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Engineering Mathematics
K. A. Stroud
Fonnerly Principal Lecturer Department of Mathematics Coventry University United Kingdom
with additions by
Dexter J. Booth
Principal Lecturer
School of Computing and Mathematics
University of Huddersfield United Kingdom
FIFTH EDITION
Review Soard for the fifth edition:
Dr Charles Fan, University of Northumbria at Newcastle Dr Pat Lewis, Staffordshire University Dr Mark Kermode. University of l iverpool Dr Hazel Shute. University of Plymouth Dr Mike Gover, University o f Bradford
INDUSTRIAL PRESS, INC. NEW YORK
Library of Congress Cataiogingin·Publication Data Stroud, K. A.
Engineering mathematics I K.A. Stroud; with additions by Dexter J. Booth. 5th ed.
p.cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 083 11 31527 I . Engineering mathematicsProgrammed instruction. I. Booth, Dexter 1. II. Title. TA330 $78 2001
5101.246dc21
2001039100
Published in North America under liclru;e from Palgrave Publishers Ltd, Houndmills, Hants RG21 6XS. United Kingdom.
Basing~toke,
Industrial Press, Jnc.
200 Madison Avenue New York, NY 100164078
Copyright © 2001 by Industrial Press Inc., New York. Printed in the United States of America. All right reserved. This book, or any parts thereof, may fl ot be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any fonn without the pcnnission of the publisher.
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Contents
Hillt.~
01 1 II.~ jllg lIle book and Personal Tutor CDROM
xvii
xlx xxii xxiv xxvi xxvi.i xxviii
Useful background information
Preface to tile Fiflll Ee/ilion Preface to tile First Edition
Prq(l{:e to the Second Edition
Preface to tile T hird Ee/ition Preface to tile Fourth Edition
Part I:
Quiz F. I
Foundation topics
Arithmetic
1
P">&lamme F.1
u arning outco m es
3
3 4
Types of numMrs  The n at ural numbers, Kumerals and place value,
Points on a line and order, The integers, Brackets. Additjon and subtraction, Multi plication and division, Brackets and precedence rules. Basic laws of arithmetic Revision summary
5
Revision exerdse
Factors and p rhnc numbers  Factors, Prime numbers, Prime fac torization, Highest com mon factor (HCF), Lowest common m ultiple (LCM), Estimati ng, Rounding
Revision summary Uevisioll exercise
12 13 14
18 18
Fractions  Division o f integers, Multiplying fractions, Of, Eq u ivalent fractio ns, Dividing fracUons, Addi ng and subtracting fractio ns, Fractions on a calculator, Ratios, Percen tages
Revision summary Uevision exercise
20
28 28
Decimal numben  Division of integers, Rounding, Significant figu res, Decimal places, Trailing zeros, Fractions as decimals, Decimals as fractions, Unend ing decimals, Unend ing decimals as fractio ns, Rational, irrational and real numbers
Revision sw wnary Revision exercise Powers  Raising a number to a power, The laws of powers, Powers o n a
30
35 35
36
calculato r, Fractio nal powers and roots, Surds, Mu lt iplication and d ivisio n by integer powers of 10, Precedence rules, Standard fo rm, Working in standard form, Using a calculato r, Preferred standard form, Checking calculatiOns, Accuracy
Revision .'illlI1mary Uevisiol1 exerci.~e
Numbe r s ystems  Denary, Binary, Octal, Duodecimal, Hexadedmal
Revision summary Revisioll exercise
49 50
51
55 58
iv
Contents
Change of base  Denary to binary. octal and duodt.'Cimal, Use of octals as an int ermediate step Reverse method Ilevisioll summary Revision exercise Can You·! C hecklist F.l T~t ~xcrd.se F.l Further problems F.l
60 65 66 66 67 68 70
Pro....mm. F.2 Introduction to algebra
Learning outcomes Quiz F.2 Algebraic expressions  Symbols ot her than numerals, Constants. Variables, Rules of algebra, Rules of precedence, Terms and coefficients, Collecting like items, Similar terms, F.xpanding brackets, Nested b rackets Revisioll summary Revision exercise Powers  Powers, Rules of indices Logarithms  Powers, Logarithms, Rules of logarithms, 8ase 10 and base e, Change of base, Logarithmic equations Revision summary Revision exercise Multiplication of algebraic expressions of a single variable Fractions  Algebraic fractions, Additions and subtraction, Multiplication and division Division of one exprCS)ion by another Rev/sio" summary Revision exercise Factorization of algebraic expressions  Common factors, Common factors by grouping, Useful products of two simple factors, Quadratic expressions as the product of two simple fa ctors, Factori7.ation of a quadratic expression, Test for simple factors Revision summary Revision exercise Can You? Checklist F.2 Test exerdse F.2 Further problcrns F.2
73
73 74 76
82 82 84 86
93 94 95 96
99
101
101 103
112 112
114
115 116 119 119
Programme F.3 Expressions and equations
Learning outcomes Quiz F.3 Expressions and equations  Evaluating expressions, Equations, Eva luating independen t variables, TranspoSition of formulas Revision summary Uevisioll exercise The evaluat.ion process  S}'!items Polynomial equations  Polynomial expressions, E.valuation of polynomials, Evaluation of a polynomial by nesting Remainder theorem  Factor theorem Factorization of quartic polynomials
120 121
130 131 132 133
135 140
Contents
v
Revision sllmmary Revision exercise
can You? Checklist F.3 Test exercise F.3 Further problcms F.3
143 144 145 145 146
Programme F.4 Graphs
Learning outcomes Quiz F.4 Graphs of equations  Equations, Ordered pairs of numbers, Cartesian axes, Drawing a graph Revision slIIllmary Revision exercise Using a spreadsheet  Spreadsheets, Rowand columns, Text and number entry, Formulas, Clearing entries, Construction of a cartesian gIi'lph Revision sllmmary Revisioll exerdse Inequalities  Less than or greater than Revisioll summary Revision exercise can You"? Checklist F.4 Test exercbe F.4 Further problems F.4
149
149
ISO
151 158 159 160 170 170 172 173 173 17. 174 175
Programme F.5 Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations
Learning outconles Quiz F.5 Linear equations  Solution of simple equations Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns  Solution by substitution , Solution by equating coefficients Sitnultaneous linear equations with tline unknowns Presimplification Revision Sllllll1lary Revisioll exercise can You? Checklist F.S Test exercise F.S Further problcms F.S
111
177 178 179 182 185 190 191 193 193 194
Programme F.6 Polynomial equations
Learning outcOincs Quiz F.6 Polynomial equations  QuadratiC equations Solution of cubic equations baving at least onc Iincar factor Solution of quartic equations having at least two linear factors Revision summary Revision exercise Can You? Checklist F.6 Tcst exerdse F.6 Further problcms F.6
191
197 198 199 205 209 213 214 216 216 217
vi
Contents
Programme F.7 Partial fractions
Learning outcomes Quiz F.7 Partial fractions Revision summary Revision exercise Dcnominatol"S wilh repeated and quadratic facton Revision summary Revision exercise Ca.n You? Checklist F. 7 Test exercise F.7 Further problems F.7
219
219 220 221 227 228 229 237 237 238 238 239
Programme F.B T~metry
Learning outcomes Quiz F.8 Angles  Rotation, Radians, Triangles, Trigonometric ratios, Redprocal ratios, Pythagoras' theorem, Special triangles, Half €Cluilateral Revision summary Revision exercise Trigonometric identities  The fundamental identity, Two more identities, Identities for compound angles Trigonometric formulas  Sums and differences of angles, Double angles, Sums and differences of ratios, Products of ratios Revision summary Revision exercise Can You? Checklist F.B Test exercise F.8 Further problems F.8
241
241 242 243
256 257 258
263
264 264 266 266 267
Programme F.9 Binomial series
l£a.rning outcomes Quiz F.9 Factorials and combinations  Factorials, Combinations, Three properties of combinatorial coefficients Revision slImmary Revision exercise Binomial series  Pascal 's triangle, Binomial expansions, The general term of tile binomial expansion Revision Sllmmary Revision exercise The L (.sigma) notation  Generallerms, The sum of the first n natural numbers, Rules for manipulating sums The exponential number e Revision summary Revi.~;on exercise Can You? Checklist F.9 Test exercise F.9 Further problems F.9
269
269 270 271
278 278 279 284 285 286 292 293 294 295 296 296
Contents
vii
P~amme F.10
Differentiation
299 299 300
Learning outcornt!s Quiz F.tO The !"rradient of a straightline graph The bFJ'adient of a curve at a given point Algebraic dt!lermination of the l,FJ'adient of a curve Derivatives of powers of x  Two straight lines, Two curves Differt!ntiation of polynomials Derivatives  an alternative notation
Revision slImmary Revision exercise
301 304 306 308 311 313 313 314
315
319
Second derivatives  Limiting value of Si; () as () > 0, Standard derivatives Differentiation of products of functions Differentiation of a quotient of two functions Functions of a function  Differentiation of a function of a function
Revision summary Revision exercise Can You? Ch eckl ist F.1O Test exerdse F.l0
320 324
328
328 331
331
Further problems F.I0
332
Programme F. 1 1
Integration
333
Learning outcomes Quiz F.II Intcbrration  Constant of integr<ltion Standard integrals
Uevision summary Revision exercise
333 334 335 336
337 337
Integration of polynomial expressions Functions of a linear function of x
Revisioll Sllmmary Revision exercise
338
340 341 341
Inte!"FJ'ation by partial fractions
Uevision summary Revision exercise
343
346 346
Areas under curves
Revision sllmmary Uevision exercise
347
351 351
Integration as a summation  The area between a curve and an intersecting line
Uevision summary Revision exercise Can Vou? Checklist Ell
352
359 359
Test exercise F.I t Further problems F.II
363 364 365
viii
Contents
Programme F.1:2 Functions
Learning outcomes Quiz F.12 Pro<:cssmg numbers  Functions are rules but not all rules are functions, Functions and the arithmetic operations, Inverses of functions, Graphs of inverses, The graph of y = x 3 , The graph of y = .J, The graphs of y = .0 and y = .J plotted together Revision summary Revision exercise Compos;tion  'function of. funct;on'  Inverses of compositions Trigonometric functions  Rotation, The tangent, Period, Amplitude, Phase difference, Inverse trigonometric functions, Trigonometric equations, Equations of the form acosx + bsinx = c Revision summary Revision exercise Exponential and logarithmic function...  Ex(X)nential functions, Indicial equations Odd and even functions  Odd and even parts, Odd and even parts of the eXjXJnential function Revision sllmmary Revision exercise CaD You? Checklist F.l2 Test exercise F.12 Further problems F.12
367
367 368 370
381 38 1 382 387 400 401 403 407
41 t 411 413 414
415
Part"
Programme 1 Complex numbers 1
LearDing outcomes Introduction  Ideas and symbols The ~'YmbC)1 )  Quadratic equations Powers of J Complex numbers Revision exercise Equal complex numbers Graphical representation of a complex number Graphical addition of complex numbers Polar form of a complex Dumber Exponential form of a complex number Revision summary Can You? Checklist 1 Te~1: exercise 1
Fllrther prohlefDs 1
417 419
419
420 420 422
423
427
430
431 434
436
440 443 444 445 445
447
Programme:2
Complex numbers 1
Learning outcomes Introduction Revision exercise
447 448 455
Contents
ix
.1.o<:i problems
Revision summary
can You? Checklist 2 Test exercise 2 Further problems 2
467 470 471 472 473
Programme 3
Hyperbolic functions
475
475 476 479
483
Learning outcomes Introduction Graphs of hyperbolic functions
Revision exercise
Evaluation of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions Log form of the inverse hyperbolic functions Hyperbolic identities Relationship between trigonometric and hyperbolic functions Can You? Checklist 3 Test exercise 3 Further problems 3
484 486 488 491 494 497 498 498
Programme 4
Determinants
SOl
501 502 509 513 516 522 526 531 531 532
Learning outcomes Ileterminants Detenninants of the tbird order  Evaluation of a thlrdorder determinant Silnultaneous equations in three unknowns
Revision exercise
Consistency of a set of equations l'ropcrties of determinants can You? Checklist 4 Test exercise 4 Further pn;)blems 4
Programme 5
Matrices
535
535 5:i6 538 538 539 539 543 544 546 549 552 558
564
Learning outcomes Matrices  definitions Matrix notation Equal matrices Addition and subtraction of matrices Multiplication of matrices  Scalar multiplication, Multiplication of two matrices Transpose of a matrix SpeciaJ matrices Determinant of a square matrix  Cofactors, Adjoin t of a square matrix Inverse of a square matrix  Product of a square matrix and its inverse Solution of a set of linear equations  Gaussian elimination method for solving a set of linear equations Eigenvalues and eigenvectors  Eigenvectors
Revisio/l summary
x
Contents
Can You? Checklist 5 Test exercise 5 Further problems S
565 566 567
571
Programme 6 Vectors
Learning outcomes Introduction: scalar and vector quantities Vector n:preselltatiOIl  Two equal vectors, Types of vectors, Addition of ve<.:tors, The sum of a number of v(>l1ors Components of a given vector  Components of a vector in terms of unit vectors Vectors in .!ol'ftce Direction cosines Scalar product of two vectors Vector product of two vectors Angle between two vectors Direction ratios
Revisiol1 SlIInll1aty
571
572
573
577
583 585 586 588 591 594
594
Can You? Checklist 6
Tt.'St exercise 6 T..arther problems 6
595 596 596 S99
Programme 7
Differentiation
Learning outcomes Standard derivatives Function~ of a function Logarithmic differentiation
599
600
602
608 610 611 613
Revisioll exercise
Implicit functions Parametric equations Can You? Checklist 7 Test exercise 7 Further problems 7
616 617 617
Programme 8
DIHerentiation applications 1
619
619 620 624 630 639 640
640
Learning outcomes Equation of a straight line Tangents and normals to a curve at a given point Curvature  Centre of curvature can You? Checklist 8 Test exercise 8 Further problems 8
Programme 9
Revision exercise
Differentiation applications 2
643
643
Learning outcomes Differentiation of inverse trigonometric function s
644
646
Contents
Deriva tives of inverse hyperbolic functions
Revision exercise
Maximum and minimum values Point.<;: of inflexion Can You? Checklist 9 Test exercise 9 Further prohlems 9
647 651 652 657 663 663 664
Prosramme 10 Partial differentiation 1 :._ _ _ _ _.:: 667
Learning outcomes Partial differentiation
Revisiull exercise
Small incft.'ments Can You? Checklist 10 Test exerdse 10 Further problems to
667 668 680 682 688 688 689
Proc,amme 11 Partial differantlatlon 2
Learning outcomes Partial differentiation Rate.ofdtange problems (,..bange of variahles Can You? Checklist 11 Te~1: exercise 11 Further problems 11
691
691 692 695 703 705 706 706
Programme 12 Curves and c..... fitting
learning outcomes lntrocluction Standard curves A~)'mptotes  Determination of an asymptote, Asymptotes parallel to the x· and y·axes Systematic curve sketching. gjven the equation of the curve Curve fitting  StraighHine law, Graphs of the form y = aX', GTaph s of the form y = ae'''r: Method. of lead squares  Fitting a straightline graph
709
709 710 710 719
724 730
736 742
743 743 744
Revision summary Can You? Checklist 12 Test exercise 12
Further problems 12
Programme 13 Sepies 1
learning outcomes Sequences Series Arithmetic series  Arithmetic mean Geometric .series  Geometric mean
747
747 748 748 749 752
xii
Contents
Series of powers of the natural nwnbcrs Infinite series Limiting values Convergent and divergent series Tests for convergence Series in general. Absolute convergence
Revision slIInmCllY Can You? Checklist 13
755 758 760 761 762 768 770 771
771
Test exercise 13 Further problems ]3
772 775
Programme 14 Series 2
Learning outcomes Power series  Introduction, Maclaurin's series Standard series The binomial series Approximate values Umiting values  indetenninate forms L'Hopital's rule for finding limiting values Can You? Checklist 14 Te~1: exercise 14 Further problems] 4
775 776
783
784 787 789 792 799 799 800
Programme 15 Integration 1
Learning outcomes Introduction  Standard integra ls Functions of a linear function of .: Integrals of the form
803
803 804 807
J~~j
dx and
Jf (x )·f(x )dx
809
Integration of products  integration by parts Integration by partial fractions Integration of trigonometrical functions Can You? Checklist 15 Te~1. exercise IS """rlber problems ]S
814 819 825 829 830 831
833
Programme 16 Integration 2
Learning outcomes Can You? Checklist 16 Test exercise 16 Further problems ]6
833 862 863 863
865
Programme 17 Reduction fonnulas
Learning outcomes
Can You? Chec klist 17
Test exercise 11 Further problems 11
865 876 877 878
Contents
xiii
~me
18 I"...... ation appIlcatI_ 1
881 881 882
Learning outcomes Basic applications  Areas under curves, definit e integrals Param etric equations i\1can values Rootmcan square (nus) values
Revisiun summary
Can You? Ch ecklist 18 Te~t exercise 18 Further prohlems 18
890 892 894 896 897 897 898
Programme 19 Integration applications 2
Learning outcomes Introduction Volumes of solid~ of rt'volution C ..cntroid of a plane flgurt! Centrt! of gravity of a solid of revolution Lengths of curves ungths of curve  parametric equations Surfaces of revolution Surfaces of revolution  parametric equations Rules of Pappus
Revision summary
90.
901 902 902 906
9\0 9 12
Can You? Checklist 19
T~t exercise 19 Further prohlems 19
9 13 916 918 920 920 922 922
923
Programme 20 Integration applications 3
Learning outc omes Moments of Inertia Radius of gyration Paralic) axes theorem Perpendicular axes thcorenl (for thin plates) Useful ~1:andard results Scc::ond moments of area  Composite fi gures Centres of PI'CS)'Urt! Depth of centre of pressure
Revjsiol l summary
927
927 928 931
935 939
941
944 948
952
955
Can You? Checklist 20 Test exercise 20 Further prOblems 20
956 957 957
Programme 21 Approximate Integration
learning outcomes Introduction Approximate integration  Series, Simpson's rule Proof of Simpson's rule Can You'! Checklist 21 Test exercise 2. Further IJroblems 21
961
961 962 963 976 977 978 978
xiv
Contents
P~mme
22 Polar coordinates systems
981
981 982 984 986 1001 1002 1002 1003
Learning outconlCS Introduction to polar coordinates
Polar curve~
Standard polar curves
Revisioll summary
T~1:
Can You? Checklist 22 cxercise 22 F"Urthcr problems 22
Programme 23 Multiple integrals
Learning outcomes Summation in two directions Doublc intcgrals Triplc integrals Applications
Revisioll exercise
100.
1005 1006 1009 1011
l013
Alternative notation  Further example of use of multiple integrals DdcnuinaUon of volumcs by multiple illlegrals can You? Checklist 23 Ted exercise 23 Further problems 23
1017 1018
1024
1028 \028 1029
Programme 24 Firstorder differential equati :·o =:= n :: s_ _~ I;:: O:: 3 ::. 1
Learning outcomcs Introduction
Formation of diffcrt!lltial cqwdiulls
Solution of differential equations  Direct integration, Separating the variables
Revisioll exercise
1031 1032 1033 1036
Homogeneous Cl)uations
Revisioll exercise
Integrating factor
Revisioll exercise
Bernoulli's equation Revisioll summary Can You? Checklist 24 Tcst excrcise 24 Furthcr problcms 24
1042 1043 1049 1050 1059 1059 \066 1066 \067 1068
L07)
Programme 25 5econdorder differential equations
Learning outcomes
Revisioll exercise Revisioll summary
Can You? C hecklist 25 Test excrcise 25
Further problelDs 25
107l 1080 1092 1093 1093 1094
Mea n Coding for calculating the mcan . Rounding off data. Standard devia tion Frequency polygons Frequency curves Normal distribution curve . inhomogeneous differential equations Revisjoll 511fmntlry 1111 11 12 Rel'isioll exercise 111 3 Can Vou? Checklist 26 Test exercise 26 Further problems 26 Ill S 111 5 1116 Proaramme 27 Statistics Learning outcomes introduction Arrangement of data .ribution Mode of a set of data Mode of a grouped frequency diodribution Median of a set of data Median with grouped data Ilhpcrsion .Range. Relative frequency.Tally diagram.Values within I sd.J3 1143 1145 I 147 1149 lISO 1151 Revision SUIT/mary Can Vou? Checklist 27 Test exercise 27 r'Urther problems 27 . G rouped data.Fre<luency histogram.Decoding Coding with a grouped frequency du.The inverse Laplace transform Table of Laplace transforms Rev.Contents Propamme 26 Introduction to Laplace transfonns Learning outcomes The Laplace transform . Class boundaries Hhotograms ... 2 sd and 3 sd of the mean Standardized nonnal curve 1119 IIl9 1120 11 20 112R ]130 1132 1134 11 35 1135 1137 113 7 1139 I ] 42 I I. com"fantcoefficient. Grouping with continuous data.'Jldcncy ..siOll sflmmary Revision eJ:ercise xv 1097 1097 1098 1100 1101 1101 1102 1103 11 05 1106 1106 1108 1109 1111 Laplace transform of a derivative Two properties of Laplace transforms Table of Laplace transforms Revision summary Revision exercise Generating new tran~'forIll$ Laplace transforms of higher derivatives Table of Laplace transforms Linear. Relative (requen cy histogram Mcm"Urc of central tl.
Po isson distribution Continuo us probability distribution3> .Binomial d istribution. Types of probability Empirical prohability .Expectation.Normal distribution curve Sta ndard normal curve Revision summary 1155 1155 1156 1156 1162 11 63 1163 1164 1166 1167 1168 1172 1174 11 76 I1 Bl ll B3 1187 11 BB 11 94 ('. Sampli ng.Notation. Success or failu re.xvi Contents Propamme 28 ProbabIlity Learning outcomes Introductio n . Sample size.an Ynu? C heck list 2R T est ex ercise 28 Further problems 28 11 95 1196 1197 Answers Index 1200 1229 . Multi ple samples. Experiment Classical probability Ccrtain and impossible events Mutually cxclusivc and mutually noncxclu3>ive ev ents Addition law of probability 1ndcltendent evenb and dependent e venb Multiplication law of probabilittc3> Cunditiunal p rohability Dbc rete probability dis tribution P ermutations and combinations Genera l binomia l distri bution Mca n a nd s t a ndard deviation o f a probabilit y distribution Thc Poisson probability distribution .
begin at Frame 1. practice makes perfect . W hen you have come to the end of a Foundation level Programme and have rated your success in achieving the Learning outcomes using the Can xvii . you are required to make a response of some kind. number o r mathematical expreSSion. you are expected to supply the missing word. you are strongly advised to cover up the following frame until you have made your response. Each Programme opens with a list of Learning outcomes which specify exactly what you will learn by studying t he contents of the Programme. testing your understanding of the information in the frame. The Programme ends with a matching checklist of Can Vou? questions that enables you to rate your success in having achieved the Learning outcomes. Remember. However. You will find that each Programme is divided into numbered sections called frames. TIlis is set directly on what you have learned in the Programme: the questions are straigh tforward and contain no tricks. When a series of dots occurs. At every stage you will be guided along the right path. In this way.1ions exactly. To obtain the greatest benefit. There is no need to hurry: read the frames ca refully and follow the dire<.you will soon fmd out if you need a refresher course. Some of these will undoubtedly (Ontain material with which you are already familiar. a set of Further problems is also included: do as many of these problems as you can. When you start a Programme. Read each frame ca refully and carry out any instructions or exercise that you are asked to do. [0 almost every frame. it would sti ll be worthwhile to work steadily through the Programme: it will serve as useful revision and fill any gaps in your knowledge that you may have. It is Ii ke having a ptTsonal tutor because you proceed at your own rale of learning and any difficulties you may have are deared before you have the chance to practise incorrect ideas or techniques. as in many other situations. you must learn. the first twelve are at roundatio n level. phrase. and you can immediately compare your answer with the co rrect answer given in the next frame. Of the forty Programmes. Each Programme h as been written in such a way as to make learning mOTe effective and more interesting. read the Programme's Learning outCOlDes and if you feel confident abou t them try the Quiz t h at immediately follows .Hints on using the book and Personal Tutor CDROM This book contains fort y lessons called Programmes. that In mathematics.o r more nearly so. Indeed. If you feel sufficiently confident then tackle the short Test exercise which follows. even if you feel you have done some of the topics before. To provide you with the necessary practice.
Using the CDROM \vil1 give you more practice and increase your confidence in your learning of the mathematics. these are marked by the PERSONAL TlITOR symool in the oook. A PERSONAL TUTOR symbol next to a Quiz or Test exercise question indicates that it is also on the CDROM. This book is for you.palgrave. from April 2001 . go back to the beginning of the Programme and try the Quiz before you complete the Programme with the Test exercise and the Further problems. The book's website at www. There are no scores for the questions and it is not possible to enter an incorrect answer . critical or otherwise. The Personal Tutor Online The oddnumbered questions from the Further problems are available from Ma rch 2001 on the Stroud website (see below). make m istakes. The bank consists of oddnumbered questions from the Quizzes and Test exen::iSt!s. . and so the more that we know aoout your wishes and desires the more likely they are to be accommodated in future editions. There you will find a growing resource to accompany the text including. In addition.you are guided every inch of the way without having to worry about getting any answers wrong. take your time. and you will surely learn. Again. The questions require their solution to be entered in several steps. As with the exercises in the book. The Personal Tutor CDROM Alongside this text is a CDROM containing a bank of questions for you to answer using your computer. This way you will get even more practice. the complete solution to the entire question is also available.com/stroud Vou are recommended to Visit the book's website that is maintained by Its publisher in the United Kingdom. and each step is accompanied by a hint and a step solution. mathematical questions set within engineering and scientific contexts. offering all the functionality of the Personal Tutor CDROM. correct them using all the assistance available to you.xviii Hints on using the book and Personal Tutor CDROM You? checklist. There is also an email address for you to communicate your comments on the book.
/))' ~ a' .tanB tan = 1 + tanA tan 1:1 (c) LetA = IJ = O:. b)'~a'+20b " b' (11 + b)l = a3 + .'.til = (0  b)(02 + ab + II) a J + b1 = (a+ b)(a2 _ ab + b 2) 2 Trlgonometrical identities (a) sin 2 B + cos1 B = 1: secZ () = 1 + ta0 2 8.::.sin z 8 = 1 . sin2B = 2 sin 8cosO cos 28 = cos 2 /1 . Le.cosA sin B costA + B) = cos A cosH .".wzb + 30IT I (a .sinA sin n costA .::'00.2ob + b' (a .1 tan20 = 2lanO 1 .'. size of k irrespective of sign sum mation > ~ " < is not equal to is identical to is les.3<i'b + 3ab' 3 (0 t.B) = cosA cos B + sin A sin 8 tan (A + B) = .../))' ~ a' ..B) = smA cos B . cosec28 = 1 + COl 2 8 (b) sin (A + B)= sinAcosB+cosAsinB sin (A . x n modulus of k.b )4 = a"' + 4a b+ wI? + 4atr + bol (0 _ b ) 4 if b' = 0 4 _ 4a 3 b + WIT b)(a + b) 02  If = (a  _ 4017 3 + b4 a J . 1 tan Ala nH t a n A + tanB (A 8 ) tanA .1 $ is less than or equal to infinity Ikl Lilli 11 % limiting value as II I 00 L Useful mathematical information 1 Algebraic identities (a .. than ..tan2:iJ xix ..2sin2: 8 = 2cos 2 0 .Useful background information Symbols usecl in the text is equal to ~ tends to is approximately equal to is greater than is greater than o r equal to fadoriai ll = 1 x 2 x 3 x ..
D sin C.1 2 2 2 2 2 lan ~ tan ¢ = 2 1 _ 2 tan 2 .B) 2 sin A sinB = costA ."n .2 sin2 ~ = 2COS2~ . CD = 2 cos .bsin B = A cos(9 + 0) (i) (ii) A ~ )"2+ . mz = 11/1 For perpendicular lines. D (f) 2sinAcosB = sin(A + B) + sin(AB) 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) .sin(A .B) .sin 0 cos( 0) = cos 0 tan(O) = tanO (h) Angles having Ule same trigonometrical ratios: Same sine: eand (180° . (0) (iii) Same tangent: eand (180" + 0) (I) asinO+bcosO = Asin(t1 + o) asin O.T.0 ) acosO .xx Useful background information (d) Let O ~ ~ sin<.T.bcosO = A sin(t1 .andard curves (a) Straight line Slope.S in C+D.B) 2cosA cosB = costA + B) + cos(A .0 ) acosO + bsin 0 = A cos(O. 2 (e) sinC+sin D = 2sin C. .cos(A + B) (g) Negative angles: sine.1 .DcosC.0).D cos C + cos D = 2cos 2 . I. m = ddY = .8) Same cosine: eand (360~ .sin 2 ~ = I . mlrn2 = .D .&= cos¢ = 2sin ~cos~ ros2 . lanB For parallel lines.ooS 2 cosD _ cose = 2sin C . lan.YI X Xz .e.0) = .Y2 . D sin C .2 2 C+D C..I where { 0= a b (00 < a < 90°) 3 St.Xl Angle between two lines.
0) : ~l . "1 ): Y .e.'iing through (XI . vertex ± (::z.C Parametric equations: x = r cosO. radius r: Centre (h. . Y = l)sin 8 (e) Hyperbola Centre at origin. Rectangular hyperbola: asecO..XL) (iii) Joining (Xl.. y = 2nt Ellipse Centre at origin. > Parametric equations: .+ .YI = m(x .for mu lti plication and division a(b+c) = ab + ac IJ + c b e . fOCi (±Ja 2+OZ .2 x2 + y + Zgx + 2fY + C = 0 with cen tre (.= . .XI XI (b) Circle Centre at origin . Y2): Y YL Y2 . foci (±J a2+ OZ. Y = cf t 4 Laws of mathematics (a) Associative la ws .z a Parametric equations: X = ct. focus (a.fo r addition and multiplication a + (b + c) = (a +b) +c a(be) ~ (ab)e (b) Qmmll/tatillt' laws . k). b = semim ino r axis Parametric equations: Jl = a cos 0.~ = 1 = .2 (x _ 11 )2 + (y _ k)2 = . 0): :: + ~ = 1 where a = semimajor axis.. y = rsinO (e) Parabola Vertex at origin.f): radius = Jg2 + (2 . YI) and (xz .(provided a '# 0) a a a . xy = t? where c = .g.11. Y = bta n (J Centre at origin.Usefu l background information Equation of a straight line (slope = m) (i) Intercept c on real yaxis: y = mx + c (iiI PaS. 0): Parametric equations: (d) y = 4ax Jl = all. radius r: General equation: x2 + Y = .Y' = X X2 .fo r addition and mult iplication a+ I) = b+a ab=ba (c) Dis tributive laws . ::z):xy = ~ =t? i.
which has been done in response to t he many changes in the university sector. I trust therefore that I have succeeded in meeting tlus requirement. learning experience is made more ex plidt and the student is given greater confidence in what has been learnt.com/stroud The work involved in creating a new edition of an established textbook is always a cooperative. a CDROM is available that provides a large number of questions for students to work through. so confimling and adding to their skills in mathematical techniques and their knowledge of mathematical ideas . He ViaS very enthusiastic about taking the book fonvard v.Preface to the Fifth Edition Engineering Matl/ematics by Ken Stroud has been a favoured textbook of science and engineering students for over 30 years and to have been asked to contIibute to a new edition of this remarkable book has given me great pleasure and no little trepidation. Using the CDROM.palgrave. The largest part of my work has been to restructure. 1 was fortunate enough to be able to meet Ken Stroud in the few months before he died and to be able to discuss wit h him ideas for the new edition. in the text. These are a selection of questions from the text for which. In line with this. In addition to the text. In a book of this size. In this way. meaning that students from ever more dive rse mCkgrounds are starting courses in engineering mathematics. the majority of the Programmes in Part II are retained largely unaltered and 1 have of course taken great care to preserve the timetested Stroud format and close attention to technique development throughout the book which have made Engineering Mathematics the tremendous success that it is. Towards the end of the book I have also added a Programme on Laplace transforms in place of an original Programme that dealt with Ule DOperator method of solving ordinary differential equations. A dear requirement of any additions in this new edition was the retention of the very essence of the book that has contributed to so many students' mathematical abilities over the years. space is crudal and I felt that an early introduction to transform techniques in the solution of differential equations was more valuable than to retain what is becomi ng a less widely used method. students will be closely guided through the solutions to these questions. To glve as much assistance as possible in organizing the student's study I have introduced specific Learning outcomes at the beginning and Can You? checklists at the end of each Programme. A growing collection of interactive questions plus additional problems set within engineering and scientific contexts is available at the book's website www. team effort and this book is no exception.'ith new technology and both his eagerness and his concerns have been taken into account in the development xxii . no worked solutions are given. reorganize and expand the Foundation section.
I should also like to thank Richard Law of Lexis Interactive in Mulhouse for his care and dedicated professionalism in the construction of the software. As with any team.Preface to the Fihh Edition uiii o f t he CDROM .. Booth .lle enormous task which Ken undertook in writing the o riginal book and three subsequent editio ns cannot be underestimated. Ken's achievement was an extraordinary one and it has been a great privilege to be able to "". the role o f the leader is paramount and I should particu larly like to thank my Editor Helen Bugler whose good humour and care has made this extensive exercise o ne of enjoyment and pleasure. I should like to thank the Stroud family for their support in my work for this new edition and Ihe editorial team for their close <1ttention to detail. their appropriate comments on the text and their assiduous d lecking of evetything that I have written ."ork on such a book. Hlldders(iefd /mllIary 200 1 Dexter J..
Coventry. the intensity of the student involvement and the immediate assessment of responses. at least 80% of the students have obtained at least 80% of the possible marks in carefully structured criteria tests. While formal proofs are Induded where necessary to promote understanding./Ork or subsequent revision. xxiv .Preface to the First Edition The purpose of this book is to provide a complete year's course in mathematics for those studying in the engineering. In a research programme. The material has been specially written for courses leading to (0 (ii) Part' of B.Se. in conjunction v·rith seminar and tutorial periods.e. and further extension and development of these learning techniques are being pursued. the whole of the mathematics of the first year of various Engineering Degree courses has been presented in programmed form. and also provides a ready means for remedial ". Higher National Diploma and Higher National Certificate in technological subjects. students working from programmes have attained significantly higher mean scores than those in the control groups and the spread of marks has been considerably reduced. The book is the outcome of some eight years' work undertaken in the development of programmed learning techniques in the Department of Mathematics at the Lanchester College of Technology. Engineering Degrees. technical and scientific fields. carried out against control groups receiving the normal lectures. The programmed structure ensures that the book Is highly suited for general class use and for individual self· study. and for other courses of a comparable level. For the past four years. Each programme has been extensively validated before being produced in its final form and has consistently reached a success level above 80/80. i. The results obtained have proved to be highly satisfactory. The advantages of working at one's own rate. are well known to those already acquainted with programmed learning activities. The general pattern has also been reflected in the results of the sessional examinations. Programmed learning in the first year of a student's course at a college or university provides the additional advantage of bridging the gap between the rather highly organised aspect of school life and the freer environment and greater personal responsibility for his own progress whidl faces every student on entIY to the realms of higher education. the emphasis throughout is on providing the student with sound mathematical skills and with a working knowledge and appreciation of the basic concepts involved.
including whose who have been actively engaged in validation processes.e. M..Sc. M.Sc.F. R. Acknowledgement is also made of the many sources. F. A.S. F.A.Preface to the First Edition xxv Acknowledgement and thanks are due to all those who have assisted in any way in the development of the work. form erly Head of Department.E. R.. Wooldridge.. now Principal of Derby College of Techno logy. from which the selected examples quoted in the programmes have been gleaned over the years. B.M. Their inclusion con tributes in no small way to the success of the work. Stroud . I especially wish to record my sincere thanks for the continued encouragement and support which J received from my present head of Depart ment at the College.. KA. too numerous to list. J.A. Ae.. Mr.. and also from Mr.J.I. Sellars. M.
mean. frequ ency and relative frequency. definitions: types of matrices. However. histograms. A complete set of answers is available at the end of the book. solution of linear equations. curve recognition. however. inverse. As a result. K.A. Unlimited expansion of the book to accommodate all the topiCS requested is hardly feasible on account of the physical size of the iXlOk and the commercial aspects of production. As before. central tendency . The additional programmes cover the follov'ling topics: (a) Matrices. method of least squares. variance and standard deviation. (b) Curves and curve fitting: standard curves.Preface to the Second Edition The continued success of Engineering Mathematics since its first publication has been reflected in the number of courses for which it has been adopted as the official class text and also in the correspondence from numerous individuals who have welcomed the selfinstructional aspects of the work. transpose. Stroud xxvi . syllabuses of existing courses have undergone some modification and n ew courses have been established. it has now been found possible to provide a new edition of Engineering Mathematics incorporating three of the topics for which there is clearly a wide demand. coding. suggestions have been received from time to time requesting the inclusion of further programme topiCS in addition to those already provided as core material for relevant undergraduate and comparablc courses. mode and median. dispersion range. in the light of these representations and as a result of further research undertaken by the author and the publishers. Over the years. Advantage has also been taken during the revision of the book to amend a smal l number of minor points in other parts of the text and it is anticipated that. asymptotes. the book will have an even greater appeal and continue to provide a worthwhile service. each programme concludes with a short Test ExerCise for selfassessment and set of Further Problems provides valuable extra practice. (c) Statistics: discrete and continuous data. curve fitting. operations. systematic curve sketching. eigenvalues and eigenvectors. grouped data. in its new updated form. frequency polygons and frequency curves. The three new programmes follow the structure of the previous materia! and each is provided with numerous worked examples and exercises. normal distribution and standardised normal curve.
Answers to all problems are provided. which included a programme on the introduction to Statistics. This has now been incorporated as Programme XXVIII of the current third edition of the book. The two texts together provide a comprehensive and integrated course of study and have been well received as such. xxvii . to the pUblishers for their ready cooperation and helpful advice in the preparation of the material for publication. once again. is also now available through the normal channels. The opportunity has also been taken to make one or two minor modifications to the remainder of the text. The additional programme follows the established pattern and stmcture of the previous sections of the text. A companion volume and sequel. KA. Further Engineering Mathematics. dealing with core materia l of a typical second/third year course. My thanks are due.S. originally devised as a first year mathematics course for engineering and science degree undergraduates and students of comparable courses.Preface to the Third Edition Following the publication of the enlarged second edition of Engineering Mathematics. is widely sought ooth for general class use and for individual study. induding the customary worked examples through which the student is guided with progressive responsibility and concluding with the Text Exercise and set of Further Problems for essential practice. Engineering Mathematics. requests wefe again received for an associated programme on Probability.
requests have been received from several universities for the inclusion in the new edition of Eflgineerins MatlJemalics of what amounts to a bridging course of material in relevant topics to ensure a solid founrultion on which the main unde rg raduate course can be established. In view of the v·:idespread nature of the situation. production and marketing processes both at home and overseas.Preface to the Fourth Edition Since the publication of the third edition of Engineering Mathematics. With the issue of the new edition. KA. xxviii . the publishers have undertaken the task of changi ng the format of the pages and of resetting the whole of the text to proVide a more open presentation and improved learning potential for the student. I am indebted to the publishers {or their continued support and close cooperation in the preparation of the text in its new form and particularly to all those directly involved in the editorial. for students already well versed in the contents of the Part I programmes the Test Exercises and further Problems afford valuable revision and should not be ignored. Accordingly.s. as a result of which numbers of students with various levels of mathematical background have been enrolling for undergraduate courses in engineering and science. considerable changes in the syllabus and options fOf Alevel qualifications in Mathematics have been introduced nationally. Once again. the fourth edition now includes ten ne w programmes ranging from Number Systems and algebraic processes to an introduction to the CalaJius. These Foundation Topics constitute Part I of the current book and precede the wellestablished section of the text now labelled as Part 11.
PART I Foundation topics 1 .
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.1 Arithmetic Learning outcomes When you 1m.Programme F.€! completed this Progrmnme YU" will be able to: Frames CIJtoI1S6I • Carry out the basic rules of arithme hc with integers • Write a natural number as a product of pri me num bers • Find the highest common factor and lowest common multiple of two natural numbers • Check the result of a calculation making usc of rounding • Manipulate fra ctions. l( you already feel confident about these why not try tile quiz oyer Ule page? You a m check your answers at tile end o(tlte blXJk. 3 . ratios and percentages • Manipulate d ecimal numbers • Manipu late powers • Usc stan dard or preferred standard form an d complete a calculation to the required level o f accuracy • Understand the construction of various number systems an d convert from one number system to another.
2xS (b) (I3+9) + (3 . 66 (a) 1354 Round each number La the nearest 10.23625 6 Reduce each of the following fractions to their lowest tenus: 64 12 (b) 144 (d) (a) 18 4 21 Evaluate the following: (a) '7 x '3 3 2 (b) 30 7 11 "6 5 8 Write the following proportions as ratios: I 1 3 (a) ZofA'SofBand 10 ofC (b) "4 of P.2 (b) 8 .13 (e) 25 0 Find the value of each of the following: (a) 13t9 + 3 .3 . 3" of Q. Com plete the following: 4 (a) "5 = % (b) 48% of 50= (c) 14 = 9 % (d) 15% of 25 = @:lIO [§] 10 Round each of the following decimal numbers. "5 of R and the remamder S 1 1 I . 88 Find the HCF and the LCM of each pair of numbers: (b) lOS. first to 3 significant figures and then to 2 decimal places: (a) 21·355 (eI0·3105 (b) 0·02456 (d) 5134·555 mJto(!!) 4 .1 ~ ' 2 Place the appropriate symbol < or > between each of the follO\\'ing pairs of numbers: (a) frames . 100 and 1(){X): (b) 2501 (C) 2452 (d) .2)xS [D to (ill Write each of the following as a product of prime factors: (a) 170 (b) 455 (C) 9075 (d) 1140 m:JtoOIJ m:Jto(EJ 4 (a) 84.~ Quiz F.
...\29 12 15..102 (b) 9·3304 t1mltot1"1 If!l 10 20 In each of the following the numbers have been obtained by measurement. .."'r' G!JtoC!!) ~'S (b) if5 (e) (27)1 (d) (..55 Write eadl of the following in abbreviated form: ~ 13 (a) 1·010101 .2 (a) 3·2044 x 1()3 Wri te each of th e following in standard fonn: (b) 0·002401 (a) 134·65 18 Write each of the following in preferred standard form : (a) 161105 .. 5 . (b) 9·2456456456 ..01 2 (c) 123.12 x 6 .5·44 x 8 ·810 ] ·01 ..13 13 5 Frames 12 Convert each of the following to fractional Conn in lowest tenns: (a) 08 (b) 28 (e) 3:i2 (d) .(c) (a) Is (b) . binary.342 Express the following numbers in denary form : (b) 45672h (d) CA1 ·B22 16 t1es)tol1oal (a) 1011 .10.2 5 (e) (9')' (a) 36 x3 3 (d) Find the value of each of the foll owing to 3 dp: (a) 151 (.0·00335 (b) 9. Evaluate each calculation to the appropriate level of accuracy: (a) 11·4 x 0·0013 ..605 10 to the equivalent octal. ~ 21 Convert duodecimal and hexadedmal forms.~ 1l Convert each of the following to decimal fonn 10 3 decimal places: 9 28 4 7 (d) ...O)! 16 Write each oC the following as a single decimal number: (b) 16·1105 ... 14 Write each of the following as a number raised to a power: (b) 43 .
Now move 011 to tile next frame w The integers If the straight line displaying the natural numbers is extended to the left we can plot equally spaced points to the left of zero.13 are of a type called . 4 and 6 are called the hundreds. The numbers . For example: 246 stands for 2 hundreds and 4 tens and 6 units.. 1.2 is to the riglJt of . Points on a line and order The natural numbers can be represented by equally spaced points on a straight line where the first natural number is zero O. For example.10. numbers to the left of a given number are less dum «) the given number and numbers to the right aresrealer than (» the given number. These positive and negative whole numbers and zero are collectively called the integers. .they progress from small to large. . and these are written down using numerals. . S < 3 and . Numerals and place value The wllole nllmbers or nahlral numbers are written using the ten numerals 0.2> 4 because the point on the line representing .9 where the position of a numeral dictates the vaJue that it represents. 5 4 3 2 1 o 2 3 111CSC points represent negative numbers which are written as the natural number preCeded by a minus sign. also called the natural numbers.6 Foundation topics Types of numben w The natural numbers The first numbers we ever meet are the w/lOle numbers. Similarly. 3 < 6 because 3 is to the left of 6..4. . 0. tens and unit coefficients respectively. 4. o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The natural numbers are ordered . The notion of order still applies. Similarly. That is 200 + 40 + 6 Here the numerals 2. As we move along the line from left to right the numbers increase as indicated by the arrow at the end of the line. for example 4. . On the line. For example. You can check YOllr allswer ill tile next frame . B > S because 8 is represented by a point on the line to the right of S.5 is to the left of the point representing 3. This is the place value prindple.
7 is represented an the line ta the left 'Of 12 Brackets Brackets shauld be used araund negative numbers ta separate the minus sign attached to the number from the arithmetic operation symbol.6 because .7 < 12 The reasons being: (a) .Arithmetic 7 IIntegers I They are integers. For example.4 w Now move on to tile next frame (b) (c) . Now try this: Place the appropriate symbol < or > between each of the following pairs of numbers: (a) 3 6 (b) 2 (e) . Adding moves to the right of the Hrst number and subtracting moves to the left of the first number.3 should be written 5 .2: .6 (b) 2 > 4 because 2 is represented on the line t'O the right of . For exam ple.(3) and 7 x 2 should be written 7 x (2). so that 6 .7 . S . Never write two arithmetic operation symbols together without using brackets.6 = .3 > . 6 . The natural numbers are aU positive.2 = 4 and 4 .4 w 12 Complete tllese and clleck YOllr results in tile next frame I (a) 3> 6 2> .3 is represented on the line ta the rigllt 'Of . w Addition and subtraction Adding two numbers gives their sum and subtracting two numbers gives Iheir difference.4 (c) .. . 6 + 2 = B. • o '6 • .7 < 12 because . 6 B 10 • .
15 (b) (e) 2 16 (d) 2 M(}\If.12) x (2) = 24 12 7 2 ~ 6 and (12) + (2) ~ 6 Multiplying or dividing a positive number by a negative number gives a negative number..2) ~ .' 0/1 to Frame 9 . Subtracting a negative number is the same as adding its positive counterpart. For example: 12 x (.(...12) .7)? w W ilen FOil have fi"ished tllese check your resliits willi the next frame I(a) . For example 7 .2) = 7 .2) = 7 + 2 = 9..8) (d) (. The result is 5.2.(7)'( (e) (4) + ( w W ''\Tllen YOli have finished tllese check }'Olir results with tile next frame I (a) (b) (d) 5 15 7 (e) .8 Foundation topics Adding a negative n umber is t he same as subtracting its positive counterpart.14)'. [<or example: 12 x 2 = 24 and (.6) (e) (2) x (. So what is the value of: (a) 8 + (3) (b) 9(6) 8) (d) (14) . (.24. Multi plying and dividing two positive or two negative numbers gives a posit ive number.4) =2 SO what is tile value of: (a) (5) x 3 (b) 12..(.2 ~ .6 a nd 8 7 (.12 Move trow to Frame 7 Multiplication and division Multip lying two numbers gives t heir product and dividing two numbers gives their quotient. For example 7 + (.(.
. so that: (4 + 5 x 6) +212+4 x 2 .1 = 17 .3 x 4 = 14 ... To remove the ambiguity we rely on the precedence niles: In any calculation involving all four arithmetic operations we proceed as follows: (a) Working from the left evaluate divisions and multiplications as they are encountered. this leaves a calrulation involving just addition and subtraction.6 . So that 34+ 10 +(2 . For example.3 x 4 could be e.12 =2 depending on which operation is performed first .12 ..12 ~ 2 because.. Brackets must be used to produce the alternative result: (14 ...1 a first sweep from left to right produces: 4+30 :.3) x 5 = .3 ) x 4 = 11 x 4 = 44 because the precedence rules state that brackets are evaluated first. .23 x 2. (b) Working from the left evaluate additions and subtractions as they are encountered.Arithmetic 9 Brackets and precedence rules Brackets and the precedence rules are used to remove ambiguity in a calrula tion. . 14 . Result in tile /lext frame . For example..7 = 10 TIlis means thaI': 14 .. reading from the left we multiply before we subtract.1 and a final sweep produces: 19 7 = l2 If the calculation contains brackets then these are evaluated first.1 a second sweep from left to right produces: 4+15 .4x2 . to evaluate: 4 +5x6+2 .1 = 34+2 .ither: ]] x 4 W = 44 or 14 .:.6 .
.{S + 21 .{8 + 7[4 . ) bracket multiplication completes the calcu lation = 12 W ork tlds out.10) :.26 = . so that : 5 x (6 ..lJ .16 ~ we evaluate t h e bracket first by dividing by multi plying fina lly we subtract Notice th at when brackets are used we can omit the multiplication signs and replace the division sign by a line.4) (.4) becomes 5(6 .1O) x5 34 + (50) = 34.1J .3} = 5 .10 Foundation topics Because 34 + 10 +(2 .50 = .1) x 5 = 34 +(.(8+ 7 x 3 .{29 .3) x 5 = 34 + 10 +(.10)/5 o r 25 .9+3} ~ 5 .3} ~ 5 .4) and (25 .(8 + 7[4 ...1]) 3(4 . tile result is ill tile fi)l/owing frame ~ so tha t 5 . ) bracket subtraction completes the eva luation o f the ~ 3(.2 x 4) evalu a ting th e innermost bracket (..9 / 3} ~ 5 .2[5 .10 5 When evaluating expression s contain ing nested brackets t he innermost brackets are evaluated first .5 becomes (25 . 1 first multiplication before subtraction inside t he ~3(4 8) (.21 NO'w mo\'e to Frome 12 . For example: 3(4 ..9/ 3} = Because 5 .
2 = ] 2 and (24.I multiplication are commutative operations The order in which two integers are subtracted or divided does affect the result.4 because 4 . "ddition ".5 ~ (.(.4) . Also We say tlUlt SUbtraction and division nre tlot commutative operations 2 ASSOciativity The way in which three or more integers are associated under addition or multiplication does not affect the result. For example: 3 .4 = 2 Notice that f:.2=6 + 2 = 3 We say thol subr'mction and division are not associlltive operalitms ..(4. means is not equal to. 2 .2 4~2"2+4 = 2 and 2 .5) ~ 3 .5) " (3 .5 Also ~ 6 24 + (4 + 2) '" (24 + 4) + 2 because 24 . so here they are....5 because 3 ...4) .4) .(4 . 1 Commutativity @j Two integers can be added or multiplied in either order without affecting the result For example: 5+8 = 8 + 5 = 13 and Sx8 = 8 x 5 = 40 We say Owl.Arithmetic 11 Basic laws of arithmetic All the work that you have done so far has been done under the assumption that you know the rules that govern the use of arithmetic operations as.in each pair one operation is the reverse operation of the other. However. The four baSic arithmetic operations are: addition and subtraction multiplication and division where each pair may be regarded as consisting of 'opposites' . For example: 3 + (4 + 5) ~ (3 +41+5 and ~ 3+4+5 ~ 12 3 x (4 x 5) = (3 x 4) x S = 3 x 4 x 5 = 60 We say UI".I) .1) ~ 3 + 1 ~ 4 and (3 . indeed.. For example: 4 2 f:. there is a difference between knowing the rules innately and being consciously aware of them... (uldilion and multiplicatkm are assodative operations The way in which three or more integers are associated under subtraction or division does affect the result. you no doubt do...(4. 2) = 24 .
.(4 x 5) ~. multiplication and division obey specific precedence rules that govern the order in which they are to be executed: [II allY calculation involving all four aritiJmetic operations I v e proceed as follows: (a) "vrkillg frOIll tile left eva/'l(lte divisions alln mliitiplications as tlley are et .5) = 20+ 5 = 4 and (20 + 10) .. In any arithmetic expression.2 At this point let us pause and summarize the maill facts so far Li!J ~J Revision summary lt5 1 The integers consist of the positive and negative whole numbers and zero.4 = ..5) because 20+ (10.5) # (20 ...(3 x 5) ~ .. Tllis leaves at1 expression involving jllst additioll (l lld subtraction· (b) working from tile left et1llllote additions and SlIbtractions as they are etICOImlered. the contents of brackets arc ('valuated first..12 Foundation topics 3 Distributivity Multiplication is distributed over addition and subtraction from both the left and the right.. 2 The integers are ordered so that Lhey range from large negative to small negative through zero to smal1 positive and then large positive.2 ~ 2 but 20 :.(60 + 5) because 60 + (15 + 5) = 60+20 = 3 and (60 + 15)+ (60+5) ~ 4 + 12 = 16 (20 .cQllnfered. .s Division is distributed over addition and subtraction from the right but not (roil I the left...(20 . subtraction.5) ~ (3 x 4) ..\5) I.(10 + 5) = 4 . 5) Also: # (60 .(10 + 5) because (2010) + 5 ~ 10 + 5 = 2 and (20+5) . For example: (60 + I S) + 5 ~ (60 + 5) + (I S + S) because H IS .. 4) x 5 = (3 x 5 ) + (4 x 5) ~ = 35 3 x (4 . 5 Brackets arc used to group numbers and ope rations together.(10 . 3 The integers can be represented by equa lly spaced points on a line. 60 .(15 ... For example: 3 x (4 . 4 The four arithmetic operations of addition.3 and (3 . They are written using the ten numera ls 0 to 9 according to the principle of place value where the place of a numeral in a number dictates the value it represents.. .10) .5) = 12+3 ~ 1 5 (60+ 1 5) + 5 ~ 75 + 5 ~ 15and ( 60 + 5) However.10) + 5 = (20+ 5) .(20+5 ) = 2 .4) x 5 (3 x 5 ) . 5) = (3 x 4) + (3 x 5) = 27 and (3 .
3 1 17+5 [5 .71) (d) 8(3[2 + 4i .2 = (3) .to) +.2 = 50 Righthand side (RHS) = (100 +.8 = 3 Righthand side (RIIS) = (24 .(to .4 ~ 8 1" LHS So flOW Ori to Frame /6 .(24 + 6) 1 (a) .12 x 4 + 8 ..(3 .44 =28 divide and multiply before adding and subtracting (b) (1612) x 14 + 8) +2 ~ (4) x ( 12) +2~4 x 12 + 2~4 brackets are evaluated first (e) 9 ..1 .(3 .2 x 12) ~ 81 18 .2[5 + 71) 3 Show that: (a) 6.5 = 10 +.Arithmetic 13 ra Revision exercise 1 Place the appropriate symbol < or > betwccn each of the following pairs of numbers: .6 Righthand side (RH5) ~ (24 + 2) .4) = .29 (c) ..12) x (4 + 8 ) +2 (e) 9 .2 = 16 .2 = 1 =1= LIIS (b) Lefthand side (LHS) = 100 .6) " (24 + 2) ..3(7) = 921 =12 (d) 8(3[2 + 4} .3)2 (b) 100 + (10 + 5) 1" (100 + 10) + 5 (e) 24 + (2+6)1"(24 + 2)+(24 + 6) (d) 24 + (2 .3) ..(24 + 6) ~ 12 ..24 ) ~81 6 ) ~48 3 (a) Lefthand side (LIIS) = 6 .1O) x6 ~ 24 ~ 9 .2) = 6 .1 > .6 (b) 5 7 Find the value of each of the following: (a) 16 .6) = 12 + 4 = (d) Lefthand side (LHS) = 24 ...2) + (24 .(2 .48+4 = 16 .2[5 + 7[) ~ 8 (3 x 6 .3 (17 + 5[5 .2)1" (6 .6) = 24 .6 because ..(2 + 6) = 24 .(.1 is represented on the line to the right of .71)~ 9 .14 (a) .5) = 100 .3 1 17 + 5 [ 21) ~93 1 17 .(1) = 5 Righthand side (RHS) = (6 .2 @ 2 (b) (16 .14 < 7 because 14 is represented on the line to the left of 7 2 (a) 16 .6 (b) 5 > 29 because 5 is represented on the line to the right of .12x4 + 8.29 (e) .5 = 2 =1= LIIS 16 =1= LIIS (e) Lefthand side (LHS) = 24 +.
6. namely.....25 lcJ 1. The n umber 1 is 1101 a prime number because it only has one factor. 7. 3. 17 (a) 12 = 1 x 12=2x6 = 3 x 4 Now mow to the Hext frame L!!J Prime numbers If a natural number has only two factOI1i which are itself and the number 1.) 1. These are not the on ly factors of 18. The comp lete collection of factors of 18 is I ...2. 12 (b) 1.5.. For example. . the n umbers 3 and 6 are factors of 18 because 3 x 6 = 18. ..~ of their product.3. 18 because 18 = l x 18 =2x9 =3x 6 So the factors of: (a) 12 (b) 25 (c) 17 are . 11 and 13. 3. the number is called a prime llI/mber. 5. 2.4. TIle results art' ill lhe next frame lill Because (b) 25 = 1 x 25 = 5 x 5 (c) 17 = l x 17 1(. itself.6. The first six prime n umbcl1i are 2.. 9.14 Foundation topics Fadors and prime numbers Li!J Factors Any pair of natural numbers are called fador..
of which 2. 42. 2. 18. Now find the prime factori7.9. the number 126 has the factors 1. 7. 3.. The prime factorization is: 512 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 Move to Frame 20 .63 and 126.21. 14. 3 and 7 are prime numbers and 126 can be written as: 126 =2 x 3 x3 x 7 To obtain this prime factorization the number is divided by successively increasing prime numbers thus: 2 126 3 3 63 21 7 7 1 sothatl26 = 2x3 x 3 x7 Notice that a prime factor may occur more than once in a prime factorization. 6.Arithmetic 15 Prime fadorization Every natural number can be \vritten as a product involving only prime factors.ation of: (a) 84 (b) 512 Work these two Ollt and check the working in Frame 19 I(a) Because (a) 2 84 84 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 7 (b) 512 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 2 42 3 21 7 7 1 so that 84 = 2 x2 x 3 x 7 (b) Ole only prime factor of 512 is 2 which occurs 9 times. For example.
. 4 LCM: 10752 84 and 512 have the prime factorization s: x3x7 84 = 2 x 2 512 = 2x2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x2x 2x2 LCM = 2 x 2 x2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2x 2 x 2 x3 x 7 = 10752 HCF = 2 x 2 = 4 On now to Frame 22 (ill Estimating Arithmetic calculations are easi ly performed using a calculator. using a calculator the sum 39 + 53 is incorrectly found to be 62 if 39 + 23 is entered by mistake. This indicates that the answer 62 is wrong and thai the caiculaUon should be done again.. .. If.. For example: 144 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2x3 x 3 66 = 2 x3 x 11 LCM=2 x2 x 2 x2 x 3 x 3 x 11 = 1584 The HCF and LCM of 84 and 512 are . Lowest common multiple (LCM) The smallest natural number that each one of a pair of natural numbers divides into a whole number of times is called their lowest COIl/mOIl multiple CLCM). For example. 39 is rounded up to 40. em Because I HCF. . Every calculation made using a calculator should at least be checked for the reasonableness of the final result and this can be done by estimating the result using roul/clillg.16 Foundation topics 00 Highest common factor (HCF) The highest common factor CHeF) of two natural numbers is the largest factor that they have in common. The correct answer 92 is then seen to be close to the approximation of 90.. by pressing a wrong key. However. now. the prime factorizations of 144 and 66 are: 144 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x3 xli Only the 2 and the 3 are common to both factorizations and so the highe. . wrong answers can just as easily be produced.t factor that these two numbers have in common (HCr) is 2 x 3 = 6. For example. and 53 is rounded down to 50 the reasonableness of the calculator result can be simply checked by adding 40 to SO to give 90.. . This is also found from the p rime factorization of each of the two numbers.
nearer to 1800 than to 1900 and nearer to 2000 than to 1000. and 2501 rounds up to 3000 Notice that 2500 to the nearest 1000 rounds down to nearest even thousand. 100 and 1000 respectively: (a) 1846 (b). For example.49 x 8 Check YOllr results ill Frame 24 . This prindple also applies when rounding to the nearest more. (b) .19 .638 (e) 445 Finisll all three an(1 clleck your results with tile next frame i (a) ]850. If the number is exactly halfway to the next multiple of 10 then the number is rounded up or (Iown to the next even multiple of 10. If the number is more than halfway to the next multiple of 10 then the number is rounded "I' to the n ext multiple of 10. How about estimating each of the following using rounding to the nearest 10: (a) 18 x 21 .630. 39 is rounded up to 40. for example. 2000 . (c) 445 rounds to 440 because it is the nearest even multiple of 10. 400.it being the Try rounding each of the following to the nearest 10. 2000 (b) 640. 0 Because (a) 1846 is nearer to 1850 than to 1840. 349 rounds up to 350 to the nearest to 300 to the nearest 100.638 is nearer to . For example. 53 is rounded down to SO. 1800. 600.640 than to . 1000 (C) 440. For example. 1000. 100..11 (b) 99 + 101 .Arithmetic 17 Rounding An integer can be rounded to the nearest 10 as follows: If the number is less than halfway to the next multiple of 10 then the number is rounded dowl/ to the prevlolL'> multiple of 10. nearer to 600 than to 700 and n ea rer to . 10000 or 10 but rounds down to the nearest 1000.1000 than to O. 35 is rounded up to 40 but 65 is rounded down to 60. 445 is nearer to 400 than to sao and nearer to 0 than 1000. The negative sign docs not introduce any complications.
3 00 r:ril Revision exercise 1 Write each of the following as a product of prime factors: Ca) 429 C b) 1820 Ce) 2992 C d) 3 185 2 Find the lieF and the LCM of each pair o f num bers: Ca) 63.. 4 The highest common factor (lIeF) is t he highest fa ctor t hat two natural n u m bers h ave in common.11 rounds to 20 x 20 .in (llcts on (actors.18 Foundation topics ® Because ICa) 398 Cb) .49 x 11 rounds to 100+ l 00 .3451 C d) . 6 Integers can be rounded to the nearest 10.19. S The lowest common multiple (lCM) is the lowest natural number that two natural n umbers will divide Into a whole n umber o ( times. some of which may be repeated.S0 x 10 = .14 525 11 13 3t1i 29 143 13 1 429 = 3 x ll x 13 ..20. Every nat ural number can be wri tten as a product of its prime (actors.499 At tltis point let us pau<.. 34 3 Ca) 2562 1 (a) Round each number to the nearest 10.499 (a) 18 x 21 . 2 If a natural number only has o nc and itself as facto rs it is called a prime num ber.10 = 398 (b) 99 + 101 . 100 etc. 42 (b) 92. IJrime nllmbers and estimating (ill E Revision summary lEJ 1 A pai r of natura] numbers arC called factors o f thei r p roduct. 100 and 10Cl0: (b) 1500 (e) . and the rounded values used as estimates for the TCsult o f a calculatio n.e and summarize tlte II".
3000 (d) . 3500. . 1 5000 Now 01/ to the next topic . 3000 (b) 1500.3450.Arithmetic 19 (b) 2 1820 2 5 7 \3 910 455 91 \3 1 1820 = 2 x 2 x 5 x 7 x 13 (c) 2 2992 2 1496 2 2 \1 748 374 187 17 1 17 2992 = 2 x 2 x 2x 2 x 11 x 17 (d) 5 3 185 7 7 13 637 91 \3 1 3185 = 5 )( 7 x 7 x 13 2 (a) The prime factorizations of 63 and 42 are: 63 = 3 x 3x7 42 = 2 x 3 x7 LCM = 2 x 3 )( 3 x 7 = 126 HCF 3)( 7 = 21 (b) The prime factorizations of 34 and 92 are: 34 = 2 x l7 92 = 2 x 2 x23 HCF2 LCM = 2 x 2 x 17 x 23 = 1564 3 (a) 2560.14520. 14500. 1500. 2600. 2000 (c) .
20 Foundation topiCS Fradions li!J Division of integers A fraction is a number which is represented by o ne integer . . for 4 example 7 • in an improper fraction the numerator is greater than the denominator. for example 6i So that  :1 is a .. For example.. .he denominator.the numeratordivided by another integer .they are called ratiOllal numbers.. improper or mixed: • in a proper fraction the numerator is less than t.the dellominator (or the tlivisor). 00 Multiplying fractions '3 x '] = 3 x 2 5 2 x 5 10 7 = 21 Try this one for yourself. lliJ Because x .. fraction? Tile a/lSwer is it' the lIe:xt frame Fractions can be either positive o r negative.. for 12 exampleS • a mixed fraction is in the form of an integer and a fract ion. Fractions are either proper. . .a ratio . ~ is a fraction with numerator 3 and denominator S. For example: ~ x ~= . Because fractions are written as o ne integer divided by another .. Now to the next frame Two fractions are m ultiplied by multiplying their respective numerators and denominators independently.= ~ rwl l£J 5 2 5 x 21O 979x763 Correct? Then on to the "ext frame . ....
....quarter of a cake..=. . That . 1 2 1 2 l x2 2 f1sl ~ Because (ill On flOW to the next frame Equivalent fradions Multiplying the numerator and denominator by the same n umber is equivalent to multiplying the fraction by unity. So that if we multiply the numerator and denominator of the fraction ~ by 4 we obtain the equivalent fraction ... that is by 1: Sx35355 4 x 3 12 .. can be found by multiplying the numerator and the denominator of the first fraction by the same number.. 4 12 Now.... equivalent to a first fracti on.x=x l 4 x3 4 3 4 4 ~ and !~ equivalent (radiollS.... IS "2 of "2 = "2 x "2 = 2 x 2 ="4 1 1 1 1 l x l 1 jofs =j x S=3xs=TS 3 5 SO thats of"7= . Check YOllr result h i Frame 35 . A second fraction. 5 x 3 = 15 so that the fra ction 5" and the fraction 15 both represent the Same f/umber and for this reason we call (ill =  ... . For example: Half of half a cake So that.. for example: .Arithmetic 21 Of The word 'of when interposed between two fractions means multiply. 1S one..
