkling with hot water then the meaning is abadhya and then the sentence is sabda pramanam. 5) What is meant by-“ the connection between word meanings’ ? In the example - Ramah gramam gachati. The connection between the 3 words is – Rama is the kartraka or agent, vanam is karmaka or object of action and gachati is kriya or action done. Between the agent, action and object there is a connection. The connection among the 3 meanings of these 3 words is the total samsarga . This connection includes the meaning of the connected (padarthas or indvl. words) and this total samsarga will be the meaning of the sentence. Rama kartrka, grama karmaka, gamanam is the meaning of the sentence. Padarthas along with their connection is vakyartha. 5) What is the sloka for how vakyartha takes place ? Padajnanam tu karanam Dvaram tatra Padarthadhih Sabda bhodhah phalam tatra Shaktidhih sahakarini. The knowledge of the words of the sentence is the instrument. The occurrence or knowledge of the meaning of the words is the intermediary factor. The word-based knowledge or vakyartha jnanam is the result there (of the whole process) . The knowledge of the capacity of the word to reveal its meaning is the supporting means.

Talk 38 -Aug 3 –
The whole process of saabda bhodha consists of – 1) Padajnanam –knowledge of the word. The alphabets put together is the word sound. Eg: R+a+m+a+: is Ramah. This is pada jnanam of the word Ramah. 2) Shaktidhihi ie, the knowledge of the capacity of the word to reveal its meaning is the supporting means. How shakti takes place has several factors. So shaktidhihi is the supporting means for padajnanam to become padartha jnanam.


3) One then gains padartha jnanam – knowledge of the meaning of the word. 4) For padartha jnanam to become vakyartha jnanam , there are some factors. Four factors have to be there for vakya to reveal its meaning – Akanksha , Yogyata , Asaktih, Tatparya jnanam. When all these factors are there, then vakya will give rise to vakya janya jnanam. i)Akanksha – Paraspara jignyasa visayatva yogyatvam. Between word meanings there should be expectancy. Jignyasa visaya means object of desire to know. Eg: bring pot. The pot is jignyasa visaya. The word bring has expectancy regarding the pot and the word pot has expectancy that it should be brought. So every word in a sentence should have an expectancy. When we say words with pauses in between - like horse…. man….goat… Then the object horse has no expectancy of man and so on. Padajnanam and padartha jnanam will take place of the word horse because you have shaktidhihi. But vakyartha jnanam does not take place due to lack of akanksha. Even if you keep repeating 10 words like this, vakyartha bodha will not take place. So akanksha or expectancy is very important. Even in Vedanta people don’t get the benefit because they do not have expectancy. They want to hear the solutions to their day to day problems and sastra says you are Brahman so how does knowing that resolve my daily problem or the marriage of my daughter, etc . If a person does not want to listen and you tell them, then they do not listen to half the things because akanksha is not there. Many times the wife is telling so many things and the husband is not listening because he does not have akanksha. But here it is not talked about in that sense. Here it is in the sense of every word meaning should be the object of expectancy from the other word, then only sabda bodha takes place. In –Bring Pot - bring has the expectancy of pot and pot also has the expectancy with bring. The expectancy of the word meaning pot is fulfilled by the word meaning of bring and vice versa. ii) Yogyata - Tatparya vishaya samsarga abadhah. Non-contradiction of the samsarga of the padartha which is tatparya vishaya ie, non-contradiction of the connection between word meaning. Like in the example - vahnina sinchati there is a contradiction of the connection between fire and sprinkling. iii) Asittihi – Proximity. The word meaning should occur without undue intervals. Suppose I use the word balah and the next day I say gramam and after a few hours gachati. The interval between words is long. Then the intended vakyartaha jnanam will not take place. iv) Tatparya jnanam – padartha samsarganubhavajanana yogyatvam .The capacity of the sentence to give rise to the knowledge of the padartha samsarga. When tatparya jnanam is there then vakyartha jnanam will take place. Suppose there is a sentence - visham bhunktva which means take poison.

This sentence is told by my well wisher so the tatparya jnanam is not the actual word meaning but the implication. So the implied meaning of the sentence must be - if you go there or eat there, it will be like taking poison. One should have this sense of possibility of an implied meaning , then only real vakyartha jnanam will take place. From padartha jnanam to become vakyartha jnanam all these four factors are required. Saabda bodha means knowledge based on words. We use the word saabda bodha because sabda bodha may mean knowledge of the word ie, pada jnanam or sabda jnanam. For pada jnanam to take place sabda should be there. Saabda bodha is possible only if pada jnanam is there. Actually sabda is not pramanam, sabda jnanam is pramanam. Sabda jnanam will become pramanam only with the help of the above factors. So sabda jnanam is samsarga bodha or word based knowledge and Sabda pramanam is a sentence or a particular group of words which is know which gives rise to this knowledge.. Sabda pramanam is of two types -Laukika and Vaidika. Laukika pramanam is paurusheya – It is human in origin. Vaidika is apaurusheya -The origin is the Vedas. No particular human being is the origin. Thus we have Laukika vakyam and Vaidika vakyam. The word sabda pramanam is applicable to both . When a person is speaking it is called Laukika sabda pramanam and when it is sastra janya vakya they are called Vaidika sabda pramanam. We use the word Vaidika Agama only with respect to Vaidika sabda pramanam.

Why are we studying pramanams ? This Bhashyam is dealing with Pramanam, so we study all the available pramanams for adhyaasa. There is adhyaasa for which there is a pramanam. Really speaking at this juncture, sabda pramanam is not required for adhyaasa. It is not dealt with in adhyaasa bhashyam directly. Only pratyaksha , anumanam and arthapatti are shown for adhyaasa. PRAMANA BHASHYAM : Tametam avidyakhyam atmanatmano itaretara adhyaasam puraskrtya, sarve pramana prameya vyavahara laukika vaidikasca pravrtah, sarvani ca sastrani vidhipratishedamokshaparani. Here pratyaksha praman is shown by using the word etam. Etam menas this. This goes with itaretara adhyaasam. Itaretara means mutually between atma and anatma. The main sentence here is – Itaretara adhyaasam puraskrtya sarve parmana prameya vyavaharah pravrtah.

All the activities are commencing presupposing this adhyaasa ie, Without this adhyaasa no vyavahara starts. All activities ,whether they are activities of pramana or prameya , have taken adhyaasa for granted. Pramana-prameya vyavahara can be interpreted in two ways. Sarve pramana prameya vishayaka pramanaihi vyavaharah. The activities regarding prameya thro’ pramana. Eg: clip is prameya or object of knowledge and I see, so my eyes are pramanam. There is transaction between pramana and prameya. Abheda has taken place. Similarly hearing the words is pramana-prameya vyavahara taking place. Prameya here is words. Pramanam is ears. Then pada jnanam is taking place. If saabda bhodha is taking place, then prameya is the samsarga between the word meanings. Pramanam is vakyam or sentence of the speaker. If you see only with respect to cognitive avtivites , then pramana -prameya vyavahara means vyavahara regarding prameya thro’ pramana ie, the activity regarding the object of the knowledge thro’ the means of knowledge . The second interpretation of the meaning of pramana-prameya vyavahara is taken in the wider sense. In the case of sight for example, the vyavahara of pramanam - which is the antahkarana coming out and taking the shape of the object and being illumined by chidabhaasa– all this is pramana vyaparah . For sabda jnanam to take place, so many things have to happen. Pada jnanam has to happen. Padartha upasiddhih has to happen and tatparya jnanam has to take place. Activities of pramanam is called pramana vyavahara and activites centerd on prameya is called Prameya vyavahara . Like clip is prameya and throwing, holding, are activities centered round the clip. Any vyavaharas will come either under pramana or prameya vyavahara . So all vyavaharas are called pramana -prameya vyavahara. All activities are based on some jnanam. But all vyavaharas whether it is only coginitve or the activities of giving, taking etc are all presupposing adhyaasa – adhyaasam puraskrtya.

All activities are of two types-Laukika or Vaidika. Laukika means activites taking place without the instruction of sastra . Suppose you walk, talk with a friend or eat – all these are Laukika vyavahara. For this the injunction of sastra is not there. Suppose I am doing sandhyavandana or agnihotra or a particular upaasana, then it is based on the sastra and these activites are called Vaidika vyavahara. Both types of vyvahara presuppose adhyaasa. Because for any vyvahara to take place there should be prama. And jnanam to be there there should be a jnata, knower. Inert cannot be knower. Atma is chaitanya , but it is not the knower because for knowing to take place some vikara has to happen. Atma is not the locus of any change and without some change taking place knowledge cannot take place. Therefore there must be atma and at the same time it should have connection with anatma. This connection cannot be real because atma is asanghah and therefore there must be adhyaasa between atma and anatma for this knower to be there. If knower is there, then only pramana-prameya vyavahara is possible . For Pramata to be there, adhyaasa has to be there. Atma

should have adhyaasa with anatma to be pramata. So all pramana- prameya vyavahara presupposes adhyaasa. Simply said - you do any activity because you have kartrtvam and kartrtvam cannot be there without adhyaasa being there. Without kartrtvam, kriya is not possibe. Therefore all the vyavaharas presuppose adhyaasa. Therefore it is said - atma anatmano itaretara adhyaasa puraskrtya ie,presupposing mutual atmaanatma adhyaasa. Which adhyaasa is indicated by the word etam - The adhyaasa which is evident. How do we say it is evident ? Because I take this body to be myself is very evident. Therefore this adhyaasa is evident and this pratyasiddhah adhyaasa is taken for granted and I proceed. Ofcourse,’ what I am experiencing is adhyaasa’ that knowledge I may not have. But still I am experiencing adhyaasa whether I know it or not. For example –a child may not have heard the word akasha but he always experiences akasha. Similarly I am experiencing adhyaasa but I may not have labled it as adhyaasa. I am this and this is mine is everybody’s experience. This indicates that I am taking this body to be myself. Taking myself to be this body is anubhava siddhah. Technically it is called sakshi pratyaksha ie, it is experienced but not thro’ sense organs. I sense adhyaasa. So adhyaasa is sakshi pratyagsiddhah. So the Bhashykara is saying here, that this adhyaasa is anubhava siddhah, only you may not have paid attention that it is adhyaasa. Therefore etam – it is evident. This pratyagsiddah adhyaasa is the basis for all vyavahara to take place - whether it is vaidika or laukika, whether it is pramana or prameya vyavahara, whether it is cognitive or other activities. All activities have got their basis in adhyaasa. Vyavahara hetutvena adhyaasah pratyagsiddhah -Adhyaasah which is the basis for all transaction is anubhava siddhah or evident. There is no excepton to this. Infact if we understand the mechanism of all activities you will be ashamed to ask for exemption. For eg, suppose someone says I want moksha without jnanam. Infact if you really know what moksha is, you will be ashamed to ask for exemption from jnanam. Similarly if you understand how vyavahara takes place you will be ashamed to ask for exemption. No activity ispossible without adhyaasa being there. Pravrtah means commence. All activities commence presupposing adhyaasa ie, All the activities are possible only when atma has identification with anatma. Adhyaasa yukta atma alone will be the basis for all activities to take place. Not only this – sarvani ca sastrani- all the scriptures also presuppose adhyaasa. Three types of scriptures are indicated-vidhi, pratisheda and mokshah. Vidhi means instruction to do something. Eg: Do sandhyavandanam everyday is a sastra vidhi. Nisheda para sastra is instruction of what is prohibited by sasta. Do not drink alcohol is nisheda prescribed by sastra. Vidhi and Nisheda para sastra are called Karma Kanda. Third one is moksha para sastra. Eg : Satyam, jnanam, anantam Brahma. Moksha para sastra is called Vedanta. All of them whether it is Karma Kanda or Vedanta presuppose adhyaasa. Without taking adhyaasa into consideration moksha para sastra cannot proceed. Because moksha para sastra is

addressed to a person who thinks himself to be bound. Unless bondage is there freedom from bondage is not there. So Vedanta also is presupposing adhyaasa. So considering everybody to be in ignorance ,sastra proceeds. Sastra is addressed to human beings who consider themselves to be karta. Each type of scripture deals with it in a different way. Taking adhyaasa for granted, sastra gives injunction. For eg; Sastra accepts the fact there is a alcoholic and then says do not drink. While giving its injunction and prohibition, sastra takes this adhyaasa for granted. Even while addressing a mumukshu, sastra takes adhyaasa for granted. All the sastras presuppose adhyaasa.

Aug 10 – Ques & Ans. 1) What is Sabda pramanam ?
Samsraga bodhaka vakyam sabda pramanam. A vakya which is revealing the samsarga among the words is called Sabda pramanam. 2) Why is it called sabda pramanam and not vakya pramanam ? Sabda gives sabda jnanam , Sabda jnanam gives padartha jnanam, Padartha jnanam gives vakyartha jnanam which is saabda bodha. Vakya is consisting of sabda. That is why it is called sabda pramanam which gives rise to saabdi prama.Of course vakyam can be called pramanam. 3) What is saabdi prama ? Word-based knowledge. Knowledge gained thro’ the group of words is called saabdi prama. Saabdi prama is called sabda bodha or vakyartha jnanam. They all mean the same. 4) What are the three main stages involved in saabdi prama ? Padajnanam, padartha jnanam and vakyartha jnanam which is otherwise called sabda bodha or saabdi prama. 5) What is saktidhihi ? The knowledge of the capacity of the word to reveal its own meaning. Another definition of shakti is -Pada padarthayoho sambhandhah shaktihi The connection between the word (pada) and the word meaning (padartha). The word ghata and the object ghata have a connection and that connection is called shakti and the knowledge of that connection is called shaktidhihi. One note about the word tatra used in the sloka – padajnanam tu karnam , dvaram tasya padathadhihi, sabdha bodhah phalam , tatra shaktidhihi sahakarini. Here the word tatra connects to shaktidhihi and not with sabdha bodha phalam. Tatra means there. In the matter of padarthadhihi ie, in the occurrence of the meaning of the words.

To summarise sabda pramanam Sabda pramanam is a vakya which is revealing samsarga. When we say here “samsarga” it includes padartha. Both together constitute vakyartha. 6) What are the four factors required for vakyartha jnanam ? Akanksha, yogyata, asattih and tatparya jnanam. 7) What is Akanksha ? Paraspara jijnasa vishayatvam. The mutual expectancy of the word meanings. Eg: Gam Anaya - Bring cow . Bring has got the expectancy of cow (gam) 8) What is Yogyata ? Tatparya visayi bhoota samsarga abadhah. The connection intended by the speaker should not be contradicted by any other mens of knowledge. Eg: vahnina sinchati is contradicted by other means of knowledge. So vakyartha jnanam cannot take place. Yogyata is required ie, the samsarga revealed by the words should not be contradicted by any other means of knowledge. 9) What is Asattih ? Asattih means proximity between word meanings. The occurrence of the word meaning without undue interval is asattih. 10) What is Tatparya jnanam ? Padartha samsarga prathitijanana yogyatvam or Tat pratiti janana yogyatvam. The listener should have the knowledge of the capacity of the sentence to give rise to the knowledge of the samsarga. In simple words, the listener should have the knowledge that the speaker must be meaning this and nothing else. At this juncture tatparya jnanam is in the form of sambhavana . If it was a certainty then vakyartha jnanam has taken place. He has the possibility that this sentence can give this meaning. Then since there is no objections and the deck is cleard . tatparya jnanam will lead to vakyartha jnanam. Some philosophers do not accept tatparya jnanam as something required. But Vedantins feel that tatparya jnanam is necessary for vakyartha jnanam to take place. To summarise Sabda pramanam is in the form of a sentence revealing a particular connection between the meaning of words. Saabda bodha is the knowledge of the connection of the meanings revealed by the sentence. In Saabda bodha mainly 3 stages are there - padajnanam, padartha jnanam and vakyartha jnanam. For vakya to reveal the vakyartha, four factors are required - akanksha, yogyata, asattihi, tatparya jnanam. This is the essence of sabda pramanam. 11) Ques on the meaning of the words of Pramana Bhashyam ? Tam means that. It refers to adhyaasa which was described earlier.

Etam means this . It refers to this adhyaasa which is evident. Avidyakyam – that which is called or having the name Avidya. Avidyakyam is an adjective for adhyaasa. Atmanatmano itaretara adhyaasa – mutual superimposition of atma and anatma. Puraskrtya means presupposing. Sarve pramana prameya vyavahara – Activities relating to all the means of knowledge and the object of knowledge. 12) What are the two interpretations of pramana-prameya vyavaharah ? a) Pramanaihi prameya visyaka vyavaharah. Activities regarding prameya thro’ pramanam ie, knowing prameya thro’ pramanam. It is cognitive activites. Prameya refers to all types of prameya whether thro’sabda pramanam or pratyaksha pramanam. b) Pramananam vyavaharah and prameyanam ca vyavaharah. The operations of pramanam are called pramana vyavaharah and the activities of prameya are called prameya vyavaharah. 12) What is the difference between laukika and vaidikasca ? Laukika means that which is not based on the instruction of the Vedas. Vaidika means activities which are based on the sastra. 13) What is the meaning of vidhipratishedhamoksha parani ? Parani means committed to or dealing with. Sastra which is dealing with injunctions, prohibitions and moksha . 14) What is the sastra which is dealing with moksha ? Vidhi nisheda sunya tatparani (brahma parani) vakyani moksha parani. The sentence which is revealing this Brahman which is free from vidhi , nisheda is moksha sastra. Eg : Vedanta sastra. The sentence - satyam jnanam anantam brahma - is moksha param. 15) What is the anvaya here - sarvanica sastrani vidhipratishedamoksha parani. ? You have to add the words - adhyaasam puraskrtya pravratani. The meaning is - all the scriptures dealing with injunction, prohibitions and freedom are also commencing presupposing adhyaasa. 16) How does Laukika vyavahara and Vaidika vyavahara presuppose adhyaasa ? For any activity to be done, jnanam has to be there. For knowledge to be there, jnata or pramata has to be there. For the pramata to be there, there has to be a connection between atma and anatma. Because to be the knower both modification and chaitanyam are required. Jadam cannot be the knower because it has no chaitanyam. Atma by itself is not the knower because atma is not the locus of any modifications.

Therefore both have to come together. Since atma is by nature asanghah, really they both cannot come together. So they have as though come together. This as though coming together of atma and anatma is called adhyaasa. Therefore for any activity whether Laukika or Vaidika , adhyaasa has to be there. From another point of view Laukika vyavahara requires kartrtvam and kartrtvam is adhyaasa. Pramatrtvam and kartrtvam indicate similar thing. 18) How do you say that sastra also presupposes adhyaasa ? Vidhi and pratisheda sastra is addressing the person who considers himself to be a karta. And kartrtvam is adhyaasika. Sastra also takes adhyaasa for granted and proceeds. It gives the injunction and prohibitions presupposing adhyaasa to be there for a jiva. Moksha sastra is addressed to a person who thinks he is bound and this bondage is nothing but adhyaasa. So moksha sastra also presupposes adhyaasa. Since you have taken this bondage for granted, therefore sastra is giving upadesha of how to be free. To a free person , sastra is no longer valid.

Talk 39 - Aug 10
Here in the first sentence, Bhashyakara is making a sweeping statement that all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa which is evident to you. Etam indicates pratyaksha pramanam. You are yourself saying -I am this. It is not a figurative expression ie, gauna prayoga. Like when I say -he is my life. Really his life and my life are different , but it is a figurative expression . You know the difference, still you express them as one. Bheda jnana purvaka abheda prayogah is gauna prayogah. Here when I say, I am this - it is not gauna prayogah because if it was, I should be very clear that I am not this body. Suppose I say I flew from Bombay to Calcutta. Really I did not fly and I know that I did not fly, so it is gauna prayoga. But here it is not like that. When I say I am this, I really mean it. It means bheda jnanam is not there and I am making this particular statement. The expression without bheda jnanam is not gauna prayoga, it is an expression of your confusion or bhrama. Here I take myself to be this body -mind - complex, take myself to be karta, bhokta and then do all vyavahara. This adhyaasa which is the basis for all vyavahara is evident to me. By etam, pratyaksha pramana is shown. Sarve vyavahara adhyaasam puraskrtya pravrtah - in this arthapatti and anumanam pramanam are also hinted which are going to be elaborated later in answer to the Purvapakshi ‘s question. Adhyaasa is there, so all vyavahara is there. This is the opening sentence of the Pramana bhashyam. Now we see the second sentenceKatham punah avidyavad vishayani pratyakshadini pramanani sastrani cha iti ? In the second sentence the Purvapakshi is asking a question or accusing the Siddanti –

Can you give me some more pramanam to accept that all vyavaharas are based on this adhyaasa ? Because sometimes pratyaksha itself is not sufficient. Like in the example of Bharchu who went to the forest and who was not killed. When his king went to the forest and saw the real Bharchu, but the information that Bharchu died and became a ghost remains with him. He sees the real bharchu and thinks he is a ghost. It happens to us also. We change our appearance and when we go out, the people who know you may not recognize you because in your mind you had a certain look which is not there now. One person who knew me very well and met me after I had shaved off my beard did not recognize me even thought he was seeing me. He asked someone and they told him that this was Swamiji. So pratyaksha pramanam was not enough. He needed sabda pramanam also to recognize me. So that is why the Purvapakshi is asking this question because Siddanti had stated all vyavaharas presuppose adhyaasa. When Siddanti says pramana vyavahara presupposes adhyaasa. It means the operator of pramanam must be having adhyaasa. Suppose I say the conclusions you have made is based on faulty perception. That means the person who has made the conclusion has faulty observation. Or if I say the conclusion you have arrived at is based on wrong data. Means the person who has arrived at the conclusion has wrong data. Similarly when we say the pramana vyavahara presupposes adhyaasa, what we mean is the person who is handling the pramanam ie pramata has adhyaasa. That is what the Siddanti meant. Pramanams are based on adhyaasa means pramata has adhyaasa. So the Purvapakshi is asking – katham punah - on what basis (kena pramanena) you are saying that all pramanas are based on adhyaasa. It is a question for pramanantharam. The Purvapakshi is asking for the basis for other means of knowledge to understand how pramanas are based on adhyaasa. One thing was already told this etam (pratayaksha). But is there any corroborating means to understand all pramanams are based on adhyaasa ? Because it is a startling statement that all vyavaharas without exception are based on adhyaasa. Even religious activities, even Moksha pursuit is based on adhyaasa. Your listening to me , my speaking to you is based on adhyaasa. Adhyaasa means confusion. So all the time I am in confusion. That is why he asks - katham punah ie, kena pramanena – on the basis of what you are saying. Pratyakshadini pramanani – Pramanani here refers to all the 6 means of knowledge like pratyaksha,etc. Sastrani ca iti - Sastras are included in pramanams, but here it is mentioned separately because sastra is said to be apaurusheya. So we may feel how can the Lord also be confused ? My pramana operation may be perhaps based on confusion. But Bhagvan operating sastra is also based on confusion. That is why it is mentioned separately. This is sometimes called Brahmana Vashista nyaya ie, all brahmanas you invite and Vasistha also you invite. Vasishta is included in brahmana but he is a special Brahmana so he is mentioned separately. Here also sastra has special status so that is why it is mentioned separately.

Avidyavat vishayani – This word has to be understood well. Vishayani has the meaning ashrayani. Avidyavat means one who has got avidya. All the means of knowledge are having asraya or the locus in someone who has got avidya. The vat pratyaya in sanskrit has the meaning having. Eg : the original stem bhagavat means one who has bhaga. Bhagavat becomes Bhagavan (1st case sing). Similarly the pramanas are avidyavat visayani. They are having their basis in someone who is avidyavat. In other words the asraya of pramanas is pramata,the knower who is avidyavat. The question is how pramanas are based on pramata who has adhyaasa. ie, how do you say pramata has got adhyaasa ? All pramanas are operated by pramatas. How the basis of all pramanas has got adhyaasa ? Simply put, how do you say all pramana vyavahara requires adhyaasa. Give me some more pramanam. . This is a simple, mild Purvapakshi who is accepting pramana vyavahara must be based on adhyaasa and wants some more proof. He is asking for pramanam to know how all pramanams are based on adhyaasa. Because the statement made is a startling stmt . Once in a while one may be confused and that is acceptable but it is diffuclt to believe how one can be confused all the time. Even the wife does not say that. Also he must have heard from some sources that Vedantin talks about adhyaasa which is not there. It is easier for a teacher to write on a clean slate. But suppose the slate is full of paintings from different sources, then the teacher’s job is difficult. So the innocent Purvapakshi is saying , give me some pramanam for which the Siddanti gives the answer next line from uchyate. But there may be some aggressive Purvapakshi who would have asked the same question in a more sharper tone. Then the meaning is a little different.

Aug 17 – Ques & Ans.
1)Which bhashyam are we in ? Pramana Bhashyam. What is Pramana bhashyam ? The bhashyam dealing with pramanam. 2) What is the meaning of avidyakhyam ? Akhyam means – which has the name of. That which has the name or is known as avidya. 3) What type of adhyaasa ? Atma anatmano iteratara adhyaasam.

ie, Mutual superimposition of atma and anatma. 4) What is puraskrtya ? Puraskrtya means presupposing. 5) Presupposing adhyaasa what happens ? Presupposing adhyaasa all vyavahara starts. 6) What type of vyavahara starts ? Pramana prameya vyavahara starts. 7) What is meant by pramana-prameya vyavaharah ? One interpretation is - pramanaih prameyadi visayaka vyavaharah. All cognitive activities thro’ any of the pramanas. Other interpretation is – pramananam prameyanamca vyvaharah. All operations centered on pramana and operations centered on prameya. The second interpretation is wider and includes all activites like bringing things, taking away things, etc. 8) What is meant by vidhipratishedamokshaparani ? It is connected to sastrani. Sastras dealing with injunctions, prohibitions and moksha. Moksha parani refers to Vedanta. 9) What does katham mean ? Kena pramanena. How all pramanas are based on adhyaasa. Idea is on the basis of which pramana you say that . 10) Which word indicates that all pramanas are based on adhyaasa ? Avidyavat visayani. Visayani means asrayani. All pramanas are having their locus or basis in someone who has got avidya. In other words pramanams are based on the pramata who has got adhyaasa. 11) Where has Siddanti said that pramanams are based on someone who has adhyaasa. ? When the Siddanti said that pramana vyavahara is based on adhyaasa, it meant that the one who is operating the pramanam must have adhyaasa. What was the example given in this context ? Eg : This report is based on false data, means the reporter has false data. Similarly when the pramana-prameya vyavahara is based on adhyaasa means that the operator must have adhyaasa. Even though Bhashyakara had not said it, this is what was implied. 12) Why sastrami is mentioned separately after saying pratyakshadini ? Sastra is apauruseya. So it means even God presupposes adhyaasa to gve upadesha.

13) What does the word punah refer to ? It refers to pramanantara – other means of knowledge. With reference to pratyaksha which was already said, other means of knowledge (anantara) are referred by the word punah. 14) Where pratyaksha is implied ? Etam implies pratyaksha pramanam This adhyaasa which is evident. 15) If pratyaksha pramanam is already given, why Purvapakshi should ask for other means of knowledge ? Sometimes pratyaksha alone is not enough , it needs to be corroborated by other means of knowledge. Like the story of Bharchu. Even though the king was seeing Bharchu , it was not enough for him to recognize that he was Bharchu. It happens to us also. Like in the case of a Swami when he was a brahmachari, he was invited to talk at a school. When he went there they did not recognize him maybe because he was thin, humble and unassuming looking. They thought him to be the assistant of the main swami and made him wait with them for the main swami which was really him. Then the Prinicpal recognized him . Sometimes even though you are seeing somebody, you are not recognized due to some change. Then pratyaksha is not enough. So the Purvapakshi is asking for some other corroborating means. 16) What is meant by the word ”aadi ” in pratyakshadini ? Other pranamas like arthapatti, anumanam, upamanam, anupalabdhi are referred by the word aadi. Laukika sabda can also be included, not Vaidika which is included separately under sastrani.

At regular intervals we need to review this question Why are we studying adhyaasa bhashyam ? Answer to this question given by Swamiji – Sastra tells us that by jnanam you get moksha . That connection is made clear by the study of adhyaasa. How moksha is possible by knowledge ? Moksha is freedom from bondage. Freedom from bondage by knowledge is possible, only when the bondage is unreal. Unreal means it must be adhyaasa or superimposition. If it is real it cannot go. In the first sutra of Brahma sutra it is said - athato brahma jijnasa ie, for the sake of moksha do sastra vichara. Adhyaasa bhashyam gives clarity regarding the connection between jnanam and moksha. My bondage is due to adhyaasa. If this is understood very clearly then my approach to

the pursuit of knowledge will be proper. Otherwise it will not be intimate to me how knowledge can solve this problem ? All this is made clear by adhyaasa bhashyam especially for those people who want the inner mechanism of how it happens. It is something like if somebody has fever and doctor tells him to take crocin. He takes it and feels better. But if somebody wants to know how crocin works, so that he can substitute with some other tablet which has those contents, then he is told in detail. Similarly if we don’t have sufficient conviction then we cannot study well. How do we know that we don’t have sufficient conviction ? Because the pursuit of knowledge has not become the first priority ? Self-knowledge alone should become the ultimate and whatever is required for self knowledge I work for that. Everytime I have to see the connection, whether this will lead me to self-knowledge because I am very well convinced that self-knowledge alone is going to remove adhyaasa and removal of adhyaasa alone will give me moksha. It is ones own understanding. Therefore we are studying this adhyaasa bhashyam. The purpose should be clear, only then we will be motivated. Adhyaasa bhashyam maybe interesting. But if that alone is the motivation then if something more interesting comes, we will drop it. So I have to see the connection between adhyaasa bhashyam and mokshah.

Talk 40 - Aug 17 :
Katham punah avidyavat vishayani pratyakshadini pramanani sastrani ceti. Purvapakshi is asking , how do you say that all the means of knowledge like pratyaksha , etc and sastra are based on someone who has got avidya (avidyavat). Can you give me some more pramanas so that my understanding is strengthened ? Now I have some idea and I want to make my understanding strong. So give me some supporting means.This is a mild Purvapaksha who is saying that what you say is right , but I want to know more. So tell me more ways to know it.

But there is the other Purvapaksha who is accusing or denying what Siddanti is saying. Akshepa katham ? He is accusing - how can it be so ? katham avidyavatvisayani pratyakshadini pramanani. How can the means which are depended on avidyavat, be pramanas ? If the instruments are based on someone who has got adhyaasa, then how those instruments can be pramanas. His idea is if pramanas are based on someone who has got adhyaasa, then they cannot be pramanas. Like the statement made by a drunk fellow cannot be authentic. The Purvapakshi is asking , if pramanas are based on the pramata who has got adhyaasa, then how can they be pramanas ? If pramanas are dependent on a defective agency, then they must be defective also. Like a statement made by a person who is not sane cannot be authentic. There was a King in Gujarat who made a rule that any order made by him after 7pm till next morning, should not be considered valid. Because he knows that after 7 pm he drinks. How can the statement made by a drunk person considered to be pramanam ? Similarly if pratyaksha , anumanam are based on someone who is defective, then the pramana also will be defective and the knowledge created by

this pramanam will also be defective. The knowledge will not be prama, it will be bhrama. If the instruments are creating bhrama then they cannot be called pramana. So the question here is - avidyavat vishayani chet katham pramanani. If pratyakshadi pramanas are based on one who has got adhyaasa, then how can they be called pramanas ? So your contention that pramanas are based on adhyaasa is not correct . If this pratyakshadi are based on one who has adhyaasa then pratyakshadi cannot be pramanas and if pratyaksadi are pramanas then they cannot based on one who has got adhyaasa. Either way it is not possible. Eg: If the statement is made by a person who is drunk, it cannot be authentic and if it is authentic, it cannot be made by a person who is drunk. If pratyakshadi are based on avidyavat then the pramanas will be defective. If pramanas are defective, then the knowledge created will also be defective. Therefore they cannot be called pramanas. Then we will not have vyavhara because vyavahara is possible only if there is prama. Suppose I don’t trust my pramanas then how can I do vyavahara. So pramana-prameya vyavahara can never be possible if pramanas are defective. Pramanas will be defective , if pramata is defective. So, the chain is – If pramata is defective , then pramanam is defective. If pramanam is defective , then knowledge is defective. If knowledge is defective, then vyavahara is not possible. But vyavahara is there. And also we do have the expression pramanic vyavahara (based on pramana) and apramanic vyavahara or bhrama (not based on pramana). Like going after mirage water is based on false idea. His vyavahara is apramanica. It is based on bhrama. We have such expressions. But according to you, all vyavahara will be apramanic based. Everything is confusion only. So we won’t have the distintion between right knowledge and wrong knowledge . Because all knowledge is bhrama only. Like if all are corrupt then we cannot have the division of corrupt and non-corrupt. Division is possible only if the other variety is there. Like in this hall, I can make a division of male and female, not of animal and human beings because animals are not there in this room. Similarly if right knowledge is not there, then this division itself will not be there. But we have this division. Therefore you cannot say that pramanas are based on defective pramatas, otherwise pramanic vyvahara will not be possibe. Avidyavat means defective pramata. Therefore you canot say that vyvahara is based on adhyaasa. If they are based on adhyaasa there will be chaos. Vyvahara has to be based on prama and prama is based on authentic pramana and pramana has to be based on defect-free pramata. Thus the akshepa is that pramanas cannot be based on adhyaasa. Pramanas are meant for creating vidya and pramanas themselves are based on avidya. Like how can a confused person enlighten someone else. One who is clear can give clarity. But a confused person cannot give clarity. Pramata who has adhyaasa is confused. How can he operate the pramanas to give clarity. There is a contradiction here. Confused pramata is giving clarity thro’

pramnas. So you cannot say that pramanas are based on someone who has got adhyaasa. This is the akshepa by the strong Purvapakshi. The first one was simple from the mild Purvapakshi. Tell me more means how pramanas are based on someone who has got adhyaasa. This first interpretation was pramanantara visyaka prasnah. Katham then means by which other means or on what basis do you make the statement that pramanas are based on someone who has got adhyaasa. He is accepting what Siddanti is saying that pramanams can be based on adhyaasa, but he is asking for more pramana to see this. The strong Purvapakshi on the other hand does not accept the Siddanti’s contention. He is accusing or challenging the Siddanti - how come (katham) can you say that pramanas are based on adhyaasa. he does not accept what Siddanti is saying. He is accusing him , how can you make a statement like this ? How does the Siddanti answer both the akshepas and which one does he take on first ? The Siddanti answers both the mild and the strong akshepa. It seems like he answers the mild one first. Though the strong one can also be understood from it. One possible reason to answer the mild one first , maybe because if the mild one is being answered , then the strong one will not mind and he can sit there and get some benefit and wait for more. But if the strong one is answered first , then the mild Purvapakshi may wonder or get confused because that was not his doubt in the first place. So if the mild one is answered and his doubt is cleared, he can go away and then the strong one can be answered with more details. Also mild one is more respectful in his question . Compared to the other, he is a uttama adhikari so he is answered first by the Siddanti. Then the strong one is answered. There is a nyaya in sastra called suchi-kataha nyaya. Suchi means needle and kataya means big cauldron. The blacksmith has two orders at the same time - one for making needle and one for making cauldrons.Which one should he make first. According to sastra he should make the needle first and send one customer away satisfied and then take up the big cauldron order. So if two jobs are there simultaneously, one small and the other big , then you do the small job first and then the big job. The answer is now given by the Siddanti – Uccyate – dehendriyadisu aham mamabhimana pramanapravrtyanupapatte.



Bhagavan Bhashyakara’s approach is very simple but very profound. Uccyate means the answer is being told about the question asked regarding the corroborating means of knowledge. The literal translation of this sentence is – In this body and sense organs , not having this identification of I notion and my notion ( aham and mama bhava) , the knowerhood or status of being knower being untenable , the operation of pramana is untenable.

This has to be further understood. What Bhashyakara wants to say is that pramana pravrtti will not be possible if pramatrtvam is not there. Pramatrtvam will not be there if ahamamabhimana ie, identification in the form of I notion and my notion is not there. In simple words, pramatrtvam will not be there if adhyaasa is not there. So he gives 3 things - pramana pravrtti, pramatrtva and adhyaasa. He says pramana pravrtti will not be there if adhyaasa is not there. This is based on our experience. If you look at your experience., you find there is never a time that pramana operation is possible withot pramata being there and Pramata is not there if adhyaasa in the body is not there. Eg: In susupti adhyaasa in the body and senses is not there, so pramatrtvam is not there and pramana pravrtti is not there. In jagrat and svapna we have identification with the body and senses, so pramana pravrtti is there. Thus we say adhyaasa is not there, then pramana pravrtti is not there. So based on our experience of co-presnece and co-absence, I am saying that pramana pravrtti is based on adhyaasa. Based on anvaya vyatireka, I am telling that pramana pravrtti is based on adhyaasa. In this sentence anvaya-vyatireka nyaya, arthapaati and anumana pramana are implied.

Talk 41- Ques & Ans –
1) Which pramanam is indicated by the opening statement of Pramana Bhashyam ? Pratyaksha pramanam which is indicated by the word etam. 2) What is the question of mild pruvapakshi ? The question of the mild Purvapakshi is – What is the basis to say that all pramanas are based on someone who has avidya? 3) What is the meaning of the word avidyavat ? It means one who has adhyaasa ie, pramata. 4) Why is Purvapakshi asking for more pramana ?

He wants some more further collaboration to the statement adhyaasa. that all pramanas presuppose

5) What is the objection of the strong Purvapakshi ? Pramanani cet katham avidyavat vishayani. How come if they are pramanas, they are based on a person who has avidya ? Avidyavat vishayani cet katham pramanani. If they are based on a person who has avidya, how can they be pramanas. Eg : Like how can a person who is drunk make an authentic statement. Or if the statement is authentic, it cannot be from a drunk person. 6) If pramanas are based on avidyavat , then which particular division will not be valid ? Pramanic vyavahara ie, vyavahara based on right knowledge and apramanic vyavahara ie, vyavahara not based on right knowledge. 7) How the defect of pramata will effect the knowledge ? If the pramata is defective , the defect will percolate to the pramanam . If pramanam is defective, then knowledge or prama will also be defective. If prama is defective , then pramanik vyavahara is not possible. 8) What is the meaning of avidyavat vishayani ? The pramanas which have their basis in a person who has avidya is called avidyavat vishayani. Vishayani means asrayani ie, based on.

Talk 41 – Aug 24 –
The development in Pramana Bhashyam so far is that presupposing adhyaasa all pramanaprameya vyavaharas are done. When we have vyavahara we have identification with the body – I am this. It is not just gauna prayoga. I really mean it very seriously. How do I say that it is not Gauna prayoga ? because there is a reaction based on that. I really think that I am this body. I am not saying this just for the sake of saying sake. I have complexes based on the body, the mind. So there is adhyaasa. Then the mild Purvapakshi wants to understand better how all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa. So he says, give me some more pramanas to make this understanding stronger. The strong Purvapakshi’s response is how come they are pramanas and based on someone who has got avidya. There is a contradiction. Either they are based on avidyavat or they are pramanas. Both cannot be possible. If they are pramanas they cannot be based on avidyavat and if they are based on avidyavat they cannot be pramanas. One of them must be wrong. That is the akshepa. The mild one is answered first. For that the nyaya quoted was suchi-kataha nyaya. A blacksmith gets an order to make cauldrons. Then he gets an order to make needles. Normally he should do first the order for cauldron and then the order for needles. But he doesnt do that. Cauldron takes

longer time to make, so he does the needles first and then does the cauldron ie, he does the smaller one first so that he can finish it fast and then takes on the bigger one. Similarly, if first concept is introduced and then the second concept , but sometimes second is explained first and then the first one. So here the sequential order is changed because something which takes less time preceeds something which takes more time irrespective of the order. Here the strong Purvapakshi needs more arguments and that is dealt with later. Infact the Bhashyakara just makes the statement katham punah and the tikkakaras and teachers interpret it as mild and strong. So first is seen the answer given to the objection of the mild Purvapakshi. The answer of the Siddanti is – Ucchyate – Dehendriyadishu pramanapravrttyanupapatteh.





