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America atlas

America atlas

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Published by: Shahid Naseem on Jul 27, 2013
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CENTRAL AMERICA Central America, a part of North America, is a tropical isthmus that connects North America to South America

. It includes (7) countries and many small offshore islands. Overall, the land is fertile and rugged, and dominated through its heart by a string of volcanic mountain ranges that are punctuated by a few active and dangerous volcanos. Positioned in the planet's northern and western hemispheres the Central America isthmus is bordered in the northwest by the country of Mexico, and in the southeast by the country of Colombia. In addition, it's bordered by the Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean, and numerous bays, gulfs and inlets.

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GDP Total: $107.7 billion (2006) GDP per capita: $5,339 (2006) Major Languages: Spanish, English, Mayan languages and many others Population: (2009 est) Population Density: 77.2 km2 (29.8 sq mi)

Capital Cities: (see map) (by metro population)
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Guatemala City: 3,681,309 Managua: 2,105,000 San Jose: 1,715,485 Tegucigalpa: 1,324,000 Panama City: 1,272,672 San Salvador: 540,898 Belmopan: 20,000

Largest Countries: (by population - 2009 est)
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Guatemala: Honduras: El Salvador: Nicaragua: Costa Rica: Panama: Belize:

A piece of cloth, usually rectangular, of distinctive color and design, used as a symbol, standard, signal, or emblem of a nation, state, or organization.

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Size: 523,780 sq km, 202,000 sq miles Percent of Earth's Land: 0.1% Highest Point: Tajumulco Volcano, Guatemala, 13,845ft (4,220m) Lowest Point: Caribbean Sea, 0ft (0m) Geographic Center: The geographic center of Central America is 116 miles northeast of Lake Managua, Nicaragua Horizontal Width: From Guatemala's southwestern border with Mexico, directly east to the Caribbean Sea border of Honduras and Nicaragua: 595 miles (958 km) (see map) Vertical Length: From Belmopan, Belize directly southeast to Panama City, Panama: 880 miles (1,416 km) (see map) Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point, straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections. Central American Countries: (by LAND AREA)

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Nicaragua: 130,373 sq km Honduras: 112,090 sq km Guatemala: 108,890 sq km Panama: 78,200 sq km Costa Rica: 51,100 sq km Belize: 22,966 sq km El Salvador: 21,040 sq km (by POPULATION DENSITY)

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El Salvador: 292 per sq km Guatemala: 129 per sq km Costa Rica: 90 per sq km

all covered by mangrove swamp... El Salvador and Honduras. beautiful Zapatera Island. and the Cordillera de Talamanca running through Costa Rica and Panama... It was built by the. The Panama Canal extends across the Isthmus of Panama from Colon on the Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean Sea) side. the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Guatemala.. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.. and further to the south. lakes. especially eco-tourism types. The isthmus itself contains many volcanoes. as the istmus is geologically active.as the flora and fauna within the surrounding landscape continues to be a magnet for visitors.        The Great Blue Hole is a large underwater sinkhole off the coast of Belize. . . these landforms (volcanos) have devasted many cities and killed hundreds of people in Central America.    Honduras: 67 per sq km Nicaragua: 44 per sq km Panama: 44 per sq km Belize: 13 per sq km Regarding landforms. It's circular in shape. Lake Nicaragua has hundreds of islands. to Balboa and the Pacific Ocean. The lake's largest islands include Ometepe. In fact. while others are considered potentially active. Conception is still active while Maderas is dormant.. please follow the individual country links below: There are hundreds of interesting sites spread across Central America and these are but a few. rivers and more. including mountains. in modern times. here we locate and identify the major Central America volcanos. actually formed by the lava flow of two volcanoes. some are clearly dormant with unknown details on their last eruptions... The Maya constructed numerous sites around this beautiful lake . For addition information on Central America landforms. Gulf of Fonseca stretches inward from the Pacific Ocean for just over 41 miles and covers an estimated area of 700 sq. miles. and over 300 metres (984 ft) across and 124 metres (407 ft) deep.. the thirty-some islands of the Solentiname archipelago.and who could blame them . and home to a rich population of fish.. The fringes of this fertile volcanic landscape are indented by a seemingly endless series of winding lagoons . For additional info and links explore the individual countries on the map. with volcanic eruptions and subsequent earthquakes occurring on a somewhat frequent basis. the Cordillera Isabelia in Nicaragua. including an archipelago of over 350 tiny islets near the port city of Granada... Volcanoes of Central America are located along the Ring of Fire. Central America has many volcanic mountain ranges. Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centres of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization.. Lake Izabal is ringed by a tropical rain forest. It lies near the center of Lighthouse Reef.. and a few are currently active and have erupted in.

that has acquired significance as a representation of something else. use the map links.Definition: A symbol is an idea. . abstraction or concept. Coat of Arms Belize Mayan Bird Guatemala For more infomation on symbols for each Central America country. Symbols are on occasion completely unrelated to the idea they represent.