= 24 by cancelling out the 4 in the numerator and the d enomi nato r The fractiOn 24 can also be reduced: 4 24 4 6x4 .. 4 16 ... 96 . nlis is known as reducing the fracHon to its lowest terms. 24 x 4 = 24 x'4. x'lk 7 108 9x3x4 9 x'3. For exam ple: 96 can be reduced to Its lower terms as fo llows: 16 4 )( 4 4)('4.. 6 x'lt 1 6 I 16 Because '6 cannot be reduced further we see that 96 reduced to Us lowe!it t('nns . x'lt. witll the next (rame \leGIuse 84 7 x 3x4 7x'3...22 Foundation topics lliJ Because I~ I 7 x 4 28 S x 4 20 We can reverse this process and Hnd the equiva le nt fraction that has the sma llest numerator by cancelling Ollt common factors... ... 4 4. . 9 Now move on to lIle "exl (rame . Clwck. I IS 6' How about this one? The fraction 180~ reduced to its lowest terms is ...
] = 3 x S= 15 7 3 So that 13 +'4 = .. That is: 1 . which is 2. . Notice how the numerator and the denominator of the divisor are switched and the division replaced by multiplication.. Tv.. . For example: 3=. ... .. Similarly. _. the expression 1 :..3 means the number of 3's in 6.5 is . which is.Arithmetic 23 Dividing fractions The expression 6 =. of course. . 4. _. 2 5 2 7 14 Iz8l ~ Because 737428 13 x3 = 39 3 5 5 TI=4 = In particular: 1+5 = 1>< 3 =3 The fraction ~ IS called the reCiprocal of ~ ~ is So that the reciprocal of (ill Because 17 4 4 1 :"4= 1 x17 = T7 And the reciprocal of .'o fractions are divided by switching the n umerator and the denom inator of the divisor and multiplying the result.~ means the number of !'s in 1. 4 = 4 = 1 x 1 4 T.
515x21><3103 The LCMof9and 61S 18 50 that 9+6 = 9 x 2+6 x3 =18 + 18 13 18 Tllere's another one to try in tile next frame w 10 + 3 . IS the LCM of 3 and 5 The reslIll is in Frame 42 r13l lJ!J Because .+= 9 6 2 1 2)(5 1 x 3103 where IS . roc example. That is: 3+5 = ] x 5 + 5>< 3 = 15 + 15 5 [ Sothat . in w hich case we add or subtract the numerators and divide by the common denominator.24 Foundation topics Because Move 0 11 to the next frame ® Adding and subtracting fractions Two fractions can only be added or subtracted immediately if they both IXlssess the same denominator.called the 2 3 2+3 5 common denominator. 2 1 10 3 W+3 13 3+S = 1s + TI = ~ = IS The common denominator of the equivalent fractions is the LCM of the two o riginal denominators. For example: 7+7 =7= 7 If they do n ot have the same denominator they must be rewritten in equivalent form so that they do have the same denominator .
J 6 = 1 !... For example.. that is: J a. arc 2 ~>< q = "3x4 = 12 = 1! Now usc your calculator to evaluate each of the following: (a) 9+3~ 7 14 (b) 8 (c) 5><79 5 "3rr 13 4 2 (d) 4fr:...(~) + ~ Check yOllr answers in Frame 46 . to evaluate ~ >< I using your calculator fllote: your calculator may not produce the identical display in what follows): t Enter the number 2 Press the a% key Enter the number 3 The display now reads 213 to represent Press the x key Enter the number 1 Press the key Enter the number 3 Press the key Enter the number 4 The display now reads 1 ..Arithmetic 25 Because 11 2 15 "3 11 2><5 153><5 1110 15 1 15 11 10 isIS (15 is the LCM of 3 and IS) Correct? Then on to Frame 4S Fractions on a calculator The a% button on a calculator enables fractions to be entered and manipulated with the results given in fractional form . 3 I 4 to represent 1 ~ Press the = key to display the result I .. 1..
. Band C fo rm jf a compound contai ns "40f A......1 83 . 2 1 =4/i (b) 2 ~ 7 •.. On now to the next frame (ill Percentages A percentage is a fraction whose denominato r is equal to 100. . This ensures that the components are in the ratio of their numerators.... the salt and water are said to be in the ratio 'onelotwo' . ~OfBand 11Z0f C ? Take care here alld check YO" ' results with Frame 48 Because the LCM of the denominators 4. 3 15 = 1M (d) 6~61~ 88 ~ 6j! In (d) enter the 3 5" and then press the Y.26 Foundation topics (a) 4 .. That is: Notice that the sum of the numbers in the ratio is the common denominator. 8 .. (c) 1. if a quantity of brine in a tank contains '1 3 salt and '2 3 water. the numerators of the fractions fonn a ratio. 6 an d 12 is ) 2. then: ~ of A is :2 of A.. that is 5 per cellt (%). For example.033 ~ 2{...wri tten 1 : 2. For example.. On now to the next (rame ® Ratios If a whole number is separated into a number of fractional parts where each fract ion has the same denominator. the percentage of red ca rs on the line is . 3 Wha t ratio do t he components A. ~ of B is 9: 2 : 1 } 22 of B and the remaining }IZ is of C. So if 13 out of 100 cars on an assembly line are red.... if 5 out of 100 people are lefthan ded then the fract ion o f lefthanders is 1 ~ which is written as 5%.key. ...
ratios and IJercentages . To find the percentage part o f a quantity we multiply the quantity by the percentage written as a fraction.. x 2£ x 3 24 6x 4 6 x )t = 6 x 3 = 18 So that 8% o f 25 is Work it throllg/l and check your results with the next (rame (ill Because 8 2x 4 2 x~ 100 x 25 = 25 x 4 x 25 = K x l:J.. Try this.Arithmetic 27 Because The fraction of cars that are red is l~ which is written as 13%. What is the percentage of defective resistors in a batch of 25 if 12 of them are defective? Because The fraction of defective resistors is 212 48%. Notice that this is the same as: 5 = 8 12 x 4 = 400 which is written as 2S x 4 1 G~x lOO)% ~ G~ x X 4) %~ x 4)%~ 48% 25 (12 = A (raction can be converted to a percentage by nIllltiplying the fmction by 100. 24% of 75 is: 24% of 75 = 100 of 75 24 100 x 75 = 25 x 4 x 25 x 3 = II x lt. For example. x'2S = 2 At this point let us IJause and summarize tile main (acts on fractions.
H) +(.. of Q. 3 A fraction with no common factors other than unity in its numerator and denomina tor is said to be in Us lowest terms.. S Two fractions can only be added or subtracted immedi ately when their 6 denominators are equal.28 Foundation topics (ill ~ Revision summary lLJ. independently. 4 Complete the following: (a) 2 :5 7 % % (b) 58% o f 25 ~ (d) 17%of 50 = (c) 12 = . A ratio consists of the numerators of fractions with identical natar. (e) 17 5 2 13 2 (b) 25""15 (0 (c) '9+14 2 +~) o f A.) 1~ of C (g) + 2 4 19 7 3 Write the following proportions as ratioS: (a) ~ '1 3 ~ 1 5' of Band (b) of P. 4 Two fra ctions are multiplied by multiplyin g the numerators and denominator.'.l 1 2 A fraction is a number represented as one integer (the nume rator) divided by another integer (the denominator or divisor). The same number can be represented by diffe rent b ut equivalent fractions.. '1 4 of R and the remamder S . Revision exercise 1 Reduce each of the following fractions to their lowest terms: 24 (a) 30 (b) 72 15 (e) .65 52 (d) 32 8 5 3 2 Evaluate the fo llowing: (a) 9x. denomj~ ® ra 7 The numerator of a fraction wh ose denominator is 100 is called a percentage.
) (b) s' 10=10' 10' 4 I 1OsoratioiS5:4 : 1 3 ' S' 1 1 1 20 12 15 20 12 15 47 "4 = 60' 60' 60 and 60 + 60 + 60 = 60 so the fraction of S is !~ so P..) 24 = 2 x 2 x 2x3 = 2 x 2 = ~ ( 30 2x3x5 5 5 72 2x2x2x3x3 2x2x2 x 3 (b) 15 3x 5 = 5 (e) 24 5 52 65 2 x 2 x 13 5 x 13  lx2 .5 4 5 2 (a) ( .12 % 12 %58i2 % .12 x (d) 100 _ 700 _ 58 x 12 + 4 _ 4 _ 1 1 % .s0 ~ ~ ~ st Now let's look at decima/l1umbers .~  5 9 2 5 5 x2 9x5 2 9 b) 13 .= .x.= 38 + ~ = 45 2 4 4 4 4 (h) "4 ...8 8 .8 2' I 2 1 5 1 3 2 3 1 8 3 (.~ = 13 x 15 = 13 x 15 = 13 x 3 x5 = 39 25·15 25 2 25 x 2 5x5x2 10 97 126 1 40 (g) 19 + ?. 12 ...Arithmetic 29 1 .:. x 20 = 100 that IS 40% 58 25 ~ 58 ~ 29 ~ 1'1 (b) 100 x 4 2 rz _~ (c) !.S8]% 1~.. Q. R and S are in the ratio 20: 12: 15 : 13 4 (a) 5= 5 22x2040.
to t hree Significant figures is 9·45.. ® On to the next frame Rounding All the operations of arithmetic t hat we h ave used with t he integers apply to dedmal numbers. the poSition of a numeral within the number indicates its value. Numbers written in this format are ca lled decimal mill/hers. and 0·001354 to two sign ificant figures is 0·0014 Try this one for yourself. 00 Significant figures Now to tile next {rame Significa nt figures are counted from the first nonlero numeral encountered starting from the left of the n umber.30 Foundation topics Decimal numbers Lill Division of integers If o ne intege r is divided by a second integer that is not one of the first integer's facto rs the result will not be another integer..8·92 = 1·6939461883 . Fo r example: 9·4534 to two significant figures is 9·5. the last significant numeral is increased by 1. For example. When the required number of significant fig ures has been counted off. Here the number 3·125 represents 3 units + 1 tenth + 2 hundredths + 5 thousandths. Instead. the result will lie between two integers. using a ca lcul<ltor it is seen that: 2S + 8 ~ 3 · 1 2S which is a number greater than 3 but less than 4. To fOUl significant fi gures the numbe r 18·7249 is .. However. For example: 15·11 +. 1 2 5 That]s 3 + 10 + too + 1000 wh ere the decimal point shows the separation of the units from the tenths.. Check YOll r res ult wltll tlie next frame .. they can be rounded e ither to a specified number of Significant fiSl/fi'S or to a specified number of decimal places. . when performing calcu lations involving decimal numbers it is common fot the end result to be a number with a large quantity of numerals after the decima l JXlint. As with integers. the remaining numerals a re deleted with the following proviso: If the first of a group o f numerals to be deleted is a 5 or more. To make such numbers more manageable or mOTe reasonable as the result of a calc ul ation..
There is one further proviso.....Arithmetic 31 Because The first numeral deleted is a 4 which is less than S.. Now on w the next frame Decimal places Decimal places are counted to the right of the decimal point and the same rules as for significant figures apply for rounding to a specified number of decimal places (abbreviated to dp). For exam ple: 123·4467 to one decimal place is 123·4 and to two dp is 123·45 So. Because The only numeral dropped is a 5 and the last numeral retained is odd so is increased to the n ext even numeral. .100. So that 12·235 to four significant figures (abbreviated to sig fzg) is 12·24 and 3·465 to three sig fig is 3·46.. 47·0235 to three dp is .. So that 1515 to twosig fig is . . So 8·1265 to four sig fig is . . These zeros are referred to as trailing zeros. . and 13·1 to three decimal p laces is 13. ... For exam ple: 12645 to two ~ignificant figures is 13000. .. Now move on to the next (rami: Trailing zeros Sometimes zeros must be inserted within a number to satisfy a condition for a specified number of either significant figures or decimal places..... Check with the next frame Because The only numeral deleted is a 5 and the last numeral retained is already even .. If the only numeral to be dropped is a 5 then the last numeral retained is rounded to the n ext even numeral... .
. ..4=1·75 So that the decimal form of ~ is . (ill Because Now move 011 to the nex.t frame Fractions as decimals Because a fraction is one integer divided by another it can be represented in decimal form simply by executing the division. ..52 = 52 =. 125.!l 100 25 fl3l Now move 011 to the next frame .....32 Foundation topics And: 25·13 10 four dp is . _.13001 0/1 to the nex. LEJ Because 0 . For example: 224 }·224 = 1000 which in lowest terms is 1 53 1 12 5 So that 0 ·52 as a fraction in lowest terms is .•.t frame Decimals as fractions A decimal can be represented as a fraction. For exampl e: 7 4 = 7 :..
A repeated pattern of numerals can be written in an abbreviated format. in which case a dot is placed over the first and last numeral in the sequence.] (described as zero point 3 recurring) For other fractions the repetition may consist of a sequence of numerals.... .. = 0. Here the pattern after the decimal point is of an infinite number of 3's. thus: 0 ·3333 . . . is written as 0 ·2 Next frame . ... . as .Arithmetic 33 Unending decimals Converting a fraction into its decimal form by performing the division always results in an infinite string of numerals after the decimal point. . ~ o·i42857 So that we write }2) = 0·181818 ... For example: 1 "3 = 1 :. For example: 1 5 = 0·20000 .. (ill Sometimes the repeating pattern is formed by an infinite sequence of zeros..3 = 0·3333 .. We abbreviate this by pladng a dot over the first 3 to indicate the repetition. Tilis string of numerals may contain an infinite sequence of zeros or it may contain an infinitely repeated pattern of numerals.. . For example: ~ ~ 0·142857142857142857 . in which case we simply omit them. .
34 Foundation topics @ Unending decimals as fractions Any decimal that displays an unending repeating pattern can be converted to its fractional form. 20 + 0 03J5 What are the fractional forms of oij and 321? The answers aTe in tile next frame b and 3 ~ Because 100 x oii = 21ii so that 99 x ..00:315 Tl1at is: 999 x = 31 5315 . the fractional form of 20315 is found as follows: 20:h5 = 20 + 00:315 and...20315 = .18 2 018 = 99 = TI Similarly. = ois to its fractional form we note that because there are two repeating numerals we multiply by 100 to give: 100 x ois = 181S Subtracting ois from ooth sides of this equation gives: 100 x ois .2] 7 giving 0 21 = 99 = 33 and oii = 21 321 =32+001 and 10 1 xooi = oli . = 3 1S so that 00315 = 999 = 9990 315 = 2 + 9990 = 2Ttrn = 2 m 3S 7 This means that: .._ 31 S = 3J 5 315 00315 .0 1 ] 001 = "9 = 90 ' hence 3! +~ = 3 ~ so that 9 xooi = 0 1 giving .ois That is: 99 x o is = = 18is  ois = 18 180 This means that: . because there are three repeating numerals: 1000 x 003J5 = 31 5315 Subtracting 0 03 15 from both sides of th is equation gives: ] 000 x 0 0315 .. For example: To convert 0·181818 .00315 .
73 . At tllis poi"t leI us p(luse (l1U1 summ(lrize Uw m(lin facts so far 0" dedmal numbers. 4 A decimal number can be rounded to a specified number of significant figures (sig fig) by counting from the first nonzero numeral on the left. e or 'If. (b) 0·123123123 . The complete collection of ration<ll and irrational numbers is called the collection of real numbers. nonrepeating sequence of numerals after the decimal point are the irrational numbers. 3 Other decimals. Instead. 24 (d) . rst to Slgl1l cant "Igu res and then to 2 decimal places: (a) IHSS (b) 001356 (c) 0·1005 (d) 13445S5 2 Write each of the following in abbreviated form: (a) 12·110110110. An irrational number is one that cannot be expressed as a fraction and has a decimal form consisting of an infinite string of numerals that does not display a repeating pattern. with an infinite.eVRiSion exherfcihse II d I b fi 3 . for example 4. S A decimal number can be rounded to a specified number of decimal places (dp) by counting from the decimal point.. we may have a numeral representation for them such as. we can only round them to a specified number of significant figures or decimal places. Alternatively.fi fi . 2 The decimal number obtained will consist of an infinitely repeating pattern of numerals t o the right of one of its digits. (b) (d) 9 7 24 II 4 Convert each of the following to fractional form in lowest terms: (a) 06 (b) 1'..9360936093609360 .Arithmetic 35 Rational... @ rEi R. irrational and real numbers A number that can be expressed as a fraction is called a rational number. (e) . . lEJl Revision summary lEll 1 Every fraction can be written as a decima l number by performing the division. As a consequence it is not possible either to write down the complete decimal form or to devise an abbreviated decimal format.3·11111 3 Convert each of the following to decimal form to 3 decimal places: 3 S (a) '6 (e) (. oun d eac 0 t eo f owing ecima num ers. (d) . (c) .
1 (d) . 4 13 (b) I . 0·01 (c) 0'100. = . 1246 (b) 00136.36 Foundation topics @ 1 (al 12· 5. .4 = I + g =9 (e) 1·24 = 1 + 99 = 99 = 33 _.. := 1·167 24 (d) . (in the fonn of 5 raised to a power) Compare yo"r amwer witll tile "ext frame . = ..0·556 to 3 dp to 3 dp (b) (e) 5 "9 = 7 6" = 1·1666 . SoSxSxSxSxSx5 = .1O 73 Now move on to the next topic Powers li!J Raising a number to a power The arithmetic operation of raising a number to a power is devised from repetitive multiplication.. 1344·56 2 (a) 12·110 (bIO·in (e) 3.6 = 10 ="5 6 3 . 0·10 (dl 1340.0·555 . 3~ . 24 123 41 (d) 7 .. For example: 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 104  the number 10 mu ltiplied by itself 4 times The power is also called an index and the number to be raised to the power is called the base. Here the number 4 is the power (index) and 10 is t he base.936(}9360 3 (a) 3 16 = 01875 = 0 ·188 to 3 dp ..2·182t03dp 4 (a) 0 .0 =21818 .
$0 8 3 x 8 5 = (in the form of 8 raised to a power) Next frame . . On to the next frame Because any number raised to the power I equals itself.... . Now to the next frame The laws of powers The laws of powers are contained within the following set of rules: • Power unity Any number raised to the power 1 equals itself. .. . 16 = 24 and 8 = 23 so: 16 x 8 = 24 :x 2 3 = (2 x 2 x 2 x 2) x (2 x 2 x 2) =2 x 2 x 2x2 x 2x2x2 = 27 = 2 4 +3 = 128 Mu lliplication requires powers to be added.Arithmetic 37 Because the number 5 (the base) is multiplied by itself 6 times (the power o r index).. 31 = 3 $099 1 = .. For example. . • Multiplication of numbers and the addition of powers If m'o n umbers are each written as a given base raised to som e power then the prodlla of the two nllmbers is equal to the same base raised to t he slim of the powers.
For exam ple: 3 4 x 54 can be written as 15 4 because 34 x 54 = (3 x 3 x 3 x 3) x (5 x 5 x 5 x 5) = 15x15x 15 x 15 = 15 4 ~ (3 x 5)' So that 2 3 x 43 can be written as .... 12 3 = ...2 =625 = Division requires powers to be subt racted. (in t he form of a number raised to a power) Next frame • Division rlllmiJers a/ld fhe sllbtraction of powers If two numbers a re each written as a given base raht:tl to some power then or the q//otient the two nmnlJers is equal to the same base raised to the differcrlce of tile powers. Notice t hat we cannot combine different powers with diffe rent bases. So 12' . (in the form of 12 raised to a power) C/leck YOllr result in tile next frame ... For example: 15625+25 = 5 6 + 5 2 = (5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x S x 5)+(5 x 5) 5)(5x5)(5 )( 5 '>< 5 SxS _ 5 x5x5 x5 = or 54 56 ...38 Foundation topics Because multiplication requires powe rs to be added.. For example: 2z x 43 cannot be written as 8s but we can combine d ifferent bases to the same power.. .
• Power zero Any number raised to the power 0 equals unity. . So 3.1 = . Because 3.. For example: 62 = 6°2 = 6°+62 subtraction of powers means division because 6° = 1 Also 6..5 = 3°. Because any number raised to the power 0 equals unity . • Negative powers A number raised to a negative power denotes the reciprocal. 1 6 A negative power denotes the reciprocal. :.5 = 3° + 3 5 = 3\ A negative power denotes the reciprocal. Now to the next frame .5 = .Arithmetic 39 Because division requires the powers to be subtracted. . For example: 1 = 3 1 +3 1 = 3 1= 1 3° So 193°= ...
. the value of 1·3]4 is . The 1/3 is a problem. Check YOllr answer jn the next frame . cnter the number 3 and press =.. (in the form of 4 raised to a power) Because raising to a power requires powers to be multiplied. For example: (25)' ~ = (52)' 5 2 X S2 X S2 = S x S x 5x5 x S x S = S6 = S 2)(] = 15625 Raising to a power requires powers to be multiplied. 00 Powers on a calculator result is 64 which is 4 3. enter the number 4.40 Foundation topics • Mllltiplication of powers If a n umber is w ritten as a given base raised to some power then that number raised to a further power is equal to the base raised to the product of the powers... The Try this onc for yourself. Now try this one using the calculator: s! =... . . press the x Y key. For example. Now to the next frame. use the a% key.. To t wo decimal places. Powers on a calculator can be evaluated by using the xY key... So (4 2)4= . Tile result is in the following frame Because Enter the number 1·3 Press t he key Enter the number 3·4 Press the = key x" The n umber displayed is 2·44 to 2 dp.
.1. For example.t frame Fractional powers and roots cube We have iust seen that Sl = 2.Arithmetic 41 Because Enter the number 8 Press the x Y key Enter the number I Press the a% key Enter t he number 3 Press = the number 2 is displayed . Odd roots are unique in the real number system but even roots are not. [(. we cannot find the even roots of a negative number. For example: (_32)i = . because example.1 is ( . We decide to accept the fact that. Unfortunately. alternatively. for now.2 because [( . pose a problem.2 because 2 x 2 = 4 and (2) x (2) = 4 Bll.we cannot find its decimal value because there is no decimal number which when multiplied by itself gives .square roots .of 4. the 5th root of 6 is given as 61 because: and by uSing a calculator 6! can be seen to be equal to 1·431 to 3 dp.32)!t = (_ 2)s = . we cannot write this as a decimal number . Now move on to the lIeJ1.l)l]'~ (. We call root of 8 because: si the third root or. We shall return to this problem in a later programme when we introduce complex numbers. however.1 ~. there are two 2nd rools . namely: 4* = 2 and 4! Similarly: = . = ±3 Odd roots of n egative numbers are themselves negative.l ) ' ~ . ror example.1 we conclude that the square root of .32 FOT Even roots of negative numbers. the the 3rd root Of B to the power 3 (sl) 3= 8 the mlltliJer 8 is the resll ft of raising Roots are denoted by such fractiona l powers.
\19 is an alternative notation for ~. for example.10. by convention.3 (c) 144·032 : lOS (d) 0·012045 :. For example: 1·2345 x 103 = 2 1234·5 (3 places to the right) and 1·2345 x 10.2 Work all (our out afld then check rour resuits witll tile next frame . This notation can also be extended to other roots.2 = 1·2345 x 102 So now try these: (a) 0 ·012045 x 104 (b) 13·5074 x 10. this is always taken to mean the positive square root. Use your calculator to find the value of each of the following roots to 3 dp: (aJ 16l (b) J8 (eJ .3 and 1·2345 :.'Jl (d) v'=4 Al1Swers in tile next frame I(aJ use the a% key (bJ 2·828 the positive value only (cl ±2·088 there are two values for even roots (d) We cannot find the square root of a negative number 1486 On flOW to Frame 95 Multiplication and division by integer powers of 10 If a decimal number is multiplied by 10 raised to an integer power.= 0 ·012345 (2 places to the left). for example: 1·2345 :.10.103 = 1·2345 x 10. Notice that. the decimal point moves the integer number of places to the right if the integer is positive and to the left if the integer is negative.42 Foundation topics Surds An alternative notation for the square root of 4 is the surd notation J4 and.
s the left (d) 0 ·012045 :.53 x 4+3) = 14 :.eva/Hating powers is performed before dividing and multiplying.10. for example: 5(3 x 4' +6 7) ~5(3 x 16+6 71 ~ 5 (48+6 .7 1 ~ 5(87) ~ 5 So that: 14 + (125+5' x 4+3) ~ Clleck YOllr result in tile next frame Because 14 :.Arithmetic 43 I (al 12045 (hI 00135074 (c) 0·00144032 td) 1·2045 Because (a) multiplying by 104 moves the decimal point 4 places to the right (b) multiplying by 10.3 moves the decimal point 3 places to the left move the decimal point 5 places to (c) 144·032 :.(125 :.125 x 4 + 3) ~ 14+ (4+3 1 ~2 .lOS = 144·032 x 1O.2 = 0 ·012045 x I OZ move the decimal point 2 places to the right Now mQW on to Ole next frame Precedence rules With the introduction of the arithmetic operation of raising to a power we need to ame nd our earlier precede nce rules .(125 :.
0862 ~ .. then... So.. .. (d) 1523800 ~ ..4 etc...44 Foundation topics 00 Standard form Any decimal number can be written as a dedmai number greater than or equal to I and less than 10 (called the mantissa) multiplied by lhe number to raised 10 an appropriate power (the power being called the exponent)... the mantissa is written in standard number form and the necessary adjustment made to the exponent... giving the results in standard form to 4 dp: (a) 472·3 x 0 ·000564 = ..2 (b) 723 x to.103 = 0·2767 x 10= 2·76 7 >< 10. In the same way.... ......10 = 2·67 x 10.104 = 485 to. (b) 0 00723 ___________ _ ~ (c) 0 0582 ~ .6·34) x to2 :.1 X 0{)OO485 = 4·85 :..2 to 4 sig fig 1 Where the result obtained is not in standard fonn. ... ...3 (d) 1·5238 x 1()6 Working in standard form Numbers written in standard form can be multiplied or divided by multiplying or dividing the respective mantissas and adding o r subtracting the respective eXlxments. For example: 0 84 x 23000 = (8·4 x = to. (b) 752000 . ...... I (a) 5·2674 x 104 (c) 5·82 X 10. For example: 57 ·3 423·8 = 573 >< 10 1 = 4·238 x 102 6042·3 = 6·0423 x to 3 and 0 ·267 = 2·67 :.6340 ~ (1 754 x ID') .I ) x (2'3 x 104 ) (8·4 x 23) x to..(634 x 103 ) = (1·754 . writlen in standard form: (a) 52674 = ...I x J(f = 19·32 >< 103 = 1·932 x to4 Another example: 1754 . .
2 = = 1·326 x 10.3 in standard form .2 .3  ] ·13 x 10.1·13 X 102 (1·3261 ·13) x 10.8·62) x lOs x 101 0·87239 x 1()6 = 8·7239 x lOS For addition and subtraction in standard form the approach is slightly different.1 (b) 752000 +0862 ~ (752 x 10') + (862 x = )0.4 = 26·638 x 10. the powers of 10 must be equalized: 13·26 x 10.1 13 x 10. Example 1 4 ·72 x loJ 4·72 x l (il + 3·648 x 104 + 3·648 x 1(f = 4·72 x llY + 36·48 x 103 Before these can be added.Arithmetic 45 I(a) 2·6638 x 10(b) 8·7239 Because x 1 105 (a) 472·3 x 0 ·000564 = (4 ·723 x lOZ) x (5·64 x 104) = (4·723 x 5·64) x lOZ x 10.2 = 2·6638 X 10.2 = 0 ·196 x ]0.') = (7·52 +. Example 2 13·26 x 10.3 .2 = 1·96 x 10.2 Here again.n the next example. the powers of 10 must be made the same: ~ (472 + 3648) x 10' = 4] ·2 x 103 = 4·12 x 104 in standard form Similarly i.
2 Preferred standard form In the SI system of units. . .3. etc.. 10. Therefore in this preferred standard (onn up to three figures may appear in front of the decimal point. For example..46 Foundation topics Using a calculator Numbers given in standard form can be manipulated on a calculator by making use of the EX P key.12·36 x 103 =. working in standard form : (a) 43 ·6 x 1()2 +8· 12 x 1()l (b) 7·84 x lOs . 103 . using the EXP key on a calculator to evaluate ( 1'234 x 103 ) + (2·6 x 1()2) results in the display 1494 which is then converted by hand to 1·494 x 1()l. If the answer is required in standard form then it will have to be converted by hand. Example 1 5·2746 x 104 in standard form = 5·2746 x 10 x 103 = 52·746 x 103 in preferred standard form Example 2 3472 x loR in standard form = 3·4 72 x IcY x 1..06 = 347 ·2 x Hf in preferred standard fonn . it is recommended that when a number is written in standard form . i. In practice it is best to write the number first in standard form and to adjust the power of 10 to express this in preferred standard form. the power of 10 should be restricted to powers of llY. .2 = I(a) 1·248 x 104 (b) 7·7164 x lOs (C) 2·165 X 10. _ (c) 425 x 10.. enter 1·234 and then press the EXP key.e. _. Therefore. For example. Iff'..3 + 1·74 X 10. to enter the number 1·234 x 103. The display then changes to: 1234 00 Now enter the power 3 and the display becomes: 1234 03 Manipulating numbers in this way produces a result that is in ordinary decimal format.6 . 10.
3 in preferred standard form So.... ... we have (a) 8·236 x t0 7 = ... .2 = .. 104 = . ..7 = ... (c) 4 ·827 X (e) 3·274 x 10.. .... ....3 I (b) 16204 x 10.. ... rewriting the follow ing in preferred standard form. . .. .. (d) 6·243 x lOs = . ... ..3 = 36·84 x 10. • (a) 82·36 x 1()6 (d) 6243 x (e) 32·74 x 10' 10... (b) in prefe rred standard form = .. .. I(a) Because 3·9459 x 108 (b) 394·59 x l <fi (a) (472 x 10') x (8 36 x 10') ~ (472 x 836) x 10' x 10' = 39·459 x 107 = 3·9459 x l OS in standard form (b) (4 ·72 x 102 ) x (8·36 x lOS) = 3·9459 102 x 106 = 394·59 x 10 6 in preferred standard fo rm X Now move 011 to the next frame .... . (b) 1·624 x 10....4 = .... ......Arithmetic Example 3 47 3·684 x 102 in standard form = 3·684 x ]O x 10.9 One final exercise on this piece of work: Example 4 111e product of (4 ·72 x 102) and (8·36 x lOS) (a) in standard form = . . (f) 5362 X 10. ..6 (c) 48·27 x 103 (f) 536·2 x 10.
For example: 59·2347 x 289'053 = 5·92347 x t0 1 x 2·89053 x 102 = 5·92347 x 2·89053 x 10 3 This product can then be estimated for reasonableness as: 6 x 3 x 1000 = 18000 (see Frames 22 .3 = 8·00120 x 7·9533 X 10. the estimated value of 800 120 x 0 ·()()7953 is Check with the l1ext frame Because 800·120 x 0·()()7953 = 8 ·00120 x ){)l x 7·953 x 10.24) The answer using the calculator is 17 12 1·968 to three dedmal places. This comp.10 = 6·4 The exact answer is 6·36 to two decimal places.1 11lis product can then be estimated for reasonableness as: 8 x 8:.48 Foundation topics liliJ Checking calculations When performing a calculation involving decimal numbers it is alwa~ a good idea to check that your result is reasonable and that an arithmetic blunder or an error in using the calculator has not been made.ues favourably with the estimated 18000. So. Now move 011 to the next frame . This can be done using standard form. which is 17000 when rounded to the nearest 1000. indicating Ulat the result obtained could be reasonably expected.
Negative powers denote reciprocals and any number raised to the power 0 is unity. Mu ltipli cation of a decimal number by 10 raised to an integer power moves the decimal point to the right if the power is positive and 10 the left if the power is negative. It should therefore be read as 2 100 mm 2 • Assuming the following contains numbers obtained by measurement. we can justifiably round the result down to a more manageable number of sil. the result cannot be accurate to more than 2 significant figures. use a calcul ator to find the value to the correct (eveJ of accuracy: 19·1 x 0·0053 :. Using a caJcuiator this p roduct is 2066·4 nun 2 . namely 0·0076. 6 In preferred standard form the powers of 10 in the exponent are restricted to multiples of 3. At this point let us pause and summarize the main (acts so far on powers '!®l Revision summary 1 (!@ 2 3 Powers are devised from repetitive multiplication of a given number. A dedmal number written in standard form is in the form of a mantissa (a number betwccn 1 and 10 but excluding 10) multiplied by 10 raised to an integer power. Because one of the lengths is onJy measured to 2 significant figures.13·345 0·0076 Because The calcu lator gives the result as 0·00758561 but because 0·0053 is only accurate to 2 significant figures the result cannot be accurate to more than 2 Significant figures. For example: The base length and height of a rectangle are measured as 114·8 mm and 18 mm respeoively. 1 If numbers used in a calculation arc obtained from measurement. S Writing decimal numbers in standard form permits an estimation of the reasonableness of a calculation. The area of the rectangle is given as the product of these lengths.Arithmetic 49 Accuracy Many ca1culations <Ire made using numbers that have been obtained from measurements. Such numbers are only accu rate to a given number of significant figures but using a ca lculator can produce a result that contains as many figures as its display will permit. Because any calculation involving measured values will not be accurate to more significant fisures tllon tile least nllmber of significant figures in (lny measurement. the power being called the exponent.'11ificant figures. the result of the calculation is a number accurate to no more than the least number of significant figures in any measurement. 4 .
= 0·463 to 3 sig fig On now to the next topic ..8 Write each of the following in preferred standard form: (a) 1·3204 x 1005 (b) 0·0101 (e) 1·345 In each of the following the numbers have been obtained by measurement.....8 = 95·032 x 10.370to 2sig fig (a) 125·87 = 1·2587 x 102 6 (b) 0 ·003 x 194 13·6 0. = 0 .l (b) 0'3 (e) (_8)l (d) (_ 7)1 Write each of the following as a single dedmal number: (a) 1·0521 x 103 (c) 0 ·0135..3·6 x 0 ·54 + 5 ·7 x 9·2 (d) 8 .0·012 x 7·63 .6 x 2·9 1 (a) 58 x 5 2 =5 8+ 2 = 510 (C) Cr)3= 74 )(3 = 7 12 (b) (d) (19. 10.2 = 1·23456 3 (c) 0 ·01.04 to 1 sig fig (c) 19·3 x 1.04 2 "00 = 19·3 x 1·0816 = 20·87488 = 20·9 to 2 sig fig 18 x 2·1 .367·6= .) (b) 0·003 x 194 13. E.2 35·856 77 .3 (b) 123 ·456 x 10.3 (c) 1·345 = 1·345 x 1fiJ (d) 9·5032 x 10.50 Foundation topics li!ID ~ Revision exercise 1 Write each of the foUowing as a number raised to a power: (a) 58 x 52 0) 6 4 + 6 6 (c) (7 4)3 (d) (19.9 + 5 .. .38 0·46337554 .9 (a) 13·6.6 18 x 2·1 .6 x 2. so think about this one You cannot find the even root of a negative number 3 (b) 123456 x lO.valuate each calculation to the appropriate level of accuracy: (a) 13·6 + 0·012 x 7·63 .35 :..2 (d) 165·21 + 104 (e) 1345 4 5 6 Write each of the folJowing in standard form: (a) 12587 (b) 00101 (d) 10·13 (d) 9·5032 x lO.9015 = .3 ·6 x 0 ·54 (d) 8 .8 )°= 1 as any number raised to the power 0 equals unity 2 (a) 16l = ± 2·000 ?13 = 1·442 (e) (8)l ~ 1 5 16 You may not be able to use a calculator as the (d) (_7)i problem stands.2 (c) 1·345 = 1·345 x Hf' (d) 10·13 = 1·013 x 10 1 = 1·013 x 10 (a) 1·3204 x lOs = 132·04 x IcP (b) 0·0101 = 10·1 x 10.4 =0·016521 (a) 1·0521 x lcP = 1052·1 4 S (b) 0·0101 = ) ·01 x 10.7 x 9....9015 (c) 19·3x 1·042"0.042794 ..8)° 2 3 Find the value of each of the following to 3 dp: (a) H.= 0·0135 x IcP = 13·5 (d) 165 ·21 + 104 = 165·21 x 10.10.
e. For exam ple has place values 2 7 ] ()3 1000 Hi' 100 6 ]0 1 ID 5 10° 1 3 10. but it is included here as it leads on 1. 2.' 1 4 2' 1 8 So. 1. 0 1 12 is .1 1 10 JOZ 10. the system has a base of 2. For example has place values i. the denary equivalent of 1 I 0 I .3 1 100 1 1000 2 1. 8. 5. 7.' 1 I.0 In this case.625 10 The small subscripts 2 and 10 indicate the bases of the two systems. So let us move on to tile next system 2 Binary system This is widely used in all forms of switc hing applications. 9 together with appropriate place values according to their positions. I 2' 8 0 2' 4 I 1 0 2. 3. perfectly familiar with tllis system of numbers. The denary system Is said to have a iJase of 10. The only symbols used aTe 0 and I and the place values are powers of 2.0 other systems whic h have the same type of structure but which use different p lace values. w hich gives the name denary (or decimal) to the system . lllerefore 1011· 101 2 = 11 . 4. i. of course. 2' 2 2" :1 0 2. the place values are powers of 10. 1x8 0 Ox 4 in the binary system 1 + 1x2 1 xl + 1x ~ ~ + OX t O x! t 8 + 0 + 2 + in denary 11 ~ = 11 ·625 in the denary system .Arithmetic 51 Number systems 1 Denary (or decimal) system This is our basic system in which quantities large or small can be represented by use of the symbols 0. 6.e. You are. In the same way. .
6.. 2. 3. In the same way then.' 1 8 7 7x1 li 64 3 3 x 64 192 239~ 5 5x8 3 3 xk + = 40 + 7 + .582 10 I Because 263 4521:1 = 2 x8 2 + 6 x 8 1 +3 x 80 + 4 x8.' 1 2 in the octal system 8' 1 512 2 I.g expressed in denary form is . 1.408 10 As you see. 3 Octal system (base 8) This system uses the symbols 0. 179.52 Foundation topics l!HJ Because 1 ~ I \3375" I 8 + 1 4 0 1 0 1.1 + 5 x8. . + 0 + + 0 = 13~ = + I + 13·37510 • .e. 4. For example has place values i.3 = 2 x 64 + 6 x 8+3 x 1 + 4 x ~+ 5 xtJ + 2xm = 128 + 48 + 3 + i+~+zk = 179m = 179·58210 Now we come to the duodecimal system. 5. So move on to the next frame . the method is very much as before: the only change is in the base of the place values. 8. 7 with place values that are powers of 8. 263·452. which has a base of 12. 1 xm + m That is 357.3218 239. 50 3 8' 64 5 8' 7 8' 3 8. 2 x r!4 + = 239·408210 " .2 + 2 x 8.
The duodedmal system. 7. 2 A 7 16' 256 16' 16 16' 1 3 E 2" 1 16.. 4. ·w 2 2 x 144 X 612 10 x 12 + + 1 xb + + 6x~ Finish it off Because 2 X 5·1 3612 = 288 + 120+ 5 + b+:!a +..e. S.16. 6.2 1 1 12 144 1 6 12 123 1 1728 3 3xl~<4 r.2 16. 8. 1. 2. F The place values in this system are powers of 16. 2.Arithmetic 53 4 Duodecimal system (base 12) With a base of 12.. 9. after 9. therefore. our denary symbols go up to only 9. uses the symbols 0. C.. . 6. . so. For example has place values I. D. 50 2 12' 144 X 12' 12 5 12" 1 5 5d 3 12... so we have to invent two extra symbols to represent the values 10 and 11. X. Several suggestions for these have been voiced in the past. . I... The symbols here need to go up to an equivalent denary value of IS. A and has place values that are powers of 12. 4. letters of the alphabet are used as follows: 0. 3. B. Unfortunately. A. 5." + .10810 5 Hekadecimaf system (base 16) This system has computer applications.3 1 1 1 16 256 4096 Therefore 2 A 7·3 E 2 16 = . 8. 9. The first of these calls to mind the Roman numeral for 10 and the A symbol may be regarded as the two strokes of 11 tilted together 1 1 to join at the top. 3. the units column needs to accommodate symbols up to 11 before any carryover to the second column occurs.1 12. For example has place values i. but we will adopt the symbols X and A for 10 and 11 respectively.e.jg = 413& Therefore 2XS·13612 = 413. 7. E.
2 6 S12 2 1 12 6 144 5" 1 1728 1 I 1 = 3 x 144+ 11 x 12+4 x 1 + 2 x 12 + 6 x l44 + 5 x 1728 115 6 24 )728 = 568~ = 568211 10 Therefore 3 A 4 .21110 = 432+ 132 + 4 + + . Express the following in denary fonn: (a) 3 I\. 3 A 4 Place values 144 12 So 3 A 4 . 2 1 F1 6 = 3 x 256 + 12x 16 + 4 xl ·t. (b) 3 C 4 2 Place values 256 16 16 256 FI6 1 4096 So 3 C 4 .133 10 = 964 ~ At this point let us pause (Iud sumnUl"ize tile main {acts so far . two more by way of practice.2 x 16 + 1 x 256 + 15 x 4096 1 I 15 1 1 1 = 768 + 192 + 4 + 8 + 256 + 4096 = 964·133\0 Therefore 3 C 4· 21 FI6 = 964 .54 Foundation topics 1 679 .243 10 I Here it is: 2 A 7 . 3 E 2 16 1 1 1 =2x 256 + lOx 16+7 x I + 3 x 16 + 14 x + 2x 4096 256 = 679~~ = 679·24310 And now.265 12 = 568. 2 6 SJ2 (b) 3 C 4 ·21 FJ6 Finish both of them and check the working with the next frame liliJ Here they are: (a. 4 .+ .
7. 1. 4. Express the octal 357. 8. 6. 4. B. An example will show the method. 8. D. Now move Oil to the IIext frame So far. multiply the first column by the base 8 and add the result to the entry in the n ext column (making 29). 6. 2. 5. 8. X. 3. 1. A 5 Hexadecimal system: Base 16. Base 12. 7. 4. 9. F. This gives 239 in the units column. Place values powers of 8. 2. Multiply the second column total by 8 and add the result to the n ext column. 9. 7. Symbols 0. E. 5. 1. 3. Symbols 0. 1.5. 4. Place values powers of 2. Symbols 0. 3. 2 Binary system: Base 2. Symbols 0. Place values powers of 10.Arithmetic 55 l'6l Revision summary lE. 1. 3. So 3578 = 239)0 Now we do milch tile same witll the decimal part of the octal Il/lmber . ~r232 24 J 29 x 8 232 239  Now repeat the process. First of all. 7. Another way of arriving at the same results is by using the fac t that two adjacent columns differ in place values by a factor which is the base of the particular system. 3 Octal system: Base 8. A. we will attend to the wholenumber part 357 8 • Starting at the lefthand end. Place values p owers of 16.6. C. 4 Duodecimal system. Symbols 0. 2. Place values powers of 12. we have ch anged numbers in various bases into the equivalent denary numbers from first prindples. 6. 2. 9. 5.121 8 in denary form.\J 1 Denary (or decimal) system: Base 10. 3 5 7 ~ .
. . 24f232 24 J 29 239 x8 232  J ~"'~f~ 8 10 x8 80 = 81  1 81 81 x 83 = 512 = 0 158210 The refore 357.56 Foundation topics I The decimal part is O· 1 2 18 1 o  1 8 2 10 x 8 80 1 81 J ~"'~f~  Starting from the lefthand column immediately foll owing the decimal point..136 12 in denary form. . The denary value of 01218 is 81 X 8.e.1 36 12 = ..121 8 23915810 Now you can set this one out in sim ilar mann er. Space out the duodecimal digits to give yourself room for the working: 245 . . .3 = 5~12 = 0 1582 10 Collecting the two partial results together. . .. Express the duodecimal 245.1 36 12 Then off you go.1582 10 In fact.. thus: 3 S 7 1 2 1  ~. 3571218 = 239. .. .. multiply by 8 and add the result to the next column.. . fina lly getting a total of 81 in the end column. . .3 i.. .. Repeat the process. But the place value of this column is . 8 1 x . 245 . ... we can set this out across the page to save space.
Find the denary equivalent of the binary number 11Ql1·1QIlz. Setting it out in the same way.1076 10 On to the next Now for an easy one. . ... .1076 10 Here is the working as a check: 2 4 S I 3 1 x 12. 4CS·2B8 16 = . 1 U I 12 = And now a hexadecimal. . 1 2 76875 00 1 110 x~J x2  :f :f~:f ~~ x2 >< 2  1 0 1 I  x~J ~f ~f ~~ x 2  6 4 11 )( 2 .24 J 2 4 r 336 28 341 x 12 336 12 J'. . . .Arithmetic 57 [341.. 2 B 8 16 in denary form. . . There are no snags. . .= 12 26  4  )( 2 10 27 ' 6~ 751O ~! = O'6875 w Therefore 1 1 U 1 1 . .3 • therefore 3 186 O'136 1Z = 186x12. . Remember that C = 12 and B= 11.107610 So 245 ·136[z = 341.. Express 4 C 5 .= 1728 = 0. .2: 15 r ~ 12 x 6" 180 186 180 Place value of last column is 12. . the result is .
duodecimal or hexadecimal number .into the equivalent denary number. Complete the set and then check your results with the next fram e. we can change any binary.including a decimal part .305 16 .16992 10 456 76 l216 688 Therefore 4 C5 · 2 B8 16 = 1221 . octal. 1 12 (c) 4 X 9 .1699 10 258 43 They are all done in the same way. Revision exercise Express each of the following in denary form (b) 7 7 6 . By now then. So here is a short revision exercise for valuable practice.58 Foundation topics @) Here it is: 4 x 16 64 12211699" I 8 688 696 Place value 16.3 696 So 4096 = J C 64 76 x 16 51216 1221 2 x 16 32 f B 32 43 x 16 0 . 1 4 38 (a) 1 I 00 1 . 2 A 5 12 (d) 6 F 8.
11 2 = 25 751{) (b) 7 7 ::I' :~ [ 50. 1 4 3 5lOI{) X: I' x8 96 ':[ 96 _ 99 x8 . we h ave chan ged bin ary. x8 50. x ".Arithmetic 59 I(a) (b) 257510 510'1931{) 7052461{) (c) (d) 178424010 Just in case you h ave made a slip anywhere. octal.l = 111 48 x 16 61 x 16 666 111 1 776 366 61 = 4096 0 ·2395 w 981 976 6FS ·3DS I 6 = 1784·240 w In all the previous examples.=4 = 0 751() x2  12 24 11 00 1. So 011 tlien to the next frame . so we wiJI n ow see what is involved.3 = 99 512 =019336 w (e) 4 x x 12 9 696 705 10 . 25 w X2I' 2 _2 1 3 2 _ 3x2. duodecimal and hexadedmal n umbers into t heir equivalent denary forms .2. 4 2 5 420 35 x 12  2 5 425 x 12 = 1728 = 0 ·24591{) (d) 6 x 16 96 J r F ~ 8 1776 1784 10 3 x 16 r J D 48 5 976 _ 98lx16.:r~ 48 J 58 [ 696 24 '2I' 24 [ 4 20 _ . The reverse process is also often reqUired. (a) I 1 0 0 1 X~I' ~[ :[ :~ [ x2 6 x2  2. here is the working. 6 .
. ..8 For: 8 524 10 R 8 8 65 . from bottom to top.0 Lo octal gives .... So 89710 = .4 \ As before. noting the remainder at each stage. changing 524 . .. i. . but this time we divide repeatedly by 12... Le... .e. from bottom to top..0 1 2 2 15 7 0 \ \ \ 2 2 3 \ o  \ Then 24510 = 1111010lz 2 To express a denary number in octal form The method here is exactly the same except that we divide repeatedly by 8 (the new base). . 8 0 0 1 I 52410 = 10148 3 To express a denary number in duodecimal fonn Method as before.. Continue dividing until a final zero qllotient is obtained.. WiLhout more ado.. 1014. to change 245 10 to binary: 2 245 10 2 2 2 122 61 30 1 Now write all the remainders in the reverse order.. . write the remainders in order. For example. . .. So.60 Foundation topics Change of base from denary to a new base 1 To express a denary number in binary fonn The simplest way to do this is by repeated division by 2 (the new base).
0 12 74 . we multiply the decimal repeatedly by the new base.306 10 as a duodecimal. . . 897 10 = 629 12 Now move to the next frame The method we have been using is quick and easy enough when the denary number to be changed is a whole number. we do not multiply the wholenumber part of the previous product . In fact. it may be safer simply to write the decimal as ·52610 in the working. When it contains a dedmal part. 4 To change a denary decimal to octal form To change 0'52610 to octal fornI.526 10 = 0. we gel . in this case 8. Be careful not to include the zero unit digit in the origi nal denary decimal.'. we write the who lenumber numerals downwards to form the required octa l decimal.41528 Converting a denary decimal into an y new base is done in the same way.9 12 6 2 6 o 1 .Arithmetic 61 Because 121897. If we express 0. but Ireat only the decimal part and so on Finally. So 0. we must look further. 496 0 Now multiply again by 8.. 526 10 8 4 208 8 664 8 3 12 5 8 2 . but on the second and subsequent multiplication. Set it Ollt in the same way: lhere are no sIIags .
.. The example will show the method. . 848 8 6 . . Set tlte workil1g out .. .62 Foundation topics liliJ 3 306 10 12 672 12 064 8 0 9 12 768 12 216 12 There is no carryover into the units column.. 272 8 2 . 384 '426 10 expressed in duodecimals becomes ...306 10 = 0380912 Now let lIS go one stage further . so enter a zero.56628 In simHar manner. 0. 592 etc.so on to tile next frame If the denary number consists of both a wholenumber and a decimaJ part. Express 492./1 tile same way .731 10 in octal form: 8 8 1 492 61 " 4 8 7 0 5 7 I 492·731 iO = 731 10 8 5 . 176 Then 754.. the two parts are converted separately and united in the final result . 2 . :.. 784 8 6 .
. 536 12 6 384. (C) 011 100 . This gives .5142 12 432 That is straightforward enough. . note the following .Arithmetic 63 12805142" I Because we have: 12~84" 0 12 32 12 2 8 2 426 10 [ 5 .65410 in octal. . Express the denary number 348. As an example.5178 348'65410 = 5345178 = 101011100·10100] 111 2 Then. 344 12 4 . regroup the same binary digits in groups of four. 10] 001 111 Closing the groups up we have the binary equivalent of 534. . 12 ]] 2 o 12 1 ... . so let us now move on to see a very helpful use of octals in the next frame. 128 12 1 . .65410 = . . thus: 101 Le. This gives 348. starting from the decimal point and working in each direction..42610 = 280. . . Use of octals as an intermediate step This gives us an easy way of converting denary numbers into binary and hexadecimal forms.654 10 into octal form by the usual method. I 534517. (a) First we change 348. binary and hexadecimal form s. I (b) Now we take this octal fonn and write the binary equivalent of each digit in groups of three binary digits.
5 (12) (10) 7 8 I Replacing (12) and (10) with the correspond ing hexadecimal symbols.. the method is more concise. In practice..654 10 = 534 . so t" hat we have . 010 111 11021 (c) Closing these up and rearranging in groups of four in each direction from the decimal point. we have .. (d) Now write the hexadecimal equivalent of each group of four binary digits.. thisgiv~ 15 C · A 78 16 So... I (b) The binary equivalent of each octal digit in groups of three is .. Here is another example... 110 101 100 . I 654276...371 10 into its octal.64 Foundation topics 10001 0101 llO0 ... C and A. collecting the partial results together: 348. . lOtO Oll) )000 completing the group at either end by addition of extra zeros. binary and hexadecimal forms.. 10001 1010 1100 .. . as necessary.5178 = tOlO11100·1010011112 = lSC·A78'6 Next fmme We have worked through the previous example in some detail.. .. ... 0101 1111 21 (d) The hexadecimal equivalent of each set of four binary digits then gives .. the octal equivalent of 428. ..371 10 is .. Change the denary number 428. . (a) First of all..
and convert these into the equivalent octal digil~. Here is one you can do with no trouble. Express the hexadecimal number 4B2·1A6\6 in equivalent binary. (a) (b) (c) (d) Rewrite 482·1A6\6 in groups of four binary digits. You am do this 011e entirely on your own. Express the octal equivalent of each group of three binary digits. so let us do one morc. I. starting with a hexadecimal number. Finally convert the octal n umber into its denary equivalent. regroup these into groups of three digits from thc decimal point.24510 = 243.1758 = OlOloo011 ·oo11111012 = 10lD 0011 = 0011 1110 l000 z A3·3E8\6 And that is it. binary and hexadecimal forms. Work right throllgh it mId then check witii tile soluliolJ in the nexl frame . octal and denary forms. the octal number can be converted into denary form by the usual method. Finally. Work rigllt throllgh it and then check with the resllits in the nexl frame I 163. Regroup into groups of three binary digits from the decimal point. the method we have been using can be used in reverse. we can change it into groups of four binary digits. Convert 163·245\0 into octal. On to the next frame Reverse method Of course.Arithmetic 65 I lACSF" I So 428·371\0 = 6S4·276g = 110101100·010111110z = l ACS FI 6 lhis is important.e.
825 10 to the equivalent octal. 2. 8. 0001 1010 01102 (b) 010 010 110 010 .66 Foundation topiCS 4B2·1A616 = (a) 0100 1011 0010 . 7 Place values . 4. 6.powers of 12 0. I.9.powers of 8 0. octal and denary forms. n. Clleck results with tile next frame I 2E.JXlwers of 10 0. 1.15) Revision exercise Express the following numbers in denary form: (a) 1110. 3 Convert 139.2.4.8.2 3 28 = 739301 10 At tllis point let us pause and summarize the main facts so far OtT number systems fED Revi5ion 5ummary 1 Denary (or decimal) system Billary system Base 10 Numerals Base 2 Numerals Base 8 Numerals Base 12 Numerals 2 3 Octnl system 4 DlIoded»1l1f system 5 Hexadecimal system Base 16 Numerals Place values . 000 110 100 1102 (e) 2 2 6 2 . X. 0 6 4 68 (d) 1202·10310 Now one more for good measure.3.11 2 (b) 507 ·632g (c) 345·ZA7 12 (d) 2B4·CA3 16 2 Express the denary number 427. 3. 4. 5.111 Place values .2. 5.powers of 2 0.4. 6. C. A (10.7. 0100 11012 = 001 Oll 100 011 .17. A. 7.3·40 16 = OOlD 1110 0011 . 1. F (10. 7. 6. I Place values .3. 010 011 mo z = 1 3 4 3 . 6. 2. B. binary and hexadecimal forms.11.36210 as a duodecimal number. 0. Express 20. 1 . 9. E.40 16 in binary. 8.powers of 16 0. 14. S. 3.5. 9 Place values . I..
there is 110 need to hurry.carning outcomes listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them.10 001 011 110 100 110z and 8B0316 You have now come to the end of this Programme. ~ Can You? Checklist F. On a scale of 1 to S how confident are you that you can: • Carry o ut the basic rules of arithmetic with integers? Yes Frames [D to lJI) (!!) to tJ:[) (El to CBJ (ID to CBJ ~ to @) 0 0 0 DO No • Write a natural number as a product of prime numbers? Yes 0 0 0 D O No • Hnd th e highest common factor a nd lowest common multiple o f two natural numbers? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Check the result of a ca lculation making use of rounding? Yes 0 0 0 D O No • Manipulate fractions.Arithmetic 67 1 (a) 1475 10 2 3 (b) 327801 10 (c) 485 247 10 (d) 692 790 10 to 3 dp 2A744212 213646'1. Work throllgh these (It your OWIl pace. A set of Further problems provides additional valuable practice.1 Check tltis list before and (lfter YOll try tile end of Programme test. After that try the Test exercise. A list of Can Vou? questions follows for you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme_ You will notice that these questions match the I. ratios and percentages? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Manipulate d ecimal numbers? Yes Yes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o No No • Manipulate powers? o • Use standard or preferred standard form and complete a calculation to the required level o f accu racy? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Understand the construction of various number systems and convert from one number system to another? Yes 0 0 0 D O No [!!)to11081 II!!J to l149' .
(a) +(d) .3x4 + 28 + 14 (b) (24 . (c) ~ of 5.. 100 and 1000: (b) 1100 (c) ..4995 Find (i) the HCF and (ii) the lCM of: (a) 1274 and 195 (b) 64 and IS Reduce each of the following fractions to their lowest terms: 8 (b) 162 (c) _ 279 (d) _ 81 (a) 14 36 27 3 Evaluate each of the following.12 15 (b) 9 17 (c) .~(f) .x + .. Find the ratios of the components in each case: 3 1 (a) '4 of A and '4 of B (b) 6 ~ 7 8 ~ ~ of P.+2·2 7 5 2 5 4 In each of the following the proportions of a compound are given.3) x (4 + ZS)+ 14 Write each of the following as a product of prime factors: (a) 156 (b) 546 (c) 1445 (d) 1485 (a) 5045 Frames ~ ' 2 3 4 S Round each number to the nearest 10.1 Place the appropriate symbol < or > between each of the fo llowing pairs of numbers: (a) .1552 (d) . /5 of Q and the remainder of R of R. ~ of T and the remainder of U ~ 9 What i~: 3 (a) 5" as a percentage? (b) 16% as a fraction in its lowest terms? (c) 17·5% of £IZSO'? .11 10 Find the value of each of the following: (a) 24 .of3 5 7 9 5 15 9 3 64379 (e) .68 Foundation topics ~ Test exercise F. giving your answer as a fraction: 1 3 2 1 4 2 (b) .
81)1 (d) 0·000125 16 Express in standard form: (a) 53H (h) 0364 (c) 4902 Convert to preferred standard form: (a) 6·147 x 107 (b) 2·439 X 10.872 10 to the equivalent octal.35 x Wi) measurement.8 1)1 (d) (.(c) (a) 17 IS 3 II 12 Write each of the following in abbreviated form: (a) 6·7777 . Convert each of the followin g to fractional form in lowest terms: (a) 04 (h) J. (b) 001001001001.4 1'6 x 0·01 CEJto l1041 ~ 19 Each of the following contains n umbers obtained by 20 Express the following numbers in denary form: (a) 1111 ·11 2 (b) 777701" (c) 3A3 ·9Al 12 (d) E02·FAB16 B] 21 Convert 19. giving the result in both standard form and preferred standard form: (6'43 x 1(3 )( 7...7 18 CEJ to l.4 (d) 4 ·371 x 10.zW6 .68 (c) 1·4 14 Write each of the following as a number raised to a power: (a) 29 x2 2 (b) 6 2 + 5 2 (e) ((_4)4). Evaluate each to the appropriate level of aecmacy: (a) 18. duodecimal and hexadecimal forms..33  5'4» ~ 11 Convert each of the following to decimal form to 3 decimal places: 17 2 3 (d) _ 24 (b) . binary. 3.s )0 (liJto[TI] @ "'Cill G!JtoC!!] ~ 15 Find the value of each of the following to 3 dp: (a) 111 (b) ~ (c) (..4·2 (b) 13·6 .1! 110::1"011041 Determine the following product.Arithmetic 69 Frames 10 Evaluate each of the following (i) to 4 sig fig and (ii) to 3 dp: (a) 13·6 x 258 :.4 (d) (3.84{{6'3 x 9 ·1 +2'2 1'3)  (4 '1.3' \ .4·I' x 3·1)) (d) . .4·2 x 25 ·8 (c) 9·1 (IH3 + 7.
other than those indicated in brackets. 321 2 33 + (5 n .42 (d) 64.192 _ 2..1 1 Place the appropriate symbol < or > between each of the following pairs of numbers: (a) 4 11 (b) 7 13 (e) . (a) 924 (b) 825 (c) 2310 (d) 35530 6 Find the HCF and LCM for each of the following pairs of numbers: (a) 9.t 7 . has been obtained by measurement.t.2x3 (b) (6 + 14)+(7 .35) 2·63 + 1·89 x J 7324 Find the prime factorization for each of the following.2) x 3 Round each number (a) 3505 (b) 500 to 2 3 4 the nearest 10. divisor 6.IS 13 Find the value of each of the following: ta) 6+14+7 .70 Foundation topics . multiplier 2) (power 2) (power 2) (0 .4 x 1.85 (e) 66. (e) . (iii) 111e required level of accuracy given that each number.311 ) (a) 8 32 _ 264 x J 2 56 (b) 3142 x 1·95 (3 x 5'44 2 + 1952) 6 3· 142 x l ·234 (c) 12 (0 .. / 2 x 0 ·577 + 2.424 2 (power 2.360 Reduce each of the following fractions to their lowest terms: (a) 24 ~ (b) 104 (e) 48 15 120 (d) _ s. divisor 3.z. multiplier 3) (power 2.21 (b) 15.951 2 ) . 100 and HXX).(H6 .64 2 (d) V3.02' . (ii) 4 dp. Further problems F.632 (power 2. divisor 12) + 0 ·424 x 0 ·951 + 0.142 x 2·64 3 326 + v'1213 (e) 14.9005 Calculate each of the following to: (0 5 sig fig.2465 (d) .
~. (c) A. (a) 0 12 Convert each of the following to fractional form in lowest terms: (b) 525 (e) 5j06 (d) . (h) ~ Find: (a) 16% of 125 (e) 135% of (IH) 12 (b) % % of 563 (d) 0 [3% of 9266 In each of the following the properties of a compound arc given. Band C are mixed according to the ratios A : B = I : 7 and B: C = 13 : 9.. (b) 212·2112112 11 . (a) (b) ~ of A.93 (b) 2 9 7.. Band C are mixed according to the ratios A : 13 = 2 : 5 and B: C = 10 : 11.5)' ~ 17 Convert each of the following to decimal form to 3 decimal places: 5 (a) 2 .19 . Band C in the ratio 1 : 2. B] '3 14 Write each of the following in abbreviated form: (a) 8 ·767676 .17 2 (e) ~3 (d) 32 . In each case find A : B ..(~) 2 x~ 25 · 3 11 Express each of the following as a fraction in its lowest terms: (a) 36% (b) 175% (e) 87% (d) 72% 10 Express each of the following as a percentage accurate to 1 dp: 4 3 2 1 (a) 5 (b) IT (c) "9 (d) "7 (e) :9 CO ~~ (g) . (d) A. (b) . 92 ]6 Find the value of each of the following to 3 dp: (a) 17i (b) m (e) (_ 5)1 (d) J( .Arithmetic 8 Evaluate: (a) 71 ~ _ ! . .8 2 (c) (Sl)oS ~ ]5 Write each of the following as a number raised to a power: (a) 84 x 8 3 (d) 3 4 . ~ of B and ~ of A with the remainder of C.. C.
(ii) octal. (Ui) duodecimal and (iv) hexadecimal forma t: (a) 1·83 (b) 3·425 x 102 Convert each of the following octal numbers to (i) binary. (ii) octal.10011 (b) 11 1001 100 ~ 25 Convert each of the following hexadecimal numbers to 0) binary.72 Foundation topics 18 Express in standard lonn: (a) 52876 (b) 15243 (d) 00000492 (el 4362 (a) 4285 (d) 3 ·G29 x lOs (e) 008765 (Q 0 5728 (c) 8526 X 104 (f) 5 ·G94 x 1(jl ~ 19 Rewrite in preferred standard form: (b) 00169 (e) 1·0073 x 107 20 Evaluate the follow ing. (iii) duodecimal and (iv) hexadecimal fonna t: (a) 0. (Ii) decimal.38 )( l OS) 3· 1 . (iii) duodecimal and (iv) decimal format: (a) OHB (b) 3AS . (ii) octal. (a) 0·577 (b) 563 ~ 23 Convert each of the following duodecimal numbers to 0) binar}'. (a) O·AX (iii) decimal and (iv) hexadecimal format: (b) 911 1 24 Convert each of the fo llowing binary numbers to (i) decimal.adedmal format. giving t he result in standard form and in preferred standard fonn: (4·26 x 104 )(9.79 )( 1()2 ~ 21 22 Convert each of the following decimal numbers to (i) binary. (ii) octal. (iii) uuodecimal and (iv) lieJl.
73 .2 Introduction to algebra Learning outcomes Frames m to ~ When YO" 110ve completed this Programme YOIl will be able to: • Use alphabetic symbols to supplement the numerals and to combine these symbols using all the operations of arithmetic • Simplify a lgebraic expressions by coll ecting like terms and by abstracting commo n factors from similar terms • Remove brackets and SO Obtain a lternative algebraiC expressio ns • Manipulate expressions involving powers and multiply h vo expressions together • • • • Manipulate logarithms both num erica lly and symbolically Man ipulate algebraiC fractions and divide one exp ression by another Factorize algebraic expressions using standard factorizations ):actorize quadratic algebraic exp ressions If yOIl already feel confident about the.Programme F.<ie why tlot try tile quiz oller the page? You ca ll ch eck your answers at tile end of the book.
. (ill tornJ Perfonn the following multiplications and slmpllfy your results: (a) ("'+ 2n .2b )(Za .4x(lx .)4 CD toG!) 2 Remove the brackets in each of the following: (a) .21 0g r ~ 5 Rewrite T = 6 21r~ in log form.3(y .5(z+ 6)} (C) .3 )(4" + 5 ) (b) (v1 _ 1'2 _ 2)( 1 .b d Frames () (.. .1)1 x (11)' 7 (sl)l (s 1) '..( .nl1 ~ (c) w 4 .~ Quiz F..y)(3x + 2y) (b) (a .IOg(~) ..12 ntn I.2qr I.3mln 2 I.4)[ ..3b)(3a .. !1.6rp (b) S/ 2 mn I.qp .logm • Express logF without logs.2a a2b (b) (ill to[ill 74 .4b) x .2n1 2 m .31' I.(h.2 ~ 1 Simplify each of the following: (a) 31'Q + Spr . P' 2C x ac2 Ji2c 2b .2\12 ) (ID to@) ~ 7 Simplify each o f the following: (a) q' £ .4n 2 ml .wa X w.2 [ Evaluate by calculator or by change of ba5€' where necessary (to 3 dp) : (a) 10gO0101 (b) In3·47 (c) 1 0&2316 @] to@) ~ 3 CEl to@) = logG I..