The one who does not have I notion and my notion in the body and the sense organs respectively, he will not have pramatrtvam. If pramatrtvam is not there pramana pravritti will not be there. It proves that for pramana pravrtti to take place what is required is in dehe - aham bhava and in indriyamamabhava . Pramana pravrtti anupapatteh pramanani avidyavat vishayani. Since operations of pramana are untenable without pramtrtvam being tenable , and pramatrtvam is not possible without identifications with the body and sense organs, therefore all pramanas are based on someone who has got avidya. Three stages are there –adhyaasa, pramatrtvam and pramana pravrtti. First aham bhava in body and mamabhava in sense organs is there ie, adhyaasa in body and sense organs makes pramatrtam possible and pramatrtvam makes pramana pravrtti possible. So if adhyaasa is there pramatrtvam will be there. If pramatrtvam is there pramana pravrtti wil be there. It means for activity of pramana, adhyaasa is required. This is the idea conveyed by this sangraha vakya or the brief statement. In this statement anvaya -vyatireka nyaya is suggested. It is the logic of co-presence and coabsence. Yadsatve yatsatvam - If A is there , B will be there Yadabhave yadabhavah –If A is not there , then B is not there. Tat tasya karanam – Then A is said to be the cause for B Satvam means presence. Eg: if clay is pot is, if clay is not there pot is not there. Therefore clay is the cause for the pot. This is called Anvaya-vyatireka nyaya. This is different from anvaya-vyatireka vyapti. Even thought it sounds the same, the order is different and the purpose is different . The purpose of anvaya vyatireka nyaya is to arrive at the cause-effect relationship. The purpose of vyapti is to arrive at anumitti ie, knowledge thro’ anumanam.

The vyapti will be - Yatra dhoomah, tatra vahnih - Where there is smoke, there is fire. Yatra vahnih nasti, tatra dhoomah nasti – Where there is no fire, there is no smoke. In vyapti, the vyatireka is opposite to anvaya . that way it is different from anvaya-vyatireka nyaya. So here we are talking about anvaya vyatireka nyaya not anvaya vyatireka vyapti. If adhyaasa in body and senses is there , then pramana pravrtti is there. If adhyaasa in body and senses is not there, then pramana pravrtti is not there. Therefore adhyaasa is the cause for pramana pravrtti. Then anvaya vyatireka nyaya is suggested. Bhagvan Bhashyakara is saying see your experience. In jagrat and svapna avastha, this adhyaasa in the body and senses is there, so pramana pravrtti is there. In susupti, this adhyaasa is not there, so pramana pravrtti is not there. So both anvaya and vyatireka are suggesting that adhyaasa is the cause for pramana pravrtti. In jagrat and svapna we are seeing anvaya and in susupti we are seeing vyatireka. Combining both we apply this anvaya vyatireka nyaya and arrive at the conclusion that adhyaasa is the cause for pramana pravrtti. Ofcourse this anvaya vyatireka nyaya has two stages – pramana pravrtti is connected to pramtrtvam and pramatrtvam is connected to adhyaasa. But we can directly connect also. Like good production, good sale and good profit. But we can connect good production and good profit. Similarly here we have to apply two stages If Pramatrtvam is there, pramana pravrtti is there and if pramatrtvam is not there pramana pravrtti is not there. Then again we have to apply, if adhyaasa is there pramtrtvam is there and if adhyaasa is not there, then pramatrtvam is not there. After this double presentation we have to combine them. If adhyaasa is there, pramana pravrtti is there. If adhyaasa is not there, pramana pravrtti is not there. Therefore what is arrived at is that pramana pravrtti is based on adhyaasa. This is anvaya-vyatireka nyaya . Here the Bhashyakara has given only vyatireka. According to the tikkakara why Bhashyakara has given only vyatireka and not anvaya is because anvaya is very clear in jagrat and svapna. But vyatireka in susupti is not clear. I do not have identification with body and sense organs and therefore pramatrtvam is not there and since pramatrtvam is not there, pramana pravrtti is not there. Therefore pramana pravrtti is based on adhyaasa. The same thing can be put differently to show anumanam also. The two types of anumanam are svartanumanam the nature of which is vyapti jnanam. The second is pararthanumanam the nature of which is nyaya consisting of 3 steps - hetu, pratigna and udaharanam. Here these 3 things are – i) Devadutta kartrka vyavahara adhyaasa mulaka – this is pratigna –Any vyavahara operation done by Devadutta is based on adhyaasa.

ii) Tad anvayavyatirekanusaaritvat – this is hetu – Vyavahara is following the presence and absence of adhyaasa. Here anvaya means presence, vyatireka means absence , anusaari means following and tad means adhyaasa. Thus if you combine the two and put it in general terms Any vyavahara done by any person is based on adhyaasa because any vyvahara is following the presence or absence of adhyaasa ie, if adhyaasa is, then vyavahara is. This is anvayanusaaritvam. If vyavahara is not, adhyaasa is not. This is vyatirekanusaaritvam. There is vyapti here also - If A is following the presence and absence of B, then A is based on B. iii) Yad ittham tat tatha. Yatha mrdmulakah ghatah – this is udaharanam. That which is followng the presence or absence of something will be like this. Like clay is, pot is . Clay is not , pot is not. So pot is following the presence or absence of clay. Therefore clay has to be the cause of pot. So this can be put in the anumana format also. That vyavahara is adhyaasanvayavyatitirekanu saari. Adhyaasa is, vyavahara is. Adhyaasa is not , vyavahara is not. Therefore vyavahara has to be caused by adhyaasa. Any cause-effect relationship has to be established thro’ anvaya vyatireka. How do you know that sweet taste is caused by sugar. Because where sugar is, sweet is; where sugar is not, sweet is not, Therefore sweet taste is caused by sugar. Also why do we eat when we feel hungry? Anvaya vyatireka again. So everytime we follow anvaya vyatireka in our life. We observe anvaya vyatireka and say this causes this. Sometimes we have even subjective anvaya vyatireka. If this fellow comes my whole day is ruined. This is anvaya vyatireka. He is the cause for spoiling my day. Yesterday he came and my day is spoiled, today he did not come so my day is not spoiled. Therefore he is the cause for my day being spoiled. So subjective or objective , cause-effect relationship is arrived at by anvaya vyatireka . Therefore this becomes the hetu. Whatever is following the presence and absence of somethingelse, this becomes the cause for the other thing. Here Bhashyakara has given vyatirekanusaaritvam. If adhyaasa is not there, pramatrtvam is not there , pramana pravrtti is therefore not there. Also Bhagvan bhashyakara specifies that aham bhava should be there in the body and mama bhava should be there in the indriyas. There is a technical point why aham bhava is not in the indriyas but in the body, though we may say it that way. Indriyas are said to be nitya paroksha (indirect) whereas I am is aparoksha, therefore sense organs cannot be the object of identification in the form of I am .That which is nitya paroksha cannot have aparoksha abhimana. Whereas the body is aparoksha (direct) , therefore identification in the form of I am which is also aparoksha, is possible . Moreover sense organs are instruments and anything which is an instrument, we have a mysense. Therefore in the indriyas we have got mama bhava and in the body we have got aham bhava, then only pramatrtvam will be possible. Then only pramana pravrtti will take place. Bhashyakara is saying – see your own anubhava. Was there a time that you did not have aham bhava in body and mama bhava in senses and still you had pramatrtvam and pramana pravrtti .

There was never a time this happened. So see for yourself because you cannot disbelieve your own anubhava. Adhyaasa is, pramana pravrtti is. This is anumana pramana. The same sentence can be put as arthapatti pramana. Bhashyakara has given only one sentence. But the tikkakara says we can put it in different formats to see the different pramanams. The effect is evident and from that we postulate the cause. That is called arthapatti. The cause which is not very evident to us that is postulated by knowing the effect. Ofcourse we should have this clarity that one thing is not possible without the other. Here upapadhya is pramana pravrtti vyavahara ie, that which is not tenable in the absence of something else. Like I am seeing, inferring - thus pramana pravrtti is there . From this adhyaasa which is upapadhaka is postulated. Upapadaka is that in the absence of which something is not tenable ie, in the absence of adhyaasa pramana pravrtti is not tenable. Because we have never seen that vyavahara is there and adhyaasa is not there. Pramana pravrtti rupa upapadya jnanena, adhyaasa rupa upapadaka jnanam arthapatti prama. By the knowledge of vyavahara which is upapadya we postulate adhyaasa which is upapadaka. That is how arthapatti pramana proves that vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. That is also based on anubhava. Just like in the classical example seeing the pinatvam of Devadutta , one postulates ratri bhojanam. Similarly whenever we have seen vyavahara , adhyaasa had to be there. Therefore seeing this vyavahara we can postulate adhyaasa. Still the question may remain why adhyaasa comes into the picture for the pramana operation ? We have seen little, some more we can see. For pramana to operate, pramata is required. Pramata is the operator of the pramana. Another way of explaining pramata is prama kartrtvam pramatrtvam. One who is giving rise to prama is called pramata. Bhogam karoti is called bhokta and one who is going is called ganta. Similarly one who is having prama is called pramata. For getting prama, pramata has to operate pramanam. The pramatrtvam status is given to I, who is chetana. So pramatrtva status is given to chetana atma and for pramata to be pramta he has to operate pramanam. To operate any pramanam, the karta should have some activity in himself. To make the instrument act, the agent karta also has to have some activity. Without activity in the karta, he cannot operate this instrument. Like for driving the car, you also have to do some activity. Without activity in the driver, driver cannot drive the car. Even though the motor makes the car run, but to make the car run you have to have some activity. So it is an interesting fact that to make somebody active, you have to be active. Like to make the servant work, you have to be active. Maybe not as much as the instrument has, but some activity has to be there. To make the servant act, you have to do some activity. The principle is that to operate any instrument, the operator has to have some activity . The operating itself is some activity. If there is no activity in karta, he cannot operate the instrument and some connection has to be established. Like there is some software nowadays where you need not type. You just look at the letters on the keyboard and it will type the words. Still to make the computer active he has to look at the keys. Operator has to be active to make the instrument operative.

So pramanam is the instrument. With reference to the pramanam , pramata is the karta. Pramata is really atma, but atma has no activity. So atma has to collaborate with anatma to be active. So atma getting identified with buddhi which is active, becomes pramata and then operates the sense organs. Buddhi cannot become pramata without atma because it is jadam. Atma cannot have pramata status without buddhi because to become pramata activity is needed. And for any activity to take place some modification has to take place and atma is nirvikarah. So if there is no activity, then it cannot operate pramanam and if there is no operation of pramanam then prama cannot take place. If prama cannot take place then pramatrtvam status will not be there. Therefore atma has to identify with anatma which has got activity. Collaboration has to take place. Like there are some business in which foreigners cannot invest directly. So he has to collaborate with an Indian. The Indian can do business but does not have money. Whereas the foreigner has the money but cannot do business. So collaboration has to take place. Similarly here atma –anatma collaboration has to take place. In the example real collaboration is possible. But in the case of atma - anatma really cannot come together because the nature of atma is asanghah. Therefore it cannot be associated with anything . This associstion has to be there but it cannot be real, therefore this association is virtual or adhyaasic. Like nowadays everything is virtual. Because of distance real romance is not possibe nowadays, so we have virtual romance over the internet. They are even developing a gadget where you can get a virtual hug. Real hug is not possible because they are so apart, so you can get a virtual hug. Similarly real association is not possible between atma-anatma, therefore it has to be adhyaasika. Therefore adhyaasa is required for any pramana pravrtti. So the connection is – For pramana pravrtti, pramatrtvam is required. For pramatrtvam, adhyaasa is required. Why ? Because for pramatrtvam some activity is required and activity is not possible in atma. Therefore atma has to combine with anatma . Real combination is not possible, therefore there has to be adhyaasik combination . Therefore we say that adhyaasa is required for pramatrtva status. And therefore adhyaasa is required for pramana pravrtti. This statement by Bhashyakara – dehendriyadisu aham mamabhimana rahitasya pramtrtvanupapattau pramana pravrttyanupapateh – is a sangraha vakya or brief statement . The essence of this sentence is - if adhyaasa is not there, pramatrtvam is not there and therefore pramana pravrtti is not there. Therefore all the pramanas are based on adhyaasa. It is a very loaded statement. Now each part of the sentence is taken out and elaborated. Na hi indriyani anupadaya pratyakshadi vyavaharah sambhavati. In the earlier brief statement it was said that indriyadisu mamabhimana rahitasya. That part is elaborated here. In indriyas there should be mama bhava. Without mama bhava in sense organs or any other instruments. Indriyadi anupadaya means without accepting sense organs, etc as mine. Pratyakshadi vyavaharah na sambhavati means the operation of pratyakshadi pramanas or the perception, etc activities is not possible. Hi means since. Without accepting sense organs as mine, the activities like perception , etc is not possible

Or since the activities like perception is not possible without accepting sense organs. For any activity to take place karta has to connect himself with the instrument. If there is no connection, then activity is not possible. Sometimes connection may be visible. Sometimes it may be invisible. Suppose between me and TV connection may not be visible still I operate TV. I operate by remote so connection may not be visible, but still operation is possible. Without karta being connected with the instrument action is not possible. Pramana activity is also not an exception. Getting knowledge ie, prama that activity is possible only when the pramana gets connected with pramata. Here sense organs are also called pramana in the secondary sense. Really speaking vritti is the pramana. But sometimes vritti is called jnanam and for jnanam to take place, indriya gets the status of instrument and therefore indriya here is called pramanam. For pramata to operate sense organs, he has to connect with indriyas. Just being proximate is not enough, the connection has to be there also. This abhimana ie, the identification with sense organs that they are mine has to be there. That is why I can see thro’ my eyes not thor’ someone else’s eyes. I have to have abhimana in my eyes then only pramana vyapara, sight take place. A blind man does not have identification with the eyes, that is why he does not see. In susupti there is no identification with the sense organs ie, mama abhimana is not there therefore pramana vyapara does not take place. When mama bhava in sense organs is there, then pratyakshadi vyavahara is there. When mama bhava in sense organs is not there, then pratyakshadi vyavahara is not taking place like in susupti. So it is required. Like I can write with the pen, when I have the abhimana that it is my pen atleast for now. I should have the feeling that pen is my instrument that abhimana has to come. Physically it need not be mine, but for the time being I should have the identification that it is my instrument then only writing is possible. Similarly pramana pravrtti is possible when I am connected with the instrument as my karanam. I am the operator and the sene organs are my instruments . That abhimana is there then only activity is possible. But atma is asanghah so it cannot have mama abhimana . Without mama abimana, pramatrtvam is not possible. Therefore mama abhimana has to be adhyaasika. So for pratyakshadi vyavahara, mama abhimana in sense organs is required. Myness is really not possible in atma. Therefore this myness has to be adhyaasika. Atma is asanghah therefore it cannot really possess sense organs like even a physical entity can connect to the instruments. Since connection is required but real connection is not possible. Therefore that connection has to be adhyaasika. Without mama bhava in indriya , vyavahara is not possible . Therefore for vyavahara adhyaasa is required.

Aug 31- Ques and Ans :
1) What is the meaning of the sentence – dehindriyadisu aham mamabhimana rahitasya pramatrtva anupapatthau pramana pravrttyanupapatteh ? Without I notion and my notion in the body and the senses respvely, pramatrtvam is untenable and pramana pravrtti is not possible.


2) To which sentence is the above sentence connected ? The sentence - dehindriyadisu…... connects to Tasmat avidyavat vishayani pratyakshadini pramanani sastrani ceti . 3) Which pramanas are suggested in the sentence dehindriyani…… ? Which is the one nyaya also suggested ? Anumanam, arthaptti and anvaya-vyatireka nyaya are suggested by this sentence. 4) What is anvaya-vyatireka nyaya ? The Nyaya states that – If A is there, B is there. If A is not there, then B is not there. So A is the cause for B. 5) How is anvaya-vyatireka nyaya applied here ? If adhyaasa is there, pramana pravrtti is there. If adhyaasa is not there, pramana pravrtti is not there. Therefore adhyaasa is the cause for pramana pravrtti. This is arrived at in two steps : Adhyaasa - pramatrtvam and pramatrtvam -pramana pravrtti. 6) What are the two types of abhimanas and the object of abhimanas mentioned here ? In deha there is aham bhava and in indriyas there is mama bhava. 7) Why is it said in indriyas there is mamabhava and not aham bhava ? Indriyas are nitya paroksha and aham bhava is aparoksha. So with paroksha object we cannot have aparoksha. Whereas mama bhava can have paroksha object. Therefore in indriyas there is mamabhava. Another reason is indriyas are instruments and with instruments we have mama bhava. 8) Is anvaya-vyatireka between pramana pravrtti and abhimana direct or indirect ? It is indirect thro’ pramatrtvam. If mama bhava is there, pramtrtvam is there. If pramatrtvam is there, pramana pravrtti is there. Therefore mama bhava is the cause for pramana pravrtti. 9) How in this sentence anumana pramana is also suggested ? Parathanumana which has 3 components - pratigna, hetu and udaharanam are suggested . Here the pratigna is – Devadutta kartrka vyavahara adhyaasam mulaka. Devadutta does vyavahara based on adhyaasa. Hetu is - tad anvayavyatirekanusaaritvat – pramana is following the presence or absence of adhyaasa. Tad anvaya vyatirekanusaari is vyavahara.

Udaharanam is – Yad ittam tad tatha . Yatha Mrinmulaka ghata – Like pot follows the presence and absence of clay. 10) In this sentence anvayanusaritvam is given or vyatirekanusaritvam is given ? Vyatirekanusaritvam is given here. 11) In which state anvayanusaritvam and vyatirekanusaritvam is observed ? In jagrat and svapna, anvayanusaritvam is observed and in susupti vyatirekanusaritvam is observed. 12) Which part of the sangrah vakya is explained by –‘ nahi indriyani anupapadaya’ ? Indriyadisu mamabhimana rahitasya said earlier. 13) What is meant by indriyani anupadaya ? Not accepting the sense organs ie , without having mamabhava in sense organs. 14) What does the sentence mean ? Without accepting mamabhava the pratyakshadi pramana is not possible. Without getting connected with sense organs and other means, activity in the form of getting pratyakshadi knowledge is not possible. 15) What do we grasp from the word aadi ? Aadi means other pramanas besides pratyaksha like anumana, arthapatti . 16) How arthapatti pramanam is there in this sentence ? Seeing vyavahara we postulate adhyaasa. Something is not possible without the cause behind that being there. Upapadya which is the effect is pramana vyvahara and upapadaka which is the cause is adhyaasa. Vyavahara which is evident postulates adhyaasa. 17) How is adhyaasa upapadaka ? Upapadaka is that in the absence of which something is not possible. Vyavahara is evident and this evident vyavahara is not possible without adhyaasa. In the absence of adhyaasa, vyavahara is not possible. Therefore adhyaasa is upapadaka. 19) Why mamabhava is required for adhyaasa ? What is the logic or connection behind it ? For pramana pravrtti, pramata is required. And the operator to operate the pramanam has to be in contact with the pramanam. Without operating the instrument the karta cannot do activity. Definition of karta is karaka prayokta ie, one who is handling the instrument is karta. So without connecting to the instrument , the karta cannot operate the instruments. Karta who is atma is asanghah and cannot have real association with the sense organs and therefore this association has to be unreal. In other words adhyaasa in the form of mamabhava is required for atma to become pramata and handle pramanam.

So atma has to be the operator and the operator has to be connected to the intrument . Real relationship is not there, so there is an assumed relationship which is in the form of mamabhava which is adhyaasa. 20) What is abhimana ? Abhimana means identification. Identification is of two types : i) Aham abhimana - identification in the form of I notion. Eg : I am this. Here aham abhimana is talked about with reference to the body. ii) Mama abhimana - identification in the form of my notion. Eg: this is mine.

Aug 31 – Talk 42 –
Purvapakshi had asked this question –katham punah avidyavat vishayani pratyakshadi pramanani. sastrani cheti. On what basis you are saying that pratyakshadi pramanas and sastras are based on someone who is endowed with adhyaasa. Siddanti answers saying, when you ask katham you mean on what basis ie, you want to know more pramanas. Pramanas are there in the form anumana and arthapatti. Anumana is there becasue vyavahara is based on adhyaasa because the presence and absence of pramana vyavahara follows the presence and absence of adhyaasa. We see that anything which follows the presence and absence of something is caused by that thing. Therefore anumana pramana is there. Arthapatti is also there. If we analyse the nature of pramana vyvahara, then we find pramana vyavahara is not possible without adhyaasa being there. We see that pramana vyavahara is posibe when pramatrtvam is there. Pramtrtvam is the status given to atma and this status is not possible without adhyaasa being there. Therefore arthapatti also suggests that adhyaasa has to be there. What we have understood so far Dehendriyadisu ahammamabhimana rahitasya pramatrtvanupapattau pramana pravrtti anupapatteh , to that we have to supply avidyavat vishayani eva pratyakshadini pramanani sastrani cheti. Without aham abhimana in the body and mama abhimana in the sense organs, pramatrtva is not possible and therefore pramana pravrtti is not possible. Hence we can say that pramanas like Pratyaksha, etc are based on someone who has got adhyaasa. This is the meaning of this sangrah vakya. Whatever the Siddanti wants to say he says it briefly and then elaborates on it in the following sentence. In the next sentence it is elaborated – 1) Nahi indriyani anupadaya pratyakshadi vyavaharah sambhavati. Without having connection in the form of mamabhava with sense organs pratyakshadi vyavaharas is not possible. Then we saw how pramata has to get connected with this pramanam to operate the instrument. Like to operate the car,the driver has to get connected with the car. Without being connected to the instrument, the pramata cannot operate the instrument. So atma which is pramata has to get connected with instruments. But this connection cannot be real. It has to be in the form

of assumed relationship ie, abhimanam. Therefore it is said indriyani anupadaya pratyakshadi vyavahara is not possible. One part is explained. Here someone may ask the question – Let us accept that adhyaasa with indriyas in the form of mama bhava is required for pramana pravrtti. Because indriyas are the instrument, therefore the pramata and indriyas connection is necessary. But why do you say dehindriyadisu. Adhyaasa is a cognitive activity. Why body comes into the picture ? Indriya adhyaasa is enough, why do you insist on adhyaasa in the body also ? Body is not pramanam, indriyas are pramanam. So connection with indriyas is required, but not with body. This is the question of the Purvapakshi. This question is answered in the next sentence. 2) Na ca adhistanam antarena indriyanam vyavaharah sambhavati. Without having the adhistanam, the activity of the sense organs is not possible. Adhistanam is basis. Here it refers to body. So without body as the basis, sense organs cannot operate. Sense organs are like software systems. This software can work only if hardware is there. Suppose you have a software designed by a very reputed company, but if you don’t have the computer, you cannot use it. For containing software you need hardware. What is contained in CD is software. Like Computer CPU, equipment which is hardware contains the software. Similarly here the body which has the antahkarana included is like the hardware and sense organs are like the software. Here Bhashyakara is saying that software cannot function without hardware being there. Without the receptacle being there, the sense organs cannot function. It means for sense organs to function body is required. There are so many sense organs and they are studded in this body. Without being studded in the body, they cannot function. In devaloka Indra to see also needs some body. That body is no doubt subtler compared to our body. But still gross body is required. Without gross body being there as abode, sense organs cannot functiom. We cannot manage only with sense organs. Purvapakshi may still say that it is alright, you need the sense organs to operate the body. But why do you need adhyaasa in the body ? In sastra there is one rule nothing extra should be assumed. Your presentation should assume minimum factors. If you can explain something with three factors then we should not assume the fourth factor. Even in science they have this rule. To make any postulation you must have solid basis without which things cannot move, then only you can postulate. Sastra is very particular about that. So Purvapakshi is saying that body is required, sense organs is required and adhyaasa in the sense organs is required. Why do you say adhyaasa in the body is also required ? When this question arises, then the next sentence answers this question. 3) Naca anadhyastatma bhavena dehena kaschidvyapriyate. Nobody does activity with the body which is bereft of superimposed I notion.. Bhashyakara is putting everything in vyatireka form. Anyadastatma bhavena is an adjective for deha. He is saying that it is not just enough that body is there , but the connection with the body should also be there. Then only the self can connect to the

sense organs thro’ the body and then only sense organs can be operated. But real connection is not possible because atma is asanghah. Therefore atma bhava ie, identification in the body has to be there. That is in keeping with our experience also. We are not telling something which is against our experience. Our experience is that when body is going , I say I am going. Body has manushyatva jati. But I say I am a human being. So when we say deha what I mean is manushyatva jati yukta avayavi. An entity having this particular human category. So I have this identification. No particular thing can have aham bhava in something else. A is A . A cannot have aham bhava in B. If A has aham bhava in B it has to be adhyaasa only. In love story we simply say, I am you and you are me. But really it cannot be so. So aham bhava has to be adhyaasa. Therefore aham bhava has to be there in the body. If aham bhava is not there, pramatrtvam is not there. Like in susupti body is there, aham bhava is not there, so pramatrtvam and pramna pravrtti is not there. Based mainly on experience Bhashyakara says this. Nobody is active when aham bhava in the body is not there. Therefore we have to accept that not only body is required, aham bhava in the body is also required. If body is there and aham bhava is not there then pramatrtvam is not there. If body is there , aham bhava is there, then pramatrtvam is there. Therefore it is said here Anadhyastatmabhavena (bahuvrihi samsa). This means that which does not have adhyastatma bhava. Adhyastaha atmabhava yasmin is called adhyasta atmabhava. Adhyasta means superimposed. Atma bhavah means identification. That in which I notion is superimposed is called adhyasta atmabhava. Everybody operates with the bdy which has I notion. Bhashyakara could have said - sarve janah adhyasta atmabhava dehena vyapriyante. Everybody operates with the body which has atma bhava superimposed upon it. But he tells in double negative. Na adhyasta atma bhavah yasmin dehe – The body in which I notion is not superimposed is called anadhyastatmabhava. With such a body nobody operates. Means everybody operates with a body which has atma bhava. Tis is mainly based on our anubhava. But somebody may say when we are thinking, what is the role of the body ? Sense organs are studded in the body and therefore we require the connection thro’ the body and this connection is not real so it is adhyasta. But when we are thinking, we are not using the body. The Siddanti answers that. When you are thinking the thoughts - I will be going, talking etc. , that abhimana is there. I am has some identity and that identity comes from this physical body. When you think of yourself also, you cannot think of yourself without the physical body. Therefore this I am which is very important for thinking has to have the identification with the body. Even when you are thinking, abhimana with the body is there. No pramana prameya vyavahara is possible without abhimana in this body. Therefore it is said anadhyasatmabhavena dehena kaschidvyapriyate. Now somebody says why all this complication , make it simple . Atma is chetana and for knowledge we require a chetana entity. Why not atma directly have pramatrtva status ? Why include abhimana, etc. ? Why pramata should not be the real status of atma ? This we have seen, but in the Bhashyam it is not explained. The Tikkakara says there could be a doubt that let there not be any sambandha with the body, senses, etc. If sambandha is there then it has to be adhyaasika and all that has to be there. Atma is concious and conciousness is required for someone to be pramata so atma can be pramata. Let atma be pramata. That is in accordance with

my experience. Siddanti has said that anvaya vyatireka, anumana suggests - adhyaasa is, pramatrtvam is. Adhyaasa is not , pramatrtvam is not there. Purvapakshi replies that this anvaya vyatireka you have not understood properly. In susupti, pramtrtvam is not there is correct but it is because instrument is not there. Anvaya vyatireka is there, but it goes with the presence or absence of karana not with adhyaasa. Like whenever a man starts a business, his wife says first have puja. So they have a puja and the business succeeds. So wife says it is because of puja that business succeeded. Next time also the same thing happened. But once puja was not done and the business failed. Wife says that the business was not successful because puja was not done. But the husband says that is because I did not put so much mind to it. So the problem is does anvaya vyatireke go with puja or with effort? Wife says it is because of my Lord Venkatramana that you are succeeding. The husband if at all it is because of my good manager Venkatraman who left and therefore my business does not succeed. Similarly it is not that vyavahara is because of adhyaasa, vyavahara is because of karana. In jagrat and svapna karanas are active , so pramtrtvam is active. In susputi, karanas are resolved and therefore pramatrtvam is not there. It is not because of adhyaasa. Purvapakshi says even in life we connect so many unnecessary things. Like I stayed in this house number which is my lucky number and that is why I prospered. May not be so. You worked hard. How do you know whether the anvaya of this hard work bore fruit or anvaya of the lucky number did ? Unfortunately we have got deviations both ways. Sometimes we did hard work and still did not succeed and sometimes we did puja and still did not succeed. So both the parties stick on to their stand. Therefore the Purvapakshi is very strong here. He says this anvaya vyatireka is not decisive here. For that the Bhashyakara says – 4) Na ca etasmin sarvasmin na asati asanghsya atmana pramatrtvam upapadyate. Etasmin sarvasmin asati means all this not being there. It is in sati saptami. Pramatrtvam upapadyate means pramatrtvam is untenable. When all this is not there, knowerhood of asanghah atma is not possible. Here Bhashyakara is highlighting the asanghah svarupa of atma. He is saying it is not just anvaya vyatireka, but if you analyse the nature of atma, then also you will understand that adhyaasa is required for pramatrtvam.

Sept 7 – Ques & Ans.
1) Why does the Bhashyakara use double negative to express? To give more emphasis to what is being said. Here the emphasis is on the cause– effect relationship between adhyaasa and vyavahara. Like one way of saying the cause-effect relationship is i) If sugar is there, sweetness is there (If A is B is). ii) But somebody may say that suppose sugar is not there, then also sweetness can be there like if jaggery is there. (If A is not there then B can still be there)

iii) But if we say if sugar is not there, then sweetness cannot be there. (if A is not there then B cannot be there). Then there is an emphasis that without sugar, sweetness is not possible. The cause-effect relationship is emphasised by a double negative. Also another reason is that in suspti, vyatireka is not very clearly seen by us. In jagrat and svapna the anvaya is very clearly seen - adhyaasa is there, so vyavahara is there. 2) What is the meaning of the sentence - nahi indriyani anupadaya pratyakshadi vyavahara sambhavati ? Without accepting the sense organs as mine , pratyakshadi vyavahara is not possible. ie, without connecting to the sense organs operation of pramanas is not possible. 3) What is pratyakshadi vyavahara ? Operations of the different pramanas like pratyaksha, anumana, arthapatti, etc. One commentator says -I am seeing, I am listening as pratyakshaadi vyavahara. 4) In the above sentence which requirement for pramatrtvam is emphasised ? My notion in the indriyas is emphasized by this sentence. 5) Why do we say mama bhava in indriya not aham bhava ? First reason is indriyas are paroksha and paroksha cannot be the object of aparoksha identification. Second reason is indriyas are instruments and instruments are always different from me. In instruments we have mama bhava not aham bhava. Note : This is mainly based on experience which is emphasized by Bhashyakara. Purvapakshi also refers to anubhava when raising his objection. But any experience is as good as the interpretation. There is a defective way of interpreting it or there is a proper way of interpreting it. Bhashyakara shows the limitations in the interpretation of the Purvapakshi and puts the experience in proper perspective. No pramana can talk against one’s experience. Experience has to be taken into account when you are explaining anything. Even something contradictory has to be explained. Eg: Sun does not rise or set. This seems contradictory to my perception So I have to explain the experience scientifically and with an example. So you can say something beyond experience, but whatever is said cannot be opposed to experience. Experience has to be taken into account, it cannot be dismissed. Here Bashyakara draws the Purvapakshi’s attention to something he has missed . 6) What is the connection to this sentence - naca adhistanamantarena indriyanam vyavaharah sambhavati ? Purvapakshi is saying that I agree there should be adhyaasa in the indriyas. But why should there be adhyaasa in the body also ?

Note : One has to understand the spirit with which the question is asked. Nothing which is not required should be there. Everthing which is there should be justified. 7) What is the meaning of this sentence ? No vyavahara of indriyas can take place without the body as the abode or support . 8)What is the example given ? Software cannot function without hardware. Another example is cassette cannot function without tape recorder. 9) What is the connection to the sentence - naca anadyastatma bhavena dehena kaschit vyapriyate ? Purvapakshi agrees that body is required for adhyaasa. But why is adhyaasa in the body also required ? 10) What is the meaning of the above sentence ? Nobody operates with a body which does not have superimposed I notion. It is in vyatireka format. 11) What is Anyadhasta atmabhava an adjective to ? To deha. 12) What does it mean ? A body which is not having superimposed I notion . ie, Nobody operates the pramanas without having aham bhava in the body. 13) Why is the connection with the body adhyaasa ? Connection is required, real connection is not possible. Therefore this connection has to be adhyaasa. Eg : Like electricity operates the cassette. Power does not directly connect to cassette. The power has to connect to taperecorder to operate the cassette. Similarly atma is like the power supply. To operate the pramanas which are studded in the body, atma has to get connected to the body. Atma and body cannot have real connection. That connection has to be in the form of abhimana. Our experience shows that this abhimana is aham abhimana. Eg: I say I am sitting, I am walking. Really body is sitting or walking , but I say I am sitting or walking. Also another anvaya-vyatireka experience is - when there is aham bhava in the body, vyavahara is. When aham bhava is not there, pramana vyavahara is not there. Therefore we say nobody operates pramanas without aham bhava in the body. 14) What is the connection to the sentence - na ca etasmin sarvasmin asati asanghasyatmanah pramatrtvamupapadyate ? Why cannot atma really be pramata and be directly connected to the instruments ?

Atma is chetana and pramata is chetana and therefore chetana atma can operate sense organs. Why not keep it simple, that pramtrtvam without adhyaasa is the real status of atma. And atma operates the sense organs directly. This is the question which is answered by the Siddanti in this sentence – naca etasmin sarvasmin…. 15) What is the meaning of the above sentence ? All these things not being there, the pramatrtvam of asangha atma is untenable. Asati means not being there. Sarvasmin refers to aham bhava in deha and mama bhava in indriyas. Aham bhava in deha and mamambhava in indriyas not being there, the pramtrtvam of asangha atma is not possible.

Talk 43 - Sept 7 :
We are answering the Purvapakshi whose objection according to us is mild. He is asking for more pramanas, regarding all pramanas being based on someone who has got adhyaasa. For that the Siddanti said – if aham bhava in body and mama bhava in indriya is not there, then pramatrtvam is not there and pramtrtvam is not there , then pramana pravrtti will not be there. Therefore pramana pravrtti requires avidyavat asraya. This loaded sangrah vakya is elaborated. 1) Nahindriyani anupadaya pratyakshadi vyavaharah sambhavati. The activity of pratyakshadi vyavahara is not possible without accepting indriyas as mine. Indriyas are emphasized because for other means of knowledge, indriyas are useful. Even for inference, indriya vyapara is necessary. For perceiving dhoomah , indriyas are required. For sabda jnanam also indriyas are required. So for all pramana activities, indriyas are required. Pramata has to get connected with the pramanas. This connection is not like a sanyoga sambhandha. Like between a box and this body. Pramata has to get associated with sense organs, but there cannot be sanyoga sambhandha. So this association has to be in the form of abhimana. Pramata has to get connected with instruments to operate sense organs. This connection cannot be physical (sanyoga sambhanda). This connection has to be in the form of abhimana. Because they are instruments the identification is in the form of mama bhava. This mama bhava is adhyaasa. The idea is - for pratyakshadi vyavaharah , mama bhava in indriya is required and this mamabhava is adhyaasa. Therefore adhyaasa is required for pratyakshaadi vyavahara. For atma, mama bhava cannot be real because atma is asanghah. Atma cannot have possessor-possessed relationship. Like between the person and his house. Suppose we say that indriyadi is required for pratyakshadi vyavahara. Why should the body come into the picture ? So Siddanti first establishes the need for the body. 2) Na ca adhistanamantarena indriyanam vyavaharah sambhavati. Without adhistanam the sense organs cannot function. Software will not work without hardware being there. Adhistanam here refers to the body. Indriyas cannot function without body being there as their basis. The need of the body to operate th sense organs is established.

Then the question was asked – Based on what you have said we accept body is required, but why adhyaasa in body is required ? On this it was said – nobody becomes active without sense organs beinbg active. Pramata has to connect to the sense organs and nobody connects to the sense organs without aham bhava. So the pramata to get connected to the sense organs thro’ the body, pramata has to get connected to the body . But that connecton is not real. Therefore that connection has to be in the form of abhimana and that abhimana is mama bhava. This is how we experience. How it happens - Pramata is connected to body thro’ aham bhava. Thro’ body pramata is connected to sense organs. Their mama bhava comes. When I am connected to bodythro’ this identification, I and body become one. Sense orgams are like my dharma. What is studded in the body becomes my property. So aham bhava in the body and then mama bhava in the sense organs. That is why it is said - na ca anadhyastatma bhavena dehena kaschit vyapriyate. No pramata becomes active without aham bhava in the body. For any operation aham bhava is necessary. Now the question was asked why have adhyaasa ?Atma himself can operate sense organs thro’ the body. Like boss of the company supervises thro’ his subordinates all the employees . Like thro’ the steering wheel, I am operating all the wheels. There is no adhyaasa here. Similarly I the atma am operating the sense organs thro’ the body. In answer to that it was said – 3) Naca etasmaim sarvasmin asati asanghasyatmanah pramtrtvam upapadyate What is said here was implied earlier. Without all these being there ie, adhyaasa in body and adhyaasa in sense organs , the knowerhood status is not tenable for atma. What was implied earlier is made explicit here. Three things are said here. i)Pramatrtva status is given to atma only. Only chetana can be pramata and my experience is, I am pramata. ii) Pramatrtvam is possible only if there is connection between sense organs and the body. For anybody to be any type of karta, there has to be connection between instrument and abode of the instrument. iii)Atma is asanghah. Connection is required. Real connection is not possible for atma because atma is asanghah. These are the 3 points we have to keep in mind which is the essence of this statement. Let us see all the 3 points – First pramatrtva status is given to atma , because pramatrtva cannot go to jadam. Second why we say that pramata has to be connected to instruments is based on our experience. We see that any doer is able to do the action only when he or she is connected to the instrument. It is never possible that karta is doing the action and is not connected to the instrument. Pramata is in a way karta –prama karta. So pramata has to have connection with instrument and the abode of instrument. Third point atma is asanghah for that the prime basis is srutih. In Brhdaranyaka Upanishad , Yagnavalkya is giving he teaching to King Janaka and while talking about the 3 avasthas, he says

– asangohi ayam purushah – Whatever you experience in jagrat and svapna avastha, he does not get connected with them because ayam atma is asanghah. With regard to the nature of atma the sruti is the clinching pramanam. In Kaivalya Upanishad also it is said – trishudhamasu yad bhogyam, bhokta, bhogasca yad bhavet. Tebhyo vilakshana sakshi chinmatroham sadashivah. Atma is distinct . It is neither bhokta, bhogyam or bhogah. Another means of to show the asanghah nature of atma is the avastha traya. If we analyse the three states of experience, we also find that I am in and thro’ all of them. Therefore I must be distinct from them. There is a saying in Sanskrit – vyavritebhyah anuvrittah bhinnah. Yatah vividah kusumebhyah bhinnam sutram. In a flower garland, flowers are different. Sutra or thread is anugatah. That which is common to all which are variegated has to be different from all that which are variegated. Thread which is common to all the flowers has to be diffeent from all the flowers. Atma is like the thread and the 3 states are like flowers and therefore atma has to be different from the 3 states of experience. So logic and our analyses helps us to understand what sruti says about atma. Akaska does not get connected with anything. Suppose there is a foul smell akasha does not stink. Akasha is asanghah. Similarly atma is asanghah and this asanghah atma is given the status of pramta. That pramtrtvam is not possible without the connection and that connection is not possible for asangah atma. Therefore the pramtrtva status has to be because of adhyaasa. For atma to be pramata there has to be connection. Atma cannot have connection. Therefore that connection has to have superimposed. Like somebody says I married Aiswarya Rai. But Aisrwarya Rai says I am not married to him. So the connection must be adhyaasa. so atma seems to have the status of pramata. This status is not possible without connection. Therefore this connection is adhyaasa. That is why it is said - etasmin sarvasmin….Without adhyaasic connection with body and senses, asanghah atma cannot have pramatrtvam. Our experience is that atma seems to have pramatrtvam. For pramatrtvam connection is required and real connection is not possible, therefore adhyaasa has to be there. Same thing is repeated. But one has to be very clear that in every vyavahara there is adhyaasa. You cannot ask when did this start ? Bhashyakara says it never started, it has been there. SORRY. LAST PORTION OF THE TALK DID NOT GET RECORDED.