El Salvador 1855 US built the Panama railroad 1856 American adventurer. William Walker becomes president of Nicaragua 1860 William Walker is executed in Honduras 1860 British government returns control of Caribbean coastline to Nicaragua 1862 Belize declared British crown colony. claims ocean for Spain 1519 Panama City founded by the Spanish 1523 Indigenous Mayan defeated. Guatemala developes into a major Mayan temple city 1123 Yucatec Maya overthrew the Itza Maya 1487 Aztec send spies to Belize to gain trade information 1492 Columbus expores islands along the Caribbean Sea coastline 1501 Columbus visted and named Costa Rica (Rich Coast) 1502 Spanish explorer Rodrigo de Bastidas visits Panama 1502 Columbus reaches the coastline of Honduras 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa reaches the Pacific coast. Costa Rica 1525 Spanish begin their conquest of Honduras 1530 Francisco Pizarro sails from Panama to attempt the conquest of Peru 1540 El Salvador becomes a Spanish colony 1561 Juan de Cavallon of Spain established colony in Costa Rica print this map 1600's      1624 Spanish silver fleet sailed to Panama 1628 Locust devastated Mayan crops across Belize 1671 Pirate Henry Morgan captures Panama 1677 Spanish fail to control southern Belize 1698 Scotland attempts to establish colony in Panama 1700's     1720-90 British extend their influence over Nicaragua's Caribbean coastline inhabitants 1723 Irazu volcano erupts in Costa Rica. later bananas become a significant export 1893 General Jose Santos Zelaya seizes power and establishes dictatorship in Nicaragua 1900's . thousands die 1739 British capture Spanish city of Portobello. Panama 1763 Britain and Spain reach agreement for woodcutting rights in Belize 1800's             1821 Guatemala declared its independence from Spain 1823 Congress of Central America declared independence from Spain and Mexico 1838 Central American Federation splits into Guatemala. all are now independent from Spain 1844-65 Dictator Rafael Carrera ruled Guatemala 1854 Earthquake destroyed San Salvador.Central America Timeline:                    1500 BC Maya civilation dominates much of Central America 600 BC Maya migrate from Central America into South America 50 BC Maya introduce a calendar known as the Calendar Round 500 Tikal. Honduras. Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Guatemala becomes a Spanish colony 1524 Spanish established settlement at Puntarenas. consequently named British Honduras 1874 Banana cultivation begins in Costa Rica. El Salvador.

000 dead 1979-81 Over 30.000 killed during peasant uprising in El Salvador 1937 General Somoza elected president of Nicaragua 1951 Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman elected the new president of Guatemala 1956 Nicaragua's General Somoza assassinated 1968 Arenal volcano erupts in Costa Rica. Costa Rica. thousands died 1974 Hurrican Fifi strikes Honduras. hundreds killed 1970 Belize capital moved to Belmopan 1973 British Honduras name changed to Belize 1972 Managua. an estimated one million are homeless 2002 Guatemala and Belize settle long-standing border 2004 Panama Canal earns a record $1 billion in revenue 2008 El Salvador is rated the country with the highest murder rate 2008 Laura Chinchilla elected president of Costa Rica 2010 Porfirio Lobo sworn in as president of Honduras . one year later US invades Panama and ousts Noriega 1903 The USA is granted exclusive control of a ten-mile corridor across Panama. Bishop Juan Gerardi. thousands rendered homeless 1998 Hurricane Mitch caauses massive damage.000 killed 1976 Guatemala earthquake left millions homeless. Thousands killed. murdered in Guatemala 1999 Over one million tourist visited Costa Rica 1999 Control of the Panama Canal returned to Panama 2000's       2001 El Salvador earthquake kills 1. and hundreds of thousands left homeless across Honduras and Nicaragua 1998 Human rights activist. thousands died 1932 30. the elected president of Panama 1988 US charges Manuel Noriega with drug smuggling. one suitable for a canal 1992 Severe earthquake rattles Nicaragua.200. one suitable for the construction of a canal 1904 US takes over control of Panama Canal construction 1909 US troops help to depose Zelaya in Nicaragua 1910 Earthquake detroys Cartago. Miguel Devila 1912-25 US established military bases in Nicaragua 1914 Panama Canal completed 1931 Jorge Ubico elected president of Guatemala 1931 Hurricane struck Belize City. 700 killed 1911 US helps to overthrow an unpopular Honduras president.                               1903 The USA is granted exclusive control in perpetuity of a ten-mile corridor across Panama. over 5. Nicaragua devastated by earthquake.000 killed in El Salvador by government-sponsored death squads 1981 Belize gains it independence from Britain 1982 US sponsored attacks by Contra rebels (based in Honduras) begin in Nicaragua 1984 Daniel Ortega elected president of Nicaragua 1985 Manuel Antonio Noriega ousted Nicolas Ardito Barletta. 27.

social organization were building mound complexes. After the last glacial period ended some 12.000 years ago by traversing the Bering Strait. As large groups gained additional knowledge. In North America. a wide variety of prehistoric cultures developed across the continent. The development of stone tools was one of the factors instrumental in that successful expansion. Perhaps most importantly they developed . They developed written language. and from the Plains to the Southwest. From the years 250 to 900. the Inuit and the Aleut lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the Arctic regions while large groups inhabited the Subarctic parts of Alaska and western Canada. the expansion continued unabated. astronomical systems and mathematics. early man also migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. with some supporting sizable communities year-round. specifically from the eastern Siberian populations. Indigenous peoples of theAmericas have been linked to North Asian populations by linguistic dialects and blood types. north to south. as well as far-reaching advances in art. Native American societies continued to spread. From the Northeast to the Southeast. eventually reaching the Greater Antilles. sophisticated pre-Columbian cultures continued to develop.500 years back. At about the time of Christ.Across the Great Plains hunter-gatherers existed on wild plants and animals. small groups developed throughout the Americas. and Jamaica In the far-southern reaches of the continent important cultural advances were made by the Maya civilization. they began to farm some familiar crops now used around the world. Small groups settled on many islands in the southeastern Caribbean. Some experts feel that by using primitive boats. the brown-skinned Arawak People migrated fromVenezuela to the Lesser Antilles. Long before the Europeans arrived. but they were eventually replaced by more sophisticated bands that farmed the land. There is scientific evidence connecting indigenous Americans to Asian peoples. they were at the pinnacle of their power. creating their largest settlements on the islands of Cuba. Puerto Rico.NORTH AMERICA NORTH AMERICA HISTORY: Anthropologists believe that North America's initial inhabitants arrived around 40. such as tomatoes and squash.that debate continues. architecture.Hispaniola. Across regions of what is now the United States. raised some animals and improved their hunting skills.