5.4r r2+2r 2 3 (C) 3 CEJto(E) Factorize the following: (a) 18x y .25x + 12 75 .3xr .1 2l (c) 4(x _ y )2 _ (x _ 3y )2 (d) l zx2 .] +.2 .Ilxl (b) x3+ 4~y .8 Perform the fo llowing divisions: Frames Cal (2r r 1O) +(y + 2) (b) q'8 q2 2.
to the person who thought of it) we shall represent the number by the letter a: Th ink of a number a Add IStoit a + 15 Double the resu lt 2 x (a + 15 ) = (2 x a) + (2 x 15) = (2xa) + 30 Add the result to th e number you first thought of a+ (2 x (/) + 30 = (3 x a) + 30 Divide the resuit by 3 (3 x a ) + 30( + 3 ~ a + 10 Take away the number you first thought of a + 1O . of course. for example: (/ + a+a+a=4xa 3 xaao::2xa 8xo 7 (/=8 and axaxoxaxa=a S .16 Foundation topics Algebraic expressions w w Think of a number Add 15 to it Dol/ble the result Add this to the number YOLI first thought of Divide the result' by 3 Take away the nllmber you first thol/ght of TIle answer is 10 Why? Cheek yOllr aJ/slVer . So that.e alphabet which etlll then be manipulated jllst like an ordillary nllmeral within an arithmetic expression.(/ = lO The result is 10 Next frame w This IHtle puzzle has demonstlated how: an unknown nllmber can be represented by a letter of ti.11 the 11ext' frame Symbols other than numerals A letter of the alphabet can be used to represent a number when the specific number is unknown and because the number is unknown (except.
the letters x and y are referred to as variables because they each represent. al b OJ b provided b =f 0 a . That is. but any onc of a collection of numbers. a. and raising a to the power b ((J Using letters and numerals in this way is referred to as algebra. for example: 2+3 = 3 + 2 To describe this rule as applying to any pair of numbers and not just 2 and 3 we resort to the use of alphabetic characters x and y and write: w x +y = y +x where x and y represent any two numbers.) YOLI can check your answer in the next frame . not just one number.we ca ll such a symbol a constnnt. NolV move to tile next frame Constants In the puzzle of Frame I we saw how to use the letter a to represent an unknown number . So how would you write down the fact that multiplication is an associative operation? (Refer to Frame 12 of Programme F.b or simply ab (we can and do Sllppress the mLiltiplication sign) a 7. Central to this symbolism is the idea of a variable.l.Introdudion to algebra 77 If a and b represent two unknown numbers then we speak of the: sum of a and b difference of a and b product of a and b quotient of a and b a+b ab a x h. In many other problems we require a symbolism that can be used to represent not just one number but anyone of a collection of numbers. Used in this way. Next (mme Variables We have seen that the operation of addition is commutative.b.
While it is not a hard and fast rule. . Now mow on to the next (rame Rules of algebra The rules of arithmetic that we met in the previous Programme for integers also apply to any type of number and we express this fact in the ntles of algebra where we use variables rather than numerals as specific instances.YIY .(y .tTP IIspc1ln n>prf'Sf'nl c(lnslants and letters from the end of the alphabet.thPf.' +xand XY = yx Additioll alld multiplication tire commutative t)/JCratiolls The o rder in which two numbers are subtracted o r divided does affect the resuJt. Notice the suppress ion of the multiplication sign.'iodalPd unc1pr aclditinn or multiplication docs lIot affect the result. when a letter of the a lphabet is used it should be made clear whether the letter stands for a constant or a variable.z) x + (y :. That is: x + y = . it is generally accepted that letters from the bf'ginning of thp <llph.. In any event. v. z are used to represent variables. 1I. C. w.78 Foundation topics w W [ x(yz) ~ (ry)z ~ xyz [ where x.. y and z are as. That is: x . y. The rules are: 1 Commutativity Two numbers x and y can be added o r multiplied in any order withoul affecting the resuJ . y and z represent numbe rs. d.z) #= (x . IJ. ..y) .x x + y=l=y+x. Le .. Lf'. 10at Is: x+U ' + z) = (x + y) + z = x + y x(yz) = (xy)z = xyz + z and Addition atld multiplication are associative opcrations The way in which the numbers are associated under subtraction or division does affect the result.z unless z = 0 and #= (x:y) :z un less z = 1 and Y =1= 0 Sublradion atld divisiotl are not associativc operatitlns ~cept itl very special cases .. That is: x . unless x = Y and G =F ~) unless x = Y and neither equals 0 ~cept SubtractiolJ alld division arc tJot commlltative operations spedal cases l hi very Associativity The way in which the numbers X.. x.
For example: x(y /. So that: 8 is the coefficient of the x term and . Next frame Terms and coefficients An algebraic expression consists of alphabetic characters and numerals linked together with the arithmetic operators.3wz can be simplified to . The numerals in each term are called the coefficients of the respective terms.yz x(y .Introduction to algebra 79 3 Distributivity Multiplication is distributed over addition and subtraction from both the left and the right. For example: (x + y) + z = (x + z) + (y + z) but 7 x 7 (y +2) " (x that is: y) + (x 7 z) x + y = ~ +!:: but _ x_#= ~+~ z z z y +z y z Take care "ere because it is a common mistake to get this wrong Rules of precedence The familiar rules of precedence continue to apply when algebraic expressions involving mixed operations are to be manipulated. Check YOllr answer with tile next frame . 411v .z) = xy /.. Each component of this expression is called a teml of the expression. Collecting like terms Terms which have the same variables are caUed like tenns and like terms can be collected together by addition or subtraction.711z ...z) = xy . For example: 4x+3y2z + Sy3x + 4z can be rearranged as 4x . Here there are t wo terms.2z + 4z and simplified to: x+8y+Zz Simi larly. .3 is the coefficient of the xy term.Sy .y)z = xz /. For example: 8x ....6wz /...3xy is an algebraic expression in the two variables x and y.xz and (x /..211v /.y)z = xz .xz and (x . namely: the x term and the xy term.3x + 3y /..yz Division is distributed over addition and subtraction from the right but not from the left.
...3sy . both cont ain ing the lell er q. in the a lgebraiC expressio n: 3pq .Y. . They also have it common coeffiCie nt 3 and this.1' .6sw simplifies to .vell as the common lette r q.35 x v . For example.80 Foundation topics w @ Similar terms In the algebraic expression: al) + he 6.3s x 2w 3s(3t . can be facto red o ut to give: 3pq ... arc called simi/ar terms.711z ..... the comm o n facto r b In this expreSSion can be factored o ut to give: ab + be = b(a + c) This process is known as factorization.3Wl Next frame both terms contain the Jetter b and for this reason these terms. TIle a1lswer is in the next frame liD Because 9st .2w) Nex t frame . Fo r example.3qr the te rms are similar.. tho ugh not like terms. as .3sy6.r) So the algebraic expression 9st . .sw = 3s = 3s(3l'  II  2w) x 3t . Common symbols such as this letter bare referred to as common fadors and by using brackets these common factors can be (adored Ollt. Numerical facto rs a rc factored out In the same way..3qr = 3q(p ..
. As a further example.t'\ or as ~ (3x 8x) 8x y) Nested brackets VVhenever an algebraiC expression contains brackets nested within oth er brackets the innermost bracke ts are removed first.+.16x + 60 At Otis point let us ptwse mId summarize the main facts so far . For example.2x + Zy[) = 4(2x + IS ..3{ S ...Introduction to algebra 81 Expanding brackets Sometimes it will be desired to reverse the process o f factorizing an expression by removing t h e brackets.6xz and the brackets in the expression .x = ..lOSa = 3Sb .x) ..4 \.6x + 6y) = Bx + 60Z4x + Z4y = 24y .. after the removal of the brackets ... Next (rame 1 24y .Zy(lx .y j[) ~ 4(2x + 3[5 .4x a nd the ax 4x brackets can he removed as follows: y x y x y+x y .Zz) are removed to give 3xy ./.28 So tha t the algebraic expression 4(lx \.2a + 3Sb .5(b . For example: (ill ~ 7(a .. but (b) if the term outside t he bracket is negative then each teon inside the bracket changes sign.+ .x is an alternative fo rm of (y + x) .3a j[) 7(a .+sx .. whic h can be written as ! (3 .ayz. the brackets in the expression: (ill 3x(y .[4 .5b + 15a[) = 7(a .2(x .98a ..4z) are removed to give .2(x .[4 .I Sa ) = 7a .ax . .I6> + 6O 1 (ill Because 4(2x + 3 [5 .y)]) becomes.4yx \..Sb .(y .= y 1 Y I axa4x4 88x ~ _. the expression: y+x _ y ... This is don e by: (a) multiplying or dividing each term inside the brac ket by the tenn o utside the bracket.~ ax ax 4x 4x = .l...
6mf + 71m + 8ml1l. S Like terms contain identical alphabetic characters..Szx + yx (b) . 2 An alphabetic character that represents a single number is caUed a constant.4pr + qr .6zy .3 (w _ 7(x _ 8(3 _ z)J) (d) 2a4~ 3 + 3a.6ml + 71m + 8mut  4/u 2 Simplify each of the following by collecting like terms and factorizing: (a) 4xy + 3xz . 4 Some algebraic expressions contain terms multiplied by numerical coefficients. 6 Similar terms have some but not all alphabetic characters in common.~ t (d) 2pq .2rq + 3qp (e) Slml1.Zrq + 3qp (d) Simn .3a ) + b' (e) .l0str + 8ts .z) + 2y(lx + z) (b) (30 .lOstr + 8ts . 7 Similar terms can be factorized by identifying their common factors and using brackets.4/11 3 Expand the following and then refactorize where possible: (a) 8x(y . lliJ ~ Revision exercise 1 Simplify each of the following by collecting like terms: (a) 4xy + 3xz .b)(b .4pr + qr .82 Foundation topics Lill 1Eil Revision summary lDJ 1 Alphabetic characters can be used to represent numbers and then be sub jected to the arithmetic operations in much the same way as numerals. 3 An alphabetic character that represents anyone of a collection of numbers is called a variable.Sri + Zst (c) 2pq .6zy .Szx + yx (b) 3rst .2a + 4ab + a4ba (c) 3rst . 2 .Srt + 2.
Sxz . )]) ~ .lrst + lOst .9a2 3a(2b .61111 + 71111 + 8"".IntroducUon to algebra 83 1 (a) 4xy+3xz .7[x .2a + 4ab +a .4111 = = 1 ( 13ml1 + m .trs .7rst + lOst .b ){b .24 + 8.Srt or lOst .8(3 .7r] .2xz .7x+ 168 .tlx .qr = p(Sq .3(w .Zqr = Spq .41/1 = Sim ll + 81".4pr .qr (e) SlIull .4pr or ~Spq r(4p + q) (d) Simn .Szx + yx = = = = 131nm + 1m .6yz x {Sy .4pr + qr .2rq + 3qp = 2pq + 3pq .4ab = a (c) 3rst .3a ) (e) .Sr) (c) 2pq .if + 3ab +If 6ab .8xz + 14xy + 2yz = = 22xy .3w + 21x .S6z) = . (b) .411) l{m[ 13n + 1].6z) .6zy .3a) + b 2 = 3a(b .2rq + 3qp = S"lJ .4 /11 2 (a) 4xy + 3xz .IOstr + 8ts .6yz or Sxy ./1 .4pr + qr .61111 + 71m + 8"ml .2z) .4n) or = f(f/ [13m4]+m) 3 (a) 8x(y .Srt + Zst = = = .6yz = Sxy .504 + 168z = .2xz .4pr .r) .z) + 2y(7x + z) = 8xy .4111 Sxy .lr) .8xz + 2yz 2(x[1Iy .4111 = 131nll1 + 1m .Srt + lst = = 3rst .1.3a) .rt(7s + 5) or t (lOs .4ba = .6yz Notice lhat the characlers are written in alphabetic order.2xz = (b) 3rst .10str + 815 .Srt (d) 2pq .lOTS! + 8st + Zst .Srt .3(w .61m + 71m .]) 3(w .6zy ..b(b _ 3a ) + b 2 = = ~ 3ab  9a2 .Sr) = t (sllO .Sri = st (lO .2a + a + 4ab .4pr + qr .4r) .qr or = q(Sp .2z(x + 3y ) or y(Sx .4z] + yz) (b) (3a .Szx+yx = 4xy+xy+3xz .
is wrilten an. an = a .+ 11 2 am i.84 Foundation topics (d) ~ + ~= 4b .!. So am 1 am x am _ because a. Rules of indices am x 0" = a".4b + 6b + 6b 2n 3 3a +2 2n 3 3a 2 a 3 a 1 =2b4b+2b + 3b a 5 Jj 12b 1 ~ 12b ( l 2<> . as x a2 = a s+2 = a7 e. Then move on to the next frame Make a note of any of these results that you may be unsure about.!.and also a'n .. as i. 5 a. a" = am Then if /1 = m.a2 = as.an = a"'n 3 (a"')" = d"" 1 e.. Repeated factors of the same base. (as)2 = as x as = a 10 a'" These three basic rules lead to a number of important results. "'~ From the definitions above a number of rules of indices can immediately be established.g.:. where the number 4 indicates the number of factors multiplied together.5) So flOW on to the next topic Powers lill Powers The use of powers (also called i/1dices or exponents) provides a convenient form of algebraic shorthand. .m = ".2 = a l e. d".. the product of /1 such factors a.g.III = ao and . where a is caJled the base and /l is called the index or exponent or power.= 1.:. . In general. = Va From this it follows that a£ = \Ya" or ( v'a)".= Va because r= ~ = a J = a. Any number multiplying an is called the coefficient (as described in Frame 8) Sa l index or exponent or power coeffICient ' . where a and n are positive integers...g."am am (a. _ an a O= 1 6 cJ. for example a x a x a x a can be written as a4 .m = mn because am '. So a.
!.J~a4b6 x (4Ja6b2) ! giving tional mdlccs. In the same way: Simplify E = (5ry1zt)2 x (4x4yzri E = .Introduction to algebra 85 So we h ave: (a) am x a" = amlo ll (b) a'" +...impli~y ~ = ~a61J3 .X2ytz ~ 2 _ 25 _4.TX Y .11_ 252 .4 _2Sx2 .3z! = X (ill ~ 4h .2y4 And one m ore: S.T X2y z. M E = 25x 4y.2y . the result without frac ...1zI 2Sx4y3 z! x .a" = alll" (c) (d ll )" (e) aIII =  1 am (f) a~ = \fa (g) = a mll all ~ ( if<i)" (d)a" ~ 1 or tfa» Now try to apply the rules: nx4 x 2iJ 8xJ Because 6x.4 X 2x3 8x J That was easy enough.1 .
calculators have superseded the use of these tables but the logarithm remains an essential concept. For example: 9 = 32 and 27 = 33 By writing numbers in the form of a number raised to a power some of the arithmetic operations can be performed in an alternative way. It was done using tables that were constructed of numbers and their respective powers. If there were a simple way of relating numbers such as 9 and 27 to powers of 3 and then relating Ix>wers of 3 to numbers such as 243. Let's just (omtalize this . In this instance: Number Power of3 J o 1 2 3 9 27 81 243 3 4 5 They were not called tables of powers but tables of logarithms. For example: 9 x 27 = 32 x 33 = 32 + 3 = 3s ~ 243 Here the process of multiplication is replaCed by the process of relating numbers to powers and then adding the powers. Nowadays. In the past a system based on tllis reasoning was created. the process of multiplying two numbers could be converted to the Simpler process of adding two powers.86 Foundation topics Logarithms Powers Any real number can be written as another number raised to a power.
That is: 2 = logs 2S So in each of the following what is the value of X.Introduction to algebra 87 Logarithms If a. band c are three real numbers where: a=b'andb > l the power c is called the logarithm of the number a to the base b and is written: c = log" a spoken as c is the log of a to the base b For example. because 25 = 52 the power 2 is the logarithm of 2S to the base 5. remembering that if a = If then c = 10gb a? (a) X = 1082 16 log~ (b) 4 = 81 (c) 2 = log7x TITe al1swers arc i/1 tIle next frame 1 (a) x=4 (b) x ~ 3 (c) x = 49 Because (a) If X = 1082 16 then 2X = 16 = 24 and sox = 4 (b) If 4 = logx 81 then X4 = 81 = 3 4 and so x = 3 (c) If 2 = 1087X then 72 = x = 49 Move 0/1 to tile next frame .
(x . xy = log" x + log. aX = x (g) o lo&. That is: The log of a number raised to a power is the product of tl1e power and the log of the number The following important results are also obtained from these rules: (d) log" ] = 0 because. ... x =x (h) log" b = I _1 _ because.. cover up the results above and complete the foUowing (a) log. . (a) If x = ab so that b = log. if 10gb a = 0&. b 1 ...y) = (c) 1080 (x" ) ~ . . W (g) 'o&....a'~ alo&... = .1 so that log. a~ = x log" a = x .(x >..88 Foundation topiC5 ® Rules of logarithms Since logarithms are powers.." c then if = a and so b = \fa = a~ Hence. • . (d) log" 1 = . .'c lo&. . ...y ) = log"x . . (x . y) = .... 1 = 0 (e) Jog" a = I because al = = 1...... ..x lo&...y That is: The log of a product equals tile slim or tile fogs = ab ... ....... log" b = ! = .cf = ai'c so that Jog. from the laws of powers cfJ definition of a logarithm log...x = x because if we take the log of the lefthand side of this equation: = lo&.. ..c = Jog" x Iog.... Therefore.y then: xy = abc( = ab+< h ence log.. (e) log..a = log" x so that (/log.a That is log._ 10gb a So. . x and y = cf so that c = log. a = .. (h) 10g a = . . x .... . That is: = log.. .. .y ) b .. x log"a1og. .. from the a so that log" a = 1 (f) log" It' = x because log.y log.(x .(x") = bn n log" x.xy = b + c = log" x + 10g"Y..... log..y (C) Because Tile log of a qllotient equals the difference of the logs = x" = (ab)" = aim. y (b) Similarly x :.Io&. . (b) log. b = _ . the rules that govern the manipulation of logarithms closely follow the n Iles of powers.
. ......... namely ]0 and the exponential number e = 2·71828 ..... ... . .itten in an alternative form . .... use your calculator and complete the following (to 3 dp): (a) log 5·321 = . (h) In( .they are calIed common logarithms and are written without indicating the base.. (b) log..... .... . .(5·889l'Z) = .. . ..0·054) = ...( 19' 112 :. . 4 (e) 1 (0 3 (g) 4 (h) IOS43 Next frame a Base 10 and base e On a typical calculator there are buttons that provide access to logarithms to (ill two different bases. . 6·788 + log" 1·043 (b) log" 19· 112 .... ..... ..0 ·001 ) ~ .. . . Logarithms to base 10 were commonly used in conjunction with tables for arithmetic calculations ...n tile l1ext frame . The logarithms to base e are called f1atural logarithms and are important for their mathematical properties.. (d) log8 1 = . . ............ .. The answers are .....log"y (c) /1 log.. x + log" y (b) log" x . (f) 100·278 = .. x (e) 1 (ill (0 x (g) x (d) a (11) log"b Now try it with numbers.... (e) So.. . For example: J0810 1·2345 is normally written simply as Jog 1·2345 You will see it on your calculator as pogi.. ....... .Introdudion to algebra 89 I (a) log. (b) logO·278 ~ .....1·005) ~ . Complete the following: (a) log.. (a) log... ... (e) log7 7 = (g) ...... These also are wr. (f) log327 = . (c) log. ..•. . (d) log(.. ....... . In 13·45 = ... 121~1 2 4 = .. (c) log 1= ... .(6· 788)o: 1·043) = .. (g) InO·ooool ~ . ... . . log~ 1·2345 js written as In 1·2345 You will see it on your calculator as O!!J...... .. .. . ........ ..10&0·054 (e) 12108a 5·889 (d) 1 (h) log3 = ..
. logarithms with different bases have different values. ° ° liD Change of base x Move to the 'Text frame In the previous two frames you saw that iogO'278 t In 0 '278..x....90 Foundation topics I (a) 0 726 (b) .1280 (g) .. related to each other as can be seen from the following: Let a = IF so that c = 1 0gb a and let x = = ad at so that d = log" x. (b) )og)'4 0·293 = . use your calculator to complete each of the following (to 3 dp): (a) logz 366 =. . 101og100278 = 10&. .. 0278 Now. to x log100278 = 2303 )( (. Now: = (1ft' = Ifd so that cd = lo&. That is: lo&. _.0556 (e) 0 (d) E (e) 2599 (Q . (c) log9'9 6·35 = . a log" x = 10gb x This is the ch ange of base formula which relates the logarithms of a number relati ve to two different bases. (d) log7'34 7·34 = .. For example: logf O278 = .1·280 wh ich confions that: log.... The different values are... Le..1280 to 3 dp and lo&. . . .. .0·556) = . __ ... however... .11513 (h) E Notice that for any base the: logarithm logarithm logarithm logarithm logarithm of 1 is zero of is not defined of a number greater than 1 is positive of a number between and I is negative of a negative number canno t be evaluated as a real number.
806 899 0'995 .2) so that ~ .293 = log1O O·293 = 0·533 .1) = lo&'C~l) xl = = log.Introduction to algebra 91 I (a) Because (a) (IoSlO 2) Y [872 (e) 0806 (b) ..J) =xl .003 log lO 3A 0·53 1 .(x .(4x)l Example 2: Solve the following for x: 2 log" x . .(x .2 108" 4x SO/titiOH lo&. 4x = 10g"x Z + log" x~ _ lo&. XL + 310&.35 = log 10 6. . (b) (\081034) x (J08N 0293) .(x . = 1.3x + 2 so that ..lo&... Logarithmic equations The following four examples serve to show you how logarithmic expressions and equations can be manipulated. . That is: . = .2)(x.2) Solution LHS = 2 log" x .3x + 2 = °giving x = ~ .. 10810 9·9 (d) log7"34 7·34 = 1 because for any base a. ..2 log. x . Example 1 Simplify the following: loga x Z + 3 log" x . (c) (log lO 9·9) X (log99 6·35) = logto 6·35 so that 10 _ 6. x (x ..I) = log" Xl  lo&o(x . = x .2..lo&.1) = log. log" a = 1.[003 Id) 1 (Iog z 3·66) = 10gJO 3·66 so that 10g 3·66 = log 10 3·66 = 0·563 .35 0·802" '= 0 .(x .1.10810°293 so that 10&3'4 0 ..872 z logJ0 2 0 ·301..
y + lo&...JX  log" 3x = log. y .(x + 4) = 2 1 0&. .log" 3x = log" G :) the righthand side of the equation. that is x 3 = 3 giving x = .2 So that: x..x2 2 Solve the following for x: 4 log..3 1 0&. that is x > 3 Now you try some I Simplify210g" x ~ 310g"2x + log.2 = j.. x2 = log.310&...3 > 0.x so that 5 lo&.log" 3x == log" x2 .x .210&.(x .yJ . x. ~ log"Gl = log"x..log"r = log" x + lo&.. ~ = log" x2 _ IO&.) = Jo&. Y' y = \lX(X + 4)2 Example 4 = lo&.y = log" x + 210g.y ~ 210&.3) is valid for x . (x + 4)2 that is IO&'c.y + log" x Next frame for the answers 1 210&. (x + 4) = 210g" y + log" x Solution 510&.(x2) = log" .JX)4 .(x . 3x = 10g.x(x + 4)2 so that Y' = x(x + 4)2 hence For what values of x is log.y ~ 210&.2 3 Find y in terms of x where: 210&.. 2x + log. .3) valid? Solution lo&. 8x 3 (X'X') ~ IOg. (.JX ..log..(2x)3 + lo&.1 .y .(x + 4) that is 10&.92 Foundation topics Example 3 Find y in terms of x: 510&..(~) 2 LfIS = 410&.
Introduction to algebra 2Iog..Iii (f) a~ = \!(iii or a~ = ( 'ifii)" (g)ao = l 2 Rules of logarithms: (a) log. log.(xl)3 = log...4 log. ~ = = 93 3 0 I.loga x so that X7 10g... .y ..(x2)3 + loga x giving and so )' = log...x = x I (g) log. xy = log. x + log" y (b) log.iog. Logarithms to base e = 2·71828 . a = I and 10ga aX (f) a1og.vi = Vx14 At this point let us (muse and summarize the main facts so far on powers and 10garitl111ls l@Il Revision summary 1 Rules of powers: (a) a"')< a" = amH' (b) (d) a"' = am ~ (c) am :..! 1 = 0 (e) log.r loga . that is log" r . are called natural logarithms and are written as In x.a" = amII (e) (am)" = am" oF ~ <.y) = log" x . = x ogba 3 4 Logarithms to base to are called romlllon logarithms and are written as logx... ..log" Y TI1C log of a product equals the (c) Jog.(x :... I) = I .~Ulll of the logs TIle log ofa quotient equals the difference of the logs Tile log ofa number raised to a power is the product of the power and the log of the nll/nller (d) lo&.3Ioga(xl) = lo&! vy + log" x.. x .. x 6 . Consequently ...x.(x") = nio&..
x 3x (e) 6x.6 = s6r Z 8x.(1V.. >< ..Iog« ( .I) + 64 (a.4 (0 (4a3b. Evalua te by calculator or by change of ba!>C where necessary (LO 3 dp): (a) log5·324 (b) InO·OO23 (c) log 4 1·2 lill 1 (a) o6 x a5 =a 6+5 = a l1 (b) x 7 .Z)l = sl x t4 x S9t.l lr l c 1) = (16a 6 }).III (d) 51 =.lt.life.4 1 l 24x1 = 4Xl 6x.x1 = X 7 .x 3x2 6x 4 4 3 (f) (4a l b...logT .vZ'" :.I) x 64.! = ( 16a6}).c 4 x (S3 t ...1ci x (a.t.2c2) x (a.64 (n 6b4c2 ).Z)l (e) 8x.Zc2 ) >< (a..P» 1 4 (aJ 0726 (bJ 6075 (cJ 0132 Now move to the next topic .~/I = w2'" X w .life.: f1 l b 1 40[11 5 I 5ali Za2b~alfr 5 2a zlJl 2 (aJ K ~ y pv' ·J (b) 1\ = Pet" 3 logR = logrl 2 (Iog{{ + P) .1c)l x (a.l b 4C Z)!..vSa1 If' (16Ja4Y.[64 (a6 b4 c2 ) l] (g) 2 ~8a3lJ6 :.J2~ a b7 x ( 16 va4b6rl (b) inA = inP + m Express the following without logs: (a) logK = logP .) ~ = (Zalf ) + a~ x (4(/lfi)' = (2al / ) x .Zb4 c Z ) ! =.x 1 (a) a 6 xa s (c) (w )m =.4 x (S.:.l =X4 (e) (v/ )'" :.(W")3 (d) 53 :. 1·3 10gV Rewrite R = 3 4 r /i ~ ~ in log fonn.)l = .94 Foundation topics Revision exercise t Simplify each of the following: (b) X l :.1m = IV..4  "'lie' + J21 sa4b7 x (g) .1 {a 1 ifc l ) .
23x t.Introduction to algebra 95 Multiplication of algebraic expressions of a single variable Example 1 Each tenn in the second expression is to be m ultiplied by 2x a nd the n b y 5 and the results added logether. + S Multiply throughout by 2x Multiply by 5 Add the t wo lines 6x 2 /.23x /. that is: 4x] + OJ! .5x .8x 5x 2 /.7) You will notice that the second expression is a cubic (highest power x]). but that there is no tenn in Xl .7 2x + 6 which gives Finish it .20 / 2x 3 So (2x /.4 z. Nex t frame Now look a t this one.5 )(xl + ]x + 4) = 2x] + l1x2 /. we Insert Ox 2 in the working to keep the columns complete.20 Be sure to keep the same powers of the variable in the same column . Example 2 Determine (2x + 6)(4x 3  Sx . so we set it out thus: x 2 /. In this case.J5x + 20 2x 3 + llx 2 /.3x t.
40 12.10x2 _ 14x 24x3 + Ox 2 .5)(2x1  4x 2 + 8) You can do that without a ny trou ble.42 8x 4 + They are all done in the same way. Example 3 Determine t he proouct (3x .40 22. The product is Lill 6x"' .l Ox 2 .2zx3 + 20x 2 + Z4x . For example: 5 <.5 6x 4 _ .7 I + Ox 2 z. so here is one morc for practice..\1 + OXI Fractions Algebraic fractions A nu merical fraction is represen ted by o ne integer divided by anot her.44x .3 can be written as the fract ion ~ so a + b can be written as ~ .lOx] 6x 4  + Z4x + 20x2 + Ox .44x .42 8x 4 + 24x3 .40 All very straigh tforward: z.:3 + ZOx 2 + 24x . Division of symbols follov.'S t he same rulcs to create algebraic {mctions.4x21 0x + 8 3x.30x .+6 4 Xl  Oi l .t3 .42 5x .96 Foundation topics I sx4 + 24i' Here it is set oul: iOxl .
(where bd is the LCM of IJ and d) So that: a . just as: 4 3 4x 7 3xS S+ 7=S x 7 + 7 x S= 4 x7 + 3xS 5x7 43 3S (where 35 Is the LCM of 5 and 7) "" ~ :. _ C/x d cxb _ ad+cb v·d db ~ O dd ~ O b+d .abc + Ixfl ahc + lxll al){f2 a abd' 2 w here abel is th e LCM of a. I). band tl 2• 0 11 now to the next frame .[2 + = hatfl .') xd + dxl) bd pro I e .d2aIJ + a.rb I) . an ..th e operations can only be performed when the denominators are the same.(lIJ o2d 2 .tfl +a= Answer ill the next frame d I a2 cf2 Because a c d (/ad 2 mb d.Introduction to algebra 97 Addition and subtraction The addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions follow the same rules as the addition and subtraction of numerical fractions . For example.
x . the n redprocal of a is 1/ a and the reciprocal of Ii is: .6 x T = TIle answer 2a aZb is in the next frame . ffl(' lIn:t fml1lf' Because 2a aZb 3b .= b·(lbclx 2a aZb So that 3h .x. For example: aeadad .. For example..= b d b(1 The reciprocal of a number is unity divided by the number.= 1 .'.98 Foundation topia ® Multiplication and division Fractions are multiplied by multiplying their numerators and denominators separately.= 1 x.6 = C hn:k witl. a c ae .= I a b b al h 1J a a tile llI/merolor mId denomillator in the divisor nre interchanged To (livirle IJ)I atl algebraic fraction we lIlultiply by its R'Ciprocal. just as: 5 3 5x3 IS 4"><"7=4x7=28 so..= . For example..6 2a = 3b x aZb = alfo ah 6 4 Try another one: 3b.
.. 4x' 3x + 4 11ZX3 12xJ  + 16x2 2x 2 3x + 28 Bring down the next term (.2x 2 .2x2 .3x + 28 To make 12x3 .6x.3x + 28) 7 (3x + 4). so we insert this as the first term in the quotient. If we were to multiply before dividing in the above expression we should obtain: 3b 7 6 2a a2 b 2a a3Jjl x '"'2 = 31) 7 1'2 2a 12 = 3b x a3b2 aIJ 24a 8 3a3 lJ3 and U)is would be wrong. The result of this division is called the qllotiellt' of the two expressions and we find the quotient by setting out the division in the same way as we do for the long division of numbers: 3x + 411:zx3 . so do this and subtract as before. multiply the divisor (3x + 4) by 4x 2 .6 x Z.18x2 .= alJ2 xZ = 'b nemember that by the rules of precedence we work through the expression from the left to the right so we perform the division before we m ultiply.= 3b x a2bx Z. a2 1J3 III ti.o terms.3x) and repeat the process ..3x To make _ 18x2.. 3x must be multiplied by .Introdudion to algebra 99 Because 20 a2 b (Jb 2a 6 ab 4 ab 2 3b . not forgetting to enter the 6x in the quotient. Do this and we get . and subtract this from the first h. 3x must be multiplied by 4x2.e following frames we extend 'his ideo Division of one expression by another Let us consider (12x 3 .
9x 22x + 33 22x + 33 $0 (4x 3 + 13x+33) ..\' 12x2  3x t.>:~ ..7. So (12x3  ZXl .(2x+3 ) = 2x 2 .3x+ 11 Aml Ullt: mUlt:o Ddeullim:: (6.>: + 1) Setting out as before. [ill At this l)Oi"t let U.1 After inserting the x term with zero coefficient.. As before.l8x2 . the rest is straightforward.3x .(3x + 4) = ..x2 _ 3x + 11 2x + 314x3 _Ox 2 + 13x + 33 4x 3 + 6il .. Now you can detennine (4x3 + 13x + 33) :.(3. if an expression has a power missing.3x +28) .x 21x Now bring down the next tenn and continue in the same way and finish it off.24.. insert the power with zero coefficient..100 Foundation topiC5 3x +28 .(2x + 3) Set it Ollt as before alld check the result with tile next frame (ill Here it is: 2.6x 2 + 13x _6x 2 . the quotient is .>:2 + 1) .. pause amI summurlze the mal" facb so far (Qr mult'iplicatioll and division of algebrt1ic expressions .18xZ .
12 = IOx4 + ISx] + 6x2 + x .l ) (b) (x' .3x + Z) =3Zx] _ 24x2 + 16x . LOllg division of algebraic expressions Two algebraic expressions are divided by S€tling out the division in the same way as we do for Ule long div1sion of numbers.+ 1) (e) (l lx 3 1"' .4) 4 2 + 3(5'  4) = 9s .12 (lx + 3 )(5X' + 3x . .3 + 3x .40x2 + 28x .4 )(4x2 .8x+ ISx ) + 9x .4) 2 3 Simplify each of the foUowing into a single algebraiC fraction: ab (a) ab + elY (e) (ab + ae) + be (b) .4)(4x 2 .12JJ2 (8x .12 (d) = 954 .3x + Z) .3x+Z) (e) (9s' + 3)(s'  4) (d) (2x + 3)(5.. rEl Revision exercise 1 Perform the following multiplications and simplify your results: (a) (Za + 4lJ )(a .I e a e e b a Perform the following divisions: (a) (x2+5x6)+(x.25) + (3.Zab . .36s + 3. Two fractions are multiplied by multiplying their respective numerators and denominators separately.33s2 .Introduction to algebra 101 B lt2 J Revision summary 1 Multiplication of algebraic expressions Two a lgebraic expressions are multiplied together by successively multiplying the second expression by each term of the first expression.3b) = Za(a .3b) (h) (8x . @ 3 4 Only fractions with identical denominators can be immediately added or subtracted. 2 The manipulation of algebraic fractions follows identical principles as those for arithmetic fraction s.3b) = 2a2 .'.4) = IOx4 +6x2 . S Two fractions are divided by multiplying the numerator fraction by the reciprocal of the divisor (raction.8 (e) (9s' + 3)(s'  4) ~ 9s'(s' .5) d () a' + 8b' a + Zb 1 2 (a) (2lI + 4b )(a .4) = 2x(5 x 3 + 3x .12 ..3b) (b) + 4b{a .2) + (.4) + 3(Sx 3 + 3x .16x2 + 12x8 = 32x] .4(4x 2 .3x + 2) = 8x(4x2 .
2ox2 4x 2 9x 2 + Ox 9x 2 .2 (e) + 3x + 5 (1zx311x2_25)~ (3x .x 6x .2 .I [ x2 + Sx ..2S a + 2b 10 3 + 8lr1 0 3 + 2a 2 b _ 2a 2 b .15x l Sx .x2) ~ (x + l )=x+ l Ix2 2 x x .(x .51 1 Zxl _ l1x2 + Ox .2x .25 I Zx 3 .102 Foundation topics 2 (a) ab + cb = aab + cbe 2 b(a + el ) caacac (b) ab ~ 1 =ab _ ~= abc ac c c c c a 2 (c) (ab + ac) + be = ab + ac + be = lJl + a c2 + J?c2 a lx: 2 cbacba 3 (a) x+6 (x2 + Sx 6 ).6 xl .l ) = x .5) = 3x .2rJ2b .2 + x b .4a/f 40fil + 8lr1 4alJl +8U1 .6 ~ x2 (x2.6 6x .2S I Sx .
..3b) 2 Common factors by grouping Fourtenned expressions can sometimes be factorized by grouping into two binomial expressions and extrdcting common factors from each.lOxyJ) : the HCF of the coefficients 3S and 10 is 5 the HCF o f the powers of x is ){ the HCF of the powers of y is yZ So (35x'l . 1 Common factors The Simplest form of factorization is the extraction of highest common factors (HCF) from an expression..) 8x'y' + 6x'y' ~ (b) 15a·'b . For example....nd (...IOxl ) ~ 5xy'(7x .40 = .Introduction to algebra 103 Factorization of algebraic expressions An algebraic fraction can often be simplified by writing the numerator and denominator in tenns of their factors and cancelling where possible.4x 2y + xy2 ..l Sa2b For example 4(KlhZ _ Z4a2b Sab(Sb3a) 8ab(Sb _ 30) '8 S This is an obvious example.) 2x'y'(4x)...9"'1>' ~ ... Similarly with (3.. For example: Zac + 6bc + ad + 3bd = (Zac ~ + 6bc) + (ad + 3bd) = Ze(a + 3b) + d(a + 3b) Similarly: (a + 3b)(2c + d ) Xl .. but there are many uses for factorization of algebraic expressions in advanced processes....sx2yZ ..• (. + 3) (b) 3a'b(5a .2)') In the same way: . . ZSaEr . . (lOx + 8) can dearly be written 2(Sx +4).
+ 4xyZ .If Le.41) 4y) + yZ (x ~ (x .y') Likewise.y'(1 +4x) + 1)(3x .If ~ la .3) + 1(4x .Isx) .3)(sx .e.b)(a+ b ) If an expression can be seen to be one of these fonns.104 Foundation topics ® Because I (x4y)(x' + y') I x' .x = .. its factors can be obtained at once. 20x 2  3'.ba .41 ~ (x' . For example: lZX' .4y)(x' + I) In some cases it might be necessary to rearrange the order of the original four tenns.3) ~ (4x .b).3y') ~ 5x(4x . these results can be used in reverse: a 2 + 2ab + if = (a+b)2 a 2 _ 2ab + l? = (a _ b)2 a' .b)(a .y' + 3x4xy' ~ IZX' + 3x 1 .r') 00 Useful products of two simple factors A number of standard results are wellworth remembering for the products of simple factors of the form (a + b) and (a . (a . These are: laJ (0 + b)' ~ (a + b)(a + b) ~ a' + ab + ba+lf i. (a + b)2 = a2 + Zab + if a2  (b) (a ..b )(a + b) = a2 . On to the next frame .b) = ab .15.4xy' ~ (1zx' + 3x) ~ (4x (y' +4xy') ~ 3x(4x+ 1) . (a_b)2=a2 Zab + t? Ie) (ab)(a+ b) ~ a'+ab . its factors can be obtained at once. These expressions that involve the variables raised to the power 2 are examples of what are called qlJailratic expressions.4.t? tile difference of two squares For our immediate purpose.4x'y + xl.<'y) = X2(x .b)2 = (a .ba + t? Le.4y) + (xl . If a quadratic expreSSion can be seen to be one of these fonns. I14x3)15x+y') I Rearranging terms: (20x' .(4xl .
(b) 9x 2 ..3 )' So 4a 2 .. .12a + 9 Example 3 (2a ......2 = (x+5 )2 So xl + lOx + Z5 = (x + 5)2 Examp~ 1 4a 2 _ 12a + 9 = (20 )2 _ = 2(2a )(3) + (3)2. .. . .(4y)' ~ (Sx ..11 = (a . . like a2  2ab + 11 ~ (Za .. like a2 + 2ab + z.. ..12xy (c) (Zx + 40 = .b )(a + b) Example 1 x2 + lOx + Z5 = (X )2 + Z(x)(S ) + (5)2. .. .. + 3y)z  (x _ 4y)2 = .4y)(5x + 4y) Now can you factorize the following: (a) 16x2 +40xy+2Sr= .Introduction to algebra 105 Remember a 2 + 2ab + if = (a + b)2 a 2 _ 2ab + 11 = (a _ b)2 a 2 ..3)2 25x' . . .. ~ (5X )' . ...16".4y)(5x + 4y) So 25x 2  16y2 = (Sx .. .
2 (x . that is 5. that is x 2 + bx + Co I:rom rules )3 in the previous frame you can see that the values of fi and f2 in (x + fil and (x + (2).y) Quadratic expressions as the product of two simple factors ) (x + g ){X + k) = X2 + (g + k)x + gk The coefficient o f t he middle term is the sum o f the two constantsg and k and the last term is the product of g and k.k ) ~ xl + (g . Notice that: lf c is positive If c is negative (a) fi and 6 are factors of c and both have the sign of b (b) the sum of fl and fi is b (a) fi and fi are factors of c and have opposite signs. 6) and (2.k )x . w ill depend upon the signs of band c. therefore (2. (b) c is positive so the required factors add up to b. Now let's try some specific types of qlladratic Factorization of a quadratic expression. c. 3 (x + g )(x . ax 2 + bx+ c when a= 1 If a = I. ± 3) are possible choices for fi and f2.106 Foundation topics @ 1(. ± 6) and (± 2. 3).g )(x .) (4) + 5y )' (b) (3x _ 2y)' (e) (x + 7y)(3x . fi and fz can be positive or negative. the factors of the quadratic expression. that is positive.k)=x 2 (g + k )x + gk The coeffici ent of the middle term is minus the sum of the two constants g and k and the last teon is the product of g and k. So x 2 + Sx + 6 = (x + 2 )(x + 3 ) .gk The coeffident of the middle term is the difference of the two constants g and k and the last term is minus the product of g and k. t he quadratic expressio n is similar to those you have just considered. Notice that b. 3). (c) c is positive SO the required factors have the sign of b. so (± I . the numerically larger having the sign of b (b) the difference between fi and fi is b Tllere are examples of this in the next frame Example 1 x 2 + Sx + 6 (a) Possible factors of 6 are (1.
(b) c is negative so the required factors differ by h.1ors differ by h.7)(x + 5) (f) (x . (c) c is negative so the required factors differ in sign. (b) c is negative so the required fa<. (2. therefo re (4 .5).2)(x+5 ) Example 4 xl .2. (c) c is positive so the required factors have the sign of h. (±2.5). ±1O) and (±2. ± 12). 20). (±2.8) . So xZ + 3x . 10) and (4. ±S) are possible choices for (I and fl. that is positive.l h + 28 (cl x 2 . ± 20). So Xl . therefore (.6)(x + 3 ) (d) (x + 6 )(x . that is . 12). 5). 8) and (4.7) (c) (x .2)(x .1O (a) Possible factors of 10 are (1. 5 ). (2. Factorize each of the following into two linear factors: (a) xZ+7x + 12 (b) x 2 . therefore (4. the numerically larger having the si&'l1 of h. so (± 1.lOx + 16 finish all six and then check with the next frame I (a) (x + 3)(x + 4) (b) (x .24 xZ . ± 5) are possible choices for (I and (z.18 (d) (el (f) x2+2x . that is negative. So x' 9x+20 ~ (x4)(x . ± 1O) and (± 4.±8) and (±4.24). so (±1.Introdudion to algebra 107 EJ(ample 1 xl _ 9x+20 (a) Possible factors of 20 are (1 . (±3.2x . (3. the numerically larger having the sign of h.35 Xl . (c) c is negative so the required facto rs differ in sign.4 ) (e) (x .lx24 (a) Possible factors of 24 are (1.10 = (x .10) and (2. that is 3.2x .±24). 6). 6). that is negative.2. here is a short exercise for practice.S) Example 3: x 2 +3x . (b) c is positive so the required factors add up to h. ± 6) are possible choices for {i and fi.4)(x . so (±1. that is 9.3x .24 = (x +4)(x 6 ) Now.
• Lill So reqUired factors are (2. the n wnerical value of the produc t ac ignoring the sign o f the produc t. = 2.. i.. (a) We obtain lacl. if they exist. ... c = 3. denote the two factors so obtained by fi and (z.. (iii) In each case. Therefore lacl Possible factors of 18 = (1 .. add up to . (2 =9.li1 If a =1= 1.6) = 18 c is positive. .. BeCdUse 6x 2 + 11x + 3 6x 2 + 2:x + 9x + 3 = (fu?' +9x) + (Zx +3) = = 3:x(2x + 3) + J(2x + 3) = (2x + 3)(3x + I ) Now this one. but still based on the same considerations as for the simpler examples already d iscussed. (c) (i) If c is positive. (b) We write down all the possible pairs of factors of lacl. the factorization is slightly more complicated... (U) If c is negative.. positive. Example 1 To factorize 6x 2 + Ilx + 3 (ru 2 + hx + c) In this case. .108 Foundation topics @ Factorization of a quadratic expression a. So fl Ibl.. 18). a = 6..e. e.. " and (2. we carry out the fo llowin g steps. To factorize such an expression into its linear factors. So required fa ctors. (d) The n axl + b:x + c is now written ax 2 + fix + f2:x + c and this is factorized by finding common factors by grouping . 11 c is positi ve. 9). we select the two factors of lacl which differ by the value of Ibl: the numerically larger of these two factors has the same sign as that of b and the other factor has the o pposite sign. we select the two fac tors of lacl whose su m is equa l to Ibl: both of th ese factors have the same sign as b...e. (2.as in the previous work... 9) and (3 . i. . an d 6x 2 + Ilx + 3 = 6x 2 +Zx + 9x + 3 which facto rizes by grouping into . b = 11. Both factors have the same s ign as h. i.."+bx+ cwhen a..
. 8) C is negative.14x + 8 (ax 2 + bx + c) a = 3. lacl = 40 Possible factors of 40 = (1. c is negative. lacl = 24 Possible factors of 24 =(1 . (2 =.1) Next frame ...14x+8 = 3x 2 lxI2x + 8 Finish it off (x .1) I In this case. Example 3 To factorize 8x 2 + 18x  5 (ax 2 + hx + c) Follow the routine as before and all will be well So 8x z + 18x . c= 8. $0 factors have same sign as h. Therefore (2.. 8) and (4.2) And finally. positive.2) Because 3x 2 _ 2xl2x +8= (3x 2 IZX) .. So signs of (1 and f2 are different.14. 14. 20). 40). 10) and (5. i. a = 8. fi So 8x + 18x5 2 = 20. I(2x + 5 )(4x . 18. Le.2..e. fz = 12 So 3x 2 . 20) c is negative. b = 18. negative. i.5 = .e.4)(3x . (I = .. So required factors total lbl. (3.. 24).2 =8x2 + 20x2x _ S = 4x(2x + 5) 1 (2x+5) ~ (2x + 5)(4x . So numerictl ily Itlrge r factor has sign of b. Therefore (2..Introdudion to algebra 109 Example 2 To factorize 3x2 . . (4. 12) c is positive. b = . (2. Le. c = .5 .(2x8) = 3x(x4)2(x4) 3x 2 14x+8 = (x .4)(3x . 6) c is positive. So required factors differ by Ibl.. (2. this o ne. 12).
c = . Work through the following short exercise: it makes useful revision.3 l? .4 x 2 x (3) = 2S + 24 = 49 = 7 z (perfect square) z. Jf (f12 .4 x 3 x 5 = 16 . where pOSSible.60 = 44 (not a perfect square) There are no simple factors of Now test in the same way 3xl. b = 5. no simple factors ofax z + bx + c exist. that is it can be written as k"l for some integer k.x2 + Sx .4ac) is nut t1 peifed square.that is.x2 + 5x . If (~ . first evaluate the expression (lr ..4.S (a ) No simple factors (b) Simple factors (c) Simple factors (d) No simple factors Now we can link this lest with the previous work. Test whether each of the following could be expressed as the product of two simple factors and.3 can be factori zed into simple factors. To save time and effort.5x .4 (b ) 6x2+7x + 2 (d ) 7xZ3x . ax Z + bx + c can be factorized into two simple factors.rritten as the product of simple (actors .110 Foundation topics liD Test for simple factors Some quadratic equa tions afe not capable of being v. Example 1 1:xz4x + S a = 3.4ac) is a perfect sqllare. Now as an exercise. a quick test can be applied before the previous routine is put into action .cck tile results with tile next frame .4x + 5 Example 2 2. determine whether or not each of the following could be expressed as the product of two simple factors: (a) 4xz + 3x .4x + 6 (c ) 7x2 . To d etermine whether ax Z + bx + c can be factori zed into two simple factors.4ac = 16.4ac = 25 . detennine those factors: (a) 2X2+ 7x+3 (b) Sx 2 .c = S l?.4 (d) 8x 2 + 2x3 C/.4(1c).3 a = 2.4 (c) 3x 2 +x. factors where all the coefficients are integers.b =.
24).4i C= 6 If . Le. b =5.4.e. 12).3 ~ (2x . no simple factors exist.3) ~ 4. possible factors of 24 are (1. b = 2.4ac = 25 . positive.8) and (4. 6) c is n egative.I ) So &' + 2x .' .4ac = 49 .+3 ) (b) Sxz4x + 6 a = 5. c = 3 1f4ac = 44 x 8 x (. .1)(4. Factors differ by Ibl.6) fi and (2 of opposite signs. + I ) +3(2x+ I ) ~(2x+1 ) (. c =4 If . Factors exist.4x ) + (6x .Introdudion to algebra 111 I (a) (2x + 1)(.6) and (2 . 8x 2 +2x . Therefo re. (1. = L04. lacl = 24.120 Therefore. Not a complete square. So (4. i.4 x 2 )( 3 = 49 . 2. Not a completp squarp.3)= 4 + 96 = 100 = 102. fi = .24 = 25 = 52. + 3 ) (b) No simple factors Here is the working: (c) No simple factors (ill (d) (2x1)(4. b = 7. + 3) At this poi"t let us pause ami summarize the main facts so far 011 (aclOrizatintl .(2.I) + 3(2x .(2.b = . Fa<1ors add up to 7. (2. positive. (d ) 8x 2 + 2x .) + (6x + 3 ) ~ . (3 .3 = 8x 2 +6x4x3 ~ (8.4) = 25 l. fi = 6. lacl = 6. Le.6) Both factors have the same sign as b. possible factors of 6 are (1. Factors exist. no simple factors exist. Larger factor has the same sign as b.4 x 7 x (. 3) c is positive. Z ZX 5ofl = land fz = 6 + 7x + 3 = 2X2 + X + 6x + 3 ~ (2x' + . Le.4ac = 16 .c = 3 Jil . + 3) (a) 2xz+7x + 3 a = 2.4 x 5 x 6 = 16 . a = 7.112 = 137.3 a = 8.
24xy .6x2y .4ac) is a complete square.< _ y)' (g) x 2 + 1Ox + 25 (0 4x' .2xy + 12yZ (d) (x _ 2y)' _ (Z. Revision exercise 1 Factorize the following: (a) l8xyJ .+ bx + c. Test for possibility of simple factors: (b 2 . both factors have the same sign as h.4 . Ibl.112 Foundation topics 1®J Revision summary ~ Factori:t:atiotl of algebraic expressions (a) Common factors of binomiaJ expressions.18x + 27y (e) xZ+7x30 (b) rl . (b) Common factors of expressions by grouping. rr (e) Let the required two factors be (I and fi. c Is negative. Determination of factors ofax 2 + bx + c: (a) Evaluate lacl. (c) If c is positive. the factors have opposite Signs. the numerically larger having the same sign as b. (d) If c is negative.36 (h) 3XI _ 1lx . (b) Write down all possible factors of loci. select two factors of lacl with sum equal to If c is positive. Useful standard factors: a2 az  + 2ab + if = 0 2  (a + b)2 b)(a + b) (Difference of lwo squares) zab+if = (a _ b)2 if = (0  Factorization of quadratic expressions of tile frJrm oK. Then ax z + bx + c = ax z + (IX + (zx + c and factorize this by the method of common factors by grouping.8x 3 y (c) 1i)x2 . select t wo factors of lacl that differ by Ibl.
27y ) ~ ~ 8x(2x .6)(2) + 6) (g) XZ + lOx + 25 = x 2 + (2 x S)x + S2 ~ =(X +S )2 2 (h) 3x .3y) .2y)' .4 )+(x . .3) (0 4x' .24xy .4x' ~ + 4.2x)(3y + 2x) (b) x 3  6x2y . there Is flO need to hurry.11x .9(2x .2y(x .x') . After that try the Test exercise.2y)(x . You will notice that these questions match the Learning outcumes listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Qujz that follows them.6y ) .y  y' 3y' . A list of Can You? questions follows foc you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme.4 ) You have now come to the end of this Programme.(2)  y)' ~ i' . Work throug11these at }'OlIr own pace.9)(2x .3i' ~ 3(y' .3y) (8x .( 18x .4 = 3x(x .3(y .6y) (e) 16XZ .6y) ~ (x' . A set of Furthu problems provides additional valuable practice.2xy + 12l = XZ(x .Introduction to algebra 113 t (a) 18xy 3  &x 3 y = 2xy(9y .x)(}' + .3y ) (d) (x .4x 2) ~ 2xy(3y .4) ~ (3x + l )(x .4xy + 4y' .18x + 27y = (16x2 .24xy) .x) (e) XZ+ 7x 30=x2 ~ + (IO3)x + (lO) x (3) (x + 10)(x .36 ~ (2))' _ (6)' (2) .
2 Check this list before and after you try the end of Programme test. On a scale of 1 to S how confident are you that you can: • Use alphabetic symbols to supplement the numerals and to combin e these symbols using all the operations of arithmetic? Yes 0 0 0 D O No • Simplify algebraic expressions by collecting Hke terms and by abstracting common (actors from similar terms? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Remove brackets and so obtain alternative algebraic expressions? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Manipulate expressions involving powers and logarithms? Yes Frames (J]to(J] rntoo:D (illtoCEJ O!J to(ID rnJtoCEJ DOC D O No No • Multiply two aJgebraic expressions together? Yes DDDDD • Manipulate algebraic fractions and divide one expression by another? Yes No o o o o o C!D to (]D (E) toCEJ • Factorize aJgebraic expressions using standard factorizations? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Factorize quadratic algebraic expressions? Yes 0 0 0 D O No .114 Foundation topics !'j Can You? Li!J Checklist F.
3(r .' +.I )(x 2 x .3.2)) (a) 2f(3g .' x ()A)' 2 Remove the brackets in each of the following: + 2h) (b) (5x ..l ) (b) (a 2 + 2ll + 2)(3a 2 + 4lI + 4) Simplify each of the following: Xl x (a) +y2 y3 (b) ab :. (b) P ~ J6 (2<t .I)NvS (EJ to (EJ Express the following without logarithms: (a) 10gx = logP+21ogQ .2(q .. b 0 (!!)tomJ 8 Perform the following divisions: (a) (x' + 2x .7 1 _3..6y)(2x + 6y)(5x .: 2 .7x2y + 4yxr .4h) (g Evaluate by calculator or by change of base where necessary: (a) logO·0270 (b) 1n47·89 4 Rewrik the following in log form: (a) V ~ 4(D .. n'.ZX2zy + 3z2yx .n + 3 3 (c)  +1 .3 1 (b) logR = 1 + 10gM + 3 JogS (c) 3 Inp =~ln (Q + l ) 3InN + 2 @) 101E1 6 Perform the following multiplications and simplify your results: (a) (3x .2cb + 300 ~ l Frames (b) 3ryz .0_+.2 Simplify each of Ihe following: (a) Zab .3) + (x1) ".logK .Introdudion to algebra 115 ~ Test exercise F. 20""_+ '0 II (b) .y) (e) 4{3[P .::1 (c) d' x c q :.3») ..1 ).2 (d) (xl ) l + ()A)' x (xlfl (.ae x be .h)(D+h) 7r1l 1 2 r.4ac + ba .
.210gllJogg (clln / = ln(2V){ln(KR + r) ..3x .(5x + 7) (f) (lsxl +13x+ 14).(3x + 2) 2 Simplify the following.7) (b) (4x' ...(/alb'.Sx 2 14x + 12) .5x36 (h) fu:2 + 4rJ' .3 )(4x . dJ[C r al x Jb adl 6 Rewrite the following withou t logarithms: (a) log W = 2(logA + logw) .y)l x (x + y)1 4 Evaluate: (a) logO·008472 (e) 10863875 5 Express in log form : J (b) K (a) ~ .' IIx'y\zlx "l x (2'x'y'zl )1 (b) !n2H7 (c) (6xl.2 Determine the following: (a) (2x' + 5x .49) .(log32+ 210g1l" + 210gr + loge) (b) logS = 10gK .KL} .log 2 + 2 log 11" + 210g" + logy+ logr + 210gL .4)(3x .S) (d) (6x 3 .116 Foundation topics Factorize the foHowing: (a) 36i'y' _ 8x 2y (b) x3 + 3x 2y + 2xyZ + 6yl (c) 4X2 + 12x + 9 (d) (3x Frames (e) x2+lOx + 24 (0 x' . 2 .(2x .. giving the result without fractional indices (x 2 _ 1 )2 X v'X'+'l + (x _ 1)il: ~ ~ 3 Simplify: (a) (b) J alb'cl .JOx + 16 (g) x' ..3) (e) (15i' + 40.lnK + .(2x ...rJ' + Sx  6 ~ Further problems F..7x + 3 )(5x + 6) (c) (Sx2 .Az1)2 + (9X 6 y4 r l)! (d) (x 2  y')! x (x .
(x _ 3y)' 8 Find simple factors of the following where possible: (a) sx2 + 13x + 6 (b) ZX2 .J ~2if (c) ZX 2 + 3xyJOx .20 + 15x .Introdudion to algebra 117 Factorize the following: (a) 15x'y' + 20xy' (b) ] 4a 3 b .4 (e) Sx 2 (f)  19x + 12 4x 2 6x + 9 (g) 6x'5x7 (h) 9x' .6 (j) 15x' .IS .lSy (d) 4x)' 7y'12x+21y (e) ISxZ+8y +20xy + 6x (Q 6xy.Sx6 (d) 3x 2 + 7x .40xy + 2Sy2 (i) 2Sxly4 .19x + 6 (k) 8x2 + 2x .llx + 12 (c) ~ .18x + 8 (i) 1Ox 2 + llx .8y (g) 9x 2 + 24xy + 161 (h) 16x2 .16xy (j) (2x + 5y)' .
.
3 Expressions and equations Learning outcomes Frames [Dto(ID When you have completed this Programme yOIl will be able to: • Numerically evaluate an algebraic expression by substituting numbers for variables • Recognize the different types of equation • Evaluate an independent variable • Change the subject of an equation by transposition • Evaluate polynomial expressions by 'nesting' • Use the remainder and factor theorems to factorize polynomials • Factorize quartic polynomials If yOll already feel con(ldcnt about tllesc wily nol try tile short quiz over the page? You can check your answers at the end of the book.Programme F. 119 .
~ Quiz ~ 1 2 F.39x2 + 4x + 12. (EltomJ 120 . t.3 Given P = A( 1 + 1 ~)" find P to 2 dp given that Frames f/ = A = 1234566. r = 4·65 and GIVen T = 21T . [2 + 4/ 2 .6x 2 + 4x + 1 in nested form and find the value of f( . 3g(r t ) fmd: (a) I i n terms of T.2 ). f and g . 65t~ . <I Without dIviding in full. t. determine the remainder of: (4X4 + 3il . rand g (b) r in terms of T..2x 2 _ x + 7) .(x + 3) Factorize 6x4 ~lo [!D + 5x3 . Write (x) = 7)(3 .
the expression itself assumes a numerical value that is obtained by following the usuaJ precedence rules. R = ..Expressions and equaUons 121 Expressions and equations Evaluating expressions When numerical values are assigned to the variables and constants in an expression. . For example. Substituting the given va lues: V 3'142 x 2·85 (3 )( 6.R2 .24 2 6 3·142 )( 2 ·85 + 2. determine the value of V when 11=2·85.. . This process is known as evaluating the expression . R = 6·24 and w = 3·142. R . .852) = 6 (3 x 38·938 + 8' 123) Finish it off I V ~ 18646 Example 2 TfR 1 w R. + R. That is easy enough. . if 1= 2 and g = 9·81 then the expression: w 2~~ is evaluated as: 21rJ9'~1 = 2·84 to 2 dp where = 3" 4 159 . evaluate Rwhen Rl = 276andR2 = 145 . 1r So let's look at three examples: Example 1 1rh 2 2 If V = "6 (3R + II )...
IV Here it is: = 0·558 to 3 sig fig I V = 3·142 x 1·46 (0.. usually just caned an elJlllltion.7465 I.cf) evaluate V to 3 sig fig when b = 1·46. The variable r is called the dependent variable and slIbject of the equation whose value depellds on the values o f the independent variables sand t. An equation is a statement of the equality o f two expressions but there are different types o f equation: Conditional equation A conditional eqllatiun. V = O·558 to 3 sig fig CD Equations Because different values of the variables and constants produce different va lues for the expression.. D = 0 ·864.+ Dd I.0·4467 I. the equation: x" ~ 4 is an equation that is only true for eadl of the two values x = + 2 and x = .".4605) = 0 .. for example.46(1. is true only for certain values of tile symbols involved.2.. For example. .5172 ) 12 3·142 x 1·46 12 (0·7465+0·864 xO·5 17 + 0·2673) 3·142 x 1·46 (0. we assign these expression values to another variable and so form an equation. . 11"= 3·142. Substitute the values in the expressions and then apply the rules carefully.0.122 Foundation topicS Now let us dea l with a more interesting one.. Example 3 If V = .5 17 + 0. Take your time with tJle working: there are no prizes fo r speed! d = 0·517 and V = . the equation: r = zSi l.8642 + 0864 x 0. each time evaluating 2s3 + 3t. .2673) 12 = 3·142 x 1.~ (rY.31 states that the variable r can be assigned values by successively assigning values to s and to t.5583 12 .
Hence the symrol == which stands for ' is equivalent to'.it is an identity.Expressions and equations 12. the equation: A = rril expresses the fact that the area A of a drcle of radius r is given as rril. Formula A (omll/ia is a statement of equality that expresses a mathematical fact where all the variables. The expression on the left is not just equal to the expression on the right. Assigning equation An assignillg eqllatiol/ is a statement of equality that assigns a specific value to a variable. the equation: 2(Sx)= IOlx is true no matter what value is chosen for x . the value 4 is assigned to the variable p.~ 4 Here. it is acceptable." = (2 + rs + f2 where r#s TIle amwtTs are in tlTe next frame . While it is nol strictly correct to do so. '5 where T is the periodic time and I the length of a simple pendulum and where g is the acceleration due to gravity (b) v ~ 234 (c) 4n = 4 x II (d) x2 . it is eqllivafe/ll to it one expression is an alternative form of the other. For example.tion is a statement of equality that defines an expression. For example: a2 ~ a x a Here the symrolism aZ is defined to mean a x a where ~ means 'is del1ned to be'. For example: p . Identity An identity is a statement of equality of two expressions that is true for all values of the symbols for which roth expressions are defined. dependent and independent. The uses of ==. ~ and := as connectives are often substi tuted by the = sign. are welldefined. Defining equation A defining eqlliJ.ZX = 0 (eJ r' . For example. So what type of equation is each of the following? (a) 1= T' 4.
We do this by isolating I on one side of the equation. We say that the equality only holds true for numerical values when both expressions are defined.124 Foundation topics w (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Formula Assigning equation Defining equation Conditional equation Identity Because (a) It is a statement of a mathematical fact that relates the values of the variables T and I and the constant g wh ere T . .o[ example. Now to the next frame w Evaluating independent variables Sometimes. namely x = 0 and x = 2. (d) It is only true for certain values of the variables.a where 11" = 3· l4 and g = 9·81 what is the length I that corresponds to T = 1·03? That is. so if any arithmetic operation i_~ performed on 0I1e side of the equation the idCllticaJ operatiol1 mllst be perfbrmed on the other side to mailltain the balance. I and g represent welldefined entities. (b) It assigns tile value 23·4 to the variable v.<iven: l '03 ~ 6'28J9 81 ' find I. Nolice that the expression on the left is not defined when r = s whereas the expressio n on the right is. So we first divide botll sides by 628 to give: 1°3 = 6· 28 J 9· 1 8' All equation i5 like a balance. the numerical values assigned to the vatiables and constants in a fo rmula indude a value for the dependent variable and exclude a value of one of the independent variables. !. In this case the exercise is to find the corresponding value of the independent variable. given that: T = 21r. as can be seen by performing the divL..ion. I. (e) The left·hand side is an alternative form of the righthand side. (c) It defines tile notation 411 whereby the multiplication sign is omitted.
. so enabling its value to be found. You will often encounter the need to transpose a variable in an equation so it is essential that you acquire the ability to do so_ Furthermore. after multiplying roth sides by 12·06. I ~  "E Next frame w Because Given that 098 side. by taking tile reciprocal of each + . you will also need to transpose variables to obtain a new equation rather than just to find the numerical value of the transposed variable as you have done so far. ___ __. In what follows we shall consider the trans{X>sition of variables algebraically rather then arithmetically. that: 1 12 + 6r 12 06 0 . E = 201.98 = 1206 and hence 0. R = 12 and 1 = 098. the corresponding value of r is _. .Expressions and equations 125 03)' ~ _ Iand now multiply both sides by9 81 Sq uare both sides to give: (1 628 981 to give: 9 ·81 (1 _ 03)2= 1 == 0264 to 3 sig fig 628 So that if: R + tlr and 11 = 6. giving r = 0051 to 2 sig fig By this process of arithmetic manipulation the independent variable r in the original equation has been trallsposed to become the dependent variable of a new equation. __ . Subtracting 12 from both sides yields: 1~~~6 12 = ~ (1206 _ 098 6r and.98 = 12 + 6r 6 x 2·01 12 + 6r 1 1206 2 6 we see. dividing both sides by 6 gives: 6 12) == r.
T seconds. To effect this transposition.the dependent varlableis often referred to as the subject of the formula. The single symbol on the lefthand side (LHS) of t. This gives: .he formula .~ = ~ We next remove the square root sign by squaring both sides to give: 4'" T' I g Next we remove the g on the RHS by multiplying both sides by g to give: gT' 4'" ~ I Finally. That is. keep in mind the following: The formula is an equation.142 to 4 sig fig. powers and roo~.126 Foundation topics IT) Transposition of formulas The formula for the period of oscillation. We say that T is given in temlS of I. multiplication and division.addition and subtraction. To remove a symbol from the righthand side (RHS) we carry out the opposite operation to tJlat whicll the symbol is at present involved in. or balance. Whatever is done to one side must be done to the other. we interchange sides to give: 1 ~ 4'" gT' because it is mo re usual to have tile subject of the formula on the LHS. where I is given in terms of T . of a pendulum is given by: T ~ 2'~ where I is the length of the pendulum measured in metres. The 'opposites' are . g is the gravitational constant (9·81 m S2) :md 11" = 3. What we now require is a new formula where I is the subject. In this case we start with: h2'~ To isolate 1 we start by removing the 2n by dividing both sides by 2n. Now try a few examples .
2 . we divide both sides by h (ill So 4h = 2r .. we .1I d' (d) Next..II) (c) At present..... (a) u is part of the numerator on the RHS. write the transposed formula with the new subject on the LHS.e.. . • ... at 2 + 2s I. Therefore... Tilerefore first multiply both sides by p. .. II = 2t Apply the procedure carefully and take one step at a time... square both sides (ill So "4 = 1I(2r d' .+ 2s = 2ul by adding 25 to each side: (d) u is here multiplied by 2/. at 2 = 2(111 . to make u the sublect . therefore we divide each side by 2t: at 2 + 2s 2' " (e) Finally...Expressions and equations 127 Example 1 Transpose the formula a 2(uts) . Example 2 Transpose the formula d = 2 / h(2r h) to make r the subject.s) (b) We can now multiply out the bracket: al'2 = 2ut  2s 1/ (c) Now we isolate the term containing ar. tile bracket expression is multiplied by II... (a) First we divide both sides by 2: '2 = d J II(2r 11) (b) To open up the expression under the square root sign. . we ..