Sept 14- Ques and Ans : 1) What is the connection to the sentence- na ca etasmin sarvasmin…..?
Purvapakshi is asking-Atma is chetana so why cannot atma be pramata directly ? 2) What is meant by - etasmin sarvasmin asati ? All these not being there - refers to aham bhava in body and mama bhava in sense organs not being there.

3) What is the meaning of the full sentence – na ca etasmin sarvasmin asati asanghasya atmanah pramatrtvam upapadyate ? Without all these being there , the status of being knower of asanghah atma is not possible. 4) What are the 3 points indicated by this statement ? a) Pramatrtvam status is given to atma since atma is chetana. On anything else it is not possible. b) For pramtrtvam status to be there, connection with sense organs has to be there. c) Atma is asangah. All three points put together , we understandAtma is given to pramatrtvam status. For pramatrtvam status connection with body and senses is required. Atma is asangah so real connection is not possible. So the connection is unreal. That is why it is said here in this sentence. Asangah atma by itself cannot be pramata unless the connection is there. Connection is required, but connection is not real therefore connection is adhyaasa. 5) What is the basis to say that pramatrtvam status is given to atma ? Only chetana entity can have pramatrtvam. Atma is chetana so the pramata status can be given to atma only. 6) What is the basis for the second point - Connection has to be there for pramatrtvam ? For any karta to do any action, he has to get connected to the instrument and the abode of instrument. Pramata is also a karta . Therefore pramata has to have the connection. 7) What is the basis for the third statement –atma is asanghah. The Sruti is the basis to know the nature of atma as asanghah. In Brhdaranyaka Upanishad it is said-asangohi ayam purushah. In Kaivalya Upanishad it is said trisudhamasu yat bhogyam……. Tebhyo vilakshanam sakshi chinmatroham sadashivah. Again in Brhdaranyaka Upanishad it is said - Asangoh nahi sajyate . Another basis to know the nature of atma as asanghah is the avastha traya. Since the same atma is present in and thro’ all the 3 states of experience. Therefore atma has to be different from the 3 states. 8) What is the logic given in this context ? Vyavrttebhyah anuvrittah bhinnah. Yatah vividah kusmebhyah bhinnam sutram. Like the thread which is common has to be different from the variegated flowers in the garland. 9) What does - Pramatrtvam atmanah upapadyate - indicate ? It indicates that pramatrtvam is not tenable for atma without adhyaasa.

Whoever is pramata has to have connection with sense organs, then only he can be called pramata. But atma is asanghah so real connection is not possible for atma. So connection must be adhyaasa. So the equation is Atma + adhyaasa = pramata . Note : There may be a question - Atma is connected to body and body can be connected with indriya. Then adhyaasa of sense organs is not required for atma. But from the standpoint of atma , the connection with sense organs will be adhyaasika. From another point of view also, if atma ‘s relation with body is adhyaasic. Then suppose we assume that the connection of body to sense organs is vyavaharika not adhyaasika, then also when you are connected to somebody thro’ adhyaasa then your connection with that person’s relative will also be adhyaasika. Like a person “A” claimed he is married to Aiswarya Rai, but Aiswarya Rai says she is not married to him. So their connection is adhyaasic. Aiswarya Rai’s brother’s connection to “A” will also be adhyyasica, though his connection with Aiswarya Rai may be real. Once adhyaasa has come into the picture then whatever is subsequently connected will become adhyaasica.

Sept 14- Talk 44 –
The doubt was raised why pramatrtvam is not the real status of atma ? Atma is connected to the body and thro’ the body operates the sense organs. Why we should bring adhyaasa into the picture ? That was the question. In answer to that question it was said –naca etasmin sarvasminasati asanghasya atmanah pramatrtvam upapadyate. Without dehadhyaasa and indriyadhyaasa asanghah atma cannot have pramatrtvam. Here we have taken the meaning of etasmin sarvasmin asati as without adhyaasa with body and sense organs being there. Here we have to also include adhyaasa with antahkarna - manas, buddhi also. Early we saw pramatrtvam as one who is operating - karaka prayoktrtvam pramatrtvam . Pramatrtvam can also be defined as pramasrayatvam pramatrtvam- one who has prama is pramatrtvam - The knower is one who has got knowledge. Asraya means one who has got. Like we say- sah gunasraya- he has got the qualtity. So pramasrayah pramata - one who has got prama is pramata. Let us analyse what is the nature of prama which is obtaining in pramata. One possibility is, it is pure conciousness. Second possibility is, it is in the form of vritti. Third possibility is, it is a combination. Chinmatrarupa va, vrittirupa va , vishista rupa va. These are the only 3 possibilities. Let us examine the first possibility. Chinmatra rupa means vrittisambandha rahitah ie, prama is pure conciousness without any association with vritti. This option is not tenable. One reason

Siddanti gives is – prama is chaitanya in the first possibility. This prama is dependent (asrita) on pramata. Pramata is atma which is chaitanya. So Atma who is pramata is the asraya of prama which is also pure conciousness. Then Asraya-asrita bhava will not be possible. For example, land cannot depend on land .Box is asrita and this desk is asraya. So if pure conciousness alone is prama then pure conciousness cannot depend on pure conciousness. Thus asrita-asraya bhava is not possible. But here Purvapakshi says this is what is done. We say rahoho shirah. In amrita manthan Mohini cut the head of the asura and the head became rahu and trunk became ketu. So we say head of Rahu. And you are also saying “nature of atma”. It is like svasrunirgachoti nyaya –mother-in law and daughter in law. (Mother-in-law makes all the decisions and daughter-in-law keeps quiet. When a beggar comes, the daughter-in-law who always saw the mother-in-law say no to the beggar , also repeated that. The mother-in-law than called the beggar and asked what the daughter-in-law said. The beggar hopeful of getting something from her said he was refused by the daughter-in-law. The mother-inlaw brought him to the house and said who is she to say no. This is my prerogative to say no. Then she says no to the beggar and sends him off.) Similarly you (Siddanti) can say “nature of atma” and I cannot say similar thing. Siddanti then gives a real reason which is more specific. If prama which is pure conciousnes is not connected with vritti then what will happen is that instruments are not required- vritti sambandha rahita chinmatrarupa eva prama chet karana vaivarthya prasangah. Then every moment all the knowledge should be there. Pure conciousness is itself prama and therefore without any instrument knowledge should take place. That is not our experience. When eyes are not there sight does not take place. If eyes are not there knowledge of form is not there. So pure conciousness cannot by itself be prama. Karana Vaiyarthya prasangah means futility of the instrument. 2) Second possibility is vrittimatra rupa prama. Prama is nothing but modification of the mind. Chitta sambhanda rahita vritti matra rupa prama. Prama is in the form of only vritti without having any connection with conciousness. But this is not possible because vritti by itself is jada. It assumes the form of the object but nothing will happen. No knowledge takes place. So the second possibility is also not tenable. 3) The third possibility vritti abhivyakta chaitanyam alone is prama. The chaitanyam manifesting thro’ the vritti is prama. Like sunlight which has passed thro’ magnifying glass burns the paper. Sunlight on the earth alone burns, but it has to pass thro’ magnifying glass. Similarly chaitanyam manifesting thro’ vritti is revealing the object- So vritti abhivyakta chaitanyam is prama. Vritti and chaitanyam combination is prama. There is no other possibility . Now the asraya of such a prama is only the combination of the atma along with the mind . Pure unassociated atma cannot become the asraya of such a prama which is the combination of conciousness and vritti. Atma may perhaps

become the asraya of chaitanyam. Mind may become the asraya of vritti. But now the prama is neither conciousness nor vritti. Who can be the asraya of such a combination which is not pure consiousness or vritti ? Only atma along with the mind can become the asraya of the prama which is a combination of conciousness and vritti. Therefore there has to be tadatmyam between atma and the mind. This tadatmyam is adhyaasa. Because real combo of the two is not possible. Without the adhyaasic sambhandha with antahkarana, atma cannot become pramata. Therefore in etasmin sarvasmin we can include this also. Without identification with body and sense organs and also the mind, asangah atma cannot have pramatratvam. Somebody may say let there not be pramatrtvam . This is not a very strong argument. For that the next sentence.

Na ca pramtrtvamantarena pramana pravrtti asti. Without pramatrtvam, the operation of pramanam is not there. All these are elaboration of the first sentence only—dehindraiyadisu ahamamabhimana rahitasya pramatrtvanupapathau pramana pravrtti anupapatheh. Here pramana pravrtti anupapateh is said in different words. Without knowerhood the operation of pramanas cannot be there. Pramanas like sense organs are jadam . Inert cannot operate by themselves. Like we say automatic washing machine, but really we have to atleast switch it on and do many more things. However automatic it is, it wil not be automatic in the absolute sense. No inert thing can be automatic. Similarly any pramana needs a pramata. Without chetana pramata being there inert pramana cannot be active. If you say let pramana pravrtti not be there. Infact the very sentence you are speaking and I am understanding is pramana pravrtti. So pramana pravrtti is there and pramana pravrtti is not possible without pramata being there. For pramata to be there adhyaasa is required. Thus for pramana pravrtti, pramatrtvam is required and for pramatrtvam, adhyaasa is required. Therefore for pramana pravrtti , adhyaasa is required. We have two pramanas over and above pratyaksha - anumanam and arthapatti. Since these two pramanams are there, we can say that all pramanas are based on adhyaasa. This is said in the next sentence. Tasmad avidyavat vishayani eva pratyakshadini pramanani sastrani ca. Tasmad means therefore -pramana satvad ie, since pramanas in the form of anumana and arthapatti are there. For all pramanas being dependent upon avidyavat purusha , since two pramanas in the form of anumana and arthapatti are there, therefore we can say that pratyakshadi pramana and also the scriptures are depended certainly (eva) on someone who is having adhyaasa. The mild purvapakshi had asked the question - katham punah….His question was kena pramananaih - By which pramanas are you saying that all pramanas are based on someone who has avidya. For that the answer is anumanarthapattibhyam pramanani avidyavat vishayani eva iti. By anumana and arthapaatii we are saying that pramanas are based on someone who has got adhyaasa.

So the sangrah vakya was briefly presented thenit was elaborated and finally it was concluded. Infact this sentence can be again connected to the first sentence - adhyaasam puraskrtya sarve pramana prameya vyavahaah.. That is concluded here again. So what was proposed first was elaborated and finally concluded. Thus the mild Purvapakshi has been answered fully. Now the strong Purvapakshi is answered. Whatever has been told to mild Purvapakshi is relevant to even the strong Purvapakshi. But he needs something more. The contention of the strong Purvapakshi is - if avidyavat vishayani pratyaskshaadi pramani katham pramanani. If pratyaksha, etc are based on a person who has avidya, then how can they be pramanas ? To this the Siddanti says even though pratyakshadi pramana and sastra are depended on someone who has avidya, they are still pramanas because Adhyaasa is part of configuration of pramata – pramatrantargata. In the makup of pramta adhyaasa is there and therefore it is not a dosha. It is a loaded statement. This has to be understood well in practical situations. Purvapakshi’s question is something like – Suppose we are making payasam and if milk has lime in it then how can you have a palatable payasam. Something like that the Purvapakshi is asking. But what we are saying instead of payasam we are giving you rosogolla. In rosogolla we have to put lime. Therefore putting lime in milk is not a dosha. After rosgolla is made and if you put lime to it, it is a dosha. But something which is very intrinsic to it is not a dosha. This is very useful in life. It gives you very good perception to see different people. In Life there are 2 types of defects - normal defect and abnormal defect. Some examples - Like somebody has a passion for earning money. Person has need for the company of opposite sex especially. Person has normal fear of death. Person has got attachment to near and dear family members. A person has liking for all tasty things. Person has need for recognition. Like a person willed a big donation to the London University. But the condition he put is that whenever there is a senate meeting, his dead body should be brought and kept there. Too much self importance. These things are defects from the standpoint of Vedantic wisdom. But to a grahasta these are not defects. We cannot say that Grahasthashrama is based on a person who has doshah -doshashasritah grahasthashramah. Therefore can we say that grahasthashram is defective. Infact most of these are required for grahasthashrama. Therefore they are not defects. Grahastha ashrama is not affected by these defects. Somebody is very passionate about making money, it does not affect his business. Infact it helps him to make money. So defect per say is not detrimental to everything. We have to see what is defect for what. That is why when making payasam , putting lime is defect. But when making rosgolla putting lime is not a defect. It is a requirement. In economics it is said, for any healthy economy some percentage of unempoyment is necessary. Only then cheap labor is available for some cheap jobs. They say some inflation is considered a sign of growth. Similarly some defect is needed for grahasthashrama. The need to be needed is one defect. But in grahasthashrama it is very important.

There was a story about a lady who married a man . The man was very attached to his wife. He would not let her go to her parents house. He always gave some reason why she should not go. He just could not live without her. Her parents would ask why are you not coming and some fight would be there. But she also must have liked this attachment. Once she insisted strongly that she would go to her parents house. He was very sad and he told her how he would not be able to manage without her since he did not know how to do anything. But still she went to her parents for 20 days. But at her parents she got worried about her husband and she decided to return in 15 days and surprise her husband. When she was coming from the railway station to the house by autorickshaw she was imagining what a mess the house would be - unwashed laundry, dirty dishes, unshaved husband. So she decides to clean everything up and make him a nice meal and greet him. She felt she would compensate for his sadness at her departure. When she reaches home she sees her husband sitting on the chair eating batatapova and the house was so clean. She was shocked. The husband says I got a new servant and he does everything for me. I am so happy with him that I thought we should give him some gift when you come. Then the lady tells him , please fire him. When the lady goes out and her husband says he suffered a lot then one part of her feels bad that her husband was suffering because of her absence and another part of her feels good that her husband misses her. So this need to be needed is a very strong need for a grahastha. Another incident- There was a famous singer in the US named Celine Dion whose husband developed cancer and he depended on her a lot. She felt happy in a way because she felt needed by her husband. This is really a defect , but in grahasthashrama it is an important ingredient. Wife has to make the husband feel that he is needed and vice versa. So even though it is a defect it does not effect grahasthasrama. Similarly adhyaasa does not affect the ability of pramata to handle pramana. Because adhyaasa in the body is an important component of the pramata. All the earlier sentences answering the mild Purvapakshi show this. Something is dosha if it is sitting in the system and it is not contributing to the system, but is harming the system. Just because it is present, it is not dosha. However small or big it is, it is not a dosha. Like for some jobs they ask for SSLC fail because the job is such. Some jobs they say you are overqualified. So not being qualified is a qualification sometime. Similarly it is the nature of a servant to be forgetful and careless. It is not a dosha for a servant. Also my husband is like this , that is why he married me. Whatever is in that person makes him that person. So everything is in order. What is defect and what is not defect depends on several factors. If we understand this well, there is acceptance. This is in vyavahara. Here the technical answer is that since adhyaasa is not outside the body of pramatrtvam, it is not a dosha. Like lime is not a dosha because it is not outside the make-up of rosgolla. Similarly adhyaasa is not a dosha for pramata.

Sept 21- Ques and Ans :
1) What does etasmin sarvasmin asati indicate ?

All this being there indicates adhyaasa in body senses and buddhi being there. 2) For establishing the adhyaasa of atma with buddhi we gave a another definition of pramatrtvam ? Pramasrayatvam pramatrtvam. One who has got Knowledge or prama. 3) What are 3 possibitlities presented for nature of Prama ? a) Prama is pure conciousness - Chinmatrarupa prama b) Prama is vritti- Vrittimatrarupa prama c) Prama is a combination of pure conciousness and vritti –Vishista va. 4) What is indicated by the word pure conciousness ? Vritti sambandha rahita chaitanya Conciousness free from association with vritti. 5) What is indicated by vritti? Chitsambandha rahita vritti –Thought modification free from association with conciousness. 6) What is the problem with the first possibility-chinmatra prama? If prama is pure conciousness then asraya-asrita bhava is not possible. Another more strong reason is that if pure conciousness is prama and pure conciousness being always available , there is knowledge all the time. So the instruments are useless. There is karana vaiyartha prasangah (karanam vyarthasya bhavah )–the state of futility of instruments . Since knowledge being available all the time, there is a situation of instruments being redundant. All the people with instruments and without instrument will have knowledge. But that is not our experience. Our experience says , instruments are needed for prama. 7) What is the problem with the second possibility - vrittimatra prama ? Vritti by itself is jadam. It can only take the shape of the object, but cannot reveal the object. There is jagadangya prasangah – a state of darkness. Note: How can modification of the mind take place if it is only vritti ? Really even for the vritti to go out, conciousness is required. But we assume that antahkarana has the svabhava to modufy and assume the shape of the object. But beyond that it cannot do anything more. But if we accept that even to take the shape of the object , conciousness is needed, then all the more the second possibility is not possible. 8) How is the third possibility possible ?

Vritti abhivyakta chaitanya. Combination of vritti and chaitanya. Prama which has both vritti and chaitanya rests on a pramata who is a combination of buddhi and atma. Then bth modification and illumination is possible. That is the possibility which stands our enquiry and helps us to establish adhyaasa. this is our experience also. Eg: One person has Indian citizenship but no money. Another person has money but no Indian citizenship. the joint partnership of the two can do business. 9) How does this combination lead us to adhyaasa ? This combination of jada and chatanya is not possible. Combination is not real. It is anirvachaniya. But without it the vyavahara experience in not possible. Therefore we have to accept adhyaasa. Note : First we try to explain by nirvachaniya factors. when it cannot be explained then as a final stand we go to anirvachaniya factors. Really everything you analyse thoroughly you will end up in anirvachaniya. It is neither real or unreal. Adhyaasa is anirvachaniya. Eg: Why are you born in a particular family? It is to exhaust your and their punya and papa. But suppose you ask-why did I have this partular punya and papa-because you did certain type of karmas. Why did I do those particular karmas? because of samsakaras. why I has those samskara? because of previous samskaras. why those previous samskaras? Annaditvam which s anirvachaniya only. On the surface the explanation appears solid. But if you dig deeper the explanation becomes weaker and ends in anaaditavam. For eg: our body appears solid, but 70 % is liquid.

10) What is the other way of proving the adhyaasa between atma and antahkarana ? Pramatrtvam is pramna prayoktrtvam. For operation not only instruments are required , but desire is also requrd I pramt. Like to make others busy, u have to work. So desire and action are required on the part of the operator to use the instruments. But action and desire is not possible in atma. Therefore to operate the indriyas we require a factor which has both vikara(modification ) ad desire(iccha) . Both these are there in the buddhi. Hence atma combines with buddhi to be pramata.

Then only atma can have the status of pramata and can be the operator of pramanams. there fore atma has to combine with buddhi. That is why it is said etasmin sarvasmin asati. Pramata has to have adhyaasa with body and senses (incld buddhi) to operate the pramanams. 13) What is the connection to etasmin sarvasmin asati? Purvapakshi’s doubt is- Let atma which is chetana be pramata and operate the instruments. 14) How does etasmin sarvasmin answer this doubt ? Atma is asangah.Directly it cannot operate the pramanas. Modifications is needed which is not there in atma. Being chetana is one requirement to be pramta. And atma is chetana. That part is alright. But that is not the only requirement. But the pramta ahs to be able to operate the instrument for which activity is required. For activity modification is required and modification is not there in atma. To fulfill that requirement atma has to combine with buddhi meets that requirement. 11) What is the connection to the next sentence ? Purvapaskhi says - what if pramatrtvam is not there ? ie, Let there be no pramatrtvam . 12) What is the Siddanti’s answer to that? na ca pramtrtvamantarena pramanapravrtti asti. Without pramtrtvam operation of pramana is not possible because pramanams are jadam in nature. 13) What is the meaning of the sentence - tasmad avidyavad vishayani eva pratyakshadi pramanani sastrani ca ? Therefore pratyakshadi pramanas and scriptures are dependent on someone who has got adhyaasa. 14) What is the meaning of tasmat ? Tasmat means therefore. Therefore indicates pramana satvad - pramanas being there.

15) What was this in answer to ? It is in answer to the mild Purvapakshi’s question – On the basis of which pramanas (kena pramanena) are you saying that all pramanas are based on someone who has avidya ?

16) What was the answer given by the Siddanti?

Anumana arthapattibyam avidyavat vishayani eva pratyakshadini pramanani iti. By anumana and arthapatti we say that pratyaksha , etc pramanas are based on someone who has adhyaasa. 11) What was the strong Purvapakshi’s contention? If pratyakshadis are based ona vidyavat. Hw can they be pramnas? 12) What is the essential answer of Siddanti ? It is in the configuration of the pramata. SOME PARTS OF SWAMIJIS TALKS ARE MISSING HERE.

Talk 45 -Sept 21 :
To arrive at this particular fact that all pramanas are based on adhyaasa. Now the strong Purvapakshi had this doubt – If Pratyakshadis are based on a pramata who has got adhyaasa, then how can they be pramanas ? He had given the example - Suppose someone is drunk, then his operation of the vehicle or any instrument will be defective. Another example we saw – Suppose in payasam which is made of milk you put lemon ,then payasam is defective ie, unpalatable. Similarly if pramanas are based on a pramata who has defect, then pramanas will be defective. If somebody who is not had a bath is considered to be impure. if he /she cooks food then the food is also considered to be impure. This was the Purvapaksha’s contention. To that the Siddanti is answering. For this we saw some parallel situations in our day to day life. There are 2 types of defects - normal and abnormal. Normal means common defects which most people have. Examples of normal defects are - the need to be needed, need for recognition, love for money, liking for tasty food. Some people cannot resist food. All these are weaknesses. We don’t call them defects. Examples of abnormal defect - somebody is paranoid. Somene is always suspicious, intensely doubting everybody. Or someone has hyper-sensitivity. they don’t talk to you for days together or highly short tempered or having hallucination or someone who is very very stingy. He cannot spend on himself or on others. Even if somebody is dying they feel let him die because one expenditure will be less. All these are abnormal defects. In the context of grahasthasrama, normal defects do not effect the success of grahasthasrama in the worldly sense. Infact most of them are required. But suppose abnormal defects are there, then this will be detrimental to grahasthasrama. Suppose he has paranoia always doubting where his wife went or he is very stingy and cannot spend at all. These abnormal defects are detrimental to grahasthasrama. In USA it may lead you to divorce in a

few months. But in India it may take a few years. Even if it does not, then there is drama at home everyday which will be free show for everybody else around. So normal defects are okay, but abnormal are not okay. Also what is considered to be a virtue for a grahastha is not good for a sanyasi. To be rich is considered good for a grahastha. But to be rich is a defect for a sanyasi. To become ambitious is a virtue for a grahastha , but for a sanyasi it is a defect. The need to be needed is a defect for a sanyasi, but for a grahasta it is normal. If a sanyasi has the need to be needed he will become a samsari sadhu. Traditonally bhiksha given to a sanyasi should not be shared with others. He should just give to animals or throw it in the river. If he starts to share then he begins to enjoy it and then his mind will look for more bhiksha not only for him but to have the enjoyment of feeding others. This is a dosha for a sanyasi, but for a grahasthi anna dhanam is a very great dhanam. So something which is a dosha in one system becomes a virtue in another system. This is how it is . Sanyasi should not have a charity mind. Then he will be all the time busy getting money to do charity. But for a grahastha it is a must to do charity. So there is really no dosha in the absolute sense. Some more examples in life - Bleeding somebody is a dosha, but for a doctor who bleeds you when he does surgery, it is not a dosha. Infact he charges money for it. But suppose there is excessive bleeding due to mistake then it is a dosha. Somebody fires and kills somebody, then it is a dosha. But suppose he is a policeman and he is asked to fire to control a crowd or he kills a terrorist, then it is not a dosha. Infact he may be rewarded for bravery. An executioner is given money to execute somebody. But if you hang somebody you will be put in jail. So something is a dosha in one situation but the same requirement is not a dosha in another situation. So Purvapakshi is telling the Siddanti, please slacken your rigidity. Defect is not in the absolute sense, the word defect is relative. In some situations the same defect becomes a virtue. Purvapakshi is asking the question ignoring the division that there are some defects which are not defects. Not considering the division of normal and abnormal defect, he is asking the question . If pramata has dosha then pramanas will be defective because they are based on defective pramata. To that the Siddanti is answering, with respect to pramanas there are specifically 2 types of doshas – i) Naisargika dosha or inherent or intrinsic defect. ii) Aganthika dosha means external dosha. Naisargika is dosha in the absolute sense but it does not create any problems in the system. Like everyday you feel hungry but hunger is not considered to be a disease. Hunger is really a defect. The definition of defect is that which disturbs your ease is called disease. By that definition hunger or thirst is a disease because when you feel hungry or thirsty, you feel uncomfortable. But we don’t call it a disease because it is part of our body. Definition-wise it s a disease, but for all

practical purpose, we don’t call it dosha. But suppose someone gets excessive hunger like bhasmaka roga then it is a defect . So what is required for the system is not a dosha, but what is more than required is a dosha. Like salt is required to make curry, but more salt is a defect. Similarly more ghee does not mean better laddoos. So anything which is more than required is a dosha. In our ear we have wax. Wax is required for good hearing. But suppose that wax falls into your eyes, then it is a dosha. When anything is a part of the required components then it is a dosha, but more than required component is a dosha. Similarly adhyaasa is one of the requirements of pramatrtvam. This was said to the mild Purvapakshi and also applies to the strong Purvapakhi also. That is why the strong Purvapakshi is answered later. For pramatrtvam, adhyaasa is a requirement therefore it is not a dosha .This has to be well set in ones mind. If something is required it is not a dosha, but if it is more than required it is a dosha. Suppose you are going for a Badrinath trip and have to take your servant. Then you think he is an extra expense . So it is a dosha. But suppose you have so much luggage and you know it is expensive to hire someone in Badrinath to carry, then taking the servant is not a waste of money. Then the same servant is not a dosha. So one moment you may feel something is a dosha and the next moment it is not a dosha but a requirement. In life also it happens like that. Parents were required when the child was small, but when they grow up parents are not required. They become like dosha because they do not contribute. But that is not right thinking. Even when they grow up, they need their parents as an altar to express their gratitude. So if I change my attitude , then parents are not a burden but a part of the family set up. If you discover that , then you will appreciate the concept of joint family . Once we understand this, then our definition of dosha will change. We see that anything which appears to be a dosha, we discover afterwards is not dosha. Especially if it is inevitable and you take it to be a part of the system and you take it as inherent in the system. Our maturity lies in considering dosha to be a part of the system of growth.

Sept 28 – Ques & Ans:
1) What was the strong Purvapakshi’s contention ? If all the pramanas are based on someone who has got adhyaasa, how can they be called pramanas ? 2) What was the Siddanti’s answer to the strong Purvpakshi’s contention ? Since adhyaasa is a part of the configuration of a pramata, they are not a dosha. Therefore even though the pramanas are based on someone who has got adhyaasa, they can be pramanas.


3) What are the two types of doshas with respect to pramanas ? i) Naisargika or intrinsic or inherent dosha . In vyavahara this is considered Normal dosha . It is a required component of that particular system and is not detrimental to it . Though it is a dosha from the absolute standpoint . ii) Agantuka or external dosha. This is considered as Abnormal dosha . Something which is present in the system, but it is not a required component. ie, without which also things will work. Eg: Like wax in the ear is naisargika dosha, but wax in the eye is aganthuka dosha.

Question by student :
1) It was said earlier that prama cannot be conciousness because there will be karana vaiyarta prasangah. But what happens in susupti avastha ? In susupti avastha, jagrat avastha type of experience is not there. Pramana prameya vyavahara in the form of jagrat experience is not possible without karana. Susupti is a very peculiar type of experience of –“ I don’t know anything”. Even in susupti experience, instrument is there in the form of avidya vritti. If conciousness itself is prama, then karana is not required. Therefore the logic of karana vaiyarta prasangah –futility of instrument is not contradicted because even in susupti, avidya vritti rupa karana is required. 2) How can Iccha sakthi and kriya sakthi be there without jnana sakthi? Both iccha and kriya cannot be there without buddhi. Both of them have their locus in jnanam. Atma does not have Iccha and kriya . Therefore we say that anatma is required. For having jnanam , both iccha and kriya is required. For operating pramanam, karta should have iccha and kriya. Incidental note: Adhyaasa Bhashya gives us the relevance of why we should study Vedanta. Then it may be asked why don’t we study it in the beginning ? Initially study of adyaasa bhashyam is not required. What was necessary in the beginning is given by texts like tattva bodha. Then as we study further questions come up and then there is a need to understand more. That is the approach of sastra. At any point if one step is enough then you should not talk about more steps.

Talk 46 - Sept 28:
The mild Purvapakshi was answered first. The answer was that Anumana and arthapatti are pramanas to arrive at this conclusion that all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa. Then the strong Purvapakshi’s question was answered. His contention was that if pratyakshadini vyavaharah is based on someone who has avidya, then how can they be pramanas ? If pramata has

dosha , then the pramanas which are dependent on pramata will also have dosha. Those who are dependent on dushta will also be dushta. Like if the vessel is unclean or spoilt and if you put milk in that, then it will also get spoilt. That is what the Purvapakshi is saying - defective pramata means defective pramanam. Then the Siddanti is answering – Tasmad avidyavat vishayani eva pratyakshadini pramanani sastrani ca. Here this sentence can also be read as an answer to strong Purvapakshi. In this context tasmad means – aham iti adhyaasasya, pramatrtantargatatvena adoshatvat. Because adhyaasa is a part of the makeup of pramata , it is not a dosha. Therefore even though they are dependent on someone who has got adhyaasa, still they are pramanas only (eva). It is a part of the body of pramata. Since it is in the makeup of the pramata, it is not a dosha. What is a dosha then ? sati pramatari paschat bhavan doshah iti uchyate The reason is that when the pramata is already formed, afterwards if there is some defect outside the body of pramata, which is detrimental to the pramata, then it is called dosha. Any defect will be considered to be defect only if it is outside the body of pramata. But if it is inside the body of the pramata , it is not a dosha. He gives an example – yatha kachadih. Just like if there is eye disease like kachadi then it is a dosha because you see everyting yellow. You will have pita prama -yellow sight. A person who has this kacha dosha will see say a conch as yellow. So kachadi is considered to be a dosha because to see yellow as yellow you don’t need kacha disease to see this. But to see white as yellow is a defect. Like in jaundice also you see white as yellow. It is outside the body of chakshu pramanam. Suppose juaundice was required to see yellow as yellow , then jaundice would not be a defect. But you don’t require jaundice for this. Therefore jaundice is a disease. Something is considered to be a dosha, if it is a dosha and is outside the system. If it is inside the system, then though it is a dosha in the absolute sense it is not considered to be dosha. There is a nice commentary on this commentary. (Side note : Sastra has a unique way of presentation. Bhashyam is there by Bhagvan Sankaracharya. On the bhashyam there is a commentary called Ratna prabha. On Ratna prabha there is a commentary called Purnanandi. It is a commentary on the commentary on the commentary. This Idea is explained very well in the Purnanandi.) Pramakarani bhute pramatari sati paschat bhavan tad akarani bhutah yah sa doshah iti uchayate.Yatha kachadihi……. Pramata is the basis for prama to take place. After this body of pramata is formed, if this dosha is occurring outside the body of pramata and it is not the cause for this pramata then it is called

dosha. Something which is outside the body of the pramata , which is not contributing to the system and it is a defect, then it is considered to be a dosha. Like the disease kacha. Because this disease is not the cause for the perception of yellow color. Whereas this adhyaasa is the karanam for this prama to take place. Because adhyaasa is required for pramata and pramata is required for prama. Therefore adhyaasa is a contributing factor and contributing factor is not considered to be a dosha. So it is unlike kacha disease. That which remains as non-contributing factor (akarani bhuth) is a dosha. But if it remains as a contributory factor (karani bhutah), then it is not a dosha. Like in the case of the servant if he is not contributing to the trip then it is a waste of money to take him. But if he is going to contribute by carrying luggage and saving cost, then he is not a dosha. The commentary then goes into specific. This avidya (taken in both sense as ignorance and ignorance born conclusion) is a dosha in knowing the nature of atma as advitiya because avidya is the veiling factor and because of adhyaasa we do not know the non-dual nature of atma. Because of adhyasa I am not able to appreciate this fact that I am non-dual atma. Therefore adhyaasa is a dosha for advitiya atma jnanam. It is akaranatvat. It is not a contributing factor. Infact it is harming our understanding. For the perception of duality, avidya is a dosha. With the help of an example , we can see the same thing. To have clear perception, kacha is a dosha. Because it is not a contributing factor to clear sight, it is actually detrimental to it. But the same kacha disease if it helps you to infer the papam, then it is not a dosha. It is a very very subtle example. Let us see it with reference to jaundice which is more familiar to us. Suppose somebody has jaundice then it is a dosha for sight (chakshurupa pramana vyavahara) because it is not a karana and it is harmful. But the same jaundice which is a dosha, if it helps you to infer the papam which is the cause for jaundice, then it is not a dosha. We can do anumanam - pratignya, hetu and udaharanam. This person must have a particular type of papam (pratignya) because he has got jaundice (hetu) like many others who got jaundice (udaharanam). So jaundice becomes the basis for inference of papam. For getting the knowledge of papam, therefore jaundice is not a dosha. It is a part of the inference system of which it is a component. So jaundice is not a dosha with reference to the anumanam of a particular type of papam. It is very helpful to see that in vyavahara. When we get difficulty we should see that Bhagvan is sending this as a reminder so that we don’t do papam. If taken that way then our vision is changed. Everything becomes a learning experience, not a dosha. So the same jaundice with reference to clear sight it is a dosha, but reference to inference system it is not a dosha because jaundice is a part of the system. Similarly adhyaasa is not a dosha with reference to pratyakshadi pramanas. It is a part of the body of the pramata on which the pramanams are dependent. Adhyaasa is a required component and not a dosha. Therefore even though pramanas are based on avidyavat , pratyakshadis are authentic pramanas only.

Siddanti’s contention is pratyakshadi being dependent on adhyaasa is not against their being pramanas. Both the facts can remain. They can be avidyavat visayani and they can be pramanani also . What is the authenticity of pramanas ie, why are they pramanas ? Because they are not negated in vyavahara. At the same time they are dependent upon someone who has adhyaasa so they are avidyavat vishayani. So both are correct. i)) They are dependent upon pramata and pramata has adhyaasa. Therefore pramanas are based on adhyaasa. This is one fact. ii) The pratyakshadis are not negated in vyavahara, therefore they are pramanas. This is the second fact. That is why it is said - avidyavat visayani api pratyakshadini pramanani. They are not opposite. This particular thing has to set in the mind. Thus adhyaasa being an integral part of pramata, they are not a dosha. Even though pratyakshadi are based on someone who has got adhyaasa, they are pramanas only. Thus the strong Purvapakshi who had said - how they can be pramanas ? - is also answered. They can be pramanas. Purvapakshi had given the example of how a drunk person cannot drive well. Siddanti says that adhyaasa for pramana vyapara is not something like drinking alcohol. It is something like drinkingwater which is required, It is not like drinking alcohol. Here Purvapakshi may raise another doubt. Pramanas are based on pramata and pramata is based on adhyaasa because pramatrtva status is not possible without adhyaasa. So pramtrtvam is adhyaasa based and adhyaasa is mithya. It means pramata is based on mithya. Mithya means negatable. Therefore pramanas are based on something which is mithya. If something is based on mithya then it is also negatable. Like suppose one meets someone he likes in his dream. In the dream he is married to that person. Then his marriage is mithya. Therefore suppose he had children due to that wedlock , then the children also should be mithya. He cannot say that his wife is mithya, but his children are sathyam. That is not possible. They also should be negatable. Similarly since pramtrtvam is mithya, then mithya based vyavahara should also be mithya only. How can they be authentic. ? For that Siddanti has another answer . He says, there are two types of pramanyam –Vyvaharika and Parmarthika pramanyam. i) Vyavaharika pramanyam - Vyavaharika tatvavedaka pramanyam. Pramanyam means pramanasya bhavah or status of pramana or authenticity of pramana.

The pramana status which is not negated in vyavahara is called vyavaharika pramanyam. Like pratyakshadi are vyavaharika pramanyam. As long as you are in vyavahara, they are authentic pramanas. Eg : I am seeing this clip and on the basis of that I can transact. But these vyavaharika pramanas get negated when you get parmartika tatva jnanam. ie, their authenticity is negated when parmartika prama comes. Our vyavaharika pramanas tell us that everything is different. But when parmartika tatva jnanam comes then we understand there is no duality. As long as this parmartika jnanam has not come, the vyavaharika pramanas are valid. But when parmartika jnanam comes then the are all negated. We then say they are all mithya. ii) Tatvik or parmarthika pramanyam- Parmarthika tatvavedakatvarupa pramanyam. Kala traya abadhyatvam. The authenticity which is not negated in any period of time is called parmarthika tatva pramanyam. When its authenticity is not negated in vyavahara kala then it is called vyavaharika pramanyam. In the absence of parmarthika jnanam, then vyavaharika pramanyam is valid, but when parmarthika tatva jnanam comes then it is no more valid. So Purvapakshi’s contention that the pramanas are mithya is correct in the absolute sense. But it has got vyavaharik pramanyam and therefore vyavahara is possible. Since it does not have parmarthik pramnayam it gets negated. So both are right. As long as vyavahara is there, pratyakshadi are pramanas. We don’t doubt their validity. It is like you are playing this game called business. You buy different places on the board. Then you don’t ask how do you buy this at this price ? In that game that is what it costs . Also the money used is valid as long as you are playing the game. But once you come outside the game then the currency is not valid. Similarly all pratyakshadis are valid till parmarthika jnanam comes. Another example- Like the King defacto behaves like a real king till the real king comes. Similarly these vyavaharika pramanas behave like parmarthika till the absolute one comes.Until the real one comes the unreal will behave like the real. Like the peon will behave like the boss until the boss comes. Similarly vyavaharika pramanas are valid till parmarthika jnanam comes. Therefore there is no problem. Pratyakshadi has the type of pramanyam required for vyavahara . Vyavahara does not need parmarthika pramanyam. It does not have and it does not require also.Therefore there is no contradiction. Thus Bhagvan bhashyakara establishes here that adhyaasa is the basis for vyavahara and there is no dosha. Therefore our vyavahara becomes the basis for doing anumana and arthapatti to arrive at adhyaasa – anumana arthapattibhyam adyaasa sidhyati. The main thing in Pramana Bhashyam till now is - that adhyaasa is established by anumana and arthapatti. With this one part of Pramana bhashyam is over in which it was said that our vyavahara is based on adhyaasa and for this pramanam in the form of anumanam and arthapatti is presented. The next interesting part is an answer for a possible doubt.