as Europeans began to stake their claims. With 600 soldiers in tow. In 1492. At that same time natives on the continent lived without fear as they were ignorant of the outside world. after proposing a voyage of discovery to the then mostly-imagined New World. and Jacques Cartier made a series of voyages on behalf of the French crown in 1534 and penetrated the St.circa 1000 AD In the 13th century. financed by Isabella I and Ferdinand II. and it marked the beginning of 300 years of dominate Spanish influence over most of Mexico. John Cabot explored the east coast of what would become Canada in 1497. The Vikings were seafaring north Germanic people who raided. Mexico on April 22. After Columbus made his initial voyage to this New World. the Spanish made their move to colonize parts of the New World. and settled in wide areas of Europe. primarily due to the introduction of European diseases to which the Native Americans lacked . Queen and King of Spain. his goal was to find gold for the Spanish Crown. maize (corn).farming techniques for one of the planet's major foods. Christopher Columbus left Spain on an epic journey. Within a few months he reached land in the Bahamas. In 1500. Greenland. Guatemala. fromMexico to Belize. central Mexico was the center of the Aztec civilization. Canada . Giovanni da Verrazzano explored the East Coast of North America from Florida to eastern Canada in 1524. but instead led the first European expedition to the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of the New World. explored. Hernan Cortes and his conquistadors came ashore at present day Veracruz. Hernando de Soto landed at Tampa Bay in what is now the US State of Florida. and northern Costa Rica. 1519.Honduras. Nicaragua. Asia. The first mainland Spanish explorations were a series of inland expeditions that led to the conquest of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula. traded. El Salvador. In 1510 they established Santa María la Antigua del Darien near the border of Colombia andPanama: these were the first European settlements in the Americas. In 1513. The city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the Venezuela island of Cubaqua. As a result of European exploration the Native American population declined substantially. Using sturdy wooden longships they traveled as far west asIceland. The Mayan culture was fading and the Aztec Empire now stretched across most of Mesoamerica. and North America would change forever. Central America and the Caribbean. frequently in brutal ways. Balboa then claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown. Soon their innocence disappeared. Lawrence River. word of its potential riches spread across Europe and explorers and settlers by the thousands would eventually step ashore along the Atlantic Ocean coastline of North America. Leif Eriksson is believed to have reached the Island of Newfoundland. Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama to find gold. and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th centuries. and Newfoundland. In 1539.

They include: The Republic of Texas formed as an independent sovereign nation in 1836. Arguably. The new country of America's 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France almost doubled its size overnight. Texas and Louisiana. the two most devastating events on the North America continent were the American Civil War (from 1861 to 1865). the first successful English settlement was built at Jamestown. Virgina. but a resolution of many issues which remained from the American War of Independence. and the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Not to be outdone. Kansas. including the possibility of America's interest in annexing Canada. the Caribbean island of Tobago changed hands 33 times. An American Revolution was brewing within the English colonies. Guatemala. Montana and Wyoming. independence movements were on the front-burner across the continent. the Rebellions of 1837 in Lower and Upper Canada. most ofColorado. The 13 original British Colonies declared independence in 1776.Canada was formed from the unification of northern territories once controlled byBritain and France. New Spain. a handful of independence movements came to fruition across the North America continent. but it brought destruction to most of the South. and inevitable disagreements and greed were the genesis for a series of regional wars. With space too limited here to detail.immunity. Canada. and after the American Revolutionary War ended in 1783. The first French settlements were established at Port Royal (1604) and Quebec City (1608) in what is now Nova Scotia and Quebec. Britain and France (as well as Spain) were beginning to establish extensive territories in the northern reaches of the continent. a conflict that led to the end of slavery in the United States. Spain's hold on Mexico was weakening and slave revolts were common in the Caribbean. Nebraska and Iowa. then part of that Mexican Empire. the War of 1812 began when the United Statesdeclared war on the British. In the middle of the 18th century. South Dakota. By the end of the century. This massive transfer of land included all of presentday Arkansas. we highlight a series of important land agreements and compromises that occurred in North America through the end of the 19th century. The 32-month military conflict (fought on many fronts) resulted in no territorial change between the British Empire and the USA. they became the United States of America. becoming the First Mexican Empire. Massachusetts colony in 1620. Oklahoma. In 1607. For many reasons. followed by thePlymouth. and some of the European territories changed hands multiple times.S. as well as significant parts ofNorth Dakota. Near the end of the 17th century the colonialism of North America was at full speed. became the first independent state in Central America. the creation of the Mexican Empire. Missouri. In fact. Minnesota. a territory that stretched from the southwestern modern-day U. Even lesser-powers like the Netherlands and Sweden laid claim to smaller parts. through Central America declared independence in 1810. as well as from violent conflicts where they were no match for European fire power. It was followed by the . with the support of Napoleon III of France in 1864. and a tremendous loss of life.

But the Stock Market Crash of 1929 was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States. the Cuban Revolution introduced the Soviet Union (now Russia) into Latin America. the Panama Canal opened. The early Cold War era saw the United States as the most powerful nation in a Western coalition of which Mexico and Canada were also a part. In 1914. During this time the United States became involved in the Vietnam War. and to a lesser degree Canada. Lucia and St. Honduras and Nicaragua banded together to find a common economic bond. including Canada and the US. In the Caribbean. In Mexico. World War II was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. At the end of World War I (fought from 1914 to 1918 in Europe) the early 20th century brought an age of great prosperity to the United States. This event ushered in a period of formal decolonization of the English-speaking Caribbean. El Salvador. In 1962. and Trinadad and Tobago became politically independent. America's intervention into Latin America and elsewhere expanded. St. from 1936 to 1949. Following the Civil War. and American troops were withdrawn. Since 1962. Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago were joined by Antigua. a heavy industrialization process and a growth of its middle class. Dominica. there was a popular uprising against the anti-Catholic government. Belize. Canada during this era was dominated by the leadership of Pierre Elliot Trudeau. During the Spanish–American War of 1898. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers. Eventually in 1982 at the end of his tenure.Guatemala." Mexico also experienced an era of huge economic growth after World War II. In Canada this was mirrored by the Quiet Revolution and the emergence of Quebec nationalism. Grenada. The 1867 Alaska Purchase was the acquisition of what is now the US State of Alaska from the Russian Empire. and the United States emerged as a "superpower. the US seized several colonies from Spain including Cuba and Puerto Rico. tens of thousands died as a result. . The destruction of Europe wrought by the war vaulted all North American countries to more important roles in world affairs. while on the island of Cuba. a period known in Mexican history as the "El Milagro Mexicano" (Mexican miracle).United States government fighting numerous Indian Wars against the Native Americans for land acquisition. In 1960.1 km) ship canal in Panama connecting the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean enabled ships to avoid the lengthy Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America. Barbados. Canada had a new constitution. At home. the 48-mile (77. the United States witnessed violent change especially in the area of race relations. Guatemala.the Bahamas. That war would later prove to be highly divisive in American society. and that crash affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until the onset of American mobilization for World War II in 1941. Vincent. many islands witnessed the beginnings of decolonization.