. R = J2V _ h wI! 3 Because 2 Therefore . this could be written in a different form: r 2 = !{tf2 J} = !{d + 4hZ} = cf2 + 4h 24... ... Now.. First locate the symbol R in its present position and then take the necessary steps to isolate it.128 Foundation topics (ill So 4h + h = 2r add II to both sides '" Finish it off (ill r 1 {'" ="2 411 HI} I Of course.... 1 ' 4/1 8h 2 2 All these forms are equivalent to each other. R= .. Example 3 nll(3R2 + 112) TransjX>se V = 6 to make R the subject.. this one. Do one step at a lime.
ice on the RHS.Ir) = JR Then we can free the I on the LHS by multiplying out the bracket: rlE ..nlr = J(R \.. worked in very much the same way as the prevIous example. Transpose the formuJa 11 = ~ to make 1 the subject.nlr = IR Now we coiled up the two terms containing I o n to the RHS: nE = IR /. tJlerefore. using the rules and methods of the previous examples.Expressions and equations 129 Example 4 This one is slightly different.nr Move on to the neXl frame Example 5 Here is one more. is to move the denominator completely by multiplying both sides by (E .If): I1(E . Our first step. Transpose the formula @j ~ = J~ ~ ~ to make f the subjed. E .nr) SO I=~ R /.. f~ · .Ir In this case. Work right through it. so you will have no trouble. you will see that the symbol I occurs t\.
2 Values so obtained can be assigned to a variable to form an equation.zp fPr . 4 There is more than olle type of equation: Conditional equation Identity Defining equation Assigning equation Formula 5 Anyone of tile independent variables in a formula can be made the subject of a new formula obtained by transposing it with the dependent variable of the original formula.. This variable is called the subject of tile equation .P) = r2(f + P) R2 f _ R2 P = r2 f+.r2f = fPp + .(r . 3 The subject of an equation is called the deper/dent variable and the variables within the expression are called the il1dependent variables.e mllin facts so far A tEll Revision summary 1 An algebraic expression is evaluated by substituting numbers for the variables and constants in the expression and then using the arithmetic precedence rules.2p flR' .p) ~ r + p R' R2(f .') ~ peR' + .. 6 .2 f +P r p .') A t this point let us fKwse (lJId summarize ti. Transposition is effected by performing identical arithmetic operations on both sides of the equation.130 Foundation topics Here it is: R2 .
I.m ) thus fM + fm = SMSm. ( = 5 ·25 and 11 = (tlV/ lI)' . that is fm + Sm = . 12 1 + (ltV/ II ) 3 where A = 40.79(1'0525)12 40 285 ·79 x 1·84784 .. .m ) 2 Transpose the formula ( = M to make m the sub ject.16 0 . R = 5 and r=0·04 (b) A = l'(l + (c) P = A nE + n.f} f +S . 46·213 1 .. E = 1·08.Expressions and equations 131 ru Revision exercise 1 Evaluate each of the follow. = 528 (2·5 x 42 75".fM. Factorizing yields m (f + S) = M (S .5625 3 3'5625i 3' 5625~ 40 1 + 3.5 + 4 x O'04 (b) A = 285.79(1 + = 4·32 5 + 0.82 1 + 3..ng to 3 slg fog' (a) I = R. ..n +m SM .f} giving M(S .56253 = 40 6·7240 .. S(M .30)3 5. And /lOW to tile next topic .where 11 = 4. I ~)n where P = 285·79. n = 2 ·5 and v = 42·75 SCM ." 30)! J (c) P ~ 40 + (2·5 x 42·75 .837 ~~~) 12= 285.m 1 a 14 x 1·08 () . 11 = 30.11/) 2 (= M so f (M + m )= S(M .
z6 then: x (aJ ((3) ~ .H4) .. . is: rnilitiply x by 3 and then subtract 4 How the evaluation is actually done. (to 5 sig fig) Answers are in the next frame . we process the inplll 5 to produce the Olltput 11: If we use the letter x to denote the input and the letter f to denote the process we denote the output as: f(x ). if f(x ) = 4. if: (x) ~ 3x ..0 . given the expression: 3x4 we evaluate it for x = 5.. ~ (d) f( . So that. whether mentally... by multiplying 5 by 3 and then subtracting 4 to obtain the value 11. For example. What is important is that the prescription for evaluating it is given by the expression 3x ... .. by pen and paper or by using a calculator is not important.4 then: (5) ~ IS . ~ (b) «4) (c) (2/ 5) . say.4 ~ 1\ and in this way the corresponding values of the two variables are recorded. ~ .132 Foundation topics The evaluation process @ Systems A system is a process that is capable of accepting an inpllt.. . .. processing the input and producing an uutpllt: Input Process Output We can use this idea of a system to describe the way we evaluate an algebraic expression.4 and that we can represent the process of executing this prescription by the label f The advantage of this notion is that it permits us to tabulate the results of evaluation in a meaningful way. represented by the box in the diagram. For example.. that is 'f acting on x' where the process f.
3 is a polynomial of the 1st degree .2. The degree of the polynomial is given by the highesl power of x occurring in the expression.256 _ 7·5 = . then evaluating {(3) wou ld involve finding the values of each term before finally totalling up the five individual values. nonnally arranged in descending (or sometimes ascending) IX>wers.4x I. .256 + 0 ·75 =255·25 0.or a linear expression. This can be avoided by using the method known as nesting .324) ~ .z . This would mean recording the partial values .1 = 107 (b) ((4) = 4 X (ill (_4)3 2 X ~ 4) 2 6 x .4 and is a polynomial of the 4th degree is a polynomial of the 3rd degree. A polynomial of the 3rd degree is often referred to as a mbic expression.7.Expressions and equations 133 I(a) ((3) ~ 107 (b) ( 4) ~ . 3i! + 4x + 2 is a polynomial of the 2nd degree .13512 Because 6 (a) ( (3}= 4 x 3 3 2 x 3 = 108 .wilh the danger o f including errors in the process.244 6 .so move to the next frame to see what it entails. for example: SX4 + 7x 3 + 3x .or a quadratic expression.5x3 + 7x. A polynomial of the 4th degree is often referred to as a quartic expression.13605 + 0·92593 = 135·12 (e) ((2/ 5) ~ 4 x (2(5)' (2/5 ) (d) ((324) ~ 4 x (. :zx3 + 4x 2  2x + 7 Polynomials of low degrf'f' often have altf'rnal'ivf' names: 2x .324)' 2 x ( 3·24) Polynomial equations Polynomial expressions A polynomial in x is an expression involving powers of x.25525 (e) ((2/ 5) ~ 7244 (d) ( . Evaluation of polynomials H {(x ) = 3x4 .
3x + 6 = [( Sx + 2)x .1) = .4x + 5 (a) (x ) in nesled fonn = . (ill Notes : (a) The terms of the polynomial must be arranged in descending order o f powers.3[4 + 6 ~ [85 [ 4 + 6 ~ 346 50 f(4 ) ~ 346 Note: The working has been set out here purely by way of explanation. Therefore. multiply by x and add on the next coefficient: Repeat the process: enclose the whole of this in square brackets. and f( . if « x) = 3x4 + 2.e. So.3 Consider the polynomial ((xl = sx3 + Z .<Jx + 5 Cbl ((2) ~ 53 On to the next frame . we can now substitute the given value of x and carry on in a linear fashion.134 Foundation topics lliJ Evaluation of a polynomial by nesting z. To express this in nested form. multiply by x and add on the next coefficient: i.. ((Z) = . in the same way. .3x + 6.x Le. . . Sx + 2 Le. Normally it wo uld be carried out mentally.3]x + 6 in nested fonn. Cbl ((2l ~ ICal ((x ) ~ {[(3x+ O)x + 2Jx .x2 . it must be included with a zero coefficient before nesting is carried out. (Sx + 2 )x . [( Sx + Z)x . write down the coefficient and one factor x from the first term and add o n the coefficient of the next term: Enclose these in brackets. No recording is required: f (4 ) ~ [(22)4 ..3] x +6 So (x) = Sx1+ 2x z . . Starting with the innermost brackets. (b) If any power is missing from the polynomial. .
3) ~ .. .a x.g(a) + R Le. That is: {(xl ~ g (x) + _R _ x.IO} + (x . So.. .5x' ..g(x) + R Whe n x = a f(a) = O.3) would give a rem aInder R ~ (3 ) ~ . . . so let us now move on to the next topic.a).10) :. In each of the following cases.a ) [see Frame 241.3x' [x ~ 41 Results it! the next frame 1 (a) [(4x+3)x + Zlx .10 = [(x + 3 }x  13Jx . .13x . together with a remainder R still to be divided by (x .(x .3 (d) (x ) ~ 2x' .a). . express the polynomial in nested form and evaluate the function for the given value of x. Remainder theorem The n:maimier theorem states that if a polynomial (x ) is divided by (x .4 [x ~ ZI (b) ((x ) = z. the remainder would be (a) .Expressions and equations 135 Now a short exercise.3)x + O lx + 2}x . Because ((x ) = xl + 3x2  13x . ..3 (d) {[(2x .4 (b) {[(2x + l )x . .10 so ((3) ~ 5 We can verify this by actually performing the long division: (x3 +3x' .... .. (a) {(x)~ 4x' + 3x' + 2x. the quotient will be a polynomial g(x) of one degree less than the degree of { (x).5)x .. (xl + 3r . R = (a) That is: I( (x) were to be divided by (x .a So {(x ) ~ (x . . .31 x + O}x + 4 (2) ~ f (3) ~ {(5 ) ~ {(4) ~ 44 171 Z57 148 This method (or evaluating polynomials will oc most useful in the following work.13x .3x2 + 5x +4 6 [x ~ 31 [x~51 (c) «x ) ~x"3x3 + 2x .a). .3Ix + 5}x6 (C) {[(x .x4 t. .x3 ..
.x + 4)i(x+2) (e) (3x3 . For ('J(ample."" . «2) = 0. (b) (4 X3 _ 3xz+5x3) +(x ..0) is a factor of {(x ). i.136 Foundation topics @ Here it is: I Xl + 6x + S with remainder.) 1" +4x.6) The quadratic factor so obtained can sometimes be factori zed further into two simple factors. .3) Finish all five and then check with the next (Tame I(aJ (c) 24 6S (dJ 2 (e) (b) 225 0 Factor theorem If ((x ) is a polynomial and substituting x = a gives a remainder of zero. apply the remainde r theorem to determine the remainde r in each of the following cases.10 5x . .4ac) = . (a) = 0.. . (x .2) is a factor of (x).2)..4ac) test .3x + 5) ..J4x+ 12 = [(x +2)x .5) (d) (2x3 + 3xZ .which we have used before.. The remaining fact or can be found by long division of {(xl by (x .. . ((x ) ~ (x . (x .13x  l fU Sx . if {(x)= Xi I.2)( .13x ..e.12) +.ZX z .15 .2) (x' + 4x .=5 (a) (5x 3 .3x + 6) .5 I x3 1x 3 xl+6x+S Xi +3x z .JO _ 3x z 6x z 6x 2 .1 6 So ((x) ~ (x .4) (eJ (x' .2) gives a zero rem ainder.e. then (x . .(x . so we apply the ([12 .. .4xZ .ll xl + lOx .(x .. so that division of ((x) by (x .2) + Remainder Now as an exercise. .14jx + 12 and we substitute x = 2. I. In this particular case (lJ2 .
[4 x 1 x (6)] = 16 + 24 = 40.2)(x' + 4x .. we cannot factori ze fu rth er. We have previously seen h ow to factorize a quadratic expression when such factors exist and.. test whether (x .) x'2x . . . . ..4oc) = 62 ..8 x .4ac =. .3) is a factor of ( (x ).. = x3 .5x2  2x+ 24 ~ = [(x . So (x . Therefore. .3! x3 _ 5x 2 _2x + 24 X' .2]x + 24 fl3) . There is no remainder. . 36. )( . Therefore there are simple factors of xl . . so no simple factors exist. . . . . . . ) . .8x + 24 fix ) ~ (x . .2x ..5x 2 . .3 )(x' . .8 can be factorized fu rther.. .Expressions and equations 137 (ill because (tr 4ac) = 16 . if so.. This is not a perfect square.. 6 2 .8) Now lest" whether x2 . in this case: (b 2 x 2 _ 2x _ 8 = {. So fix ) ~ (x . .& + 24 .3) is a factor of ((x) and..3x' .. 1f .6) As an example.8.2x + 24 (x) = x 3 . determine the remaining fact or (or factors). so that· (x ) = (x .. .5)x . Long division now gives the remaining quadratic factor. .. .2x .2x . .3)(.. .ZXz_ 2x 2xZ+ 6x . Le. .
e .3 )(x . we proceed as follows: (a) We write the cubic function in nested form . Simple factors exist.. to factorize (x ) = xl + 5xz .4)(x + 3)(x .k) is a factor of {(x ). so (x . 8 2 • This is a x 2 2x 15 so f ix) ~ = (x+ 3)(x . x 41 x3 x' _4x 2 x'. (b) By trial and error.Zx+ Z4 ~ (x .5) But how do we proceed if we are not given the first factor? We will attend to that in the next frame.4)(x + 3)(x . factorize ((x) into simple factors.2x 15 _ 6x 2 _ 7x +60 Zx' .. of course.5) I Here it is: f (x) = . So. x = 2.4) is a factor of (x ) = xl ..8) (x . i.2x 15) = Now we attend to the quadratic factor.24 as far as poSSible.Zx .g. we substitute values of x. .. c.7x _ 2x 2 + 8x .2 etc.4)('" .2x . (lJZ ..{ix2 .4)(x + Z) And now another example. . Then (x .5) (x . If we are not given lhe first factor. .7x +60 = [(x6)x7]x+ 60 0. i. . x = . Work through it iust as before and dum check with tIle next frame I«x ) ~(x .lSx +60 • fix) ~ (x . x = .e .4nc) complete square. After that. unti l we find a substitution x "= k that gives a zero remainder.. Show that (x .x3  (4) = 6x 2 . we can continue as in the previous examples. . as far as possible.138 Foundation topics Collecting our results together: ((x ) ~ x' ~  Sx' .15x + 60 .4 ) is a factor of (x ). 64. x = 1. we first write {(x ) in nested fonn.3) (x' .I.7x + 60 and.
.Sx .c.9)x+ 71 x +6 x = 2 is the first substitution 10 give ( (x ) = o. .3 = (x .1) is not a factor f(. ..2)(x + 3) (>+ 4) = 1 Because thc long division gives «X) quadratic expression finally gives ((x) ~ (x . Cntirely on your own: Factorize f(x) = 2x3 .r + 7x 1..3)(2x + I) 1 fIx ) ~ zx3  9x' + 7x +6 ~ ((2x ..2 ) is a fad or.3). 1 ((x) ~ (x.2)(2x2 . i. . . (lJZ . showing that simple factors exist fo r the quadratic.2)(x + 3)(x + 4) (x .. .9x 2 + 7x + 6 There ace no snags.1 )~.20 0 so (x . . .4ac) = 49. So (x .2 ) is a factor of ( (x) Now you can work through the rest of it. 1 ((x) ~ (x  2)(x .Expressions and equations 139 1 ((x) = ~ ((x + 5)x 2Ix24 1 Now substitute values x k for x until f(k) = 0: f(l ) f (2) ~ . Long division then leads Lo ( (x ) = (x . In fact 2x 2 _ Sx .18 ~ so (x + 1) is not a factor so (x . Just takc your time.3)(2x + \) .12) and factorizing the And now one morc.2)(.3)(2x + 1) SO ((x) ~ (x . Work through the same steps as before and you get fIx) ~ .. giving finally that ((x) ~ ..2)(x .. 7 2 .
7x 2 + X .1 )(x+ 1)(Z.140 Foundation topics Factorization of quartic polynomials The same method can be applied to polynomials of the fourth degree.g(x) Now we can proceed to fac torize g (x ) = (ziJ + x 2 .Zl(2x + 3) On to the next frame {or (//1011/(.l )(x + l )(x . For example. 6 :x3 .1) is not a factor o f S(x) g( .6)1 + 6 So {(x) = Zx~ _x3 _8x 2 + x + 6 ~ (x  I )(Zi' +x' .7[x .6) Attending to the quadratic (2.6) : (If . (x ) = { x .6) ~ (x .lO so (x . in nested fonn.6x 1.x .7x .6 .x .7x .8x 2 Xl _ xz. '1" example Factorize ((x ) = X4 + x3  9x 2 + X + 10.4ac) = 1 + 48 = 49 = 72 There are sImple fact ors. f(x ) = {[( 2.SX2 + X + 6: In nested form.6) so (Ix ) ~ (x . In fact 2x 2 . so (x .1).6) as we did with previous cubics: g(x) ~ I(Z.. + l )x . then.Z) Hnally.' .7x6 x.6 = (Zx + 3){x .Xi . . (x ) = .1) is a factor. ZX3 f x 2 .l l zx 4 2.I ) ~ O so (x + 1) is a factor of S(x) Long division shows that g(x) = (x + 1)(Zx2  X .x 4  Xl Zx' _ 8x 2 + x . provided that the given function has at least one simple factor.x .7x 2 + 7x .1)x . .x 2 .x . to factorize ( (x) = Zx"' .6 g( I )~.SIx + l }x + 6 t ( I ) = O. First.
2)(x2+ 2x . .2) is a factor of g(x) Long division (x 3 + Oxl . .. .. . g ( 1 ) ~ .x1 2 _9x z  . g(2) g (2) = 0 so S(x . .. . in g (x) ~ .9)x + iO Now we hunt for factors by substituting x g( l ) ~ I .5). .... . . .1. g(x) = . .. . . There are no linear factors of the quadratic so (x ) = (x + l)(x . .2 .9x + !O) ~ (x + 1)...... from wh ich we get so (x ..9xl + 9x lOx t.lSx 2 In nested form. For example... .S) One stage of long division can be avoided if we can find t wo fa ctors of the original polynomial.sx3 .. = 1.9Jx+1)x + 1O I Now we substitute x = 1.. .Expressions and equations 141 I f(x) ~([(x+ 1 )x .2) gives the quotient _. .2.. .. (x) . + lOx + 8. Ig(x) ~1(x + O)x . .. .10 So { (x ) ~ (x + 1)(x' + ox' . ..1. factorize (x ) = 2x4 .. g (x) Then in nested form.1) is not a factor so (x + 1) is a factor x3 + Oxl 9x +10 xtlO x xtl l x4 + x3 _9x + X4 t.9x + to) 7 (x . . . .10 l Ox I. I x' + 2x5 I (x ) = (x + l )(x  2 )(x 2 + 2x ... . .. . so we finally test the quadratic factor for simple factors and finish it o ff.
4ac = 81 In fact.14x2 + 33x .1 ... . f12 .2)(ar + bx + c)  We can now find the quadratic factor by dividing ( (x) by (x 2 + X 2X2  2): 7x . .142 Foundation topics ® I ((x ) ~ {((2x .ll r + lOx 15x2 . ((x ) ~ ..10 so (x + l ) is not a factor of f(x) ((2) = ..2) is not a factor of ((x) (( .l )(x + 2 )(2x2 . ow~.7x1  7x 2 + 14x 4x + 8 4x + 8  4x 2 4x 2  So { (x ) = (x .4 x2 + x_2 1 2x 4 2x" 5..x4 .2) ~ . Fadorize ( x) = z. .4).3x3 .1) is a factor of (x ) ( .. ((x ) ~ .I )(x+ 2)(x ..40 so (x .or the quadratic.l )(x + 2)(ax 2 + bx + c) +x ... (2r . so ((x ) ~ (x .x + ID}H 8 I so (x .7x  4) Finally test the quadra tic factor for simple factors and finish it off.1)=.7x1 .4)(2x+ 1) = 9 2 so factors exist.... 2x2 ..5)x  IS..7x4 = (x ... Follow the usual steps and you will have 00 trouble.0 + JOx +8 + zx.IB.4 )(2x + I ) Next frame Now one further example that you can do on your previous one.7x .. (ill = (X2 I((2) ~ 0 so (x + 2) is a factor of ((xl I { (x) = (x .. It is si milar to the . J..4x2 .
i.e main (acts so (aron evaluating polynomial equations.I ) ~ 0 ~.2) is a factor o f ((x ) So f ix) ~ (x . processes the input and produces an output (x) .Expressions and equations 143 I((x) ~ (x .18 9x 2 + 27x .eorem and tile (ador tlleorem.3x' 14x' + 33x .I)(x .e and summarize ti.3) I Here is the working: ((x ) ~ 2x' .2)(ax' + bx +0) = (xl .18 ((1) (( .a) is a factor of (x ).60 ((2) ~ 0 so (x .3x + 2)(ax2+bx + c) zx2 + 3x9 x2 3x+2 I ZX4 _ _14x2 +33x 18 2x4 60 + 4x 2 ]x3 _ 18x2 I. So f ix) (xl )(x2)(x + 3)(2x3) At tllis point let us fH"'~. .18 ~ ([(2x .l )(x .e.9.a).2)(<+ 3)(2x .1) is a factor of (x ) so (x + 1) is not a factor of (x) so (x . then (x . tile remainder tf. 3 fador theorem If {(x) is a polynomial and substituting x = a gives a remainder of zero.33x 3x~ . (~ ~ 4l1c) = 81 = 92 Simple factors exist.2)(2x' + 3x  9) For 2x 2 + 3x . 2 Remainder theorem If a polynomial (x) is divided by (x . together with a remainder R such thai R = (a).3 )x . t he quotient will be a polynomial g(x } of one degree less than that of (x ).H lx + 33)x . (a ) = 0. "Eil Revision lCjJ 1 summary ® The process whereby we evaluate an algebraic expression can be described as a system ( which accepts input x.9x2 + 6x 9x 2 +27x .I )(x .18 3x3 So ((x) ~ (x .
((x) = 6.4x + 4 = {((fu + l )x .4x +4 + 2)(x .r5xz + 4x3 = ({( fu .5 )2 + 0)2 + 4)2 . + 1)(3x  1) You have now come to the end of this Progrd.4 so that ((2) = «{2 . (x2 ){x + 2) = x2. determine th e remainder of (x 4 _ Zx 3 + 3il . A list of Can You? questions follows for you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme.144 Foundation topics Revision exercise 1 2 Rewrite ((x) = 6x J of ((2).  5il + 4x  3 in nested fonn and determine the value 3 1 Without dividing in full.4 = «(x . Factorize 6x 4 + Xl .2sx2 .2).1) so that: = (x + Xl _ 2sx2 .3 ~ 61 .4 and: 2 ((x) = x4 .4x + 4.(x .4) =...s a factor.2S )x .4x +4 +4 furthermore. . there is I/O need to IIl1ny.2)x +3 )x +O)x . Work through them at yo"r OW/I pace.2)(z.mme."i provides additional valuable practice.2)2 + 3)2 + 0)2 .4 = 8 = remainder 3 (x) = fu4 +xl .S)x + O)x 1. 6x z + x .1 6x 4 = (2x + 1 )(3x .4)x + 4 ((2) = 0 so x . A set of Further probletD.Zx3 + 3? 6xz+x . You will notice that these questions match the Learning outcomes listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them.4)x .2 is a factor.24xl Xl xl Xl Xl +4 Xl .2Sx2 .3sothat ((2) ~ ((( 12 . ((2) = 0 so x + 2.1 x2 _ 4 1 fu 4 + x3 _ 25x 2 4x 6x' . After that try the Test exercise.
.Expressions and equations 145 ~ Can You? Checklist F. scale of 1 to 5 how confident are you that you can: Frames • Numerically evaluate an algebraic expression by substituting num bers for variables? Yes 0 0 DOC No • Recognize the different types of equation? [Dtom Yes 0 0 0 DO No No mto m • Evaluate an independent variable? Y es DDDDD • Change the subject of an equatio n by transposition? Yes DDDDD No • Evaluate polynomial expressions by 'nesting'? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Use the remainde r and factor theorems to fa ctorize polynomials? Yes D D DOD No No • Factorize quartic polynomials? Y es DDDD o ~ Test exercise F.3 Eva luate to 3 sig fig: .3 Check this list before ami after YOII try the md of Programme test. .~ rrli 3 (a) v Frames ~ 1 112 where and 1 1 = 2 ·69 V = 23·05 (b) V = 85·67 and II = S·44. 2 Given q = J(spZ _ 1)2 .2 find fJ in terms of q. On a.
tl + 13x + 6 as the ~ Further problems F.146 Foundation topics Express each of the following functions in nested form and determine the value of the hmction for the stated value of x: (a) «x)~ZX3 . 5x .112·13 2·4 x 1.17x + 10.3 Evaluate the following.... .40 as the product of three  GD to rn:J Express the quartic ((x) = 2.4x' +8 «4) ~ ..5 4 Determine the remainder that would occur if (4x 3 . .<1 . 1·24 + 4. ..63) (b) P = (21 ·26 + 3' 74) .fiI' C 1 IL l (b)l' ~ S(CF) (c) S = Iq ILl J3D (L D) 8 Mm (d)T = I + Mm 1 M] [hi (e) A = rrr. 7x 2  14x .3x' . 2.r+1i2 (f) V = r: (3R2 + Jr... factori ze ((x) as far as possible.632 2 Transpose each of the foUowing formulas to make the symbol in lhe square brackets the subject: (al f ~ 2n.182 x 6·32 (c) Q = 14'192 ~ I J.Sx 2 + 7x ... .. (b) ((x ) ~ 4x 3 + 2x' .2 (e) «x) ~ 3x' . CEJtomJ 6 7 Rewrite ((x ) = :zx3 + linear factors. If so...6·38+ J136·S+ (8 .. . ) IRI ..4 Frames «31 «2) ~ ~ ..7x . .. giving the results to 4 slg fig: (a) K = 14·26 ..7x 3 product of four linear factors...3) Test whether (x ...3) were divided by (x .26 + . «5) ~ .72 + 4 ..2) is a factor of ((x) = 2r' + 2X2 . (d) «x) ~ ZX3 + x .
34x + 40 xl + xZ2x8 (j) ().5 ) (c) (4XJ t..5x+3 (c) f( x )= 4~ + X2 .5) ..7x 3 .(x + 4) 3 (e) (3x" .llx 3 . determjne the value of the function for the value of x stated: (a) ( (x) =5x3 4x2+3x.25x 2 + 63x .r .(x 4 ) (b) (3x'5x' +3x .4XJ .r+x+5 (g) ZrlXZlOx +S (h) 15x3 + 53xZ+Sx48 (e) 6x3_5.IS (c) ((xl = 4X4 .15x2 + 10x + 8 (b) (x) = 3x 4 .2x .28x .(x ...(x +3) 4x + 5) ..4) .(x .3Sx 2 + 34x + 24 (f) 2x~ + Sx 3  20x1  20x + 48 .5XJ .6x + 2 147 [x ~ 4[ [x = 31 [x = 3j Ix = 6] (d) (x) =ZX4 _ 4x 3 + Zx 2 3x + 6 (e) f(x) = x4 _ Sx 3 + 3xS 4 Without dividing in full .Expressions and equations Rewrile the follo wing in nested form and.16 (d) 3xJ..4) (d) (lx' + 3x'  Factorize the following cubics as completely as possible: (a) XJ + 6xZ + 5x.lOx .il + 37x 2 +67x+ 30 (i) 6 Factorize the following quarUcs.35x2 + 45x + 18 (d) ((x)=x 4 + zX'6x 2 Zx .1ors where possible: (a) f(x )= ZX 4 .x2 . in each case. determine the remainder in each of the following cases: (a) (S 0 + 4x26x + 3).12 (04 x3 _ 39x + 35 (b) ZX3 + 9xZllx30 (c) 3x3 4x 2 ..7x + 2 ).12 [x = 2j (b) r(x)~3xJZx' . expressing the results as the products of linear fa<.. 5 (e) 6x 4 .
.
149 .Programm ~ e ~ F~ .4 ~ ______________________________ ~ Graphs Learning outcomes Whell YOli have completed this Programme you will be able to: • Construct a collection of ordered pairs of numbers from an equation • Plot points associated with ordered pairs of numbers against Cartesian axes and generate graphs • Appreciate the existence of asymptotes to curves and discontinuities • Use a spreadsheet to draw Cartesian graphs of equations • Describe regions of the xy plane that are represented by inequalities If you already feel confident about these why not try tile quiz oYer tile page? You can check your allSwers at the end of lhe bouk.
~ Quiz F.3 ::. 4·9 with step value 0·3.4 for .3x1 (c) X Z S 1 +r Q!Jto@) 150 .x (b) y s x .2 S x S 4·9 with step value 0·3. (c) Piol the ordered pairs of numbers on a Cartesian graph and ioin the points plotted with a continuous curve. (b) y = x".lO ~ x S 10. (b) Construct ordered pairs of numbers corresponding to 1he even integer values of x where .X ~ ~ .x' ~ l Frames (a) Transpose the equation to m ake y the subject of the transposed equation.: g 3S x$ 4 with intervals of 05 [!JtoC!D 3 Use it spreadsheet to draw the Cartesian graphs of: (a) y = 2X2 . mJto(}D 4 Describe the region of the xy plane that corresponds to each of the follOWing: (a) y > .4 1 Given the equation : )' .xZ + xl for .2 S x ::::.7x . 2 Plot the graph of: (a) y = (b) Y = (J] to m x~ for . x S 3 with intervals of 0·5 fOf  {.
I We evaluate this equation by freely selecting a value of the independent variable x and then calmlating the corresponding value of the dependent variable y. The value of 1 .x2 so that: y~ subtracting x 2 from both sides ± v'f=X' (the symbol .fi refers to the positive square root of x whereas xi refers to both the positive and the negative square roots of x) Here we see that not only are the . so we shall concentrate on equations of the form y = some expressioll ..Graphs 151 Graphs of equations Equations A conditional equation is a statement of the equality of two expressions that is only true for restricted values of the symbols involved.se we would be unable to find the square root. The permitted values of x ale Tile answer is in tile next frame .x2 must not be negative othenvi. the independent variable: x =Y+ 1 but for historic reasons the variable y is normally selected to be the subject of the transposed equation rather than x.he values of x in the equation x2 +r=l? See the next. consider the equation: CD x. For example." x. The value of y is restricred to being the value obtained from the righthand side of the equation. fmme w Because y2 = 1 . So how are the values of " related to t..y=1 Transposing this equation to make y the subject of a new equation gives: y= x.values restrk:ted by the e4uation but our choice of value of the independent variable x is also restricted. We could equally have transposed the original equation to make.
= x 2 using ~uccessive w See the I/ext (rame 1( . 25) Cartesian axes If. 4) I 2 1 o 2 2 3 4 . 16). on a sheet of graph paper. Tha t is. .152 Foundation topics Because we demand t hat 1 . (. (2. 1).. the corresJXlnding val ue of the dependent va riable y is found to be 22 = 4. (0. (1.0 so that 1 . 9). 4). 1).it is called an ordered pair because the firs t number of the pair is always the val ue o f t he independent va riable and the second number is the correspondi ng value of the dependent variable.x 2 (which can also be written as x 2 ~ 1). 1 . W Move to tile next (ra me Ordered pairs of numbers Evalua ti ng an equ ation of a single independent variable enables a collection of ordered pairs 0rl/L1mbers to be comtructed. 16). So the collection of ordered pairs constructed from y integer values of x from S to S is .::.0). we draw two straight lines perpendicular to each othe r and on each line ma rk off the integers . For example.xl m u st not be negat ive. it must be greater than o r equal to zero.1 ~ x :5 1. (4. we can t ilen plot the ordered pair of n u mbers (2. 4) can be constructed . consider the equation: y = 1'2 If we select a value for the independe nt va ri able x. that for each permitted va lue of x the re are two values o f y.. (3. (.so tha t thl' two li nes intersect at their common zero points. (2. 4) as a point in the plane referenced against the integers on the two lines t hus: y 6 4 _ e (2. . say 1' = 2. namely y = +V'f=X2 and y __ v I _ x2. From t hese two values t he ordered pair o f numbers (2. 25). (4.::.. 9). .1. Notice also..5. This inequality is only satisfi ed if .xl . (5.3. 4).
9). 25) obtained from the equation y = Xl. we construct a collection of ordered pairs and plot each pair as a point in the same Cartesian coordinate frame we obtain a collection of isolated points.Graphs 153 The arrangement of numbered lines is called the Cartesian coordinate frame and each line is called an axis (plural axes). (2.2. 4). Drawing a graph If. 1). Notice that the scales of each axis need not be the same . The horizontal line is always taken t'O be tile independent variable ax. (1.is (here the xaxis) and the vertical line the independent variable axis (here the yaxis).4. 9). 1). On a sheet of graph paper plot the points (. 0).3. ( .5. 25).1. (4. 16). (3. 16) and (5. (. (.the scaJes are chosen to make optimum use of the sheet of graph paper. (. for an equation in a single independent variable. (0. Check your grapfl with the next frame • • • • 25 • w 20 • 10 • . 4). 5 • o • 6 • 2 4 4 2 xaxis 6 .
4 . . If we were able to plot this infinity of all possible points they would merge together to form a continuous line known as the graph of the equotion. what we do is to plot a collection of isolated points and then join them up with a continuous line. for S :5 x . In practice.~ ~ 111e answer is in the next frame A straight line 5 4 3 2 . 3 2 . For example. points.S we would end up with the shape given below: 25 20 15 '0 5 6 4 2 o x·axis X Z 2 4 6 This is the graph of the equation y = p(lmbola. hence.$ S.$ x :5 4 ? w . 2 3 xaxis 2 3 4 . if we were to plot all the ordered pairs of numbers that could be constructed from the equation: y=x 2 !or S~x:$. We call the shape a So what is the shape of the graph of y = x + 1 where .154 Foundation topiCS There is an infinite number of possible choices of x values and.
(05. (0. 0). (. Next frame Try another one. x 2 2 12 15 2 44 1 2 0 0·5 0 2 2 1·9 2 . 8) How abollt the graph of: 1 Y ~. . Here is the table: x 2 l'S . aI 8 .2 . (. 3).:aU5e.(or0 :5 x :5 2? x Select values of x ranging from 0 to 2 with intervals orO2 and take care here with the values that are near to 1.0).15. 1). (.1).Graphs 155 Bt. (1. 2). 11). 8 4 >0 . (05. 0 . (1. ing table: 2 1 l 0 0 xvalue yvalue 4 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 this gives rise to the follovving ordered pairs: (4.. (. 3 . Construct the graph of: y = x3 _ 2'. (2..'(. 2).2.1 OS 0 OS I 2 2r 2 x3 8 8 . 0·6).34 1 . (3.' .3. 5) which can be plotted as shown. 05. if we construct 3 2 the foUcn. The plot we have obtained is the plot of just those ordered pairs of numbers that \\'€ have constructed.1. (3.2 :5 x :5 3 with intervals of 0·5 Clleck the flext frame fnr the al/swer 8 w W • 4 L . .2. D).0.45 2 01 0 05 0 1 .. 44). (2. (25. The answer is in tile /lexl frame . 3).x + 2 for . 4) and (4. .3.19).1 8 2 2S 3 156 27 125 18 7_ S 3 2 8 2 2 Y o 2 06 o 2 2 26 Pairs: (.12). 26). (1.1'<. 0). 2). joined together by a continuous line.05 .<. (0.12 xa~is Because not all equations are polynomial equations we shall construct the ordered pairs by making use of a table rather than by nesting as we did in Programme F.
(1 4. 2·5). .6. 1·3). ]0). (12. (0.. . 0 0' 1fO . 50).see below: 10 8 6 4 2 l . . 0 2 4 6 xaxis Here is the table: x I . (08. (02. (0·4.0 2 50 04 2'5 '·4 ' ·6 06 17 '·8 08 2·0 1 0 1'3 1·0 Giving rise to the ordered pairs: (0. '0 4 6 8 10 xaxis . 5 0).13) and (2. (1S.x Y 0 ]0 1'0 02 08 1·3 0·4 06 1·7 06 04 2'5 08 0·2 5·0 .156 Foundation topics 6 4 2 l 0 0' ' 0 .. 25).·2 .10) Notice that we cannot find a value for y when x = 1 because then 1 .x = 0 and we calmot divide by zero_ The graph above can be Improved upon by plotting more points .17). 1·7). (1 6.
The vertical line through x = 1 is called a vertical aSJ'mptote to the graph. t ry finding the graph of the fo llowing: y _ {x2for 5 5x< 0 x for x :.5 5 x 5 5 with intervals of O·S Check the next frame 25 20 15 10 GD 5 6 4 2 o x·axi~ 6 Because the equation: y _ {xlfor .5 and 0 then y = x 2 and that part of the graph is the parabola shape.Graphs 157 As x approaches the value 1 from the left. And finally. whenever a curve approaches a second curve without actually meeting or crossing it.5 $ x < 0 x for x. Indeed. the graph rises and approaches (but never c rosses) the vertical line through x = 1.:: 0 . how about the graph of: y~ {I. £ orx:52 for x > 2 for . Notice that not aIJ equations are of the simple form y'" some expression in x. Also as x approaches the value 1 from the right. Now.1 5 x 54 Next frome . Not all asymptotes are vertical or even straight lines. If x is greater than or equal to zero then y = x and that part of the graph is the straight line. the second curve is ca lled an asymptote to the first curve. the graph falls and approaches (but never crosses) the same vertical line.?:O means that if x is chosen so that its value lies between .
.158 Foundation topics Lill 08 (J. if it is less than or equal to 2 the value of y is 1.1.6 . . . . Some graphs conSist of breaks called discontinuities. such as straight lines and parabolas.1·0 . unbroken lines. S Not all equations are of the simple form y = some expression ill x.1 forx 'S: Z forx>Z means that no matter what the value is that is assigned to x.~r be taken wilen joining points Loget/ler with a COlltinuOIIS lille. 3 The graph of the equation is produced when the plotted points are joined by smooth curves. It. :' . lEl 1 Ordered pairs of numbers can be generated from an equation involving a . Notice the gap between the two continuous straight lines. . If the value of x is greater than 2 the corresponding value of y is . . L. 6 Not aU graphs are smooth. . . At this point let us pause aud summarize tile malu facls so far (ill E Revision summary single independent variable. 3 4 xaxis Because the equation: y ~ {' . 0·4 0·' 0·2 0·4 0·6 0·8 . 2 Ordered pairs of numbers generated from an equation can be plotted against a Cartesian coordinate frame. This is called a (/iscolltillllity. .not all equations produce smooth continuous shapes so care mll. is 1I0t part of tile grap1/. 4 Some equations have graphs that are given specific names. The dashed line joining the two end points of the straight Jines is only Ihere as a visual guide.
3 :$.~ .Graphs 159 Revision exercise 1 Given the equation: x'+y'~1 2 (a) Transpose the equation to make y the subject of th e transposed equation. . (5. (c) Plot the ordered pairs of numbers on a Cartesian graph and join the points plotted with a continuous curve.25). (0.)1 (ill (b) (. (. (4.14).2). Plot the graph of: s: s: (a) y = x2 +! for .29) (e) 6 4 _. . 2). . (I. 0).2. .5 x s.29). 3x :x > l I (a) y ~ (1 . .x. (2.14). (b) ConshUct ordered pairs o f n um bers corresponding to the integer values of x where . . x (b) y ~ {x2 + x + I: x.'5: I for _ 3 _< x _< 4 with intervals of O. (3. . I). 0). (3.S .3withintervals ofO·S. (4. 0 4 5 2·5 3~ . (I. x:$. 2·5).5.
v ••• • • " • • "'..160 Foundation topics 2 {aJ 10 (b) 8 6 1i 1 • 2 2 0 .. • • • " • " " • • " • • . .. 6..... ~. Because Microsoft products are the most widely used software products on a PC..... • • · ~... V " . _ _ .... • • • ..... .. • • 5 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 xaxis 1 xaxis • Using a spreadsheet L!!J Spreadsheets Electronic spreadsheets provide extensive graphing capabilities and their use is widespread.. If yo"iJavt access to n compl/ter algebra package yo" mig/It ask yo" r tlltor 1I0w to lise it to tlmw graphs.:>1 . ...• • _ . . IIfIU. _ . e_ _ _ _ .~_!Qw_ " The features displayed are common to many spreadsheets but there may be mi nor differences in style between different products. ' CO il ._or. . .. ' ....\lI.IaIJII A ~"' O ..{.. all the exam ples will be based on the Microsoft spreadsheet Excel 9 7 for Windows... ·~·6. . · . W... .· .. G ·1!I ..... . e • "'" .. ... ... It is expected that all later versions of Excel will support the handling characteristics of earlier versio ns with only a few minor changes. . c ..  . • I~N~ . _ .
. To enable t. by pointing at a particular cell with the mouse poi/lter (1:0) and then clicking the mouse button. Make the cell with the address 810 the act ive cell and type in the text: Text and then press Enter ('. J). row. An alternative cell can become the active cell by pressing the cursor movement keys on the keyboard (.and II or. t. .~~~VI~~6 ~W '~ !IU I '''' '" '" '" '""5 " c " E f G At any time one particular cell boundary is highlighted with a Q/rsor and this cell is caJled the active cell.. '!) E:te ~ '/iI!w Insa"t IYrnat look ~ ~ ~ D. Now make cell CIS the active cell and type in the number 12 followed by Enter. . So that the cell with address FI23 is on the .he identification of individual cells each cell has an address given by the coil/mil label followed by the row label. . Next frame (ill .. Next frame Text and number entry Every cell on the spreadsheet is capable of having numbers or text entned into it via the keyboard. . alternatively... In an Excel spreadsheet the columns are labelled alphabetically from A onwa n1s am'" the rows aTe numbered from 1 onwards. Try it. column of the Check with the "ext frame (ill IF (6th) column of the 123rd row I Because the address consists of the column label F (6th letter of the alphabet) followed by the row number 123.Graphs 161 Rows and columns Every electronic spreadsheet consists of a collection of cells arranged in a regular array of columns and rows.
. You will nolice that the number displayed in cell CI6 is tluce limes thc number displayed in CIS. . Select from this menu the optio n Clear to reveal a furthe r dropdown menu. ~ p ~~ .. Let's now pllt all tllis togetller ill Ule next frame ... ""'"' <1 I "'III ... " __ <>. ~'" ""'" "''''' • • .. This m... ~ 0rl+F OIl<+! QlW.. Click t he Edit command on the Command Bar to reveal a dropdown menu... Now make su re that all entries on the spreadsheet have been cleared because we wa n t to use the spreads heet to construct a graph.. In this second menu select All and the cell contents are then de.. ~.. Move the cursor to cell CI6 and enter at the keybo ard: = 3*C1S foll owed by En ter.1kes it the active cell. End. The number in C16 also changes to reflect the change in the number in CIS.. rD.162 Foundation topics 00 Fonnulas As well as text and numbers..1red. Next frame (ill Clearing entries To clear an entry. point and dick at the cell to be cleared. Now change the number In CIS by ove" vriting to see the effect. each cell is capable o f contai ning a formula.. ... In an Excel spreadsheet every formula begins with the = (equals) sign when it is being entered at the keyboard. TIle * represents mu lti plication ( x ) and the formula states that the contents of cell CI6 \viU be three times the contents of cell CIS.
Activate cell HI a nd select the EditCopy commands Highlight cells H2 to H21 and select EditPaste Cells H2 to H21 fill with numbers. you have just copied the formu la in HI into the cells 112 to H21 . ~valoe . rour """" r.. r "'"'"' rD"". r . ~eDvlllue . all raised to the )XIwer 3. The number 27 appears in cell In .2)"3 and then press Enter (the symbol " represents raising to a power)... _. holding down the mouse button.. These aTe the corresponding yvaJues. type in the formula =(AI .Graphs 163 Construction of a Cartesian graph I:ollow these instructions to plot the graph of }' = (x .that is (_ 1 _ 2)3 = .2)3: Enter the number .I to + S with step value intervals of 0·3.cells Al :B21 Click the Chart Wizard button .1 is the content of AI . Am .... Cells A2 to A2l fill with single place decimals ranging from .1 :S x :S S. e r r r '" ""'" ro:.. .27 where . In cell In. where . Highlight the two columns of numbers . dragging the pointer to A21 and then releasing the mouse button (all the cells from A2 t o A21 turn black to indicate that they have been selected) Select the EditFiUSeries commands from the Command Bar and then in the Series window Change the Step value from 1 to 0·3 and Click the OK button: Sen". each being the number in the adjoining cell minus 2..~ Co"".1 in A 1 Highlight the cells Al to AZI by pointing at AI. These are the xvalues.
. Press the Next button in this window to reveal the Chart Wizard Step 2 of 4 window.o... C lick the Nexl button to reveal the Chart Wizard Step 3 of 4 window: .I_c.~ ~ ': ... > !~ . \ '..... requesting a choice of chart type: .e Cllart Wizard Step 1 of4 window has appeared. ~ ..... ~ ..~ __ C lick XY (Scatter) to reveal a further choice of types of XV Scatter charts: Click the type in the top righthand comer to select it (ScaN.mrbMfBM [ilM[ifi ..164 Foundation topics n.er witlJ data points C OIIIJected by smooth lilies without markers).. t><) ~ Q.
Co As III>Ioa n: jd\Zu c... Try it : . ~ m ~  rA£.... Place the cursor over a Handle. hold down t he mouse button and Drag.Graphs 165 In the Gllart Wizard Step 3 of 4 window: Click the Legend tab Clear the tick in the Show legend square (just Click the square) Click the Titles tab Enter in the Value (X) Axis xaxis Enter in the Value (Y) Axis yaxis Click t he Next button to reveil l the Chatt W izard Step 4 of 4 window In the Cllart Wizard Step 4 of 4 window ensure that the Jower radio button is selected (it will have a black spot inside it when it is selected): .n< ."" 11 Click the Finish butlon to reveal the chart: x.Jtooet.axk The small black squares (called Handles) around the Chart can be used to change the size of the Chart.
6 (ill (a) 12 10 i 2 1 2 2 xaxis .~x'x + l (d) y = i' . just clw/lge the formllla): (a) y = x 2 . All you need to do is to change the formula in cell BJ by activating it and then overtyping.Sx + 6 Use· for multiplicalion so lhat Sx is enle red as S·x (b) y~x'6x+9 (e) !. Copy the new formula in HI down the B column and the graph will automatically update itself (yoll do IJOt have to clear the old graph.6x 2 + llx .166 Foundation topics r 30 / ~ / • I " v  V /" "_IX_ ~ A I /30 xaxis Now produce the graphs of the following equations. 4 5 .
L. ):·ax:is 4 5 20 15 ..) t 6 • 2 .axis .15 2 .. 12 16 .. '0 5 . (c) 25 0 2 xaxIS 3 • 5 20 15 1 . 4 5 20 25 . (d) '0 5 0 25 2 ..Graphs 167 (b) . 0 .
Ibis shape is the parabola .6x + 9= (x .2)(x .3 = 0 (see graph (a) in the box above).every quadratic equation has a graph in the shape of a parabola. we can see that the graph demonstrates the fact that y = 0 when (x .6 = (x . Let's try two graphs that we have. namely when x = 2 and x = 3 . This is reflected in the fact that we cannot factorize the quadratic. Noti(e that r = 0 at those points where the curve coincides with the xaxis.Al+1. the cubic factorizes as: y = x3 _ 6x 2 + I1x .6"AI+9. = O.=XZ .3)(x 3) so the graph demonstrates the fact that r = 0 only when x = 3 (see graph (b) in the box above).6x 2 + I1x . Also. Repeat the same procedure by simply changing the formula in cell Bl and then copying it into ceUs B2 to B2] to plot: (a) >' = I . . (d) r = x3 . Also.2 = 0 or when x .l )(x .3 ) we can see that the graph demonstrates the fact that (b) r == 0 when r = x 2 .Z) = OoTwhen (x . Notice that the curve never touches or crosses the xaxis so that there is no value of x for which>.168 Foundation topics Because: (a) J' = xl .Sx + 6 ~ (x .t frame .1) = Oorwhen (x . x = 2 and x :: 3. (c) > ' = x2 .S"AI+6. (see graph (C) in the box above). the factorization of the quadratic is: x .2)(x  3) Again.x + 1 The formula in B1 is =A I "'2. Notice that r = 0 when x = 1. because we can factorize the quadratic: y ~ i' . Here.6 "nle formula in 8] is =A J"'36*A I "'Z+11"AJ 6. Clleck your results ill tile fJeJf.Sx + 6 The formula in In is =A I"2..6x + 9 The formula in B] is == Al "'2. Notice that r = 0 at just one point when x = 3.3) =0 (see graph (d) in the box above).x forx ~2 1 (b)y ~ {l \ {orx>Z You will have to give the second olle some thought as to how you are going to enter the formula for the second equation. already plotted manually.
'Taph (b) in the box above./ 1 2 i . Make Al2 the active cell and insert a row to remove the stray line just as YOll did in part (a). Notice that the two sides o f the g raph are joined together when they should not be .Graphs 169 (a) 6 4 I (I (ill 2 1 0 2 .see !. Notice that the asymptotic I behaviour is hidden by the joining of the two inside ends of the graph.12 15 xaxis 0' . We can overcome this problem: Make cell AS the active cell On the Command Bar select InsertRows An empty row appears above cell AS and the stray line on the graph disappears. ( 6 8 10 .~ (b) ~1 0 05 1 ·0 .1·5 1 2 3 4 5 .1 copied down to B21.) (b) Here there are two formulas. See graph (a) in the box above. )(a~~ J Because: (a) y = 1 x The formula in BI is = I/(I .AI). Th e first formula in 81 is = 1 copied down to cell 811 and the second formula in BI2 is = .. At this poillt let us pause (md summarize the main facts so far 011 tl$ing a spreadsheet .. (Clear the empty row using EditDeleteEntire row.
2 :5 x :5 6 with a step value of 04 use a spreadsheet to draw the graphs of: (a) y = x2 .. a number or a formula. lt5J ] 2 Each cell has an address consisting of the column letter followed by the row number. For x in the range .values in the second column Use the Chart Wizard to construct the graph using the XV (Scatter) option. 4 Cell ent ries are cleared by using the Edit·ClearAll sequence of commands.3x + 2 (b) y = x 2 _ 1 (c) y = 4x 2 3x + 25 (d) y = x3 +6x2 .< " ~ 10 5 2 1 0 2 x. S To construct a graph: lliJ ra Revision exercise ) Enter the range of xvalues in the first column Enter the corresponding collection of . 3 Each cell is capable of containing text.axis 4 5 6 .8x (ill <aJ 25 20 15 .170 Foundation topics Lill B Revision summary A spreadsheet consists of an array of cells arranged in regular columns and rows.
6 (d) 50 40 30 20 10 1 0 10 20 12 2 3 4 5 6 30 40 50 xaxis Let's look /lOW at a/l exteusioll o( lhese ideas . 10 .Graphs 171 (b) 30 25 " ! 2 1 20 " . 160 140 120 2 xaxis 3 4 5 6 (e) i 100 80 60 40 20 2 1 0 2 xaxis 3 4 .
. lhe region of t he xy plane that corresponds to t he inequality y < x 3 is given by . so th e plot of an inequality produces an area rather than a line.172 Foundation topics Inequalities (ill Less than or greater than Vou are familiar with the use o f the two ineq uillity ~ym bo l s > imd <.. x ~ 2. ..: x :5 25 we woul d obtain the graph shown below: 700 600 200 100 xa~is The graph is in the fonn of the curve y = x'1. The region above the line y. acting as a separator for two differen t regions. fo r example. So.rion below the line represents the plot of y < x 2 because for every point in this region the yvalue is less than the square of the corresponding xvalue. . XZ represents the p lot of y > x '1..'i beca use for every point in thi s regin n till' yvil lue is greiller th<ln the sq uare of the corresponding xvalue. .. the ret. For example: y>x The inequality tells us that whatever value is chosen for x the corresponding value fo r y is greater.  zx2 C/leck tile next frame {or tire answer . for 1 :s. For example. Simila rly. if we were to plo t the graph of y == XZ for 1 ::. We can also use them in algebraic expressions. ... Obviously there is an infinity of )I·va lues greater than the chosen value for x. 3 < 5 and 2 > 4...
2 3 Points above the graph of y = f (x ) are in the region described by y > f(x). ® You have now come to the end of this Programme.y plane rather than it line or a curve..: x2 3x + 2 (a) (a) The region below the line y = 3x . A list of Can You? questions foIlows for you to gauge your understanding of t he material in the Programme.1 so that every point on or above the line satisfies one or the other of th<. y > 2x ..3x + 2. How about y is .4 (b) y > _2x 2 + 1 (c) y ::. there is 110 need to lIurry.>se two conditions.s point let us pause and sumnmrize the main facts so (ar 011 inequalities 1'Eil Revision summary lEJ 1 The graph of an inequality is a region orthe x. (b) The region above the line y = _ZX2 + 1. Work 1Ilrollgllllu?m at yOllr own pace.Graphs 173 The region of th e graph below tile curve y = Because Xl  2x 2 I For ewry lXlint in this region the yvalue is less than the corresIXlnding xvalue. At tl.'Yaph on or above the line y = 2x . . Points below the graph of y = «x) are in the region described by y < {(x ).I? The region of th e xy plane that this describes The region of the !. After that try the Test exen:ise. lliJ @ m 1 1 Revision exercise Describe t he regions of the x.1 or y = 2x . ~ 2x .y plane defined by each of t he following inequalities: y < 3x .1 I Because The inequality y ~ 2x .. Namely.. A set of Further probJems provides addit ional valuable practice.1 means one of two conditions. You wil l notice that these questions match the Learning outcome .4. . (c) The region below and on the line y = x2 .. listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them.
On a scale of 1 to S how confident a re yo u tha t you can: • Construct a collection of o rdered pairs o f numbers from an eq uation? Yes 'J 0 0 DO No • Plot points associated with ordered pairs of numbers against Ca rtes ian axes and gene rate graphs! Yes DOC DO No • Appreciate t he cxistenc!c' of asymptotes to curves and d iscon tinuities' l'e ..x :x:50 .3 :o: : : x:O:::::3.y plane that arc represented by inequali ties? Yes 0 0 0 ~O No CEJ toCEJ ~ Test exercise F.114 Foundation topics ~ Can You? Frames lli . Plot th e graph of: I (a) y = x .1 :5 x :5 1 in intervals of (}Z.~ (ill Checklist F. (c) Plot the ordered pairs of n umbers on a Cartesian graph an d join t he points p lotted with a continuous curve.x2 + Z :x>O for 4 :0: : : x :o: :. (b) Const ruct ordered pairs of numbers corresponding to the integer values of x where . 0 0 0 DO No • Use a spreadsh eet to draw Ca rtesian graphs of equations? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Describe regio n s of t he x. Frames (ill 1 QJ toC!J 2 x Wh<l t is happening near to x = O? _ (b) y  {Z ..4 Given t he equation: x2 + Y = 1 (3) Transpose the equation to make y the subject of the transposed eq uation. 4 .for .4 Check list before lIud after YO" try tile emf of Programme test.
4 Given the equation Xl + = 4 transpose it to find y in tcnns of x. 2·6 w ith a step value of 02.Graphs Frames 175 3 US(' a (b) spreadsh~t to draw the cart esian graphs of: (a) y = 3x 2 4 + 7x . Using a spreadsheet plot the graph of: y = x J +lOx 2 +lOx_l for . 2 with a step value of 05. Describe the regio n of the xy plane that corresponds to each of the folJowing : (a) y 2 Zx + 4 (b) y < 3x (e) 3x .2 . r 3 Using a spreadsheet plot the graph of: x' Y = 1 _ x2 for . With the aid of a spreadsheet describe the shape that this equation describes.3 :s: x :S 3.: l x ~ 1 2 Further problems F.4y 2 1 (d) x'+r' >2 . Draw a sketch of this graph on a sheet of graph paper indicating discontinuities and asymptotic behaviour more accurately.x + 1 for 2.2 :S: x :::. Y = Xl + x.6 for 4 ~ x :$ S2 with step value 0·4. With Ule aid of a spreadsheet describe the shape that this equation describes.'5: x:5 4 ·9 with step value 03 . r S Given the equation: transpose it to find y In terms of x. Describe the region of the xy plane that corresponds to eadl of the following: 2 (a) y < 2 3x (b)y > x(c)x+y :S. 6 7 Given the l'quation Xl + y2 + 2x + 2y + 1 = 0 transpose it to find y in terms of x.10 S x ::.4 Given X Z = 0 fInd the equation giving y in terms of x and plot the graph of this equation for . With the aid of a spreadsheet describe the shape that this equation describes.
.
5 Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Learning outcomes When rOll l/ave completed tllis Programme • Solve any linear equation yOIl Frames 0 "'0 will be able to: • Solve simu ltaneous linear equations in two unknowns • Solve simultaneous linear equations in three unknowns If yo" a lready (eel confident about tI.Programme F. 177 .ese wily lIot try tile quiz over the page? YOu call ch eck your a nswers a t tile end of tile lJook .
I >: .4y = 7 5x .2~ 1 +44 (c) x .2 3.x 2 45x + x l J =X 6 CIJtom 2 Solve the following pair of simultaneous equations for x and y: 3x ..~ Quiz ~ l F.S Solve for x: (a) 3 (x.2y = 7 Solve the following set of three equations in three unknowns: CIJtoOIJ x2y+3z = 1O 3x2y + z = 2 4x + 5y+2z = 29 178 .l ) +2 ( 32x ) ~6 ( x + 4) .7 Frames (b) 3.
Solution of simple equations The solution of simple equations consists essentially of simplifying the expressions on each side of the equation to obtain an equation of the form ax + b = 0:.1)+ 3(Zx + 9 ) . giving: llx + 18 =llx . For exampil': (4x + \ )(x w + 3) .ex = d .I ) +3(2x+9)2 = 4(3x.4) (4X l + 13x + 3 ) .(Xl+ 2x .band hence x =  d.l = 36 + 7x ISx + 4 = 7x + 36 so 8x = 32 therefore x Sex.c Example If th en Sim ilarly: 6x +7+5x 2 +4x.(x + 5)(x  3) ~ (3x + l )(x .lS ) = 3Xl .b .Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 179 Linear equations A linear equation in a single variable (unknown) involves powers of the va riable no higher t han the firs t.provided a 'I Co a. A linear equation is also refened to as iI simple equation.1)+ 2(4x + 3) =4 if then x=2 Because 5 (x . + " giving ax .4 so 22x = 22 therefore x = 1 .4 so 3Xl + l1 x + 18 = 3xl llx 4 2 3x can now be subtracted from each side.l1x .2 ~ 4(3x .1)+ 2(4x + 3) so SxS+6x+27Z = 12x4+8x + 6 l1x + 20 = 20x+2 so 18 =9x therefore x = 2 Equat ions which appear not to be simple equations sometimes develop into sim ple equations during simplification.
.30 :.(5x .3)(x .5 Here.x.180 Foundation topics It is always wise to ch eck t he resu lt by substituti ng this valu e for x in the o riginal equatio n : lHS ~ ~ (4x+ I )(H 3) . So.= .(x +5)(x . .3 )(x . For example.5) x 3 x After cancelling where possible: ~ 6x(x .27 lOx = ..3) so..5) 12{x + 3) 2 3 = 4 + 6 6(x +2) 4(x + 5) ~ 3(2x .3 x x.I ) .2 )( .2x + 3 ~ 7x' .3 )(3x .5) x 5 4x{x .'12(x + 2) x+2 x+5 lx5 + ...12x .(4)(.. x = .. . fin ishing it off.3)(x + 2) we have x = ..3.3) (.3)(2) ...4) ~ .. w That was easy en ough . .5) +2(x+3) ..... to solve: 2 ... mult iplying t hroughout by t he LCM.. X= . 9)(x . Now let us look at this one. To solve  426 + .6 + 16 ~ 10 RHS ~ ( 3x + I )(x .5) ~ 1O :...3. the LCM of t he denom inators is x (x .4 )~(. ~ (7x . we have 4x(x .~ .5) = 6x(x .3)(x .. x =3 Where simple equation s involve algebraic fractions.3 )(x . in the same wa y. 4 and 6 is 12: 12(x + 5) 12(2x ..5) + 2x(x .. soh'ing the equation: (4x I.... .6 x+3 The LCM of 2.5).3 )(x .3) w Simplification gives Hence 7x' ..5) + 2(x . . .. LHS ~ RH5 So... th e firs t step is to e li m ina te the denomin ators by mu ltiplying throughou t by the LCM (Lowest Common Multiple) of t he denom inat ors.
6) .3 )(x x 2 + x 3 x\3 + 3) o 3(x .3)(x + 3) 8(x .3 )(x \.S(x l \x .3)(x + 3) S(x .36x + 30 = 6.2)lx . 30 = 18x S :...r ..3)(x + 3 ) + S(x .2 )(x .8x z + 40x ..2 )(x + 3 ) .r .48 = 0 45x .3 ). so 3(x .ZOx + Z(xz .30 .6) = 0 3x z .105 = O x = 45 = 3 lOS 7 7 x = j" Now 011 to frame 7 . x = 3 Working in the same way: ~ 2 +~ 3 ..Z)(x .3 ) = 0 3(xl _ 9) \.2)(x .18x 4xl ZOx + ZXZ 16x + 30= 6K.18x Subtracting the 6xl term from both sides: 36x + 30 =...5x \.. .~3 ~0 xxx+ gives the solution x = .8x + 15) = 6..Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 181 w Because 4x z .8(x l .27 +Sx z + Sx . w The LCM of the denominators is (x .2 )(x ...18x :.6xl .18x :.8(x .
we get: 14 20 + 2y=I4 2y=6 We have x = 4..4 (3 )~ 12 H2 ~ 24 (2 ) x= .3 is the required solution .. .m be substituted into this equation and each one has a corresponding yva lue. x = 4 If we now substitute this va lue for x in the other original equation.. x = . y=..( 4. 3x28 + lOx=24 13x = S2 :.182 Foundation topics Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns A linear equation in t wo variables has an infinite number of solutions.J )= 206 = 14 3x4y ~ 3 ( 4 ). Another example: To solve 3x+4y = 9 ZX + 3y=8 (1 ) (2) Proceeding as before... y =3 (1) As a check..) 24 = : . for two such equations there may be just one pair of x. For example. determine the values of x and y and check the results by substitution in the given equations.. Y = 3 S ( 4 ) +2y~ : . Y = . the twovariable linear equation y ./ Sxt2J' = S(4) + 2( . Le. (1).. 1 Solution by substitution To solve the pair of equations Sx+2y= 14 3x4y = 24 From (1): Sx + 2y = 14 :.and yvaJues that satisfy both equations simu/tallcollsly. However. we can substitute both these values in (1 ) and (2): . . we get: y ~ 7  (I ) (2) Sx 2 3x  4(7 _5. .. .x = 3 can be transposed to read: y=x+3 Anyone of an infinite number of xvalues <. 2y= 14Sx If we substitute this for y in (2).
.6y = 20 If we now add these two lines together. in either of the original equations. y = 6 2 Solution by equating coefficients Tosolve 3x + Zy = 16 4x 3y = 1O (1 ) (2) If we mulhply both sides of (1) by 3 (the coefficient of y in (Z)) and we multiply both sides of (Z) by Z (the coeffident of y in then we have (1» 9x+6y=48 &x . . = 8 Substituting this value fo r x in ( 1) yields: .I Had the yterms been of the same sign. . . .:~) =8 that is 2x + z..6 = 10 . .. _ 9. 4y = Z4 : . provides the va lue of y. In (1 ) 3(4) + Zy= 16 :.. . . l Z + 2y = 16 . have subtracted one line from the o ther to eliminate one o f the variables.. of course..'. Another example: Tosolve 3x + y = 18 4x + 2y=2 1 (1) (2) Working as before: x = .. x = 4. y = 2 :. y= . ...IS + 4y = 9 :. . we should... x=4....3(2) = 16 . the yterm d isappears: : . 17x = 68 :. x= S .. x = 4 Substituting this result. . x 5 4 : .Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 183 C!J I3ecause (1) Substituting this for y in (Z) yields: 2x + 3(~ . .=2 Check in (2) : 4(4) .
. r ~ . . y = . r ~ 45 6x + Zy = 36 4x + 2y = 2 1 2x I Subtract: Substitute x = 15 ~ :.... Solve 7x .l Zy = 44 5x = 25 :./ :. x = S Substitute in(2): 20.'.4y = 3S . y = 3 : . I X= x3 x4 Subtract: (I ) 5 ./ = 7·5 in (1): 18 22·5 + y 3(7·5) + r :.22·5 =..184 Foundation topics w ( I) (2) x 2 I x ~ 7·5..on your own. x = 7·5.4·5 C heck in (2): 4x + 2y = 4(75) . Y = 4 ·5 And one more ..Y= 3 (2) 2 IX.4·5 + 2( 4 ·5) :.12y = 69 16x. (1 ) 4x3y= 11 (2) Working as before: x = .12 = 23 .. . .4y = 23 .3y =9 .y = 3 Check in (1): 7x . x = S. x = 7·5 = 18 = 30 .3y = 1J :. Y = 18 .9 = 21 .. ..
. ..y + 2z= 4 2x + 4y .Z= 19 4x.2z = 38 4x . ... (I) and (3): (1 ) x 5 (3) 15x + 1Oy. . e.... ...y + Zz = 4 IOx + 3y = 42 Add : (4) Now take another pair.Z= 19 4x ... .... Example 1 (ill To solve 3x+2y.. y= ...5z = 95 2x+ 4y5z = 32 Subtract: nx + 6y =63 (5) We can now solve equations (4) and (5) for values of x andy in the usual way.g.y + Zz= 4 (1) x 2 (2) (I) (2) 6x + 4y . x = ..5z=32 (I) (2) (3) We take a pair of equations and eli minate one of t he variables using the method in Frame 7: 3x + 2y .Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 185 Simultaneous linear equations with three unknowns With three unknowns and three equations the method of so lution is just an extension of the work with h vo unknowns.