Here the Purvapakshi is raising a doubt - While presenting anumana and arthapatti for establishing adhyaasa you had given the hetu – tadanvaya vyatirekanusaaritvat. Tad here stands for adhyaasa. Anvayavyatirekanusaari is vyavahara. Vyavahara follows anvaya vyatireka of adhyaasa. In other words, all the vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa because all the vyavaharas follow the presence and absence of adhyaasa. That was the hetu on the basis of which the pratigna was proved. Now that hetu is attacked. Purvapakshi is saying that your hetu is that vyavahara follows anvaya vyatireka of adhyaasa. But there are some vyavaharas which are not based on adhyaasa. Like there are viveki purushas who have knowledge of atma -anatma and they have viveka which is an antidote to aviveka and adhyaasa is born of aviveka (itaretaravivekena). There is a learned person who has viveka and therefore for him there should not be adhyaasa. Adhyaasa is there because of aviveka and therefore a viveki purushah should not have adhyaasa. According to your argument they should not do vyavahara also. But we see that learned people also do vyavahara. Now we are seeing a situation where vyavahara is but adhyasa is not. This is a vyabhicharah or violation. Siddanti had made the rule that wherever vyavahara is, adhyaasa is. I am now showing you a place where vyavahara is, but adhyaasa is not there. It means that your rule is wrong. The rule is based on some observation, but not complete observation. Like someone sees a few cats with 4 legs and makes a rule that anything which has 4 legs is a cat. There may be 4 legged animals which are cat but there can be others which are non-cat. A more classical example is of fire and smoke. Suppose a rule is formed that wherever there is fire, there is smoke. In yagnashala, in pakshala there is fire and there is smoke. So someone forms the rule that wherever there is fire there is smoke. Then he gives anumanam that –idam sthanam dhoomavat agnivatvat, yatha yagnashalayam - this place has got smoke because it has got fire like in yagnashala. It has all the ingredients of anumanam - pratigna, hetu and udaharanam. This anumana looks okay. But there is a place of violation. Like heater, fire is there but smoke is not there. Therefore you cannot say that wherever fire is there, smoke has to be there. So the anumanam is defective. Similarly there is a place where vyavahara is there but adhyaasa need not be there. So your rule is not complete. Maybe you can say – pramanani avidyavat vishayani, vidyavat visayani api – pramanas are based on someone who has avidya and also someone who has vidya . Because we see vyvahara in viveki purusha also. So don’t insist that pramana should be based on adhyaasa only. That is what the Purvapakshi is saying. Your anvaya vyatireka nyaya is not correct. According to it adhyaasa is vyavahara is ; adhyaasa is not, vyavahara is not. Your vyatireka nyaya is violated now. Adhyaasa is not, still vyavahara is. Once violation is shown karya-karana bhava cannot be established. Something can be karnam only if it is niyat vritti ie, it is definitely there. Suppose you are making rosgolla and a particular TV serial is coming. Everyday you make rosgolla and the same TV serial s coming. So can you make a rule that to make rosgolla the TV

serial has to be there. Without the serial also you can make it one day. Once violation is shown, then karya-karana bhava is snapped. Like some people feel to make curry or sambar , onion has to be used. It is a wrong established karya-karana bhava. Like some people feel that writing should be done with Reynold ball pen only. Pen is necessary, eve pecil is okay but Reynold ball pen is extra. So extra flab has to go. Similarly the Purvapakshi tells Siddanti, you saw ignorant people and vyavahara , so you made the rule seeing the two together. But I am showing one situation where it is not there, so the karya-karana relationship cannot be there. It is not unviolatable. Therefore your anumanam that vyavahara is adhyaasa mulaka is not correct. This is the doubt of the Purvapakshi. Siddanti now answers this possible doubt that there can be vyvahara without adhyaasa as in the case of viveki purushah . Siddanti has 2 options – i) To say that what he said was a general statement , but there are exceptions also. In Bhagavadgita chapter 7, Krishna says- mam tu vedana kaschanna – I know all but nobody knows me. Krishna uses the word kaschanna in a figurative sense. Bhagvan bhashyakara explains nobody means except wise people. Another example - On the bus, the inspector comes and asks the conductor- “Has everybody taken a ticket ?”. Conductor says -“yes”. But one mischievous boy on the bus says -“ except two people – the conductor and driver.” So what the conductor meant was everybody except the 2 of them. Similarly Siddanti can say that I am talking about ignorant people only. except for wise people pramana-prameya vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. Even though it is a temporary solution, the Siddanti is conceding and then karya-karna bhava cannot be established . But Siddanti does not go for this option. ii) The second option is to say that even the learned man’s vyavahara is also based on adhyaasa. The Siddanti goes for this option in the next sentence. Pashvadibhih ca avishesat . There are 3 words in this sentence. It is a very powerful, profound and loaded statement. Even learned people are not different from animals in terms of having adhyaasa, when they are doing vyavahara. Avishesat means non-difference. Vyvahara kale ie, at the time of vyavahara there is non-difference between learned people and animals. It means that learned people are not an exception to the rule that where alone adhyaasa is , there alone vyvahara is . When adhyaasa is not vyavahara is not. Even learned people when they are doing vyavahara have adhyaasa. This is a very shocking statement because we felt that atleast learned people will be free from adhyaasa. We will have so many questions. How can they also have adhyaasa ? That is elaborated in this sentence.

Talk 47 – Ques & Ans.


1) How does this sentence answer the strong Purvapakshi –‘Tasmat avidyavat vishayani eva pratyakshadini prmanai…’ Aham iti adhyasasya pramatrtvantargatvena adoshatvat avidyavat vishayani api pratyakshadini pramanani ca. Since adhyaasa is a part of the body of the pramata, it is not a dosha. Therefore even though pratyakshadi are based on a person who has avidya they are valid pramanas. 2) What is the requirement for something to be a dosha for a particular system ? Any factor which is i) Not a required component ii) Is outside the system and is infact detrimental to the system Such a factor is a dosha for that system. 3) What is the classical example given and how is it a dosha ? Kachadi is the example given by sastra. Kacha is an eye disease by which one sees white color as yellow . It is a dosha because kacha is not a required component for sight ie, It is outside the optical system because for eyes to see yellow as yellow, kacha is not required. Also it is detrimental to clear vision. 4) When is kachadi not a dosha ? It is not a dosha for the inference system for knowing papam ie, To infer that the person who has kachadi has some papam, kacha is not a dosha . 5) What about in the case of adhyaasa ? Adhyaasa is not a dosha for pramatrtvam. Because it is a part of the body of the system and is not detrimental to the system of the pramata. So for dvaita jnanam of ghatapatadi, adhyaasa is not harmful. But adhyaasa is a dosha for the appreciation of non-dual Brahman. 6) What is our answer to the strong Purvapakshi ? Even though adhyaasa is a dosha from the absolute standpoint. But from the standpoint of pramana-prameya vyavahara it is not a dosha. Thus the strong Purvapakshi is answered.

7) What is the connection to the next sentence ? Pasvadibhih ca aviseshat. The sangati or connection to the next sentence is in the form of a doubt. According to the Siddanti – “All vyavaharas are adhyaasa mulakah”. Tad anvayavyatirekanusaaritvat ie, When adhyaasa is vyvahara is, adhyaasa is not vyavahara is not.

Purvapakshi is attacking the vyatirekanusaaritvam by showing a violation to that. The doubt is - In a wise person there is no adhyaasa, but we do see them do vyavahara. Thus your anvaya-vyatirek nyaya is incomplete. When there is a violation to one part of the rule , the whole anumana and arthapatti pramana that all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa are not correct. 8) What are the 2 options for the Siddanti to answer ? One option is to say that wise people are an exception to the rule. But in this case the rule gets violated though the immediate problem is resolved. Second option is to say that even wise people have adhyaasa when they do vyavahara . In this case the rule is not violated. But the shocking statement needs to be substantiated. 9) Which one does Siddanti go for and why ? He takes the second option and says that even learned people have adhyaasa when they do vyavahara. Because it is more far-sighted thinking. It does not violate the karya-karana sambandha and the basic rule remains intact. He goes for the real solution. 10) What is the meaning of the statement – pasvadibhiscaviseshat ? Aviseshat means non-difference. Pasvadibhih means animals. The sentence meaning is – In vyavahara there is no difference between animals and learned people. Animals vyvahara is certainly based on adhyaasa because there is no atma-anatma viveka. Aviveki has adhyaasa . Even viveki’s vyvahara is also based on adhyaasa. Question by students – 1) There are 2 types of pramanyam - vyavaharika and parmarthika pramanyam. How can there be pramana in the parmarthika status ? In Parmarthika avastha there is no pramanyam of any pramanam. But what has been said as parmarthika will never be negated. It does not remain there in Parmarthika state but what has been revealed by pramana will not be negated. We don’t say that Parmarthika pramanyam of Vedanta will remain in parmarthika avastha. It is not a part of the Parmarthika tatva. In asanghah atma, pramana is not there. But what is revealed is not negated. The mahavakyas from the sastras are parmarthika pramanas. 2) Is not adhyaasa the very existence of pramata and not just intrinsic part of pramata ? What we mean by intrinsic part is that pramata cannot exist without adhyaasa. But adhyaasa itself is not pramata. Chaitanya atma is needed to be pramata. Any system is based on its intrinsic part. Therefore we say adhyaasa is an intrinisic part of pramata ie, without adhyaasa there cannot be a pramata. Sometimes the intrinsicness may be very clear and in its absence the system immdiatley switches off. But sometimes the effect is longrun like in the case of adhyaasa. Note:To say - I am - One needs instruments.

For the specific cognition –‘I am ‘vritti is required and therefore pramana -prameya vyavahara is there, but I as such is self evident. In susupti, there is avidya vritti which is a karana but it is not called pramana. Therefore pramana -prameya vyvahara is not there. Suppose we use the word pramana in the wider sense then also the rule is - some karana is required . Then karana vaiyarthya prasangah is not there. Pramana is a particular type of instrument which brings about prama. Pramanam is a karanam , but all karanam need not be pramanam.

Oct 12 - Talk 47 : Pasvadibhischaviseshat
It is an answer given by Bhasyakara to a possible doubt that in the case of viveki there will be vyavahara without adhyaasa being there. The answer given by Siddanti is – There is nondifference of learned people from the animals with regard to vyavahara. Here one question is discussed by Tikkakara – What is meant here by the word vidvan – learned people who are not different from animals ? The Siddanti is telling Purvapakshi - when you are raising a doubt what do you mean by the word vidvan. There are 2 possible definitions of Vidvan – 1) Do you mean a person who has aparoksha jnanam ie, shakshatkaara - one who has got assimilated firm clear knowledge. Is this the person you are referring to and raising an objection ? Regarding that person we will talk about in the fourth sutra. Really even that person who has aparoksha jnanam has got adhyaasa, but that adhyaasa is badhita ie, dismissed. Adhyaasa is dehe atma buddhih - in simple words adhyaasa is anatmani atma buddhi. This adhyaasa is effectively negated by a wise person. Infact you can describe a wise person ie, a sakshaatkaravan (a man of realistaion) as one who has dismissed adhyaasa in the form of dehatma buddhi. Here adhyaasa is badhitah. He knows that really I am not this body, mind and he is very very clear about it. Even that person when he does vyavahara has to have adhyaasa but that is the functional aspect of adhyaasa. Adhyaasa has 2 aspects - functional aspect and binding aspect. So functional aspect is there even for that realized soul. But the binding aspect of adhyaasa is not there. So if you mean a wise person who has got Brahma sakshatkarah by the word vidvan, even for that person there is - baadhita adhyaasa anuvrittih - continuation of negated adhyaasa . So the functional aspect will remain as long as his prarabdha is there. Therefore our contention – “adhyaasa is vyavahara is” – is not contradicted. That we will see in detail later on.

2) Another possibility is that vidvan means a viveki purusha who has got yauktika jnanam (logical understanding) based on listening to the scriptures, based on reasoning, but that understanding is not assimilated. In other words one who has paroksha jnanam. Infact vidvan means one who has got vidya and he has got vidya. He has got all the resonings and he knows all the sruti vakyas but he has not assimilatd this understanding. Such a person is called paroksha jnanavan. If you are referring to such a person by the word vidvan then this paroksha jnanam does not dismiss adhyaasa. Adhyaasa is very much there. The rule is that aparoksha adhyaasa can be removed by aparoksha jnanam. It cannot be removed by paroksha jnanam. Therefore adhyaasa is intact. Such a person may be talking to others,may teach also. But his adhyaasa will remain intact and there fore it will continue to be the basis of vyavahara. So if you mean aparoksha jnanavan when you say vidvan, then badhita adhyaasa is there when he is doing vyavahara. If you mean paroksha jnanavan then definitely adhyaasa is there. Adhyaasa being aparoksha, aparoksha adhyaasa cannot be removed by paroksha jnanam. Who is this paroksha jnanavan ? All of us are now paroksha jnanavan. All of us have studied that atma is different from the body. But suppose even a rat comes here, then we will run. That is going to be said here. We cannot say we don’t have jnanam because we are all studying Vedanta sastra. At the same time we cannot say that we do not have adhyaasa. So it is possible that yautika or logical understanding is there and still aparoksha adhyaasa is there. Not only functional adhyaasa but also binding adhyaasa continues. We still do have complexes and we still do get concerned. Everyday we get 100’s of examples to see how binding adhyaasa really is. Once in a while we are free of binding adhyaasa. if we are honest with ourself we will see that most of the time we have binding adhyaasa. But we tend to be liberal with ourself . Like we think we have arjavam when it is not there completely. So Paroksha jnanam is not an antidote to aparoksha adhyaasa. Either way - if you mean aparoksha jananavan by the word vidvan , then there is a different type of adhyaasa – badhita adhyaasa. Functional adhyaasa is there, but binding adhyaasa is not there. Like for example seeds are roasted then you can eat it . That’s functional aspect, but the roasted seeds cannot be germinated. Badhita is something like that. Functional aspect means that which is enough to give rise to pramana-prameya vyavahara, but will not cause any complex. Pramana - prameya vyavahara is the effect of the functional aspect of adhyaasa and that will continue. But since adhyaasa is false conclusion and the reality of that conclusion is dismissed in our vyavahara , so the binding aspect of adhyaasa which creates complexes will not be there. Even with reference to so many things you see how unassimilated knowledge does not remove our delusion. All of us know that alone happens which Bhagvan wishes. We have heard it and we have told people this when they are in trouble. But this understanding has not removed our worries. We know that it is going to happen exactly the way it has to happen , but we still worry . It means that understanding is there but it is paroksha jnanam. Big – big kathakaras will

be saying in their kathas – “what is money. It is just the dirt of the palm”. But at the end of the Katha if they do not get sufficient dakshina, then they will fight with the organizers. It means paroksha jnanam can be there , but it will still not remove wrong conclusion. That is what the Siddanti is telling. If you refer to aparoksha jannavan by the word vidvan, then also there is continuity of adhyaasa when vyavahara is. If your refer to paroksha jnanavan –a viveki who has logical understanding without assimilation - by the word vidvan then definitely there is adhyaasa. Here the second type of viveki - Paroksha jnanavan - is mainly referred to because that is the majority and even that person continues to have adhyaasa. . So Bhashyakara who is mainly interested in proving his point says adhyaasa is definitely the basis for all vyavahara. Even if you have logical understanding and you are educated in so many fields, then also adhyaasa can still continue. That is what the Bhashyakara says and the Tikkakara using this sentence Pasvadhibhi schaviseshat explains by adding - vivekinam api. Even vivekis are non-different from animals in terms of having adhyaasa while doing vyvahara. Therefore it is proper to say that vyavahara is the product of adhyaasa. It is a shocking statement to be told that there is samanatvam between pashu ad viveki. But Bhagvan Bhashyakara does not say that in all respects a viveki is like a pashu. But in the essential aspect, there is no difference between the vyavahara of a viveki and that of a pashu. their vyavahara is different but the essence of both vyavaharas are the same. like a refined person eating sofisticted food with etiquette and an unrefined tribal living in the forest maybe eating raw meat. Inspite of the diffeenc essentially both are eating . Both have to use the mouth and the digestive system . Lookwise stylewse difference but essentially there is no difffence betweenthe two. Likewise both pashu and viveki are in essence the same. The chakara which is there is shankanirastaha chakara. It is meant for dismissing the doubt. Don’t doubt the statement that adhyaasa is the basis for vyavahara, because even vivekis are no different from animals in terms of vyvahara having its basis in adhyaasa. Therefore dont ask for any exceptions. This is the contention of this sentence. But it is a very very brief statement so Bhagvan bhashyakara is explaining.

Here in this sentence – pasvadhibhischaviseshat – the Tikkakara says one anumanam is there . Vivekinah adhyaasavantah vyavaharavatvat pasvadivat. i) Pratigna is - Vivekinah adhyaasavantah. Vivekis are having adhyasa . ii) Hetu is – Vyvaharavatvat. Vivekis are also having vyvahara . iii) Udaharanam is – pasvadhivat. Like animals. So vivekis are havng adhyaasa because they have vyvahara like animals. Pashus have vyavahara and pashus have adhyaasa. Vivekis also have vyavahara so they must have adhyaasa.


Now the drstanta part –pasvadhivat – is explained. When you are giving a drstanta, it should have the concommittance of hetu and sadhyam. Something can become a drstanta only when it has got both hetu and sadhyam in it. The classical example is - parvathovaniman dhoomavatvat yatha pakasalayam. Here in this anuman, hetu is dhoomavatvat-the smoke. Sadhyam is that which is to be established ie, the presence of fire. In the udaharanam both smoke and fire has to be there. Then only it can be drstanta. Drstanta is aplace where both the sadyam and hetu should be very evident. In that itself if there is doubt then it is not drstanta. We should be very clear that both hetu and sadyam is there. Suppose I say dog is a vegetarian animal like cat . Here hetu is ‘ because it is an animal’ and drstanta is ‘like cat ’. Suppose cat itself is not a vegetarian, then how can one prove that the dog is vegetarian. So hetu and sadhyam should be very evident in udaharanam. Dog is a vegetarian because it is an animal like cat which is a vegetarian. Here sadyam is being vegetarian. Hetu is animalness. So both being vegetarian and animalness shoulde there in the cat which is not there. So cat cannot be the udaharanam. This is how logicians think. In the classical example of smoke and fire, the drstanta is pakashala (kitchen) where both sadhyam and hetu - fire and smoke are seen together. Vyaptigraha or concommittance between sadhya and hetu is seen. Similarly in pashu we have to show both adhyaasa and vyavahara .Then when vyavahara is there, adhyaasa we can infer. This example- pashvadhitvat - is elaborated in the next sentence. Yatha hi pasvadayaha sabdadibhihi srotradhinam pratikulejate tato nivarthante anukulecha pravarthante. sambandhesati sabdadivignane

Yatha hi pasvadayaha - Just as animals etc. By the word etc what we understand is birds,and other aquatic creatures. When Bhashyakara uses the word aadi, it means he has left out atleast one thing. Sabdadhibhihi sambande sati- when the connection is formed. srotratidinam sabdadibhihi – of the ears with the sound. The meaning of the sentence is- When the connection of the ears with the sound etc is formed. ie when sense contact has taken place. Sense objects are sabda,sparsha rupa, rasa, gandha are called sabdadhibhihi. Srotradhinam refers to indriyas - srotra,chakshu,tvak. When the connection between the sense organs and the sense object is formed and the knowledge of the sound etc formed is found to be unfavorable . Knowledge itself is not unfavorable, but the object of the knowledge is found to be unfavorable. Then tataha pasvadayah nivartante ie, animals turn away from that object. When the knowledge of sabdadi, etc is found to be favorable then they anukule pravarthante – they turn towards it.

Bhashyakara is not satisfied with this general explanation so he elaborates on it further with an example for both pratkule and anukule jate.


Yatha dandyothkaram purushamabhimukhmam upalabhya mam hantuayamicchyati iti palayitum arabhante; harita tranapurnapaanim upalabhya tam pratyabhimukhi bhavanti. First he said in general – if knowledge is favorable the animals will run after it, and if it is not favorable they will run away from it. Yatha means for example . When the animal notices in front (abhimukham) a person whose hand is raised with a stick . This is a examplefor pratikule vignane jate. Then according to Tikkakara the animal will do anumanam - this stick is anishtasadhanam. It is the means for my harm because it is a stick like the previously experienced stick. Therefore mam hantum icchati . He wishes to hit me. Tatpalayantum arabhante - they start running away. For anukule vignane jate the example is – the cow is seeing a person with his hands full of green grass, then that cow runs after that person. These cows will go near that person. So animals do this vyvahara and this vyavahara shows adhyaasa. This animal is thinking this fellow wants to beat me –which me ? this confused I .This confused I is taken as me so there is adhyaasa. Suppose the cow had the enlightenment that he is asangoham, then he would just stand there. But that does not happen. Animal runs away from the person with a stick shows that animal has adhyaasa. Animal has pratyakshadini pramana and he is seeing the stick or grass and then he is running away or towards it. If adhyaasa was not there then this wouldnot happen. So animal has got vyavahra and animal has got adhyaasa. Bhashyakara is going to say that even human beings also behave in this way.

Oct 26 – Ques and Ans :
1) What is the meaning of pasvadibhiscaviseshat ? What does the Bhashyakara want to prove with this statement ? Bhashyakara wants to show that Pasvadibhiscaviseshat vyvaharah adhyaasakaryah iti uktham. Even learned people are like animals with respect to vyavahara. Whatever has been said earlier that vyavahara is the product of adhyaasa stands.


2) What was the doubt raised for which this sentence was the answer ? The Purvapakshi had said that there is a violation to your rule that vyavahara follows the anvaya-vyatirekha of adhyaasa because viveki purushas have no adhyaasa, but they do vyavahara. So vyatirekha is violated in the case of viveki purusha. 3) How does this sentence –pasvadibhiscaviseshat- answer the doubt ? Just like pashu’s vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. Vidvan ‘s also has vyavahara like pashu, so it must be based on adhyaasa. So there is no violation to the rule that vyavhara follows adhyaasa. This is a brief statement or sangraha vakya which is further elaborated by the Siddanti. 4) Which point made in the sangraha vakya is elaborated in the next sentence – yatha hi pasvadayah sabdadibhih srotradinam sambandhe sati sabdadivignane pratikule jate tato nivartante, anukule ca pravartante ? The drstanta aspect - pasvadibhih - is elaborated here. Pashu’s vyavahara aspect is highlighted in this first sentence of elaboration of sangrah vakya. 5) What two points should be shown in drstanta ? Hetu and sadhyam should be clearly evident in drstanta. The drstanta should be solid. Both hetu and sadhya should be definitely there because based on that we are going to prove the darstanta. 6) What is the stock example as to how hetu and sadhya are shown in drstanta ? Yatha pakashala is the drstanta where we see both smoke (hetu) and fire (sadhya). 7) What was the example given to show how something is not drstanta ? Dog is a vegetarian like a cat. In cat the hetu (animalness) is there, but the sadhya (vegetarian) is not there . 8) In the darstanta what is the hetu and sadhya ? How is it proved based on the drstanta – pasvadibhih? In the darstanta – all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa – the hetu is vyavahara and sadhya is adhyaasa. Both are seen in the pashu. In pashu there is vyavahara and there is adhyaasa. If this is shown clearly then elsewhere also we can show how vyavhara is there and adyaasa is there. So the drstanta part should be very clear. 9) What is the meaning of sabdadibhih srotradinam ? Sabdadinam means of sense objects like words etc. The word aadi means other than sabda - ie, sparsha, rupa, rasa, gandha . Srotradinam means of sense organs like srotra (ears) , etc . The word aadi indicates tvak, chakshu, rasana, grahna. Note : This order is based on the order of the panchamahabhutas – akasha,vayu, agni, aapah, prithvi.

10) What does sabdadi vignane mean? The knowledge of sabda etc. 11) What do we mean by pratikule jate ? That which is unfavorable. Knowledge is never unfavorable, the object of knowledge can be unfavorable . Unfavorableness of knowledge implies anista sadhana gocharatvam jnanasya pratikulatvam. The quality of the knowledge to objectify unfavorable object is said to be unfavorablesness of the knowledge. 12) What is the meaning of tatho nivarthante ? They turn away from the object of that knowledge. 13) What does anukule ca pravartante mean ? They become active towards favorable objects. 14) What is the meaning of the whole sentence ? Just as animals when they come in contact with unfavorable objects go away from them and when they come in contact with favorable object go towards them. 15) Which point is explained in this sentence Yatha dandodyatakaram…..palayantumarbhante, haritatranapurna….pratyabhimukhibhavanti ? Pratikule nivartante and anukule ca pravartante – that aspect which was explained in general is explained with reference to a specific situation. 16) What is the example given to show pashavah pratikule nivartante ? When the animals see a person having a raised hand with a stick in it, they run away. With which idea they run away ? They make an anumanam that - this danda is anistasadhanam meant to harm me (pratigna) because it is a stick (hetu) like the one experienced earlier (udaharanam). So they run away. 17) What is haritatranapurnapaanim an adjective to ? It is describing a person , who has his hands full of green grass. How does it show anukule pravartante ? The animal seeing a person holding green grass goes towards him.

Talk 48 – Oct 26 :
1) Evam purusha api vyutpannachittah kruradrastin akroshatah khadgodyatakaran balavatah upalabhya tato nivartante tad viparitan prati pravartante; Now the darstanta is explained.

Earlier drstanta part pasvadibhih was explained. There it was said that animals do pramana prameya vyavahara. Srotradinam sabdadibhih sambande sati is pramana vyavahara. Nivartante and pravartante is prameya vyavahara. Both these vyavahara are along with adhyaasa. The animal is running away seeing a person with a stick in his hand because he thinks this person will kill me. Me here means this body. So the animal is afraid of being killed and what can be killed is the body only. But the animal thinks this person is going to kill me, so it runs away. There is identification with the body. Thus adhyaasa and vyavahara are both there in the drstanta of pashu. In the darstanta ie, what is to be understood thro’ the example is about vidvan purushah. Vyutpanna chittah purushah – people having learned minds. As it happens in the case of animals , similarly even learned people turn away from people who have cruel look. Bhashyakara wants to make his case solid so he is giving a lot of adjectives. Just because someone as a cruel look , we don’t run away. He may have had a bad experience or svabhavatah he is born like this. So Bhashyakara uses another word. Earlier the singular was used – animal sees one person with a stick. But here he says learned people seeing cruel people (kruradristin) run away. Cruel look is not enough , so he says akroshatah – shouting abusive words. Not only are they cruel in their look , they are cruel in their intention also. Suppose they are outnumbered and they don’t have weapons, therefore he says kadgyodratakaran – these people who have cruel look who are shouting and have their hands raised with a sword. They are balavatah – very strong. So they have cruel look, who are shouting and have their hands raised with a sword. Seeing them the learned people will run away from them. This shows pratikule nivartante. As animals run away, these people also run away. No difference between both of them. How they will run away may differ. They may not jump like animals or animals may run away seeing one person with a stick, but the learned people may run away seeing many people with weapons. So such minor details may differ. But essentially when there is danger to the body, these people will run away. Animals are running away because they have adhyaasa. The learned people are also running away means they must have adhyaasa. And then - tad viparitanprati pravartante. And these learned people go towards those who are of opposite nature ie, they go towards people who are welcoming them with garlands, etc and appreciating them, then they go towards them, just like animals go towards a person who has green grass in his hand. Viparitan he has not gone into details. It could be anything depending on the raga of utpannachittah. Suppose they like music, they will go towards it. Or suppose they are fond of food, they go towards it. So like animals, learned people also go towards objects they find favorable. We saw early who this vyutpannachittah or learned person is – aparoksha sakshaatkaravan or paroksha sakshatkaravan. But here the Bhashyakara is mainly talking about paroksha sakshatkaravan. About aparoksha jnanavan he will talk later. But now the people who have studied Vedanta, even though they have viveka but still they go towards or run away. 2) Athah samanah pasvadibhih purushanam pramana prameya vyavaharah. Bhashyakara says - Athah - anubhava balat –therefore based on the strength of experience we can say that all the activities centered on pramana and prameya of these learned people is equal to the activities of the animals, etc. Samanah means similar or equal. Here it means adhyaasa karyatvena

tulyah. ie, similar in terms of being the product of adhyaasa. There may be differences in other respects. Objects may vary, how they run away and what makes them run away may be different. But the basic thing in terms of vyavahara being the product of adhyaasa, they are similar. So animals activities are based on adhyaasa and a viveki’s activites are also based on adhyaasa. One question could be raised that on what basis are you saying that animals vyavahara is based on adhyaasa ? Animals themselves are not saying that and we are not able to physically see it. Then how are we saying that animals vyavhara is a product of adhyaasa. That aspect is stated by Bhashyakara in the next line. Here Bhashyakara does not give the reason but the commentators give the reason. 3) Pasvadinamcha prasiddah avivekapurahsarah pratyakshadi vyavaharah . Bhagvan Bhashyakara just says - It is very well known that the activity of animals in the form of perception, etc is presupposing aviveka. Aviveka purahsarah means keeping in front or presupposing aviveka. Every activity of animals is preceded by aviveka. Means having aviveka alone animals are doing vyavahara. This is relatively easy to accept because they are animals. Most of the people will accept that animlas have aviveka. Why they have aviveka is because they do not have the means in the form of upadesha to get viveka. They have got atma jnanam and anatma jnanam. They have atma jnanam in the form of I am . We know this because they have a sense of identity. When they are hungry, they look for food for their hunger or when they are sick they take care of themself. Also they are chetana so conciousness has to be there. It may not be there in the form of antahkarana vritti I am. Atma to be self-evident does not require anything. Atma by itself is self-evident. But to have this particular cognition that I am we need vritti, but for that vritti to take place we don’t require any external means. Antahkarnam is there and there itself I am will be there and that I am is an expression of atma. So they have atma jnanam and they also have anatma jnanam because they also know body is, but bheda jnanam is not there. A is known and B is known, but the difference between A and B is not known. Therefore there will be confusion between A & B. If A is known and B is known, but the difference between A & B is known, then confusion will not be there. So pashu has atma jnanam . This atma jnanam is not satchidananda atma jnanam, but just knowing I am. Anatma jnanam of body is there. But bheda jnanam ie, viveka that I am not this body is not there because for that upadesha is needed. Therefore there has to be confusion. This is one way of seeing. Another way of seeing is that their movement itself shows there is adhyaasa.They run away seeing a person with a stick. Stick will harm the body not atma. Suppose the animal had the viveka that I am sthula-sukshma-karana sarira vyatirikta, then they will not run away. But they run away and that shows they have got adhyaasa. That is why Bhashyakara says here that animals definitely have aviveka. Aviveka here means confusion of taking this body-mind complex as oneself. So what Bhashyakara does is present adhyaasa where it is relatively easy to accept. Animals have got adhyaasa. It is easier to accept that

rather than accept that a viveki has adhyaasa. They do not have samagrih so their vyavahara is preceded by adhyaasa is easy to accept. Now in the next sentence, Bhagvan Bhashyakara says that animals vyavahara is preceded by adhyaasa and the vyavahara of learned people is similar to animals. Therefore vyavahara of learned people is also preceded by adhyaasa. 4) Tat samanyadarshanat vyutpattihmatamapi purushanam pratyakshadi vyavaharah tatkalah samanah iti nischiyate. Tat samanyam means similarity of pashu. Darshanat means observation. Because of the observation of the similarity between the vyavahara of learned people and animals, therefore it is ascertained that the activity in the form of pratyakshadi, etc are samanah . Here samanah is understood as adhyaasa purvakah. Just as the vyavahara of animals is adhyaasa purvakah, similarly the vyavahara of learned people is also preceded by adhyaasa. Samanah means equal in the sense of being the productof adhyaasa. One more adjectives is there - Tatkala - means at that time. At the time when vyavahara is being done by this viveki purushah , vyavahara of that time which is leading to pravritti-nivritti is samanah to animals. Because we see that pratyakshadi vyavhara of animals is leading to pravrtti-nivrtti , similarly vyavahara of learned people is also leading to pravritti-nivritti. Therefore both of them must be adhyaasakaryam. Without adhyaasa being there such pravritti towards favorable and nivritti of going away from unfavorable will not be there without adhyaasa. Therefore they are samanah. The meaning of the whole sentence isSince there is similarity between the animals and human beings in terms of having vyavahra, it is ascertained that that vyavahara of learnd people is also adhyaasa purvaka as it is hapenning in the case of animals. The essence of the whole discussion is that even the vyavahara of learned people is not an exception. Don’t ask for any exceptions. If vyavahara is adhyaasa has to be there. We may ask - What about Bhagvan Bhashyakara ? Was he having adhyaasa when he was writing the adhyaasa bhashyam ? We have great respect for Shankaracharyaji, but he himself says pasvadibhiscaciseshat. So he is not excluding himself. He also had adhyaasa when writing. Dvaitis keep asking this. If he had adhyaasa then did he have jnanam or not? otherwise it will be like a blind person giving directions. So we say that he had jnanam but at the same time he had adhyaasa also. We need not defend Sankaracharyaji nor do we need to have any fear about saying that he had adhyaasa. If you try to defend somebody who is not defendable, then either you are compromising with your integrity or you will be in trouble. To get out of trouble you have to tell lies. Lot of great people try to defend their stand and get into this problem. So do not defend the undefendable and Bhagvan Bhashyakara does not want to be defended.

So adhyaasa and this vidya seem to co-exist. We may wonder how can that be possible ? We have been repeatedly told that adhyaasa goes away by vidya . Adhyaasa is a product of avidya and the moment vidya comes it should go away. So how can you say that adhyaasa is there and still vidya is there ? To this we say that adhyaasa may not be there in its binding form, but adhyaasa can remain in the form of baadita or functional adhyaasa. There are so many examples to see this. Like somebody is giving a very nice talk on detachment . He knows how attachment harms. Because of attachment we compromise with our values and how to be detached one can know this well. But still that person can be attached. This is possible. i) One possibility is that the knowledge is there, but it is not assimilated. ii) Another possibility is one may have knowledge, but the samskara of the earlier mistake can continue. I may have great clarity of knowledge . But samskara has its own strength and it may continue. Suppose you have changed your house and you come back home from office to the old house and then you remember and then go to the new house. It is not that you don’t have the knowledge, but still it can continue. There can be paroksha jnanam and even if it is aparoksha jnanam, still there can be baadita anuvritti . But there can be a situation where avidya is totally gone because vidya is 100 %. At that time there is no vyavahara. So Purvapakshis contention was that if there is a vidvan, then he will have vidya. If vidya is there advidya should not be there. If avidya is not there adyaasa should not be there. If adhyaasa is not there vyavahara should not be there, if vyavahara is born of adhyaasa. If your contention is that vyavahara is a product of adhyaasa. Then the moment vidya comes avidya should stop and therby vyavahara. But we see vyavahara. Siddanti says that there is no situation where avidya is 100 % gone. It remains in the form of amskara. When these old impressions are also gone then there is no vyavahara. So Siddanti is saying to Purvapakshi, you have to show me a situation where avidya is 100 % gone, still suppose vyavahara is there then my rule is violated. Where vyavahara is adhyaasa is. There s no exception. If somebody says that I have got vidya and I have not even an iota of avidya , but I am doing vyavahara for loka sangrah. This sounds very good but it cannot stand scrutiny. If you ask him who is doing loka sangrah? I am doing.”I” means atma or anatma. He has to accept that there is some form of adhyaasa. You may call it baadhita adhyaasa. That is also doubtful. Because one who is trying to show that he has no adhyaasa, cannot be aparoksha jnani. There is no question of going beyond that. We say that even an aparoksha jnani has got adhyaasa. This fellow is saying that I am someone who is free from adhyaasa, still I got vyavahara. If vyavahara is adhyaasa has to be there One question is that this particular thing pinches us. How this vidya that I ama sanghah and tis adhyaasa that I am karta pramta go together.they are of opposite nature and how can they co-exist together. to understand this w ehave to understand the phenomenon of how these diff vrittis come.how this vritti I am asanghah atm a come and at that time what will be the status of this pramta who has adhyaas. we have to understand how this process of knowledge takes place. earlier we had understood in the context of pramanam, now we understand the same topic in the context of co-existence of adhyaasa and vidya vritti that I am asanghah. How do they continue and

how the evolution take splace. We have made this division paroksha and aparoksha jnanifor some purpose. But there is no watertight divn. the paroksha jnani is in the process of becoming aparoksha jnani. There will be a situation the paroksha jnani will become aparoksha jnani . How does that happens?

Nov 2 – Ques & Ans :
1) What is the meaning of pasvadibhisvasieshat ? The vyavahara of learned people is not different from animals. In what respect the vyavahara of learned people is not different from animals ? Vyavahara being the product of adhyaasa in that respect learned people are not different from animals. 2) What does sabdabhihi and srotradinam sambande sati indicate ? It indicates pramana vyavahara of animals. 3) Where is prameya vyavahara indicated ? Pratikule ca nivartante and anukule ca pravartante indicates prameya vyavahara of animals. ie, they go towards favorable and away from unfavorable. 4) What is the meaning of Vyutpannachittah ? People whose mind is learned. 5) Who are the two categories of people referred to by learned people ? Aparoksha jnanavan and paroksha jnanavan. Mainly who are emphasized here? Paroksha jnanavan is emphasized here because adhyaasa is more evident, but aparoksha jnanavan is also included. 6) What does evam purushah indicate ? Evam means in this manner. the implication in this manner or similar to how the animals behave. 7) What is kruradrstin and why is it plural? People who have cruel look. Tikkakara says Bhagvan Bhashyakara wants to make his case solid. Many learned people may not be scared of one person with cruel look. But many people with cruel look will cause them to turn away. Note: Tikkakara takes every word of the Bhashyakara seriously. That is how the attitude of a jignyasu should be towards his teacher. Because the teacher will only say what is necessary. The teachers also is very careful of what they say. That is why in those days there was a lot of emphasis on guru bhakti.