and on January 1. Positioned in the planet's northern and western hemispheres. the twenty-three countries and the dozens of possessions and territories within North America have found ways to (for the most part) co-exist in peace. and to economically benefit by working together.the world’s largest island. both impressive in so many ways. much of the modern world. Lucia. It contains all Caribbean and Central America countries. Additional North American countries (not shown on this map) include: Antigua and Barbuda. in the southeast by the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. 1994.877 miles) (6. the United States of America. and that human tragedy reached a deadly peak in Mexico in the last few years. hurricanes. and in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains of northwestern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. Minor hills and mountains are found in the Ozark Plateau of Missouri.765 km) in length. Surviving powerful earthquakes. St. tornadoes. just below the city of New Orleans. It is a significant transportation artery and when combined with its major tributaries (the Missouri and Ohio rivers) it becomes the third largest river system in the world at (3. and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. and the subsequent war in Afghanistan . Bermuda. St. creating the world's largest free trade area. the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement was reached in January 1989. and for that matter. the violent drug war spread from Central America to Canada. an economic slowdown that has now wained some. contentious imigration issues and isolated terroism attacks. Mississippi River System: It is the major river of North America and the United States at (2.236 km) in length. . it's bordered in the north by the Arctic Ocean. Dominica. Grenada. Today the diverse and massive continent of North America present a bright potential future for all of its people. Vincent & the Grenadines and Trinidad & Tobago. in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. as well as Greenland .participated in by Canada and the US.Barbados. in Nebraska. Great Plains: The Great Plains of North America slope east from the Rockies and extend to the edge of the Canadian Shield and the western edges of the Appalachians. NORTH AMERICA GEOGRAPHY NOTES: Two of North America's most interesting geographical features are the Great Plains and the Mississippi River System. Canada. Kitts & Nevis. Mexico and theUnited States of America signed the North American Free Trade Agreement.S. It flows from northwestern Minnesota south to the Gulf of Mexico. Sandhills and buttes cover parts of the north central U. Mexico. St. NORTH AMERICA MAP: North America. The land is generally smooth with large treeless areas and shallow river valleys. In 2006. a financial crisis that began the United States eventually triggered a worldwide recession.Major changes continued into the 21st century: Mexico experienced a strong economic recession in the 1980s. Canada. the planet’s 3rd largest continent.339 miles) (3. Haiti. In 2008. Those major economic events were followed by the 9/11 attacks on the United States. includes (23) countries and dozens of possessions and territories.

582 miles (4. Pierce County. straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections.194m) (see map) Lowest Point: Death Valley in California. NY: 2. directly southeast to Panama City. east to New York City.605 km) (see map) Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point. Alaska. Panama: 5.347 miles (8. .NORTH AMERICA GEOGRAPHY FACTS:       Percent of Earth's Land: 16. -282 ft (-86m) below sea level (see map) Geographic Center: The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles west of Balta.156 km) (see map) Vertical Length: From Barrow.322ft (6. California.5% Highest Point: Mt McKinley in Alaska. 20. North Dakota" at approximately 48° 10´ N 100° 10´ W. (see map) Horizontal Width: From San Francisco.

.S. It also includes major bodies of water. a range of about 1.500 miles in length.NORTH AMERICA TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP A typical topographic-type map highlights hills. This topo map clearly shows how the Rocky Mountains and it various ranges dominate the western-third of the continent (see below).             Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala            Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States . In addition. that extends from central Alabama through the New England states and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick. Newfoundland and Quebec. mountains and valleys of a specific land area by exaggerated shading rather than by using contour lines. it also highlights the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern U. NORTH AMERICA COUNTRIES This list does not include the island dependencies and overseas territories in the Caribbean. and some rivers.

one that highlights the Rocky Mountains. aruably the most dramatic landform is all of North America.ROCKY MOUNTAINS This is a slice of the large topographical (or relief) map shown above. and the Sacramento Valley (north). For additional details on many of the geography features of North America. Note the depression to the north of Death Valley and west of the Sierra Nevada. one of the most fertile farming areas in the country. This is both the San Joaguin Valley (south). including . Additional features clearly visable include some of the larger rivers on the continent and one of the most interesting geography features of the United States. this page will help NORTH AMERICA SATELLITE VIEW MAP This NASA satellite view of North America can be useful in many applications.

geology.000 Trinidad & Tobago: 1. 9.211 Canada: 34.000 Honduras: 7.000 Mexico: 108.000 El Salvador: 6.460 sq miles It's the third-largest continent in area. after Asia.9 km2 (59. Africa.204.194.000 Panama: 3.100 Barbados: 257. Vincent & the Grenadines:109. it's a great education tool as it provides an overview of the snow covered lands of the far north. intelligence and warfare. That land is generally flat with large treeless areas and shallow river valleys.588 (2008 est) It's the fourth most populous continent.000 Guatemala: 14.000 Grenada: 104.agriculture.975.207. and the Great Plains that slope east from the Rockies and extend to the edge of the Canadian Shield and the western edges of the Appalachians.000 Nicaragua: 5. French and Spanish Population: 528.720.000 sq km.194m) (see map) Lowest Point: Death Valley in California.377.474.322ft (6.576 Jamaica: 2.000 Belize: 322.396.188. -282 ft (-86m) below sea level.000 Cuba: 11.000 Haiti: 10. forestry. following Asia and Africa.000 Dominican Republic: 10.730.3 sq mi) North America Country Populations: (23 countries .000 Antigua & Barbuda: 89. In addition. Percent of Earth's Land: 16.     Namesake: Americo Vespucci. meteorology.000 Saint Kitts & Nevis: 38.000 Bahamas: 346.000 Costa Rica: 4.322. the Italian explorer Major Languages: English. .000 Dominica: 67.640.225.822. 20.616.000 Saint Lucia: 174.344.5% Highest Point: Mt McKinley in Alaska. and Europe Population Density: 22.449.2010 estimates)                        United States: 309.960     Continent Size: 24.000 St.