(2) 4x .. x =3 :. .. z=2 x = 3..4 + 2z = 4 2z=4 : .... z= . x = .g... substitute all three values in the other two original equations as a check procedure: ( I ) 3x+2y (3) z = 9+8+2 = 19 . y= 4 Substitutein(4):30 + 3y = 42 : . Example 2 Solve Sx . y = .z = 30 (I ) (2) (3) Work through it in just the same way and. .Sz = 6 + 16 1 . ..... check the results..... .. 2x+ly .so a ll is well. but the methocl is no more d ifficult. Z =2 Finally. Y = 4.. . Here is another. y = 4 (4) (5) 13x+6y = 63 (4) .. .. . as usual. 2 (5) Subtract: 20x+6y = 84 13x + 6y=63 7x = 21 :.3y2z=31 b + 6y + 3z = 4 4x+2y...y + 2z = 12 ..10 =32 The working is clearly longer than with only two unknowns..186 Foundation topics Lill BKause lOx + 3y = 42 X= 3.3y= 12 Then we substitute these va lues in one of the original equations to obtain the value of z: e.. _' .
.y) = 38 4(3x + 2y) . .x + 4y + 9x .2z= 31 8x +4)' . the given equations need to be simplified before the method of solution can be carriEd out...3)' . . Jl x + y = 38 ..". Pre .3y = 38 12x + 8y3x1Sy = ..Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 187 I x= (I) x 3 (2) x 2 5.6 15x .6z = 93 4x t 12y+ 6z= 8 = 101 19x +3)' 5x .. .. Y = 2. . simplification Example 1 Solve the pair of equations: 2{x + 2y) + ] (]x . 9x .".. .7y = ..2z = 60 3x + 7y (4) (1) (3) x 2 29 (5) Solving (4) and (5) and substituting back gives the results above: x = 5. y = 2. .3(x + 5y) = 8 2.8 ( 1) (2) (3) (4) The pair of equations can now be solved in the usual manner. z=6 Sometimes..• y= . Z = ... ..8 x = .9y .
4 20(2x ....4 + 2x . .4  LCM = 12 12(5x +4) 4 4(3y + 2) + 6(4x .I ) 5 (2) For (1) LCM = 20 + 20(x ..y=5 Example 2 2xl xZy 5. y = 5 9(3) .] )+2(x./ 86x :.3y) = 3(Sx + 4) 12y + 8 + 24x .2 4x .+ 2 x+ J w..4y = Sx+5 : ...2y) 10 20(H I ) 4 4(2x .3y 3+ 2 12(3y+2) 5x+4 .2y) ~ 5(x+ I) 8x .18y = ISx + 12 3 ~ 12(4x .7(5) ~ 27 .n (4 )' =258 :.3y) 2 24x ..35 ~ 8 . the simplified equation is (3) lill Because 3y 1. Sx .+ 3y+2 4x3y .6y = 4 (4) (3) (4) Finishing off. 9x . .6y = 4 So we have 5x4y = 9 9x . x=3. .6y +B= lSx + 12 : .188 Foundation topics lill Because (3) x 7 (4) 77x + 7y = 266 9x7y~ 8 Substitute in (3): Check. ..4y = 9 Similarly for (2).. we get X= ' " . Y = ..= 4 ( 1) 5x+4 .3 . . x = ] 33 + Y = 38 : . .
.Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 189 x Because ~ ...4 (3x + 4z) ..2z) + 4(2x . . z= .3(x + 4y . ..Sz) = 16 2(3x . Y ~ . . y = ..14y . Substitution then gives: 244 190 190 5x = 9 + 4y = 9 ."3 19 Sex + 2y) .30y = 20 Subtracting gives 6y = 6 1 so that y = _ 6.. . ... . we get 1_9X + 4y6z = 16 l7x . .16 4(y . .56 Solving this set of three by equating coeffiCients.2(x + 3y .3) . .4y .36y = 81 5 x (9x ~.y) + 3(x .2z) + 2(lx .. Example 3 =.2z =.""6 = .16 x . . we obtain x = . ..6y = 4) gives 45x ..61/ 6 9 x (5x .2z) ~ .30 That was easy enough.4y = 9) gives 45x .3y+ z) = .... ..62 Simplifying these three equations.6 'sox =.16y2z = ..19/ 3.
8x + Yo20 (5) (5) x 23 32 460 Add: 214x = 428 L6 + y = 20 Substitute in (5): Substitute for x and y in (3). 2 .2z=.6z = 16 5 1x .56 16x + 2y 30x .t 4y .9 (2) + 4(4 ) . Y = 4.14y2z=. 4 A linear equation in two variables has an infinite number of solutions. .".190 Foundation topics x = 2.16 x .3 16 (1) (2) (3) .6( .62 .2z = . For two such equations there may be only one solution that satisfi es both of them simultaneously.]6 x .2z=56 .16y . a simple eqllation.16y2z=S6 (1 ) (2) x 3 . x = 2.23y Subtracting: (4) = ~ ~ 40 .64 . 2 3 A linear equatio n in a sing le variable is also referred to a:<.23y = . Simple equations are solved by bolating the variable on one side of the equatio n .42y ./ . Y = 4.6z =48 60x . Simultaneous equations can be solved: (a) by substitution (b) by e limination.23y 184x t.64 30x . Z = .46y = Subtracting: . Here is the working as a check: Z =.' .2z = .3 Lill 1Eil Revision summary lE}J 1 A fincar eqllation involves powers of the variables no higher than the first.3) = 18 + 16 + 18 = 16 .32 (4) (2) (3) 17x.56 x=2 y=4 z+3 1 =28 z=3 Chec k by substituting aU va lues in (1): .9x + 4y 6z= 17x .9x + 4y .
Add 8x to both sides of the equation to give 5 10= 4x so that x =2' zr  .Sx 2 .x.4z) .I X+I_S x + 2 .x .10 = 4x +.2 )(xl ) 1"0 give 3x(x .4x. Add 2x.1) .24 = 6x so that X = (ill 4.4 3 2 5 2 (c) x + 2x=x . (b) X.l )= . therefore x = 22.2y .4(y .I.l _x.2)(x .10 = 2x2 .4(x + 2) 3(x + 5) + (x ..y + 3z=9 x t.4x.14 10 both sides of the equation to give .14.2.z) + (y +. Add 2x2 to both sides to give .5(3x .Sx +.2y) .y = 2 2x +. Simplify to give 8x I 10 = _ 2x2 .2. (c) ~2~ =.x .z) = 2 t (. Simplify to give .2).y ) + (x .3(x+ 2z) ..2z) =1 3(2x .3y = 9 by elimination by substitution (b) 4x+2y ~ 10 3x .2.~" x+ x x Multiply throughout by x(x +. Multiply throughout by 4 to give 2(x . Simplify each s ide to give 2x .y) + 2(3y .4 4 Simplify and solve the following set of simultaneous equations: 2(x I.4 = 18 .1 Solve the following pairs of simultaneous equations: (a) x .3x .I ) .2 .Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 191 Revision exercise 1 Solve the following linear equations: (ill ~ (.1) = 20 . I = 5 _ x!2.10 = . El iminate the brackets to give 3x 2 .4x.x .I ) 5(x l. Eliminate the brackets to give 2x .4x .(x .3z= ..1) (b) x .2x(x +.) 2(x1 ) 4 (X+2 ) ~ 3 (x + 5 )+(xl).5y=1 3 Solve the following set of three equations in three unknowns: x+y + z = 6 2.Zz) = 7 .8 = 3x + I S +.) 2(x .8x +.2(x I.
192 Foundation topics 2 (a) xy=2 lx + 3y ~ 9 2x + 2y = 4 (b) 4x + 2y ~ 10 [1] [2J Multiply [lJ by . Substitute t.4z=10 [51 Mu ltiply this by 4 to give [6] Subtract [6) from [4] to give llz = 33 so 4y .Zz) .2x) = 1.25 = 1 so that x = 2 an d y = 5 4 = 1.y + 3z =9 X+2y .4(y . Work tl/rouSh them at your OMI pace.3 . A list of Can You? q uestions follows for you to gauge yo ur understanding o f the material in the Programme.5(5 .2z) ~ 1 [1[ 3(2x .4z) .9" That is [4) Subtract [1) from (31 to give 4y . A set o f Further prOblems provides addi tion al valuable practice.z) + (y + z) = .4) .7 [ZI .5z = 7 y . Si m pH fy t o g i ve 13x. 2(x + 2y) .2x.40 that z = 3.Zz) = .5(3x .2 = 1.10 + 12 = 2 so from (1). After t hat try the Test exercise.3z = 4 [l[ 4 [21 [31 Add [1/ and (3] and subtract 121 to give (2x+3y .(lxy + 3z) ~ (6 .2 9x+Zz =4 You have now come to the end of this Programme. Substituting this value in [5] gives Subtracting [4) gives .x+2z = 1 /4J 15J 16] Thus Y = .8x = .his value in [5] to give y = . x = 6 . Substitution in [1] gives x = 3 [1] 3x . Substitute this expression for y in [2J t o givc 3x .2 [3J Eliminate the brackets to give .16' S x = S' u stltutlon 4 glVcs 9x + 3y+2z = .3(x + 2z) .y) + 2(3y .(x . You will notice that these questions match the Learning outcomes listed at the beginning so go back and try the Quiz that follows them.3 so that 3 Sb " " In " [I " Z = .1. there is flO need to hurry. 3 x+y + z = 6 2x .5y = 1 [21 Subtract 4x from both sides of rt] and tJlen divide by 2 to give: y = 5 . .7 2y = .y) + (x .16z = .2 Add [21 to give 5y = 5 so that y = 1.
(7x 2 2x+3y ~ + 2)(x + 1) ~ (Sx + l)(x .4y + Zz = 21 5x + Zy3z =4 4 (ITJ toGJ Simplify and solve the following set of simultaneous equations: 4(x + 3y) .2y .Z + X.4 (d) (4x .2 ( 4x + 3z) .4z) + 4(x .3(x .3y) + 5(x .1) .4z) = 11 Z(4x .=x .y .z = s x .z) + 2(x + 3y.S Solve the following linear equations: (a) 4 (x+S) .6(2x + 3) ~ 3(x+ 1 4) .10 [D '"m Solve the fo llowing pairs of simultaneous equations: (al (b) 7 Sx .2) .2z) = 5 .Unear equations and simultaneous linear equations 193 ~ Can You? Frames Checklist F.x) + 9 ~ 1 Frames (b) 2x + 1 _ 2x + 5 = 2 + xI 3 5 6 2 3 5 (c) x .23 3(y + 4Z) + 4(2x .3)(3x . On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident are you that you can: • Solve any lin ear equatio n? Yes 0 0 0 0 o [D oo m No • Solve simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns? y" 0 0 0 0 0 No • Solve simultaneous linear equations in three unknowns? Yes 0 0 0 0 0 No ~ Test exercise F.3y + 2z) .Zy = 8 4x + 2y ~ by substitution by elimination 5 3x+y = 9 Solve the followi ng set of three equations in three unknowns: 2x + 3y .5 Check tlris list before and after YO" try tile end of Ptogramme test.2 ( S .
S.(3x .41 3x + 6y + 2z .70 3x + Zy + Sz = Z Sx + 3y .6y .Zz = 4 Zx .2)(2x .4 .(4x..(Sx .S)(x + I ) (3x.S)(3x .Sy=lO 6:x .6y + 3z =9 2x .4) ~ 6(x .3) .4 lx ..2)(3x + 2) .S 3x .3y + Zz =.S 4x+S x+ 2 7 B:x .3)(S:x + 3) 3:x .1)(x.S Solve the following equations.4:x )(3 + 4:x) = 3(3:x .3z = 14 Sx .~ 5 (3x + 1)(x .2y+z = Z x .+ ~2 x.~ 4.16 teIl ll 12 14 3x + Z x I 2y .3 rz 2y + l x .~ 92:x .7y + Sz =..=:X2 9 10 (3 .2) .7) .(7x + 3)(x + 2) 6 3+8~64 3:x .3z = S 2xy + 3z =20 x .(9x .Sy .4 .s x+ S x.3y+Zz = 1 2:x + y .194 Foundation topics ~ Further problems F.= 1O ~ 15 .7 x+ 7 .3) + (S  4x)(S +4x ) ~ (3x .4y = 11 2 S 7 8 :X + 3 +X.1) ~ 16 .(S:x .S)' 4x + 7 :x .+.S .2  x.z = .7 :x + 6 3 3.S S:x + Z 2:x + 3 :x + S 4 2+6. numbered 1 to 15: 1 2 (4x + S)(4x .2)(:x + 1) .3y 3x+l .
6 3x .x. solve the fo llowing equatio ns for x+ y x.y and v..Y 7.6 2 2x .y 6 15 ...OA x2y x + y 20 Solve: 4 7 ....Unear equations and simultaneous linear equations 16 Simplify each side separately and hence determine the solutio n: 195 x .= .y 7 +2 Y =x + 4 18 Writing u for II and v for ~ 8 1 .3xS 3 Solve the simultaneous equatio n s: 2x l.= 4.2y x... 8xy + ~7 1 2 x + 8y 8x .y) 3 7 =~.+ 9 x+ 1 4(2 .+~ 7 2{x + l ) 2..I x.4. and hence determine the values of x and r:  ~ 8 x+8y 2  I ..3 x .= O·S .y ~ 19 Solve the pair of equations: x2y x+y 12 9 .2 x4 x..
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t about tl!eSf. completing the square and by fo rmula • Solve cubic eq uations with at least one li near factor • Solve q uarric equations with at least t wo Iillear (a(.' wily 1101 try tile (Juiz oller tIJe page? You call check your a llswers at tile elld of t" c book.. 197 .Programme F.tOI5 ff you already feel cOIJfider.6 Polynomial equations Learning outcomes Frames (J] to rnJ Whell YOIl have completed this Progmmme you wilt be able to: • Solve quadratic equations by factors.
~ Quiz F.9 (EltoCill =0 [!!]to(E1 @)tomJ Solve fo r x: 2x4 _ 9il + 12x2 _ 3x .6 ~ 1 Solve x by facto rizing: 6x z 13x + 6 = O Frames [DtoGJ [!) to CITJ 2 Solve for x (accurate to 3 d p) by completing the square: 3x2 I 4x _ 1 = 0 Solve x (accurate to 3 dp) by using the fo rmula: xl3x+l=O 4 Solve fo r x: x 3 _ 8x 2 + 18x .2 = 0 198 .
we evaluated the polynomial expression . We start with quadratic equaUo ns. :. On IJOW to tile secol1d frame Quadratic equations.4x21 = 0 .le looked at polynomial equations. a. For example.+ bx+ c = 0 1 Solution by factors w We dealt at some length in Programmes F. By way of revision. YOli can solve the following equatiOns with no trouble: (a) x2 . The equation 2 x + 5x .K. In particular we selected a value for the variable x in a polynomial expression and found the resulting value of the polynomial expression.9x + 18 = 0 (b) x2 + 11x +28 = 0 (c) x2+ 5x24 = 0 (d) x2 .e.3 V.14 = O.14 can be factorized into (x + 7)(x . In o ther words. then. x 2 + Sx .Polynomial equations 199 Polynomial equations In Programme F. where such factors exist. x = . x + 7 = 00rx2 = 0 I.3 with the representation o f a quadratic expression as a product of two simple linear factors.70rx = 2 are the solutions of the given equation x2 + 5x .2).2 and F.14 = 0 can therefore be written in the form: (x + 7 )( x2) ~O and this equation is satisfi ed if either factor has a zero value. Iiere we reverse the process by giving the polynomial expression a value of zero and finding those values o f x which satisfy the resulting equation.
c = 20 and (b 2 . Fo r example. b = .mtten as the product of nvo simple linear factors. simple Uncar factor:<. ax 2 + bx+c = 0.4ac) is . the factorization process is a trifle more involved.b = 8.. . a = 2.4orx = ..e. But with xZ + 8x + 20.4 x 1 x 20 = 64 . On to the next frame CD If th e coefficient of the X Z te rm is o ther than unity. . . but follows the routine already established in Programme F..5 ) =9+40=49=7 2 simple factors exist..3. Remember that the t est for the availability of factors with ax 2 + bx + c is to calculate whether (tr .. .5 = 0 In this case.8 (d) x = 7 or x = 3 Not all quadratic expressions can be factorized as two simple linear factors..Z. a perfect square The test should always be applied at the begining to see whether.. So x2 + 8x + 20 cannot be . .5.  (a) Test for simple factors: (b2 _ 4ac) = (_ 3 )2 _ 4 x 2 x (.7 (e) x = 3 or x = ..16.exist.. . in fact. 22 I So x 2 + 8x + 15 can be written as the product of two simple linear factors. c = .. You will remember the method. with x2 + 8x + IS. w 4.4ac) = 8 2 . .80 = . (b2 ..... Example 1 To solve 2x 2 3x .. . a = 1. which is not a perfect square. i.4ac) = .200 Foundation topics w I (a) x = 3 or x= 6 (b) x = .
4oc).b = 14. 3xz + 14x+8 = :uZ + 2x + 12x + 8 = 0 = x (3x + 2 ) + 4(3x + 2) = 0 ~(3x + 2 )(x + 4) ~ O x + 4 = Oor 3x + 2 = O: . so always test to begin with by evaluating (b 2 . facto rs add up to I b I.e. Possible facto rs of 10 are (1.5 = 0 : . Required factors are (2. (2. 5)..... .. simple factors exist.e...provided that simple linear factors exist..'.....Polynomial equations 201 (b) loci = C 10. the equation: 3x2+14x + 8=0 has solutions x = .e. 6).5 = 2xz + 2x .'.. x + l=00r2x . ...96 = 100 = IOZ = perfect square. .. 5) c is negative: :. .10) and (2. .e.'. 3 :. i. facto rs are of different sign. factors differ by Ibl. . x =. Possible factors of 24 are (1.5(x + 1) ~ (x + l)(a5) The equation 2X2 . is negative: : . Solve the eq uation 4x2....5 = 0 becomes (x + 1)(2x . 2x 2 3x.j' Bccause3xZ+ 14>: + 8 = 0 2 CiJ a =3.Sx .. . .. or x = . 8) and (4..40rx = 3 2 They are all done in the same way .16x + 15 = O x= . (2.4 x 3 x 8 = 196 . x= 1 0rx = 2'S Example 2 In the same way. both factors have same sign as b. . 24).. negative. mx = . Ioc I = 24...5 = 2x(x + 1 ). i. positive. (3. . i. the numerically larger having the sign of b. . :. 14 .40rx= . i.3x .c = 8 Test (or simple factors: (if 4ac) = 142 ..5) = 0 :. c is positive: . 12). .. 12) c is positive: . Here is another: work right through it on your own. x = .
:. v'f3 = 3 ± 3·6056 :.4ac) = 36 . (iJZ ..4 = O Add 4 10 both sides: x 2 .. . Remember to induuc lhe Iwo slgn:..4 = 0 G = x = 2 orx =2" 3 5 Solution by completing the square We IHlve already seen that some quadratic equat ions are incapable of being factOtizLxI into t wo simple factors. No simple factors.4 x 1 x (.6. the square o f half the coeffiCient o r x xll...Sx + 42 = 5+4 2 xl+ Sx+ 16 = .4.. I .0 ·606 w Now this one.3 = ±m. Not a perfect square.3f = 4 + (_3)2 xl . First we lake the constant term to the right·hitnd side: )('I. X x = 3± = 6·606 or x _ .3)' ~ 13 )( .202 Foundation lopics w 2 Solve)l. Solve Xl +8x + 5 = 0 by the method of completing the square. finally getting: X = .6)( . a noth er method of solution must be employed ..+ 8x + 5 = 0 x'i 8x ~ 5 Then we add to both sides . orx =.5 + 16 = 11 {X+ 4 )2 = 11 And now we can finish it off.6x + 9 = 4+9 = 13 (x .. The following example will sllow tile proccuure.2 . b = .4) = 36 + 16 = 52.. c = . So: x2 6x .6x = 4 Ad d to each side the square of half the cocffid cnt o f x: XZ _ 6x + (. In such cases. .
x = 0·622 or x = . .. (x / 2·5)2 = 9·75 One more... x = 0·622 or x = 5 . .3·5 = 0 \Ve then proceed as before.3·5 = 0 x2 :.0·683 orx= 7. x=0·1970r x = 3·803 011 to the next topic . .Polynomial equations 203 Ix= . OIX = . . .2 )2 = 3·25 x . . x = 2·5 ±3·122 :.5·622 :.. which finally gives: x= . x= . ... . x=2 ± 1·803 : . .... I x = 0·197 or Because X= 3·803 4x2 16x+3 = 0 :... r + 5x = 3'5 + 5x + 2..5 2 = 3·5 +. orx = .317 1 If the coefficient of the squared term is not unity... x +2·5 = ±v9'75 = ± 3·122 :.... . . the first step is to divide both sides of the equation by the existing coefficient.622 Because (ill 1 x 2 + 5x . x 2 _ 4x = . ..6·25 = 9·75 :. . Solve the equation ~ .2 =± J 3·25 = ± 1·8028 :.0 ·75 2 x _ 4x + (_2)2 = 0'75 + (_2)2 x2  4x+4 = 0'75 + 4 = 3·25 (x .. (ill For example: 2x 2 + 10x  7= 0 Dividing throughout by 2: x2 + 5x .16x + 3 = 0 by completing the square.
~ a a We tJlen <ldd to each side the square of half the coefficient of x: X2+ ~X + (1). a: X2+~X + ~ = O a a Subtracting £ from a each side gives Xl +~x = . .±"'"== 2a 2a Ta:::c . For QxZ + bx+c+O x= . b = . a '' c x =.4 Har.204 Foundation topics (ill 3 (lX z Solution by fonnula We can establish a formu la for the solution of the general quadratic equation + bx + c = 0 which is based on the method of completing the square: ax 2 + bx t.c = O Dividing throughou t by the coeffici ent of x. Make a note of the formula: it is imlJOrtol1t [ill As an example. we shall solve the equation 2x 2 Here a = 2..b± vii' 2a 4ac x 3± J 9 3 ± 6403 4 4x2. to reme m ber the formu la..4 <lnd x  3x .c"fJ2.. b and c fo r any particular quad ratic equation gives the solutions of tile equation. i..) 2=_~+ a 2a a2ll (1)..4ac _ 4a z . C = ....± !!.bx + c = O.4 = O. . ..4  3±J4f 4 9·403 x = . of course.X = 211 Substituting the values of a.b ± . bJi2Ji2c a 40 2 4a 2 a b)' V'4ac ( x + 2n = 402 X+ 2a . .± J1J2 2n 4ac b v" V'4 . ... _ jh2 .3.)' x z + x + ~.( 4) 4 3 ·403 4 Of 3±V9+TI 4 .t. You need. .e.0·851 or x = 2·35 I It is just a case of careful substitution.
and the evaluation of the polynomial funclions by nesti ng_ These we can now reapply to the solution of cubic equa tions_ So move UII to the " cxt frame (or :.9 = 0 (a) x = .0728 or x = 2 061 At this stage of our work. we can with advantage bring together a number of the items that we have studied earlier_ Solution of cubic equations having at least one linear fador in the algebraic expression In Programme r. (a) 5x z + I2x + 3 = 0 Ie) xl + 15> .Polynomial equations 205 b± J/i' 2" As an exercise.15453 .0283 = (b) x 0 465 or x = 2869 lcl x (d ) x = = 0 453 or x = . with application of the re mainder theorem and factor theorem .ome examples .3.7 ~ 0 (b) 3x2lOx + 4 = 0 (d) 6x 2 8x . we dealt with the factorization of cubic polynomials. use the form ula me thod to solve the following.211 7 or x = .
.x2 7x + 4 = O. (x . (x = k) which &>ives a zero remainder on division by (x ..1) = . . Because 2x2 ....2 = 0 or z..1) is not a factor of ((x) « . ((2) . x = 2 and the quadratic equation can be solved in the usual way giving x= . ..8 = 0 The first step is to find a linear factor of the cubic expression: ((x ) ~ Ox' . . which is .2 12x _ l1 x2 +18x . ..ll x' + 18x . . .8 Now we seek a value for x. .7x + 4) and the cubic cquCltion is now written: (x2)( lx' 7x + 4 )~ O wh ich gives x ..k). we first write { (x) in nested form: ((x) ~ I(lx .11 )x + 181 x.2) is a fac tor o f «x) We therefore di'\ide {(Xl by (x .39:.206 Foundation topics Example 1 To solve the cubic equation: z.'.8 by appHcation of the remainder theorem.I ) is nota factor of ((x) f(2 ) = 0 . (x .8  f(x) = (x  2)(zxZ .. orx = . ((1 ) = 1 :.. (( 1).8 2.(3  4x2 7x 2 + 18x 7)(2 + 14x 4x 8 4)( . (x .. . etc.xJ _ llx2 1 .. We therefore evaluate f(l).. .18x ..7x + 4 3 x . . . To facilitate the calculation.2) to determine the remaining factor. ... . _. .
. .r7x+4 = 0 ~ 4 7 ± v1J7 4 7±4·1231 4 4 2·8769 11· 1231 or 4 :. . .Polynomial equations 207 I x = 0·719 or x = 2·781 2. . .. .. . ((1 )= 32 : ..11. x = 2·78 1 The whole method depends on the given expression in the equation having at least one linear factor... ((x) ~ [(3x + 12)x + 13[x + 4 Now evaluate ( ( I ). .. x = 0·719. by long division . x = 0 ·719 or x = 2·781 ~ . Then. . Example 2 Solve the equation 3x 3 + 12x2 + 13x + 4 = 0 First. . in nested form ((x ) = . .8 = 0 has the solutions x = 2. . . ((I ). .il + 12x2 + 13x + 4 = 0 can be written so that (x + l }(3xz + 9x + 4) = 0 x+ l = Oor3x z +9x+ 4 = 0 which gives x = . Here is another. ( (2).. . or x = . .. 13x2 +9X+4i The equation 3. .r + 18x . the remaining factor of ((x) . (xI ) is nota factor of f(x) rH) ~··· · · · · · · (x + 1) is a facto r o f ((x) .s .lor x = .
24 ((2) = 0 ..3·2554 .lOx .1O = 0 8 ± v264 10 0825 m 2425 x = .20 « ..0·5426 = The complete solutions of 3x3 + lZX2 + 13x + 4 x = .20 .9 ± 5·7446 .26x .IO )= 0 :. x +2 = Oor5xlBx .261 x . .... mx = .2 or x = 0·825 or x = 2·425 Next frame .26x &x 2 _ 16x .H57 0' > ~ 05431 =  9 ± v 81 48 9 ± JTI 6 6 ..1. x = ... (x 1 ) is not a factor of ((xl (x+ l ) is not a faclor of {(X) : .26> .26x .14·7446 6 or 6 6 2·4574 or .2) is not a factor of ( (x) (x + 2) is a factor of ((xl: 8x . ..2 or x = 0·825 or x = 2·425 Here is the working.. x = 0·543 And now one more... .1O 5x 2  > + 215'" + 2x' . (x .208 Foundation topics ® 1> ~ . ...20 = 0 Working through the method step by step. mx= . just as a check: ((x) = 5x3 + 2>:2 .20 = 0 (( 1) = 39 ((x) = [(5x + 2)x .1)= 3 ((2) = .. 0 are Example 3: Solve the equation 5x 3 + 2x2 .20 ((x) = (x+2 )(5x2 8x .lOx .. . x =20rx 8 ± v64 + 200 :.. x = 2·457.20 Sx:i + IOxl .8x 2 . as before: x = ..
2)(4x' . f(I) = 0 : .Polynomial equations 209 Solution of quartic equations. or 4x2 _ 7x .(f 4" .S) ((x ) ~ (x . (x + l ) isnotafactorofF{x ) (x . (x. x=2.7x .I Sx2 x. having at least two linear fadors in the algebraic fundion The m e thod here is practically the same as that for solving cubic equations which we have just considered. (x . express the polynom ial in nested form: ((x ) ~ {[(4x .' .5) ~ 0 :.l l4. F(x) F(x) ~ Il4x .15 )x =0 F( l ) = 8 F(2) + 9]x + 10 :. x = 2·295 Now let us deal with aIJother example . x = 2. ((2) etc.J9x3 + 24x2 + + 9x + 10 x . : .7x . Example 1 To solve the equation 4x4 .7x .2) by long division gives (4x2 .l )(x .lSi! .S = 0 Solving the quadratic by formula gives solutions x = 0'545 or x = 2·295.l SXl + 24.19 )x + 24]x + l} x .1) =.1)(4xl .2)(4.5): F(x ) ~ (x .10  4x" . Le.l ) isafactorof f(x) : 4XS .2) is a factor of F(x) F(.'o simple linear factors o f ((x ).10 lOx 10 { (x ) = (x .18 =0 Division of F(x) by (x .19x 3 + 24x2 + X  10 =0 (a) As before.x2 + I Sx2 9x2 + x 9x2 . x = 0'S4S. x = 1. An example will reveal all.9x lOx . x= 1.]5x 2 + 9x + 10) = 0 x = 1 or 4xl1Sx 2 + 9x + 10 = 0.1) is not a factor of F(x ) :.10 (b) Determine (O ). The only difference is t hat we h ave to find n. {( 1 ).
x 10 :::1: ".4).... . (x + I) isafactoroff(x): 2x3 _ 6x 2 ...17Jx + 6 0. x =2.. x = 0·321. x = 4·679 Because (x+l) is not a factor of F(x) F(2 ) = .e.100 4 24 10 ± V76 4 1O ± 8·7178 1·2822 18·7178 4 or 4 4 = 0 ·3206 or 4'6794 x = l. . .1. (x . I x = ....17x2  11x 17x 6>: + 6 6>: + 6 ((x ) = (x + 1)(Zx'  6x'  17x+ 6) ~ 0 = X= lor 2x" 6xZ17x+6 F(x) ~ J(2x .llx + 6 =0 ((x) ~ {[(2x .36 . . (x .l) = 15 +.". i.lOx + 3) { (x ) = (x + l )(x + 2)(2x' . .1) is not a factor of F(x) Now you can conlinue and finish it off: x =l. x = 2.23J.17x2 .. x = .1) is not a factor of ((x ) .15 .23x2 l1x + 6 _ 2x4 + 2x3 _ 6x 3 23x2  _ 6x 3 _ 6x 2 .. .2.6)x .210 Foundation topiC5 li!J Example 2 Solve 2X4  4x 3  23x2 .2) is not a factor of F(x) F(2) = 0 . .". X= ... (x .. . .2) by long division gives: = (x + 2)(2x 2 .lOx + 3) ~ 0 x = . F(x ) = 0 F(l ) = .. . .. x = .. (x + 2 ) isa faclorofF(x) Division of F(x) by (x F(x ) F( ." .". x=4·679 .l1)x + 6 ((1) = .17x +6 x+ l J2x 4  4x3 .30 ((1)=0 .. x =0·321.
2) =0 Solving the quadratic by formula gives x = Z·8968 or x = O·Z:·m I :.2 + 12}x . .3x3 5x 3 5x 3 _  15x 2 5x2 . .2 2x 2 • • ((x) = (x . (x 1 ) is a factor of F(x ): 3x 2 + 8x2 x . . x = .0 . x = 0·230 A ll correct? .1)(3x3 + 5X2 _10X + 2) = (x . so you will have no tTouble: x = . .0 + 5x 2 lOx + 2 x .I ) x F(x ) = 0 F(x ) = [(3x + 5)x ..Polynomial equations 211 Example 3 Solve ((x ) = 0 when ((X ) = 3x" + zx3  15x2 + 12x . . x = .1 13x3 3x3 + 5x 2 lOx + 2 _ 3X2 8x 2 8x 2  lOx ax  2x +2 2x + 2 • ((x ) = (x .15x 2 = + 1lx .I )(x .I 13. Ix = I..2·897. x = 1. taking the same steps as before. There are no snags.2 {[( 3x + 2 )x 15]x Now you can work Uuough the solution. x = 1.1.JOX2 + lOx 2x .101 x+2 F(I ) = 0 :..2 (x ) = 3x 4 + 2x3 ..0 + ~ . :. (x 1 ) is a factor of (x ): till 3..15x 2 + 12x . x = 0·230 I Because (1 ) = 0.IOx 2 + llx ..2·897.2 3. x = 1.1(3x2 + 8x .
] 3x2 ..212 Foundation topics lliJ Finally.. (ill x = . Division of ( (x) by (x + 1) gives: (x + 1)( 2x3 {(xl = + x 2 . Ex.3·137 The methods we have used for solving cubic and quartic equations have depended on the inHial fmding of one or more simple factors by application of the remainder theorem. x Here is an outline of the solution: = 0 ·637.4).0 + X2 .2 )(2x 2 + Sx .4) ~ 0 Solution of the quadratic by formula shows x = 0·637 or x = 3·137..14]x + 8 F(2) = 0 :.6x + 8 ~ {l1 2x +3)X 13l x . Work through it using the same method as before. x = .2)(Zx' t.. ((x) ~ (x+ l)(x .J4x + 8) = (x + 1) x F(x ) F(x ) =2. (x + l ) isafactoroff(x).0 .14x + 8 = [( 2x + l )x . .I. . x = . x = 2. There are. (x .13x2 .2) is a factor of F(x)..Sx . Division of F(x ) by (x . x = 0·637. many cubic and quartic equations which have no simple factors and other methods of solution are necessary.6}x+ 8 ((1) = 0 :. however.. one more for good measure.2) gives F(x ) = (x ...ample 4 Solve the equation zx4 + 3x3 . These are more advanced and will be dealt with later in the course..6x + 8 = 0 x = . x = 2..3·137 { (x) = 2x4 + 3. x = l.
4ac). (e) ((x ) ~ 0 :. :.4ac) is a perfect square.k ) to obtain the remaining cubic expression . Cubic equations . Then (x ) = (x . (x .: 40C .including both signs. (b) Divide by (x . X = Xl 3 Qllmtic eqllatiom .m)(ax l bx + c) = 0 X = XI :. giving: (x . and x = Xl_ . (b) Solution by completing the square (i) Remove the constant term to the RHS.k )(ox l \. to obtain two values for x.e the square root of each side . (iv) Simplify the resuJts to find the values of x. simple linear factors exist. (ii) Add to both sides the square of half the coefficient of x.Polynomial equations 213 E Revision summary lEl 1 Quadratic equations ox l + bx + c = 0 (a) Soll/tion by (OctlJrs @ Test for availability of factors: evaluate (Jil . (e) By long division.k) x F(x) \ ~ 0 :.e. x = k.bx + c = 0 can be solved by the usual methods.with at least two linear factors. x ~ k or F(x) ~ O. x = Xl. (iii) Ta(. (d) The cubic F(x ) is now solved as in section 2 above. (b) Apply the remainder theorem by substituting values for x until a value. (x .bx \. Then x = k..with at least one linear factor (a) Rewrite the polynomial function . x = 111. determine the remaining quadratic factor of f(x). X = III and axl \.c = O giving the four solutions x = k. x = k. Then (x . there are no simple linear faClors. If (lJl . in nested form. (a) Find the first linear factor as in section 2 above.4oc) is not a perfect square.b ± 2 J. (C) Solutiotl by formliia Evaluate x = . x = k. gives zero remainder. and ax l \. This completes the square on the LHS. i.k) is a factor of ((x).c) = O.k) x F(x ) where F(x) is a cubic. ((Xl. If the value of (11 .bx \.
(4/ 3)x ~ 2/ 3 x2 _ (4/ 3 ». So that (b 2 .5x2 + 7x . 8) and (4. 8) C is negative .Z = O 2 Solve for x (accurate to 3 dp) by completing the square: 3x2 4x . 12).. Possible factors of 24 arc (1. factors differ by I b I = 5 .(2/ 3) = O.5x .2/ 3 ~ 0 x' .2 = 12x2 . 4.. That is x = ..4ac) = 9 16 I..1) = 0 or (3x .2 = 4x (3x . b = .2=0 S Solve for x: x4 + x 3 _2x 2 _x+l = 0 Lill 1 12x2Sx2=0 Here. c is negative . Required factors are (3.2) I. factors of different sign.(3x . (2. (3. C = 2.4ac) = ( _ 5)2 . 24).2 = 0.2=0 3 Solve for x (accurate to 3 dp) by using the formula: x 2 _3x + 1 =0 4 Solve for x: xl . c = .c = O where a = 12. b = 5.4 x 1 x 3" = 9 2 40 .1/ 4 or x = 2/ 3.8x + 3x . the numerically larger having the same sign of h. therefore: 12x2 _ Sx . (b) = 121 lac l = 24 .2 / 3)' ~ 10/ 9 So that )( .214 FoundaUon topics Revision exercise 1 Solve for x by factori zing: lzx2 . Here a = 1.2/ 3 = ± y' 1O/ 9 giving x = 2/ 3 ± J lO/9 = 0·6667 ± 1·0541 to 4 dp.2) = O.Z) ~(4x+ l )(3x2) ~ O 2 3x2  So that (4x I.2/ 3. that is negative... axl + bx /.not a perfect square so we proceed by completing the square: x'  (4 / 3 )x . 6) ." + (2/ 3 )2 = 2/ 3 + (2/ 3)2 x'  (4/ 3 )x + 4/ 9 ~ 10/ 9 (x .. Therefore x = 1·721 or x = 0·387. (a) Test for factors: (tr .4/ 3.(4/ 3}x . lhat is x 2 . ..[4 x 12 x (2)] = 2S + 96 so that factors exist.: .
c = 1 where: x ~ _:: b=±c: '.2 so ((2 .l = O.1)1+ 1 ~ 0 and ((1) ~ ((([.2 )(X2 .Sx 2 + 7x .l) giving the solution of x4 + xl_ 2x2 .2 )x .1·618. Here a = I .l )(x I.3x + 1) = O.2:<2 . Now (x . b = .S)x ((2) ~ + 7)x . After that try the Test exercise.3.2x2 .2 ~ 0 Thus x . x = 0 ·618 or x = .x + 1 =0 as x = ±1.7x . So.1 and: x 2 +xl so that X4 + Xl . A set of Further problems provides additional valuable practice.2 x21x+l x 2 That is Xl . Work througll them at your own pace.l )x+l so ((1 ) ~ (((1 + 1)1 .X I.l )x .618 or 0 . To find the othe[ two we first need to divide the cubic by this factor: SX2 I.:: a :: c so that x 3 ± v'9=4 2 3 ± v'5 = 2.I)(X2 + X.2 = O.3x + ] = O.I and x + 1 are factors of ( (x).1 =( ((x I.2)1 .1] + 1 ~ 0 Thus x . the complete solution is x = 2.382 2 4 Xl  sx2+ 7x .2 = « x .1) = x2 . Xl Let ((x ) = X4 + Xl .Polynomial equations 3 215 Xl .2 is a factor of { (xl and so x = 2 is a solution of the cubic.I] + 1)(1] . ..x + l = (x2 .: :o_4 .2 = (x . tllere is no need to lIurry. . You have now come to the end of this Programme. from the previous question . 5 x4 + xl _ 2x2 _ X I.1)]. You will notice that these questions match t he Learning outcomes listed at the begining of t he Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them. = Xl  Let ( (x) Sxl + 7x . A list of Can Vou? questions foltows for you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme.2)].1]. x = 2·6180 or x = 0·3820 to 4 dp.5)2 + 7)2 ..
6 = 0 .6 Check this list before YOIl try the end of Programme test.G Solve the following equations by the method of factors: (a) x 2 + 11x + 18 = O (d) 2x 2 + 13x + 20 = 0 (b) xl .26x + 24 = O Frames ~ 1 2 Solve the following by completing the square: (a) 2x 2 . completing the square and by fonnula? frames CD to OIl Q!]tol2!J Yes Yes Yes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DO DO DO No No • Solve cubic equations with at least one linear factor? • Solve quartic equations with at least two linear factors? GDtoCEJ No ~ Test exercise F.t3 + Ilx l + 6x3 = O Solve the quartic equation: 4x4 18xl + Z3x 2 .3x .4x .5 = O CEJtoOIl 4 Solve the cubic equation: z.13x + 42 = 0 (e) 3Xl + Sx 12 = 0 (c) xl + 4x21 = O (f) 5x 2 .3x .9x4 = O l (b) 6x . On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident arc you that you call: • Solve quadratic equations by factors.3 = O (c) 3xl + 12x18 = 0 (b) SxZ + lOx + 2 = O ITJtolJIJ ~ 3 Solve by means of the formula: (a) 4x2 + 11x + Z=O (c) 5x 2 .216 Foundation topics ~ Can You? 00 Checklist F.
14x2 + 7x2 = O (b) 4x 3 + 7x 2 (e) 3x3 2x 2 .Polynomial equations 217 l.17x 1.7x+3=O (e) Sx 2 + 2 Solve the foll owing: (d) 7x 2 +4x .tSx + 7 = O (08x 2 + 1lx .5 = O 21x .6x 3 .29x + 6 =0 (e) 4X4 .6x .4S = O (a) 4X2 ..3 = O (d) 2x 3 + 4x 2 _ 3x _ 3 = O Solve the following cubic equations: (a) Sx3 1.33x 2 + 31x + 1O = 0 (e) 3x 4 .J7x2 .12 = 0 4 (d) 2x + 14x3 1.12 = 0 (f) 5x 4 12xl _6x 2 I.17X 6 = O (f) 4).3x 40 = O (c) x2 + lOx +24 = O 2 (b) x .Sx6 = O (b) 3x 2 1.1O = O (e) 4x 3 + 2x 2 .1lx + 28 = O (d) x24x .30x2 + 41x .3 = 0 _3x 3 .S=O 8x + 2 = O (e ) 6x 2 .6 ~ l Solve the following by the method of factors: (a) x 2 1.17x + 6 = O 4 Solve the foll owing quartic equations: (a) 2x 4 4x3 _ 21x 2 _ 11x + 6 = O (b) 5x 4 + 8x 3  8x 2 8x I.25x 2 + 44x 1.i Further problems F..16r + 37x 2 .6 = U (g) 2x4 .
.
about these why 1101 try tlte quiz oYer lite page? You am check your answers at I1le eud of the Ix.!'J'Ogramme F.HJk.7 Partial fractions Learning outcomes Wilen YO" have completed tili" Programme yOIl will be able to: Frames OJ'"CID • Factorize the denominator of an algebraic fraction into its prime factors • Separate an algebraic fraction into its parti al fracti ons • Recognize the rules of partial fraction s If you already feel confide". 219 .
1(2+ 8x+ l2 .1)' 2x3 .7 Express each of the following in partial fraction form: Frames ~ 1 3x+9 ..S.~ Quiz F.. + 13 (x + 4)2 ~ S 220 .2+ X + 1 mtoQ] mtoCEJ 2 x 2+3x + 2 7X2+ 6x + 5 (X + l )(X2 + X + l ) ~ 3 4 CEJtocrD IEJ tofEJ [Dto CEJ 5x + 6 (x .
) . So. . That is...lx (x3)(x1 ) In practice.~ + ~ the LCM 2 3 1 5 .4x + l Z (x 3)(x 1) lO . lx2 ..15 + 10 20 3 20 In just the same way.2x (x3)(x .. we fi rst convert th e individual fractions to a new form having a common denominator which is t he LCM o f t he individual denominators. )(. the reverse process is often required."4 + 2 of the denominators.1).1) ... ..3) (x 3)(x 1) ~ 3 . with x "n lercfore: 2(x . algebraic fracti ons ca n be combined by converting them to a new denominator which is the LCM of the individual den ominators... 5. 4 and 2. For example..6x + 8 into its partial fractions we m ust first facto rize the denominator Into its prime factors. With ~ .... .. . presented with a somewhat cumbersome algebraic fraction there is a need to express this as a number of simpler component fractions. 8 .x ~ l ' the LCM of the denominators is (x  3 )(x . From the previous e xample: 2 4 10. You can do this: x2 _ 6x + 8 = (.Partial fractions 221 Partial fradions To simplify an arithmetical expression consisting of a number of fractions. What fo llows describes how t hese partia l fractions can be obtained from the original fraction. . To separate: 8x . 01/ to the next frame Let us consider a simple case and proceed ste p by step...28 x2 . .1) x3x .l Th e two simple fractions on the le fthand side arc called the partial fractions of the expression on the righthand side.4(x . is 20.
.2 ) x2 6x + 8 (x .2) (x 8x . .x. equating the numerators we find that .. We shall now show that t his assumption is valid by finding the values of A and B.4) + B(x  4) 2) is an identity because the RHS is just an alternative way of writing the LHS.:28 x' 6x + 8 (x 8x .4) + B(x . It is convenient to choose a value of x that makes one of the brackets zero. .. First we add the two partial fractions on the RHS to give: (x 8x . . Next frame ax  28 == A (x  4) + B(x .2) x 2 +x . .. .28 2)(x 4) TIle answer is in the next frame w Because The equation x 2 8x . . because the denominator on the RHS is an alternative way of writing the denominator on the LHS. . For example: Letting x = 4 gives B = .28 2 )(x 4) We now assume that each simple factor in the denominator gives rise to a single partial fraction.28 6x + 8 2 )(x 4) (x 2)(x A(x . That is. we assume that we can write: 8x .2)(x4) 8).. Consequently. .222 Foundation topics w Therefore: (x . the same must be true of the numerators.4 = (x 2 )(x 4) + 7:( x:''2 "'):7:( X ::'4 ") ' A (x .2)(x4 ) A B Alx ..2) Because this is an identity it must be true for all vaJues of x...Z8 (x 2) (x 4) A B +.2 x4 where A and B are constants.28 A (x .4) B(x ..4) + B(x . Also.
12 = ZA giving A = 6.Partial fradions 223 w Because 32 . If. . however. _ 3 in partial fractions. one important proviso that has not been mentioned: To effect tile partial (raction breakcloW11 o( a rational algebraic expression it is lIocesSl1ry (or tile degree o( t/le numerator to be fess tllon tile degree of the denominator. . The remainder can then be broken down into its partial fractions. Example 1 w x2 + 3x . in the original algebraic rational expression. . .2 2 x. . Therefore: 8x 28 (x 2)(x 4) ~ .+ 6 x. .28 = A(2) + 8(0) so that .. .'e d. There is. .1O Express xl _ 2:x.28 = A(O) + B(Z) so that 4 = ZB giving B = Z. .ivide out by long division. This gives a polynomial with a rational remainder where the remainder has a numerator with degree less than the denominator.4 the required partial fraction breakdown. A=6 w Because 16 . The first consideration is . This example has demonstrated the basic process whereby the partial fractions of a given rational expression can be obtained. Similarly if we let x = 2 then A = . . the degree of the numerator is not less than the degree of the denominator then y.. In the followi ng frames we consider some examples of this type..
.7 = A (O)+ B(4) Similarly. . As was said previously. which gives . . lill 5x ..3): 5x . ...7 = .7 x 2 + 3x . we get . 8 = 2 15 . ..". L® x 2 + 3x .3) + B(x + l ) I == A(x ... 8 = 48 . So if we put gel . . . if we substitute x = .IO x2 Zx 3 1 + X2 5x .7 I A(x . ..3) + B(x + I ) is an identity. .224 Foundation topics w X2 Is the numerator of lower degree than the denominator? No. Therefore the statement is true for any value of x we choose to substitute.1.7 (x + l ){x3 ) A B x+l + x3 Multiplying both sides by the denominator (x + l )(x .. .... . it is convenient to select a value for x that makes one of the brackets zero..1O x2 2x 3 I (x+l)(x3) 5x ... .7 + :::"i='o" (x+ I l(x 3) The remaining fraction wiJl give partial £Tactions of the fonn: 5x .. J.. since the RH5 is the LHS merely written in a different form.10 2x ... so we have to divide out by long division: 1 x22x ~3 I x2+3x ...: = 3 in both sides of the identity. . . .e. .3 Sx ..7 2x 3 Now we factorize the denominator into its prime factors.. it is not. . we @j i.
. collecting our results together: 5x7 5x 7 1 . Z 5 6 m partia l fractions.Partial fractions 225 . .xl 2x 3 1 + (x + l )(x 3) 3 2 = 1 + . to divide the numerator by the denominator since the n ume rator is not of lower degree than that of the de nominator. 3 x+ 1 2 x. . Bx + 19 (x + 2)(x + 3) so the form of the partial fractions will be .+ x+ l x .."""' 2" )(:ex"+' 3 ") it off: A n +x+2 x+3 You can now multiply both sides by the denominator (x + 2)(x + 3) and fini sh 2x 2 /. . .e.. ..4A A=3 5x. .3 So.. 8x + 19 x2 +5x + 6 2+ x2+ 5x+ 6' Now we attend to Xl + 5x + 6' Factorizing the denominator.1& + 31 x2+ 5x +6 .. . we have . +x+2 . x + x+ The first step is . . "(x :. 2x2+1Bx+31 Bx + 19 I .7 (x + l)(x .3) xZ+ 3x1O x2 2x 3 + .3 Example 2 Express 2xZ + 18x+3 1 .12 = . .. 8x + 19 A B x+ 3 I. .
+ 5x+2 x+3 So move on to the next frame Express 3x 3 _x 2 _ 13x_13 x 2 x 6 in partial fractions. + 3x2 x2 + 2x 54x + 50 24 . Applying the rules.IS =A(5) + B(O) A= 3 Remembering to include the (Xllynomial part: 3x 3 xl 13x _ 13 Xl X 6 .l x 6 7xl Now we attend to 2 in the normal way.I x+2 +x3 3) + B(x B = A(x  + 2) B ~ 4 2O ~ A ( O)+ B ( 5 ) x =. we first divide out: 3x 3 . .2 . 2xl Work right through it: then check with the next frame. Example 4 Express :zx3 + 3x 2 Xl + 2x  S4x+ SO . fractions. 24 In partial.1 A (x+ 2)(x x ~ 3 3) 7x . 3x+Z + x +Z + x _ 3 4 3 Now ant! more ent1rely on your own lust like the Jast one.13x13 X' x 6 (ill 3x + 2 + x 2 7x . x x 6 Finisl! it off I 3x + 2 + X+'2 3 + x=3 4 I Because 7x .xl .226 Foundation topics Lill Example 3 I 2 + 3.
26 x2 + 2x 24 4x .S4x I.S4x + 50 x 2 + 2x 24 2x . A = ~1 ~ (x 4x .6x + 50 2x + 24 4x + 26 4x. (d) Equate the numerator so obtained with the numerator of the original algebraic fraction.b A @ ax + where A is a constant whose value is to be determined. (c) Add the partial fractions together to form a single algebraic fraction whose numerator contains the unknown constants and whose denominator is identical to that of the original expression.. each of the form ax + b: (a) Write the rational expression with the denominator given as a product of its prime factors. In such an expression whose denominator can be expressed as a product of simple prime factors.50 x2 +2x 24 2x .x' 2x3 + 3x 2 .Partial fradions 227 2x ~ 1 +  I 5 (ill 1 x~4 x+6 Here it is: 2x x2 +2x24J2x3 2x3 2 + 4x2 + 3x ~S4x + 50 ~ 48x .26 = A (x + 6) + B(x :. (e) By substituting appropriate values of x in this equation determine the vaJues of the unknown constants. B = 5 2x3 + 3x 2 .26 A B 4 )(x + 6 ) x4 + x + 6 x~4 .wint let us .l x' .1O) 4) :.{ _ _ I _+ _ S_ } x4 x+6 = 2x ~ 1 + . . (b) Each factor then gives rise to a partial fractIon of the form ..10 ~ A ( IO ) + B(O) x = ~6 ~ SO = A(0) + B( .x~4 1 5 x+6 At this .l .muse ami summarize the main (acts so (ar on the breaking into parlial fractions of rational algebraic expressions with denominators in the (on" o( a product of hvo simple factors B lel 1 Revision summary To effect the partial fraction breakdown of a rational algebraic expression it is necessary for the degree of the numerator to be less than the degree of the denominator.
2 x +3x28 x ..228 Foundation topics 2 If. the degree of the numerator is not less than the degree of the denominator then we divide out by long division.4) X= .4 A=S x. The remainder can then be broken down into its partial fractions.33 = A(x ..7 33 ~ A ( D) + B( .s 3x2 8x63 Xl 3x 10 5 4 3+.11) x=4 77~A(ll) + B(D) lOx + 37 7 3 +.4 x + 7 A =7 3 3x2 .63 1 3 2 x lx + 10 x 2 3x 10 lOx + 37 2xl + 6x3S 2 4 xl+ 3x 28 xl x 12 x+7 x+7 1 A 5) X (x x=S x=2 12 ~ 2)(x 2 B +x.S x + 7 = A(X . in the original algebraic rational expression.4 x+7 B ~ 3 A B lOx + 37 = A(X + 7) +B(x .2) A (D)+ B(3) A(3) + B(O) x+7 4 3 7x + 10 x S x . Revision exercise Express the following in partial fractions: x+ 7 3x2 .5) + B(x + 2) 5 .+x. x . This gives a polynomial with a rational remainder where the remainder has a numerator with degree less than the denominator.28 ~ A(D ) +B(7) 35 ~ A( .ax .+  x+2 B x.8x .7 )+ B( D) x~2 B= .33 (x + 2)(x 5) ..2 9 ~ B=4 1\ =3 2 lOx + 37 x2+ 3x 28 JOx+ 37 (x 4) (n 7) .33 (x + 2)(x 5) x ~ 3+ A x.5) + B{x .S :. x+2 .63 x' 3x 10 x.
4 1 x ~ 4 + "( x:+"'3'"1"(.2) A Bx +C 2 x .x + 2 = A(3x2 + 4x . . the denominator contains a quadratic factor that cannot be factori zed further into simple factors.4 B ~ 3 B 8x . .Partial fractions 229 4 2...5)(3x2 + 4x . In this situation there is a rule that applies: All irredllcible qllar/mtic fador in tl1e tlerJomi'Ultor of tile original ratiollal expresMoll " " " o(t'le (onn ( ax 2 + bx + c) gIVes nse to a parCI(/ fractIon 0( t ' le (orm Ax + 2 b B ax + x+c 15x2 x + 2 (x .4ac) = 16 .2) = 40 which is not a perfect square. However..4) + B(x+3 ) 21 ~ A (O I" B ( 7 1 x= .4Ax .''4"1 x +3 +x. If ' 5 )(3x2 + 4x 2) 10 parlla rachons..5C Collecting up like tenns on the RHS gives: 15x2 x+2 = .3 .35 = A( .11 (x + 3)(.4 x 3 x (.II = A{x .. Express (x lliJ 15x2 ...2A + /3x 2 + Cx .. Here the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator so no initial division is required. The usual test confirms this because (1J2 .x2 + 6x35 2 5 3 x 2 x 12 tx+3+x 4 A=5 Denominators with repeated and quadratic factors Now let's look at a rational algebraic fraction where the denominator contains a quadratic factor that wiJl not factorize into two simple factors.x2 + 6x35 2 A 8xII x 2 x 12 8x .2) + (Bx + C)(x .5 ) = 3Ax 2 t.5 + 3x2 +4x Multiplying throughout by the denominator: I5x 2 .5Bx .7)+ BlO) 2... .x + 2 .
.5 = 372 : .(2A +2) .7 = . .ZA . . so we can equate coefficients of like terms on each side: [x2 1 15 = 311 + 8 constant term ICTJ [xl 2 = . and that gives: 7x 2 1Bx7= . A = 4 15 = 12 + B :. :.6x + 3) is irreducible.5C I (1) (2) This is an identity..375 + 75A ..377 93A = 377 .2A . (b 2 ...2A . .25(15 . A 8x + C x=4+ z.IS + C :.3A) .x2 6x + 3 Multiplying throughout by the complete denominator: 7x 2 ..5C :.6>+ 3) + (Bx + C)(x .2 = 93A . ..4) I Then multiply out and collect up like terms. . 5C=ZA2 Substitu ting fo r Band C in (3).7 The partial fractions of (x 4 )(2x 2 6x + 3) will be of the form .58 + C)x . . for the factor (2x 2 .5C 1 ~ 4A5B + C (3) 8 = 15 . .. . (2x 2 .4oc) = 36 .. I A(2x' .1 = 16 ..7 4)(2x2 6x + 3) in partial fractions..3A 2 =. we have: 1 = 4A5 (153A ) . 8 = 3 .. in (3): (x 15x2 _X + 2 S)(3x 2+ 1x 2) x 5 + :JCC. .2 (ill Express (x 7x2 .ZA + 2 5 5 ~ lOA . Here again. C = .5 = lOA .6x + 3).ISx ..230 Foundation topics ® From (1): From (2): 15x2 . 7x 2 _ 18x .x + 2 =(3A+B)x 2 + (4A .~' 3x 2 + 4x 2 Now on to af/other example 4 3x . . in (1): Sub.ZA .IBx .24 = 12 which is not a perfect square.2 Sub.
..lOS IIA = 33 ( 3A + . The requ ired partial fractions for 7x 2 .. (7x .2) Again.7 (x4 )(2x2. there is a rule that applies: Repeated {actors ill tile denominator ortlle algebraic expre5. 3Sx . Because +" 2.x ..4C I Now you can equate coefficients of like terms on each side and finish it. 4 72 = 24A I. 3 x ... (x 7X2 _18x7 4 )(2xZ 6x + 3) 3 x • + 2x2 x+4 6x+3 Next (mme Now let's look at a raHonal algebraic fraction where the denominator contains a repeated simple factor.18x .+' 3 (I) x+4 (ill [ x' ) [CT) 7 =2A+B 7=3A4C : . Similarly (ax + b)3 gives rist: to . A=3 Substitution in (1) and (2) gives B = I and C = 4.18X 7 =(2A + B)x 2 (6A+4B . ."''o 6x'... .~iofi Of tile form (ax A give partial fractions of tile rom. B = 7 . .IIA I.. + b)z partial (ractiollS of the form: ax + b + (ax + b ) B 2.7) .C)X + 3A .. .6A + 288A . C=3A + 7 .. .14 Express 2. . 4 (2) [x) 18=.1I2 32A 3A7 = . 6x + 3 ) .2A .. in partial fractions.Partial fradions 231 !7X2....
.. .. .2) +B =7Ax2A+ B Now we simply equate coefficients and A and B are found: 35x ..2)' ....14 (7x_2 )2 .14 (7x . (3x + 1)· Complete the work with tlfat one and thell clJeck willi tile lIext (mme . Express '"~':"''''''i..14 =A(7x . .232 Foundalion topics Consequently. A ~ 7 [eT] 44 = 5A + B=35 + B B= 9 42x+44 7 + 9 (6x + 5)2 6x + 5 (6x + sf And now this one: lSx2+ 3x + 6 .+ A 7x2 B (7x .2)' Then we multiply throughout as usual by the original denominator: 35x .... .~ 5 7x2 4 (7x_2 )2 42x + 44 in partial franions = . .....'' lfl partial fractions.. 5) 42x + 44=A (6x l 5)+ B =6Ax+SA+ B [x] 42 ~ 6A :. . we write: 35x . (6x + 5)2 Complete it 6x + 5 42x + 44 (6x + 5)2 +~~= 7 9 (6x+5f A H 6x + 5 + ° (& ::'+ '0"... Lill Similarly: C.. .
54x ~ 35 (2x .3 )' Nex t frame .X ' + ':1" )3 (3x + ] )3 3x + 1 (3x + t )2 + 0 2 Now determine the parl"iaJ fractions of 20x .54x + 35 {2x .54x + 35 (2x .3 (2x .::== Multiplying out and roUecling up )jke terms: 2ili2 . C = .1 20x 2 .3+C C=7 ICfJ 6 = A+8 + C 2 3 7 18x2 1 3x+6 (3 :."= 2x .(3x + 1)2 + ::( 3:X'+I ")'3 18x2 + 3x + 6 Here "'C::''''':i'' (3x l.54x + 35 = 4Ax2 .C = 9Ax 2 + (6A + 3B )x + (A + B +C) Equating coefficients: :.3)' (2x _ 3)' 54x + 35 =A (2x .3 + (2x_3)2 (2x.3)2 I· 8(2x.l .3) = 3 ~ 6A + 3B [x2 ] [x[ 18 9A The working is just the same as with the previous example: 20x 2 .x+ .::" ' ':c'i 2x . A= 2 B = 3 3 = 12 + 3B 38 = . B = 3.2B)x + (9A .I)3 ABC + + .Partial fradions 233 123 7 3 .3 ) + C AB C . equating coefficients in the usual way: A = 5.+ 0:.9 6 = 2 .3 (2x .::"= 3x + l (3X+l)2 (3X + l )3 18x2 + 3x + 6 = A{3x + 1)2 + B(3x + I) +C = A{9x 2 + 6x + I ) + B(3x + 1) + C = 9Axl +6Ax + A + 3Bx + B I.54x + 35 (2x _ 3)3 5 .38 + C) Then.3)' 1 (2x _ 3)3 Because 20x 2 .(12A .3)' 20x 2  .3)3 1 53 .+ + 2x .
~+~ + ~ ABe x+4 x. [L .A + SB (2) x 4 (3) = ...4A + 2B .3B + 2C)x .42 ABC ~ + ~ + ~ (x 2 )(x + 4 )(x 1) x .r + 7x .x2 + 3x  4) + 8 (x 2 .42 (x 2)(x + 4)(x I) ..2) =A(. .2 x1 lOx2+ 7x .2B .3x + 2 ) + C( x 2 + 2.2 x + 4 xI 1O.2)(. IOX2 + 7x42.4)(x .42 = .7x .2B + 8C) Equating coefficients: [x 2] 10=A +B+C (I ) 'x.1) + C(x + 4)(x . Band C: 2A + 2B + 2C = 20 3A .. Here t h e factors a re all different..8e (2) (3) Solving these three simultaneous equations provides the values of A.8C = .x .14 (5) Now we can solve (4) and (5) to find A and B.42 ~ .4A I. Express (x 2 )(x + 4 )(x 1) In paftla lIactlOns.x .(4A .3B + 2e /C11 ( 1) x 2 (2) ..IOD = .8) Multiplying out and collecting up like terms: lOr I.42 = A(x I. (A +B + C )x2 + (3A .3B + 2C = 7 .12B + BC = 28 . . 7 ~ 3A . so the partial fractions will be .1) + B(x .13 (4) 12A .42 SA .234 Foundation topics lei us now consider the case where the denominator is a cubic expression with different linear factors . So fin ally: 10xZ + 7x . and then substitute in (1) to find C.
Partial fractions 235 + . Here then is an example which brings us 10 the peak of this programme.4x2 + x+6 (x + l)(x 2)(x 3) and now we can proceed as in the previous example. . as we did in Programme F. It may well be that this could be given as a cubic expression..4x 2 + X + 6. putting «x) = xl ....\ + 4 x1 In this lates! example.x 2 ..5x 6x + 6 6x +6 { (x ) ~ (x+ l )(x' 5x + 6) ~ (x + 1)(x .x + 2 3 5 First we see that no initial division is necessary. (x + l ) isa factor off(x): £' . 8x 2 .".+ .14x1O (x + . &x 2 _ 14x ..2)(x  3) ((x) = x 3 _4x 2 +x + 6 = I(x. .1) is not a factor (( .1)=0 . if they exist.2 )(x .3. So. Then we have to factorize the denominator into its prime faOocs..10 Determine the partial fraOions of 3 4 2 6' .3 ) 8x2_14x1O 8xZ14x .. (x .1O x3. These are (x Because + l )(x .x .. in which case factorization would have to be carried ou t using the remainder theorem before further progress could be made. the denominator has conveniently been given as the product of three linear factors.1 )(x 2 )(x 3) . we determine the three simple factors of ((x ). ((1) = 4 :.x + .4 )x + l ]x+6 in nested fo rm.5x + 6 _ 4x 2 + x+6 + x' _ 5x2 + X _ 5x 2 . Work right through it and the n check the results with the following frame..
2 x 3 Because 8x 2 14x .2x .14x .2C = .10 = A (x .C = 8 8x Z .1O (x+ l )(x 2)(x 3 ) 1 2 S .2 ) 8x2 .+ x + l x .3B .2)(x .z x3 At tllis point let us pause and summarize the ffla.ial fractions of rational algebraic expressions wilh denominators containing irreducible quadratic {aclors Or repeated simple {aelors ~ .Sx + 6) + B(x' .3) +C(x' .+ .38 .Z + C = 8 B= 2 C ~ S xJ 4X2 + X + 6 x + l x .x .3) + C(X + l )(x .(SA + 2B + C)x + (6A .1O (x + l ){x 2)(x 3) A BC +.14x ." {aels on the breaking .n{o pari.+ 8x2 .1O 4+ B = 6 1 \.2C) Ixl Ix'i ICT] (1) x 2 (3) A + B+ C = 8 SA+2B + C = 14 6A .236 Foundation topics II +2.3) + B(x + l )(x .+ S I x + l x .2) = {A + B + C)x 2 .14x .Z x3 ~A(x' .H 6 (I) (2) (3) (4) (2 ) (1) SA + 2B + C ~ 14 A + B+ C= 8 6 (5) (6 ) 4A + B ~ 8A .B~ (S) 6 6 A == 1 12A = 12 (S) (I) 4A+B = 6 A + B I..1O 2A + 2B + 2C = 16 6A3B2C=iO 8A.
6x 2 + 3x 10 2 5 3 1 . A list of Can You? questions follows for you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme.b) (ax I.8x + 3) 12x2 \36x f 6 x 3 I. Similarly (cu l.:. You will nolice that these questions match the Learning outt:omes listed at the begin ning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them.+ .bx \. Work through lhem at your own pace.28x .: 4x 3 (4x .c which cannot be expressed as a product of simple factors.3 )' 5 2x + 3 2x+ 1 \.1 )(X2 I./.x2 + 8x + 3 8 (4x . After that try the Test exercise.5 (4x _ 3)3 9xZ\48x + 18 (2x \. In such an expression whose denominator contains: 1 A q uadratic factor of the form uK. there is '10 need to hurry. 2 gives rise to a partial fraction of the form _ A _ I cu /. A set of Further problems provides additional valuable practice.h B 2.3)' 2 3 X~1 + X ! 2 + X :S You have now come to the en d of this Programme.Partial fractions 237 B Revision summary 'Ell To effect the partial fraction breakdown of a rational algebra ic expression it is necessary for the degree of the numerator to be less than the degree of the denominator.::"c. the partial fraction breakdown partial fractIOn of the form .xlC Repeated factors of the form (ax \.. the partial fraction breakdown gives rise to a Ax l.b)2.B 2 b ax \..== ax+b (ax+ h)2 {cu + b)3 Revision exercise Express in partial fractions: ABC 1 2 3zx2 .b)3 gives rise to partial fractions of the form + +. .
73 x 2 + x 20 6X2 + 19x . Frames On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident are you that you can: • Factorize the deno minator of an algebraic fractio n into its prime factors? Yes Yes Yes ffi.34x + 97 (x _ 5)' 7 (x 8 + 4)(2x 9.oCIJ CJ DOD D No • Separate an algebra ic fraction into its partial fracti Ons? CD to m :J [] [] [] [] [] [] ]Vo ]Vo • Recognize the niles of partial fractions? C OD ~ Test exercise F.t h + 3 4x 2 + 9x .tl (x + 1)(x2 + Sx ~ ~ S lOx . 7 Check this list before yOIl try the end of Programme test.238 Foundation topics ~ Can You? @j Checklist F.7 Express each of the following in partial fractions: Frames ~ ~ 1 x' x .14 lOx + 24 [D tolIJ [DtolIJ ITJ to @) @] to mJ 2) 2 3 4 13x7 lOx 2 .16x + 34 3)(3x + 1) 8x 2 +27x+ 13 x3 + 4x 2 + x _ 6 .13 (2x _ 3)2 CEltoCEJ CEJto{E) [EJ to mJ cmto(ID 6 3x 2 .r .