8) What is the meaning of akroshatah, khadgodyatakaran and balavatah upalabya tato nivartante and what does it indicate ? Akroshatah, khadgodyatakaran, balavatah are all adjectives to the cruel person. Upalabya means being confronted by. Tatah means from them. Learned people move away when confronted by people with cruel look, who are shouting abusivewords, who have their hands raised with a sword and who are strong . It indicates pratikule ca nivartante and anukule ca pravartante. They run away or go after knowledge which is unfavorable or favorabl respectively. 9) What is the pratikulatvam of knowledge ? Anistasadhana gocharatavam jnanasya pratikulatvam. When the object of knowledge is unfavorable to my well-being then that knowledge is said to be pratikula. This itself is giving the hint of adhyaasa. Object by itself is innocent but base on how it is interpreted it becomes pratikule nivartante. The same object may be anukulah. The favorableness or unfavorablesness of the object is always with reference to anatma. Eg: When someone gives me food, praises me, etc. The “me” referred to here is anatma only. 10) What does vipritan pravartante refer to ? The learned people go towards those which have the opposite qualities. 11) What does atah indicate ? Atah means therefore . It refers to anubhava balat. Based on the strength of experience we can say pramana –prameya vyavahara of purusha is similar to the vyavahara of animals. 12) What does samanah mean ? Samanah means adhyaasa purvakah. Just as vyavahara of animals is based on adhyaasa, the vyavahara of learned people is also based on adhyaasa. 13) What is the connection to the next sentence ? On what basis are you saying that the behaviour of animals is based on adhyaasa. 14) What is the meaning of the sentence --- pasvadinam ca prasidda aviveka purahsarah pratyakshadi vyavaharah ? It is well known that activities of perception , etc are presupposing adhyaasa. 15) What is the meaning of aviveka here ? Dehindriyadisu aham-mama buddhi iti ucchyate. Aviveka refers to confusion regarding atma-anatma. 16) Why do we say that animals must have adhyaasa ? Several reasons are there-

i) We see their responses of pravrtti and nivritti which is possible only because of adhyaasa. ii) Animals cannot be given upadesha for adhyaasa to be removed. iii) One more technical reason They have atma jnanam which is expressed in the form of “I am” . They have anatma jnanam because they have awareness of the body. But they do not have bheda jnanam. When two things are known and the the gap is not known then there is confusion. ie, A is known, B is known but gap between A & B is not known. Therefore there is confusion about A & B ie, it will be considered as a composite entity. That is why it is well know that animals have confusion or adhyaasa. 17) What do we mean by atma is self-evident? Atma does not need any pramanam to be evident. But for cognition to take place “ I am” vritti is required. Like for having vritti of the pen, eyes are required. For knowing there is fire on the mountain, anumana pramanam is required. But to know “I am” , no other pramanam is required. Moment the antahkarana is there, then “I” is already there. Antahkarana does not have to do any vyapara to have this vritti ”I am”. That particular status of atma where no vyapara is required is called self-evident. Animlas have the same antahkarana as human beings. But in the case of animals due to karma certain faculties are suppressed. Like the computer sometimes works on safe mode in which mode certain operations are not done. 18) What is the meaning of the next sentence - tat samanya darshanat vyutpattimatam api purushanam pratyakshadi vyavaharah tatkalahsamanah iti nischiyate ? Observing the similarity of the behavior of learned people and animals, it can be ascertained that activities of learned people are also similar to the activities of animals. In what terms are they similar? Adhyaasa karyatvena tulyah. They are similar in terms of being the product of adhyaasa. Activities of animals is seen to be based on raga dvesha and raga dveshas indicate adhyaasa. Activities of learned people also is based on raga dvesha which are showing adhyaasa. 19) In what way do learned people have rega dveshas? The raga dveshas are in the form of preferences. Depending on their background, they have some raga dvesha. A wise person has no more anything to do in the world. Due to previous samskaras some of them may keep chanting , some may just stay quiet in one place, some keep on moving about. So we have different types of wise people . But their raga dveshas are not binding. They are raga dveshas, the fulfillment of which does not cause any elation and non-fulfillment does not create any disturbance in them.


Talk 49 – Nov 2 –
A question was posed – How vidya vritti and adhyaasa can go together ? They seem to be of opposite nature and generally things of opposite nature should not co-exist. The periphereal answer is given by Siddanti first. In our experience we see that activity based on wrong conclusion continues. For eg : When we know power is gone, still when we need light we automatically on the switch. Though knowledge is there that power is not there, but activity is based on the opposite conclusion that power is there. For all practical purposes they are both coexisting together. So sometimes it happens that new understanding has come, but the old understanding has not completely left. Like when you are vacating a house but your things are still there, not completely moved. Then it is difficult to say whether you are still staying there or not really staying there. Avidya vritti is something similar . Vidya vritti has come but still adhyaasa continues. Many things in life we understand, but that understanding takes a lot of time before it becomes completely internalized in our life. Like eating takes little time , but before it becomes a part of the body it takes a lot of time. Similarly it is possible that vidya vritti has come and avidya vritti continues. To understand how this happens one has to understand the part about vritti . Our mind called antahkaranam is a very peculiar object. It is inert but shining object because it has the capacity to reflect atma. It is capable of revealing different things. It assumes the shape of the object and then reveals the object. i) When antahkarana takes the shape of the object, that particular state of the antahkaranam is called vritti. Only part of the antahkaranam which extends out takes the shape of the object like pot. Then it is called ghatakaravritti or extended vritti. ii) The remaining part of the anthakarana is also called vritti but it is in the background and remains in the body. This vritti is called mother vritti or primary or background vritti. Both are called vrittis. Like suppose this pen is broken into two. Each part of the pen is called a piece. Similarly the extended part of the antahkarana reveals the objects ghata,patta etc. But what is being revealed by the mother vritti in the antahkarana ? It is revealing atma-anatma identity. The content of this vritti is “I am jivah”. It is the background vritti because it always remains. To understand how this vritti reveals the identity between atmaa and anatma, we take the example of a mirror. Suppose in the mirror there is reflection of the sun and also of the body of the person. The body and the sun are very much apart , but both are reflected by the mirror. Even though they are apart, an appearance of proximity is created by the mirror. Similarly in this part of the antahkarana, atma is reflected and the body is also reflected. In the brain there is a map of the whole body. Therefore the brain is able to direct the rest of the body. So even though an arm is amputated, phantom pain remains. Similarly here, the body is reflected . Atma also is reflected. Both are distinct, but this antahkarana being like a mirror creates appearance of oneness between atma and the body.

Like a mirror creates appearance of proximity, similarly here the appearance of proximity between atma and body is shown by this part of the antahkarana.

There is one more dimension to understand. Not only the body and atma, but antahkarana is also there. Suppose there is a dot on this mirror. You may feel that the dot is there on the body. So mirror quality, body and sun are all three presented as proximity entities. Similarly here antahkaranam, body and atma all three are presented as one entity. So the content of this vritti is I am a jiva and I am conscious, I am fat and I know things. This is primary or mother vritti. This is always there. We can even call it adhyaasa vritti. It is really adhyaasa vritti, but it is not telling it is adhyaasa. It is showing the adhyaasa in the form of the confusion between atma and anatma. Another name for both these vrittis are aham vritti (in antahkarana) and idam vritti (extended vritti). Aham vritti is the primary adhyaasa. So behind all vyavharas, adhyaasa is there. Whatever good or bad you see or hear, you infer or presume -“I am jivah”- this basic confusion has been there and it reveals the confusion between atma and anatma.This is the constant vritti which is there all the time ,whereas ghatakara vritti comes and goes. What about susupti avastha ? In susupti ghatakara vritti is not there. Only the stationary mother vritti in the anathkarana is there. Therefore it looks like this vritti is dormant. In jagrat avastha, when ghatakara vritti takes place, one more peripheral conclusion comes that I have ghata jnana. So aham vritti claims this is my vritti - Aham ghata jnanavan, etc. In other words there is abhimana that this is my vritti. But behind that the mother vritti - I am jiva- continues in the background. So when ghata jnana vritti comes then – I, the jiva is having ghata jnanam.This is additional. The background vritti is not questioned by this ghata vritti. This is how vyavahara has been going on since time beginningless . That is why Bhashyakara said that every vyavhara is based on adhyaasa. Aham has to be there in every vyavahara.But what we are understandig as aham is confused “I”. So basic confusion is there all the time and then we have

further confusion. We say this person is confused means basic confusion plus extra confusion. But the Abhimana in the form of ghatajnatvam andpatajnatvam keeps changing. Now suppose vidya vritti comes born of Vedanta pramana.Vedanta pramana says atma is asanghah. So in the place of ghata, pata, etc another vritti is created. This vidya vritti shows that atma is asanghah and it questions the content of the background vritti. What you are saying that – I am an individual -is not correct. The vidya vritti is secondary vritti,but it questions the content of the primary vritti.This has never happened so far. This was going on unquestioned. Like some people claim the property and nobody questions. After so many years it was found that he was not the real owner. Similarly this background vritti was going on unquestioned so far .Then vidya vritti comes and negates the contents of the background vritti. The background vritti was saying atma-anatam are one composite entity.The content of this vritti was I am jivah. But vidya vritti questions this. But for vidya vritti to take place, mother vritt has to be there. Without the background mother vritti being there, vidya vritti cannot come. Therefore Bhashyakara had said - sastrani vidhi pratished mokshaparani.Even sastra which talks about moksha is based on adhyaasa. Thus we see how everything is adhyaasa poorvaka. So vidya vritti comes and questions the content of the mother vritti. But just because vidya vritti has just flashed it cannot immediately stop the mother vritti which has been there for time beginingless. This mother vritti which has the strength of generating activities based on certain samskaras formed by this vritti continues for a long time. This mother vritti not only has -I am jiva conclusion it also has got samskaras also of the secondary vrittis. Every secondary vritti when it is formed creates samskaras. And based on the primary vritti that I am jivah there may be secondary conclusions also - like I am sanghi, I am mortal. Those conclusion were there in some secondary vritti and they again form samskaras. Those samskaras will be creating vrittis which again creates samskaras. Now this vidya vritti has come not only to fight with the content of the mother vritti but it also has to put a check on these samskaras which creates these secondary vrittis and the subsequent activities. That is why this whole pursuit becomes longer because in course of time the mother vritti has developed so many vasanas and these vasanas are well-rooted . These vasanas will be creating secondary vritti which will in turn create activities. The job of a sadhaka is to bring this vidya vritti agan and again and question the content of mother vritti and also neutralize these patterns with the help of vidya vritti only. That takes a long time. That is why we wonder that we have understood in Tatva Bodha itself that - atma is Brahman - then why there is no change ? This is because the vasanas which are there have still not vacated and they have to be neutralized. Ofcourse these samskaras were formed when avidya vritti was in charge unchecked and because they have been there for a long time they have got a lot of power. They govern the secondary vritti and what type of thought I will have depends on vasanas the mother vritti has. Therefore the sadhana is to neutralize these patterns. How does one neutralize these patterns ? Three things are to be done -

i) One we do Nidhidhyasanam in a particular posture and ambience with the purpose of strengthening the vidya vritti. Just as other vrittis leave samskaras or impressins, these vidya vritti also leaves samskaras. I am asanghah,I am paripurna –these vidya samskaras are strenghtehned and they neutralize the avidya samskaras to some extent. ii) Another method is whenever the pattern is forming the secondary vritti, it should be neutralized consciously by bringing in vidya vritti. Like suppose somebody is frightened, then you ask yourself who is frightened. I am asanghah atma then how come you are frightened. You catch your mind having these secondary vrittis and neutralize them. Whenever there is a secondary vritti which is in concurrence with avidya vritti and which is in contradiction to vidya vritti, that is caught and neutralized. iii) Identifying the patterns one has , look at them and neutralize them. We have to understand how to do this .

Nov 9- Ques and Ans :
1) Why cannot vidya vritti and avidya vritti co-exist together ? Because vidya and avidya like light and darkness are opposite in nature. Opposite entities cannot co-exist together. So when vidya comes , avidya should not be there. 2) When vidya comes avidya should not be there in which form ? When vidya comes avidya should not be there in the form of adhyaasa. 3) What is the Siddanti’s answer in brief ? Even when vidya comes because of past impressions adhyaasa can continue because of nondigestion of knowledge. 4) Suppose digestion of knowledge is there, then will avidya still be there ? It will be there in the form of functional adhyaasa. 5) According to your concept of wise person, do you feel a wise person will have adhyaasa ? Functional adhyaasa has to be there even in a wise person. Even to wink you need adhyaasa. But this adhyaasa is not binding and it is negated by him. Note : In Vedanta everything is not made clear in the beginning itself. Initially we have ideas and then clarity comes gradually. As the mumukshu develops maturity things are told. Therefore Bhashyakara makes this statement now – pasvadibhischaviseshat - to show the pervasiveness of adhyaasa and to remove any erroneous conclusions about a learned person. Adhyaasa is not a bad thing to have. Even a good person has to have adhyaasa to be able to do good activities. But we can conceptualise the height to which adhyaasa can be negated.

6) What is a simple definition of the mind ? Mind is an inert but shining entity. It is capable of reflecting atma . It is also capable of taking the shape of the object. This is the definition of the mind as an entity. In terms of the process of the mind, it is defined as that which is subject to thought modifications. 7) What is a vritti ? Modified state of the antahkarana which is taking the shape of the object is called vritti ie, thought modification.. Vritti is a state. It is from ‘vrit’ dhatu which means to remain. When mind is remaining in the form of something, that state of the mind is called vritti. Like ghata vritti, pata vritti. 8) One part of the antahkarana takes the shape of the object. What about the remaining antahkarana? The remaining antahkarana remains in the body. It is in the form of aham vritti and can be called the basic mother vritti. Other names for this basic vritti is background vritti, adhyaasa vritti, primary vritti. All these names give an idea about the mother vritti. 9) What is the content of the mother vritti ? Atma-anatma confusion is revealed by the mother vritti. What is the example given in this context ? A mirror which reflects the sun and the body. Both entities appear in close proximity in the mirror though they are really far apart. Similarly the mother vritti shows oneness of atma and body though they are really distinct from each other. 10) What is one more dimension added to it and what is the example for it ? Antahkarana is the third dimension added. I am an individual that abhimana also is there. So mother vritti reveals the oneness of atma, body and antahkarana. Just like a dot or distortion in the mirror reveals the sun, body and the dot as being in close proximity. 11) What happens in mother vritti when ghata vritti comes ? There is abhimana that I am ghata jnanavan. But I am jiva remains and over and above this abhimana also comes. 12) When is this abhimana absent ? In susupti avastha, abhimana that I am ghatajnanavan, etc is not there. Because abhimana is not there, mother vritti looks dormant though I am jiva continues.

13) What is the type of particular vritti formed, when you listen to Vedanta pramana that atma is asanghah ? A secondary vritti called Vidya vritti is formed by listening to Vedanta pramanam. It is a foreground vritti. 14) What does this secondary vidya vritti do to mother vritti ? It questions the content of the mother vritti which is atma-anatma aviveka in the form of the conclusion I am jiva. 15) Why does ghatadi vritti not question mother vritti ? Ghatadi vritti does not talk about atma, so there is no contradiction with it. 16) What else is there in the mother vritti besides, I am jiva and ghatadi vritti ? Besides these two vrittis, samskaras or impressions are also there. 17) How are samskaras formed ? Samskaras are patterns left in the mother vritti. Samskaras are created in 2 ways – the secondary vrittis creates samskaras and abhimana also creates its own samskaras. Sometimes if the abhimana is strong then there can be specific vritti that I am rich or fat person which will become a secondary vritti and leave samskaras. Also vrittis based on I am jiva like I am mortal, I am insecure, I am fat will also leave samskaras. Every thought leaves impressions and impressions are not only of atma-anatma but also of objects. The various patterns formed in mother vritti are – i) Basic pattern of mother vritti that I am jiva based on atma- anatma confusion. ii) Patterns formed by the vrittis based on I am jiva like I am fat, rich, etc. iii) Patterns formed by secondary vrittis like ghatakara vritti and even vidya vritti. iv) Patterns formed by abhimana like I am ghatajnanavan, etc. v) Specific vritti formed if abhimana is strong. Note : The impressions left by mother vritti is anaadikala. But the secondary vrittis impressions keep coming whenever there is contact with object. Secondary vritti can be created by outside pramanas like anumana, etc or by inside samskaras. Like remembrance of something is secondary vritti created by samskaras. Thus samskaras itself create secondary vrittis which leave impressions. There is a chain of patterns formed. Even vidya vritti can happen by either a Swami giving upadesha directly or by remembering in nidhidhyasana created by the samskaras set in mother vritti by listening to Vedanta sastra. Nidhidhyasana becomes a secondary vritti. The rule is repetition strenghtens the vidya samskara. Then the possibility of vidya samskara projecting more and more vrittis is better.

18) How can we neutralize these samskaras ? There are 3 ways to neutralize these samskaras – i) By constant Nidhidhyasana which will strengthen the vidya vritti. ii) By catching the patterns while they are creating the secondary vrittis. iii) By identifying the patterns and neutralizing them. Question by student – Is vasanas and samskaras the same ? They are the same. But generally we use the term vasanas for samskaras which create activity or reaction in us. Samskaras which create reactions which is contradictory to vedantic teaching is called vasanas. Samskara is used in a more wider sense and includes impressions which do not create activites or reactions in us. Like I have ghata samskara or 2 + 2= 4. It creates impressions but it does not create any activity. So all vasanas are samskaras, but all samskaras need not be termed as vasanas. Vasana is thus a particular type of samskara giving rise to different reactions. Note: Definition of Vasana –

Purva para paramarshamvina sahasa utpadyamanasya krodhadi vritti vishesasya hetu chittagatahsamskarah.
A particular samskara obtaining in the mind which is responsible for reactions like anger, etc is called vasana. Sahasa further defines vasanas. It is not deliberate but happens all of a sudden without deliberation on the consequences of it. This reaction is born suddenly because of samskaras. Eg: If he sees a snake even a wise person reacts immediately born of samskara.

Nov 16-Ques and Ans :
One has to completely introspect on what has been said , then only all conflicts will be resolved. We were discussing how vidya vritti and avidya vritti co-exist. But we have heard that vidya and avidya cannot go together. How to reconcile that ? For that we have to see little more. This mother vritti that I am jivah shows that I am a composite entity, a concious entity having some faculty and some limitations. Mother vritti itself does not say that what I am revealing is right. But whatever it is revealing is unquestioned therefore it is taken as real. This is how the process of knowledge works . Until something is proved wrong, it is correct. So I am jivah is unquestioned and therefore it is taken for granted to be real. It is real that type of secondary vritti is also possible. Suppose vidya vritti comes and says what is revealed by the mother vritti is unreal. There can be a specific secondary vritti which says that the conclusion of mother vritti is real. That is secondary avidya vritti which says I am jiva is real. The secondary avidya vritti and secondary vidya vritti cannot go together. Similarly some other secondary conclusions based on past samskaras that I am mortal and vidya vritti which says I am immortal cannot exist together. So that is what is meant when we say vidya and avidya cannot go together. So what is to be done ? Whenever the secondary avidya vritti comes, then the vidya vritti comes and neutralises it. Like secondary infection is dealt with first . Only dealing with primary infection

will not remove the secondary infection. Suppose someone has sugar problem. It remains for 10-15 years and because of that kidney and eyes are effected. Because of some ayurvedic medicine the sugar problem is gone now. But just because sugar problem is gone does not mean the other two are also gone. Though they have come due to the sugar problem, the kidney and eye problem has to be treated separately . Only thing it will not get further aggravated. In the drstanta the 2 problems are totally seperate. But in the case of darstanta, the secondary vritti has come from mother vritti and leaves impressions in mother vritti. But it has to be specifically dealt with by bringing in vidya vritti again and again. Not only the secondary vritti is neutralized, there is a dent in the mother vritti also. Samskara is the strength of mother vritti. As we are neutralizing samskaras, the mother vritti is getting weakend . This is what is meant by weakening avidya vritti. As as long as prarabdha is there., tadatmya of anatahkarna and atma is there and they will be appearing to be one . As long as antahkarana is there, atma will be reflected in the anthkarana, but the reality of that conclusion will be dismissed. The strength of the mother vritti is getting neutralized, but the appearance of proximity continues , but the reality of the proximity is dismissed. All my actions are not because of appearance of oneness of atma and anatma .What is creating the problem is not the appearance but the reality I have given to the appearance. The continuance of appearance is called functional adhyaasa therefore minimum activities continue. Reaction was because of appearance plus reality given to appearance and that creates samskaras. These samskaras are neutralized, so now it cannot create reactions. For that Nidhidhyasanam was suggested. In Nidhidhyasanam, vidya vritti is repeated again and again. We are strengthening the vidya vritti and dismissing the samskaras. Sitting in a particular posture and taking up some part of the teaching given by sastra, we repeat it in the mind and we strengthen vidya vritti or in other words we weaken avidya vritti . Secondly whenever we slip in vyavahara ie, when we have a reaction. Suppose I feel insecure that my investment has sunk. That insecurity thought is secondary vritti, then I have to see what will be insecure. This body is insecure and that is the nature of the body. Worst comes to worst the body has to starve and it will die. But I the self is not effected. Or jealousy comes because someone is getting more attention. Who is getting attention? It is the jiva who is getting attention. Then I tell myself I am trying to get rid of jivatvam so why should I have attention which inflates jivatvam. It is not the atma which is getting attention. So I am happy this BMC is not getting attention which is good for me We just catch the slip which is in the form of secondary vritti.. Whenever there is a vritti contrary to vidya vritti we catch it and neutralize it. Thirdly we do specifically some exercise to identify the patterns and neutralize them. All these three put together can be called Nidhidhyasanam. This is not extra over and above nidhidhyasanam. This is an aspect of nidhidhyasanam only. What is nidhidhyasanam ? Vijatiya pratyaya anantarita sajatiya atma vishayaka vritti pravah. Whatever is required to remove vijatiya pratyaya is nidhidhyasana. Removing vijatiya and putting sajatiya vritti are both 2 aspects of Nidhidyasanam. But generally we think nidhidhyasanam is sitting in one place and saying asanghoham….. So considering the general understanding, the 2nd and 3rd is said to be different.

What do we mean by patterns ? We have several patterns. One pattern is of feeling insecure. For eg: bank interest rate is coming down or your near and dear one falls sick or suppose this body is diagonised to have some major problem, this will makes us feel insecure. Another pattern we have is the pattern of feeling inferior. We feel very conscious especially in the presence of big people. This happens because we have a fear of judgement that we are not okay. We also want to create a good impression with them. Suppose a Swami comes to your house you tell all the family members to behave properly in front of swamiji. But they will still say something and you feel shrunk as to what Swamiji will think. You think people do judge so that’s why you have fear of judgement. But really it is our own complex which makes you think that they are judging you. So one should have respect for a person, but not have fear of judgement. So all these complexes – insecurity, inferiority complex, financial insecurity, social insecurity, even greed are all patterns which create samskaras. Pattern word indicates little more than samskara . It is repeated samskara in a particular order, but we equate it to samskara. How do we neutralize these patterns ? Firstly we have to do introspection. Observing our inter-actions thro’out the day. Try to see the thought behind the activity. Why did I do or why did I avoid certain things. When you see the thought behind the activity you see the pattern. For eg: when I was talking to that person I was loud and to someone else I was soft. What was the thought behind the loud talk. There was a fear that I will not be allowed to complete or some other fear that if I talk softly they may take me for granted. So you will see that there is some order in the thoughts behind the activities. So you identify the patterns. From the activity you go to the thought and from the thought you go to the patterns. Next stage is pick up one vasana or samskara and see this fact that this pattern was formed when the mother vritti was in charge and when the secondary avidya vritti was governing the activity. But really this is based on false conclusion since the content of mother vritti is false. Since I considered the conclusion given by mother vritti to be real this pattern was formed. So I trace my pattern to the false conclusion and I see that the basis of my pattern is false. For eg: the insecurity pattern is based on the conclusion that I am this body. But I know that I am not this body. So I neutralize the thought behind this pattern. The pattern becomes weaker and weaker because the very basis of the pattern is weakend. The very basis of the pattern is attacked by seeing that it is a wrong conclusion and the right understanding is this. Then slowly it will loose its strength and it will not control your activities. That is how the pattern is dropped. This is how we work on the patterns. One more question to be answered is – It is said that the moment you get sravanam , you get jnanam and then moksha. But now the process seems like a long exercise. Like in the advertisement for college admission, they say this much is the syllabus. But when you enter into college you find it is so much more. Every activity will have a thought behind and every thought will have the pattern. The patterns which are bothering you should be introspected on and dealt with. It is a journey. It looks like we have extended the syllabus. But suppose someone has done sravanam and gets jnanam will he not be muktah? Does he still have to deal with these patterns? Then we say that suppose before

coming to sravanam he has taken care of most of the patterns by karma yoga and upaasna itself and if the patterns which are there are not contradictory to this vedantic understanding, then he does not have to work on those patterns. Infact vidya vritti will be naturally there. It will create samskaras which will again create vidya vritti. So whatever remaining samskaras are there will get naturally neutralized. He does not have to do anything consciously. When a person gets jnanam , afterwards jnanam will continue. Jnanam will create samskara, samskara will create vritti and vritti will again create samskara. It will be snowballing. Therefore he does not have to specifically work on patterns because the most of them have been already neutralized by karma yoga and upaasana and the rest will be neutralized by natural and repeated occurrence of vidya vritti. But most of us are back door entry. Before neutralizing patterns fully we have come to sravanam. Therefore we have to do the job of neutralizing the remaining patterns. Like if we clear all the subjects in the first year then we don’t have to do supplementary next year. What is said in sastra that sravanam alone gives moksha is not contradicted. Sravanam alone gives jnanam and jnanam alone gives moksha. On that there is no compromise. To neutrlaise patterns we are using vidya vritti only. So if one does not have patterns contradicting to vidya vritti then nothing has to be done. Shudh antahkarna is like an automatic watch. Once the process is set in motion it will work. But normally it is not happening like that. We can conceptulise one case where he does not have to specifically do the job of resolving the patterns. Fear of insecurity, jealousy has been resolved not by vedantic understanding, but by Isvara shradda. He has already seen Bhagvan in everything and whatever insecurities are remaining due to samskara will be neutralised by vidya vritti which is very natural for him. We are talking about the ideal case and if we are that ideal case we don’t need vasana kshaya. Most of the teachers talk about the ideal case. Therefore they don’t talk about vasana kshaya.

Nov 51 –Ques & Ans :
Some clarificaions to last class – What does the mirror in the example stand for ? Mirror in the example stands for whole antahkarana. The dot on the mirror resembles dualities in antahakarana to show how mix up takes place with body and atma.

The mother vritti need not be in a specific vivid form of I am jiva. Really it is showing the reflection of atma and body and thereby identity and I am jiva is a conclusion based on that confusion. The terms mother vritti, basic or background vritti are not used in sastra. They are coined by teachers to convey some idea to show that just as the mother is there first, then child comes. Really there are not 2 totally separate vrittis – idam vritti and aham vritti. Like if you have a long balloon and you press it in between, it looks like there are 2 balloons. Similarly antakarana is one only. Just for our understanding we are making this division idam vritti and aham vritti. One part of antahkarana is assuming the shape of the object and the other part remains without taking the shape of the object . It is the same antahkarana to which two different names are given. The words are used to convey some idea. Once the idea is conveyed then we should stick to the words and argue based on the example. The idea is without mother being there child cannot be there. Similarly without mother vritti, idam vishayakara vritti cannot come . So we should keep the purpose of the example in our mind. Otherwise we will gain clarity in one area and get confused in some other area. So the student of Vedanta has to be very eager to know and also really wants to learn how teacher is right and is not looking to find fault and always try to catch the teacher . Then only learning can take place. Otherwise you make the teachers job unnecessarily difficult. The student’s job is to see exactly what the teacher shows. If you intefere the whole process is disturbed. So first understand and then you are free to question. There shoud be no contradction in the mind. Infact we are elaborating on it. Like suppose someone may say that if you take this particular tonic it will help you. But the same tonic will be explained to a medical student in detail to show how it works. Similarly it was said earlier that sravanam, mananam and nidhidhyasanam are required for atma jnana nishta. Why it is required, how it works we are understanding now. The process is the same. You take the medicine and it works. But in explaining you say how it goes to the stomach, then mixes with enzyme and then it goes to intestine… . That does not mean there is a lot of things to be done. This will happen. Or sometimes one has a tumor then surgery is recommended so that the tumor is removed. Then it is explained in detail what all is required to be done pre-surgery,during-surgery, post-surgery. Basic thing is the same that the tumor is to be removed. The rest is details. Similarly here we are seeing how it happens and what happens .

2) What are samskaras or vasanas ? Samskaras are impressions left by thoughts in the mind and they create problems. Vasanas are specific type of samskaras. They create problems by creating unhealthy pain, sorrow, misery generating reactions. Even the happy reactions are momentary and binding and the elation is a step to depression. Something is a problem only if it gives you suffering. Finally this bandhanam is shown in terms of dukha because every jiva wants to get rid of dukha. If the connection with

dukha is not seen then you don’t see the problem. Moksha is always presented as dukhasya athyantika nivritti and sukhasya praptih. Note : The word pattern is used in the sense of vasanas. Samskaras is more than vasanas. Only samskaras which give rise to any reactions are vasanas. That is why it is said that all vasanas are samskaras, but all samskaras are not vasanas. Even elation is because of vasana and it is temporary. Vedanta is for those who have outgrown these momentry thrills. Moksha is continous, composed ananda. It is like Dakshinamurthy smilemandasmita. There can be no elation or depression. 3) Where are the samskara or vasanas stored ? Samskaras are stored in the mother vritti. 4) What is the first step to neutralise the patterns ? First step is introspection. One has to identify the patterns . For that one has to observe the activity. Then see the thought behind the activity. Then you see the pattern behind the thought. Suppose I have anger. It is a reaction. I see why anger comes. It may be because I feel people are not listening to me, people are not understanding me or people are taking me for granted. So every time anger comes, you see why it happened. In one situation I feel I am not in charge of the situation and you react with anger. Every reaction has a basis. This time one particular situation triggered anger . Another time some other situation triggered anger. But behind all the situations there is an order or similarity. So you see the pattern that this thing triggers me off. Then you work with it. Similarly you may have a great value for punctuality. So when others are not punctual you react. It is a need for control that everybody should follow your value. If everybody followed the basic rules of being responsible to everybody else then it would be so nice. I am honest and I want everybody else to be honest, so I can be relaxed. So I want to control so I can be relaxed. That is how we identify the patterns – by introspection on the activity , the thought behind the activity and then finally the samskara behind the thought. 5) What is the next step after identifying the patterns ? The next step is tracing the samskara to the mother vritti. This samskara was formed based on false mother vritti conclusion that I am this body-mind complex.

6) What is the next step after tracing the samskaras ? The next step is to bring in vidya vritti to see that really I am asanghah, paripurnah. I ,the self is never affected by any activity. So why the anxiety to be in charge? This way the samksara is neutralized. But once neutralized it does not go away. This samskara grows in the darkness of avidya, so again and again we throw the light of vidya. But every time it is driven away its strength is reduced and slowly it goes away completely. Some of the patterns are very, very strong

so you have to really work on it. Reducing one pattern a month is good speed. This is one aspect of Nidhidhyasanam –viparyaya nivritti upaya nidhidhyasana- Means for removal of wrong conclusion or habitual errors. This is how samskaras are removed. 7) What is the definition of Nidhidhyasana ? Vijatiya pratyaya anantarita atma visayaka sajatiya pratyaya pravah. Entertaining thoughts centered on atma without distraction of anatma visaya. Here we are doing that. Anatma visayaka pratyayas are coming and we are trying to neutralize them. Note : To get the benefit we do not have to wait for the whole process to be over. Even as you neutralize one pattern, relief comes. The thought should be that there is really nothing else better for one to do. You are entertaining vidya vritti more and more. Infact you should love to do it. If you are doing it well, the question of how long will not come. You will enjoy it as you do it and get the benefit also. If you feel a pressure to do something else means still you have not got into the groove of the process. 8) There are so many vasanas. How many vasanas should one neutralise ? As many vasanas that come in the way to appreciate I am satchidananada Brahma. 9) Is it possible that somebody may not have to do this process of nidhidhyasana? Yes, it is possible if a person has done karma yoga and upaasna well, sufficiently . Well means he has done it with dedication and in all his activities without complaining. Whole day the spirit of isvararpana and prasada buddhi should be there. Then he will have neutralized most of the disturbing vasanas. Then he does not have to do any special effort, though the process will be on to neutralize any remaining samskaras. Like someone cooks and someone else serves and is complemented for the cooking. Then the person who cooks may have an attitude of karma yoga towards not being complemented for his cooking. But somebody else being complemented for his cooking is too much to accept and causes reaction means that karma yoga has not reched its height. So we have to reach the height of karma yoga in every activity. Similarly upaasna done well means my thought remains in the Lord. Bhagavat visaya akara vritti keeps coming throughout the day. Most of the time is spent in that. If upaasana is done well then person gets sakshatkara of the Lord meditated on. Such a person is called krtopasti. For such a person by listening to Vedanta for a few days, atmakara vritti keeps on happening. The process is automatic. Moment samskara gives rise to thought, vidya vritti is ready waiting to neutralise it. He does not have to conciously bring vidya vritti. So there is no struggle and even if something remains, it is taken care of automatically. Question by Student – Secondary avidya vritti and secondary vidya vritti cannot co-exist. But the secondary vrittis are also in the mother vritti. When these two vrittis(secondary vidya and avidya vritti) cannot coexist then how can the corresp. samskaras co-exist ?

At a time only one of the vrittis which is more powerful can be prevailing. Both the vrittis cannot prevail at the same time. Samskaras of both vrittis will be there. But as vidya vritti samskaras get stronger and stronger, avidya vritti’s occurrence and samskaras will be reduced. Can I have the vritti I ama sanghah can I have avida vritti also ? At the time I am asanghah vritti is there , secondary avidya vritti also cannot be there at the same time. Menas antahkarana tadakarata will not happen. Samskaras of both will be there, but only one vritti can prevail at a time. Avidya vritti is adhyaasa only. Here Bhasyakara is talking about adhyaasa only. He is not talking about moolavidya which is the cause of ahyaasa. It is the avarna shakthi. Moolavidya is the mother of the mother vritti.

Talk 51 - Nov16 :
We are seeing how in the case of a wise person, vidya vritti and avidya vritti in the form of mother vritti can co-exist. The samskara of avidya vritti continues even when vidya vritti has come. When we say vidya vritti has come it does not mean that it has come 100 % strengthwise . It grows slowly. Like a mist is slowly removed and you can see the picture clearly . Similarly clarity grows. The strength of vidya vritti grows. We can see it in our life with reference to some understanding. One understanding which is very important for all especially for sanyasin is – “Prarabdha takes care”. We have heard this so many times. But it did not create any dent initially. It was just a piece of information and we did not think of even the implication. This is the firt stage. Then repeatedly we hear. We get so many explanations and examples about it. Then we get clarity about it. We begin to see how all worries are unfounded. So cognitive clarity comes and implications are becoming clearer. So the same vidya vritti grows. Earlier we had conceptual clarity but we did not integrate it into our life. Like sometimes weapons are given to the army but not all of them are used. Integration is making it a part of ur system. Now I start seeing it in my life. So if prarabdha really takes care then why should I do adharma? This understanding has given me some strength to resist the temptation of doing adharma. Otherwise I heard it , I understood the implication but I still continue to adharma. So now I stop doing adharma. But still accumulation will continue. So vidya vritti has grown up a little bit. Afterwards I wonder why should I keep FD’s , etc. So accumulation also stops and he keeps only basics which is needed. So not only adharma but accumulation also stops. So understanding has grown some more. Further he wonders why should I keep even that. Then he lives each day with what comes. So when prarabhdha takes care understanding keeps growing. Afterwards he does not even keep the vessel, karatala bhiksha-uses his hands as vessel. This is how understanding grows that Isvara takes care. This is mainly for a sanyasi. A grahastha may not be able to do so much. But atleast he can stop worrying . He worries - what will happen after 65 yrs when I stop earning? If prarabdha takes care is well assimilated then you stop worrying and do whatver planning needs to be done, but not worry after that.

If you want to worry you will always will have reasons to worry. There are some people who are worry-prone. Means they always find some reason toworry. So in the example we see “prarabdha takes care” and understanding grows. Similarly this vidya vritti -atma is sanghah, paripurnah – first you just hear it. No effect a all. You don’t even care to think of the implications. Second step is you think of the implications. Atma is asanghah means atma has nopunya or papa. It does not have kartrtvam or kartavya. It does not have bhoktratvam. Means nothing is required for atma to be free. You just begin to see the implicatins. Further he understands this atma means me. I atma am asanghah. If this so then why am I worried about anything or anyone? Why do I get so anxious about things? So he is internalising this understanding. Still if he is asked who are you and what are you he will give his name along with big degrees also. Afterwards he catches himself when name is asked then I should give just name. Slowly awareness grows and remains every moment. More and more he remains in this understanding and all other activities are dropped. Infact in this process when vidya vritti has come but not 100 % and avidya vritti is being neutralized but not fully 100 % , it is only in that stage lokasangrah happens. Means he has not reached the top but he is ascending to the top. Vidya vritti has come otherwise he cannot teach, but he has not matured fully. At that time also he will not justify his activity. He will say that my activities are because of adhyaasa . The ompassion samskara comes and therefore I am teaching. After that even that will stop. Only bhojana and snanadi pravrtti. Afterwards that also will stop. It is not necessary that everybody has to reach this stage to get videha mukti. If you have vidya vritti strong enough to start the process of rewinding that is enough to gain mukti. But the fact that somebody can reach that height of understanding that vidya vritti has become 100% and avidya vritti has become zero is a possibility. The process is as vidya vritti and vidya vritti samskaras grow, avidya vritti and avidya vritti samskaras come down . We can see that in the form of a graphic chart.
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Vidya Vritti The idea is as vidya vritti’s strength increases, avidya vritti’s strength decreases. Vidya and avidya vritti are inversely proportional.

One more thing is that I am jiva in the mother vritti need not be in the form of a vivid vritti. It can remain in the form of a samskara also and still it will be controlling the activities. Really the content of the mother vritti is just to show the oneness of all this. Whether the conclusion is right or wrong is not the job of the mother vritti. That conclusion comes as a secondary vritti. Since it has not been questioned so far , therefore it has been taken as right. Since it was unquestioned there was no need for another vritti to come and say anything else. But suppose vidya vritti comes and say this is wrong , then another secondary avidya vritti may come and say this is right. Similarly these samskaras in the mother vritti may get the form of the secondary vritti and sometimes without being transformed into secondary vritti they can control the act. The samskara I am inferior can direct my thought without a secondary vritti coming. Some situation outside can activate the samskara. So I am jiva, I am inferior can remain in the subtle form of samskara in the sub conscious mind and control and sometimes they may come in the conscious mind in the form of secondary vritti also and control. No difference either way. Someone was saying that she hates going for big programs or on camps where there is a crowd because she feels lost and also she compares herself to others and she feels small. But with all her family and relatives she is okay. I am inferior thought was there earlier but now it comes to the surface. The samskara coming to the surface is called secondary vritti. But these subconscious samskaras can control my ctivities without coming to the surface as secondary vritti. How do these samskaras control the activities ? The samskara controls the generation of the secondary vritti itsef. I am inferior will give rise to some thoughts. I should please this person or this person is unhappy when I do this. These are secondary thoughts generated by the I am inferior samskara. This is how samskaras work. The samskaras give rise to secondary vritti. The content of secondary vritti (I have to please this person) is different from the content of samskara (I am inferior). The secondary vritti will gve rise to activities. So chain is Samskaras - secondary vrittis and then activities. We are catching at activity level. From activity we see secondary vritti and from secondary vritti we see samskaras and samskaras also have their basis in moola adhyaasa -I am jiva- in the mother vritti. This is what Samsara or bondage is. We are tackling it at 3 levels. We cannot directly attack mother vritti . This may not be possible if samskaras and activities are very hostile. If too many activities are there based on patterns, then you will not have the time and mind to see the patterns. So we have to bring a correction at the level of activities in 2 ways. i) Avoiding unnecessary activities. ii) Making the activities dharmic. Then correction at samskaras level also. We make the samskaras weak and cooperative. So even though I have this samskara of feeling inferior and talking to people too much. Then to feel superior I go to that atmosphere which is relatively cooperative for reducing samskara. Like instead of going to a club, I go to satsang. By directing my activities, I make the samskaras

expression cooperative and slowly reduce the intensity of samskaras. When the samskaras are relatively weakened then only the neutralisation of avidya vritti is possible. Then you attack avidya vritti. Once avidya vritti is attacked, then all others will be changing because avidya vritti is the basis. But to reach there you have to cover all these stages. Like to reach Delhi you have to pass thro’ other places. So basic steps are (TINK)Trace (T) the patterns thro’ Introspection (I) and Neutralize (N) them by Knowledge (K). Some thoughts on how to do this practically Everyday spend sometime on introspection. Everyday there will be some activity which is governed by some pattern. Everyday we have slips. So catch those slips and see the pattern behind. These pattens are the stuff of avidya vritti and it won’t let go easily. So intially there will be resistance. Also we don’t see the result immediately. But if we sincerely work on it, then you wll definitely see it . Afterwards this will become a habit and you will catch yourself immediately, everytime you slip and you will enjoy it everytime you trace a pattern. But to do this we must have less activity and a leisurely mind. So at activity level also there has to be correction. We have to avoid the avoidable and drop the droppable, then only you have time to follow TINK.