Significant Appalachian ranges include:       The Cumberland Mts. (see map) Horizontal Width: From San Francisco. NY: 2. in Vermont The White Mts.347 miles (8. Canada. Panama: 5. 20. in Tennessee The Blue Ridge Mts.S. east to New York City. extend from central Alabama in the U. Appalachian Mountains: The Appalachians. The highest point in North America. California.100 sq km Dominican Republic: 48. Largest North American Countries: (by land area)           Canada: 9.630 sq km Mexico: 1.156 km) (see map) Vertical Length: From Barrow.200 sq km Costa Rica: 51. straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections. about 1.   Geographic Center: The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles west of Balta. Highest point: Mt.037 m) Brooks Range: Mountains of northern Alaska.040 sq km Nicaragua: 120.684 ft (2. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6. 9.090 sq km Cuba: 110. North Dakota" at approximately 48° 10´ N 100° 10´ W.060 ft. of New Hampshire The highest point is Mt.500 miles in length.730 sq km Alaska Range: Mountains of south-central Alaska that extend from the Alaska Peninsula to the border of the Yukon Territory.582 miles (4. Newfoundland and Quebec.760 m) North America Timeline:       900 Toltec civilization develops in present day Mexico 981 Eric the Red founds the first Nordic settlement in Greenland 1000 Vikings visited coastline of Newfoundland 1327 Aztecs established Mexico City 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas 1510 Spain began settlements in Jamaica .605 km) (see map) Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point.194 m) is located here. (6. in Virginia The Alleghenies in Pennsylvania The Catskills Mts.826. Pierce County.923. Mt. directly southeast to Panama City.670 sq km United States: 9.890 sq km Panama: 78. Alaska. Isto. McKinley.254 sq km Honduras: 112. (2.984. in New York The Green Mts.320 ft. up through the New England states and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick.860 sq km Guatemala: 108.

S. Florida 1577 Sir Francis Drake explores Pacific Ocean coastlines 1585 English colonists settled on Roanoke Island. President Lincoln assassinated 1867 Dominion of Canada created 1867 U.S.2 mil 1896 Gold discovered in Yukon Territory 1898 Spain ceded Puerto Rico and Cuba to US 1898 Spain sells Philippines to U.S. 1865 Civil War ends. bought Alaska from Russia for $7.Mexican War 1849 California Gold Rush began 1852 Fire destroyed 11. English signed peace treaty 1741 Vitus Bering claimed Alaska for Russia 1744 King George's War began 1749 Halifax. Lawrence 1565 Spanish founded Saint Augustine. .000 homes in Montreal 1861 U.000 Indians 1865 13th amendment abolished slavery in the U.            1519 Hernando Cortes defeated the Aztecs 1534 Jacques Cartier charts Gulf of St. Nova Scotia founded 1754 French and Indian War began 1768 British troops began occupation of Boston 1773 Boston Tea Party 1775 American Revolution began 1776 USA gained its independence from Britain 1789 George Washington elected first US president 1800's                   1814 Washington captured and burned by British 1814 Mexico declared independence from Spain 1819 Florida ceded by Spain to the United States 1823 Guatemala declared independence 1836 Americans defeated at Battle of the Alamo 1845 United States annexed Republic of Texas 1846 -1848 U. Virginia settlement established 1608 Quebec founded by Samuel de Champlain 1609 Henry Hudson explored New York Bay and Hudson River 1612 French explorers discovered Lake Huron 1616 Smallpox devastates Native Americans 1620 Pilgrims arrived on Mayflower at Plymouth. French. Virginia 1598 New Mexico claimed by Spanish Explorers 1607 Jamestown. MA 1600's       1629 English captured Quebec City 1642 Montreal founded by Sieur de Maisonneuve 1663 Louis XIV assumed control of New France 1664 New Amsterdam renamed to New York 1670 Hudson Bay Company chartered by Charles II 1682 LaSalle explored Mississippi River 1700's           1701 Iroquois.S.000+ in Galveston. Texas 1901 President McKinley assassinated 1902 US opens military base at Guantanamo Bay 1903 US granted control of corridor across Panama 1904 Much of Toronto's downtown destroyed by fire 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake killed 500 1907 Race riots within Vancouver's Chinatown . for $20 million 1900's        1900 Hurricane kills 6.S. Civil War began 1862 Canadian smallpox killed 200.

S. two crashed into the World Trade Center. US aids in crisis 1996 Serious riots in Quebec City 2000's             2001 On September 11. US.025 people were killed 2001 Canada became first country in world to legalize medical marijuana 2003 Shuttle Columbia. that has acquired significance as a representation of something else. abstraction or concept.500. four passenger aircraft hijacked. Symbols are often completely unrelated to the idea they represent. 7 astronauts killed 1989 Exxon Valdez wrecks in Prince William Sound 1993 Bomb exploded in World Trade Center 1993 NAFTA enacted.S. 1100 died 1916 Haiti became US protectorate 1917 Jones Act gave Puerto Ricans US citizenship 1918 World War I ended 1929 Great Depression began 1932 Amelia Earhart flies solo across Atlantic 1937 Amelia Earhart disappears circling the world 1939 World War II.  Scarlet Macaw Coat of Arms Mexico National Bird of Hondura South America .                             1909 Peary and Henson reach North Pole 1912 Titanic struck iceberg and sunk. Hawaii 1944 Allies launch D-Day offensive 1945 Enola Gay dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima 1945 World War II ended 1953 Jonas Salk develops polio vaccine 1959 St. President John F. 3. Lawrence Seaway opens 1963 U. Hitler attacked Poland 1941 Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. Kennedy assassinated 1969 First moon landing 1977 Control of Panama Canal given to Panama 1985 Mexico City Earthquake kills thousands 1986 ―Challenger‖ exploded. 1503 died 1913 President Madero of Mexico assassinated 1914 Panama Canal completed 1914 World War I began in Europe 1915 Lusitania sank. President 2009 drug-related killings in Mexico reached 6. Canada and Mexico agree 1995 Mexican banking crisis. exploded upon reentry 2003 Massive power failure in NE US and SE Canada 2004 Four hurricanes hit Florida and southern US 2005 Hurricane Katrina devastates New Orleans 2006 65 miners killed in explosion at coal mine 2007 Heavy rains flood Mexico . one into the Pentagon and the fourth in a field in Pennsylvania.000 homeless 2008 Barack Obama elected U.500 2010 Explosion aboard oil rig in Gulf of Mexico   A symbol is an idea.