Paroal fractions
239
It.l
Further problems F.7
Express each of the following in partial fractions: I 2 7x+36 x2+ 12x + 32 5x  2 x 2 3x 28 16 4il24x+11 (x+2)(x3f
lEIJ l1
18
14x2 + 31x + S
(x  1)(2x + 3)'
4x 2  47x+ 141 x2 13x + 40
4
x2
3x9 3x 18 7x  9 7x 15
14x
X
~ 19
20
5x'  77 Xl  2x  IS
8x2  19x  24
(x 2)(x'
2X2
6
6x 2
2x
5)
2
~ 21
22
sx2 +9x  l (2x + 3 )(Xl I Sx + 2)
7x2  18x 7
(3x 1)(2x' 4x 5)
lOx 2
13x  7 l1x +3
+ l1x + 3
8
6xl
7x  7 18x + 20 (3x I 4)2
15] 23
24
l1x + 23
(x+ 1)(x+2)(x+3)
9
Sxl+ 28x+47
(x l )(x + 3)(x + 4)
10 35x + 17 (5x + 2 )2
~ 25
26
S.r  60x  43
(4X 4 1)(2x4 3)(3x  2)
12x  16 (4x _ S )2
12
(2x
74xl39x 6 1)(3x + 2 )( 4x 16r  x+3 Sxz 2x + 1
3)
S.r13x + 5
(x  2)3
ter] 21
28
6x 3
75x 2 + 35x  4 (5x + 2)3
14
llx2 + 1lx  32
6x 3 + 5x1  16x l S
64xz  148x + 78
(4x 5)'
~ 29
30
6x·l
4Xl  3x  4 29x z + 46x
24
6
~ lS
8il + x  3
(x 1 2)(x  l)2
2x2+85x + 36 2Ox3 + 47x Z + llx
Programme F.B
Trigonometry
Learning outcomes
When YOIl have completed this Programme you will be able to:
Frames
CD"illJ
• Convert angles measured in degrees, minutes and seconds into decimal degrees • Convert degrees into radians and vice versa • Use a calculator to determine the values of trigonometric ratios for any acute angle • Verify trigonometric identities
If yo II already feel confident aboullhese wily not try the quiz over the page!
You am check your answers at the eud
or the hook.
241
~ Quiz
~ l
2
F.B
Frames
Convert the angle 253 18'42" to decimal degree format.
Convert the angle 73·415 to degrees, minutes and seconds.
Convert the folloWing to radians to 2 dp: (b) lZ·61 (c) 135 (as a multiple of r.)
0
m",CTI
(a) 47c
4
Convert the folloWing La degrees to 2 dp:
(a) 4 ·621 Tad lb) 97</4 Tad (c) 131l"/ 5 Tad
m"'ill ill",m
0
10
Find the value of each of the following to 4 dp:
(a) cosZ4° (d) cosec 17·9 (b) 5in57o/ 12 (e) secS'4Z' (c) cot7f/3 (0 ta113·24 Tad
0
6
Given o ne side and the hyjX)tenuse of a rightangled triangle as 5·6 a nd 12'3, find the length of the other side. Show that the triangle with sides 7, 24 and 2S is a rightangled triangle.
(E)to[EJ (2.Dto(EJ
8
A Ship sails 12 km due north of a pon and then sails 14 km due east. How far is the ship from the port ? How much furthe r east will it have sailed when it is 30 km fro m the port?
Verify each of the following trigo nometric ide ntities: (a) (sinOcosO)2 + (sin O+ cosO)2 = 2
(b) ( J  cOSO)!( I + cos(j)~
[EJtoGIJ
~ 9
== sin 8
" 1I secu lanl7 . 8+(11 . 0  (11 (d) cosO cos<il=  25111   ""  2 2 10 Show that: v'3 + 1 (a) tan 7S" =~ v3  1 (b) sint S
=~
(cl tanO + secO =
1
(}I) to 13[}
v'3 
1
2v2
242
Trigonometry
243
Angles
Rotation
When a straight line is rotated aoout a point it sweeps out an angle that can be measured either in degrees or in radia11S. By convention a straight line rotating through a full allgle and returning to its starting positio n is said to have rotated through 360 degrees  360= where each degree is subdivided j nto 60 minutes 60'  and each minutt:' further subdivided into 60 seconds  60". A straight angle is half of this, namely 1800 and a rigM angle is half of this again, namely 90 , Any angle less than 90< is called an (I01te angle and any angle greater than 90 is called an obtllSe angle. An angle that is measured in degrees, minutes and seconds can be converted to a decimal degree as follows: 4536'18"
w
= 45" +
~
(36)0 + ( 18 )0 60 6Ox60
The (//lSWel' is ill tile n ext frame
(45 + 0·6 + 0·005)" = 45·605" That was easy, so the decimal form of S3 29'7" to 3 dp is ..
w
Because
5329' 7" = S3 t
(~) ~ t (60: 60) ~ (53 + 0·483 + 0·00194)"
53A8S to 3 dp
=
How about the other way? For example, to conven 18·478  to degrees, minutes and seconds we proceed as follows:
18,478° = 18 + (0·478 x 60)'
= 18 + 28·68'
Multiply the fractional part of the degree
by 60
= .18 + 28'
+ (0·68 x 60)"
Multiply the fraltionai part of the minute
by 60
= 18 + 28' + 40·8" = 18 28'41/1 to the nearest second
So that 236.986 0
= .. . . .. •• . , ••
(in degrees, minutes and seconds)
Next frame
244
Foundation topics
W
Because
= 236~ =
I236"S9' lO" I
236986' ~ 236" + (0986 x 60)'  236 ~ + 59·16'
+ 59' + (0· 16 x 60)" 236" + 59' + 9·6"
to the nearest second
= 236~ 59' lO"
W
Move /lOW co tile nexc frame
Radians
An alternative unit of measure of an angle is the radian. If a straight line of length r rotates about one end so that the other end describes an arc of length 1", the line is said 1O have rotated through 1 radian  1 rad.
\
, "d;,"
~Ll
_
_ _' \
Because the arc described when the line rotates through a full angle is the circumference of a circle which measures 2Jrr, the number of radians in a full angle is 21T fad . Consequently, relating degrees to radians we see that: 360'
= =
2r. rad 6·2831 ..
rad
So that I" =
..
rad (to 3 sig fig)
The answer is in the next frame
w
Because
So,
30~, 120~
I0·017S rad I
2. • 360' = 21T Tad, so 10 = 360 = 180 = 0·0 17S Tad to 3 sig fig
Often, when degrees are transformed to radians they are given as mulliples of To . For example: 360 = 21T Tad, so that 180" = 1T rad, 90 = 71:/2 rad, 45 ' = 7r/ 4 fad and so on
0
and 270·' are given in multiples of 1T as ..
An.swers ill the next frame
Trigonometry
245
11[/ 6 fad, 21"</3 cad, 370/ 2 cad Because
w w w
30' = I SO"/ 6 = 1[/ 6 cad 120'" = 2 x 6O~ = 2 x (lS00/ 3) = 270/ 3 cad 270" = 3 x 90" = 3 x (ISO~ /2 ) = 3rr/ 2 rad
Also, 1 cad = ..... . .. . .. . degrees (to 3 dp)
Clleck your answer iu tile next frame
IS7296' I
Because 21l' fad = 360", so 1 fad
360 ISO =~= 27r 7r
57 ·296"
So, the degree equivalents of 2·34 rad, rr/ 3 cad, S;r/ 6 Tad and 77r/ 4 fad are . . . .... . . .. .
Check with tile flext frame
1134'1 ~
Because
10 1 dp, 60°,150 and 315
0
I
180) " = 134·1" to 1 dp 2·34 rad = ( 2·34 x ;
.,./3 cad =
5.,./ 6 fad =
(i x l~Or = &P
C61l' X
1=0) = 150"
0
7rr/4 cad 
_(7r. _ 3 1So  x ISO) " _ 4
rr
Move to the next frame
246
Foundation tapia
w
Triangles
All triangles possess shape and size. "me shape of a triangle is governed by the three angles and the size b}' the lengths of the three sides. Two triangles can possess the same shape possess the same angles  but be of different sizes. We say that two such tria ngles are similar. It is the similarity of figures of different sizes that permits an artist to draw a picture of a scene that looks like the real thing  the lengt h s o f the correspond ing lines in the picture and the scene are obviously different but the corresponding angles in the picture and the scene
are the same.
A'
.·L.lI_ _______ _______JlL.:"'c
A significant feature of similar figures is that lengths of corresponding sides are all in the same ratio so that , for exam ple, in the similar triangles ABC and A'B'C in t he figure:
All A'B'
AC
= A'C =
BC B'C
So from a knowledge of the ratios of the sides of a given triangle we ean make deductions about any triangle that is similar to it. For example, if in triangle ABC of the above figure:
AD = 2 em, AC= 5 em and BC = 4 ern
and in triangle A'FC, A'B' = 3 em, the length of A'e can be found as follows:
Since  A' B'
AD
~
AC AB 2 AC   and   =  then  Ne A'll' 3 NO
=
~
5 2   =  giving NO 3
A'C
=
5; 3
7.5 em
This means that the length or B'C' =
Clleck )'OlIr {/Il.m'l?r
jll
lile next frame
Trigonometry
247
Because
2 4 2 , 4x3 _ _ then   = so that BC =   =6cm 3 lYe 3 2 Ratios of side lengths of a given triangle are also eq ual to the corresponding ratios for a similar triangle. For example, since in the figure on page 246
I\'B'
~ 
All
BC
Ble
::1
=
;~,
then multiplyi ng both sides of this equatio n by
AC
~~
we find that:
AB AlB' NB' x AC
= A'e x
A' B' AB AlB' AC' that IS AC= A'U
So that Be =
Answer ill the flext frame
AB
liD
Because
AS A'If
=
Be AIBI B'e then mu ltiplying both sides of this equation by BC
we find that :
AB A'B' BC A'lY A J3 A'B' AlB' x BC = B'G x BC' that is BC = BfD
.I AC Sim l arly, BC Next frame
248
Foundation topics
(ill
Because
AC = BIC Be then mu 1 " 1 " bo t h"d f h" " b A'e . A'e' tiP yll1g 51 es 0 t IS equatIon y Be gives:
AC A'e Be A'e' AC A'e' NO x Be = B'C' x Be ' that is Be = we
All triangles whose corresponding ratios of side lengths are equal have the same shape  they are similar triangles because corresponding angles are equal. Consequently, while the lengths of the sides of a triangle dictate the size of the triangle, the ratios of the side lengths dictate the angles of the triangle. Because we need to know the properties of similar triangles we shall now link these ratios o f side lengths to specific angles by using a rightangled triangle; the ratios are then called the t rigO/wmetric ratios.
On flOW to the
/J~t
frame
(ill
Trigonometric ratios
A
8''O"_ _U,C
Given the rightangled triangle ABC of the figure with angle fI at vertex B where side AC is opposite fI, side Be is adjaccrlt to fI and side AB is called the lI}potenllse, we define the trigonometric ratios as: . opposite sme of angle fI as "h=5== ypotenuse . adjacent cosme of angle fI as o:::05;::=~ hypotenuse opposite tangent of angle 0 as a od ~Jacent "E="
~~
this ratio is denoted by sinO
AS  this ratio is denoted by cos 0
Be
~~ 
this ratio is
denot~>d by tan 0
Every angle possesses its respective set of values for the trigonometric ratios and these are most easily found by using a calculator. For example, with the calculator in degree mode, enter 58 and press the sin key to display 0 ·84804 ... which is the value of sin 58 · (that Is the ratio of the opposite side over the hypotenuse o f all rightangled triangles with an angle of 58").
Trigonometry
249
Now, with your calculator in radian mode enter 2 and press the sin key to display 0 ·90929 ... which is the va lue of sin 2 rad  ordinarily we shall omit the Tad and just write sin 2. Similar results are obtained using the cos key to find the cosine of an a ngle and the tan key to find the tange nt of an angle. Use a calculator in degree mode to find to 4 dp the va lues of:
(a) sin 27'" (b) cos84' (C) tan 43~
Tile answers are in tile next frame
I (a)
0 4340 (b) 01045 (c) 0 9325
104
That was easy e nough. Now use a calculator in radian mode to find values of the following where the angles are measured in radians:
(a) cos 1·321
dp the
(b) tan 0 013
(c) sin r.j 6
Check with tile next frame
I (a)
02472 (b) 0·0130 (c) 0 5000
(ill
We can now use these ratios to find unknowns. For example (see figure), a ladder o f length 3 m leans against a wall at an angle of 56'" to the horizontal.
3
250
Foundation topics
The vertical height of the ladder can now be found as follows_ Dividing the vertical height v (the opposite) by the length of the ladder (the hypotenuse) gives the si ne of the angle of indinatiun 56~ _ That is: vertical height sin 56~_ That is = 0 82903 ___ giving the vertical height length of ladder vas 3 x 082903 ___ = 249 m (to 3 sig fig) So if a ladder uf length L leans against a wall at an angle uf 60" tu the horizontal with the top of the ladder 4 5 m above the ground, the length of the ladder is:
L ~
i
. ... . .
TIle answer is ill rile IIext frame
(ill
Because vertical height
L
4 5 = sin 60' = 08660 _ L
so that L = 0 8660 = 520 m (to 2 dp)
4·S
Ne>;t (nllne
Reciprocal ratios
In addition to the three trigonomelrical ratios there are three reciproCllJ namely: 1 1 1 cosO cosec 0 = sin e' secO = cosO and cot 0 = tan e == sinO
ratiOS,
The values of these for a given angle can also be found using a calculator by finding the appropriate trigonometric ratio and then pressing the reciprocal 1 key  the  key.
x
So that, 1O 4 dp: (a) cot 12 ~ = .... (b) sec 37° = .. (c) cosec71 ~ =
Next frame
Trigonomelry
251
~,
(a) 4· 7046 (b) 12521 (c) L·0576
Because (a) tan 12 = 0 ·21255 . .. and the reciprocal of that is 4·7046 10 4 dp (b) cos37' = 0·79863 .. . and the re(iprocai of that is 1·252 1 to 4 dp (c) sin 71 = 0·9455.1 . . . and the reciprocal of that is 1·0576 to 4 dp
To strengthen a vertical wall a strut has to be placed 5 m up tht: wall and inclined at an angle of 43' to the ground. To do this the length of the strut mustbe ....... . . . . Clleck tile lIext frame
7·33 m Because length of strut 5
1 L sin 430 = cosec 43' that is "5
=
(ill
1'4662 .
giving L = 7·33 to 2 dp
Now go to the "ext frome
252
Foundation topics
®
Pythagoras' theorem
All rightangled triangles have a property in common that is expressed in Pyt hagoras' theorem:
Tile square 011 the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle is equal to the sum of tile squares 011 tile other two sides
A
,
b
8
•
C
So in th e figure:
a2 + b 2
=c
Notice how th e letter for each side length corresponds to the opposite angle (a is opposite angle A etc.); this is the common conven tion. So, if a right an gled triangle h as a hypotenuse of length 8 and o ne other side of length 3, the length of the third side to 3 d p is . .. .... . .. . .
G ieck your answer in tile next frame
Because If a rep resents the len gth o f the third side then:
a2 + 32 = 82 so a2 = 64  9 = 55 giving a = 7·416 to 3 dp
Here's an oth er. Is th e triangle with sides 7, 24 an d 25 a rightangled trian gle?
Answer ill the next (rame
Trigonometry
253
Because Squaring the len~,'ths of the sides gives: 72 = 49, 242 = 576 and 252 = 625. Now, 49 + 576 = 625 so that 72 + 242 = 25 2 The sum of the squares of the lengths of the two smaller sides is equal to the square on the longest side. Because the lengths satisfy Pythagoras' theorem, the triangle is rightangled. How about the triangle with sides 5, 11 and 12? Is this a rightangled triangle?
Check in the next (rame
(ill
Because
52 = 25 and 11 2 = 121 50 52 + ll2 = 146 =F 122. The squares of the smaller sides do not add up to the squart' of the longest side so the triangle does not satisfy Pythagoras' theorem and so is not a rightangled triangle.
Next frame
Special triangles
Two rightangled triangles are of spedal interest \Jtocause the trigonometric ratios of their angles can be given in surd or fractional form . The first is the rightangled isosceles triangle (an isosceles triangle is any triangle with two sides of equal length) whose angles are 90', 45 ' and 45° with side lengths, therefore, in the ratio 1 : I : ..;z (by Pythagoras' theorem).
4"
4"
Here we see that: sin4S = Cos45
= .J2
1
and tan 45" = 1
Or, measuring the angles In radians:
sin ,,/ 4
= cos 1f/4 =
)z and tan
1f/4 = I
254 Foundation topics Now. If the crossbar is S3 an long. A bicycle frame is in the fonn of an isosceles triangle with the horiwntal crossba r forming the h ypotenuse. . If the length of the side along the horizontal ground is 3·4 m the length of the hypotenuse to 2 dp is obtained as follows: ground length hypotenuse so that: hypotenuse = 3·4 h ypotenuse cos4S ~ = "' 2 v~ 1 V2 )( 3·4 = 4·81 m Now one for you to try. 37·5 cm Next frame (or some more surd (orms . a problem using these ratios: 3·4 A prop in the form of an isosceles triangle constructed out of timber is placed against a vertical wall. the length of each of the other two sides to the nearest mm is . The answer is ill the ncxt frame (ill Because side length hypoten use so that: side length = S3 x 0·7071 = 37·S em side length S3 cos4S ' = Jz = 0·7071. .
. If a line were 1"0 be drawn from the end of the shadow to the top of the tree it would be indin ed to the horizontal at 60<>. A tree casts a horizontal shadow 8V3 m long.= cos 30'' = ~'J and tan 60 = tanl30~ = J3 1 Again. height of the tree is obtained as follows: height of tree length of shadO\\I so that height of tree = tan 60 = 0 J3 J3 x length of shadow = V3 x SV3 = 8x3 = 24 m Now try this one. .. the lengths of the sides of the tent are both .. When a small tent is erected the front forms an equilateral triangle. Check your allSwer i" the lIext frame . if we measure the angles in radians.. sin 60. If the tent pole is . and tan 7f/3 tan 7r/ 6 Here's an example using these new ratios. by Pythagoras) in the ratio 1 : v'3 : 2.. sin To/ 3 = cos 7f/6 = V. . .J3 m long.. . 2 2 60" Here we see that: sin 30 e = cos 60' = ~.. sin 7f/ 6 = cos 7r/3 = ~.Trigonometry 255 Half equilateral The second rightangled triangle of interest is the ltalf eqllilateral triangle (an equilateral triangle is a triangle whose sides are all the same length) with side lengths (again. HJ€.
.:: Sill" cosO hypotenuse adjacent hypotenuse tan 0 = sin (:I = ~pposite cosO adjacent and their reCiprocal ratios are: cosec 0 = 1/ 5ioO secO = l / cosO (otO = 1/ taoO 5 Pythagoras' theorem states that: 'n. 3 Ratios of the sides of one triangle have the same values as ratios of the corresponding sides in a similar triangle.e.but different sizes.e other two sides a2 + Jil "" Cl where a and b are the lengths of the two smaller sides and c is the length of the hypotenuse. 6 The rightangled isosceles triangle has angles 1[/ 2.s:::.t:. minutes and seconds or radians where a full angle has a magnitude of 360' or 2r. 2 Similar triangles have the same shape . . O~PP5o :. and sides 7 The rightangled half equilateral triangle has angles rr/ 2. "= h :. 1[/4 and in the ratio 1 : I : ". 4 The trigonometric ratios are defined within a rightangled triangle. They are: . v'3 = L sin 60' = J3 2 lE:il Revision summary lEl I Angles can be measured in degrees. rr/ 3 and rr/ 6.e square ol1llIe lIypotellllSe ofa riglltlll1gled triangle is fijl/alto tile slim of the squares 011 ti.the same angles . 1T/4. and sides in the ratio] : v'3 : 2. radians.2.256 Foundation topics Lill Because length of tent pole length of lent side so that L = 2 m.
40 m and 41 m is a rightangled triangle. That is. minutes and seconds... 2 2 7 40 + 9 = 1681 = 412 thereby satisfying Pythagoras' theorem.6 an . find the length of t he other side. A shadow is cast immediately below it from a lamp directly overhead_ What is the length of the shadow? What is the n ew length of the shadow if the rod's inclination is changed to Jr/3 to the vertical? 1648203' to 4 dp. 8 If/isth e length of the shadow then '". band c where c Is th e hypotenuse then a2 + I:J2 = c2.(5·6 )2 = n o to 1 dp. 7 Show that the triangle with sides 9 m. 7V2 Oil ITOW to lITe lIext topic . If the angle is 7r/ 3 to the vertical then '0./2 cm is inclined to the horizontal at an an.=cosn/ 4 = ~so thatl 7yZ yZ 7vZ = 7cm . Convert the angle 87·375 to degrees. 8 A rod of length 7.J3VZ 2 fL 8.::le of 7f/ 4 radians.Trigonometry 257 Revision exercise I 2 Convert the angle 1640 49'13" to deci mal degree format. (b) 032 (b) 2\0 (c) I (ill 4Jr/3 rad (c) 165(e) 3·0777 (0 0·6563 = 87' SO' IS" (a) 1·27 rad 4 (a) 213·20 S (a) 0·5Z99 (d) 1 8766 2 3 4·19 fad (b) 0·9659 (el 4·3373 6 If the sides are a. = Sin rr/ 3 = v'3 so that 2 7. (5·6)2 + Ji1 = (12'3 )2 so that b= V{lZ3)2 . Convert the foll owing to radians to 2 dp: (a) 73 (b) 18·34 (c) 240 Convert the following to degrees to 2 dp: 3 4 (a) 3·72J rad (b) 7rr/6 rad (cl ] hr/12 lad 5 Find the value of each of the follo wing to 4 dp: (b) cos Jr/l 2 (cl tan2Jr/5 (a) si n32' (d) see57·8 (e) cosee13·33 (f) cotO·99 lad 6 Given one side and the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle as 5·6 em and J 2·3 em respectively.
b and hypotenuse c and angle 0 at B then: d' + b' ~ C' Dividing both sides by m' c2 gives: + (~)' ~ 1 a = cos Q' "an db = sin 'h .. "'nat is. taking the side of length 3 em to be adjacent to 0 (the side with length 5 cm is obViously the hypotenuse as it is the longest side) then: 3 4 cos(J=S and slnO=5 and so 8 3 5 2 2 oos 0 + sin 0 = (~) \(~r = .C Given the rightangled triangle of the above figure with vertices A. 4 cm and 5 em is a rightangled triangle it is sufficient to show that it satisfies the fundamental trigonometrical identity. to show that the triangle with sides 3 em. 12 cm and 10 em a righta ngled triangle? The atlSwer is ill fil e next (rame . Since this equation is true for any angle 0 the equation is in fact an identity: eos 2 0+sin2(J === 1 and is called the (tmdtlmentaJ trigollolfletricai identity. 0 t" IS equation can be wntten as: Because c c 2 2 cos (J + sin (J = 1 where the notation cos 2 0 ~ (cos 0)7. and sin2 (J ~ (sin 0)2 . sides opposite the vertices of a.'". For example.5 + ~: 25 = 25 = 1 Is the triangle with sides of length 8 em. Band C.258 Foundation topics Trigonometric identities l1iJ The fundamental identity A b 8'""_..
. . .. .144 + 144 144 r 1 Since the fundamental trigonometric identity is not satisfied this is not a rightangled triangle. . Move to the next frame Two more identities Two more identities can be derived directly from the fundamental identity. cos2 () + cos 2 0 = cos 2 () that IS 1 I + tan () = se2 () Next (rame 2 _ Dividing the fundamental identity by sin 2 () gives a third identity .. ..t en cos 2 () + sin 2 () = (182)2+ G~) 2 _ 64 100_164 . .Trigonometry 259 (ill Because IOh . /. 8 Leltlng COS() = 12 an d Sin()=12.. dividing both sides of the fundamental identity by cos 2 () gives the identity Check yollr al1swer in the next frame 1 + tall 2 () = sec 2 () Because cos 2 () sin 2 () _ 1 ..
0 (b)l + sin O case TIle answers are . 2 2 .260 Foundation topics Because cosze sin2 e 1 . . __ ? (a) tan 2 0 .it is done by performing an operation on both sides first.cosO sin O cosOsinO 1 cosBsin (j .: sec (j cosec 0 Next (rame We proceed as foHows: LHS = tan() + cot B sin 0 cosO = .::::0 sec Bcosec 0 = RHS Writing explicitly in terms of sines and cosines Adding the two fractions together Since sin 2 B + cos 2 (j = 1 (the sin2 () + cos 2 0 fundamental identity) So demonstrate the validity of each of the following identities: cosO sinO Take care with the second one .+ . to demonstrate the validity of the identity: 1 cosO + 1 + cosO 1 2 cose< 2e we start with the lefthand side of this identity and demonstrate that it is equivalent to the righthand side: LHS 1 cosO + 1 1 + cosO l + cosO + 1 ."rom the fundamenta l identity == 2coseczO = RIIS Try this o nc. Show that: tan 0 + cot 0 :.+ ..that IS cot 0 + I = cosec () 2 2 = 2 sin 0 sin 0 sin (I USing these three identities and the definitions of the trigonometric ratios it is possible to demonstrate the validity of other identities. For example.11 lhe flext (1"U1l1e.sin 2 0 == sin 4 OSI::(.c050 (1 cosB)( 1 + cosO) 2 C05 2 () Adding tile two fractions together 2 = sin 2 () f.
. the cosine of a sum of angles is given by: cos(O + ¢) == cosecos¢ . Consequently. RHS cosO 1 + sine (b) cosO 1 sin O Multiplying both sides by cosO( 1 . c F ..5111 2 0 = RlfS Move 0 11 ' lOW to the next frame Identities for compound angles The trigonometric ratios of the sum or difference of two angles can be given in tenns of the ratios of the individual angles. the third angles must also be equal so that l EBX = l eAX = e. and l AXC = l BXE as they are equal and opposite.1) Using the identity 1 + tan 2 0:= sec 2 0 := sin 2 etan 2 0 . .. For example.sinO)(l LHS = (1  + sin O) ::= cos2 e. . 20sm 17 == sm COS2 0 '= sin 4 esec2 e .sin 2 0 Factorizing out the sin 2 0 : sin 2 0(sec20.. From this we find that: sin e)( l + sin e) since cos 2 0 + sin 2 e == 1 == 1 . 2 = .sin Osin ¢ (ill To demonstrate the validity of this. LC = LE as both are right angles.sin 0) transforms the identity into: ~ (1 .S1l1 0 Writing expUcitly in terms of sines and cosines =' sin 0 sec2 0 ..Trigonometry 261 (a) LHS = tan 2 0 sin 2 0 COS 2 0 2 sin 2 0 . consider the following figure: B x A (Not ice that in triangles AXC and EXE.) ".
I ZV2 So the value of cos 15" in surd form is The answer is in tile next frame .Cf AB Af .sin Osin 4> A similar identity can be demonstrated for the difference of t wo angles.¢) == cosOcos ¢ + sinO Sin ¢ Using these identities it is possible to obtain the cosine of angles other than 3~''. For example: cos 75" = cos( 45° + 30°) = Expressing 75° in angles where we know the surd form for the trigonometric ratios cos45~ cos30' .AB AEcosO BEsin O AB cos(O + 4» := AE BE . therefore cosOcos4>.x V2ZV2Z v'3 .DE AB AF DE AB.262 Foundation topics Hence we see that: 005(0+ ¢) ~ AB AC Adjacent over hypotenuse AF .AB 8e<:ause DE = CF Separating out the fraction AEcosO. ~ . Similarly. sin O = Now.. AB = cos 4> and AB = SI0 4>.x.sin 45° sin 30° UsIng the new formula 1/311 ~ . Now. namely: cos(O. 60° and 45" in surd form.. 111is means that: Af DE cos(O + 1» = AB . cos O= ~ sothatAF = ~: so that DE = BE sin O.
) sin() cos ¢+ cosOsin ¢ Nowdividenumeratorand cos ()cos ¢ sin Osin ¢> denominator by cos ()cos ¢ tanO + tan .¢ ) == sinOcos tP .n(9 . differences and products of the trigonometric ratios..cosOsin ¢ t.b ] tan8tan .z 2. .¢» == cos Ocos ¢> + sin Osin ¢ tan((} +¢» sin(O+ ¢) cos(O + ¢ ) 00 sin(O+ ¢) == sin Ocos 6 + cosOsin ¢ sin (O .z 2 .z 1+/3 Just as it is possible to derive the co sine of a sum of angles.x +.lan 2 0 For future reference we now list identities for sums.Trigonometry 263 Because cos l Y = = cos(60 .x  2 .'.tan¢ 1 + tan () tan .45 ) cos 60° cos 45 c + sin 60° si n 45" 1 1 /3 1 = ..1 == 1 ..sin Osin ¢ cos(O . Each of these can be proved by using the earlier identi ties and showing tJlat RHS == LHS (rather than showing LHS = RH5 as we have done hitherto). Trigonometric formulas Sums and differences of angles cos(O + ¢) == cosOcos ¢ . In the next frame a list of such identities is given for future reference.b Double angles Double angle formulas come from the above formulas for sums when () = ¢: si n 2() == 2 sin OcosO cos 28 == cos 2 8 . it is also possible to derive other trigonometric ratios o f sums and differences of angles....2 sin 2 8 2tanO tan 20 1 .b tan8 .sin 2 0 == 2 cos 2 (] .
2 Trigonometric identities can be verified using roth the fundamental identity and the definitions of the trigonometric ratios. 15 Col and 16 cm is n ot a rightangled triangle.smZsonZ Products of ratios 2sin Ocos ¢ ==' sin (O+ ¢ ) + sin(O.J 1 The fundamental trigono metric Identity is cos2 0 + sin2 0==. COS .¢ (b) sm 0 + SID ¢ ==' 2 sm Zcos .> sin 0 .Sin ¢ ==: 2 cos 2.¢) .264 Foundation topics Sums and differences of ratios sinO + sin ¢ "" 2 sin . 12 cm and 13 cm is a rightangled lriangle. Revision exercise Use the fundamental trigonometric identity to show that: (a) the triangle with sides 5 cm.cos(O+ ¢) ~ Revision summary lEJ.cos <P "".COS2 a • Z· a+¢ . 0 . 1 and is derived from Pythagoras' theorem. 2 Verify each of the following identities: sinOtanO (oj cosO 1 + sec O . c/. 8+¢ o.O .¢) 2 sin Osin ¢ ==: cos (O. a. .Z 1 .Z.¢ z (J +¢ o ¢ cosO + cos ¢ "" 2cos .¢) 2 cosOcos ¢ ==' cos(O + t/!) + cos(O. (b) the triangle WitIl sides 7 cm.sm  O+¢. . ¢ cos o.
$ . ¢ ¢ . You will notice that these questions match the l£arning outcomes listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them.2 ( SlnZCOSZcos 2' + sJn'2cos'2cos '2 +sJn Z cos'2 SIn '2 + Stn '2sm '2 cosz .) =: stnO + sin¢ = LHS You have now come to the end of this Programme. . ¢. z$ . =:: sin o(Cosz~ + sinZ~) + sin ¢ ( cosz .' coo. there is no need to 11IIny. ¢ $ 20 t/>. 2 0" (b) RHS .' 0 + sln Zcos Z 0)(coszcos 0 z + s!OZStn z0) = 2 (slnZcosZ ¢ . A list of CaD You? questions follows for you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme.:O sinOlaIl O 1 + see 0 cosO+ lsinzO multiplying top and bottom by cosO cosO+l cos 0 + cos z 0 cosO+ 1 cos O( 1 + cos 0) cosO + 1 ==cosO ~ RHS 0+. + SinZ. After that tty the Te. 2 ==. 0 0) := sin OCOS2~ + sin ¢cos2 ~ + sin ¢ sinZ~ + sin2~Sin 0 == sin Ocosz ~ + sin2 ~sin 0 + sin¢cos2. Work through tllese at your own pace.0 0 z$ ..2 sin. + sin ¢sin Z.Trigonometry 265 1 (a) 52 2 + 122 = 2 25+ 144 = 169 = ]33 2 (b) 7 + 15 = 49 + 225 = 2741162 sinOtanO (a) LH5 = 1 1 + seeO I + set. A set or Further problems provides additional valuable practice. cxcrcbc. 20 ..
266 Foundation topics !'j Can You? lliJ Checklist F. minutes and seconds. 2 Convert the angle 52·505· to degrees. ~ 3 4 Convert the foll owing to radians to 2 dp: (a) 84° (b) 69 · 1 2 ~ (c) 240~ (as a multiple of w) Convert the following to degrees to 2 dp: (b) Swj3 rad (c) 97fj lO fad (a) 2·139 rad Find the value of each of the following to 4 dp: (b) sin1rjlJ (c) cos2w/ 7 (a) cos 18~ (d) cot48.ou try the end of Programme test. (!!)toC!!] . On a scale of 1 to S how confident are you that you can: • Convert angles measured in degrees. find the length of the other side.]" (e) cosec 1·04 rad (f) secO·8S fad (!) to (D 6 Given one side and the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle as 4 ·3 and 11 .B Check this list before and afier ). Test exercise F.2. minutes and seconds into d ecimal degrees? Yes 0 D D D D No • Convert degrees into radians and vice versa? Yes D D D D D No • Use a calculator to determine the values of trigonometric ratios for an y angle? Yes D DOD 0 No • Verify trigonome tric identities? Frames [!J1om mtom [Dto(E) [El to rnJ Yes 0 D D D 0 No [i.B Frames 1 Convert the angle 39 57'2/1 to decimal degree format.
that the triangle with sides 5. 8 What is the length of the diagonal of a square of side length . Is it a rightangled triangle? CEJtoC!!) Verify each of the following tJigonometric identities: secO2sinO cosO (b) cosec Osee 0 l + tanZO cot 0 (c) 2sin Ocos ¢= sin(O + ¢) + sin(O. 8 A triangle has its three sides in the ratio 1 : 0·6 : 0·8. 3 4 S Convert the following to radians to 2 dp: (a) 31 (b) 4815" (c) 225 (as a multiple of :r) 0 0 Convert the follOWing to degrees to 2 dp: (a) 1·784 rad (b) 31r/ 4 fad (c) 4'lf/5 lad Find the value of each of the following to 4 dp: (b) sin 1f/5 (c) tan 41f/ 9 (a) tan 27 (0 cotl·18rad 0 6 Given one side and the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle as 6·4 and 9·1.¢) 10 Show that: (a) (b) (a) (cosO .j2? . 2 Convert the angle 63·216° to degrees. find the length of the other side. 12 and 15 is a rightangled triangle.sinO)2 sin 750 = I + V3 z/2 tan IS ' = v'3 1 v'3 + I Further problems F. minutes and seconds.Trigonometry Frames 267 Show that the triangle with sides 9.B 1 Convert the angle 81 °18'23" to decimal degree fonnat. 11 and 12 is not a rightangled &'jj 7 Show triangle.
'.sin Ocos O) cot 2 0 (e cosO ) (Os O+ sinO sin O 2lanO 1 + 1 tan e (f) (sinO . ' a" n .o == tan 0 \1 l + cot28 .1 cosO + l (a) seco + tano + seco tan 0 2(1 + tan 0) (b) sinlOcoslO =: (sinO .) .268 Foundation topiCS Verify each of the following trigonometric identities: oosO .:..cosecO = 1 + sinO (d) cotOcosO + tanOsinO =: (cosecO + secO)(l .cosO)( l + sin OcosO) 2 _ (c) cosec O.1 _+:.cosO)2 + (sin8 + cosO)2 =: 2 (p. I..
9 . 269 . items in IT locations • Recognize simple properties of combin atorial coefficients • Construct Pascal's triangle • Write down the binomial expansion for natural number powers • Obtain spedne terms in the binomial expansion using the general term • Use the sigma notation • Recognize and reproduce the expansion (or eX where e is the exponential number lfyou already {eel confident about lllese why nol try the silOrl quiz over the page? You can check your answers al the end oftllC book.# Binomial series Learning outcomes When YOll l1ave completed this Programme you will be able to: Frames CDto@) • Define n1 and recognize that there arc n! different combinations of n different items • Evaluate Il! for moderately sized" using a calculator • Manipulate expressions containing factorials • Recognize that there are ( n 1l! )I' different combinations of r identical r .Programme... F _ .._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _....r....
CEltol3IJ (EJIOC!!J 8 Using the series expansion of e" find e04S accuratc to 3 dedmal places.~ Quiz F.9 Frames ~ l 2 In how many different ways can 7 identical bottles of wine be arranged in a wine rack with spaces for 12 bottles? Find the value of: (a) 6! CIJIoOJ (b) 11! IS! (c ) 12! (d) (13 . 270 . (b) L" (Z. + 3) .7)' (C) 0' 3! Evaluate each of the following: (a) 4C z (b) IOC6 (c) R9CO 4 5 Expand (3a + 4b)4 as a binomial series.X/ 2 )9 written in terms of ascending powers of x. find: (a) the 4th term (b) the coefficient of xS. In the binomial expansion of (1 . Determine the 6th term and the sum of the first 10 terms of the series: 2 + 4 + 6 + R + .. mJto(li] 6 Evaluate: (a) '" I> .
x2 different arrangements.2) x . 3 and 4 once each? Answer in the next frame w Because The first numeral can be selected In one of 4 ways. This type of product of decreasing natural numbers occurs quite often in mathematic. Next frame . So. So there are: 4 x 3 = 12 ways of selecting the first two numerals Each combination of the first two numerals leaves 2 ways to select the third numeral. the product: 3x2xl is called 3factorial and is written as 3! So the value of 51 is . there are: 3 x 2 = 6 choices of first and second numeral combined The third numeral is then the one that is left. Can you see the pattern here? If you have n different items then you can form 11 x (n .. So there are: 4 x 3 x 2 = 24 ways of selecting the first three numerals The last numeral is the one that is left.l ) x(n . so a general notation has been devised. using each item just once. each selection leaving 3 ways to select the second numeral. or combillations.Binomial series 271 Factorials and combinations Factorials Answer this question. How many different threedigit numbers can you construct using the three numerals 5. For example. how many fourdigit numbers can be constructed using the numerals I. 2.. 7 and 8 once each? The answer is in the next frame CD w They are: 578 758 857 587 785 875 Instead of listing them like this you can work it out. That is. . There are 3 choices for the first numeral and for each choice there are a further 2 choices for the second numeral. .
.2) x . Try it on your calculator.272 Foundation topics Because 5! = 5x4x3 x 2xl=120 The factorial expression can be generalized to the factorial of an arbitrary natural number tJ as. that is: 9! = 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 362880 w w So the value of II! is .2)1 (d) 3! rn (e) . x 2 xl To save time a calculator can be used to evaluate II! for moderately sized example.. _ 6 (d) '0 '. For reasons that will soon become clear lhe value of O! is defined to be 1. For Press the! key The display changes to 362880. on your calculator: Enter the number 9 t1.2)1=51 = 120 3 _ _ 6. Evaluate each of the following: (a) 61 (b) 3! ~ (c) (7 .  Notice t h at we h ave used the fact that rn = 1 (e) (S 5! 2)121 5! 3!21 5x4x3x2x l (3 x 2x l) x (2 x I ) . (S 51 2)!21 (e) 10 (a) 720 (b) 6720 (c) 120 (d) 6 Because (a) 6! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x t = 720 (b) 3. til = n x (nI) x (11. Try a few examples. W 8x7 x 6 x Sx4x3 x 2xl 3 x 2x 1 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 = 6720 (c) (7 .
x 2 x 1 = (2 n + 1) x (2n) So simplify each of these: n! (a) (n + 1)] (11+ 1)1 (b) (n 1)1 (2n )] Ie) ~~Ci (211 + 2)! Answers in tile "ext frame (a) 1 11+1 (b) n (l1 + 1) CiJ L x (211 + 1) (cl (2/1 + 2) Because nl (a) (n + l)! (b) (n+ ] )1 (11 1)1 (2n)! (e) (z" II x tilI) x ( n . .1) x (2n + 1 2) x ... x 2 x 1 Also note that while 2. .2) x .. Write each of the following in factorial form: (a) 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 (b) 6 x 5 x 4 (e) (7 x 6) x (3 x 2 x l ) 2 Next (rame (or the GrlSWerS . x 2 x I (n + l )x/lx{1l l) x( n 2)x ..Binomial series 273 Now try some for general II. x 2 x I (n + l ) (/1 + 1) x (n) x (n 1)1 (n I )! (11 + 1) X (11) = 11(11 + 1) (2n)1 + 2)' (211 + 2) x (211 + 1) x (2n)! (211+2) x (211 + 1) Try some more.2) x ..1 = 2 x nl . for example: (211 + 1)1 (211 I)! (2n+l ) x (2n+ 1. x2 x 1 (2n l )x(211 1 l)x(211 1 2) x ... (211)! = so that.2) x . x2x ] = n x(I1 .. x 2 x I (211 + 1) x (2n ) x (2111 ) x . .. x2 x 1 (211 1) X (2n 2) x (2n 3) x ..1)1 then: nl nx (nI )! 1)1 (n I )! (n " (2n) x (211 ...1) x (2n .. Because n! = n x (111 ) x (n .
So every arrangement is duplicated. this would be the same arrangement as making YOllr first choice as Wednesday and your second dlOice as Friday.'Cond selection. Let's also assume that your employer is very fl exible and allows you to choose which evenings you work provided you ri ng him up on Sunday and tell him. How many different arrangements are there? . One possible selection could be: Mon 'ftle Wed Thtl Fri W MOI1 W Tile Wed W anot her selection couJd be: T/lrI Frj W How many arrangements are there of two working evenings among the five days? The answer is in tile next frame L!!J Because 5>. However. on the Sunday. Nex t frame lliJ Combinations Let's assume that you have a parttime job In the weekday (. n ot all arrangements arc differenl.274 Foundation topics w Because (C) (a) 41 6! (b) 3' 71 x 31 (e) S1 x 21 (a) 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 41 by the definition of the factorial 6xSx4x3x2xl 61 (b) 6 x 5 x 4 = 3 x2 x 1 31 (7 x 6) x (3 x 2 x 1) (7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1) x (3 x 2 x 1) 2 (5x4x3x2x l) x (2xl) 71 x 31 5! x 21 Now let's LISe these ideas. if. This gives a total of 5 x 4 = 20 possible arrangements.. For example.'Venings where you have to be at work just two evenings out of the five.4 = 20 1l1ere are 5 weekdays from which to make a first selection and for each such selection there are 4 days left from which to make the s(. you made YOllr first cllOice as Friday and yOLir second clloice as Wednesday.
There ore (S places. !"". Wed. if your employer asked you to work 3 evenings out of the S.Binomial series 275 (ill Because each arrangement is dupli cated.11lU Mon. Wed Mon. Wed Tue. Tue Mon. 5~ ) 121 different combinations of two identical items in five different So.= 5 . Fri Fri Fri Fri There are 10 different ways of combinjng two identical items in five different places. So any arrangement is repeated 3 x 2 x 1 = 31 times.. not all arrangements are d ifferent. how many different arrangements could you sclect? (Give your answer in terms of factorials. The expression S .. Anyone arrange ment can be rearranged within itself 31 times because the first selection in the arrangement can be placed against three different days and having placed the first selection the second can be placed against a choice of two days. Thu Tuc. Thu. 4 can be written in factorial form as foUows: Sx4 2 ~ 5x4 2x 1 5 x 4x3x2xl (3 x 2 x 1)(2 x 1) 5' or be tter stl "II : 3121 5 x 4 51 .) Nex t frame 5! (5 3)13! Because There arc 5 weekdays from which to make a first selection and for each such selection there are 4 days left from wh ich to make the second selection and then 3 days from which to make the third selection. Thu Wed. Tue. List them: Mon. The third selection is then placed against the remaining day. The total number of differenl arrangements is then: . 2 = 3!2] = (5 2)12! because this just contains the numbers 5 and 2 and will link to a general notation to be introduced in Frame 14. This gives a total of S x 4 x 3 = 60 possible arrangements. However.
1) = ()1 arrangements.(r .: n' (n f )!r! So.2 places. ~e third item can be located in anyone of t he remaining /1 . TIle second item can be located in anyon e of the remaining n .276 Foundation topics Sx4x3 3! S1 213! SJ (5 ..1) places.(r . eva lu ate each of the follOWing: (a) 6e3 (b) 7C2 (c) 4e4 (d) leu .3)1 3! Can you see the pattern emerging here? There au: (S :~)!2! S~)!3! different combinations of two identical items in five different places. f/ different places where n 2': r. The rth item can be located in anyone of the remaining n . 111ere are (S different combinations of Illree klen lical items in five different places. However. (Anyone arrangement can be rearranged within itself r! times.f .) So the tota r number of different combinations is given as: tI! (n f)!r This particular ratio of factorials is called a combinatorial coeffidwt an d is denoted by "e. n! This means that there are n .. jn The answer is n! f )!T! tile next frame (n Because The first item can be located in anyone of n places. So if you have f Identical items to be located in the number of different combinations is . arrangement is repeated r! times. every /1..1 places.
.1)'"'(" .ru (11 O)!ot nl I1lot n.r)! 3 "c..3)]3! 71 ~ (7 2)]2! 61 3]3! 720 = 20 21 Remember OJ = 1 36 5040 7! 5!2! 120 x 2 4)!41 3 3! (d) . (n n)!II! II! 11] = = O!n! tI! I 'an d "c0 = ToOno · .1)!(n . = nc.= +:1 "' )' Taking out common factors Adding the two ffilctions together ( /I til r)! (r + 1). 4C4 61 (6 .r)! = n+I C'+1 rll 11! (tl .0.Binomial series 277 (a) 20 (b) 2 1 (cI 1 (d) 1 (e) 5 (ill Because (a) 6 C 3 (b) (CI 'c. ( rl + 1) (n (n + 1)1 r )!(r + 1)1 (n+ l )! Because (11 . (e) SCI = (5 = (4 4' 4' 0]4! 3.+1 = (IT (n fI! r )!rt n! r ) !r! + (II n! [r + l ]) l(r I/! + 1 )1 + "(" :: ... + "C' +1 tIC This requires some care to prove: •+ "C .r ) = (11. ~ III I 2 "c..r)1 and rl (r+ 1)=(r + I )! Because n!(11 + I ) = (rl + 1)1 Because ([n + l[ = H+1Cr+1 ['+I ])'(H I )I [n+ I] . '.="Co=l This is quite straightforward to prove: n. 3!0! 4.11 + r)!(n .ls and combinations .[n I] ~ n. Co ~ (3 _ 0 ). This is a little more involved: "Cn _ r (n  r" . 5' 41 41 = 1 5' J)!1 1 5' 4111 = 5 Three properties of combinatorial coefficients ) "C..' At this point let us pause and summmize the main facts on factorj(.rJ)!(n .r .r) ! I/! r!(/I .
1 "C._r = HC.+1 li!J r1l Revision exercise 1 Find the value of: (a) 5! (b) 10! 13! ( ) c 8! (d) (9 .. ="(rl c=::.+l = tH ICHl whe re" = 5 and r =3 The "ext topic is related to this last one . = "Co = 1 5 "C. explain why each of the following equations arc true: (a) lSCS = ISCto (b) SC3 + 5C 4 = 6C4 1 ~) S!=Sx 4 x3x2x l = l W (b) 1O! = 3 628800 (use a calculator) 13' (C) sf = 13 x 12 x 11 x 10 x 9 = ~ 154440 (d) (9 .2) x .278 Foundation topics [ill E Revision summary (tl .3 )' (e) 01 = 1 6' ~ 720 2 There arc lSC9 d ifferent arrangements of9 identical umbrellas on a rack of 15 coat h ooks. where: IS C9 = ( 15 151 9 )19! '9 1= 6. 3! 151 SOOS 3 31 (a) lC 1 = (3 _ ~ ) !11 9 2!1! 9! 5141 3 126 (b) C4 = 91 (9 _ 4)14! (c) l OOCO = 1 4 (a) lSCs = ISCIO because nC._r = 'IC..+l = n+1C.3)' (e) O! 2 3 How many different arrangements are there of 9 identical umbrellas on a rack of 15 coat hooks? Evaluate each of the following: (a) 3el (b) 9C4 (c) lOO CO (d) sOese 4 Without evaluating. where" = ] 5 and r = 10 (b) 5C3 +sC4 = 6C4 because "Cr /"C.. r)!r! . 6 nc... +"C. x 2 x 1 is ca lled nfactorial and is denoted by tI! 2 The number of different combinations of rl different items is II! 3 The n umber of different combinations of r identical items among lEl 1 The product" x 11 locations is given by the combinatorial coeffi cient 4 nc.1) X (t1 ...
. . 1 =3C 1 etc.I = 4C I etc. 'c.. 'c.. Row 0 0 Column 2 3 4 °Co 'Co 'Co 'Co 'Co 1 2 3 4 .. 'c. .. 'C. " . . ·C. The pattern devised in this array can be used to demonstrate the third property of combinatorial coefficients that you considered in Frame ]5. 'c. 'C.. 3Cz 2Cu +2C 1 = 2+ICo . ICO + ICI = 1+ 1C U +1 _ zC I . The answer is in the following frame lliJ Because The superscript indicates row 4 and the subscripts Indicate columns 0 to 4. 3C3 Follow the pattern and fin in the next row. 'c. 'c. . 'c.Binomial series 279 Binomial series Pascal's triangle The following triangular anay of combinatorial coeffidents can be constructed where the superscript to the left of each coefficient indicates t he row number and the subscript to the right indicates the column number: Row 0 0 1 2 Colllm" 2 3 4 °Co 'Co 'Co 3 4 'Co 'c. .. namely that: In the following array. 3CO + 3CI = 3+1C Ot. .. ·C. arrows have been inserted to indicate that any coeffident is equal to the coeffiCient immediately above it plus the one above it and to the left. . 'C. .... 'c.
.3 + 3 = 6. any coefficient is equal to the sum of the number immediately aoove it and the one above it and to the left. 4 + 1 = 5. . Now let's move Ofl to a related topic in tile next (rame ..280 Foundation topics Now you have already seen from the first property of the combinatorial coefficients in Frame 16 that "c" = "Co = 1 so the values of some of these coefficients can be filled in immediately: Row COllllfI1i 0 0 1 ) 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 'c. reading from left to right are . Finally. 6 + 4=10.. 4 + 6=10. S. A nswers are jll the next frame 11. 'c. Fill in the numerical values of the rem<lining combinatorial coeffidents using the fact that nc. .2 + I = 3 1 + 3 = 4. ) I Because The first number is sCo= 1 and then 1 + 4 =5.3 + 1 = 4 This is called Pascal's triangle. sCs = 1. The numbers on TOW 5.. The ans wer is in Frame 22 Row Coillmn 0 1 2 3 4 a 2 3 4 I 2 1 3 4 3 6 1 4 1 + 1= 2 1 + 2 = 3. + "Cr + 1 = 1!+ IC1+ 1: that is. 5. 10. 10......
look at the followin g expansions: (a + b)l = a + b (a l. 5.lOal lf + l00 2b 1 + Sa l b4 I. S. binomials of the form: (a + b)" where II is " n"tural number. namely. 6. In p1'lfticul1'lf.if l a stP + 5a 4 b 1 I. 3. 4.b )l = Note the coefficients 1. 2.Binomial series 281 Binomial expansions A binomial is a pair of numbers raised to a power. 10. 4. S. 1 Note the coefficients 1. 10. Because The values in the next row of Pascal's triangle are 1. 1 + 4ntr' + b 4 Because (a + b)' ~ (a 4 + b)3(a + b) + 3aJi2 + JiJ )(a + b ) = a + 3ffJb + 3a 2 Ji2 + ab3 + a3 b + 3a2bl + 3al} + b 4 4 = 0 + 4a l b + 6tflf + 4ab 3 + b4 Can you see t he connection with Pascal's triangle? = (a 3 + 3a 2b Row 0 0 1 Coll/nln 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 1 1 1 I 1 3 6 1 4 Coefficients of (a + b)1 Coeffidents of (a + b)2 Coefficients of (a +b)l Coeffidents of (0 + b )4 Next frame for the answer So what are the coefficients of (a + b / '? II. 3. In this Programme we shall only consider natural number powers.b)s = as = + Sa 4 b + loa1lf + l0a 2 b J l Sab 4 I.l aob s . 10.b )2 = a2 (a I. 5. 1 Note the coeffidents I. 1 and the numbers in row 5 are also the va lues of the coefficients of the binomial expansion: (a I. a3 + 2lIb + bl + 3a 2 b + 3afil + b 1 So what is the expansion of (a + b )4 and what are the coefficients? Next (rame for the answer (a + b)4 = n 4 + 4a 3b + 6tlbl Coeffici ents 1. 10.
b4 + Goli' + b6 + 4 x 3 x 2 x 1a 6 x 5:x4x32. + if n! (n 1 )!1! n' (n 2)!21 n{n2~ 1) so "C] = ..2b 2 + .1) a.2) an..l )(n ."It' = a" + "C1a. the power of b increases so that in each tenn the two powers add up to 5. 6... Because the numbers in row 5 are also the values of the appropriate combinatorial coefficients this expansion can be written as: (a + b)s = sCoasbo + sC a 4 b 1 + SC2a3b2 + SC3a2if + sC a J b 4 + sCsaob s J 4 TIle general binomial expansion for natural number n is then given as: (a + b)" = "Coa"lfi + "Cla".282 Foundation topics Notice how in this expansion.. Next frame for tile answer Because _ 6 6 Sb 6 x 5 4t? 6 x 5 x 4 Jib3 (a + b)6 a + a +z!a + 31 + + 6 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 lJS 5! a 6 x 5x4x3x2 x l b6 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 zb 4 4.2t? + n(" . Next frame for tile answer In(n .b4 6x5x4x3x2 Ii' f. + /I' So use this form of the binomial expansion to expand (a + b)6.zb z + ...1)(" . the binomial expansion can be written as: (a + b)n = a" + ndf.3 if 2! 3! + . .2) 3! From thiS.Gasb I..."""" (n 3)13! n(n . . IS.Jb + "Cza n... .... 6 and 1 are the numbers in row 6 of Pascal's triangle. 15.l )(n.. + "C"d'.a 61 + 6 sb 6 x 5 41? = a + a + .2...' b 1 + "Czd'...2) 3! Because lie] n! = . .. as the power of a decreases.1b + n(n ..~b6 Notice that 1.a x 4 Jiif +6 x 5 6 = + 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1a 6' cf' I.15a4b2 + 20Jib3 + 15a2. 20.
..a'1T17 represents the (r I. For example..2x)4 = 81 . + "C"d'..h of the following binomials: (a) ( I + X)7 using IJascal's triangle (b) (3 ."b" Each term of this expansion looks like nC. (0 + bt I3ccause the expression "C. The general term then becomes: "C an.a.X7 (b) Using the general form of the binomial expansion: (3 .. expand ea<.0 + 16x4 Because (a) Using Pascal's triangle: (1 + x f = I + (I + 6)x + (6 + 15 )x2 + (15 + 20)..a"rb r where the value of r ranges progressively from r = 0 to r = n (there are n + 1 tenns in the expansion). .&3) = 81 . This is appropriate when n is large So.216x + 216r . Any specific term can be derived from the general term.1 )th term in the expansion for 0 :5 r :S 11 = 2. .rb' is typical of each and every lenn in the expansion we calJ it the general term of lhe expansion.2x)4 using the combinatorial coefficients Next frame for the answer (a) (I + X)7 = 1 + 7x + 21r + 35~ + 35x4 + 21~ + 7x 6 + X7 (b) (3..! 3)< 32 X ( _b )2 + 4 x 3 x 2 x 3 )< ( _ ZX)3 + 4 x 3 )< 2 x 1 x ( _ ZX)4 4! = 3~ + 33 x (.2x) + 4.96..21f 2)!2! n(n .Zb Z + .&x) + 6 x 3 2 x (4)?) + 4 x 3 x (.2x)' ~ (3 + (2xIl' = 3~ + 4)< 33 )< 3! (. we can say that: "C. This is appropriate when n is small Use the combinatorial coefficients.1'3 + (20 + 15 )x 4 + (1 5 + 6 )x" + (6 + 1)x 6 + X7 = 1 + 7x + 21r + 35xl + 35x4 + 21x" + 7x 6 I.2h2 2! a and this is the third term of the expansion: The 3rd term is obtained from the general tenn by letting r Consequently. consider the case when r = 2.Binomial series 283 There are now two ways of obtaining the binomial expansion of (a + ht: 1 2 Use Pascal's triangle.216x + 216x 2 .ZtJl 2 = (11 n! a..96x 3 + ( 16x4 ) + 16x4 The general term of the binomial expansion In Frame 26 we found that the binomial expansio n o f (a + bIn is given as: = nCoa"bO + "C1an.1h 1 + nCza.I ) .
n = tS and r + ] = 10 so r = 9.'..b)" = "Coa"bO + "C 1a.Zbz n(n .2l1 + .Q + 11.32 5!7! x ~... b = x.!3.7(_x/ 3)7 = ( 12 I 2! 2 s ( / 3)' 7)!7! x .!..9X9= 9 15! JlS9 x9 (l5 . + ne"d. b = .. 2 An alternative form of the hinomial expansion of (a + b )" is given in terms o f combinatorial coefficients as: (a I. This gives the 10th term as: ISC tIS.1)(11 .284 Foundation topics Let's loo k at an example: To find the 10th term in the binomial expansion of (1 + X)l S written in ascending powers of x. The 8th term is: "C. (_3)7 792 x 32 7 2 187 x 25344 7 = .. ...I) n."243 X Z816 7 Here II = 2. ZI 2. The 8th term in the binomial expansion of (Z _ j )12 is .9 )!9! I S! 9 = 6!9!x = 5005x9 obtained using a calculator Try th is one yourself.. n = 12 and r + 1 = 8 so r = 7.16 7 = ."Czd r.2 187 x 28.nllr _ " . The answer is in the next frame (ill Because I .2) . +11' .. ..243 x At tills point let us pause allll summarize the main facts on binomial expanswns (ill 1'Fil Revision lE J 1 Row summary 11 in Pascal's triangle contains the coefficients of the binomial expansion o f (a + b)".Ib n(n .lb1 t..x/ 3.3b' . + 2! a + 3! II .. we note that a = 1.
4 (_ 3 / x )4..(3/ x) 8 l 3 (8 = 8! 3)!3! 2 (.c4 is derived from the general term when r ThaI is: 8C 42 8 .x 3/ 8 In the binomial expansion of (2 _ ~) 8: 5 3 (a) The 4th term is derived from the generallerm "c.6d"b + 15a 4 if + ZOal b l + 1 5a2 b 4 + 6ab s + b6 (b) (a + b )7 = a 7 + 7a 6b + 210 5b2 + 35a4b 3 + 35al b 4 + 2 1a 2 b 5 + 7ab6 + b 7 (a) (1 f. b = 3/ X.X)5= l s+ 5xI 4Xi + lOxl l X 2+ lO x 12X3+ 5 xl iX4 + XS = 1 +5x + lOx2 + 10. 56 48384 =. That is.xj2 )3 = 2 3 + 3 X 22( _ X/2 )1 + 3 X 2 1( _x / 2)2 + (_ X/ 2)3 = ~3 6x + 3x2/2 . the 4th term is: 6 C3 2 .0 +Sx 4 + X5 (b) (2 2 + 3X)4 = 24 + 4 X 23(3x )1 + 6 X 22(3x )2 + 4 = 16 + 96x + 216x2 + 216. find: (a) the 4th term 1 written in terms of descending (b) the coefficient of x.Binomial series 285 Revision exercise 1 2 Using Pascal's triangle write down the binomial expansion of: (a) (a + b )' (a) (1 (ill (e) (2 .3/ x) 5~~! x 32 x (27 / Xl ) = 4..4 From Pascal's triangle: (a) (a + b)6 = a6bo + 6a 5b 1 + ISa 4 if + 20al Jil + 1Sa2b 4 + 6a i Ji~ I.'1 = 8 and r + 1 = 4 so r = 3.aO b6 =a6 I.x864= . giving the coeffident as: 8C 4 28.x/ 2)' 8 (b) (a + b)' Write down the binomial expansion of each of the following: + x )' (b) (2 + 3x)' 3 In the binomial expansion of (2 _ ~) powers of x.Xl Xl (b) The coefficient o f .a"' b' where a = 2.4(_3)4 = • (8 8! 4)!4! 24 (_3)4 =70 x 16 x 81 = 90720 .0 + 81x 4 X 2 1(3xf + (3X)4 (c) (2 .
I where r = 7 .a"'Jr and where the value of r ranges in integer steps from r = 0.I"' l' = L"C.. We write down the general tenn and then use the Greek letter E (Sil..a".as an even integer minus or p lus 1.d''lf' L ..." Here the Greek letter E denotes a sum of terms where the typical term is "C. For example: 8 = 2 x 4 so here 8 = 2rwhere r= 4 Every odd integer can be written in the form 2r .'h' + "Cza.d''Y. For example: The sum of the numbers in any row of Pascal's triangle is equal to 2 raised to the power of the row number This is easily proved using the fact that: .1 or as 2r + 1 . as indicated at the bottom of the sigma. One immediate benefit of this notation is that it permits further properties of the combinatorial coefficients to be proved. then: + b)" = L .. =2" (0 (I " "C. + "C"a""b" = " "e.tlh" Instead of writing down each term in the sum in this way a shorthand notation has been devised.. .'lfla) to denote the sum. .. For example: 13 = 14 . When a = 1 and b = I. Every even integer is divisible by 2 so every even integer can be wriLten in the form 2r where r is some integer.0 + 1)" = 21/ = " " L"C.. That is: (0 + h)" = "Coa"bo + "C....286 Foundation topics lID The E (sigma) notation (a The binomial expansion o f (a + b)" is given as a sum of terms: + b)" = "CootlbO + "Ctotl.1 = 2 x 7 . ... + "C"atl. To begin. as indicated on the top of the sigma. ..=0 ~ General terms It is necessary for you to acquire the ability to form the general term from a sum of specific terms and so write the sum of specific terms using the sigma notation ..1 so that 13 = 2r . to r = fl. .2h 2 + ..1b J + tlCza tl Zb2 + . consider the sum of the flTst n even numbers: 2 + 4 + 6+8+ .0 " L"C. . .
..32 each in the form 2r.1 = 2r . The answer is in the next frame (a) r= 8 r = 124 r = 16 (b) r ~ 11 r =99 r = .Binomial series 287 Alternatively: 11= 12+ 1 = 2><6 + 1 so that 13 = 2r+l wllerer=6 Writing (a) 16.J where r = 99 . .32=2 x (16) wherer = 16 (b) 21 =221 = 2 x 11 I = 2rl where r = 11 197 = 198 . .. For example: . The symbol E can then be used to denote a sum of terms of which t he general t erm is t ypical: 1 + 3 + 5+7 + 9 + .23= .1 = 2 x 99 ...11 Next frame We saw in Frame 35 that we can use the sigma notation to denote SttIllii of general terms..I = 2 x (. ~ ~::<2r .l) ~.l ) We can now also denote the range of terms over which we wish to extend the sum by inserting the appropriate values of the cOl/nting number r below and above the sigma sign .. 197. . . For example. .. We shall now use the notation to denote sums of terms involving integers..] where r ?: 1..248.... in the sum of the odd natural numbers: 1 + 3+5+ 7+ 9 + .3 + 5 + 7+9 + 11 + 13 ~ 49 .. indicates the sum of 7 terms where r ranges fro m r = 1 to r= 7.23 each in the form 2r . L(2r . (b) 21. L(Zr ... the general term can now be denoted by 2r .1 = 2r . give the value of r in each case. . That is: .22 .. ..1. give the value of r in each case.l where r = .11 ) .. I ) ~ 1 .11 Because (a) 16 = 2 >< 8 = 2r where r = 8 248 = 2 x 124 = 2r where r = 124 .
(c) I I I (b) 1 + '2 + 3 + 4+ '" (d) . ". Notice r..1)' = 1 and when r is odd (. 10 (e) . =. ..1 L. Because (a) This is the sum of the first 10 even numbers and every number is divisible by 2 so the general even number can be deno ted by 2r. This permits the general term to be written as (.I )' because when r is even (.5 + 1 + 8 + 27 + 64 + 1 1 1 I (e) m+TI+2! + j! +'" Answers in the next frame (ill I <a) 2" L 2. r 1 L . every odd number is preceded by a minus sign. ~ .O. This can be denoted by (. . giving 10 the sum as L2r. . giving the sum as ~.. L i' . =1 r 10 (e) r" I (d) (I)'" L(Ij'. This gives the sum as L . = 1 (e) This is the sum of the first 10 reciprocal factorials and the b1Cneral reciprocal factorial can be deno ted by ~. In each of the following write down the general term and then write down the sum of the first 10 terms using the sigma notation: (a) 2 + 4 + 6+8 + . (b) This is the sum of the first 10 reciprocals and the general reciprocal can 1 10 I be denoted by ..' .{) r.=0 r .288 Foundation topics Now you try some. giving the sum as L r3.3 + 4 . r.1)' r and the 10 sum is L(I )'r.1)' = .1. ' I =1 10 10 1 (b) .1 + 2 .3. 10 (d) Here. r "" I (c) This is the sum of the first 10 numbers cubed and every number can be denoted by . t that the sum of the first 10 terms starts with r = 0 and ends with r = 9.where r r #..