Nov 23 – Ques & Ans :
1) How do you trace the patterns ? First one has to introspect on one’s Activities, then trace the activities to the thoughts (ie, secondary vritti) and from thoughts you trace it to the patterns. Afterwards we trace the patterns to the false conclusions in the mother vritti. 2)” I am jiva” conclusion is it a secondary vritti or mother vritti conclusion? It is generally in the form of a samskara in the mother vritti. But sometimes if it is opposed, then it can also come in the form of a secondary vritti. This conclusion in the mother vritti controls my actions. 3) How does the conclusion “I am jiva” control my actions ? The I am jiva conclusion will give rise to secondary vrittis (like I am mortal, I am small, I am inferior). Based on that there can be further secondary vrittis (I have to please this person, I have to have this) which cause action. The order is - Mother vritti --- then secondary vritti ------then activities . Thus I am jiva conclusion in mother vritti gives rise to activities by creating secondary vrittis based on that conclusion. 4) What are the three levels at which we need to have corrections ? The 3 levels at which correction has to be made is – Activity level, samskara level and avidya level.


5) What is the correction at activity level ? Avoid unnecessary activities. Do minimum activites and whatever we do should be dharmic activities which we are supposed to do and which will give us punyam. Infact we bring refinement to our activities . Note : Dharmic activities by itself is not a guarantee for moksha or for even changing the patterns. But it can prepare the ground for neutralizing the patterns. It creates dharmic samskaras. On the other hand if we did adharmic activities, then we are creating strong negative patterns like greed, aversion, etc. But we should beware not to get caught in dharmic activities only, but use the punya to neutralise all patterns. By doing dharmic activities we are infact indirectly reducing the intensity of expression of patterns at physical level and make the patterns less hostile . 6) What is the correction at samskara level ? We weaken the samskara and make it cooperative. 7) What is the correction at avidya level ? We bring in vidya vritti and question the content of mother vritti. 8) What is the solution for weakening the patterns ? Trace the patterns by Introspection (antarnirikshana) and Neutralize them thro’ Knowledge (by vidya vritti). TINK. Note : It is not necessary that every time we have to bring the highest asanghah atma jnanam that , I am sachidananda atma to neutralize every pattern. Suppose I have got greed pattern than I don’t have to bring in satchidananda atma for that. By seeing the impermanency of wealth itself, I can neutralize this samskara. For everything Brahmastra need not be used. By pratipaksha bhavana ie, opposite thought we neutralize the patterns and if required by vidya vritti. Vidya vritti is powerful to handle these small patterns too. But it is not required. Also vidya vritti will have desired effect only if mind is prepared to have the effect. Like Brahmastra can be used to destroy anybody. But Brahmastra is not required always and moreover one should know how to use it. Similalry for vidya vritti to do the job, your mind should reach there then only it will have some impact. To any ordinary person walking on the road if you say why are you getting angry - atma is satchidananda, there will not be any impact. So to have the effect of vidya vritti also we have to reach certain level. Certain things have affect only if there is sensitivity. Like if you say , “don’t harm the environment”. This will have an affect only if there is a sensitivity to environmental issues. For an ordinary laborer environment is not an issue. It is something which is cheap and that is what matters to him. Similarly to use vidya vritti you have to reach a certain level where asanghah atma jnanam has already started working on you and at that level anything can be addressed by vidya vritti.

9) What is the mathematical relationship between vidya and avidya vritti ? They are inversely proportional. As vidya vritti increases, avidya vritti reduces and samskara gets reduced. 10) What do we mean by vidya vritti increases ? The strength of vidya vritti is judged by its ability to generate secondary vidya vrittis. Vidya vritti is strong means that it is strong enough to generate samskaras which are strong enough to generate secondary vidya vrittis immediately and as frequently as required. 11) What do we mean by weakening avidya vritti ? Weakening avidya vritti means weakening the samskaras in the mother vritti which gives rise to secondary vritti. 12) What is the basis to know that the samskaras in the mother vritti are weakened ? When the frequency of reactions become less. FIR- Frequency of reactions, Intensity of reactions and Recovery time to come back to normal all these three indicate to what extent the samskaras in mother vritti are weakened. Even when similar situations arise, mind will not react. That means the samskaras are no longer guiding us. Suppose in some area terrorists are there, then even if a small function is held there will be some bomb, firing. But now even though functions are there, that sort of thing is not happening. It means terrorist are becoming weaker there. Similarly our response in similar provoking situation is not there, then we know samskaras are reduced. Means avidya vritti is reduced. 13) After listening to this discussions on samskaras, what is the change in your understanding ? Answers given by various students – 1) We know the process better and we can work on it better. 2) If I don’t like something in somebody I know it is the pattern working. You begin to see the person behind the pattern. Earlier we were not distinguishing between the person and the pattern. 3) You have more control over the mind and your reactions are more controlled. 4) You become more objective and you see the mind behind the activity . 5) Mind is the cause for all reactions. I don’t blame others and work with myself to change my patterns. 6) I accept things more and see the core of a person. 7) I confront any situation objectively. I don’t react. My actions are not impulsive anymore. 8) Moment a thought comes I begin to discern whether it is avidya or vidya vritti . Also I am able to accept prarabdha better. 9) After this indepth analysis , it has given me a new dimension as to what a sadhaka really has to do for moksha. The process of sravanam, mananam and nidhidhyasanam is more clear now. Question by student – 1) What is the difference between what is popularly known as nidhidhyasanam and this process of catching and tracing the patterns. Is there any greater advantage in doing the former ?

In Nidhidhyasanam you are just concentrating on bringing vidya vritti and therefore you are more sure of what you do. But in the other two types, you are doing activity also and you may miss it. Like it is better and easier to do japa at a specific time than doing it any time you feel like it. Nidhidhyasanam is not to be done neglecting these two. One does not replace the other. All three ie, regular contemplation, catching the slips and tracing the patterns have to be done during the same period. Infact all three are complementary to each other and they are different aspects of Nidhidhyasanam. If you do contemplation in the morning, then you can catch your patterns more all day and if you catch your patterns more, then sitting in contemplation becomes easier. 2) When we bring in vidya vritti , it seems like old samskaras go into hiding. It creates a comfortable atmosphere and you feel you have worked on the samskaras.But suddenly some situation provokes it and the whole thing tumbles down and then you see the old samskaras are still there. All that you thought you have worked on is damaged. What is to be done ? That is why it is said sahasa utpadyamanasya. It comes suddenly. That is the nature of samskara. and that is why we do repeated analysis. You see why the strong reaction came again and that it must have some pattern behind it. If you see it this time and then next time it will not come with the same force. So when we analyse and see that and work on it , then next time it is better. Also you should feel that it is workable. If you keep insisting that this samskara is very strong then that thought itself becomes a samskara which supports the original samskara. So we must feel that we can work on it. Like Lakshmana tells Sugriva – If you don’t have hope of victory then how can you prepare for the war ? Similarly we should say to ourself – “So far the samskara was strong because I did not work on it sufficiently. Now I have sufficient light of knowledge and I will work on it more and it will become weaker”. Certain samskaras are strong and they need more work to neutralize. Like fear of death, attraction to opposite gender, extra value for money, value for relationship, seeing security in relationship, feeling of abandonment. These have to be worked on more. Like a tea stain which has been there for so many days, then you have to do more work to remove it. So whenever you work on anything you always start with the hope that you can work on it. If you feel it is too strong to wok on then you have already lost the battle before you start. If you have decided not to change, nobody can change you. That is why you need a guru to tell you. The guru tells you that you can work beyond your perceived limit. 3) The 3 I’s to reduce amskaras - Introspect, see the Implication and Integrate.

Talk 51 - Nov 23 :
The whole discussion started with the question whether vidya and avidya can coexsist. The answer was Yes they can co-exist . There avidya which is coexisting with vidya is in the form of mother vritti. This mother vritti has 2 constituents – one is confusion of atma and anatma and the other is samskara. Samskara governs our secondary vrittis and therefore our activities. The secondary vrittis can be of three types – ghatapatadi vritti , avidya vritti or vidya vritti. These secondary vrittis can be formed by pramanas or samskaras. These secondary vrittis form samskaras in mother vritti. Unless these samskaras are neutralized, the activites will continue as before and therefore they need to be worked on. For that there are various ways to neutralize those

samskaras. Firstly knowledge. we have to trace the samskaras by introspection and neutralize them by

Some more points to remember about samskarasi) We should not be overwhelmed by our samskaras. We should not feel – “ So much is there to work on ! ” They have always been there . Only thing is we had ignored them . Like you have High BP and sugar and report has come and now you know about it. Similarly we know there is the process of sravanam , mananam and nidhidhyasanam . Only now we are looking at it microscopically. By sravanam knowledge comes, by mananam doubts are removed and by nidhidhyasana viparya or habitual errors go away. Then once this is done we get jnana nishta. But now we see how this process really works and especially the nidhidhyasanam to jnana nishta part we are seeing microscopically. ii) In understanding samskaras we should not become judgemental about ourself. With all these vasanas I, the self am still pure. My purity is not affected by any amout of samskaras. Like any amount of dirt in the pot will not affect the purity of space. Also everybody has samskaras at different levels. So I don’t condemn myself based on samskaras. iii) It also helps us to accept other people. A person is not really bad. He behaves in a particular way because he has some pattern. If I had those patterns I would behave the same way. That is what is validating the person. Suppose some interaction is causing some problem and then you just tell the person that you don’t want to interact in that area , then you don’t condemn the person. You just understand that his pattern and my pattern are not matching and therfore interaction is difficult. If required both can work on their patterns and mellow it down. So that help we can have from the understanding of samskaras. iv) All samakaras in mother vritti need not be neutralized. If one is able to bring in vidya vritti most of the time to neutralize the conclusions of avidya vritti, then one is a jivan muktha. If the vidya vritti conclusion remains in the background most of the time that is enough. The magnitude of the samskaras should not overwhelm us. Then we postpone our moksha. Postponement comes natural to human being and that we should not do in moksha. Don’t postpone moksha to next janma. What I can do is work sincerely in this janma on my samskara so that I can remain in vidya vritti. My attempt is to maintain vidya vritti and what comes in its way I neutralize. If something comes again and again then I have to dig into it. Otherwise I just remain in the understanding that I am satchidananda. But thoughts based on the patterns keep coming so we have to always neutralize them with vidya vritti. There is always enough material everyday to neutralize with vidya vritti. v) The word vasana can refer to both shubha and ashubha vasana. It is talked about a lot in Yoga Vashishta. It describes vasana as – drda bhavanaya tyaktva purva para vicharanam yadadanam padarthasya vasna sa prakirthitah.

Strong impressions because of which there is running after or running away from something (padarthasya adanam) which happens without much deliberation is called vasanas. Further it says - Vasana dvivida prokta , shudha cha malina tatha. Malina janmahetuh syat shudhat janma vinashini. There are 2 types of vasanas – shubha and malina. Malina vasana is that which intensifies the bondage. Like vasanas behind krodha, lobha etc are strengthening the bondage and they are called malina vasana. Shubha vasanas are good vasanas. Like love for study, love for analysis, love for satsang are shubh vasana. Coming to Vedanta class is shubha vasana. So when we hear the word vasana we should not think it is something bad all the time. It can be good also. Like good and bad cholesterol. Infact sadhakas approach is to replace ashubha vasana by shubha vasana and afterwards the shubha vasanas are worked on and dropped. Working on shubha vasana does not take much time. In sastra, this whole process of working on vasanas is called vasanakshaya. They say for moksha there are 3 sadhanas - tatvajnana, manonasha and vasana kshaya. But some acharyas don’t accept vasanaksaya .They are generally talking about the ideal person in whose case vasanakshaya is not required. For such a learned person the process is automatic. But for this to happen some basis should be there. Like Bangalore corporation has automatic sanction plan. But for that they ask for so many documents for which you have to go to so many offices. Similarly if you are ready with all this then tatva nishta is automatic. But if you are not ready then these have to be worked on first. That is why the topic of vasanakshaya should be understood properly. If I have done karma yoga and upaasna well then it is automatic. Otherwise it is not automatic and we have to do vasanakshaya. Thus with this, the topic of pasvadhibhischaviseshat is concluded. What is indicated by this statement is that even a vidvan has got adhyaasa when he is doing vyavahara. Therefore vyavahara presupposes adhyaasa , in that there is no exception. Now the Purvapakshi may raise a doubt here. That doubt is being answered in the next sentence sastriye tu vyavahare yadyapi buddhipurvakari naviditvatmanah parlokasambhandham adhikriyate. Tathapi na vedantavedyam ……………………………….adhikaraviroda cha. What is the doubt raised by Purvapakshi ? “I asked you earlier that vidvat vyavahara can be an exception.” Then you explained that even vidvat vyavahara is like pashu. You described the situation - Just like pashu vyavahara is based on raga dvesha, similarly vidvat vyavahara is also based on raga dvesha and implying adhyaasa. That is true in the case of laukika vyavahara but not vaidika vyavahara. Pashus do not have vaidika vyavahara. They do not do sandhyavandana in the morning or do agnihotra … But vidvans do vaidika vyavahara. So you cannot compare this vidvat vyavahara with pashu vyavahara. There is so much difference between the two. Laukika vyavahara does not require the injunction of the Vedas but vaidika vyavaharas require the injunctions of the Vedas. Pashus don’t do vaidika vyavahara, only vidvat’s do it. So maybe laukika vyavahara of vidvat is similar to that of pashu and maybe therefore it is based on adhyaasa like the vyavahara of pashu. But vaidika vyavaharas are based on Vedas which are sacred and their

authority is unquestionable. So how can you say that somebody following theVedas is avidyavan ? It is like saying that somebody following this great swami is deluded. It amounts to an insult not only of the person but of the swami also. So Purvapakshi is trying to create a fear in Siddhanti regarding contempt of veda. Like in lawcourt, contempt of court is a big thing and a person can be arrested for that. So the Purvapakshi is trying to corner the Vedanti by frightening him with contempt of veda. So when you say the people following the Vedas are deluded, it means you are condemning Vedas also. Since the Siddhanti accepts the Vedas as sacred, then how can a person doing vaidika vyavahara be avidyavan ? He is putting the Siddhanti in a tight situation. Purvapakshi feels, if Siddhanti says that vaidika vyavaharas are based on Vedas then it will amount to contempt of Vedas . If Siddhanti says vaidika vyavaharas are not based on adhyaasa then his contention that all vyavahras are based on adhyaasa is wrong. But the Vedantin is mature enough to handle this situation. He has reverence for Vedas, but at the same time he is so convinced of his understanding that all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa that he can not comproise on it. So his reverence for Vedas will not get him carried away. His conviction is so strong that he will not compromise with it. There is a beautiful story. There use to be a congregation of Tamil scholars in the king’s court. The King will be sitting there and the scholars have to present their poems. Whichever poem is free from defects will be given the prize. One poor Brahmin who had financial problem and wanted money for his daughters marriage thought that if his poem is accepted then he will get enough money for the marriage. So he did upaasana of Shiva. He asked Shiva to get him a tamil sloka which he could present in court. Shiva was very happy with his upaasana. Shiva asked the Brahmin what he wanted and the brahmin asked Shiva to give him a poem so that he could win the prize. Now Shiva knows sanskrit well, but his tamil is not so good. Still Shiva wrote a sloka in tamil and gave it to the Brahmin. This brahmin said I don’t know anything and in the assembly all the scholars will point out the various types of defects which I don’t know, so you come with me. So Shiva accompanied him in the form of a boy. They went to the assembly and the Brahmin presented the poem.The ashtanpandit, Nakheeran found out the defects in the poem. The Brahmin pointed to the boy and said he will only answer. This boy who was really Shiva answered him. The astanpandit found some more defects and this went on 6-7 times. Then Shiva showed his third eye to Nakeeran and said – “I am shiva. You pass this poem”. Nakeeran was a devotee of Shiva but he said that even if you show me the third eye the poem is still wrong. But he told the king to give a lot of wealth to the Brahmin because his devotion is so strong that even Shiva himself has come in the form of a boy to help him. “Give him money but I can’t say a wrong poem is right.” This is his conviction that even if istadevata says it, a wrong thing cannot become right. Shiva must have been pleased with his devotees attitude. In our tradition this is what is encouraged. Similarly if guru commits a mistake then it can be pointed out. But in the sastra in some smriti, it is said – pramadam acharyasya rahasi bodhayet.

A guru’s mistake should be pointed out in person when he is alone. This may be because some people are emotionally connected with the guru and may not like it. Also if somebody is a new entrant and sees the guru being corrected by his student, then he may wonder what sort of a guru is this who is being corrected by his shishyas. He may lose out on learning from the guru. That is why maybe the sastra has said that. Earlier we had talked about Prabhakara who was called guru because he was able to find out the meaning of the sentence which guru could not understand. He quietly went later and wrote the correct interpretation in the guru’s book . So what is important is that our reverence for somebody does not mean that we have to compromise with our convictions. We can be wrong and there is nothing wrong in presenting our viewpoint but first we have to listen to the teacher or scripture completely and then point out. So the Vedantin has reverence for Vedas but at the same time he does not think that the glory of Vedas is compromised by accepting adhyaasa behind vyavahara. Vedas themselves admit that. Therefore Vedanti does not have any agitation in saying that even vaidika vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. Infact if pasvadipaschaviseshat has been understood clearly with all its implications, then Purvapakshi would not have asked this question. The question arises only if vyavahara and adhyaasa is seen in a limited sense. It really includes all vyavahara because the basic mechanism is the same. But the Purvapakshi thinks that the vedanti is talking abour laukika vyvaahara not vaidika vyavahara . We always look for and attack what we feel is a weak area of the other party. Like when they attack Hinduism , they talk about animal sacrifice ,sati, etc. Similarly when they talk about Krishna, they say how he stole butter, had so many Gopis. They don’t talk about the Gita upadesha . That is because we always want to attack, thinking it is a weak area. But we have got an explanation for that also. Similarly Siddhanti in this sentence also gives an explanation as to how vaidika vyavhara is also not an exception .

Nov 30 – Ques & Ans :
1) What are the points to remember about samskaras ? i) We need not be overwhelmed by our samskaras. Just because there are so many samskaras, one should not become frightened. ii) We should not be judgemental about ourself. One should not feel that I have this samskara so I am a bad person. iii) If we understand the topic of samskara well,then we are able to accept people as they are. We can separate the person from their behaviour. iv) We need not neutralize all the patterns. It is enough if we are able to maintain the flow of vidya vritti . Only when it comes in our way to own up this wisdom, then only we work on it to neutralize the patterns. v) Every time Brahma astra of vidya vritti need not be used. Sometimes Pratipaksha bhavana can be brought in to neutralize samskaras. 2) What are the two types of vasanas ?

Shubha vasana and Ashubha vasanas. Moksha hetuh is shubha vasana - That which removes bondage. Bandha hetuh is asubhah or malina vasana - That which intensifies the bondage. Note : Two more points regarding samskaras i) We require a lot of perseverance in neutralizing vasanas. It is not a one day vasanakshaya workshop. Like for certain diseases, doctor tells you to take the medicine for one year. That is disheartening and you may not regularly take it. But suppose he tells you to take it for 2-3 days then we take it promptly. Like if we have a jnana yagna for seven days, people will come . But if we ask them to attend classes for the whole year they don’t come. It needs a lot of patience . Similarly we should know that vasanakshaya needs a lot of perseverance. ii) If we have understood this particular topic well, then other activities also provide us with an opportunity for sadhana. When this attitude is there that I will catch my slip, then the whole day becomes a sadhana for me. Then any activity can provide you the basis for sadhana, but that does not mean you increase your activity. But if you have understood this topic then whatever minimum activity you have to do, they also will connect you to your pursuit. 3) Which type of vyavaharas are discussed in the sentence –sastriye tu vyavare….? Vaidika Vyavaharas are discussed in this sentence. This is done by a person who has vaidika knowledge enough to do karma, but he need not be a vidvan who has self-knowledge given by Vedanta. 4) According to Purvapakshi why such people will not have adhyaasa ? In pasvadibhischaviseshat the approach of Siddanti was that even vidvat vyavahara is like pashu. Vidvat vyavahara is used in the sense of kaimuktika nyaya ie, kim yuktavyam – It indicates that all vyavahara is based on adhyaasa even vidvat vyavahara. Purvapakshi had a doubt how can vidvats have adhyaasa. By mentioning them, Siddanti is saying - All vyavaharas both vidvat and avidvat are like pashu vyavahara and pashu vyavahara are based on adhyaasa. Therefore all vyvaharas even of a vidvat is based on adhyaasa. Now the Purvapakshi is saying that maybe laukika vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. Like animal runs away seeing a person with a stick. Even a human being runs away when he sees people with swords. But vaidika vyavahara is different. You cannot compare vaidika vyavahara to the vyavahara of pashu. Earlier the Siddanti had proved that all vyavahara is based on adhyaasa with the help of pashu example. But you cannot apply that example to vaidika vyavahara . Vaidika vyavahara are prescribed by sastra and pashus don’t do vaidika vyavahara. Therefore it need not be based on adhyaasa because they are unlike pashu vyavaharao If you compare and still say that vaidika vyavahara is based on adhyaassa, then it amounts to contempt of veda.

The Purpavapakshi is threatening the Siddanti with contempt of veda. He is trying to corner the Siddanti. 5) How is Siddanti cornered by Purvapakshi ? Siddanti has two options i) Either he has to accept that vaidika vyavahara is not based on adhyaasa. Then his stand will be diluted. ii) Or he can insists that vaidika vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. Then there will be contempt of veda. Both ways Siddanti is cornered. 6) What is the Siddanti’s answer to this? Siddanti’s stand is that even vaidika vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. 7) Why is Siddanti not afraid of causing contempt of veda? There are two reasons – i) Vedas themselves say that vyavaharas are there till adhyaasa is there. So we are really not saying anything against Vedas. We are just drawing your attention to what it says. ii) Also Siddanti has conviction of his stand. He respects the Vedas, but his respect will not make him compromise with his conviction. . Therefore Siddanti has no fear of contempt of Vedas.

Talk 52 – Nov 30 –
Sastriye tu vyavahare yadyapi buddhipurvakari naviditvatmanah parlokasambhandam adhikriyate, tathapi na vedantavedyam ashanayadyatitam apetabrahmakshatradibhedam asamsaryatmatattvam adhikare apekshyate, anupayogadadhikaravirodhaccha.

All that was said earlier by Purvapakshi and which we discussed in the last class was just for initial warm-up exercise. Bhashyakara does not really say all this. It is not the main discussion. The contempt of veda is just one point to frighten the Siddanti, but not the main one. The real point is stated now. Purvapakshi says - Vaidika vyavahara is different from laukika vyavahara and vaidika vyavahara cannot be based on adhyaasa because in vaidika vyavahra especially those which have the result in the form of svarga prapti, that type of vyavahara will be done by a person only when he knows that he is going to get the result which means he has some knowledge which is opposed to adhyaasa. We have to see the Purvapkshi’s stand as to how adhyaasa abhava or absence of adhyaasa has to be there for vaidika karma. There is one yaga called jyotishtoma yaga. This yaga is done for svarga - svargakamo yajet jyotistomena. One will get svarga only after leaving this body. I do it now and

after the death of this body I will go to svarga and enjoy. Suppose I do the yaga here and I am destroyed here completely then I cannot enjoy svarga, so I wont do this yaga. It is like a 90 year old man will not put an FD for 20 years even if he is offered high interest because he knows he will not be there to encash it at maturity. Similarly if a person who does jyotistoma yaga if he knows he will not be there to enjoy svarga, then he will not do it. So to do jyotistoma yaga which has got the result in the form of heaven he has to have this conviction that he will be there in heaven as a result of this karma. He knows one qualification for getting heaven is death. He may not go in this body, but with his sukshma sarira he will go to svarga. So the person should have the conviction that he will survive the death of this body and will go to heaven and enjoy there as a result of his jyotistoma yaga. This means the person knows he is different from this physical body. Even after this body dies, I will continue to be and enjoy heaven even though this body is not there. That conviction is there that –“I am different from this body”. It means this person has got viveka that he is different from this body. So aviveka is not there and therefore adhyaasa is not there. We have seen adhyaasa is caused by aviveka. Therefore vaidika vyavahara which is going to give the result after death cannot be based on adhyaasa. This is the Purvapakshi’s main point. Let us understand it more. For doing jyotisma yaga which is a kamya karma (desired based karma), kama has to be there. If a person does not have kama and does jyotistoma yaga he will not get the result because in the description of adhikara for this yaga, svarga kama is one of the qualifications. In Sanskrit qualification is called adhikarah. It means qualifications for doing anything. Definition of adhikarah is – yadharma vishistena krtasya karmanah phalajanakatvam sah adhikarah. When a person who is endowed with certain qualities then only the action done by him will give the result, then those qualities are called adhikarah. Suppose there is a yaga called brhaspati savah. It can be done only by a Brahmana. Brahmano brhaspatisavena yajet. To do this it is not enough that you have the money, the physical ability and you know how to do it. But you have to be a Brahmana. Similarly about rajasuya yaga it is said - Raja rajasuyena yajet. Only a kshatriya can do rajasuya yaga, a brahmana even if he is a king cannot do it. Raja here means kshatriya. The quality of kshatriyatvam has to be there in the person then only that karma will get the result. A non-kshatriya can do it, but it will not have the desired result. This is a very important point. So before doing any vaidika karma we have to be very sure we are qualified. Even to do sandhyavandana one has to be sure all the necessary ingredients are there. So adhikarah means that quality which make the person the enjoyer of the result of the karma done by him. Otherwise it will be bhasmini hutam –like offering ash into the ahuti. It will not give the result. So one has to have the necessary qualifications. Similarly for jyotistoma yaga desire for svarga is a qualification. Desire for svarga will be there only if a person knows that after death he will be there to enjoy the result. Otherwise he will not

have the desire. I will not invest in a scheme where I get 5 million dollars after 500 years. So for adhikara, desire should be there and for desire this conviction should be there that I will survive the death of this body and surviving the death of this body means I must have atma-anatma viveka. So this person who is doing this yaga has jnanam that he is not the body. When jnanam is there ajnanam is not there and when ajnanam is not there aviveka is not there and when aviveka is not there then adhyaasa is not there. Laukika vyavahara maybe based on adhyaasa , but vaidika vyavahara cannot be based on adhyaasa. So your stand that all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa is not correct. Some vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa, but not all vyavaharas. This is the Purvapakshi’s strong contention. That has to be answered by Bhagvan Bhashyakara. Bhashyakara accepts this fact that a person who is doing vaidika vyavahara definitely will have the knowledge of atma being different from this body. (Really it is not atma which goes to svarga. Purvapakshi if he knew atma to be satchidanand would not ask this question. But in his understanding whatever “I” he knows is different from the body. That much only is his understanding. Siddanti does not rake up this issue . He first just restates the Purvapakshi’s doubt so that he feels that his doubt is taken into consideration. And then the answer is given accordingly. Sastriye tu vyavhare yadyapi budhipurvakari na aviditatmanah parlokasambhandham na adhikriyate. Tu indicates the other or different situation. Buddhipurvakari means jnana purvakam karoti ie, a person who is thoughtful in his activities , a deliberate person . Bhashyakara says - Even though a person is thoughtful or deliberate without knowing one’s association with parloka will not be qualified for sastriya vyavahara ie, scriptural based activities. Bhashyakara uses a double negative here. Means only after knowing his connection with parloka alone, an intelligent person is qualified to do the karma. A thoughtless person will do anything. So Bhasyakra here specifies an intelligent person who thinks and does. This is very much emphasized in our sastra – be thoughtful. Don’t do thoughtlessly. Bina vichare jo kare so pache pachtaye; kama bhigade apano jagme hota hasaye. One who does without thinking will later on regret. He will spoil his work and become the laughing stock for everybody. One would be thoughtful especially if one has studied the Vedas well not even the Upanishads. If he has learnt chanting and analysis of the Vedas especially the purva mimamsa which has a lot of analysis, then he will be thoughtful. You will see that a person studying sastra how their mind will get refined, if the study is going on regularly everyday. Their mind will be very sharp. You will not speak thoughtlessly and you will not do anything thoughtlessly. That is buddhipurvakari. Such a person is not a learned or wise person, but a person who does things thoughtfully. A wise person is much bigger.

Atmanah parloka sambandah aviditvat na adhikriyate.

Such a thoughtful person without knowing one’s connection with parloka, he will not be qualified. If he does not know that he is going to be in heaven then he will not have the desire. If he is not sure also he will not have desire and if he has no desire then he is not qualified. One has to be very sure that one has to do vaidika karma. So Bhashykara says yadyapi. This much we accept. If a person is doing vaidikakarma, then he should have this knowledge of parloka sambandha and therefore he will be knowing that atma is different from the body. Thus the Siddanti restates the Purvapakshi’s case. Then he says tathapi-nevertheless. This is the right way of convincing somebody. First always point out what you agree with, then proceed with your contention. Some people start with fighting spirit only . That is not right. Even in the area of disagreement there will be some area of agreement. That you highlight first. In vyavahara this is very helpful. Here the area of agreement is that this person who is doing vaidika karma has the knowledge of atma being different from the body. Deha vyatirikta atmajnanam asti tasya. That person has the knowledge of atma being different from the body. There is agreement on this, but Tathapi Nevertheless ….. Na vedantavedyam, ashanayadyatitam, apetabrahmakshatradibhedam, asamsaryatmatattvam adhikare apekshyate. But this person will not be having the complete knowledge of the real self. He has some viveka but he does not have complete viveka and complete viveka is required to neutralize adhyaasa completely. Suppose someone has a debt of 5 million rupees. He gets Rs 1000. Rs 1000 gives him some relief but his state of being debtor does not go away because of this.In this case also definfitely such a person who knows that he is different from the body is better than a person who does not do any vaidika vyavahara and does not have any viveka at all. He has climbed one step but he has not climbed to the top. Just by climbing one step you cannot say that he has reached the top. In vyavahara also we can draw some parallels. Suppose someone is highly educated, that does not mean he will be free from greed, anger, etc. Education does not make him free from human problems. Even in an University at PHD level one has this feeling one is Brahmin, kshatriya. etc. So what is happening to an illiterate villager is also happening to an educated person. This vegetable vendor on the roadside is greedy and he wants to expand his business and make more profit. Same thing will be done by corporate person in his air-conditioned office. There is no difference in greed. The vegetable vendor has jealousy when another vendor makes more money. Similarly a corporate person also has jealousy when another person makes more money. So that means education has not really brought a change in this respect. It means that a person can be educated , but still he can continue to have fundamental problems. Similarly we can say that a person who is doing vaidika karma has some knowledge, but that knowledge is not good enough to remove adhyaasa. He is doing various karmas to get various results, so it means he also has bhoktrtvam – “I am the enjoyer of this karma”. One who he is doing jyotistoma yaga thinks he can enjoy in heaven, just as one who invests thinks he can enjoy the returns of his investment by going to Switzerland and enjoy. So both have bhoktrtvam.

There are some differences which cannot be denied. No doubt the vaidika person is more refined , but this basic factor of bhoktrtvam has not gone. Pashu also thinks of himself as bhokta, ordinary person doing laukika vyavahara thinks he is bhokta and this person doing vaidika vyavahara also thinks he is bhokta. So in bhoktrtvam there is no difference. So enjoyership is there even in a vaidika person and this bhoktrtvam is adhyaasa because atma is not a bhokta. Considering atma to be bhokta is adhyaasa. Therefore vaidika person also has got adhyaasa. Why does he have bhoktrtvam adhyaasa even thought he has atma jnanam ? Because the atma jnanam that he has, is not good enough to dismiss bhoktratvam adhyaasa. The Tikkakara says that he has deha anya atma jnanam ie, knowledge that atma is different from the self. But he does not have the knowledge that atma is satchidananda which is asamsari. The knowledge that he has, is not capable enough to neutralize adhyaasa of bhoktratvam completely. What knowledge is required to neutralize adhyaasa he does not have. Therefore he will continue to have adhyaasa. That is what is stated here – na vedantavedyam atmatatvam adhikare apekshate. In qualification for doing vaidika karma atma tatvajnanam or knowledge of self which is the reality is not expected. What type of self -knowledge is not expected ? The self which is known only thro’ Vedanta . That sort of self is not expected to be known by a person who is doing vaidika karma. What sort of self he is not accepted to know is described next . Ashanayadititam , apetabrahmakshatradibhedam , asamsaryatmatatvam are adjectives for atma tatvam. Ashanadi means hunger, etc. The self which is beyond hunger, thirst etc. That type of self is not required to be known by a person who is doing vaidika karma. This word ashanadititam indicates that atma is not a bhokta. Abhoktra atma is not required to be known for vaidika karma. Another adjective for atmatatvam is apetabrahmakshatradibhedam ie, the atma which is free from the division like Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya, etc. The real self really does not have this division. That atma which is free from (apeta) the division of Bramana, kshatriya, etc. is not required to be known for vaidika karma. He has to know only this much that I am going to survive the death of this body. He does not need to know that atma is not a bhokta, that atma is free from all divisions. One more adjective for atma is asamsariatmatatvam. Samsarah na vidyate yasya. Samsari means samsaranam – movement or traveling. One who is traveling is called samsari - janma maranavan - one who is a traveler. But Atma is a non-traveller. This type of atma which is a non-traveller need not be known for vaidika karma. I don’t need to know that I am asamsari, akarta , abhokta then only I will do vaidika karma. That is not required. The knowledge of the true self - satchidananda, paripurna atma - is not expected (apekshyate) as qualification for vaidika karma. In one karma there will be so many qualifications. There are some general qualifications also, but this is not included. In the text Svarajya Siddhi it is said who is qualified to do karma i) He should be arthi – have desire,

ii) He should be dakshi - capable of doing karma. In some karmas you have to see ghee. But suppose you don’t have eyes you cannot do this. To put ahuti, hands should be there. To do pradakshina, legs should be there.he should be capable in terms of physical body and resources also. iii) He should be dvijah-he should have yagnopavita. iv) He should be budhah – he should have the minimum know-how of how to do the karma. v) He shoud be mathiman - he should have the abhimana that I am having all these qualifications. In this list atma jnanam is not mentioned. Buddhah refers only to know-how of karma not atma. So a person need not have knowledge of this ashanadi, apetrabrahmakshtitam, asamsaritatvam atma. Why ? Anupayoga - It is not necessary. Something is necessary then only it will be expected. Sastra is very particular that unless it is necessary it need not be there. So the knowledge of this atma which is free from bhoktratvam, free form brahmana, kshatriya division and which is nontransmigratory is not expected by sastra. There is no use for that knowledge. Upayoga means use. Anupayoga means non-use. Knowledge of satchidananda atma is not expected by sastra because there is no use for that knowledge. Somebody may say - so what ? Even if it is not necessary let it be there. Sometimes we are over qualified but we can still do the job. To this the Bhashyakara says- adhikar virodhaccha. It is contrary to the qualifications. This self knowledge is not only not useful in doing karma it is going to contradict the qualification for karma. It means it will disqualify you for karma. Like sometimes a lady is cooking in the kitchen and the husband comes in the kitchen –na apekshata, anupayogad, adhikari virodaccha . Not only he is not expected in the kitchen because he is not useful but he is spoiling her cooking. Similarly here the knowledge of atma is not expected for karma because it is not useful. Not only it is not useful it is detrimental to karma. Someone may say, we know atma and still we are doing karma. But what we are talking about is aparoksha jnanam. If person has understood very well that I am asamsari, asanghah atma then he will not have bhoktratvam. He will not want bhoga. Like somebody has hair he will want acomb. But if he has no hair then comb is not expected by him. Similarly aparoksha jnanavan knows that I am not a bhokta so he has no desire for bhoga. He knows I am asamsari, paripurna atma. I am full, I don’t need to go anywhere because I am everywhere and I am complete. I have no ashana, etc. So I don’t need to have to travel anywhere. In Panchapadika, a commentary written by Padmapadacharya it is said – When a person is afflicted by various desires then only he wants to go here and there. But suppose he has become free from all desires, then he is svasthah. For him there is nothing to go after or run away from. He is where he is. So the knowledge of atma stops activities because he has understood that I don’t need anything. If I need something I do activity. One important principle we have to imbibe is that – It is my conclusion about myself that determines my activities. Even in a relative sense what I think about myself, governs my activity.

If I think I am not lovable, then I strive to please others. If I feel I am insecure then I try to make myself secure by having several means of security. Like a lady who had fear of being alone when her husband goes out of town would plead with people to come and stay with her. So my activities depend upon what I conclude about myself. This is very important. Therefore it is said if you take care of being, then doing is taken care of. We tend to concentrate on doing and neglect the being. So take care of being . How I look upon myself. If my perception about myself changes then my activities will also change. You will see that the more you feel sure of yourself , your anxiety to please others will go away. You do what is to be done, so unnecessary things will be dropped. So even at vyavaharika level you can see that when you have healthy self esteem then many of the unhealthy activities will be dropped. When you understand Atma to be limitless Brahman, there is nothing to be done. Karma is naturally dropped. One does not have to struggle to drop it. The basis of karma is desire and an aparoksha jnanavan has no desire. He finds himself unqualified to do. So which karma will he do ? He feels - I am not a brahmana or kshatriya or even a grahastha or sanyasi. They are all adhyaasa. Without qualifications I cannot do karma and I don’t have any qualifications. Therefore adhikara virodaccha. Since it is opposed to the adhikara the atmajnanam adhikare napakshyate. So here the Siddanti says even though the person has knowledge of the self being different from the body, but he does not have the knowledge of the self which is ashanadititam, asamsari ie, he does not have complete self-knowledge. Since he does not have complete self -knowledge adhyaasa will not go. Adhyaasa will go completely only by complete knowledge. So adhyaasa continues. Even though he is doing vaidika vyavahara, adhyaasa is. Sastra also takes this adhyaasa for granted and prescribes activities is what is said next.