603. Peru: 7.200 Cali.368. Brazil: 2. The continent contains the world's highest waterfall. Spanish. Italian.000 (2009 est) It's the fifth most populous continent.656. excluding research stations in Antarctica.798. Dutch. Europe and North America Population Density: 21. and.2008 est)         Brazil: 193. the longest mountain range. and dozens of indigenous languages Population: 379. French.600 Bogota.295.800. the Italian explorer Major Languages: Portuguese.000 Venezuela: 29. Colombia: 2.000 .990 Argentina: 40. Chile: 5. and the driest place on earth. the Amazon River.100 Buenos Aires.000 Ecuador: 14. the largest river (by volume).246. the highest capital city.976. the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community. Brazil: 4. In addition.500 Fortaleza.182. Colombia: 7. the planet's 4th largest continent. Brazil: 18. Galapagos Islands and French Guiana.000 Chile: 17. La Paz.505.636.800 Rio de Janeiro. the Falkland Islands.Lake Titicaca . Chile.800 Belo Horizonte.4 sq km (56. Puerto Toro. Argentina: 12.0 sq mi) Top 10 Largest Cities: (see map) (by metro population)           Sao Paulo.600 Largest Countries: (by population . it includes the largest rainforest. English.800 Salvador.500.085.413. Africa.228. Arabic.South America . the Atacama Desert in Chile.173.000 Bolivia: 9. Brazil: 3. the Andes.500 Santiago. Bolivia . Brazil: 11.923.000 Lima. the highest commercially navigable lake in the world.891.867 Colombia: 45. includes (12) independent countries and (3) major territories.     Namesake: Americo Vespucci. after Asia. the Amazon Rainforest .130 Peru: 29.132. Angel Falls in Venezuela.

705 miles (4. following Asia. Peru.766. (see map) Horizontal Width: From Lima. and total rainfall often approaches 100 inches per year. Symbols are on occasion completely unrelated to the idea they represent. Measurable rain falls on an average of 200 days a year here.000 Guyana: 751.999 sq km Uruguay: 176.000   Definition: A symbol is an idea.000 Uruguay: 3. Colombia. in the State of Mato Grosso. seven of them more than 1.910 sq km Bolivia: 1.138.270 sq km GEOGRAPHY SOUTH AMERICA Amazon Basin: The Amazon Basin (Amazonia) is covered by the largest tropical rain forest in the world. that has acquired significance as a representation of something else.000 tributaries.    Paraguay: 6.463.158.819.000 Suriname: 499.833ft (6. at 15° 27´ S 55° 44´ W. Coat of Arms Brazil        Continent Size: 17. Brazil: 2.353 km) Vertical Length: From Cartagena.514. south to Ushuaia.877 sq km Argentina: 2. and running through its heart is the Amazon River and its more than 1.879.000 miles in length. Africa and North America Percent of Earth's Land: 12% Highest Pt: Cerro Aconcagua. Argentina: 4. to Fortaleza. Argentina 22.000 sq km. straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections.050 sq km Chile: 756. abstraction or concept. Andes Mtns.560 sq km Guyana: 214. .580 sq km Venezuela: 912.285.098.220 sq km Suriname: 163.220 sq km Colombia: 1. Brazil.149 km) (see map) Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point.950 sq km Paraguay: 406. Largest South American Countries: (by land area)             Brazil: 8. 6.890 sq km Peru: 1.443 miles (7.000 sq miles It's the fourth-largest continent in area.959m) (see map) Lowest Pt: Peninsula Valdes. Argentina -151 ft (-40m) below sea level Geographic Center: Chapada dos Guimarães.750 sq km Ecuador: 283.

it's the largest in the world. miles. It's the source of most major rivers on the continent.384 ft. and covers about one-third of South America. the highest point being Aconcagua in Argentina. Brazilian Highlands: This magnificent landscape of southeastern Brazil is 800 miles in length and contains varied mountain ranges. and Serra do Mar. (6. Serra Geral. and one of the few deserts on Earth that doesn't receive any rain. and in the far south along the coast of Chile.368 ft (2. extends from the southern tip of South America all the way to Panama. at 22.000 ft. and in terms of volume of water discharged into an ocean. lava flow remnants and saline deposits. The estimated highest point is 7.240 km) in length.500 miles (7. Brazilian Shield: The shield is a geologic formation lying south of the Amazon.960m). this somewhat small desert (or plateau) is a cold place. .700.245m).. The landscape is totally barren and covered with small borax lakes.. Serra do Paranapiataba. large glaciers and ice sheets are commonplace. Andes Mountains: This toothy-edged mountain system. Hundreds of rivers and streams flow through this area on their way to the Amazon These rivers contain a large number of migratory fish species.The basin drains over 2. It's also home to some of the planet's largest volcanoes. and its many ranges include dozens of peaks that reach over 20.000 sq. It's approximately 100 miles wide and 625 miles long. Atacama Desert: Sparsely populated and positioned high into the Andes of Chile. the river's network irrigates almost half of the continent. Rising high in the Andes. namely the Serra de Mantiquiera. some 4.