11 S 1 11 1 (b) (2.1 to an even power ..+12r. Notice that the first tenn could be written as lIz to maintain the pattern. the 11th term corresponds to r = II .hence r + 1 which is even when r is odd and odd when r is even . In each of the following write down the general term and then write down the sum of the first II terms using the sigma notation: (a) (c) 2 +4' + 6' + 8 +'" 24 + 6 .Binomial series 289 If the sum of terms is required up to some final but unspecified value of the counting variable r.I )'+ 12r 1).27 + . . (b) Each term is of the form of the rcdprocal of an odd number squared.1. L (.8 +. Also the nth teon corresponds to r = n . + liZ L::r =.I)' " . SSSS 111 (b) 1 + 3Z+ SZ+ 7Z+'" (d) 1 . to force a positive sign for r odd we must raise . Consequently. Answers in tile 11ext frame (e) 1 . . 32 + .1)" b (2' . then the symbol n is placed on the top of the sigma. . (e) Again.3 + 9 .I +1 1 +. ~) . '"" (e) (..] as the first term corresponds to r = O.I)' ""' Because (a) Each term is o f the fonn of S d ivided by an even number. . L(I)'3' ".I )'.=1 (d) (1)'3' . Try some examples. (d) Here the counting starts at r = 0 for the first tenn so while odd terms arc preceded by a minus sign the value of r is even. say r = n.. the sum of the first n terms of the series with general term is given by: r " z = l z + 22 t . S 2r ' (e) ~2r ". For example. (c) Here the alternating sign is positive for every odd term (r odd) and negative for every even term (r even).
. 1 + 2 + 3 + . 2Lr = n(n '~ I . (n + 1) ('1 + 1) added n times That is: .. . " ~ k(f( l ) +((2) + ((3 ) + .2) + . This is a useful formula to remember so make a note of it ill your workbook. ~ . Next frame Rules for manipulating sums Rule 1 If fer ) is some general teon and k is a constant then: 'Lkf(') ~ k((l) + kf(2) + k((3) + .1) + (3 + 11 .. In particular. l1(n + I ) 2 Now for two rules to be used wilen numiplliaring sums. + 1) k multip lied by 1 added to itself n times = kn . . .. starting with n and working backwards.. Common COIISta /lts call be factored out of tile si. If these two are added together term by lenn then: 1)+ (n .. + ~. + n.. + ((n) ) = k " f er) L =....290 Foundation topiC5 @ The sum of the first n natural numbers Consider the sum of the first n nonzero natural numbers: L r= .~ l + 1) so that Lr .. L:> = 11 + (11 =.. when f(r) = 1 for all values of r: ~ k(1+1 + ...2) + .grnn. . + k((n ) . 1 ... +1 22::r = (1 + n ) + (2 + n .. This can equally welJ be written as.. + (n + 1) That is: 22:)= (n + 1) + (tl + I ) +(n + 1)+ . the sum of the first n nonzero natural numbers.
J + (g(l ) + g(2) + ._ 1 = 6 n(n + 1) + Sn 2 = using the formulas in Frames 42 and 43 3(. J .2 + n) + Sn =3n2 +8n = /1(3n + 8) So the values of: (a) S<J L' =.. AlISwers in next frame ... .» ~ (f(l) + g(l) + ((2) + g(2) + .Binomial series 291 Rule 2 If f(r) and g (r ) are two general terms then: " L(n. .. '~ I n" by Rule 2 by Rule 1 ~ 6L' + LS r_ 1 . Solution ] + 2 + 3 + . + 100 = 2:' . +LS r_ l 1'>=\ ...)+ Lg(·) . ~ {{(I) + f (2) + .) ~ Ln.=1 1'=1 ..) + g(. L (6' +S) ~ L6. + 5) Solution n " =. ... Now for two workel/ examples Example 1 Find the value of the first 100 natural numbers (excluding zero).=1 I()()(I()() + 1) "" 2 = 5050 using the formula in Frame 42 Example 2 Find the value of 2:(6.
ion is true for any natural number value of n.1) 2!nZ + 3!n3 +"'+ n" (1 .ion of (1 + ~)II is given as: n(" . 1 1 I I = rn + v + Z! + 3f + Here the ellipsis (. n 00 . we can use the sigma notation here and write: .0)( 1 .. Indeed.!:.. We have a 'I notation for this.3 ) r= 1 "".wmber o(terms. Indeed. I Now for the last topic The exponential number e The binomial exparu.' T= I I 3'1 ~ '1(4'1 . the value of... If we now Jet the value of " increase then.we say that it has an infinite . large or smail. ~oc I Um (~) ~ O.I ){n2) (~)\ .D) 31 + . we write: . but when n is a large natural number then! is a small number.) at the end of the expansion means that the expansion never ends .1) (!)\ ( I + ~)" n n 2!n = l+n+ = 1+I +(~)" n " + n(I1 . so x 51 2 /I 1275 (b) L(8.L7 ~ 4. + n" I This exparu. 3! n n(n . =1 + 1 + 1 1 21 + 31 +.3) L' .. the limit of !n as n > 00 is 0 Also.2/ '1) 21 + 3! + . . .2) I ~ I+"(!) + '1('1 . the 'I " larger the value of n becomes.1/ '1) ( I 1 / .. as it does so.0) + I +z!+ (I ... the closer . decreases.292 Foundation topia 00 Because so (aJ " I (a) 1275 (b) n(4/1. as n t I the closer the expansio n above becomes to the expansion: (1 . 7) ~ 8 L' .l )(n .becomes to zero.~ .)(1 ..
0 ·03125 .. the exponential number..n facts on tile sigma notation alld tI. 1 ' +3' +4' 2..Binomial series 293 Notice the symbol for infinity (oc) at the top of the sigma. using the series expansion of r is .0 ·0026 I. . That is: L ~ e r~O r1 x 1 You will find this number on your calculalor: Enter the number 1 Press the e" key and the value of e is displayed...ll not affect the value to 3 sig fig So. \.o·2s = 1 + (_ 0·25 )I (... .OZS)' 2! I (0·25)' 31 . = ]·031250·2526 = 1·779 to 3 dp Check this answer using your calculator. subsequent terms will not affect the value to 3 dp = 1 . xx' r={I r. whose value is 2·7182818 . . . Since: ~ 1·11 subsequent terms wi.. it is found that the value of CO' 2S to 3 dp Next frame (or the amwer ) .e series eXIHlusio" of eY • .... this denotes the fact that the sum is a sum of an infinile number of terms... = + x+ ilxl0 +.0 ·25 \. In Part 11 we shaJi show that: ~ =L . Next (mme Use the series expansion to find the value of cO'l accurate to 3 sig fig. At this point lei us pause and summarize tile ma.779 Because e.. . It can be shown that this sum is a finite number which is denoted bye.
_1 2 2 added to itself n times =4"(n + l ) + 2n = z"z +4n = 2n(n+2) 2 The 5th term of 3 + 6 + 9 + 12+ .. is 15 because the generaJ term is 3r. The sum of the first 20 terms of the series is then: f> ~ 3f> ~ 320~1) ~ 630 ... . . +f(n) ~1 2 The binomial expansion can be written using the sigma notation as: (a + b)" 3 = " L"C. .0 The exponential expression terms: ~ is given as a sum o f an infinite number of ® ~ Revision exercise 1 EvaJuate: 2 Detennine the 5th term and the sum of the first 20 terms of the series: 3 3 + 6 + 9+12 + ..a"'b' .~l 1_ 1 (b) LI4r+2) ~ L4r + L2 "". 1 ra l . . each tenn typified by a general term: " Lflr) ~ fil l + f(2) + f(3) + . I 1=1 (= 1 n "" = 4 " + (2 + 2+ . + 2) L' ..l) sothat:f> = 36~7)=666 . (ill 1 tr="(tI.. Using the series expansion of i! find (a) cU"23 accurate to 3 decimal places..294 FoundaUon topics E lE!) Revision summary I The sigma notation is used as a sh orthand notation for the sum of a number of terms..
= 1·259 to 3 dp You have now come to the end of this Programme.9 Check this list before and after you fly the end of Programme t:est.. !III Can You? Checklist F.Binomial series 295 3 Given that: ." ~ r! "" x.nil notice that these questions match the l. Work througll these at yOl/r own pace. there is no need to flurry.. c~ ? = L I = l + X 131 +" 2. X2 X3 then: (OB)' f: (0·23)' ~ 1 + 0. After that try the Test excrcbe. = 0 r. You .r. . .earning outcomes listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that folJows them. 4! 3! = ] + 0·23 + 0·02645 + O{){)2028 + 0·000117 + .fl.=1 21 + (OB)' +.. On a scale of ] to 5 how confident an you that you can: • Define n! and recognize that there are nl different combinations of 11 different items? Ye~ No D Frames o o c o (DtoITJ 0to0 • Evaluate n! fo r moderately sized n using a calculato r? Yes D OD DO No • Manipulate expressions containing factorials? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Recognize that there are ( )1 r different combinations of r l1r ... A list of Can You? questions follows for you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme. identical items in 11 locations? Yes DOD DO No • Recognize simple properties of combinatorial coefficients? Yes D DOD 0 No • Construct Pascal's triangle? n! mtoCIJ QDtorn (]!J Yes 0 0 0 0 o No . A set of Further problems provides additional valuable practice.23 + (0·23)2 + .
ill CIJ to (I) ~ 3 4 Evaluate each of the following: (a) BC3 (b) 1SC l 2 (e) I S9C1S8 (d) lO4Co Expand (20 . S In the binomial expansion of ( I + 10/X)lO written in terms of descending powers of x.5b)7 as a binomial series. . 8 Using the series expansion of eX find e.296 Foundation topics Frames • Write down the binomial expansion for natural number powers? Yes D D D CElto £1!J rn:JtoCEJ D O No • Obtain specific terms in the binomial expansion u sing the gen eral term? Yes DOD D D No • Use the sigma n otation? Yes 0 D D D D No ~ • Recognize and reproduce the expan sio n for exponential number? where e is the Yes D D D DO No [jj Test exercise F. find: (a) the 8th term (b) the coefficient of x .11 )' (e) 4.H 6 Evaluate: (a) " I'> .9 ~ 1 2 In h ow many different ways can 6 different numbers be selected from the numbers 1 to 49 if the order in which the selection is made does not matter? Find t he value of: (a) 8! Frames (b) 10' ( ) 17' c 14! (d) (IS . (!!)to@) Detennine the 5th term and the sum of the first 20 tenus of the series: 1 + 3+5+7 +.2 accurate to 3 decimaJ places.
2' "" 3'1 L "" (b) (Z+x/ Z)s ~ 3 4 Write out the binomial expansion. USing the first 6 terms of the series for ~. ~.2x .. 4 identical b1ue and 2 identical \vhite hardhats be hung? 2 Show that: (a) n+ ] C l . determine approximate values to 4 sig fig. o f il and Expand ~ and e 2l" as a series of ascending powers of x using the first S terms in each case.9 1 Given a row of 12 hat pegs.y (d) (x+ 1/ X)6 "  7) 6 . ~ a L:( "" " lie. .Binomial series 297 Further problems F.l )"'C. of: (a) ( 1 _ 3x)4 Evaluate: (a) ~)S.e Using the fact that cr = ~ Inn and tile series expansion of e*x. in how many different ways can: (a) 5 identical red hardhats be hung? (b) 5 identical red and 4 identical blue hardhats be hung? (c) 5 identical red. Hence determine a series for e3x _ e. . evaluate 23'4 accurate to 3 dp. (c) (l .lie] = ) (b) (c) " ..
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10 Differentiation Learning outcomes When YOII have completed this Programme you will be able to: Frames C!J"'Cill • • • • • • Determine the gradient of a straightline graph Evaluate from first principles the gradient at a point on a quadratic curve Differentiate powers of x and pol ynomials Evaluat e second derivatives and use tables of standard derivatives Differentiate products and qllotients of expressions Differenhate using the chain rule for a 'function of a function' If you already feel confident about these wiry tlot try the quiz over the page? You can check your amwers at the end of tile book. 299 .Programme F.
the gradient of the graph of y = 3x 2 .10 ~ 1 Calculate the gradient o f the straight line joining: (a) P(1. from [irst principles. 6) and Q(7.4.lx) (e) y ~e"' ccs3x (0 y ~ ( lnx)sin(2 .t) (d) }' = In(3 . determine: (I) dx and dx 2 ODtomJ . obtain expressions for dx and dx2" Dete rm ine (a) dy ~~ in each of the fo llowing cases: (b) }' = x2 1 nx y=x 4 cosx sinx (c) Y=x (d) y ~x:.1) . 8) (Doom CDoo® 2 Detcnnine.Z at the point P where x = 2·4.3.5x) 300 . dy d'y (ij) the values o f x at which :: = 0 d2y (b) If Y = 2cos(9x .6x .5xl + X2 t. (a) If y = 4x 3 + x 2 . 9) Frames (b) P(2. 3 Inx 6 Differentiate the following with respect to x: (a) y = (3x _ 2)s (c) y = _el l x+3) (b) y=2sin(3x.2x . obtain an expression for ~~ and hence calculate the va lue of ~~ at x = 4 .sin(3x + 7).O) and Q(4 . ~ 3 4 If Y = 3x4 .~ Quiz F.3) an d Q (4. algebraically. 5 ) (e) P(O.
4). So the gradient of this line is given as: dy dx We could have chosen any pair o f points on the straight line for P and Q and by sim ilar triangles this ra tio would have worked out to the same value: the gradient Of a straight line is constant throughout its length Its value is denoted by the symbol tn. if. then P is to the left and below the point Q . Therefore m =: . The ch anges in the x. Fo r example.. 3) and Q is the point (6.0 The gradient of the slopi ng straight line shown in the figure is defined as: the vertical distance the line rises or fall s between two points P and Q the horlwntal distance between P and Q where P is a point to the left of point Q on the straight Line AB which slopes upwards from left to right. . for some line (see the fi gure over t he page). The slo ping line rises verticalfy (TOm left to right by 0·25 unit for every I unit horizontaUy. P is the point (2.Differentiation 301 The gradient of a straightline graph y 8 .. In this case: dy = the change in the yvalues = 4 . i dy p "" A .and yvalues of the points P and Q are denoted by dx and dy respectively.3 = 1 and dx = the change in the xvalues = 6 . Q w .2 = 4 so that: dy I m = dx = '4 = 0 ·25.
5 = 4 and dx = the change in the xvalues = 7 .1) 0 2 4 6 8 • So. In this case.3 = 4 so that.4) 4 p(2.3j ld. m = dy = . 5 4 0 . dy = the change in the yvalues= 1 . P is the pOint (3.4 = . lines going down to the right h ave a negative gradient.302 Foundation topics . 3 2 d. The sloping line rises vertically from left to right by dx 4 .25 unit for every 1 unit horizontally. 5) and Q is the point (7. d. 3 2 o 2 4 6 If. for some other line (see the figure below). . 0(6. 1). then P is to the left and above the point Q. 0(7.1. lines going up to the right have a positive gradient.
2 (4. 5 rn = .4)P 0 . m .2 )Q 5 rn .Differentiation 303 Try the following exercises.'I2 = .. dy a 5 {2. . 4) Draw a diagram in each case Here they are: 1 y (5.7)P w .8)CJ 4 (3 . ( . 2) 2 P (2.O'667 .4) ~ .2.3.'3 = .6) and Q (4.9)Q I 5 . . (.0·5 m = .. Now let us extend these ideas to graphs that are not straight lines. o (3. .4)0 o . dy. 6) and Q (5. 2) 5 P (.1·2 6 5 3 . 7) and Q (5.3 . 8) 4 P (. On then to the next frame .= 1·25 4 tn= .= .= O·5 2 2 (6.6) dy · 1 0 ax · 2 Q (5.6)P '" . 9) 3 P (1.2) o 3 . Determine the gradients of the straight lines joining: 1 P (3. 2 m= . {1. 4) and Q (6. .2.4) and Q (3.
304 Foundation topics The gradient of a curve at a given point If we take two points P and Q on a curve and calculate. Make a note of it in your workbook. . as we did for the straight line: the vertical distance th e curve rises or falls between two points P and Q the horizontal distance between P and Q the result will depend upon the choice of points P and Q as can be seen from the fi gure below: Q. as anyone who has climbed a hill will appreciate. The gradient of a curve at a given point is defined to be the gradient of the straight line that touches the curve at that point . Q. This is because the gradient of the curve varies along its length. y . Thb b a straightforward but very important definition because all of the differential calculus depends upon it. l3ecause of this the gradient of a curve is not defined between two points as in the case of a straight line but at a single point. Thegradient of t/le CUlve at P is equal to the gradient of the tangent to the curve at P.the gradient of the tangent.
. .. Now select a second point on the tangent at R... Then we carefully draw the tangent. x = 1·5. Now we bring a ruler up to the point P and adjust the angle of the ruler by eye until it takes on the poSition of the tangen t to the curve. and mark the point P on the graph at which x = 1·5. for example R at x = 3·0 where at P. .Differentiation 305 For example.urve at P. First we must compile a table giving the yvaJues of y = zx2 + 5 at 0·5 intervals of x between x = a and x = 3. . find the gradient of the curve of y = 2x2 + 5 at the point P at which X = 1·5 .2Jl+ 5 /' ~ P i 05 10 15 2 25 ' 0 0 . This gives m = . using these results. Determine dx and dy between them and hence calculate the gradient of the tangent. Le. Complete tile table and tllen move on to the next frame Ix x' 2x' y=2x2+ 5 0 0 0 5 05 Q. the gradient of the £. CD o 0·5 1·0 15 2 .. ..... '0 . So do tl/at y 25 w 20 15 10 5 y .25 10 1 0 20 70 15 2·25 20 40 80 ]3·0 25 6·25 30 90 180 230 1 0 05 55 45 95 125 17·5 Then we can plot the graph accurately. .
with coordinates (x I. contain minor differences.306 Foundation topics w 3.15x. . dy 8·8 Therefore for the tangent m = dx = 1. so let us stan afresh from a different viewpoint a nd prove a general rule. = Because. y Q .8.'" 5 Let P be a fixed point (x. therefore. y) on the cu rve y = 2X2 + S. the description given is designed to clarify the method. y = 9·3 (gauged from the graph) = 15 Therefore tile gradient of the cllrve at P is approximotely 5·9.y + 15y). However. Note: Your results may differ slightly from those given here because the value obtained is the resuit of practical plotting and construction and may. p . Algebraic determination of the gradient of a curve The limitati ons of the practical construction in the previous method call for a more accurate method of fi nding the gradient.5 = 59 to 2 Slg fig.0. at x x =:: 15. gauged from the graph) therefore dx and dy "" 8 . Y = 18·1 (again. and Q be a neighbouring point.
. p .. The quantities d x and dy arc called differelloo ls. . 0 and 6y '" 0)..ox + [6x[' ) + 5 Expanding the bracket 2 2x + 4x .6x + 2[6xJ2 +5 Multiplying through by 2 +5(zr w Subtracting y from both sides: y + 6y  Y = 2... . is the gradiellt of the straight line through P and Q. We reserve the notation and dy for the differences In the x.. RivinR the change in vertical distance per unit Change in horizontal distance..and yva lues of two points on a sLraiglit lille and particularly for a tangent. 6x 6y = 4x + 2... both 6x and 6y approach 0 (6x ..6x This expression.ox + 2[6xJ2 + 5) = 4x.. .ox + 2[6XJ2 oy is the vertical distance between point P and point Q and this has now been given in terms of x and Ox where ox is the horizontal distance between point P and point Q. However.6x + 2[6x]2 Therefore: oy = 4x. approaches the gradient of the tangent at P: ~: > t h e gradient o f the tangent at P = ~~ Therefore : = .2 + 4x.. Now... AtQ: y + oy = 2(X + OX)2 + S ~ 2(x' = + lx.and yvalues of points P and Q on the <:urve. the point Q moves down the <:UlVe and approach es P.. ax Next frame Notice that we use 6x and 6y to denote the respective differences in t he x.Differentiation ~07 Y Q .. ·which is the gradient of PQ.. tlleir ratio. if we divide both sides by Ox. Also. If the line th rough P and Q now rotates clockwise about P.. dy 5  " d..
dy = 0 therefore d x ~ d _. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation because it involves manipulating differences in coordinate values. . (a) y = c (constant) = c is a straight line parallel to the xaxis. : =0 Move to tile next frame .dy . Derivatives of powers of x liD Two straight lines The graph of y is zero. ~ 0 Ify = c. ~~=4( 1 '5) =6 z.x2+ 5 at x = 1·5 is 6.O I d. 5·9. is an approximation. The expression : is called tile derivative of y with respect to x because it is derived from the expression for y.e.308 Foundation topics Because ix = 4x + 2. dy 0 Y = c.6x and as ex Atx = l'S + 0 so ~~ + 4x+2 x 0= 4x This is a general resuit giving the slope of the curve at any point on the curve y = 2x2+S. The real slope of the curve y = The graph ical solution previously obtained. I. Therefore its gradient y "'+~p~~Q~.
ax lliJ y + dy = a(x+dx ) = ax t.Differentiation 309 (b) Y = ax So for a point furth er up the line . dy dx  = {l In particular.dx .yjP " 1f 6X>O.: .dx Subtract y: dy = ax + a. y + 6y= (X + bx)2 .dx Therefore: dy dx = o a . (x+fu". . ~: is the gradient of the tangent to tile curve. Meaning that the gradient of a straight line is constant along its length.ex I.(SX )2 I y >c' : = 2X+ SX (x.x .~~and. =~ = 2X If y =x2 dy = 2.6y _ XZ I.Dx + (6x)2 y = xl Sy = 2x. if a = 1 then y = x and : =1 And now for curves Two curves <aJ y ~ xl At Q. dx Remember that o . y+6y)Q Y +.".2.ax where y = ax = a. y .x.a. If y = ax.
. . when y = and when y = X4. dy = Sx" If we now collect these resu lts together and look for a pattern. . For a power of x. we have the evidence given in the next fram e. If y ~ x'.x' Now subtract y = xl from each side and finish it off as before. 2. ~~ = 1Ix'. So move on Lill y dy <Ix We soon see a clear pattem emerging. . lfy = X".. : ~ . If y = x"..310 Foundation topics At Q. the old index becomes a coeffident and the new index is on e less than the index in the original power.. . ... c x o 1 2x 3x' x' 4x' Sx' Le. dx = 3x 'x dy <Ix dy = 3x 2 dx Continuing in the same manner. dy = dx dx 4Xl x5 .  6y + . Because 6y = 3x 2. In the derivative. . 3 it is in fact true for any value of n. . 1.1 x' While this has only been demonstrated to be valid for n = 0.ox + 3X(OX)2 + (bX)3 ~~ = . o . If 6x 0. . 3x2 + 3x(6x) + (OX)2 + Then.. . we should find that. y + oy = (x + ox) ] = x 3 + 3x2 . . dy .ox + 3x(bx)2 + {bX)3 y y .
..1 ) d.lb + n(n .2{8x)2 + n(n 1) K'2(6x) it  2) x n.1) 2 2 2! x" .5x )3 + .. 2! 3! > 0.Differentiation 311 We have establi shed that if y = a (a constant) then ddY = O.1 (8x ) + + y = x" oy _ oy 6x If lJx > n(n .g. we differentiate each t enn in turn.] (6x) + n(n2~ 1) x" . of course..2 4 x 2x + 7x 1 . except the first x O. dy tf 6xO. 11x" .3(. . = 11x" .. If y = x· + sxl  4x 2 + 7x . Ify=x".1 + O+O+ O+ . For example. ~L b)n _ d' + nd. the general form o f the results we obtained in the examples above. : =nx. y + oy= (x + ox)" y + lJy=x"+nx'... It can also be d x = anx'.l )(n . if Y = ax4 then established that if y = ax" then dy =ax 4x1 = 4ax 3. Make a note of this important result DiHerentiation of polynomials To differentiate a polynomial.2) x. dx = llXn. )' 3! x x + .3(6x)2 + . e.(ox) If y = x"..I..2/? + n(n .1 + n(11 > + n(11  l )(n . . dx We can prove these results by using the Binomial theorem: Ix ( a ..0 ~~=4il+S x 3x2  : = 4xl+1SX 2 SX + ? ..l)(n . u(n .t which is.2) 113(. 6y 'x dd Y and all terms on the I{IIS.2) an1if + 2! 3! .
expressing the RHS in nested form and substituting x = 2. find an expression for:: and the value of : atx = z.3" + 6x . Now 011 to the lIext topic . dx = 124 dy 2 3 +8x l  lU .x3 + 3x 2 .Sx + 7. first of all. dx = dy Because ~~ ~ { (x) ~ {[( lOx + 16 )x :.\tx = 2 dy = 31 .312 Foundation topics Example If Y = 2xs + 4X4 . ~= SX4 . dx Atx = .t ~ lOx' + 16x' .5 I Then.I.5 Now. dy So. we have: Atx = 2. determine an expression for ~ in each of the following cases and find the value of : 1 at the stated value of x: [x~2[ [x ~ I [ [x ~ y = 3x4 7x3+4x2 + 3x4 2 y = xS + 2x 4 4x3Sx2 + 8x3 3 y = 6xl _ 7x2+ 4x+S 3[ I ~~= 12x l 21x2 + 8x+3.lOx + 8.14x + 4. {( 2 ) ~ 283 3Jx + 6)x . ill I . ~~ = 18x 2 . as an exerdse. ill = 3 dy At x = 3.
(b) Y = (c) y ~~ = 0 x". :.7x 2 + 2x .Differentiation 313 Derivatives .. :~.I 4 Dif{ermtiation of polynomials .5) = Either of the two methods is acceptable: it is just a case of which is the more convenient in any situation. = aux. At this point let us pause and summarize derivatives of powers of x and polynomials 4 f@lJ Revision summary 1 Gradient of a straight lille gUlph m = :: 2 Gradiel1t of a alrve at a givenpoillt P at (x .Sx + 3. This double statement can be wotten as ® a single statement by putting 2x2 . dx ( 4~ .e. .Sx + 3) d = 4x .I dx = ax'.5. ! (:zx2 .differentiate each term in turn.an alternative notation If Y ~ lx' .5 In the same way. dy = Ilx'.Sx + 3 in place of y in i..y ) ~ = gradient of the tangent 3 Derivatives of powers of x to the curve at P. lhe n : ~ 4x . (a) y = c (constant).
dx = 5 .2·2 2 y=5x2t2sothat: y + by = ~ Sex + 6X)2 + 2 SIx' + ZX.0) and Q(7. obtain an expression for ~~ and hence calculate the value of : I (a) 1'(4. 2).(.5.5 = 4 so dx =4 4 =1 (e) 1'(4 .(4)= 5 so (d) 1'10.2 so that : y + by .314 Foundation topics Revision exercise 1 Calculate the gradie nt of the straight line joining: (a) 1'(4. dy = 3 . dy 3 dy = 2.x + 5.Y = SK + JOxhx + S[6xj2 + 2 .x + ('xl') + 2 = Sx 2 + lOxcx + S[6X]2 t. 5) and Q(5. dy = 3 .16 dx . 0) and Q(7. the gradient of the graph of Y = 5x 2 + 2 at the point P where x = . dx = 9. 5) and Q15. When x = 1·6: Hence: by 6x lOxbx 6x + S[6x]z dy = .4.7) = 10.0 = 3.6): ~~= 1~ =2 dy .6 = dy . . 7) and Q(L3) (d) 1'(0 . 6 ) and Q(9 .3). dx = 1 . 21 (c) 1'(. . 3).6 ) and Q(9 . 3 If Y = _2x4 .1·6.= . 6) 2 Determine.7) and Q ( l.0 = 5 so <Ix = . at x = .11.3) (b) 1'(5.3.4.dx=74 = 3so dx = 3 = 1 (b) 1'(5.3i' + 4x2 .(Sx2 + 2) = lOx6x + SI6x]2 ~ 'y dy lOx + 5hx therefore dx = lOx. from first principles. algebraically.11 dy = 6 .5 = .
So.2 30x +6 d'y We could. i. if necessary. Similarly.2 =~ is itself a polynomial in powers of x and can be d ifferentiated in the same way as before.1 = _ &3 _ 9x2 +Bx 1 = ( . differentiating term by tenn: 9 )x + B)x .i. d' y and is the second deril'ative 0f y with respect to x dx 2 (spoken as 'dee two y by dee x squared'). we can find the derivative of d =:. if Y = 3x 4 + 2x3  4x 2 + Sx +1 dy <Ix d'y dx' .1.8x = 110 ~: ~ ((8(3)  9)( 3) + 8)(3) . When x = .1 Second derivatives If Y = 2x4  Sx 3 + 3xz  2x + 4.IS wntten (ddx . dx Y).3x3 + 4x2 _ X + 5 then.Differentiation 315 3 If Y = _ 2x4 . in thL~ example.2 X 4x 3 3 x 3x2 + 4 x 2x .e. (2x4 _ Sx 3 + 3x2 _ 2x + 4) dx dx This expression for = Bx3  lSr + 6x .3: dx dy = . find the third derivative of y in the same way: dx3 =. by the previous m ethod: dy = . we have: y = 2x4 _ Sx 3 + 3x z _ 2x + 4 ~~ = 8x3 d' y dx z = 24x 2  l SK+6x . then.
cos () + sinO 1. .0..8x + 5 d' ct!z = 36xl + 12x .as 0 t 0 = 1 sides by the value 1.27r1 so (8 in radians) Area of a circle = 11". Use your trigonometry to show that: h = rsinO and 11 = rtanD Recollect: Area of a triangle = ~ x (base) x (height) ~r2. :. We shall certainly meet it again..h = 4..8 Let us now establish a limiting value that we shall need in the future.·rtan8 = 2.H = 1 1 1 Z.> .rSine = ~r sinO 1 Sector POA: area =ZrB area = '2 . centre 0 and radius r.316 Foundation topics : = 12x3 + 6r . 0. Make a flOW of this result. PT is a tangent to the circle at P.is bounded on both SinO ·· Li mltmg va Iue 0 f .2 lan e In terms of area: 6POA < sector POA < 6.0.POT ~r2 sinO < ~re < 4r2 tane sin 0 < () < tan () SinO] [tan 0 = cosO 1> . ..va Iue 0 f sine as Limiting e e 0 T P is a point on the circumference of a circle.1/ due course . .2 = Area of a sector = lV'OA: ~r:.> sinO 1 1 e cosO sinO Multiplying throughout by sinO: When Si~B > cosO e . The limiting value of .o area = ~r...
 oy = .....1 : . ~: ~  sin x. 0.x . A B d B= x smAsin . If y = cos x.. ~: = sinx USi ng the result of Frame 28 .B 2 Now we use the formu la cos A . B = 2 cos A+ B.5x (~) "2 As bx ..sin e. y + ..sm x + 2 ..OX)..sin x We now apply the trigonometrical formula: .l using the result of Frame 28 If y=sinx. 0.Sine. we have found derivatives of.si n..) . dx and dx + cosx.) = . ox).polynomials using the standard derivative ~(x") = nr.Differentiation 317 Standard derivatives So far. lfy = cosx. sln(~) cos(x + ¥).2sm(x + ~)sine..) . sin(~) 2COS(X+~) . We shall deal with some of these in the next few frames.sin(~) b b "2 ~ CQs(x+ ~)'in~~) 2 by dy dy When 6x .oo wh ere A = x+oxan 2 2 6y oy b = 2COs(2x.y + by = cos(x + bx) : . ~~=cosx 2 Oerivative of y = cos x This is obtained in much the same way as for the previous case.l .5y = sin(x + ox) oy = sin(x + ox) ..sin(~) = 2 cos (x + ...cosH = .) 2sin(x I Or 6x ~).. . 1 Derivative of y = sin x If y = sin x.cosx . b'x . oy = cos(x + lix ) .2 sin (2x. A+H 2 A. Derivatives of trigonometric expressions can be established by dx using a number of trigonometrical formula s.. ( OX)  · s in .5.2sm .
. Oy dx ~ e" Now cover up the list of resulls above and complete the foll owing table: Y 14 dy dx y e" dy dx cosx x" Sx 3 sinx You caH check tllese in the Hext frame .. we have obtained some important standard results: (a) Ify =x". : =. there is one more derivative that we should determine. .x. ~~ = e" Note that e is a special function in which the derivative is equal to the function itself. dx=n. 3 Derivative of y = e" We have already discussed the series representation of Programme F.r y ~ e".318 Foundation topics At this stage.l (d) Ify = sinx. for example: if y = a. this gives dy 2x 3x 2 4x~ dx =0 + 1 + 2! + 3f + 4f + ' = l + x + 21 + 31 +'" ~ e" x' x' Tf y = e".9. x2 x3 x4 e~ in Frame 46 of y = c = l + x+2! + 3! + 4' + If we differentiate each power of x on the RHS. ~~ = a. So.lI . ~= 0 (c) A constant factor is unchanged. so. :=cosx (e) Ify = cosx. (b) dy x'"  If y = c (a constant).x".sinx (0 .
sin x = x 2 (xcosx + 3 sinx) Example 2 y = x4 ...sinx nx". To dlf(eremlate a product of two ftmctiollS: ..x3 COS X = x 3 (4 COS X  xSinx) . V + I' I..+ OII... as a result.6v + v..V..by = 11.. 0 6y + dy 011 ..5/1 +611..6v Subtract ''..{4x J ) = _ X4 sinx + 4.e.6v 5y /)v 0/1 6v .. dy dv du dv dx = udx + I' dx + °dx Put down the first (diffeJ"elltiate the second) + put down tile secolld (differemiate tile first) Example 1 y = x 3 . dll 61' + dv 5u ... dx = lI +v dx dx i...Differentiation 319 I y 14 cosx x" dy dx I I y e" I dr Ox e" (ill 0 . II I. where II and v are functions of x.OII + 6u.l Sx' ISX' sinx cos x all to the next frame DiHerentiation of products of fundions Let y = UV. sinx : = x 3 (cosx) + sinx(3x2 ) = x 3 • cos x I 3i!.oy.Oil.=II+V. oX 5x ox ox y= Ltv If 6x . y y I... 0 • 6x d.OV and...x' 6x dx' 6x dx' dy dv dll lfY = III'.cosx :: = x4 (_ Sinx ) + cosx.liv I.. II .ox.. Yl6Y = (1I + 611)(v+ov) = uv + u. If x > (ill + x I.. y=UV .
e" + 9x'.sinx) + e" cos x = e"(cos x . cos x = 2x4 (S cosx . cosx + sinx( .OIl .320 Foundation topics Example 3 Y = xS.cv v2 + v .bv v. where u and v are functions of x.lI ..x5 .sinx) = ~~ = dr dx cosx. sinx 5 y = 3r' . sinx 4 y = cosx.x sin x ) Now we will see how to deal with tile quotiellt of two flll/ctions ~ = 2.IJ6x 6x v2 + v.t frame lill 1 dr dx = e".cosx Finish all six and then check witll the lJe:t." IlV + V. v+ v u + bll II cy = v + cv .IlV .COSX + l Y.sin x) cos 2 X . .sin x = 4r(xcosx+ 3sinx) 3 4 e"( . v Then Y + 6Y = U+ .sin2 x 5 6 ~ 3x' .e" : = x Se" + e"Sx4 = x 4e" (x + 5) In 1 2 3 the same way.ou . 6x 'r v(v + 6v) O U 6v V. as an exercise. sinx = e"(cosx + sinx) 2 ~~ = : = 4K. now you can differentiate the follow ing: y = e' .e" ~ 3x'e"(x + 3) sinx) + lOx4 .ov .cosx 6 y = z.c' y = e". sinx y=4x l .0 ( DiHerentiation of a quotient of two fundions lill lel Y = .'.6v . cosx + e".u .
so make a note of it..sinx.2sinx xl Se' Another example: Y = cosx /I .sinx( ..2sinx dy x' Because y =7 sinx dy dx rcosx ..= sec x cos x sinx and .cosx . 0 and 8v.u dx dx .. If y _ sinx xz ' dx x cos x . 8u .u dx dx dy dx 1/ v' lfy == v' dy dx dll dv \' . ..sinx) cos 2 x 2 cos X + sin 2 x But sin 2 x+coszx = 1 cos2 x 1 coszx = sinx sec2 x Also . .> To differentiate a quotient o(two (unctions: (Put down the bottom (differentiate the top) ..sin x) cos2 x dy SC"(cosx + sinx) dx cos 2 x Now let us deal with this one: y=v' dy dx du dv V(G lldi y dy dx = cosx cosx.= tanx cosx I Ify=tanx.pllt dowlI t//C top (differentiate the bottom)} all over tile bottom squared.(2x) (xZ )2 xZcosx .2xsinx X4 xcosx .Differentiation 321 If 8x + 0.. :=sec2 x This is another one for our list of standard derivatives.(Se) .5C"( .> cosx.0 du dv v.
.322 Foundation topics We now have the followi ng standard derivatives: y x" c a .u<IX V' d/J dv .x" 1 0 atl. dx = /Jdx+vdx (ill 1 v'dX .xll dy dx sinx cos x tan x e" Fill in the results .eck with the next frame y x" c (I.x. u dy ~ v dx dy dv dll y = uv..sinx sec' x e" Also 1 and 2 If Y = UV. :::: 'fy ~.l cos x ..11 the rightIwnd column (l1U1 then cI.x" sinx cos x tan x e" dy dx n.
4cosx x' 6 y = 4x 2 tanx :.x dy dx e'. secZ x + tan x.tan x 1 ~ . determine an expression for 1 ~~: y = x 2 cosx y = sinx 5 y = 5X3. sinx 3 .Differentia.= ..15x2 Sx 2 e"(x + 3) cosx sinx sin x( . secZ x + 2 tanx) 7 y= dy dx 8 y = ta.coseCZ x 9 y= 10 =~ = xs.(sin x + cos 2 x) sin 2 x sm x xS .cos x.cos x) sin 2 x y = Sx 3e'" x8 . cos x sin 2 x 2 .'" 2 Y = e"sinx CQSX 4 Y = x:r 6 8 y ~ y = 4x 2 .(4e' ) .(8x) = 4x{x. cosx + sinx(e'") e'"(sinx .sinx = = e.sin x) . cosx .r .4c' .6x .'" 4 y dy dx cos x =xr xJ (sinx) .tanx. . cosx) 3 Y = sinx dy sinx.(5x 4 ) Y= dy dx = x 4 (xcosx + 5 sinx j 3x 2 cosx cosx. = ~~ = = 5x l .~ cosx 7 y = sinx 9 y = xs .tion 323 Now here is a. .sin x) + cosx.. In each of the following functions. cosx : = x 2 ( .. sinx 4x 2 .sec 2 x .xsinx .tanx tanx e' 3x2 to Y = cos x All rite soll/tiolls are SItOWII ill tile flext frame 1 y=.n exerciSe covering the work we have been doing.e" + e'" . (2x) =x(2cosxx~inx ) 2 : y = e.3x2 (sinx) cosz x 3x(2 cosx + xsinx) CO~2X  Clteck tile results (Jl1d tllm move 011 to the /Iext topiC .cosx(4x 3) dx 5 sin 2 x 4c'(sinx . . cosx + sin x.c' e2 .• sec 2 x .
1/ . U + /iu and y > y + {jy. With the example above. The refore. ~: = 2COSf2x .. i. /iu and /iy are all finite values and therefore we {jy {jy 011 . 1' = sinll dll d1' d = 2and d = COSl/ x " d1' dy du dx = du odx = cosu.3).. x + {jx.. y is a function of (a function of x ) and is said to be a function of a fu nctioll of x.3). x . u will have an increase 611 and then y will have a n increase 6y. If now DX > 0.. If x has a n increase /ix.3).. Example 1 To d ifferentiate )' = sin(lx .e..3.3) Ify = sin (lx . we put 11 = (lx . At this stage.3) which is itself a funct'ion of x. Y is a function of the angle (lx .> and .> and the previous statement now /ix dx' /ill d ll /ix dx' dy dy d/l = "x " II "x "II oX becomes dx du · dx This is the chai/! ntle and is particularly usefu l when detennining the derivatives o f functions of a function. y = sin(lx . by • fill can say that ~ = ~ x ~ because the /il/ In . If Y = sin(lx .. since the value of y depends on the value given t o x. y = sin /I where u = lx . the increases fix. y is a function of the angle x....324 Foundation topics Fundions of a fundion If Y = sin x.. ...3) : . Differentiation of a fundion of a fundion To differentiate a fu nction of a funCtion. then {j1J __ 0 and oy __ 0 Dy dy /iJ' dy {ju du Also ..(2 ) = 2cosu = 2cos(lx . we must first introduce the chaill rule..3 ) Le..3) Putu=(lx .cancels the Oil In .3) Further examples (ollow ..
dx = Because y = tan(4x + 1) Put I' 1/ = 4x + 1 du . Putll = 5x d/l = 5 dx .(4)= 45ec (4x + l ) : .= 4 dx y = tan II dy d Y = sec2 1/ dydl/ 2 • 2 dx = dll ' dx = sec 1I. Ify = tan (4x + l). ' ~~ = 4seC2(4x + l ) dy dx Because :.eSlt. determine : y = (3x + 5 )4 . dll dx dll dx ~~ = 4113.Differentiation 325 Example 2 If y = (3x + 5)4. : . y = //4 dy = 41il and dll = 3. And now this one: Exercise 4 If Y =. Put 11 = (3x + 5). dll dx dy = dy .(3) = Ify= (3x + 5)\ 12u3 = 12(3 x + 5 )3 ~~ = 12(3x + 5)3 And in just the same way: Example 3 dy If y = tan(4x+ 1).
% = dx e '3x+4 ) x 3 = 3.326 Foundation topics Many of these functions can be differentiated at sight by slight modification to our list of standard derivatives: F is a function of x y F" (I.(2x _ 5 )3 .28.11 F".F" sinF dy dx dF nF'. as an exercise. sec Sx dx : dy = Z _?:~_ 3 :~ = 8.sm .c lnX " dy " " In just the same way.Z)2 4 y = 4.1  Y cosF tanF dy dx . differentiate the following: 1 y = sin(4x + 3) 2 y = (2x _ S )4 3 y = sin3 x 4 y = tan5x 5 y = eh.dx dF secZ F.. = cos(lxl j.Zl2X S = lS (5X .. sin 2 xcosx 6 = .cJnxxcosx = 4cosx. dx dF " F "dx dF a.e.3 y = 4cos(7x+Z) 6 I) ~ = 4. % = 3(Sx .sin(7x+Z) .e lnX .et3xT4) 3 y =(Sx _ Z)3. dx = 4. 3 :: = 3. <Ix e' e'"dx Let liS flOW apply these results Here are four examples 1 2 ). COS(4X + 3) 2 4 5 ~: = 5. d Y =sin (2xl ) xZ=ZSin (2xl ) y= e (3x+41. dF • dx dF cosE.
since x = cY this can be written as: dy dy l dy 1 = x.5). dx c. That com pletes the topic of differentiation at thi s stage. <Ix = 3x "_ 5 . Also.therefore d = . d x x x x dx We can add this to our list of standard derivatives. However. cP = tt an d k = Ina If y = a".Differentiation 327 Now let us consider the derivative of y = In x: Jfy = ln x thenx = eY Differentiating with respea to x: ~(x) = dd (eY) we find that the derivative on dx x the LIIS is equal to I and.cosx = cot x sin x There is one further stanclarcl derivative 10 be eslalJlished 01 this slage. ! (kx) ~ 'p(k) ~ k.P. so move on to the n ext frame and if y = dy Derivative of y = it' We already know that ~ e' e\ dy dx dy ~ J <IF and that if Y= £!. if Y = ~. .' dx if Y = Then. Therefore if y = In x.3 = 3x 3 _ 5 In(sinx).d" But. if F is a function of x then: dy I dF if Y = InFwe have dx =F' dx ' Here is an example: dy If Y = In(3x . ~~ = iflna We can add this result to our list for future reference. the derivative on the RHS is Y so ll1at: ~ (&') ddY = eY ddx dy x 1 = cY ~ and. we shall deal with it further later in the course. by the chain rule. we can write a = el and then y = a" _ (el)" = el" ~: ~ . dx = _ ' _ .
dx . dx v du dx du dv dy _ vax .= dx y = ~.> sin(2x) .XI .smF· e' In F dF eF ' dx 1 dF dx F'dx Revision exercise ] Determine: in each of the following cases: (a) (c) y=xl tan x Y=XZ 2e' (b) Y = x 2 e" (d) y ~ .+ V  dx v2 3 Chain rule F is a function of x y P' sinF cosF dy dx pI.u{iX Il .3~) (f) y = tan 2 x (e) y = e3.4 ) (b) y~ta n (2x + 3) (d) Y = _Zefl . dF . dx dF cosF.Slnx x' 2 Differentiate the following with respect to x: (a) y ~ (4x+3)6 (c) y = In{3x .1 Y tan x e" dy dx sec2 x e' 1  c sinx cosx 2 Rules of derivatives (a) of product y = (b) of quotient /IV.sin x Inx x a' dv li' In a dy .328 Foundation topics 00 161 l~) Revision summary 1 Standard derivatives Y x" dy dx II.I Y dF dy dx sec 2F dF n ' dx tanF . 0 cosx .
. Applying the chain rule we find that: : = sec2(2X+3):><Z = 2sec2 (2x+3) .) ~ 2e' (' . Applying the product rule we find that: ~ ~ 2xe' + i'e' = xe"(2 + x ) .3x . obtain expressions for : 1 and ~~. Applying the chain rule we find that: ::=6(4X + 3)5 X4 = 24(4x + 3 )5 (b) y = tan (2x + 3). (c) y = 2' Applying the quotient rule we find that.1). xl 2) (d) Y = .Differentiation 329 3 (a) If y = xl + 2>.3 sin(x .XCOSX) sm 2 x 2 (a) y = (4x + 3)6. dy dx = z~e2 ~2>. dy d 2y = O. (a) y = Xl tan x.. Applying the product rule we find that: dx dy = 3x2 tan x + x 3 see: x = x2(3 tanx + xsecZ x) (b) y = x2 e'1 . (ii) the values of x at which : (b) If}' = 2cos(x + 1) .4..: x 2ex Z .2 . Applying the quotient rule we find that: SIO X dy 3x2 sinxx1cosx dx [sinxlz = x2(3Sin ~ . determine: (1) dx and dx2 .2elx [X2 J2 2e..
1·869 o r 0·535 to 3 dp.J sin (x . x ( J) (ii) : : = 0 when Jx 2 + 4x . . A set of Further problems provides additional valuable practice.Zcos(x+ 1) + 3sin(x .I ) =y You have now come to the end of this Programme. You will notice that these questions match the Learning outcomes listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them.1). Applying the chain rule we find that: dy = _Ze<I .3) dx = &<1 .then: (i) : =3XZ = 4± +4x3and ~?z = :x(~~)=6X+4.330 Foundation topics (c) y = In(3x .:: = _ 3e.3 A(2cos(lx ) . That is when: 4 ± ) 16 X= 4 x 3 2 x3 (b) If Y = : = . A list of Can You? questions follows for you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme. 3 3x. Applying the chain rule we find that: : = (2 tanx) x se2 x = 2 tan x seCl x J (a) lfy=x 3 +2XL3x .3A sin(lx). Work throllgli t/leseul your OWIJ pace. there is I/O lJeed to lli/rry. Applying the chain rule we find that: dy 1 'l dx = 3x4 x.1> x sin (2x) + e.3 = o.3A) (e) y = e.3cos(x 1) and d' ~ = . After that try the T~1 exercise.>l x (.3.4.4). Applying the chain rule and product rule combined we find that: :.3x x 2cos(2x) = e. 6 2cos(x + 1) . then: v's2 2sin(x + I ) .4 (d) Y = _ 2e(l 1».3sin(lx}) (f) y = tan 2 x.
6) and Q P. from first principles. 4) (c) P (3. On a scale of 1 to 5 how confide nt are you that you can: • Determine the gradient of a straightline g raph? Ves 0 0 0 DO No • Evaluate from first principles the gradient at a pOint o n a quadratic curve? Frames IJ:)101I) (J] to (]£J Ves 0 [j 0 DO No • Differentiate powers of x and polynomials? y" [j 0 0 DO No • Evaluate second derivatives and use tables of standard derivatives? IJ!J to mJ CEltoCEJ [0100 0 Yes Ves Yes 0 D 0 D o o No • Differentiate products and quotients of expressions? OD DO DO No • Differentiate using the chain rule for a function of a function? (IDtoCBJ DOD No ~ Test exercise F.8) Frames ~ ' QJ to Q ] 2 Determine algebraically.3. mtolJ'[J Ifll 3 If Y =. 2) (d) P (.10 Check this list before and after YOII try the end of Programme test. 8) and Q (4. IJ!J to(]!] .2.10 Calculate the slope of the straight tine joining: (a) P (3. the slope of the graph of y = 3x 2 + 4 at the point J> where x = 1·2. .Differentiation 331 ~ Can You? Checklist F.6x 2 + 7x . 9) (b) P (2. 5) and Q (6.5) a nd Q (3.0 + Sx 3 . obtain an expression for : and hence calculate the value of ~ at x = 2.
(e) y =~x· tan x 4x' lnx b sinx (d) )'~ (f) y = .>.sinx (b) y = x3 .5) ~ Further problems F. obtain expressions dy d 2y for dx and dx2' Determine following cases.332 Foundation topics 4 (a) Ify = Zx 3 1 1x 2 + 1ZxS. cos x 2e'" (a) y=x2 .2] + 20 .3) (g) y ~ S(4X + S)' (h) y = 6~ +2 0) Y ~ 1n (3x') (j) y =3sin (45x) (c) y = 4cos(3x + l ) (d) y ~ In (x' +4) . ()Y ~ 2'" cos x x '" (a) y ~ (2x .2x + 7 (b) y = 3Xl5x3 + 4x2x + 4 (c) y= 4xs [x ~ .] dy Differentiate the following and calcu late tile value of dx at the value of x stated: (a) Y = 2x3 + 4x 2 . ~: and ~~ (ii) the values of x at which : (b) If Y = 3 sin(2x + 1) + 4 cos(3x .3)' (b) Y ~ i" "' (e) y = sin(2x .determine: (i) Frames = O. (c ) y = . the slope of the following graphs at the value of x indicated: (a) y = 4x 2 _ 7 atx=0·5 3 (b) y = 2x +x _ 4 atx =2 (c) y = 3x3 ..1) r (d) Y ~ 5 cos(2x + 3) (e) y = cos3 X (f) Y = In (4x .10 I 2 Determine algebraically from first principles.3x3 + 7x 2  Zx + 3 [x3 ] [x ~ I ] Differentiate the functions given in questions 3. (a) y ~ (Sx + 2)' (b) Y = sin(3x + 2) (c) = d4. 4 and 5: 3 (a) y=x5sinx (c) y = x 3 ta nx (e) y = 5x2 sinx (b) y = e'cosx Cd) y = x 4 cosx (f) y = Ze'" lnx cosx cosx tan x 4 (a) y=~.e" (c) )' = 7 (d) r = tanx 0 t0 0 ~~ in each of the Q!)toC!!J 6 Differentiate the following with respect to x.1).3) (f) Y = tan(x 2 .b 2 +x .4 at x = .
11 Integration Learning outcomes Wilen YO" hove cOtllpieleci this Programme yOIl wiff be able to: Frames [D to [EJ • • • • • • • • • Appreciate that in tegration is the reverse process o f differentiatio n Recognize the need for a constant of integration Eva luate indefinite integrals of standard form s Eva luate indefinite integrals of poly nomials E. 333 .Programme F.va luate indefinite integrals o f ' funct ions of a li near function o f x' Integrate by partial fractions Appreciate that a definite integral is a measure of the area under a curve Eva luate defin ite in tegrals of standard fo rms Use the definite integral to find areas between a curve and the horizontal axis • Use the definite integral to find areas between a curve and a given straight lin e If yOIJ a lready feel confident about tllese why not try the quiz over the page? Yo" am clwck your answers at tile end of the book.
1 _ 9x 2 dx Find the area enclosed between the xaxis and the curve y = eX between x = 1 and x = 2. 2x .l )4 dx I (b) (d) rin(~ .Sx) dx (0.9x.3 dx ec2 r 3 @]toQI) 4 Integrate by partial fractions each of the following integrals: 5x fa) 6x2 x ] dx (b) J2 14x + 1 dx 7x 4x 2 1 . (]!)to(ID 334 ...9x ee) . giving your answer to 3 dp.ZXdx (e) (g) r J r I Jze'l H 2 dx 51 ~dx (Zs . of e.+ Sx . when x ='2" Determine the following integrals: (a) J(SX . 6 Find the area enclosed between the cUive y = e" and the straight line y = ] .l)dX lC)I J 4 .11 Determine the following integrals: (a) Frames JX7dx (b) (e) J4COSXctx (e) JUdX (d) J12 dx I~ ill J I =I(X  Jx 4 dx (f) I 6'" dx (g) J9fl dX (h) J4sec 2 XdX (i) J9SinXdx (j) 2 Detennine the following integrals: (a) x 2 + Xl ) dx (b) 1= (4K . giving your answer In term .~ Quiz ~ 1 F.2) dx given that 1 = II 16 J " .x between x = I and x = 2.
dX = X4 .r was developed from a capital S which was used in the 17th century when the ideas of the calculus were first devised. In certain circumstances. however. We therefore a c knowledge the presence of such a constant term of some value by adding a symbol C to the resu lt of the integration : i.C = 16 + C So.5 Tn th ese three examples we happen lo know the expressions from which the derivative 4x3 was derived. J4X 3. So if we do not know the history of the derivative 4x1 we have no evidence of the value of the constant term. Next {mille . The expression f(x) to be integrated is called the integrmlll and th e differential dx is usefully there to assist in the evaluation of certain integrals.dx=X +C 4 C is called the COrlSUml of integmtiofl and must a lways be included. 5 or any other value.dx = 3 X4 dx and dx ~(X4 _ 5 ) = 4il " + 2) = 14x3 . we start with the derivative and then find the expression from which it has been derived. to determine 1 = f 4x1.13. dx ( X4) = ~.o x we know to be X4 . C = . This is written: J4x3dx =x 4 The symbols. the integra l of 4x3 with respect t. in Ih is case I = X4 . d For example.13.dx. When we integrate. Such an integral is called an indefinite inlesral since normally we do not know the value o f C. As before: 1= 14x3 ctx=x 4 + C Butl = 3 when x = 2 so that 3 = 2 4 t. Constant of integration So Also dd _ x ( X4) = (X4 4XJ 4Xl J4x .Integration 335 Integration Integration is the reverse process of differentiation.r f(x) dx denote the intesral o{f(x) willi respect to tfle variable x. the value of C might be found if further information about the integral is available.e. But any constant term in the o riginal expression becomes zero in the derivative and all trace of it is lost.dx = x4 + Z J4~. When we differentiate we start with an expression and proceed to find its derivative. as we sha ll see in a latel Programme. +2. the symbol . For example. Th e refore. be it 0. given that T = 3 when x = 2.
:)x" +I) = (11 + l )x" :.dx d (d) dx (tan x) 2 = . Js.dx = SSinx + c.Sinx :x (.cosx + c = sec 2 x lsec x. dx 11 + I =x" This is true except when 11 (b) = d(X"+ ') .dx J«x ).dx xJl~ I = I~tl + C n sinx cos x sec2 x + C n+ 1 x+C tlx+C cosx+C sinx + C tanx + C (11:/= .dx = sinx+c It follows. for then we should be dividing by O.dx = e' + c J (c) :x(COSX) =. Collecting the results together.1) e' a' e' + C a"/Ina + C At this point let us pause {ltId summarise the "wi" facts so far  1 x Jnx /C . (a) :x (x") = nx". we have: «x) x" 1 J((' .ln n Jsinx. Replacing /I by (/I + 1). (e) :x (e') = e' ~~ (sin x) = cosx Jcos x.336 Foundation topics Standard integrals Every derivative written in reverse gives an integral.I.COSX.g.etc.dx = tanx + c As with differentiation. therefore. that our list of standard derivatives provides a source o f standard integrals.g.1.dx = sinx + C I e'. JCOSX. e. a constant coeffident remains unchanged e.cosx)=sm x d (f) dx (In x) =x I~dx = lnx + c d (g) dx (a') ~ a'. :x (Sln x ) = cos x :.
given that 1 = 25 when x = 3. 2 Because constants have a zero deriv<ltive we find that when we reverse the process of differentiation we must introduce an integration constant into our result. given that 50·2 when x I = 7 l = = 3.dx.d x. = (c) Determine I = (d) Determine I = J2. given that when x i (radians) . J2. ~ Revision exercise 1 Determine the following integrals: (a) CD (C) J dx (d) J 5sinxdx x 6 (b) J3~ dx (e) J sec2 J~ dx xdx (f) (g) Jx1dx (h) J2cosxdx (i) 18dx Jx.dx 3 (j) J4 dx x 2 (a) Determine I = (b) Determine I = J V . = 16 JS. Complete and then check IYitli ti. given that I when x = 2.Integration 337 E Revision summary lEJ 1 Integration is the reverse process of differentiation.the integrand (c) J~ dx=6 Inx + c The derivative of the result Is +0 =x x 6 6 (d) J5Sinxdx=5COSX + C The derivative o f the result is S(. W 3 Such integrals are called indefinite integrals.e" .sin x) + 0 = 5 sin x . Given a derivative we have to find the expression from which it was derived.dx.e /lext frame Check by differentiating the result lhe derivative of the result will give the integrand d dx (X' 7x' + 0 = x 6 the illtegra/'lcl 7 + C) =]"" The derivative of the result is 3e" + 0 = 3e" . cosx.dx.
2. JS .dx=4 + C 3 J ZS=36 + C :. . C=. It is not surprising.]] x' (b) 1 = JS . 3 lxt.COSX. that we do much the same with the integration of polynomia l expressions. therefore.1 3 .dX=SX + 6 (d) 1 J 4x 2 .dx = SX + C 16=lO +C : . C=6 :.(. one by one.11 (e) I = .dx = Zsinx + S J2.3+ 1 C The derivative of the result is 2cosx + O= 2cosx The derivative of the result is x .2. cos x.e' .dx ~ 2e' +C SO·2 = zel + C = 402 + C C = 10 JZ.dX = 2sinx+c 7 = Z + C :.+ 0 = x~ (f) ISdx = sx + c = S (h) (i) J2cosxdx 2sin x + x.I 2 x 3 .dx ~ 2e' + JO Integration of polynomial expressions In the previous Programme we differentiated a polynomial expression by dealing with the separate terms.338 Foundation topics (e) JSeCxdX = tanx+c The derivative of the result is sec2x + O= sec2x The derivati ve of the result is S + 0 The derivative of the result is .dx = T 4x' .2) .Jdx =_3+1 + C J = X . C = S ~ J2.fZ.e'.+ 0 = x =.T x' +C Recall the standard derivative dx (a' ) = {c ln a d 2 (a) 1= 4r .
we have T ~ I T ~ (((2x Substituting x = 2: I )x+2 Ix. Now here is another o f the same type. aU we now have to do is to put x = 3 in this expression which gives us that.16x + 4)dx when X = .x2+7x l..2. I 2Z + C I We have 26 = 2Z I. .. what about this one? If I J(8~ . I = .C I w I Now we can calculate the value of C since we are to ld that when x = 2. so carrying out the integration. when x = 3. II = 2.. determine the value of I when x = 3. .Zxl7)dx = x"' + 5x1 339 3 . 1 = 26. .13. So.4x .x2 .. . First we must determine the function for I.5x I..C = So. expressing the function for 1 in nested form.5)x + C w w 26= . . . we get 1 = .3x2 I. I ~ {J(2xI)x+2Ix 5)x+4 Finally.>:4 _ x 3 I. 1 = . given that at x = 3...Integration PoiYllomiai expressions are integrated term by term with the individual constants of integration consolidated into one symbol C for the whole expression.C C= 4 :.. 1=26.5 ) dx.. .. For example: J(4X l + 5X 2 . There are no snags. Just take one step at a time.6x2 .2. Determine the value of 1 = r4xl . given that at x = 2..
alternatively dx = ~ . 1 = 13 = 33 I. The method is just the same as before.. Whenx = . For example. y = I (3X + 2 )4 dx is of the same structure as y = Let us put II J X4 dx except that x is replaced by the linear ex pression 3x I. Now. = 3x + 2 so that: dll = 3 dx That is: dll = 3 dx or.4xlC (b) In nested form.S]x + 4}x + C (c) At x = 3. (e) Evaluate the constant of integration . different Fundions of a linear fundion of x It is often necessary to integrate anyone of the expressions sl10wn in our list of standard integrals when the variable x is replaced by a linear expression in x.2 )x .. (b) Express the resulting function in nested form.SJx + 4}x + 20 (d) When x = 2.. . 1 = . = 3x + 2 then: J{3X + 2)4 dx becomes II Ju dx 4 We now have 1.0 change the variable x in dx before we can progress.C : ..340 Foundation topics As before: (a) Perform the integration. lliJ Here is a check on the working: (a) I =: X4  Zx 3  SxZI.Z)x .. using the fact that when x = 3. That is. 1 = {[(x . 1 = ]2 Now let liS It is all very straightforward. 1=13. so work through it.Z. of the form {IX + b. (d) Determine the value of [when x = 2. C = 20 r ~ {[(x .2... move 011 to somethillS sliSfftl.
n felets deelling with the integml"ion ofpolyf/omial expressions ami 'flmctions ofa litlearfi/ndion ofx' ~ Revision summary 1 @ Inlegration of polynomial expressions Integrate term by term and combine the individual constants o f integration into on e symbol.dx =~ + q (2) (3) . Here are three examples: (1) j (4X . 1 = 2.J I4x .dx LStandard integral jCOSX.9 )dx X = (b) 1 = f (9x 3 + 11x2 . replace x in the result by the linear expression and finally divide by the coerficient of x in the linear expression .Integration 341 We now find that our integral can be determined as: y~ Ju4 dx = JU4dU =! (U') + c=.dx [Standard integral . x Jxl .ntegmte (1 'funcl'ioll of" lille(1r fmlction of x'. .x .+ C At this poill' let us peluse and summarize tile n"..dx = ~.. I e5x+z.. Just refer to the basic standard integral of the same form. ~ Revision exercise 1 Detennine the following integrals: (a) 1= 1 (2X .dx=SinX + q :.dx ~14x _ 3 )3 ! C ~ (4X .3)z. 1 sin 3x JcOS3x.+ C Ie5 .3)' .dx= SU13x· 3 +C=3. given that when 1.>+2 5" + C = 1 e5 H2 s. 2 Integratioll of 'fullctions of a linear function of x' Replace x in the corresponding standard integra l by the linear expression and divide the result by the coefficient of x in the linear expression.and remember the constant of integration.ce x in the correspollding standard result by tile tillear expression and divicre by tile coefficient of x in the liI/eelr expression. simply replc..! (3X+ 2)5 ) +C 3 3 5 3 5 That is: _ (3x + 2)5 C y15 + To .5x 2 +6x . HZ .3)3 C 3 4+ 12 + Jcos 3x.3) dx.dx = e'" + q .dx IStandard integral fe'".
2x).2x).2x)' dx I 2x ~ S·dx (j) J .dx .s dx = (3 .s dx = _~_4 + q 'nlerciore.e l 2 (a) I (l .) J "'3 .dx J .4X)2d.4X») 12 1 2 (1.~2.x [Standard integral = I sinxdx = . I (3 .r 3.dx (.2x.' I (3 .dx (c) (d) (e) I(3 . I Ix 2 dx = x.4x)3 (1 . +CJ (1 .' 4 x (2) + C = 8 +C .xls. J 4e!ixz d. sin (2x + l ).4x) dx = 3 x(_4)+ C = + c (bJ J~2 dx [Standard integral Jt! dx t! + q Therefore.x 23.x 4eSx.4x.z x ~ C ~ e!ix.3x.ZCOS(2x + l )+ C 3( . fherefore. /3 sin (lx + 1) dx 3 =.d.cosx + q Therefore.2x)s dx [Standard integral Ix.andardintegral .dx (h) J 6secZ(2 + 3x).dx J4 .z + C = I = (c) I 3sin(2x + 1) d.342 Foundation topics 2 Determine the following integrals: (a) J (l (b) 4·~f·dx m Jcost I (g) 3x ).cos(2x + I ») x ~+C Cd) 1 (3.>"] S.
dx x+5 2x+l .] dx [Standard integral J2~ dx = l ~x2 + C] 3 + 3x) x ~ + C sin (l . 2x _ S dx = 71n(2x . J 34xdx (j) J r 2(34x)1 .lx )( '+ C (3) _ ~e] 3x + C 3 Integration by partial fradions Exp.J.3x) C 3 + Therefore.l 1 23. .3x dx = 5e l . (h) 2 J6sec (2 + 3x)dx IStandard integral fsel! xdx = tanx +C] There fore. occur in many mathematical applicatio ns. J 23x.3x) dx = sin(l  3x) x (~3) + C (g) I 2lK.0. but do.] 23~ ] dx = In2 x + C = 31n2 + C I 6sec2 (2 + 3x ) dx = 6 tan (2 = 2lan(2 + 3x) + C (0 JJ 3 . J5e t .> dx [Standard integral J5e" dx = 5e'" + = q Therefore .5) x 2: + C z ln (2x .~~ + 5 dx do not 'ppe"' .n om US! of stand"d (ill 7x+8 (x +5)(2x+ 1) dx integrals. 2x2 + 11x+5 3 1 x + 5+2x + l so thaI J 7x + 8 2x2 + l1x + 5 dx= J_ 3 _ +J _'. We saw in Programme F.7 that such an expression as 2 z 7Xl~ 8 5 ca n be expressed in x + x+ partial fractions which are simpler in structure.3x ) dx [Standard integral J cosxdx = sin x + q = Therefore.4x dx [Standard integral JJXdx = 372 + q Therefore.fntegration 343 (el J_7dx [Standard integra) J!. dx = In x +q 2x S x 7 ' 7 Therefore.4x)1 6 +C Se1 . 7x + 8 In fact. 3 x(_4) + C = (3 . in fact. Jcos(l .eSSiom such as J2x' ~ . .5) + C r (f) J cos(l .
8 = 5 4 + 3B = 13 A + 3B= 13 6A 311 .S 3x2 + Sx 2 The denominator factorizes into (3x .7..1)(x + 2) 4 3x . .".I)(x /.B ~ (A + 3B ) x+(2A .1 3 x/2 ~~+~ Because 13x+S A B ~~ + (3x 1)(x+2) 3x .5 (3x .2) so the partial fractions of 13x /.1) = Ax + 2A+3Bx . 3x2 +18x+3 Determine .. 3X2 + 5x 2 ill by partial fractions.B ) [xl [ClJ A + 3B=13 ZA . so let us apply them in this example. based on the standard integral J~ dx. . 38 = 9 A=4 8 = 3 .15 7A = 28 . so the result is clear: J 7x + 8 2x2 + 11x + Sdx = J (x + 5)(2x 7x + 8 1) X = 1 d J x+S 3 ill + J 2x + l 1 ill =3In (x+S ) +2"ln (2x + I) + C You will recall the Rules of Partial Fractions which we listed earlier and used in Programme F.344 Foundation topics These partial fractions are 'functions of a linear function of x'...l x +2 13x + 5 = A(x + 2) + B(3x . f The first step is .. We will only deal with simple linear denominators at this stage.. .2+ 1& + 3 3x2 + 5x 2 . lill to divide out because the numerator is not of lower degree than that of the denominator So 3>. 1+ 13x /.