Dec 7 – Ques & Ans :

1) What is the connection to the sentence –sastriya te vyavahare…… The connection is in the form of a doubt. Purvapakshis’s doubt was that laukika vyavahara may be like pashu and there maybe adhyaasa. But in the case of vaidika vyavahara the person has viveka that he is not the body and he performs the karma knowing fully well that the result will not accrue to this body. So in vaidika vyavahara there is no adhyaasa. 2) What is the meaning of buddhipurvakari ? One who does thinks thoughtfully and acts intelligently. Buddhi purvakam karoti iti buddhipurvakari. An intelligent perosn who is deliberate in his action. 3) What does it mean - na parloka sambandham adhikriyate ? Without knowing ones connection to paraloka a person is not qualified. 4) What is the meaning of the word adhikara ? The particular quality of a person which makes him fit to receive the result of the action he does. Technical definition is - Yad dharma vishistena krtasya karmanah phalajanakatvam sa adhikarah. A person who is endowed with some quality, then the karma done by him gets the result. That quality is called adhikara. 5) In this sentence- sastriya tu vyvahare, what is the significance of budhipurvakari ? He is not doing the karma thoughtlessly. He is doing the karma knowing fully well that he will get the benefit of the action. An action of a thoughtful person can be analysed . Being buddhipurvakari he should have taken into consideration the result. 6) What is the full meaning of the sentence – sastriye tu vyavahare ………….adhikriyate ? With regard to sastriya vyavahara a thoughtful person is not qualified unless he knows his connection to paraloka. 7) What do we derive from this sentence ? That he knows that atma is different from the body and he will survve this body to enjoy the result. 8) What is the essential argument of the Purvapakshi in this sentence ? Purvapakshi’s doubt is that - With respect to sastriya vyavahara there will not be adhyaasa because the person who is doing it knows that he is different from the body. 9) What is the answer of Siddanti to this particular doubt ? The Vaidika has this much knowledge that he is different from the body. But he does not have the knowledge of the true self which is necessary to remove adhyaasa completely. So what is required to neutralise adhyaasa completely he does not have and what he has, is not enough.


10) What are the main words of this sentence tathapi na Vedanta vedyam asanayadititam…………….adhikare apekshyate ? The main words are 4 - vedantavedyam atmatattvam adhikare na apekshyate. Atma tatvam which is known thro’ Vedanta is not expected in adhikara. Atma tattvam means reality which is the self. 11) What is the implication of this sentence – reality which is the self is not expected ? What is implied is -atma tattva jnanam na apekshyate. Knowledge of the self is not expected as a qualification for sastriya vyavhara. 12) How many adjectives are given for atma ? Three adjectives are given for atma – asanayadyatitam, apetabrahmakshtradibhedam and asamsaryatmatattvam. 13) What is the meaning of asanayadyatitam ? Free from hunger , etc. like thirst… What does it signify ? That atma is abhokta. 14) What is the meaning of Apetbrahmakshatradibhedam ? Atma does not have division of brahmana, kshatriya…etc. What does it signify in this context ? Generally for adhikara one has to fall in some category to perform the karma. Brahmano yajet means that one of the qualifications to do the karma is to be a Brahamana. So one has to fall into some category to perform karma. But atma is beyond all categories and therefore atma tattvam will not be qualified. Means the knower of such self will not be qualified. 15) What is the significance of asamsaryatmatattvam ? Atma does not travel. It is free from transmigration. It indicates that atma does not travel to heaven. 16) What is the significance of vedantavedyam ? Vedanta vedyam signifies that the 3 adjectives describing the nature of atma is known thro’ sastra pramana. It is sastra which tell us that atma is asanayadyatitam, apetabrahmakshatradibhedam, asamsaryatmatattvam. So atma is pramana vedyam not a matter for belief. 17) What are the two reasons given why atma tattvam is not expected ? Anupayogad and virodhacca. 18) What does anupayogat convey ?

Anupayogat means this self knowledge which is got thro’ Vednata is not useful for this karma and therefore it is not expected. Anupayogat is hetu and na apekshate is pratigna. 19) What is the second hetu ? Adhikara virodat ca . Once he has complete knowledge of the true self then he knows he is not a bhokta. Therefore he is not interested in enjoying the resut of any karma and so he may not have the desire to do the karma at all. He dismisses his adhikaritvam in several ways. He knows he is not a brahmana and his adhikara is dismissed. He knows he is not a bhokta and asamsari so he will dismiss all karmas. So this self knoweldge will disqualify him from karma.

Nov 30 - Talk 53 :
Sastriye tu Vyavhare …..buddhipurvakari…..adhikriyate. Tathapi na vedanta vedyam…..anupayogad adhikara virodacha. Here the Siddanti is answering a possible doubt by Purvapakshi. The doubt can be, with reference to laukika vyavahara perhaps adhyaasa can be the basis. Because in laukika vyavahra we see there are strong or mild raga dveshas which imply adhyaasa. For that the example is pashu vyavahara. So vidvat vyavahara and avidvat vyavahara are both like pashu vyavahara. Pashu vyavahara is based on adhyaasa, therefore any vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. But pashu vyavhara is not the example for vaidika vyavahara . Vadika vyvahahara is based on Vedas and pashu does not do vyavahara based on sastra . Therefore vaidika vyavahara will be an exception to the rule that all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa. Why is that so ? Because in many vaidika vyavahra the result is going to come only after death. And the person who is doing the karma knows that he is going to survive death. Surviving death will be possible only when the person is different from this body. Therefore he has got knowledge that he is different from this body. He has viveka and therefore he cannot have adhyaasa. This is a possibe doubt by Purvapakshi. So the Bhashyakara says sastriye tu vyavahare. Here Tu indicates - in a different situation . There are 2 interpretations for tu. i) Tu refers to a situation which is different from laukika vyavahara mentioned earlier in pasvadhibhischa .Tu indicates a different situation which in this case is vaidika vyavahara. ii) The second interpretation for tu is given by one Tikkakara. There are two types of vaidika vyavahara. One vyavahara which gives the result in this life itself Like avahanti homa for gaining wealth or putrakamesti yaga for having a child . The results of these homas are in this life itself. So in such vyavahara, raga dveshas are very evident and raga dveshas are based on adhyaasa and so adhyaasa is very evident here because in this situation there is no need to know the self as different from the body. Therefore the Siddanti need not make any special effort to prove adhyaasa. So here in this sentence, tu implies such vaidika vyavahra whose result accrue in this life itself and where adhyaasa is not doubted.

The second type of vaidika vyavhara is where the result accrues in paraloka not in this life. This is discussed by the Bhahsyakara here. So in the first part of the sentence there is a restatement of Puvapakshis doubt specific to the second type of vaidika vyavahara. Purvapakshi says that in sastriya vyavhara, a buddhipurvakari is doing karma . Adhyaasa cannot be there because he has got the knowledge of atma being different from th body. Bhashyakara’s answer is indicated by tathapi – nevertheless. That person has got this much knowledge that he is different from this body, but he does not have the knowledge of atma being asanayadititam, apetabrahmakshatradibhedam.,asamsaratmatattvam. So Siddanti is posing two options to Purvapakshi– When you say a vaidika person has got atma jnanam. Which type of jnanam does he have? Does he have the knowledge that atma is different from the body or does he have the knowledge that atma is akarta, abhokta, asamsari. Suppose you say he has just enough knowledge that atma is different from the body,then that is not enough to neutralize adhyaasa. Suppose you say that he has apetabhrama…jnanam, but then you cannot insist that a person who does vaidika karma should have this type of knowledge. He has to have only that knowledge that atma is different from the body because the result is after the death of this body. Similarly what is the basis to say that he should have the knowledge that atma is apetabrahmakshatradibhedam, asana…..? This is one point – anupayogat ie, not of much use. The second point is that if he has this knowledge, he is disqualified to do karma. If I have the knowledge that I am abhokta then I wll not have bhoga iccha. Only if I have the quality of being bhokta then only I will have the desire to do karma. Like if I have hair then I have a desire for a comb. If hair itself is not there then there is no need for comb. The second point is –virodaccha ie, opposed to karma. Similarly to do karma I should fall into some category because karmas are prescribed for different varna -asramas. I have to know to which category I belong, then only I can do karma. If I know that I am not a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya nor Vaishya then I cannot do karma. When I know that I don’t have to travel I am everywhere, then there is no place to go . Thus karma is dismissed and therefore atma jnanam is disqualifying the person from doing karma. Infact that person is fit only for sanyasa. Then he can only do abhyaasa of jnanam to gain jnana nishta. Sanyasa means sarva adhikara tyaga. Therefore a sanyasi is not supposed to do any homa. They have given up this adhikara. If he has taken up sanyasa with the right spirit then there is no need for karma. That is why he has taken this lifestyle. Therefore this knowledge is not supporting karma. Infact it dismisses karma. Therefore the Siddanti’s answer is that the person you are referring to has some knowledge of atma, but not complete knowledge. So it will not neutralize adhyaasa completely. Therefore vaidika vyvahara also is not an exception to the rule that all vyavaharas are based on adhyaasa. Even if we accept that some aspect of adhyaasa he has dismissed but bhoktratva and kartrtva adhyaasa continues . Therefore he is not free from adhyaasa. So sastra vyavahara is also based on adhyaasa.

This particular idea Bhashyakar further emphasizes in the next sentence. Sastra also is taking this adhyaasa for granted and then only it prescribes different karmas. It means sastra is prescribing karmas to a confused person, not an enlightened person. Therefore buddhipurvakari is not an enlightened person. He has intelligence enough to do the karma properly, but does not have the intelligence at this stage to know the self. Like somebody uses his intelligence to earn money, but does not have the intelligence to see the limitation of money. He is therefore better than those who are not able to earn money. But there is somebody who has not only the intelligence to earn but also the intelligence to see its limitation. So he gives up all his business. It is not because he is not capable but because he is more intelligent and sees the limitations. Thus there are 3 categories – i) One who is not intelligent to earn money. ii) One who is intelligent enough to earn money, but not intelligent enough to see the limitation of money. iii) One who is intelligent enough to earn money and intelligent enough to see its limitations also. The i) and iii) will look alike. Both are not earning, but they are different. The buddhipurvakari is in-between. He is thoughtful in doing the action, but he is not thoughtful enough to see the limitation of action and enquire about the true self. He is close to the third stage but not yet reached the third stage. So sastra is talking only to those people who are having adhyaasa and that is what is said in the next sentence. Prak ca tatha bhutatma vijnanat pravartamanam sastram avidyavadvisayatvam nativartate. Prak means before. Before vignyanam ie, before complete knowledge of true atma. Which type of atma ? tatha bhuta- as described earlier as asanyadititam, apetabrahmakshatradibhedam, asamsaratmatattvam. Pravartanam sastram means operative scripture . Na ativartate means does not transgress . Avidyavatvishayatvam means the status of addressing to the person having adhyaasa. Avidyavadvishayatvam is the status of sastra. What type of status ? Sastra has a visaya. Visaya is in the sense of niyojya. Niyojya or visaya means a person who is addressed. Like I am talking to you, so you are my visaya. Similarly sastra is talking to you, so you are the visaya of sastra. Visaya is the addressee to whom sastra is addressing. Sastra is addressing to avidyavad which means one who has adhyaasa. It means sastra is avidyavad vishayam ie, sastra is talking to someone who has got adhyaasa. That status of sastra is called avidyavad visayatvam.. Sastra is addressing to the person who is avidyavat. Avidyavat means one who has got adhyaasa. So such a person is the visaya of sastra. So sastra is called avidyavat visaya. It is a bahuvrihi samasa. Avidyavan visayah yasya tat sastram avidyavad visayam. Sastra is that which has got its addressee as the person who has got adhyaasa. In simple words sastra is addressing to a confused person. That quality of the sastra iscalled avidyaad visayatvam. Nativartate means it does not go beyond this. It means sastra can talk to only those who are avidyavan. Sastra does not transgress its status of addressing avidyavan. Sastra is pravartamanam prak tatha bhutaca vignyanam ie, Sastra is working for

you until you have sakshatkara. Here vignyanam is used in the sense of complete assimilated knowledge. There are 2 words for knowledge - jnanam and vignyanam. Jnanam means paroksha jnanam . There is something called Brahman. Vignyanam is aparoksha jnanam. I am that Brahman is very crystal clear with assimilation in the form of anubhava rupa that I am Brahman. Prak means purvam or before. Sastra is always functioning before that person has got atma jnanam. Afterwards sastra is no longer in the picture for you. Sastra has served the purpose. It does not enjoin anything to an aparoksha jnanavan. So the meaning of the sentence is – Scripture which is operative before such complete, clear knowledge of the self above mentioned never transgresses the status of addressing to a confused person. This is a negative way of saying it. A positive way of saying is – sastra always addresses to those people who are avidyavan. If a person has self-knwoledge, sastra does not address them. Once a person has got this knowledge no more karma is pescribed to this person because whatever he has to gain he has got, so there is no need for him to listen to sastra. A person will listen only if he has got some raga dvesha. Raga dvesha means he has got some adhyaasa. Person has got kartrtvam, then only he will listen to sastra for karma. He has some sense of I am brahmana, kshatriya..then only he will go to sastra and say which karma I should do ? Therefore sastra talks to only those people who have got adhyaasa. This idea Bhashyakara is explaning thro’ an example in the next sentence. Tatha hi – “ Brahmano yajet ” ityadini sastrani atmani varnasramvayo avasthadivisesa adhyaasam ashritya pravartante. Tathadi means for an instance or just as . Earlier Bhashyakara mentioned it as a general principle . Now he explains it with an example. Brahamano yajet ityadini sastrani – these scriptural sentences like “brahmano yajet” are operative having presupposed adhyaasam of varna, stage of life, age,condition, etc . So sastra is functioning presupposing the adhyaasa of all these qualities on the self. The essence of the sentence is – atmani adhyaasam ashritya sastrani pravartante.Scriptural sentences are enjoining different karmas only presupposing some adhyaasa. This adhyaasa can be of various factors. one factor is varna or class. sastar says brahmano yajet. Means brahmana shall perform sacrifice. Here the sastra is addressing the person as brahmana. the person is essentially atma. But what sastra is superimposing Brahman varna and then prescribing. Similarly fo a kshartriya and vaishya also. Therefore sastra depends on adhyaasa to prescribe karma. Means the sastra is not looking on the person as atma but as atma plus particular upadhi dharma of varna. There is varnadhyaasa. Class is the quality of the body and that is superimposed on atma. So sastra excepts that and then prescribes karma. Similarly sastra says - raja rajasuyena yajet and vaishya vaishyastomena yajet. Sastra is accepting adhyaasa. Here Bhashyakara has given so many types of adhyaasa. varnadhyaasa, and then asramaadhyaasa. Tikkakara gives an example for asramadhyaasa. Na havai snatva bhikset –Literal meaning is - without bath do not go for bhiksha.

But here the meaning of snatva is different. It means having comleted brahmacharya asrama. in those days after study in brahmacharya ashram is over , there is a special bath. So far he was not allowed to use soap, cream, etc. That day a special bath is given. So really the meaning is – “Having completed brahmacharya asrama and having gone into grahastha asram , he should not go for bhiksha. Brahmacharya or sanyasi can go for bhiksha, but if you are a grahahastha you should not go for bhiksha. Earn, work and give bhiksha. Sanyasi should not earn. He must go for bhiksha. So sastra is addressing to a person who is considering himself to be a grahastha. Atma is not a grahastha. So it is asramadhyaasa. Sruti is looking on the person as a grahastha and then addressing. Another adhyaasa is vayo adhyaasa. Vaya means age. Sastra says-astavarshan brahmanam upanayita. When a brahmana child becomes 8yrs old then he should be given upanayanam. if is not possible then 10 maximum 12 yrs of age. But nowadays just before marriage they put upanayanam. That is not correct. Here age is siuperimposed upon atma. Then avastha or condition is superimposed on atma. The example for that in sastra is – jataputrah krishnakesah agnina adhadita. A person to whom a son is born and that person has dark hair, then he should do some particular ceremony. Not otherwise. So this is adhyaasa of a particular condition - that he should be Krishna kesah. Adipadena indicates jeevan adhyaasa. Sastra says jivanjuhuyat. As long as a person is alive he should do this particular homa. So jivanam is superimposed ie, as long as I am alive is adhyaasa here because atma never dies. Therefore there is no question of atma being alive. Svargakamo yajet. This is kamitvadhyaasa. If you have the desire to go to heaven . Atma does not have this desire. So having superimposed all these qualities sastra prescribes karma. It means sastra is addressing only to those people who are avidyavan.

Dec 14 –Ques & Ans :
1) What is the meaning of Tu in sastriya tu vyavahare ? Tu means but. Here it is used in the sense of vailakshanam or difference situation. Earlier one situation was talked about and now a different situation is talked about. Tu here has two meanings – i) That which is different from Laukika karma ie, Vaidika karma. Earlier in pasvadivbhischaviseshat, laukika vyvaahara was talked about, now there is a shift in topic to vaidika vyavahara which is indicated by tu. ii) There are two types of Vaidika karma –one which gives result in this birth and the other which gives result after death. Tu refers to Vaidika karma which is different from the one which gives results in this life ie, the one which gives result in next life. Note : There are two types of vyavhara –laukika and vaidika. In vaidika vyavahara there are 2 sub types. The first one which gives result in this life is called ehika phalaka vaidika vyavhara and the other is parloka phalaka vaidika vyavahara. In the first type adhyaasa is very evident and like laukika vyavahara there is no basis to doubt the presence of adhyaasa being there. Tu indicates that in ehika

phalaka vaidika vyvahara adhyaasa is definitely there, but in the Parloka phalaka there can be a doubt. So vailakshanam is suggested. Two things are indicated by Tu – the distcintion between the two types of vyavahara and that in ehika phalaka vaidika vyavahra adhyaaa is evident. Most of the comentantors take it to mean laukika vyavahara vailakshanam. Only one commentator gives the second meaning. 2) What does yadyapi mean ? Yadyapi means even though. 3) What is the meaning of adhikriyate ? It is qualified or eligible. 4) Who is not qualified ? A budhipurvakari is not qualified. 5) In which situation buddhipurvakari is not qualified ? When he does not know parloka sambandha, he is not qualified. 6) How is his adhikaritvam affected if he does not know parloka sambhanda ? Or What is the connection between his not knowing and parloka sambandha ? One qualification for kamya karma is desire. If you don’t have desire and you do kamya karma then you don’t get the result. So you have to have desire to do the karma. To have the desire , the person has to know parloka sambandha ie, he will survive and enjoy the benefit in heaven . So if he does not know parloka sambandha, then he will not have the desire to do the karma and if he does not have the desire then he is not qualified to do the karma. 7) In the sentence tathapi na vedantavedyam….. adhukriyate, what is the main wordse ? Vedantavedyam atmatattvam adhikare na apekshate. Knowledge of the self known thro’ Vedanta is not expected as a qualification (for vaidika karma ). 8) What does atma tattvam stand for here ? atma tattvam means reality which is the slf. her eit refers to knwoldge of the slf. 9) What is significance of the word Vedanta vaidyam? It means it is pramana vaidyam. It shows the authenticity of the knowledge. 10) What is asanayadititam ? It means atma is free from hunger and thirst. Hunger and thirst indicate bhoktrtvam. It indicates atma is abhokta.

11) How atma being abhokta has connection with anupayogad and virodacca ? or what is the connection between asanayadititam and the hetu anupayogad, virodacca ? In vaidika vyavahara we need atma jnanam where atma is taken as bhokta . So the knowledge that atma is abhokta is anupayogad. Also it is virodacca. because I am not abhokta I will not hav te desire. For qualification for vaidka karma desire is required. here desire itself is dismissed. Therefore it is detrimental to vaidka vyavahara. That is why adhikara virodacca. 12) What is apetabrahmakshatradibhedam ? It is an adjective to atma tattvam. Atma tattvam is free from division into categories like brahmana, kshatriya, etc. 13) What is the meaning of asamsari ? Atma is not atraveler.it does not travel from one loka to another. 14) What is atma tatvam ? Atma tattvam means - reality which is the self. The implied meaning is knowledge of the self. 15) What is the meaning of prak and which word does it go with ? Prak means before. It goes with vijnanam –before vijnanam. 16) What is the significance of the word vijnanam ? Vijnanam means aparoksha jnanam. 17) What is the meaning of pravarthamanam sastram ? It means sastra which is operative. In the sentence it indicates - sastra which is operative before one has well-assimilated knowledge of the self. 18) What does the word na avartate mean ? It means it does not transgress. 19) What is avidyavat visayatvam ? Sastra which has the status of addressing a person who is avidyavat. Visaya means niyojya means the one who is addressed to. 20) What is the meaning of the sentence-prakca tatabhutama……? Sastra does not transgress its status of addressing a person who is avidyavat. 21) How does one state this positively ? Sastra only addresses a person who has adhyaasa. 22) When is the sastra operative? Before vijnanam take splace sastra is operative.

23) So what are the 2 things talk about in this sentence ? i)) sastra is operative before the person has assimilated self knwoeldge ii) sastra does not transgress addressing somebody who has got adhyaasa. means sastra addresses someone who has got adhyaasa. 24) What adhyaasa is - Brahmano yajet- and how is it adhyaasa? It is varna adhyaasa. It is adhyaasa of varna means superimposition of varna on atma. Superimpositing the body there is adhyaasa. 25) What is the example for asrama adhyaasa? Na havaii snatva bhikset. Having taken bath do not go for bhiksha. Essentially a grahasthi should not go for bhiksha. 26) What is the connection between snatva and bhiksha ? Snatva refers to the special bath taken at the end of Brahmacharya and before entering Grahasthasrama. The meaning is having entered grahasthasrama do not take bhiksha. 27) What is the example for vayoadhyaasa ? Astavarshan brahmano upaniyet. At the age of 8 yrs a brahmana should get his upanayanam. 28) What is the example for avasthadhyaasa ? Jataputra krishnakesha agnina dadhati. A person who has black hair and a son is born to him then he should perfom a certain ceremony. Here the avastha or condition is jataputra and krishna kesha. 29) What does adi stand for ? It stands for jivanadhyaasa. Example is Jivan juhuyat. All your life perform this sacrifice. Here the adhyaasa is of jeevan on atma. 30) What was the other adhyaasa example given ? Kamitvadhyaasa –svargo kamo yajet - One who is desirous of heaven should do this ritual. Kamitvam is superimposed on atma.

Talk 55 - Dec 14 :
After talkng about adhyaasa as the basis for laukika vyavahara, now Bhashyakara is talking about adhyaas as the basis for even vaidika vyavahara. I n sastriya vyavaahar ther is 2 types –one which is resulting in this life and the other which is resulting after death. The one which is resulting in this life that is like laukika vyavahara only. It is done out of raga dvesha and adhyaas ais very evident here. there is no doubt abou it. That was implied by the word tu.But there are some sastriya vyavaharas which are resulting in parloka. This person has to have the knowledge of atma being different from the body. Once he has this knowledge then he has viveka . Once he has viveka adhyaasa is not there because adhyaasa is born of aviveka. Therefore the Purvapakshi can raise a doubt -sastriya vyavaharah nadhyaasa purvakah, dehabhinna

atma jnana janyatvat vyatirekena pashu vyavaharah .So anumana can be given that sastriya vyavahara is not adhyaasa purvaka. This is the pratigna. The hetu is - deha bhinna atma jnana janyatvat –because this vyavahara is born of the knowledge of atma being different from the body. For this there is vyatirekha example (counter example) of pashuvyavahra. Pashu vyavahara is adhyaasa purvaka but it is not born of the knowledge of the atma being different from the body. Therefore vaidika vyavahara is unlike pashuvyavahara. Therefore they are not adhyaas purvakah. This ispurvapakshs doubt. to tha doubt Sidanti is answering tha we accept that this person has ot have th eknwoledge thata tm ais diff from the body without wich he will not th desire and whtout desire he is not qualified. Tat we accept.But he does not have th eknwoledge of the atma being akarta, abhokta, asamsari. that type of knowledge he does not have. For neutralizing adhyaasa what u need is this type of atma jnnam thata tm ais akarta, abhokata, asasmari .So the knowledge that atma is not the body is not enough to neutralize adhyaasa completely. Therefore adhyaas will remain . So te rule that adhyaas is te basis fr any vyavahara is not contradicted. Alos Bhagvan Bhashyakar astates that this typr of qualification is not going t be ther in a vaidika person. The urvapakshi may say that a person who is doing jyotistoma yaga will have this knweldge alos. Bhashyakar says that you cannot put this qualification because it is anupayogad. Qualification can be asked only if it is necessary. For a good Vedanta teacher what is the qualification ?he should know the sastra he should kno the language to communicate, he should have the ability to communicate. tese are the qualifications. But yc anot ask that the Vedanta teacher should be a good cook –anupayogad. It is not necessary. there is no connection betqeen god cook and Vedanta teacher. Suppose it is said that a Vedanta teacher should be money minded. Then it is both anupayogad and and virodacca. If he is money mnded the he will not communicate properly. he will only emphasis those things where charty is emphasised. Therefore yathartaatma tattva jnanam is not required or expected because it is not useful, infact it is contradictory. Then somebody may ask what is the conencton between -59.54

Dec 21 – Ques and Ans :
1) Which bhashyam are we in ? We are in Pramana bhashyam. 2) What is the meaning of Pramana Bhashyam ? A commentary dealing with the means of knowledge for adhyaasa. 3) In the opening sentence of Pramana Bhashyam which pramanam is directly mentioned and which word indicates it ? Pratyaksha pramanam is directly mentioned and it is indicated by the word etam

4) Which other pramanams are implied ? Anumanam and Arthapatti are implied. 5) What was the nature of anumanam ? The pratigna, hetu were given. Pratigna is – All vyavahara is based on adhyaasa. Hetu is – Adhyaasa follows the presence and absence of adhyaasa. 6) What was the nature of arthapatti pramanam ? Upapadya jnanena upadaka kalpanam. By the knowledge of upapadya, we postulate upapadaka. Vyavahara is upapadya and adhyaasa is upapadaka. 7) What was the necessity of saying pasvadibhischaviseshat ? The Purvapakshi had raised a doubt that in case of vyavahara of learned person adhyaasa cannot be there. For that the Siddanti answers by saying pasvadi…. 8) Why was it necessary to say sastriye tu vyavahare…. ? It was necessary to say that vaidika vyavahara is also based on adhyaasa because Purvapakshi may raise a possible doubt that laukika vyavahara may be based on adhyaasa , but vaidika vyavahara may not be based on adhyaasa because in sastriya vyvahara especially vyavahara which results in paraloka prapti, deha bhinna atma jnanam is necessary. Since viveka is there, aviveka will not be there. Therefore adhyaasa will not be there. 9) What is the anumanam given by Purvapakshi regarding sastriya vyavahara ? Pratigna – sastriya vyavahara na adhyaasa purvaka. Scriptural activities are not presupposing adhyaasa. Hetu – deha bhinna atma jnana janyatvat. Because these activities are based on the knowledge of the self which is different from the body. Drstanta –vyatirekena pashu vyavaravat. Unlike pashu vyavahara. 10) What is the meaning of the sentence sastriye tu vyavahra….adhikriyate ? In scriptural activities even though a thoughtful person acting deliberately not knowing the connection between himself and paraloka is not qualified. 11) What is the meaning of the word tu here ? Tu generally means distinction or difference. The difference can be seen in two ways – i) It is different from laukika vyavahara ie, vaidka vyavahara.

ii) There are 2 types of vaidika vyavahara –ehika phalaka vaidika vyavahara and paraloka phalaka vaidika vyavahara. Tu refers to the one which is different from the vaidika vyavhara which gives result in this life ie, vaidika vyavhara which gives result in the after life. 12) Why Bhashyakara does not talk about ehika phalaka vaidika vyavahara where the result is given in this life ? Mainly because basis of doubt is not there. It is similar to laukika vyavahara. Deha bhinna atma jnanam is not necessary and the result is evident . Whereas in vaidika vyavhara there is basis for doubt because deha bhinna atma jnanam is there, so there is doubt how can there be adhyaasa when there is viveka? The rule is you should always discuss that thing which involve something having a doubt . 13) What is the meaning of the sentence – na vedantavedyam, asanayadititam apetabrahmakshatradibhedam ..…….apekshyate ? Knowledge of the self which is free from hunger,etc, which is free from division into brahmana, kshatriya, etc and which is not a traveler is not an expected qualification for a person doing vaidika karma. 14) What is anupayogad and for whom is it anupayogad ? Adhikare atma jnanasya anupayogad. Theknwoledge of the self is not useful as a qualification for vaidika vyavahara . 15) What does virodacca indicate ? Atma jnanasya adhikare virodacca. Atma jnanam is having opposition to vaidika vyavahara ie, The knowledge of the self is a detrimental qualification for vaidika vyavahara. 16) What is the meaning of – prak ca tatha bhutatma vijnanat …..nativartate ? Two things are expressed here – i) Sastra is operative before the assimilation of knowledge. ii) Sastra does not transgress its status of addressing a person who is avidyavat ie, sastra is talking to a person who has got adhyaasa. 17) What is the meaning of the sentence - tatha hi “brahmano yajet” ityadini sastrani atmani………..pravartante ? Sastra operates taking into the account the superimposition of the qualities of varna, asrama, age and condition upon atma. 18) What is the example of varna adhyaasa ? The statement of sastra – “Brahmano yajet” - Brahmana will do the ritual. This is an example of varnadhyaasa. How is this presupposing adhyaasa ? Brahmanatvam belongs to the body which is superimposed on atma.

Sastra addresses the person identifying with the body which is adhyaasa. Note: Non-Brahmin state or Brahmin state belongs to the body. So a person who knows Vedanta well should not have any complex that he is non-brahmin. Infact a Brahmin has more responsibility. They have more rituals and karmas to follow. He is not supposed to keep money . He is supposed to live only on adhyayana, adhyapana, yajana and yaajana. 19) What is the example of asramadhyaasa ? Na havai snatva bhikshet - Having taken the ceremonial bath which marks the end of Brahmacharya asrama, one should not go for bhiksha ie, a grahastha should not go for bhiksha. 20) What is the example of vayah ? Astavarshan Brahmana upanayita - At eight years old a Brahmin should be given upanayanam. Here age which belongs to the body is superimposed on atma. 21) What is the example of avastha adhyaasa ? Jataputra krishnakeshah agnina dadati – A person who has dark hair and for whom a son is born has to perform a certain ritual. Apratisamadheya vyadhinam jaladi pravesena pranatyagah. A person especially a sanyasi who has an incurable disease can can give up his body by entering into water . 22) What is the other point regarding the sastra addressing the person ? The sastra’s tatparyam is not to brand you as a brahmana, kshatriya, etc. Since you have already taken yourself as a Brahman, etc then sastra prescribes karma. 23) Why sastra does not directly prescribe Vedanta ? Sastra does not directly prescribe Vedanta because the person is not ready and he wants fulfillment of raga-dveshas. Sastra gives the person exactly what is required and good for the person at that stage. 24) Which question when asked by the person , the sastra will lead him to Vedanta ? When the person asks the question - Who am I. Am I really a brahmana? If this question is asked, sastra will lead you to Vedanta. Talk 56 – Dec 21 : These three adjectives – asanayadititam, apetabrahmakshatradibhedam and asamsayatmatattvam are very important. They are there very thoughtfully because for any vaidika activity you require some specific conclusions about yourself – i) I am a bhokta. ii) I belong to this particular category. iii) If I am doing svarga phalaka karma, I am going to travel.


If one of these three is not there, then activity will not be there. i) I have to be a bhokta then only I will do something for bhoga. Like a person who is deaf will not buy a music CD for himself because he cannot enjoy it. He may buy for his wife or children but not for himself. Similarly svarga karma is for oneself and unless one can enjoy it , one will not do it. ii) Suppose I am a bhokta then I have to do the karma and for doing karma I have to check whether I am qualified to do it. For jyotistoma homa I have to be a brahmana. So I have to check whether I am brahmana, kshatriya and then do the karma. So I have to have some conclusion about my category. If I am not clear that I am a brahmana or not then I will not do brahmana karma. iii) I am a bhokta but I feel I can have bhoga only in this world not hereafter then also I will not do the karma. So all three conclusions have to be there – I am bhokta, I belong to some category and I can travel then only vaidika activity will take place. Anyone of these three is broken then the person will not do jyotistoma yaga, etc. To break all three of them, these three adjectives are given : Asanayadtitam dismisses the conclusion that I am a bhokta. Apetabrahmakshatradibhedam dismisses the conclusion that I am brahmana, etc. Asamsari dismisses the conclusion that I am a traveler. All three are dismissed . Therefore they are certainly not useful and certainly viroda. It is somehting like salt for payasam is anupayogad and virodacca. If a person assimilates this knowledge, then no karma is possible. Even laukika karma except for snanadi will not be there and even that will also slowly taper out. Karma comes into the picture only when I have a need and I feel I am a karta. But this jnanam says that you are akarta, abhokta, asamsari. The word asamsari has a different connotation also. Samsari is the one who becomes sukhi, dukhi. This person knows I am asamsari means that I am not sukhi, dukhi, but that I am limitless happiness. For such a person who knows he is akarta, abhokta and limitless happiness, no karma is to be done. To do karma he has to have two conclusions – i) That the karma will make me better off and ii) I have the need to be better off. Atma jnanam will knock off both these conclusions. This world is mithya. It cannot really make me better of and I am purnah. If either of the conclusions is questioned, then pravrtti will not be there. Suppose there is a medicine meant to cure madras eye problem. You will buy the eye drop when you think this drop will make me better off and you have madras eye and you are in need of being

better off and this medicine will make me better off. If either of them is questioned then I won’t buy the medicine. Suppose I discover that I don’t have madras eye then I won’t buy it. Suppose I come to know that these eye drops are not good then also I will not buy it. Similarly in Vedantic jnanam both the conclusions are dismissed. Svarga is going to make me better off is dismissed and I am in need of being better off is dismissed. So no vaidika karma is possible for a person who has atma jnanam. Therefore adhikara virodacca. So before this knowledge sastra will be addressing a person who has adhyaasa. Examples were given how this person who has brahmana adhyaasa, asramadhyaasa, etc alone is addressed. Sastra takes this adhyaasa for granted and prescribes. Sastra does not have tatparyam in saying that you are brahmana, kshatriya, brahmachari, karta, etc. You present yourself to the sastra as brahmana, brahmachari or a person with a particular state and you ask sastra what shall I do, then sastra prescribes. Sastra does not brand you. Sastra just restates your confusion and prescribes. That alone will work because your jignasa or akanksha is - what will I do so that I will improve. If you don’t have akanksha and somebody talks something then you will have your mind somewhere else. Therefore sastra will prescribe - considering our mental state, how we are looking at sastra, what for we are approaching sastra and what is our attitude to sastra depending on these sastra will give upadesha. Desakala vayoavastha buddhirshaktinusarata. According to place, time , age,condition -considering all that only sastra gives upadesha. If sastra prescribes Vedanta at that time and the person does not have akanksha the sastra’s updesha will be wasted. It will not work and why should we say something that will not work. So sastra takes into consideration our state , our response, our approach and then suggests certain means. This particular thing we have to understand with relation to people. Sometimes we see that this person is very eager to talk to Mr A, but when we call up he is unenthusiastic. He talks so enthusiastically to the other person and with me it is mono-syllables. Then we superimpose and say he is partial. But we don’t discover that how I am approaching this person is different from the way the other person is approaching that person. This happens especially with swamis. Why he is asking so and so and not me. The simple answer is that your expression to that swami is not good enough to invoke that particular response in the swami. Depending on my approach, my disposition, my attitude will be the person’s response. You cannot force the person to respond in a particular way. Similarly to some people sastra is giving atma jnanam and to some people sastra says sandhyavandanam kuru. With what frame of mind or expectation you approach the sastra. The same thing in every relationship. Never demand love or care. If you deserve it will come. Someone said nicely- you cannot force the butterflies to come to you. If you grow a garden butterfly will come to you. This is a very important thing in life. If you want a certain type of response from somebody you have to change accordingly. Otherwise don’t expect. Conflict comes because you want that type of response, but you don’t want to behave like him. This is a simple thing in life

and we miss it and we have conflicts. Whenever you get a response from somebody, it is the response you deserve. So sastra talks to you in a particular way because you have a particular frame of mind. If you change your approach to sastra then sastra also will change its approach. You need not force the sastra. It will immediately tell go to Vedanta. But suppose you already have this conclusion that you are brahmana, kshatriya then sastra will say do this karma. One more technical point is – so far Siddanti has answered to Purvapakshi’s possible doubt that in laukika vyavahara adhyaasa may be there, but not in vaidika vyavahara. Anumanam was there – sastriya vyavaharah aadhyaasa purvakah, dhea bhinna atma jnana janyatvat, vyatirekena pashu vyavaharah. To that the Siddanti’s answer was that your hetu is aprayojakah. Aprayojakah means not effective ie, not accomplishing its target. Prayojaka hetu means that which serves the purpose or that which accomplishes the end. The hetu you have said that - since this vyavahara is born of the knowledge of the self being different from the body, therefore this vyavahra should not be based on adhyaasa - is not correct. Because this knowledge is not good enough to dismiss adhyaasa. Like you cannot say that this person cannot be angry because he is educated. There was a great surgeon who had done a lot of pioneering work in surgery. He was a great genius but he had a problem of short temper. He had predicted his death that he will die of heart attack after anger. Imagine how much anger he must have to make this prediction . Suppose you give this anumanampratigna –ayam purushah krodha rahita.This person is free from anger. hetu- shikshitatvat .Because he is educated. udaharanam- vyatirekena pashuvat .Unlike pashu. This hetu is aprayojakah. It is not good enough. Education does not make a person free form anger. So shisksitatva is aproyojakah hetuh. A hetu which does not accomplish the job of establishing sadhyam,pratigna is called aprayojakah hetuh. It does not do its job. Similarly dehabhinna atma jnana janyatva hetuh is aprayojakah. Even though he has got this knowledge, it is not good enough to neutralize adhyaasa. There is bhoktrtva adhyaasa, kartrtva adhyaasa and they will continue even after knowing that you are different from the body. So Siddanti accepted that this person has got clear knowledge of atma being different from the body, but still he will continue to have adhyaasa. Siddanti goes a step further. He says infact we doubt is knowledge of atma being different from the body. How ? Suppose a Buddhipurvakari is doing jyotistima yaga . Only a brahmana is qualified to do this yaga. So he has to feel he is a brahmana to do this yaga. So on one side he feels he is different from the body, but on the other side he is identifying with the body. If he says he is a brahmana that means he is identifying with the body. If he says I will enjoy svarga that means he feels he is not this body. It means his knowledge of himself being different from the body is not aparoksha jnanam. Like sometimes during war we identify so much with the country. There is so

much patriotism. But that patriotism does not come when you have to pay tax or when you have to keep your neighbourhood clean. It means our patriotism is just some emotional outburst. Similarly I am different from this body that jnanam is also not firm. Because if the knowledge was firm then you would not claim yourself to be brahmana. So one side you are saying I am brahmana and on the other side you are saying I am different from the bdy. What it means is you are confused. If you are a brahmana then you cannot be a bhokta in svarga loka and if you are a bhokta in svarga loka then you are different from the body. Therefore you cannot be brahmana. So you cannot be both. But you have combined both things that I am a brahmana and I am a bhokta. It is something like saying that I am dumb speaking eloquently. Mama mukhe jivah nasti – In my mouth there is no tongue. Sastra is addressing only to a confused person. What atma jnanam is there is paroksha jnanam and adhyaasa is aparoksha and aparoksha adhyaasa cannot be neutralized by paroksha jnanam. So adhyaasa continues.