and covers an area estimated at between 140. and about 1. and covers 294. 48.. tropical rain forests.000 sq mi) and 195.571 sq miles. as sailing around this remote point and through its violent stretch of chaotic water is one of the most challenging nautical routes on the planet. It's mostly rugged.100 sq km) in size. km) in size.000 sq. Llanos: This large and very fertile plain. He traveled through this somewhat narrow body of water on his way to the Pacific Ocean.000 square kilometers (54. In modern times. and a series of smaller ones. The islands are known throughout the modern world by the brutal history of the 19th century French penal settlement that was located here. and central and southern Venezuela. this large plain in the southern part of the continent (in central Argentina) extends for almost 1.000 sq. it's waters are sheltered and calm. . one marked by deep gorges. the Beagle.. Patagonia stretches south from the Rio Negro River to Tierra del Fuego and the Strait of Magellan. the Highlands stretch from southern Venezuela to the northern border of Brazil. The Devil's Islands archipelago consists of three small islands. There are hundreds of interesting sites spread across South America and these are but a few of our favorites. It lies mostly within southwestern Brazil. Later named for Darwin's ship.000 square kilometers (75. The group includes Ile du Diable (Devil's Island). Guyana and Venezuela at 9.600 km). Pampas: Famed for its many cattle ranches. is drained by the Orinoco River and its many tributaries. Guina Highlands: Over 1. especially with the release of a novel and movie called. famed for its beauty and striking mountain scenery.Cape Horn: The southernmost tip of South America. it's one of the most beautiful water passageways on the planet..000 sq mi).000 miles in length.460 sq km). Patagonia: Located between the Andes and the Atlantic Ocean. For additional info and links explore the individual countries on the map.. remains a maritime legend to this day. located just a few miles off the coast of French Guiana. miles (761. His chosen route through the Magellan Strait proved to be the fastest and safest connection between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans for sea-going commerce and exploration. barren land. Ferdinand Magellan. numerous rivers and waterfalls.000 miles in length. miles (582. the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe.000 miles (1.   Beagle Channel was traversed by Charles Darwin during his 1831 world voyage. It was Ile du Diable (or Devil's Island itself) that perpetuated that story across the planet. the Tierra Del Fuego archipelago includes one large island (18. It's approximately 225. It's a vast plateau. It was reportedly named by the Portuguese adventurer. The highest point is Mt. Roraima on the borders of Brazil. Tierra Del Fuego: Located at the southern tip of South America.. It contains an astonishing collection of aquatic plants and a wide variety of of animal species. It's famed for the highest waterfall in the world (Angel Falls) at 3. it's the favorite route of cruise ships traveling south to Ushuaia and Antarctica because unlike the often turbulent South Pacific Ocean. located in eastern and central Colombia. Pantanal: The Pantanal is the world's largest wetland of any kind. Ile Ste-Joseph and Ile Royale.212 ft (979m) high. In addition.219 ft (2.000 sq.810m). it's fronted by some of the most impressive glaciers in South America and.

Christ the Redemmer statue high atop Corcovado mountain. Ushuaia. It began as a tribe in the Cuzco. but their traditions live on. Colombia 1532 Francisco Pizarro conquers Ecuador 1533 Spanish Conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro. Argentina abandoned 1545 Silver discovered in Potosi. incuding Sugarloaf mountain and. Peru is founded 1536 Buenos Aires. 1400 Machu Picchu. Chile. Over matched by superior weapons and military tactics. 1500's                       1500 Portuguese explorer Alvares Cabra lands in Brazil 1516 Juan Solis discovers the Rio de la Plata 1520 Ferdinand Magellan sails through Tierra del Fuego 1521 Cortez defeats the Aztecs. Chile 1580 Buenos Aires re-established 1600's . Lost City of the Incas was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti... 1400 . Bolivia established by the Spanish 1550 African slaves arrive in Brazil 1552 Cattle imported into Argentina and Paraguay 1555 Smallpox epidemic along coastal Brazil 1567 Caracas. 400 BC – 800 Along the central coastline of Peru. It was first the site of a prison established by the Argentine government.1550 The empire of the Incas covered Peru. and in fact. and the Chachapoyas. Chimu Empire in Peru.. Brazil It is without question one of the most magnificent port cities on the planet. 1498 Christopher Columbus explored the northern coastline of South America. but the most significant ones certainly must include Copacabana and Ipanema beaches. Bolivia. The island is literally covered by Magellanic penguins. Bolivia 1548 La Paz. and from there the Inca state grew to absorb other Andean communities.. South America Timeline:        5000 BC . enormous granite peaks in all directions. the Incas began a far-reaching expansion across the western edges of the continent. Argentina is considered the southernmost (city) in the world. It's world famous for many things. conquers their capital 1526 The Spaniards establish Santa Marta. infectous samba music. Venezuela founded 1571 Inca leader Tupac Amaru beheaded 1555 British pirates pillage Valparaiso. some of the best soccer teams to ever play the game. 900 BC – 300 BC The Chavín civilization established a trade network and developed agriculture products in the highlands of Peru. Rio de Janeiro. 600 BC – 1200 The Tiahuanaco and Wari empire of central and northern Peru expanded their influence to all of the Andean region. In addition to fabulous skiing and other winter sport activities. Argentina established 1537 Asuncion. Peru area. When their chicks are counted. conquered much of the existing Inca territory including the Inca capital of Cuzco 1533 Cartagena founded by the Spanish 1535 Lima. it's the gateway to Antarctica and.. Paraguay founded 1540 Chile explored by Valdivia 1541 Buenos Aires. In 1442. an unrivaled Carnival celebration. and Ecuador. northern Argentina. an estimated 70. Paracas and Nazca cultures flourished. 1000 BC – 1450 The Cañaris culture of Ecuador. and the Aymaran kingdoms of Bolivia and southern Peru flourished. the Moche. Spanish Conquistadores led by Francisco Pizarro arrived in the 1500's intent on finding treasure and conquering this rich land. the indigenous sovereignty enjoyed by the Incas was lost.1200 BC The ancient ancestors of the people of South America were believed to have been nomadic Asian hunter-gatherers who crossed over the frozen Bering Strait and into North America.. Chile is positioned in the Strait of Magellan about 27 miles northeast of Punta Arenas.000 mated pairs call it home. It is positioned on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru.   Magdalena Island. From there they traveled south to the lands of Central and South America. and word of his discovery eventually spread to Europe.