Dec 28 – Ques & Ans:
1) What are the three conclusions required to do vaidika karma ? i) I am a bhokta. ii) I belong to a certain category. iii) I travel from one body to another body. 2) By which three words these three conclusions are dismissed ? i) Asanayadyatitam -one who is beyond hunger and thirst. This dimises the bhoktrtva conclusion. ii) Apetabrahmakshatradibhedam – One who is free from division into brahmana, kshatriya,etc. This dismisses the conclusion about belonging to any category. iii) Asamsaryatmatattvam – One who is not a trasmigrator. This dismisses the conclusion about traveling from one body to another. 3) What is the other conclusion dismissed by the word asamsari ? Samsari means a person who is swinging along with the conditions of the mind which sometimes has sukhitva and sometimes dukhitva abhimani. Atma does not become sukhi or dukhi. It is sukha svarupah means its nature is limitless ananda. 4) How does the knowledge of the second implication of the word asamsari dismiss the adhikara for a person to do karma ? ie, how is it opposed to karma? Karma is to be done by a person who wants to have sukham. But one who knows he is sukha svarupah then he will not have any desire. Like we are all disqualified to travel to Bangalore, because we are aleady in Bangalore. 5) Does the person who is doing karma have full conviction that he is different from the body ? No. Because one side he thinks he is a Brahman and the other side he thinks he will go to svarga and enjoy the results of his karma.


What is the contradictory aspect of it ? Claiming himself to be a Brahmana shows that he has identification with the body and at the same time he thinks he is different from the body and will survive the death of the body. Therefore he is confused. Being buddhipurvakari he thinks , but does not think all the way. Note : The problem is we don’t think completely. If we did we would hardly do any karma. The more you think more things will drop. If we think the fire of viragyam is kindled. 6) Which sentence gives the idea that the confused person is addressed by Vedas ? Prak ca tatha bhutatma vijnanat pravartamanam sastram avidyavadvishayatvam nativartate. Sastra operates before there is self knowledge and does not transgress its status of adressing a person who has adhyaasa. Talk 57 – Dec 28 : Bhashyakara is showing that even for sastriya vyavahara, adhyaasa is required. Because for any vyavahara you should have the conclusion about yourself as karta, bhokta. These conclsusions can stick only to pramata not to shudh atma. Therefore pramatrtvam has to be there for kartrtvam,etc to come and pramatrtvam itself is based on adhyaasa. Therefore all vyavavaharas whether laukika or vaidika presuppose adhyaasa. Even though some vaidika vyavaharas required this particular knoweldge that you are different from the body,but this knoweldge is not enough to neutralize adhyaasa completely. The knowledge required is that I am asanayadyatitam, apetabrahma kshatradibhedam and asamsariatmatattvam . But this knowledge is not necessary for doing karma. It is anupayogad. Not only that it is adhikara virodacca. Infact it dismisses or contradicts with adhikara. Like if I get the information that somebody died in our family and I have got sutaka. This knowledge that ,” I have sutaka” is not useful to do karma. Infact it is contradictory to my doing karma. Purity has to be there to do karma and this purity is affected by this sutaka. Therefore such a person is temporarily disqualified. Based on this fact somewhere in the Upanishads, a wise person is expressing his feelings about sandhyopasanam. He says I have got sutaka so how can I perform sandhyavandanam ? What sort of sutaka does he have ? Mrta mohamayi mata, jato bodha mayah sutah. Sutaka dvayasampraptau katham sandhyam upasamahe. He says I have double sutaka. My mother moha is dead and a son in the form of knowledge is also born. So I have double sutaka so how can I do sandhyaandanam ? Sandhyavandanam is representative of all karmas. Here disqualification is not a negative thing. It does not create any frustration. Like a person who is healthy is disqualified from being hospitalized. You dont feel bad about it. It is a good thing. Therefore adhikara-virodha is not something to be considered as a loss. Infact it can be considered to be a glory. So with this knowledge a person is disqualified from karma. Another way of seeing these 3 adjectives – asanayadyatitam,apeta .….. by one commentator.

One meaning of asanayadyatitam already seen is that tma is free from bhoktrtvam. So one who has atma jnanam is disqualified since he does not have bhoga iccha which is a required qualification for karma. Somebody may argue that for kamya karma you need bhoga iccha. This person has jnanam that atma is asanyadyatittam, so desire is no there to do kamya karma. But what about nitya karma ? According to mimamsakas, nitya karma you are supposed to do whether you have desire or not. They are not meant to fulfill desire, they are your duty. Therefore the second adjective is there with regard to nitya karma –apetabrahmakshatradibhedam. Even this nitya karma has to be done based on your identification. Only a person who belongs to this brahmanatva category is supposed to do nitya karma. So nitya karma is also not applicable. That is the significance of the second adjective. Somebody may ask that for vihita karma - brahma kshatriya division is required. For kamya karma bhoga-iccha is required and both are dismissed. But for doing certain upasanas you don’t require any categories. There are some upasanas where you identify yourself with Virat Hiranyagarbha. There you don’t have bhoga-iccha nor categorization . Still there is vaidika Vyavahara. Therefore there can be vaidika vyavahara without adhyaasa . For this purpose the third adjective is given – asamsari. Antahkarnadisu abhimana rahitah. Asamsari means free from even identification with antahkarana. Upaasana is possible when I have this upaasaka bhava and therefore upaasana is possible when I have identification with antahkarana. Whereas atma is free from even this antahkarna dharma. Therefore even in upaasana adhyaasa is there. So one who has this atma jnanam becomes free from this karma. Any karma done by anybody implies there is a vacuum inside. Even if you do social service implies some vacuum. But the social service vacuum is beter than the self-centered vacuum. But that also implies some vacuum. When a person is free from this vacuum completely, he is free from this karma. No action is possible. Before that whatever he does is based on adhyaasa. Infact even a person who is doing sravanam, mananam and nidhidhyasanam has some adhyaasa. Because he thinks he has to discover oneness with Brahman. So he has the conclusion still that he is a jiva though he is trying to get rid of it. He has only apatata jnanam –unassimilated knowledge . This paroksha jnanam is not capable enough of destroying aparoksha bhrama. Therefore aparoksha bhrama continues even in sravanadi vyavahara so what to talk about other vyavaharas. So before assimilated atma jnanam comes any vyavahara done, behind them there is adhyaasa. Another point raised is - This person is telling on one side that I am going to survive death of this body and at the same time he is telling , “I am a brahmana”. It means he is confused. How can this confusion be there ? One reason is that his knowledge that he is different from the body is not very firm. It is not complete and that is why he does some activities. Another reason is that this person who is doing the karma for svarga even though he has some knowledge that he is different from the body. But he has one conclusion that I am an individual bhokta, I am karta and I am doing this karma which will give me svarga.

It means this person has identification with sukshma sarira. Suppose we accept that he has got the knowledge of atma being different from the body, therfore he has got some disidentificaton form the body. But he has got identification with sukshma sarira. Because he says I am karta , bhokta and both kartrtvam and bhoktrtvam belong to sukshma sarira. And sukshma sarira is connected with sthula sarira. So sthula sarira also gets connectedwith atma. Like suppose I am havng a function in my house and I don’t want to invite Mr X who I don’t like. But Mr X is closely associated with Mr Y who is going be the VIP of the function and both X & Y are close friends and wherever they go, they go together. So even though I don’t invite Mr X and Mr Y is invited and I am giving him red carpet treatment. And when red carpet is spread for Mr Y , Mr X will also walk along with him because he is connected with Mr Y. Similarly I am identifying with sukshma sarira and sukshma sarira is closely associated with sthula sarira. Therefore again I come back to the same state and again I conclude myself to be Brahmana. Logically it should not happen . When I know I am different from the body, I should be able to disidentify from the body. But because bhoktratva abhimana is there identification with sukshma sarira is there and therefore sthula sarira abhimana comes. Like I don’t like my mother-in-law but I am associated with my spouse and thro’ my spouse I am indirectly connected to her. So I cannot dismiss her completely. Similarly sthula sarira identification comes again and then bheda-abheda both happens. I feel I am different from the body and I feel I am brahmana, etc. That is called tadatmyam and that is how identification with the body continues. How to remove this sthula sarira tadatmyam completely ? Sastra says that if you do sukshma sarira viveka then sthula sarira viveka will be established. So to stabilize sthula sarira viveka we have to do sukshma sarira viveka. Similarly sukshma sarira viveka will be complete when karana sarira viveka is done. The final axe has to fall on karana sarira. But I cannot start with karana sarira viveka. I have to start with sthula sarira viveka but admit that sthula sarira viveka is not complete. Then I have to go to second stage and do sukshma sarira viveka , then only sthula sarira viveka is complete. And when karana sarira viveka is done then only sukshma sarira viveka becomes complete. So when we go to the next stage the previous stage becomes complete. We see that even in our experience while attending Vedanta classes. Class I will give some clarity, but with class 2 we get more clarity. But class 2 will give complete clarity only when we have attended class 1. Same thing happens here. You have to start and do only sthula sarira viveka first to whatever extent possible, but admit that it is not complete. Then go to sukshma sarira viveka and sthula sarira viveka will be stabilised. Then go to karana sarira viveka , then sukshma sarira viveka will be stabilised. Karana sarira viveka means knowing myself to be asanayadititam, apetabrahmakshatradibhedam, asamsariatmatattvam. When that happens only, adhyaasa at all the levels gets stabilized. That is why Bhagvan Bhashyakara says that the knowledge that I am different from the body is not enough to neutralize adhyaasa completely. Finally this knowledge has to be assimilated, then only adhyaasa at all the levels gets neutralized. Infact before even sthula sarira viveka, we have

mamakara with external objects which has to be neutralized first and that is neutralized completely when sthula sarira viveka is done. So we can say we have 4 layers – first is this external object, then this gross body, subtle body and then causal body. You start this viveka with respect to external objects, then you come to sthula sarira viveka. Until this is complete some subjectivity with regard to external object remains. When sthula sarira viveka is complete, then the next one is done. To the extent possible you do the first and then come to the second. The sukshma sarira viveka will be complete only when karana sarira viveka is there. When the innermost layer viveka is complete , then only the outerlayer viveka will be complete. Ofcourse when you have started sthula sarira viveka , then the subjectivity with respect to outermost layer consisting if external objects becomes less. When you go to sukshma sarira viveka then sthula sarira viveka is further stabilized and the outermost layer also will get further stabilized. But complete neutralization will happen only when karana sarira viveka in the form of attainment of knowledge of the self as asanayadyatitam has taken place. Otherwise this confusion remains for a long time. When the karana sarira viveka in the form of knowleedge of atma as asanayadyatitam has come, then this knowledge is not useful to karma. Infact it is opposed to karma. No karma is possible. As you go inside in your viveka, your karma will be reduced. As your mamakara with external objects and people is reduced to that extent your activity is reduced. With reference to sthula sarira so many activities to decorate this body will all be reduced. As your viveka goes up pravrtti goes down. When karana sarira viveka is complete then there is no activity. It is not something to be regretted. It is not that he cannot do, so he is not doing. Like you want to go out and you are restricted from going. Then you feel bad. But here he has no need to achieve anything by doing any action more action and he does not feel the need to do any action also. No need to prove anything to anybody. That person does not need to do any karma and because of his viveka his karma gets reduced. He remains samadhisthah. That is why Bhashyakara says virodacca. But till then he continues to do karma and adhyaasa also continues . That was said in - prak ca tatha bhutatma………. Then example was given - brahmano yajet ityadini sastrani…. Different types of adhyaasa are taken into consideration and karma is prescribed by sastra. With this arthapatti and anumana pramanam is complete. In the opening statement 3 pramanams were mentioned –pratyaksha,arthapatti and anumanam. The latter two are almost the same. Pratyaksha was suggested by ‘etam’ and Arthapatti was also suggested by that vakyam . The vakhyam said – All these vyavaharas are there presupposing adhyaasa. All these vyavaharas are upapadya and adhyaasa is upapadaka. So upapadaya jnanena upapdaka jnanam. In this manner, Arthapatti was suggested. Pravrtti becomes the basis for presuming adhyaasa. In anumanam format it can be said – Based on the linga of vyavahara, this adhyaasa was inferred. Then doubt was raised that this vyavahara is based on adhyaasa can be said with respect to vyavahara of ajnani purushah only, not of a wise person. That particular doubt was resolved by the sentence pasvadibhischavisesat. Further doubt was raised this adhyaasa-based vyavahara is with reference to laukika vyavahara not sastriya vyvahara. This doubt was dimsissd thro’ the sentence -sastriye tu vyavahara.

Thus it was shown that whether vyavahara is laukika or vaidika, adhyaasa will be there. Because in any vyavahara kartrtva, bhoktrtva conclusion is there. That concluison does not go away unless self knowledge comes and if self knowledge is there vyavahara will not be there. Thus adhyaasa has to be there as the basis in any type of vyavahara. Thus arthaptti or anumanam was given as the pramanam for adhyaasa. Now Bhagvan B hashyakara wants to highlight pratyaksha pramana which was referred earlier by etam. Or he wants to show where adhyaas is and of what. At every level what is superimposed upon atma ? How adhyaasa of atma on anatma and of anatma on atma happens ? In two ways the next topic is going to be connected – i) Pratyaksha pramanam is highlighted. ii) where and of what adhyaasa is there is clarified . He wants to talk elaborately about how atma-anatma adhyaasa is there at different layers of anatma . Before talking about atma-anatma adhyaasa, Bhagwan Bhashyakara thinks we may have forgotten the definition of adhyaasa. Therefore he gives the definition of adhyaasa. The definition given by Bhashyakara earlier- smritirupah paratra purva drstava bhaasah. Bhashyakara puts the same definition in different words making it more simple. One commentator says this –Bhasyakara thinks that arthapatii was highlighted so much that shishyas may have got lost in it. He can just ask us to refer back. But out of compassion Bhahsyakara reminds us the definition again. He is not teaching but just reminder is done in the next sentence. Adhyaaso nama atasmin tad buddhih iti avochama. This is one of the popular sentence of adhyaasa bhashyam. Avochama means –we said or told. Iti means thus. It means we have already said that Adhyaasa is atasmin tad buddhi. This was said by the sentence- paratra purva drstavabhaasah. So adhyaasa is atasmin tad buddhih. Simple literal translation of this is – that cognition in non- that is adhyaasa. Let us understand this with respect to the example of the pot. In the pot example we say this is a pot and you are seeing a pot. With regard to this pot you have pot knowledge. In sanskrit we say - Ghate ghata buddhih. Why do we say something obvious that we know pot as a pot ? Because somebody may see pot from a distance and see it as a ball. Then we say ghate kanduka-buddhih. This is possible, therefore it is specified and Ghate ghata buddhih is yathartha jnanam or right knowledge. Pot knowledge with regard to pot is called valid knwoeldge. Similarly pustake pustaka buddhih is also valid knowledge. Also pate pata buddhih is yathartha jnanam. In sanskrit after saying so many things, if we want to generalize we use pronouns –yah, sah. Yah vidyavan sah keertiman bhavati. So the pronoun generalizes everything. Instead of saying Rama or Krishna is vidyavan, so Rama or Krishna is keertiman. Similarly we have given so many examples here - ghate ghata buddhih, ptte pata buddhih, sthanau sthana buddhih……now I am generalizing tasmin tad buddhih. In place of ghate, pate,sthanau I am putting tasmin. Sowe can say - tasmin tad buddhih yathartha jnanam.

Suppose in sanskrit we want to say - the pot which is not a kanduka. We say akanduka . It is something which is different , not that. Ghate akanduke kanduka buddhih ayathartha jnanam or brahma ie, In the pot which is not a ball, there is ball cognition. Similarly sthanau apurushe purusha buddhih. This is ayathartha jnanam. Rajau asarpe sarpa buddhih is brhamah or ayathartha jnanm Sukthau arajate rajat buddhih is adhyaasa. In sukthi which is not a silver in that there is silver cognition. In simple words - Seeing something where it is not there is athasmin tad buddhih. What is there is sukti and what we are seeing is rajat. So rajat (tat) which is not there is seen in shukti. After all these examples you generalize, ‘cognition of that (tat) where it is not there.’ That sort of cognition is called adhyaasa. Mathematically speaking we say - Seing X in Y where Y is not equal to X is adhyaasa. This equation is mainly with reference to jnana adhyaasa. Artha adhyaasa is understood. That which is understood can also be called buddhih. But mainly it refers to jnana dhyaasa. So adhyaasa is – seeing something where it is not there. What is there is different , it is Mr Y and you are seeing it differently, you are seeing Mr X. This is a simple way of seeing , but there is a more intricate way of seeing this by using nyaya sastra terminology.

Talk 58 – Ques & Ans :
1) What is the type of karma dismissed by the word - asanayadyatitam ? How ? The word asanayadyatitam dismisses kamya karma. To do kamya karma, bhoga iccha is required. For bhoga iccha, bhoga should be there and for bhoga, bhoktrtvam should be there. All three are not there in a person who knows himself to be asanayadyatitam . He understands himself to be abhokta. Since bhoga iccha is not there, kamya karma is not there. 2) What is the karma dismissed by the word – apetabrahmakshatradibhedam ? How ? To have the adhikara to do nitya karma, one should have the conclusion that I am brahmana, kshatriya, etc . A person who understands himself to be apetabrahmakshatradibhedam does not have this sense of division. So he will not have the adhikara to do nitya karma. 3) What is the karma dismissed by asamsari ? How? Asamsari dismisses upaasana karma. For doing upaasana one has to have upaasaka bhava. For having upaasaka bhava one has to have identification with antahkarana. One who has this identification with antahkarana is called samsari. Wheras atma is asamsari. Once a person discovers that he is free from the dharmas of antahkarana ie, he is asamsari, then he is not an upaasaka and cannot do any upaasana.


4) What was the connection between the explanation of asanayadyatitam and apetabrahmakshatradibhedam ? Question may be asked - Asanayadyatitam negates only kamya karma but what about nitya karma ? To answer that nitya karma is also not possible apetabrahmakshatradibhedam is said. 5) What is the connection between apetabrahmakshatradibhedam and asamsari ? Even after knowing myself to be asanayadyatitam and apetabrhama… I can do upaasna. Because to do upaasana you need neither bhoga iccha nor do you have to belong to any category. Asamsari dismisses upaasana because a person who understands himself to be asamsari will not have upaasaka abhimana . 6) Is there any contradiction in a person who is budhipurvakari having knowledge of parloka phalaka karma and also he thinks himself to be brahmana ? One side his knowledge seems to be that he his different from the body and on the other side he is identifying with the body and thinks himself to be a brahmana. So there is a contradiction in his understanding. 7) How does this contradictory knowledge that I am different from the body and I am a brahmana co-exist in the same person ? His knowledge of being different from the body is paroksha jnanam and on the other hand his identification with the body has been there and it is aparoksha jnanam for him. It is very intimate to him. Therefore these two types of jnanam can co-exist. Therefore this paroksha jnanam that I am different from the body is not capable of removing aparoksha brhama that “I am the body”. Therefore the two knowledges co-exist that - I am the body and I am different from the body. Note : Two paroksha opposite jnanam can co-exist, two opposite knowledge in which one is paroksha and the other is aparoksha also can co-exist, but two aparoksha opposite jnanam cannot co-exist. 8) What is the other reason why these 2 types of knowledge co-exist ? The knowledge that he is different from the body belongs to the sthula sarira. But the knowledge I am bhokta, etc implies kartrvam, bhoktrtvam which belongs to sukshma sarira. This person has sthula sarira viveka but does not have sukshma sarira aviveka. The sukshma sarira is very closely connected to the sthula sarira , so the self gets connected to the sthula sarira and he again comes back to sthula sarira adhyaasa and considering himself to be a brahmana he performs karma. What did we derive from this ? Sthula sarira adhyaasa will not go completely unless sukshma sarira viveka is done. Sukshma sarira will not be complete unless Karana sarira viveka is done.

9) What is the nature of karana sarira viveka ? Knowing atma to be asanayadyatitam, apetabrahmakshatradibhedam, asamsaryatmatattvam is Karana sarira viveka. Karana sarira is consisting of ignorance. Viveka from ignorance means removal or neutralization of ajnanam. Sthula sarira viveka will be complete, when karana sarira viveka is complete. 10) Which is that step to be completed before sthula sarira viveka ? Identifying with external objects in the form of mamakara has to be first neutralized before sthula sarira viveka is completed. We have to first start with mamakara visaya, then do sthula sarira viveka and then sukshma sarira viveka and finally karana sarira viveka. 11) Sthula sarira viveka will be possible when viveka is done with reference to mamakara visaya and mamakara visaya viveka is complete only when sthula sarira viveka is done. Isn’t this a Catch 22 situation? What is the solution to this mutual dependence between the two ? We have to start with mamakara visaya enough to take us to the next stage of sthula sarira viveka. When sthula sarira viveka is done, then only mamakara visaya viveka will be complete. Similarly sthula sarira viveka is complete only when sukshma sarira viveka is complete. They are linked. So some residues get carried forward and it gets reduced only when the next one is done. 12) What is the example for this ? We have to attend class 1 to understand class 2. Similarly we have to attend the adhyaasa bhashyam class before fruitfully reading the transcription. Otherwise transcription will not make sense. Without transcription full clarity may not come. Only class and no transcription also clarity does not come. 13) What does the next topic deal with ? Bhashyakara is going to deal next with pratyaksha pramana and also he is going to deal with adhyaasa of where on what. Before that he is restating the definition of adhyaasa again. 14) What other pramanas were given to establish adhyaasa earlier? Arthapatti and anumana parmanam. 15) What is the nature of Anumanam pramanam for proving adhyaasa ? Devadutta kartrtka vyavaharah adhyaasa mulaka, tad anvaya vyatirekanusaritvat pasvadivat. Vyavahara follows the presence and absence of adhyaasa like pashu vyavahara. Seeing vyavahara we infer adhyaasa. This is anumanam pramanam for establishing adhyaasa. 16) What is the nature of Arthapatti pramanam for establishing adhyaasa ? Upapadya jnanena upapadaka kalpanam.

Here upapadya which is the effect is vyavahara and upapadaka which is the cause is adhyaasa. By seeing the effect ie, vyavahara we postulate the cause ie, adhyaasa. This is arthapatti pramanam for adhyaasa. 17) What is the definition of adhyaasa given here ? Atasmin tad buddhih. Literal translation is - cognition of that on non-that. Implied meaning is - Seeing something where it is not there. 18) What does - iti uvochama - mean ? Thus we said earlier. Where was it said ? In Lakshana bhashyam adhyaasa was defined as - smritirupah paratra purva drstavabhaasah. 19) What is the definition of yathartha jnanam ? Tasmin tad buddhih –seeing something where it is. Eg: Ghate ghata buddhih –seeing pot as pot. 20) Why do we say the obvious – seeing pot as pot ? Because there is a possibility of seeing pot as something else. Eg : ghate akanduke kanduka buddhih. Akanduka means different from ball. Seeing the pot which is not a ball as a ball is ayathartha jnanam. Note: Here ghate is used in the sense of visaya saptami. It is used in the sense of in the matter of or with regard to. Eg: He is expert in dice. This is different from saptami vibhakti which is used in the sense of location. Eg: He lives in the forest . If cognition is of A in X and the locus of that particular quality A is X only. So when A is seen in the locus of X, then that knowledge is Yathartha jnanam. Knowledge is then matching the reality. Like ghatatva (A) is seen in ghata (X) is jnanam which is matching the reality - ghatatva is in the object ghata. So ghate ghata buddhih, pate pata buddih. Generalizing we say- tasmin tad buddhih.

345 Talk 58 – Jan 4 :
Adyaasa is atasmin tad buddhih . It means cognition of something in X which is not in X. This happens to us several times in life. What is there is something and we see something else. In vyavahara it happens a lot. Someone may have good intention. But in good intention we see bad intention. Then we feel bad. Like one gentleman was coming by auto looking for the place where Swamiji resides. The driver was speaking in kannada and this gentleman did not know kannada. The driver was murmuring something and the man thought that he is angry at not finding the place and he is murmuring impatiently. So the man got a little irritated and then told the driver to drop him and go if he was late. Then the other man explained that this driver is feeling bad that his old gentleman passenger will suffer since he does not know the place. So he felt he must find the correct place and drop him. So the driver had good intention, but the gentleman understood it as bad intention. Shubha bhavanayam ashubha bhavanaropanam. This happens to us several times in life. Someone says something and we misunderstand it to be something else. We have to be objective about misunderstanding. Wherever Mr Understanding is possible, Miss Understanding also can come. When understanding is possible misunderstanding is also possible. One should have the objectivity, maturity to accept that you can be misunderstood. If you have a value for not being misunderstood, then you should take extra steps not to be misunderstood by giving more and more clarity so that from your side there is no ambiguity. Still there is no guarantee , but it will reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. But if somebody wants to misunderstand you, then it will happen. But the misunderstanding may not last long if you are consistent in your honesty. Finally truth will prevail but you don’t know when it will happen. This is useful to follow in vyavahara. But here it is with respect to atma –anatma. Atasmin means atmani or anatami ie, in atma or in anatma. Tad buddhih – anatma buddhih or atma buddhih. What is there is atma is taken as anatma and also the other way round. What is there is anatma and you take it as atma. This is called adhyaasa. Like for example – body is anatma - atasmin ie, in body. Tad buddhih ie, cognition of atma . This is adhyaasa. We will understand atasmin tad buddhih in a more sophisticated and more intricate manner. It may sound difficult only because you are not equipped with the tools of Sanskrit grammar. The language is a little subtle so do not feel unnerved if you do not understand fully. This is the way it is. The definition we had seen about jnanam –tasmin tad buddhih. First we will understand how the Naiyayikas looked upon knowledge. Knowledge is something like light . Light illumines various objects, similarly knowledge reveals objects. What knowledge reveals is called visaya.

For Eg: In pot knowledge pot is visaya. We have got ghata visayaka jnanam ie, Knowledge having pot as visaya. Ka indicates having. Similarly we have pata visayaka jnanam. Jnanam is objectifying ghata,pata etc. which are called objects. The counterpart of the objects ie, the knowledge is called visayi ,the subject. That which is revealed is visaya and one which is revealing is called visayi. The object or visya has got 2 aspects – i) Viseshya – what is known and ii) Viseshanam – what you know it as. So pot is visesya and potness is viseshanam. Ghatam ghatatvena janati. He knows the pot as the one having the potness. The Naiyayikas use another word - prakarah - when talking about the viseshanam of knowledge . So the knowledge ayam ghatam can be said to have ghatam or pot as the visesya and ghatatvam or potness as the viseshanam or prakarah. So the knowledge will have 2 aspects depending upon these 2 factors. One is ghata visesya and the other is ghatatva viseshanam. So it can be said - ghata visesyakam ghatatva viseshanakam or prakarakam jnanam. Kam means having. The knowledge which is having ghata as the visesya and the ghatatva as the viseshana or prakarah, that jnanam is called ghata jnanam. So according to Naiyayikas, ayam ghatah jnanam is - ghata vishesyakam ghatatva prakarakam jnanam. This knowledge of ghata visesya and ghatatva prakarakah is valid knowledge. Similarly pata visesyam and patatva prakarakam is valid knowledge. So the knowledge for which the visesya is having prakara, that type of knowledge is Yathartha jnanam. The knowledge of visesya is such that it is having prakari bhuta dharma. That sort of knowledge is called yathartha jnanam. In more general form we can say- tadvat visesyakam, tad prakarakam jnanam , yathartha jnanam. When the prakara of the knowledge is present in the visesya , then that knowledge is said to be yathartha jnanam. In ghata ghatatva is ther , therefore this knowledge is valid knowledge. Tadvat means having that ie, having prakarah. Knowledge of a particular attribute which is really there in the substantive , then that knowledge is called yathartha jnanam. ie, The knowledge of something known to have the quality which it really has , that type of knowledge is known as Yathartha jnanam. Like knowledge of a pot as having potness and the the reality of the pot really having the quality of potness , that type of knowledge is yathartha jnanam. The potness is prakarah. Generalising we say- tadvat viseshakam tad prakarakam jnanam, yathartha jnanam. In a little simpler words it is presented as - tadvati tad prakarakam jnanam. In Sanskrit grammar when we want to say that somebody has something we add ‘vat’ pratyaya. Like one who has got putra is called putravat. One who has dhanam is called dhanavat. One who has a house is called grhavati. Suppose I want to say in rich man then we say– dhanavati . Putravati is in a person having a son. It is the seventh case. Similarly “one who has got that”- is called tadvat and “in the one who has tad” – is translated in sasnkrit as tadvati. With regard to that visesya, knowledge of that is there, then such knowledge is yathartha jnanam.


With example- ghatatvavati ghate ghatatva prakarakam jnanam yathartha jnanam. The knowledge of the attribute potness with regard to the pot which is having the potness . This jnanam is calle Yathartha jnanam. Or the knowledge of the pot having the potness is called yathartha jnnam. This is just to show you a very different way of seeing. In the case of Ayathartha jnanam it is – Tad abhavavat viseshakam tad prakarakam jnanam. Suppose you have got the knowledge of a ball (kandukatva prakarakam jnanam) in the pot. In the pot there is no ballness ie, absence of ballnes . The pot will be called tad abhavat . So the pot that is having the absence of ballnes is the vishesya for the knowledge and the ballnes is the prakara of the knowledge. That type of knowledge is Ayathartha jnanam. Pot which is having the absence of ballness is the visesya and the ballness will be the prakara for the knowledge. That type of knowledge is called ayathartha jnanam. In other words the prakarah is not possessed by the vishesya ie, the vishesya is not the abode for the prakara. That type of knowledge is called Ayathartha jnanam. Simple rule is When visesya is the adhikarna or abode of prakara then that type of knowledge is yathartha jnanam. When visesya is the adhikarana for the absence of prakara then that type of knoweldge is ayathartha jnanam. Stated simplyTad abhavati tad prakarakam jnanam ayathartha jnanam. Like kandukatva abhavavati ghate kandukatva prakarakam jnanam is ayathartha jnanam. This is the Nayayikas way of looking at knowledge. Generally when we have knowledge both viseshana and visesya are revealed. Like ghata and ghatatva are both revealed in knowledge of ghata . So generally our knowledge is yathartha jnanam. But sometimes the visesya is reflected in the jnanam but the viseshanam is not reflected. One aspect of visaya is visesya which is revealed, without revealing the other aspect which is viseshanam. Like pot is revealed but potness is not revealed and you have samskara of some otherness like ballness . So the ballness ie, viseshana is mixed up with the pot. Then we get the knowledge of ballness on the pot. That is how ayathartha jnanam comes where the visesya is known and viseshanam is not known. A similar thing was said earlier in samanya and visesya jnanam . But Naiyayikas talk in this language. Visesya is known, viseshanam is not known. Ghata is known, ghatatva is not known. What is there in front (visesya) that is objectified, but how it is that (viseshanam) is not objectified. The visesya is not reflected along with its viseshanam. So the visesya is mistaken for something else that is how bhrama or adhyaasa is there.

348 Jan 11 – Ques & Ans :
1) What is the meaning of tad buddhih ? Tad buddhih means cognition of that. That refers to the object which is experientially known. 2) What is tasmin ? Tasmin means in that. Here the seventh case referred to by the word ‘in’ is in the sense of visaya saptami. Tasmin tad buddhih means cognition of that with regard to that. Eg: vane vasati –vane is adhikaranam or jale madhuryam asti –jale is adhikaranam All these are adhikarna saptami. Adhikaranam is container or abode in which something else is contained. There are various type of saptami vibhakti and this is called adhikarna saptami. But here it is not that way. In the object there is no cognition. The adhikarana for cognition is the mind. Therefore here this is not adhikarna saptami. Suppose you say manasi jnanam knowledge in the mind, then it is adhikarna saptami. But here it is different. It is like sastre kushalah-expert in sastra, nyaye kusalah-expert in nyaya. It is not that his expertise is inside sastra. Here it means ‘with respect to’ which is different from locative or adhikarna ‘in’. So here it is in the sense of visaya saptami - with regard to , in the matter of. 3) What is the meaning of avochama ? Avochama means we told . Where is it said earlier ? In Lakshana Bhashyam – Smritirupah paratra purvadrstavabhaasah. 4) What is the definition of Yatharta jnanam according to Vedantin? Tasmin tad buddhih – Cognition of that with regard to that. ie, Seeing something that is there. Means what is seen and what is known is the same, then it is called Yathartha jnanam. Cognition of X with regard to X is Yatharta jnanam. Story : A robber used to loot people for so many years. Afterwards his son became a robber. He also use to rob people but along with robbing , he also use to beat people. So people used to say that his father was better. The father only robbed people did not beat them. Similarly we felt Vedantin’s definition of knowledge was difficult earlier, but compared to the Naiyayikas, the Vedantin’s definition is better. 5) What is the definition of Ayathartha jnanam according to Vedantin ? Atasmin tad buddhih – Seeing something where it is not there.

6) From what angle is the definition ‘ atasmin tad buddhih ’ given ? It is from the angle of jnana adhyaasa. Because it is in terms of the knowledge being superimposed, not the thing. 7)What is revealed by knowledge ? Visaya is revealed by knowledge. Knowledge which is revealed is called visayi or subject. 8)What are the 2 aspects of visaya ? The 2 aspects of visaya are - Vishesya or substantive and Vishesanam or the adjective which qualifies the substantive. Eg : pink clip – pink is vishesanam and clip is vishesya. 9)What is the other word used for vishesanam with respect to knowledge ? Vishesanam is called prakarah by the Naiyayikas. 10)What is the difference between prakara and vishesanam ? There is a slight difference. Vishesanam in the context of knowledge is called Prakarah . So prakarah is vishesanam, but all viseshanam will not be prakarah. Vishesanam is a wider term and in the context of knowledge it becomes prakarah. Attribute which is objectified by knowledge is prakarah. 10) What is the vishesya and vishesanam in the knowledge –“ this is a pot ” ? The vishesya is ghatah and the viseshanam is ghatatvam. 11) How do we present this pot knowledge in the language of Naiyayika? Ghata viseshyakam ghatatva prakarakam jnanam is this ghata jnanam Ghata vishesyakam - having pot as vishesya or substantive. Ghatatva viseshanakam – having potness as the attribute. This is yathartha jnanam. 12) What does ‘ka’ indicate ? It means – ‘having’. 13)What is the definition of Yathartha jnanam according to Naiyayikas ? Knowledge in which something is known as having the attribute which it really has. Tadvat viseshyakam tad prakarakam jnanam. Or tadvati tad prakarakam jnanam. When the viseshya is the adhikarnam of the prakarah of the same knowledge, then it is Yatharta jnanam. Tadvati means – ‘in the one which has that ’ Tad refers to prakarah. Tad prakarakam jnanam means knowledge having tad as prakarah .

14)What is the example for yatharta jnanam given by Naiyayikas ? Ghatatvavati ghate ghatatva prakarakam jnanam is yathartha jnanam. Or ghatatvavat viseshyakam ghatatva prakarakam jnanam. Visheshya of knowledge is something which has got ghatatvam as viseshanam. 15) What is the defintition of Ayathartha jnanam ? Tadabhavavati tad prakarakam jnanam. The knowledge of a particular attribute with regard to something which does not have that attribute is called Ayatharta jnanam. Eg: Seeing the ballness in pot. 16)What is the example for Ayatharta jnanam ? Kandukatva abhavavati ghate kandukatva prakarakam jnanam. Knowledge of the ballness with regard to the pot which does not have ballness. 17) How does ayathartha jnanam take place according to Naiyayikas ? Visaya has two aspects – vishesya and vishesanam or prakarah. If both vishesya and viseshanam are reflected there is yatharta jnanam. When vishesyam is seen, but vishesanam is missed. Then because of samskara, some other viseshanam gets mixed up with the vishesya. That is why we get the knowledge of one visaya and the attribute of some other object ie, A vishesya and B vishesanam get confused. That type of knowledge is called Ayatharta jnanam. Note : This is being discussed from the onlookers standpoint who has the knowledge of the reality. The person who does not have this knowledge does not think this way. Otherwise he won’t have bhrama. What is happening to such a person is being said by a jnani purushah who has a clear picture of the reality. When you are misunderstanding, you do not think you are misunderstanding. If you knew you were misunderstanding then it will clear up very fast and you won’t react based on misunderstanding. So Sarpatva abhavati rajau sarpatva prakarakam jnanam is the description given by the person who has overall picture of the reality and an understanding of the mind of the person who has bhrama. The latter thinks sarpatvavati sarpatva prakarakam jnanam. He is seeing snakeness in something which he thinks has got snakeness. For him it is reality. Therefore he reacts based on this misunderstanding. But the person who knows the reality that it is tad abhavati will not react. Suppose I think somebody is cheating me I will react. But suppose I think he appears cheating but maybe he is not really cheating, then that will maybe not make me react, though I may protect myself. And when I know it is misunderstanding, then definitely you don’t react and even feel bad about it. So atasmin tad buddhi description is from onlookers standpoint only after understanding has come.

Question from students : i) What does the vishesya really refer to ? What is in front of you is vishesya ie, what is objectified or focused by knowledge is vishesya. In which form the vishesya is known is viseshanam. In simple words what is confronted is viseshya and in which form it is confronted is viseshanam. ii) When we say red pot, what is the viseshya and viseshanam ? Isn’t potness which is the intrinsic quality of the object, the viseshanam here ? When we say this is a pot, then pot is viseshya and potness is prakara of knowledge. Suppose you say red pot, then pot is viseshya. But potness is not viseshanam, the redness is viseshanam . The potness need not always be the viseshanam. When we say- big pot bigness is viseshanam. Only when we say - this is pot, then potness is viseshya. Because according to Naiyayikas in all savikalpa or object jnanam there is viseshya and viseshanam. We have to find out what is the viseshya and viseshanam. Viseshanam need not always be the intrinsic quality of the object. The prakara of knowledge depends on what is being focused on. If the focus is on red then redness is prakara. In knowledge how vishesya is highlighted as, is called viseshanam. Like in - this is pot, potness is highlighted. In - red pot redness is highlighted. This is the way Naiyayikas see.

Talk 59 – Jan 11 :
Adhyaasa nama atasmin tad buddhih iti avochama. We have said atasmin tad buddhih is adhyaasa. This was seen earlier in – smrtirupah paratra purva drstavabhaasah. He is reminding us of this definition because he wants to talk about atma-anatma adhyaasa. He wants to apply atasmin tad buddhih with reference to atma-anatma . Atasmin anatmani atma buddhih adhyaasah or atmani anatma buddhih adhyaasah. He will be showing the layers of adhyaasa. How different types of anatma are superimposed on atma. How different dharmas of anatma are superimposed upon atma and how atm ais uperimposed on anatma ? So there are two adhyaasas – One is dharma adhyaasa and the other is dharmi adhyaasa. First he is going to talk about dharma adhyaasa and later on he is going to talk about dharmi adhyaasa. How atma dharmi is superimposed on anatma. In dharma adhyaasa he is going to talk about how anatma dharma is superimposed on atma. Adhyaasa Bhashyam describes anatma as yushmat pratyaya gochara and atma as asmat pratyaya gochare. So yushmat pratyaya gochara dharmah asmat pratyaya gochare atmani adhyasyante . ie, The qualities of anatma which is the object of you thought are superimposed on atma which is the object of I thought. That is the topic discussed here.

Tadyatha – putrabharyadisu vikalesu sakalesu va aham eva vikalah sakalo bahyadharmanatmanyadhyasati, Tatha deha dharman – sthulaoham, krshoham, gauroham, tisthami, gachami, langayami ceti. Tathendriya dharman – mukah, kanah, klibah,badhirah, andhohamiti. Tathantahkarna dharman - kamasankalpavichikitsadhyavasaayadin. va iti

First we understand the translation. Then understand the finer points . Tadyatha - Thus in accordance with or for example. Putrabharyadisu vikalesu sakalesu va – when son ,wife and others are injured/ incomplete or when they are complete/intact. Ayameva vikalah sakalo va – I alone am injured/ incomplete or complete /intact . Iti bahyadharman atmani adhyasyati – Thus one superimposes external qualities on atma. i) Tatha dehadharman adhyasyati (you add) – Similarly one superimposes qualities of the body . How