Chile has now had over 120 different governments since 1892 1929 Venezuela is now the world's second largest producer of oil 1931 The President of Chile resigns under fire 1937 Exports in Chile triple in five years 1940 Peru's population now exceeds seven million 1945 First open and free election held in Peru 1946 Venezuela holds first free elections . Brazil 1647 Strong earthquake strikes Santiago 1693 Gold discovered in Brazil 1697 Pirates raid Cartagena. expelled from Venezuela. Chile 1910 Hermes da Fonseca elected President of Brazil 1912 After many years of construction the subway opens in Buenos Aires. Pedro (his son) appointed governor of Brazil 1821 Peru declares its independence 1823 Simon Bolivar arrives in Lima 1820 Portugal & USA recognize independent Brazil 1832 Ecuador claims Galapagos Islands 1833 Britain invades Falkland Islands 1832 Ecuador claims Galapagos Islands 1834 Civil War breaks out in Peru 1838 Brazil imports thousands of African slaves 1841 Jose Ballivian appointed president of Bolivia 1851-52 Cattle is now Argentina's largest export 1852 Slavery abolished in Uruguay 1860 Peru enacts a new constitution 1862 Ecuador declares war on Colombia 1864 Argentina.       1613 Serious smallpox outbreak sacks Brazil 1616 Dutch explorer Schouten sails around Cape Horn 1621 Dutch West India Company invades Guyana 1629 Dutch troops conquer Pernambuco. Panama. Brazil and Uruguay attack Paraguay 1869 Argentina population approaches two million 1876 Peru population approaches three million 1882 Maximo Santos elected President of Uruguay 1888 Chile annexes Easter Island 1888 Slavery abolished in Brazil 1888 Ecuador claims Galapagos Islands 1900's              1902 Uruguay's population exceeds one million 1903 Jose Battle y Ordonez elected President of Uruguay. Venezuela. Ecuador) is established. Colombia 1700's             1711 War of the Mascates begins in Brazil 1720 Spain ends its repressive labor practices 1711 Easter Island discovered 1729 Montevideo. Uruguay established 1711 Diamonds discovered in Brazil 1743 University founded in Santiago 1759 Spanish expelled Jesuits from Brazil 1777 Venezuela established administrative divisions 1783 Indio rebellion is defeated in Peru 1791 Chile forbids forced labor of indigenous people 1797 British raid and conquer Trinidad 1799 Brazil's populations exceeds three million 1800's                                   1800 Peru's population in sharp decline 1806 Rio de Janeiro largest city in Brazil 1800 Britain takes Buenos Aires from Spain 1807 Locals expel Britain from Buenos Aires 1808 After Napoleon invaded Portugal. O'Higgins is defeated and flees to Argentina 1818 Colombia abolishes slavery by law 1818 Chile declares its independence from Spain 1819 Gran Colombia (Colombia. Simon Bolivar is president 1820 Civil war all but destroys Argentina 1820 Dom Joao returns to Portugal. Argentina 1917 Oil discovered in western Venezuela 1925 With its new president installed. The King of Portugal (Dom Joao) moved his capital city to Brazil 1811 Brazil signs exclusive trade deal with Britain 1813 Simon Bolivar invades Venezuela from Bogota 1814 Bernardo O'Higgins leads Chilean rebels 1814 Bolivar defeated. the first civilian president of Uruguay 1905 Riots over high prices in Santiago.

the economy falls into a rapid decline 1992 Venezuela survives a coup by Hugo Chavez 1993 The world's most famous drug lord. Chile finally rescues 33 miners trapped deep underground for 69 days 2010 Dilma Rousseff elected President of Brazil . brutal dictatorship 1976 Chile's population now exceeds 11 million 1979 A subway opens in Rio de Janeiro 1981 Ecuador's president dies in an plane crash 1983 Bolivia holds its first free elections 1987 Colombia's drug cartels terrorize the country. launches a controversial nationalization plan 2007 Drug lord Diego Montoya arrested in Colombia 2007 Cristina Fernandez elected President of Argentina 2008 Ecuador has a new constitution 2010 Argentina approves same-sex marriages 2010 An 8. the First Lady of Argentina dies.                      1949 Josef Mengele. Pablo Escobar. President of Argentina. millions mourn her passing 1957 Students riot in Chile over college costs 1960 9. secretly arrived in Argentina 1949 Juan Peron. his dictatorship over 1990 Argentina's inflation exceeds 8. the Nazi war criminal. thousands would die over the next few years 1988 Pinochet resigns. hundreds dead 2005 Ecuador's President flees the country 2006 Evo Morals.000%. Augusto Pinochet. hundreds die 2010 After weeks of planning. the President of Bolivia.5 magnitude earthquake strikes Chile 1960 Nazi Adolf Eichmann arrested in Argentina 1970 Brazil population now exceeds 90 million 1971 Chile's Pablo Neruda awarded Nobel Peace Prize 1973 Chile general. begins his long. stifles free speech and other personal freedoms 1950-55 European immigrants by the tens of thousands continue to arrive in South America countries 1950 Brazil population now exceeds 50 million 1952 Eva Peron.8 magnitude earthquake strikes Chile. is killed by police in Colombia 1996-98 FARC kills dozens of Colombian soldiers 1998 Hugo Chavez elected President of Venezuela 2000's                2000 Brazil's population exceeds 170 million 2000 The economy of Argentina totally collapses 2002 Brazil wins soccer world cup for the fifth time 2002 Luiz Inacio Lula elected in Brazil 2003 Bolivian landslide kills hundreds 2004 Fire in Paraguay mall.

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