.+4 B =3 x+4 ~ + 2x+ l B lZA + B)x+ IA HB ) M+4B=32 A /4B =3 7A = 35 :. = 5 : ...i'+'"9x....2x + l = 2x l S ln (x/4) = 5 2)dx 2ln (~ + 1 ) +C 2x+5In(x /.+5In l x + 4)ln l z. J2x2+9x+4 Here is the working: 4....3 ~ A ( z.J(2 +X+4 .x'! I.l + x + 2 J(I 4 Finish it ...4) ...3 2 + "z" ".7 X 12 dx by partial fractions. + 1) + B(x +4) 2A + B = 8 1I. 1 = . + I)+C 4x 2 + 26x + 5 ZX2+9x+4 8x 3 8x ..26x + 5 ill = . II.18X + 3 3)dx d 3x2 + Sx 2 X = +3x .l ) 31 I 2) C f =X + 4.. .Integration 345 J 13x+S 3 4 .+ (3x l )(x + 2) 3xl x + 2 3 X2 /.. B =2 J 2x2 + 9x + 4 4x' + 26x+5 dx ..6x + I.. ln(3x 3 I.In(2x I' 1) + C And finally this one: Determ ine I = J6x..nx+ + Now you can do this one in like manner...~':>'4 A (x + 4)( z" + 1) 8x .. . Work right through it arid tllell check the solutiot! witll the next frame 1z.
(4A .1) + C .3D ) 4) +C +3x . A+3B = S A + 4B =2 Therefore: 2 d J1 d 3x + 4 x+ xl x J3X2Sx++X2 4 dx = J 2 = j' ln(3X + 4) + In(x . This renders integralion of such algebraic fractions possible.A.b) + C a JllX + b Revision exercise 1 Integrate by partial fractions each of the following integrals: (a 5x + 2 ) J3X2+X .346 Foundation topics I In(2x+3) + 3"ln(3x 5 16x + 7 16x +7 A 6X2+X 12 (2x+3)(3x 4) 2x + 3 16x + 7 = A(3x .[(_ 2 _ + _ S _ )dx .l therefore Sx + 2 A(x ..4) + B(2x + 3) ~ (JA + 2B)x . 2x + 3 3x4 5 =In(2x+3) \ 3Jn(3x4) + C At this point let us pause alld summarize the main (acts dealing with integration by parl'ial fractions 1E=il Revision summary [~J Integration by partied fractions Algebraic fractions can often be expressed in terms of partial fractions .1) + B(3x + 4) + 3B )x + (A r iE) so lhat therefore adding we find that 7 B = 7 soB = landA=2. the integration of each partial fraction ® f!a [ill .4 B Equating coefficients gives A = 2 and B = 5 J 6x 2 + x 16x + 7 12 dx .4 4x2 _ 1 J ~dx dx (b) 5x + 2 1 (a) 3X2+X 4 = Sx + 2 (3x + 4)(x = (A 1) II B 3x+4 + x .dx = 1I 1n (ru I.
2B = 1 . = 1 I I.2B = 2 therefore adding we find that 7B = 7 so B = 1 and A = 2.B)x + (A .. .(ZA .8 = 3 A . y / Y B f(X) .1x [_1 .1)t 8 (b+ 1) = (2A + 2B )x + (A + B) so that X.I (z"+ I )(z.In (1 x)'2 1n( I +2x)+ C Now 0 /1 to sometliing differellt Areas under curves Consider the area A of the figure bounded by the curve y = {(x ).IJ .dx .dx 1 + 2x = 1 = .x ) . B= 0 Il1erefore: therefore. I (el x + I dx ~.A ·t B = 1 Therefore: 2.+ 1 x +1 " .4 I.Integration 347 (b) 4x . + x 2x 3x (I x )( 1 + 2x) 1 + .[ ~ d I~dx 4x2 1 .I ) + C 3x A 1..8In (z" + 1) + 8In(z" . A I +2 B I therefore ZA 1.. adding we find that 3A = 3 so A and B=1. b + l x + 2x . B) so thaI 211.4 + 2B=1 .2.=.:: therefore x 1+~ B 3x = A (1 + lx ) + B(1 ."". I) ~ + xx + 1 =J\(2x . x 3x 2x 2 dx . the xaxis and the two vertical lines lhrough x = (J and x = b (where b > a).l ~ 1 3 .
bj .Aa gives the required area A.348 Foundation topics To evaluate the area A you need to consider lhe total area between the same curve and the xaxis from the left up to some arbitrary point P on the curve with coordinates (x. •. if lx . I ydxwhichiswrittenA = IYdx a ( ~a) . m the limit.'fal and hence the area up (x= bj to b) and if x = a then Ail = J ydx (:=» (the value of the integral and hence the area up to a)."" Tile total ar{'(1 between the ClIfve and the xaxis lip to the pOi"t P is giverl by the indefinite j"tegr(1/. This means that: M.6x. y p(x.. If the width of the strip is reduced then the error is accordingly reduced. That is: A = I ydx {x=.. y) A. dA x dx so that. If x = b then Ab = J ydx (the value of the intq. fu~ y Q The error in this approximation is given by the area of PQR in the figure to the right.. Because b > a. R fu > bA. dX = y Consequently.. Also. 0 then Mx > 0 and: P . . If the strip is approximated by a rectangle of height y and width 6x then hAx <=::: y. the difference in these two areas Ab . dA l . y) which we shall denote by Ax. because integrztion is the reverse process of differentia tion it is seen that: Ax = Iydx .6y). where the strip has been magnified.6x. Y I. x x+Ox x Area M x is the area enclosed by the strip under the arc PQ where Q has the coordinates (x I.
1 ydx = 3 J _1 2 (3X2 + 14x+ 15) dx (x + 7r + 15xJ ~ 1 {S + 28 + 30} . y= 3)('+6)(+8 A o 3 3 2 3 . the constant of integration disappears leaving the numerical value of the area. A= J yill .9) = 75 unit 2 . + fu +8) dx = [x 3 + 3x2 +8x l~ Note that we enclose the expression in square brackets with the limits au ached. x = 1 and x = :l. the xax is and o rdinates at x = .15} A ~ = 66 .(.{.. A = y = 3)('+14x+15 = 1 0 2 . = f (3r .1 + 7 . I 2 . the xaxis and . Such an integral with lim its is called a definite integral.fntegration 349 The numbers a and b are called the limits of the integral where the righthand limit is at the top of the integral sign and the lefthand limil is at the bottom. Now calculate the values at the upper and lower limits and subtract the second from the flTst which gives A = 166 unil2 1 Because A = [XJ + 3x2+ 8xl ~ = {27 + 27 + 24} . + 6>: + 8.I and x = 2. . Notice that in the subtraction process when the integra l is evaluated. Example 1 To determine the area bounded by the curve y = 3x2 Ihe orrlinlllp<.{l + 3 + 8} = 78 12 = 66 unit 2 Example 1 Find the area bounded by the curve y = 3x 2 + 14x + 15.
xZ + IOx] ~= 104 . the xaxis and the ordinates x = 0 and x = 4. _ 119 95 unil21 As a check: A ~ I 3 yill ~ Je' ill ~ [e'[:.2 = 0·14 :. e are available from most calculators or from tables.. .6x2 I.~ 2 3 {e')  V'} 2 e'I = 2009 and e. A = 20·09 .0 A = 104 unit 2 And now: Example 4 Determine the area under the curve y = e" between x = 2 and x = 3.014 = 1995 unir At this point let us pause and sun".. y ~: y 6)('~24)( + 10 A o 2 3 4 ...24x + 10. The powers of A = . A = JrdX = o J (6xZ+24x + tOl dx 0 .350 Foundation topics Example 3 Calculate the area bounded by the curve y = .rize the maiu facts dealing witll areas beneath curves . 104 unit 2 Because A= [_2x3 + 1z. Do this by the same method.
~L . 24 unit 2 . 3. .x z + 4x + 3.Integration 351 l®l Revision summary y Area A. the xaxis and ordinates x = . 2 Calculate the area under the curve y = 2.~4} = 30 5 {s+z4 } 2 5 3 .6 3 = 24 unit . 13~ unit2 Here is t he working: 1 .f(S + 4. 2 2 2A =Irill = I (2? 1. .x2 . 2 1\= IY dx = . y .I and x = 3.il. . b ~ Revision exercise Find the area bounded by y = s + 4x . is given by: . .C3 8+ 6} 1484 19~ = 129 unit 2 2 I = .xX ) dx = [sx + 2.2x + 3. the xaxis and the o rdinates x = l and x = 4. = {ZO + 32 . 129 u nit 2.f()') A = I Yill " A o . bounded by the curve y = f(x ). 3 Determine the area bounded by y = xl . 1 Finish all three and tllen check with the next frame l!iJ 1 1.4x + 3)dx= [2~: +2xZ+ 3xL 6 = {~O +SO+ l S} . 2 . the xaxis and o rdin ates x = a and x = b. between x = Z and x = S.
However.{ .2x + 3) dx = z e: .S](. . y y . X z + 3x L1 3 ~ {9 . A = Jydx " b x let's look at this area a little more closely: y y . we omit the constant of integration because we know it will disappear at the subtraction stage. Notice that in all these dt'finite integrals.4~} = 13~ 2 unit . however. the eITor in the approximation is the area above the rectangle.6x. y) on the curve and Q a similar point (x I.352 Foundation topics 3 A = Jyill = J . . Now move 011 to tile llext sectioll Integration as a summation (ill We have identified Ule value of a definite integral as the area beneath a curve. it must always be included. The approximate area 6A of the strip under the arc PQ is given by SA ~y.1 .1 3 3 (x .({x) We have already seen that the area A under a curve y = ((x) between x = a and x = b is given by the definite integral: o .({x) Let P be the JX)int (x. some definite integrals have a negative value so how can we link this to an area because all areas are positive qmmtilies? Before we can make this link we must consider the determination of area in a slightly different manner. o b x As we have indicated earlier.1 .3} =9 .9+9}H . Y + 6y). In an indefinite integral.
there will be more o f them to cover the whole figure.. .2 = 6 units2 Z x2x2 1 This value will now be confirm ed by dividing the area into equal strips. . Y Q Y· ' p The area o f a triangl e is base x height and area A is equal to the difference in the areas of the two triangles OQQ' and OPr" so that: 2>< A p A = Zx4x4Q' 4 1 o = 2 8. each with an area too small to exist alone. 0 b If we make the strips narrower. in the limit as ox > 0. A = Lim Ly. Let LIS consider all example To illustrate this..6x &1:_ 0 '= But we already know that A = Jydx ._o "'''''' Um L y. but the total error in the approximation diminishes. Le. we arrive at an infinite number of minutely narrow rectangles.' Y )'. .Integration 353 If we divide the whole figure between x = a and x = b into a number of such strips.. consider the area A beneath the straight line y = x. summing their areas and then taking the limit as the width o f the strips goes to zero. If we conti nue the process. . «x) rr '" .bx between x = a and x = b. ..6x = A = [ YdX . A ~ the sum of all rectangles y. the total area is approximately the sum of the areas of all rectangles y. b x=b b ~.bx. above the xaxis and between the values x = 2 and x = 4 as shown in the figure below. form . This can be written A ~ LY'bx where the symbol L represents ' the slim oroll terms of the .b Then..
O = 2 I:Y. ~." Lim II_ X (~ x 11) + Lim (~ x 11 .Y.= 1 11 "(4 4') 11 t= l Notice that as the width of each strip decreases.L l t. the area has been sutxlivided into n strips eadl of width bx where: ex=..  o 2 In the figure a\x:Jv('.b: = Lim t (2 + 2r) 2 ".~11 4.Lim 2" Lr 11 ".  Y..:. that is ex + 0.. "0>0 I I r= 1 = n"" = 4 II 4 " Lim .11 n 4 n 4r L .354 Foundation topiCS Y Y. fl __ 00 = Lim .tLim L II~x ril.x ..5x ) = Y( 2 + r x ~) = 2+r x ~ = y(2 t.x r_ l II 11 = LimL + 2" "~ x ..:. so their number 11 increases. r..116x) = Y(2 + 11 x 11 ~) = 2 + 11 X ~ =4 11 Consequen tly: Lim 6x.2 2 11 The strip heights are given as: Y l = Y(2+6X) =Y(2 + ~) =2 + ~ = Yz YJ y(2 + 26x) = Y( 2 + 2 x ~) = 2 + 2 x ~ = = y(2 + 36x) = Y(2 + 3 x~) 11 2+3 x~ " Yt Yll = y(2 + r.= . 11( 11 ~t I)) =4 + 2=6unitsZ .
9 + 27) . So Jydx has a negative value. y. wi thout foll owing the above procedure. find the area bounded by the curve y = Xl .=\ "n(l1+ 1) 2::' = 2 from r_ l Because A= J 3 3 (x 2 .Integration 355 Notice the use t.9 and the xaxis and between x = .9. but what is m eant by a negative area? HOlte YOII {my slIggestioflS? IThe area that lies beneath the xaxis I If we sketch the figure we get: As before.36 Simple enough.hat has been made of L II 1 = nand Programme F."Ilclosed area. for all such strips across the figure. A = . 3 J .6x is negative and the sum of all such quanlities gives a negative total. in this case. Therefore.27) . namely minas the vallie of tile l.(.36 unU 2 . the area of the strip 3 o 3 M ""' y 8x and the total area x=3 A~ x__ 3 LY'x But. even when 8x + O. but by integrating normally. y is negative and 6x a positive value.9) dx = ~ ~ [~ 9X[3  (9 . Now.3 and x = 3.
4 = 0.~ l lx24) dx ~ [~ . 1 0 / / . The curve y = x 2 . 4 The figure of our problem extends from x = . y \ \ \ \ I . X Z = 4 . [~  4x J2 = {~4  16}  {j 8} = lO~ units2 . we will determine the physical area of the figure bounded by the curve y = x 2 . 4 . So Jet 11 = . x Z . the parabola y = x 2 lowered 4 units on the yaxis.9 so AI = 9 units 2 . It crosses the xaxis when y=O.4 is. Then: = . which includes an area beneath the xaxis between x = . b B The trouble comes when part of the area to be calculated lies above the xaxis and part below.". integration from x = a to x = h gives the algebraic sum of the two parts.8} . the xaxis and ordinates at x = . H is always wise. .4{ ~ a .H + 4} = . we calculate the physical area enclosed in two parts and add the results. i. x = ± 2. . J.4.1 and x = 4. of course.e.1 and x = 2 and an area above the xaxis between x = 2 and x = 4.f(x) o . if necessary.• 4 . 4 Iz = Irdx = . In that case. 4 Jydx and h Iydx. therefore.356 Foundation topics y .1 to x = 4. Therefore. As an example. to sketch the figure of the problem before carrying out the integration and. to calculate the positive and negative parts separately and to add the numerical values of each part to obtain the physical area between th e limits stated.
Az A = Al = + Az = 19 /z 2 = 10 3 unHs .1 utlltsZ which. 3 umts 2 . We know that y = xl is a normal parabola: y yK ~i". First we must develop the figure.Integration 357 Consequently. so x =±5.1+H + 4} . 011 to the next frame The area between a curve and an intersecting line To find the area endoscd by the curve y = 25 XZ and the straight line y=x+13. . we should have obtained: . y 15 4 o 3 5 .1 = 2. Then y = . ~ jYdX ~ j (X2 4) dx ~ [X. does not give the correct value of the total area endosed. x Z = 25.x' y = 25 .4x l >{21~ .x 2 is the inverted parabola raised 25 units on the yscale. though it does give the correct value of the definite integral. Also when y = 0. 1"3 . .xl is an inverted parabola: y y . Z and so: Had we integrated right through in one calculation .
.)'. .3 )(x I..rz )·6x Then the area of the figure I<.x . .r ) dx ..e.".~r4 8+ ~4} {36.. .4or3 XZ when x + 13 = 25 .>:= .OX 4 If {jx .358 Foundation topics y = x + 13 is a straight line crossing y = 25 ){z lx . A = J(2S . < whjch yOll can now finish off.(x.yz) dx J .i. L .LM . to give A = .xz.<= 3 (Y1 .4 )= O So the area A we need is the part shaded.l2 = O . x= .13) dX = J (12X . = 1 ( 12XX )dx = 2 [ 12x ~ . ) M . Yz ) the corresponding point on Yz = x + 13. Then area of strip P1Pz ~ (Yt . A = 57·2 unit Z At tllis point let us pause {md swnuulrize the main (acts dealing with areas lind the definite integral .48  = 22·5 + 34·67 = 57 ·17 :. Let PI (x . . A = J "(Yl J < 2 ..".~9} _ { . O. 0" to the "ext (rame y 25 L p...Y2) .:..X . yd be a point on YI = 25 . .x Z and Pz(x. (x ." . (ill A =.
(d) (e) f ? dx 0 I I . The constant of integration C in such cases will always disap{X'ar at the subtraction stage. .5 ::.g.((J/) 0 . b . since " Ir " 2 y dx = x=b f rdx ..25for . 0 .fr dx Integration as a summation y y ~ ((x) P A y .6x A~ I:r.cosx)dx x dx 3 2 Find the area enclosed between the xaxis and the curves: (a) Y = x 3 +u + x+ 1 between x = 1 and x = 2 = Xl (b) y = x 2 . x = a and x = b) is called a definite integral.:5. 0 0 (sin x ./2 (a) 1 3x s dx 2 (b) . and the straight line .bx X =<I x=b ox + 0 A ~ Jy.: x::. ~ "'l x y oM If ~y.Integration 359 B l~J Revision summary 1 G[) Defillite integral An integral with limits (e. 3 rind the area enclosed between the curve y y = x.dx b " ra Revision exercise 1 Evaluate each of the following definite integrals: .
32 = 2U16 _/2 (b) I (Sin x .1/ 4 2 (a) The !jraph of y = x 3 + 2X2 + x + 1 between x = .{cosO .sinO} ~ { ..{ .l )' / 4) ~ .1} .360 Foundation topics (ill = 2048 .cos i .O} ~O (e) k o dx ~ [".{~} (d) ~ {O'/4} ..cosx .cosx) dx=l .((.Sin~} .r 0 ~ {~} .I .O . " 8 10 4 • 2 1 {)·5 0 05 ". 14 ~ >.1 and x = 2 lies entirely above the xaxis 0 1B 1.Sinx J~/2 o = { .axis 1·5 2 .
2 J (x1 + 2X +X + l )dX = [4 X4 X3 x + 2+ + x] ' 2 3 2 ..~ + ~ .I. that is when x 3 _ x = 0.2·. .Z.Integration 361 so that the area enclosed between the curve.1} = 131++! = 14~ (b) The graph of y = xl . . the xaxis and between x = . x = ] and X = . IS .]+ .I where: 5 1= ZJ (X 5 2S ) dX = [~  2SX[s ~ e. _ Z5xS} _ {.l~p3 _ Z5 X(_5) } = {I~S 125} _ {_ 1~5 + 125} 3 500 ./ = So the enclosed area 3 500. Factorizing we see that this means x (x 2 . 2 UI1Its 3 The curve y = x 3 and the line y = x intersect when xl = x.I )' (_ I )' (_ I)' } 4.5 :5 x :5 5 is given by .I and x=2 is given by: .1 = { 4 + 2' "3 + 2+ 2 = 2' 2·' 2' }  { (.1 {4 +~6 + 2 + 2} _ {~ .I ) = 0 which is satisfied when x = 0.25 for 5 :5 x :5 5 lies entirely helow the xaxis so that the area enclosed between the curve and the xaxis for .
.X o 0 0 . A list of Can You? questions follows for you to gauge your understanding of t he material in the Programme.{OJ The total area enclosed is then twice th is. You have now come to the end of this Programme.. You will notice that these questions match the Learning outcomcs listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them. A set of Further problems provides additionaJ valuable practice. so we only need find the area between x = 0 and x = 1 and then double it to find the total area enclosed. = x 3 • That is: 3)dx Jxdx. there is no need to III/ny.Ji'dx ~ J(X . Work through these at FOllr OW/1 pace. After that try the Test exercise.362 Foundation topics y o " From the figure we can see that the area enclosed bet ween the curve y = x 3 and the straight line y = x is in two parts. rrom the figure it is easily seen that both parts afe the same. The area enclosed bet ween x = 0 and x = 1 is equal to the area beneath the line y = x minus the area beneath the curve. one above the xaxIs and the other below. namely 2" unit 2. . ~ [~<l: ~ 1 4 g: < } . 1 .
On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident are you that you can: Frames • Appreciate that integration is the reverse process of differentiation? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • I~ecognize the need for a constant of integration? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Evaluate indefinile int{'grals of standard fonns? Yes IJJ CIJtoCIJ m lIJtoOIJ 0 0 0 DO No • Evaluate indefinit e int{'grals of polynomials? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Evaluate indefinite illlegrais of 'functions of a linear funct ion cl~ 0 (ill tomJ Yes LJ 0 LJ LJ 0 No No ~ • Integrate by partial fractions? Yes 0 0 0 0 o o • Appreciate that a definite integral is a measure of an area under a curve? Yes No o o o o • Evaluate definite integrals of standard forms? Yes [l 0 0 DO No • Use the definite integral to find areas between a curve and the horizontal axis? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Use the definite integral to find areas between a curve and a given straight line? Yes 0 0 0 DO No (ID luG!J (ID to CEJ (£JtoC!!] .11 Check this list before alld after you try the end of Programme tesl.Integration 363 ~ can You? Checklist F.
2x2 + 9x + 4 mJto(E) ~ 5 (a) Evaluate the area under the curve y = S.364 Foundation topics ~ Test exercise F. given that when x = 2. I 20.c' between x = 0 and x =3.2x + 28 ctosses the curve}' = 36 .2 ) dx. m to @) [eJ 3 Determine: (a) (b) (C) I Zsin(3x + l )dx (e) J 4 21 .e 1.11 ~ 1 Determine the foll owing integrals.3 dx IJS .("" dx  (h) (i) (j) J ~ dX J3cosxdx Izsecxdx CD to CD 2 (a) Determine I(8il +6r . (a) Frames Ix" dx (0 (g) IS' dx (b) J3Sinxdx (c) I X4 dx (e) J dx Cd) J 6dx J3x~ 4. (b) If 1 = J(4X1 3r + 6x . dete rmine the area enclosed by the c urve y = 36 and the line y = 2x + 2S r®to['!D .2x) dx J6. Hence.5x + 4 ) dx.:U dx (g)J3X~2dt (h) (d) J(4X + 1)3 ctx J 3sec(1 + 4x ) dx IJD to @J 4 Express 2x2 + 9x + 4 in partial fractions and hence determine 2x 2 + 14x + 10 f2 xZ + 14X + lOdX .lxdx (f) J6COS(1 . determine the value of I = when x = 4. (b) Show that the straight line y = .x 2 at x = 2 and x = 4.
lx + 20..3x + 4.~l dx Determine the area bounded by the curve y = ((x).17 19x + 4 dx (f) J4x2 2x2 9 x.y (c) J 12x2 2 ()J6X + lx t.11 ~ 1 Determine the following: (a) I(S. y = 4c.4 : 15 dx J~2=~x=. x=1 andx = 4 = e" (e) y=20 t. Y = Z' x = landx = 3 . x = . x = 1 and x = 3 (d) y =Se" .u dx Cd) I 3 2x. x = 1 and x = 4 (e) y = 6 xl t.l dx g 2x2 + X 6 (h) (d) 2 J &x2 20.2 6x2 _ 7x + 2 dx 4 Determine the follow ing using partial fractions: (a) J 4x2+4x 6x + 1 3dx (e) (b) J x2 x + l1 3x 4 dx 3x .3x) dx J8. I = 50.5. 1 J6 X lx . If 1 = I (Bil + 3x l 6x +7 ) dx.e'. x = Oandx = 4 (b) Y = 3x2 t.x.1 dx 2 Determine 3 J(6. y = 3x.1 dx (g) j (4 .19 7x 4 d. y = x3 .SZX+l) dx. x = Oandx = 4 4e2'".6X )2 dx (e) (0 (b) (c) I4 sin(3x + 2) dx I2X~3dY I6.1 and x = 2 In each of the following. x = 0 and x = 2 (d) Y = .3xZ + 12x + 10.3x2 .2 and x = 3 (c) Y = 5 + 6x .el JJ S  3xdx (h) j4COS( Ilx ) dx (i) xr. determine the value of 1 when x =3.3X)2 dx (j) J3sec'(4 . given that when x = 2. x = .x 1.e b  5 + 3x ~ 2 .Integration 365 Further problems F. the xaxis and the stated ordinates in the following cases: (a) y = x 2 .10. determine the area enclosed by the given boundaries: (a) y (c) y = 1O _ X1 and y = xZ+2 (b) y = x2 .Zx .
.
12 Functions Learning outcomes When you 1/(1ve completed this Programme YOli will be able to: Frames CD!o@) • • • • • • • • • • • Identify a function as a rule and recognize rules that are not functions Determine the domain and range of a function Construct the inverse of a function and draw its graph Construct compositions of functions and deconstruct them into their component tunet ions Develop the trigonometric functions from the trigonometric ratios Find the period.Programme F.\: at the end of the book.dJOut tllese wily tlot try tile quiz over the page? You call clleck your allswer. amplitude and phase of a periodic function Distinguish between the inverse of a trigonometric function and the inverse trigonometric function Solve trigonometric equations using the inverse trigonometric functions and trigonometric identities Recognize that the exponential function and the natural logarithmic function are mutual inverses and solve indicial and logarithmic equations find the even and odd parts of a function when they exist Construct the hyperbolic functions from the odd and even parts of the exponential funct ion If you already feel cOtl(1deut . 367 .
(x ) ~ ((x ) + 3g(x) (b) k(x) ~ 2g(x) ((x) ""'10""" ~ L!...I::~ [JJ to m 2 Given the two functions f and g expressed by: ((x) =.S1T/ 3) C!J toCEJ (IDIO(ID ~ 7 Find the period.0) A function is defined by the following prescription: {(x) ~ 'x'. Is the inverse a function? (a) y = xs (b) y = 3x2 (e) Y = ~ 4 Given that 0(1':) = .lx.I Use YOUf spreadsheet to draw each of the following and their inverses.2 tan (20 .3 for 0 < x ::. 5 find the domain and range of functions II and k where: (a) /. c(x) = x .aj f rO) ~ 2 cos 6fi (bj reO) ~ . . O ~ x<2.1 x for 0::. amplitude and phase of each of the following: .12 ~ 1 Which of the following equations expresses a rule that is a function? (a) y= l_ x 2 (b) Frames y=VX4 (e) y = .a) f(x ) ~ alb(eld(x )!)1 .I and d(x ) = Vi find: . x < 4 andg(x) = x .6 :$ x :$ 6 and find: la) the period (b) the amplitude (c) the phase of (Ix. ((x ± 2) ~ {(x) 8 Plot a graph of this function for .) + 2 with resped to ((x ) GDtoC!D . decompose f into its component functions and find its inverse.13") (a) cos(.2) (C) flO) ~ cos(. Is the inverse a function? 6 Use a calculator to find the value of each of the following: (b) sec(\l5' ) 'c) tan(. b(x) = x 3 .~ Quiz F.b) ((x) ~ a(ald (x)!) (c) fix) ~ blt (hle(x )!)! Given that ((x) = (3x + 4)2 + 4.
(3  x') (E)to@) + 1).  e"+3 .4x) = (e) e3 Ie) 6 ~ 2·34 @)to@) (d) log2x = 0·4 Inx = 2 ~ ll Solve for x: (a) 2.55"+1 = 62·5 (b) e'b.1T/4) = O (b) sin 2 x .~+1 + t!' = 0 (C) log (x 2 ) = IOg(±) ~ .J2forO$x$1T 10 Find the value of x corresponding to each of the following: (a) @}o(}D 2lx = J Ib) exp(.6·2 logS (d) log.~ ~ 9 Solve the following trigonometric equations: (a) cos(x+1Tj 3) + coS(X ..4sinxcosx + 3cos2 x=O Frames eel9cosx4sinx=Z. 12 Find the even and odd parts of (x) = x(x 2 + X @:Ito@) 369 .
Take out your calculator and enter the number: 5 this is x. written as: y ~ ((xl has been described with the words 'y is a fllndioll of x'. So. for all the functions that you have considered so far. tile answers are ill the nexl" (mme . Put simply. activated by you pressing the x2 key. 'fl1e diagram tells you that the input number x is processed by the function f to produce the output number y = ((x) . both x and y aTe numbers. So that y = f( x ) is the result of function f acting on x.370 Foundation topics Processing numbers The equation that stales that y is equal to some expression ill x. use diagrams and describe the functions appropriate to each of the follOWing equations: (aJ (C) x y=4x y ~ 1 (bJ (d) y ~ x . trus description is not strict ly correct as will be seen in Frame 3.6 Y = sin x Illst fbllow the reasolling above.what the set of instructions will do when activated. Despite being widely used and commonly accepted. The notation "2 inside the box means raiSing 10 tile power 2 and describes the rule. the input number Now press the x2 key and the display changes to: 25 this is y.x2 The functioll is a mle embodied in a setofillstfllc/iol1s within the calculator that changed the 5 to 25. A diagram can be constructed to represent this: The box labelled f represents the function. the OIltPIll" number where y = .
=x6 I 1(. This rule is not a function because to each value of the input x > 0 there are two different values of output y.. W (bl 1 6 I/(. Different outputs are associated with different inputs the function is said to be single vall/ed because for a given input there is only one output. For example. . =4x x4 (el 1 I x (d) • I 1 sin f(x) =sinx • (a) Function (b) Function (c) Function f produces the reciprocal of the input r multiplies the input by 4 f produces the sine of the input Let's 'lOW f subtracts 6 from the input (d) Function expand this idea Functions are ". the equation: y = x~ which is the same as y = ±y'i expresses the rule ' take tile positive and lIegative square (oot.Ies are functions A function of a variable x is a rule that describes how a value of the variable x is manipulated to generate a value of the variable y.5 o{ the vallie of x'.Ies but not all ". the equation: Y= b + 3 expresses the rule 'mlllt'iply tile vallie of x and add three' and this rule is the function.Fundions 371 (al • I • I x x x 1 "(Il I I(.'=x' =. On the other hand.. The rule is often expressed in the form of an equation y = {(x) with the proviso that for any input x t here is a unique value for y.
that there arc other points where the vertical line intersects the graph in more than one point is sufficient to bar this from being the graph of a function.1 does (a) y = 5x z + 2xi does not express a function because to each value of x (x > 0) there arc two values of x1. . The fact that for x = 0 the vertical line intersects the graph at only one point does not matter . any even root produces two values. Also note that your calculator only gives a single answer to x~ because it is. (b) y = 7~ .r + 2xJ does not (b) y = 7xt . in fact. So. )X>sitive and negative because x1 == (X 1 )! == ±W.372 Foundation topics The graph of y 6 = ±JX illustrates this quite clearly: 4 2 2 4 6 If a vertical line is drawn through the xaxis (for x > 0) it intersects the graph at more than one pOint.' w Next frame I (a) y= 5. which of the following equations express rules that are function s? (a) y ~ 5x' + 2x j (b) y = 7xi _ 3x. Indeed.3x. calculating fi.3x' does express a function because to each value of x (x i 0) there is just one value of y. Notice that y = x~ has no real values of yforx <O.
x < 1 and 1 < x ~ 6.125 and 64 are the minimum and maximum values of y over the domain. To the right of the asymptote 1 < y ::.co < x < 00 . 0·025 S Y < co Because (a) The domain is given as .Functions 313 All the input numbers x that a function can process arc collectively called the function 's domain.co < y S 0·5.8 and 27 are the minimum and maximum values of y over the domain. 2 < x < 3  (the function is defined only for the restricted set of . . For example."Xi < X < co. range . (b) The domain is not given and is assumed to consist of aU finite values of x. if: y = Jl . x < 4. range . Next frame . 6 the yvalues range from infinitely large and positive to 0·025 when x = 6. range 0 0 ::. x < 4 and the range as 125 ::.5 :::. Other functions may. be defined on a restricted domain. So the domains and ranges of each of the folJowing are: (e) y 1 (x .5 ::. The range values are all positive because of the even power. . For example.x 2 where both x and yare real numbers the domain is 1 S x S 1 because these are the only values of t for which y has a real value. (c) The domain is 0 S x < 1 and 1 < x ~ 6 since y is not defined when x = ] where there is a vertical asymptote. The complete collection of numbers y that correspond to the numbers in the domain is called the range (or codomaill) of the function. The range is 0 S Y ~ 1 because 0 and 1 are the minimum and maximum values of y over the domain.ex as x + 1. To the left of the asymptote (0 S x < 1) the yvalues range from y = . tvalues gIVen) the domain is given as .125 S Y < 64 (b) y=x 4 w domain (e) . 6 ~ y < co 1 y ~ "(x ::"" 1JOe(x c+~ 2)' domain 0 ::. that is.l)(x+2 ) TIle answers are in tile next frame I (a) y= Xl  5Sx <4 domain . for some purpose or other.0·5 when x = 0 and increase negatively towards .2 S x < 3 and the range as . y < 64 because . If you plot the graph on your spreadsheet this wiIJ be evident.8 S Y < 27 because . x ::. if we spedfy: y=x .
and when 3 ::.1. for example  x+ (a) h {x)= f {x) + g (x ) = XZ  l+ . 0 < x :5 6 then " (x ) = (( (x) ) is x+ g x w L!J The answer is ill the next fimne I ..1andx=/:. f{x ) is not defined for 4 :5 x :5 5 and k(x) is not defined wh en x = 1. .x=/:.374 Foundation topics Functions and the arithmetic operations runctions can be combined under the action of the atithmetic operators provided care is taken over their common domains. x :s 6. The effect can be described by reversing the flow of information through the diagram so that. if: Y ~ r(x) ~ x + 5 • f +5 !(x).3 < x < 3 and x of 1 and x  g(x) = 4x 58. For example: 2 If ((x) = X Z . when ..xt5 • the flow is reversed by making the output the input and retrieving the origil1(1/ input as the new output: .2 < x < 4 and g(x) = . for example.3' 0 < x . "(x) is not defined.2 Beca use when x = 1 or 2. O<x<4 x +3 2 because g(x) is not defined for 2 .:S 5 then.3 < x :5 0.(x) ~ ((x) 2x(x t. f(x} is not defined ..5) (Xl g(x) 1)(4x 8) whereO<x<3. Inverses of fundions The process of generating the output of a function is assumed to be reversible 50 that what has been constructed can be deconstructed.._XII f' 51.2 ::S x ::5 0. g(x) is not defined. x+5 .:S x . (b) k (x) ~ f(x)~(x + 3 ) (X2 g(x) 2 I )' O<x<4 andx # 1 because g (x ) is n ot defined for . So if: (x) = 2x ~ I' where .:S 0 and f(x) is not defined for 4 ~ x ::5 5 so 0 < x < 4 is the common domain between them .
find f . and the functio n with output f (x ) = 1 x is its own .. . x (eJ f . reverse tIle flow and find the inverse of the f!lndion in each case I (aJ (b) ( .' is very commonJy used but care m ust be taken to remember that the 1 does not mean that it is in any way related to the reciprocal of f.Functions 375 The reverse process is different because instead of adding 5 to the input.I or arc(. x (b) • • x x f '3 If(. That is. ~ x' r' " 1/3 1/ I. The rule that describes the reversed process is called the inverse oftlte function which is labelled as either f .1 f(:)~xl2 f:(X) ~ '1 r ' X2 The inverses of the arithmetic operations are just as you would expect: additiol/ and subtraction are inverses of eaclt otlier multiplication and divisioll are inverses of each otlTer raiSing 10 tIle power k and raisins to (/ power 11k are inverses ofeadl ollieI' Now.. can you thi nk of two functions that arc each identical to their inverse? Think carefully I f (x ) = 1 x and ((x) = ~  x Because the function with output ((x ) = x does not alter t he input at all so the inverse does not eHher. r '(x ) =x . 5 is now subtracted from the input.' (x ) (e) r' (x ) ~ 2x r' (x ) ~ xl ~~ 6 W r' +6 Because (oJ • x f x6 I f(x.'(x) in each of the fo llowing cases: (a) (x ) ~ 6x (b) « x ) ~ x' (eJ «x) ~ "2 x Draw tile diagram..~6x r\x) ~xI61 r':x) ~ x''' 1 I.5 The notation f. Try some.
What YOIl are abolll to do is a little involved. Let's try it. In cell 81 enter the formula =AI"3 and press Enter Cell 81 now contains the cube of the contents of cell Al Make 8 1 the active cell Click EditCopy This copies the contents of 81 to the Clipboard Highlight 82 to 824 Click EditI'aste This pastes the contents of the Clipboard to 82 to 8z. Highlight the block of cells Alto 824 Click the Chart Wizard button to create an XV (Scatter) graph with joinedup points .=IIX I r':xJ = IIxlL_r_'_ _ '. If you are unfamiliar with the use of a spreadsheet. when the ordered pairs generated by the inverse of a function are plotted. As a result. Use your spreadsheet to plot y = xl and the inverse y = xi. read Programme FA first where the spreadsheet is introduced. so follow tile instructions to the letter and tnke ie slowly all(l carefJ.376 Foundation topics inverse because the reciprocal of the reciprocal of a number is the number: J Ijx = x x • 1 "(I) .1·1 t o 1·2.illy @ The graph of y= x' Open up your spreadsheet EnterI·I in cell Al Highlight Al to A24 Click EditfillSeries and enter the step value a'l 0. the graph lakes up the shape of the original function but reflected in the line y = x.1 TIle cells At to A24 then fill with the numbers . L _ _ ' /(X.xLet's progress LiD Graphs of inverses The diagram of the inverse of a function can be drawn by reversing the flow of information and this is the same as interchanging the contents of each ordered pair generated by the function.(_"I}CJI~.:J Each of the cells 81 to 824 contains the cube of the contents of the adjacent cell in the A column.
s empty.Fundions 377 The graph you obtain will look like that depicted below: " . This is esse/ltial because later on you are going to oblain a plot of two Glrves on the same graph. . using Paste Special rather than simply Paste ensu res that you copy the values rath er than the formulas. you are going to use it: Highlight cells A I to A24 Click EditCopy This copies the contents of Al to A24 to the Clipboard Place the cursor in cell 826 C lick EditPaste This pastes the contents of the Clipboard from 826 to 849 The cells B26 to 849 then fill with the same vaJues as those in cells A 1 to A24 Highligh t cells B 1 to B24 Click EditCopy This copies Ihe contents of 81 to 824 to the Clipboard Place the cursor in cell A26 Click EditPaste Special In the Paste Special wi ndow select Values and click OK The cells A26 to A49 then fill with the same values as those in cells B 1 to 824. Notice thal row 25 . . Because the cells 81 to B24 contain formulas. 1 . 4 ' 0 .. What you now have are the original ordered pairs for the first" function Jeversed in readiness to draw the graph of the inverse of the function . _1·5 Now for tile graph of y = xi The graph of y_ x' Keep the data you already have on the spreadsheet.
. Now (or botll the grapll of y = xl (llId Y = xi logetJler @ The graphS of y= x' and y= x~ plotted together Clear away the graph you have just drawn. to draw the new graphs: Highlight the block of cells A26 to 849 Click the ClJart Wizard button to create an XV (Scattt:r) graph with joinedup points The graph you obtain wi ll loo k like that depicted to the right: Same shape as the previous o ne but a different orientation.378 Foundation topics For now you must first dear away the o ld graph: Click the boundary of the graph to display the handles Click EditClearAll and the graph disappears. Now. . Then: Highlight the block of ceUs Alto 849 Click the Chart Wizard button to create an XV (Scatter) graph with joinedup points The graph you obtain will look like that depicted to the right: 1 1 . .
1·1 in cell B51 Enter the number 1·2 in cell A52 Enter the number 1·2 in cell BS2 You now have two points with wh ich to p lot the straight line y = x. just used the sheet you have already used and chan ge the contents of cell 81 to the formula =A 1"2. 1 ·5 Now you try o ne. Nutice again. Use the spreadsheet to plot the graphs of y = Xl and its inverse y = xi. . rOw 50 tl1 is lime is empty. To firmly convince yourself of this: Place the c ursor in cell ASI and enter the number .Functions 379 Now you can see that the t wo graphs are each a reflecti on of t he other in the line y = x.1·1 Enter the number . Then: Highlight the block of cells At to 852 C lick the Chart Wizard button to create an XV (Scatter) graph with joinedup poi nts The graph you obtain will look like that depicted below: . You do not n eed La start from scratch. copy this down the 8 column to 824 and then Paste Spe<:ial these values into cells A26 to A49. Clear away the last graph.
380 Foundation topics Lill . So: (a) What does t he inverse of the function look like? (b) Is the inverse of the function the inverse function? lill (a) . . . this is not a graph of a function. However.+ 1 by simply changing the formula in Bl a nd copying it into cells H2 to B24.. the bottom branch of this graph is removed.. If. The graph of the inverse of the square function is a parabola on its side." (b) No .. what is left is t he graph of the function expressed by y = Vi which is called the inverse functiotl because it is single valued. however. "' 2 _1 .. as you have seen earlier.K. .. Plot the graph of y = X4 ...
JX3 .Functions 381 Because (b) The inverse of lhe function is not single valued so it cannot be a function.3x (c) y Use the data from the text and just change the formula Enter 0 in cell Al and EditFillSeries with step vallie 01 = . x { (xl .. At tllis poit/t let us pause altd summarize the ma.1 for . r:J .2 (b) y ~ (C) Jx3 f and g expressed = 3x ) ' Y= ( xZ + 3 by: 2 Given the two functions (x) = 2x .g (x) g (xl (b) k(x ) ~ _ 2f(x ) 3 Use your spreadsheet to draw each of the following and their [nverses.1I facts so far on functions alUl O.. 3 The inverse of a function is a rule that associates range values to domain values of the original function. Is the inverse a function? (a) y = x 6 Use the data from the text and just change the formula (b) y = .eI. it/verses 1Eil Revision summary lElIA funclion is a rule expressed in the form y = ((x ) with the proviso that 2 litJ for each value of x there is a unique value of y. The inverse function would have to be obtained by removing parts of the inverse of the function to obtain a function that was single valued.2 < x < 4 and g(x) find the domain and range of: (a) h(x ) ~ 4 2 for 3 < x < 5. TIle collection of permitted input values to a function is called the domain of the function and th e collection of corresponding output values is ca lled the rallge." Revision exercise 1 Which of the following equatiOns expresses a rule that is a function: (a) Y = 6x .
x (b) Y = .382 Foundation topics (ill t (a) y = 6x .fXJ represents the positive value of y =:d.. (C) Now let's move 011 Composition .1)(x . . This does not express a function because there are always two values to an even root (see Frame 4). (b) Y = v'x3 expresses a rule tllat is a function because to each value of x tllcrc is only one value of y. 2 (a) h tx) ~2 x for 3 < x < 4 because g (x) is not defined for .and the display changes to: the reciprocal of 4 Now press the Ixzl key and the display changes to: 0·0625 the square of 0·25 . The surd sign stands for the positive square root.2) 1 3 2 or < x < 4.2 < x :5 3 and ((x) is not defined fo r 4 :5 x < S.1  positive value of the bmcket there are two values of y. This does express a function because there is only one value of y to each value of x.the reciprocal key .3.3x has an inverse y = . (bl k(x) 2f(x)_ g(x) (2x . y = JX1 has an inverse y = xi be(:ause .'function of a function ' Chains of functions can be built up where the output from one function forms the input to the next function in the chain. The power 5/2 represents raising to the power 5 and taking the square root.r (C) Y= (x/: 3Y expresses a rule that is not a function because to cadl = f (x) g (x) = 2x . TIle inverse does express a function. and there are always two square roots to each positive number.2 expresses a rule that is a function because to each value of x there is only one value of y. 3 (a) y = x 6 has an inverse y = xi. Take out your calculator again and this time enter tile number: [II Now press the 0 ·25 rn key . Range 1 < h{x) < S. Range 7 < k(x) < 5/2.
It is said that f is the composition of a and b.. Given that a(x ) = x + 3. written as: f = boa and read as b o( a.functions 383 Here. An alternative notation. draw the boxes and see wlmt YOII find . more commonly used. 2'1Lb ____ '2.. whereas algebraically the input is placed to the right: «x) = b 0 a(x) So that f(x) = b o a(x ). Now you try. This is because in the diagram the input to the composition enters on the left. btx) = 4x find the functions ( and g where: (a) f (x ) .. b(x) = x 2 and ((x) = (~r. whidl is read as ( o( x equals b of a of x.. is: «x ) • b[a(x l[ and ( is described as being a function of a (miction. b[a(x )[ (b) g(x) • a[b(x )[ Stick witll what you know.. the number 4 was the input to the reciprocal function and the number {}25 was the output. iILa ___'_(_I)~1I4=. This same number 0·25 was then the input to the squaring function with output 0·0625.. Notke that the functions a and b are written down algebraically in the reverse order from the order in whidl they are given in the diagram.0'. (OP>' :0·0625 Notice that the two functions have been named a and b. I i{(4) : 0'0625 "2 I • 41 1 a II I L_____ __ __ _______________J So the function a(x) ! "(1) I f is composed of the two functions a and b where =~. This can be represented by the following diagram: _4 . but any Jetter can be used to label a fundion. At the same time the total processing by f could be said to be tllat the number 4 was input and the number 0·0625 was output: J J b .
how do you decompose it into its component functions? This is particularly easy because you already know how to do it even though you may not yet realize it. find each of the following as expressions in x: (a) fix) ~ a(b[c(x))) (b) g(x) ~ c(a[b(x))) (C) h(x) ~ a(a [c(x ))) Remember. blx) = 2x and c(x ) = tan x. That is..384 Foundation topics LiD Because (a) I (a) fix) ~ 4x + 12 (b) g(x) = 4x + 3 • • x 1" x+3 +3 • • b x4 1 1 4(X. Let's look at a specif7c example f7rst . how about something a little more complicated? Given the three functions o. band c where a(x ) = xl. draw tlTe boxes amI (oJ/aw the logic lliJ Because I (a) f(x) = 8tan3 x (b) g(x ) = tan (8x3 ) (c) h e x) = tan 9 x How about working the other way? Given the expression ((x ) for the output from a composition of functions. Now. the order of composition matters.3) = 4x+ 12 (h) x 1 b x4 4x I" 4x+3 +3 • Notice how these two examples show that h[a(x) ] is different from a [b(x)]. .
Get yo"r calclIlator Ollt alld find the ol/fPllt for a specific inplft I«x) = blatx)J where a(x) = Because x 1. The very act of using a calculator to enumerate the output from a composition requires you to decompose the composition automatically as you go. c(x ) = sinx and d(x ) = 3x Because x 2x 2x+7 sin(2t+ 7) J sin(2x + 7) Let's keep going .x_~I_a____+_5J_X+I5. given a calculator. Use yo •• r calCII/ator and take it steady. Just to make sure you are dear about this.4 ask yourself how. (x+st _ _ _ _"4.mbtUlct 4 to give 8 thjs is the input this is the first function thi5 is the 5ccond function x a(x) = 6x b(x ) = 6x . Notice that this decomposition is not unique.~~_. X+'~LI_a______x_6~1~&~·~L_·______4~~6X ~4•• Try it yourself. there are fOllr functions here I ((x) ~ d[c(b[a(x)J)[ where a(x) ~ 2x b(x) = x + 7.Functions 385 Given the output from a composition of functions as «x ) = 6x . decompose the composition with output ((x ) = 3 sin (2): + 7). You could have defined b{x) = x2 in which case the composition would have been ((x) = b(b[a(x)]).5 and b(x) = xl em _. would you find the value of «2)? You would: enter the number 2 multiply by 6 to give 12 . Decompose the composition with output ((x ) = (x + 5)4. .4 input times 6 input minus 4 so that ((x) = b[a(x)!.
I [e l (x)]) Now you try this one. T . b(x) = x . (b [a(x )]l...)' ·.'lc l (x)J) Notice the reversal of the order of the components: fix ) ~ . For example.. 'x' 7..e next frame Because . find the inverse of the function fix ) f with output ~ (':2)' Answer ill ti. Now try tile fol/owing exercises .I (x) = x '3 b. ( .tions to be found. 4)("'_2 .'(x ) = a.S)i.5 and c(x) = xl.1 .m (.1 (x ) = x + S c.386 FoundaUon topics lliJ Inverses of compositions As has been stated before.I (x) =K = and from the diagram you can see that ( ..1 "1/51 .I "I ..I (x) = a. the diagram of the inverse of a function can be drawn as the function with the information flowing through it in the reverse direction: The diagram pennits the inverse of a composition of fun<. (Xl + 5)/ 3. Each of the three functions a. consider the function f with output «x) = (3x . By decomposing you find that: r ( (x) = c(b(a(x)]) where a(x ) = 3x.1 (b. band c has its respective inverse as: a.1 <'.I (b.
I (x) = a.I [b.YOII will find the sollliions in tile next frame 1 (aJ «xl ~ a[b(c[d(x )]){ ~ 4( JX  5)' 20x 3 (b) ((x) ~ a(a[d (x)]) ~ 16JX (c) ((x) = b[c(b[c(x )]) ] = « x .I (x)])] so that: ( . These definitions can be extended to form trigollometric {imctiollS that are valid for any angle and yet retain all the properties of the origina l ratios.3)3 . We shall now move on and consider other types of function and their specific properties.I (c.3 and c(x) = x3. This is just one category of function .I [b.B the trigonometric ratios were defined for the two acute angles in a rightangled triangle.vise about the end 0 as shown in the diagram over the page: (ill . b(x) = x2 .Functions 387 I Given that a(x ) = 4x.5 )2 _ 5 )2 = X4  + 14Ox 2  400x + 400 2 ( = b 0 c o b 0 a so that ((x) = b[c(b[a(x )])] where a(x ) = 2x . Next (rame Trigonometric fundions Rotation In Programme F. The inverse is ( .3 where a. The inverse is a function.I (x) = x / 2. Start with the circle generated by the end point A of a straight li ne OA of unit Jenb'th rotating anticlock. c(x) = (a) «x) ~ a{b(c{d(x)])) X  5 and d(x) = fi find: (ill (b) (x ) ~ a(a[d(x)]) (e) ((x) ~ b[c(b[c(x )])] 2 Given that (x ) = (lx . So far our work on functions has centred around algebraic (linctions. b(x ) = x .l (x ) = x + 3 and c I(X) = x! . b.I [b' I (cl [b.l (x )])] = (x + ~i I.3. Is the inverse a fundion? Take it steady . decompose ( into its component functions and find its inverse.I (x) = a.
which represent a clockwise rotation of the !joe OA giving the complete graph of the sine function as in the diagram below: sin 0 . For angles sinO = (J where 0 < I) < 7r/2 radians you already know that: 1 ~~ = AB since OA = That is. sin 0 A B 0 0 A 0 B 0 '" 1 Notice that when A is below n the height is l1egative. The definition of the sine function can be further extended by taking into account negative angles.388 Foundation topics sinO A 'O~O"'BC1iOniO. The sine function with output sin (J is now defined as the height of A above B for any angle (J (0 :5 0 < 00). the value of the trigonometric ratio sin e is equal to the height of A above n.t . C>O .
Again.'i (A 1) and copy this into cells 82 to H21.. . referring back to the first diagram in Frame 29. Use the Chart Wiwrd to draw the graph. Notice that when n is to the left of 0 the distance from 0 to n is negative.in cells At to A21 enter the numbers . . So the cosine of . You can reproduce this graph using a spreadsheetin cells Alto A21 enter the numbers . A calculator is used to find the values of the cosine of an angle.our calmlator in (Iegree //Jode ..10 to 10 in steps of 1 and in cell BI enter the formula =co.10 to 10 in steps of I and in cell 111 enter the formula :siJJ(A1) and copy this into ceUs B2 to B21. The cosine function with output cosO is now defined as the distance from 0 to B (or 011)' angle e (.. . Just as before. Remember to Pllt ). . the value of the trigonometric ratio cosO is equal to the distance from 0 to B.1 depending upon the value of O.. . the value of sinO ranges from + 1 to .1r/4 radians is . you can usc a calculator to find the values of the sine of an angle. . So the sine of 153 is 0 Remember to pllt YOllr calculator ill degree mode I0·4540 to 4 dp and the sine of .oo < e < (0).272 ~ is .Fundions 389 As you can see from this diagram.. . for angles 0 where 0 < 0 < rr/2 radians you already know that: cosO .. Use the Chm1 Wizard to draw the graph.0'7071 to 4 dp I By the same reasoning.OA  DB on since OA  I nlis time... . Remember to pllt YOllr calalfator in radian mode 1.. you can reproduce this graph using a spreadsheet .
.. the tangent. is defined as the ratio of the sine to the cosine: taoo=o cm sin 0 Became cosO = 0 whenever 0 is an odd multiple of 'Tr/ 2.... Instead the graph has vertical asymptotes as seen below: to" e I n ~ .. It i~ essential that you are able to draw ~ketch graphs of these fUnctions. aU you then have to remember is that each rise~ and fall~ between + 1 and 1 and crosses the horizontal axi~: (a) every whole multiple of 11" for the sine function (b) every odd multiple of 11"/ 2 for the cosine fu nction .. Use the ellart Wiza rd to create the graph. the tangent is not defined at these points. 'n 2 2 . 0 n !3W2 ) 0 You can plot a single branch of Ihe tangent func lioo using your spreadsheet.s e(l5i1y remembered. Remember to put your calmlator in radian mode Now to pllt these two fimctiolls togetl1er lliJ The tangent The third basic trigonometric function. For the sine and cosine functions Ihe repeated sinusoidal wave pattern . Enter ) 5 in cell Aland EditFilISt:rics down to A21 with step v{/ille 0 1S.390 Foundation topiCS (ill (ill 00349 to 4 dp and the cosine of 2rr/ 3 radians is . then use the function :tan(Al) in cell HI and copy down to 821.. .. Make a note of the diagram in this frame and the diagram~ in Frame~ 29 and 31.. .
all you then have to remember is that it rises from .. . The tangent function repeats itself every 11' radians so it is periodic with period 11' radians. From the graphs of the trigonometric functions you can see that: Both the sine and cosine functions repeat themselves every 211' radians so both are periodic with period 211' radians.. .. Just as before. to find the period of sin 30 note that: sin 30 = sin(. Remember to put YOllr calclIlator ill degree mode I 0·5095 to 4 dp I and the tangent of 670[5 radians is . but this is not the case because there is a smaller interval of () over which the basic sinusoidal shape repeats itself: sin 3R = sin (30 + 27T) = 7T sin 3(0 + 23 ) so the period is 2.. .. For example. you can usc a calculator to find the values of the tangent of an angle. therefore. . crosses the horizontal axis every even multiple of 7r/2 and has a vertical asymptote every odd multiple of 7r/2.. .... . . lliJ radian mode Remember to pill YOllr calCII lator in 10. sin 30 certainly repeats itself over 27T but within 27r the basic sinusoidal shape is repeated three times.7265 to 4 dp I Now to fook at some common propenies of tllese trigonometric fUlJctions Period Any function whose output repeats itself over a regular interval of the input is called a periodic f/lIJction.00 to j·oc.. So the tangent of 333 is .. Finding the periods of trigonometric functions with more involved outputs requires some manipulation. Answer ill tlte /lext frame .W + 211") It is tempting to say that the period is.. So the period of cos 40 is .Functions 391 The repeated branch pattern of the tangent function is a lso easily remembered...... 2r. . the regular interval of the input being called the period o f the function.
..392 Foundation topics Because cos 48 = COS(40 + 271') = C054(0 + 241f) . . .. . . The period of cos(Oj 2 + rrj:J) = .. If you are still nOI convinced of all this.. it just shifts the basic sinusoidal shape 1f/ 3 radians to the left. IlISt (ollow the same procedure. Just one more before moving on. . 111e period of sin (Oj 3) = .. = <:054(0 + i) Answer ill tile next frame And the period of tan SO = [ill Because Ian SO = lao (50 + 11") = tao 5 (0 + 11"/5) Now. . . use the spreadsheet to plot their graphs. try another one. TIle answer may surprise YOII Because sin(0/ 3) = sin (Oj 3 + 211") = sin ] (0 + 6n) I The answer is not 211" because the basic sinusoidal shape is only completed over the interval of 611" radians. .. Just (ollow tlie procedure (ill Because cos(lJj 2 + 11"/3) = cos(B/ 2 + rr/ 3 + br) = cos (4 [8 + 41f] + rr/3) Mow Otl The rrj 3 has no effect on the period. ..
so the amplitude is 1 .0 = 4. the average va lue of the output from the cosine function is zero (it ranges between I. Ihat is: r f(x + I) = ( {x ) for 0 5 x <1 So for exam pl e. l:or example.4 with an average o f zero.1) and the maximum value of the output is 1. Periodic functions are not always trigonometric functio ns. f (2·S) = (O·S + 2) = «O·S ) = O·S This means that we can give the prescription for the function as: f(x ) = x for 0 :5: x < 1 ((x + II) = ((x) for any integer 11 . For example.) 3 2 1 o 2 3 The straight line branch between x = 0 and x = 1 repeats itself indefinitely.3) is . The output from ( for 1 :5: x < 2 matches the output for 0 5 x < 1. So the amplitude of 4 cos(20 .Functions 393 Amplitude Every periodic function possesses an amplitude that is given as the difference between tile maximum value and tile avcf(lge vallie of tile output taken over a single period. The maximum value is 4 so that the amplitude is 4 . Next frame Because The maximum and minimum values of the cosine function are 1. so the output here ra nges from + 4 to . That is: f(x l.2) = (x ) forO S x < 1 So that.1 andl respectively.0 = 1.1 and . the function with the graph shown in the diagram below is also periodic ~. For 0 ~ x < ] the output from is given as (x ) = x . for example. ({l ·S) = «O·S + I ) = {(O·S) = O·S The output from ( for 2 ~ x < 3 also matches the output for 0 :5: x < 1.
the plots of y = sin x and y = sin(x + rr/ 4) on the same graph are shown below: " y .1 / 2 ~ 1 / 2.. sirl(x+ :. .. Here the maximum value of the output is I and the average output is !. 00 Next frame Phase difference 1he phase difference of a periodic function is the interval of the input by which the output leads of lags behind the re(ermee plIletion. in fact.. so the amplitude is 1 .. Remember tile definition of amplitude Because The amplitude is given as the difference between the maximum vallie and the average value of the OlltPllt taken over a single period.rr/ 6) relative to y = sin x is .lS The diagram shows that y = sin(x +. Nex t frame . For example. So that y = sin (x ." \ .) "' . the specific function we have considered is called a sawtooth wave.. . It is said that y = sin (x + rr/ 4) leads with a phase differenee of rr/ 4 radians relative to the reference function)' = sinx.394 Foundation topics l:or a periodic function of this type with period P where the first branch of the function is given for a :5 x < a + P we ca n say that: (x) = some expression in x for a :5 x < a + P f(x + tiP) = f(x) Because of its shape. ~. It might appear to lag behind when you look at the diagram but it is.11'/4. A function with a negative phase difference is said to lag bellind the reference function.rr/4) lags behind y = sinx with a phase difference of .rr/4) has the identical shape to y = sinx but is leadillg it by rr/4 radians.. . whereas sinx only has the value si nO. The amplitude of this sawtooth wave is . leading because when x = 0 then sin(x + rr/4) already has Ihe value sinrr/ 4.. " " . . . . So the phase difference of y = sin (x .
... Finally.. = sin x Think how cosx rela tes to sin x I Irj2 radians Because cosx = sin (x + wj2) and sin (x + 'fr j 2 l leads sinx by 7rj2 radians.. the graph of the inverse of t he sin e function is what results: y 3n 2.. 2>< ..7rj 6 ) lags behind y = sinx b y wj6 radia ns. Take care to compare like with like .. ...plot tile gmpll if necessary l 7rj24 radians I Because sin (3x + Irj8 ) = sin(3[x I.. ..7rj 24]) and sin (3[x + 7rj 24]) leads sin 3x by 1r/24 radians.x . Naw {or inVt:rse trigonometric (unctions Inverse trigonometric functions If the graph of y = sin x is reflected in the line y = x. The phase difference o f y = sin (3x + 71"/8) relative to y = sin 3x is . The phase difference of y = cosx relative to th e reference fu nction y is .Functions 395 Irj6 radians Because The graph of y = sin (. ... .... . .1 +~~~=+~ . try this.
As in the case of the trigonometri c fun ctions. as you can see. . (b) tan.26 5 So remember sec l () = cos.I (. 2 . this is not a function because there is more than one value of y corresponding to a 1:..I (0 ·5) = .I I O 1 and cot . (c) sec.l (lO) = . If you cut off the upper and lower parts of the graph you obtain a singlevalued function and it is this that is the inverse sine flll/dion: 1 • "2 .3·S) = .similar manner you can obtain the inverse cosine (illiction and the inverse tangetlt fUliction: .'O = tan . (refer to Programme L8 for the definition of secB) Next frame {or the answer I Because (aJ 3D" (c) 84·26° (c) If seC I (lO) = 8 then secB = 10 = ..so that cosO = 0 ·1 and 1 cosO 0 = cos... ...g 2 ..I0 and cot.Io NolV to lise these functions Gnd their iI/verses to solve eq/loliollS .I 0: cosec'O = sin .riven value of x..I 0" I SimiJar results are obtained for cosec.. So that: (a) sin .'Wl ) = 84. the values of these invef5e functions are found using a calculator.396 Foundation topics However. In a .
. I1=O. that is 0 =0. This means that the solutions to sin 3x = 0 are found when: 3x= 1l1l"so thatx=3. So the values of x that satisfy the simple trigonometric equation: cos2x = 1 '" are . For example. sin 1111" = 0 where /1 is an integer. ± 41r.m.11=0... However if you look at the graph of lhe sine funcli on you can see lhal between () = 0 and 0 = 27r there arc two values of 0 where sin B = Jz namely 0="4 and "4" sin x 1r 37r E 4 . ±2... coslx = 1 when 2x = 2111r so that x= .. Consequ ently. = From what you know about the rightangled isosceles triangle. . Consider the equation: 2sin3x=V2 This can be rewritte n as sin 3x = '7: Jz. the equation: sin ]x (ill = 0 is a simple trigonometric equation The solution of this equation can be found from inspecting the graph of the sine functio n sin (} which crosses the Baxis whenever (} is an intege r m ultiple of 11".. ± 21r..Functions 397 Trigonometric equations A simple trigonometric equation is one that involves just a single trigonometric expression. That is. ± 1. ± 2. you can say that when 0 = i the n sin O= Jz. . ±2. ± 1. 1 Because From the graph of the cosine fu n ction you can see that it rises to its maximum cos O= 1 wh e never 0 is an even multiple of 1r.. Just look at another. Next frame IX=I17I". ± 1. I1 = O.
.. That IS: x = 12 ± Z andx = 12 ±Z wh eren = O. the values of x that satisfy cos4x = ~ are .. . . '3 ± 21111". So. . ± 1. ± 2 • . ... 'fTf 2 So that when cos 4x = 7r '2' SIT 1 4x = I11r :3 ± 2117r or 4x = 7r S1I" . .. Next frame [ill Because From the graph of the cosine fu nction you see that when cosO = O= 3 ±2nwOr() = '3 ± 2I1wwheren = O.398 FoundatJon topics Consequently: sin 3x = . II = 0. I11r . ± 2..fi when Ix 1 = 4± 21111" a nd when 3x = 4 ± 21111". . = 11" 311" So the values of x that satisfy 2 sin 3x . W ~ S". .. ±2. ± 1. .. ± 2.fi are: /1 x = 12 ± T 11" 2/1ir and x = "4 ± T 11" 2n1l" where =0. ± 1. .... ± 1.
4 2 = 25 = 52 2 so that R = S. so its equation must be of the form: ( (x ) = Rsin (x I.10 :5 x :5 10 with step vallie L The result is shown below: @ . . " . .R 2 coS 2 0 = R1 = 3 2 f. . . 3 = Rsin O and 4 = Rcos O Now: R 2 sin 0l. . . .Functions 399 Equations ofthe fonn acos x+ bsin x= c A pl ot of ((x) = a cos x f. This sinusoidal shape possesses an amplitude and a phase. .x) = 1 with solution Ol.4 sin x against x for . Use your spreadsheet to plot: f(x) = 3 cos x I. This means that 5 sin(O + x) = 5 so that: sin{Ol. .bsin x against x will produce a sinusoidal graph .¢) Either form w iJI suffice .R cosOsin x = 5 Comparing t his equation with the equation 3 cosx I. • .4 sin x = 5 enables u s to say that. .0) or ((x) = R cos(x I. • .0 ± 2I11r 2 . Try it.x = i±211"11" Thus: x =.we shaU select the first one to find solutio ns t o the equation: 3cosx + 4 sin x _ 5 Tha t is: RSin (x + 0) = 5 The leftha nd side can be expanded to give: RsinO cosx I.
The solutions to the equation sinx  V'i cos x = 1 are Next frame for tlle answer I x = 1·571 ± Because Letting Rsin (x + 0) = I 211Jr radians we find. valid for angles greater than O~ and less than 90°.I (~) = 0·6155 ± 2111r radians That is. A t this point let us pause and summarise tile main {acts so {ar on trigonometric functions and equal'ions [ill 161 Revision summary le2J I The definitions of the trigonometric ratios.zCDSX ReosO = 1 and RsinO =..400 Foundation topicS RsinO Now.vr. This gives th e 3 (3) solution to the original equation as: x= i 0·64 ± 2111r = 0·93 ± 211Jr radians to 2 dp Notice that if we had assumed a form ((x) = R cos(x + ¢) the end result would have been the same. RcosO=tanO = "4 so that O=tan.J3 sin (x + 0) = I so that sin (x + 0) = v'3 givi ng: x +H = sin. giving the final solution as x = 1·571 ± 2mr radians. x = 0 ·6155 ± 2117r .l "4 =0·64 rad. that: = 1 enables us to say that: R si n xeosO + RsinOeosx = 1 Comparing this equation with si n x .0 rad. Try thi s one yourself.VZ where R2coS20+ R2sin 20 = R2 = }2 + (_ VZ)2 = 3 so that R = V3... can be extended to the trigonometric functions valid for any angle. by expanding the sine. Now: Rsin O = tanO = . amplitudes and phases. 2 The trigonometric functions possess periods. 3 The inverse trigonometric functions have restricted ranges. RcosO 2sothatO = lan l(v2 ~) = 0·9553rad. . 1 This means that .
n 90 (b) ((e) ~ 7 co. x < 9 and fi nd: (a) the period (b) the amplitude (e) the phase of f( xl + 2 with respect to f(xl 4 Solve the follOWing trigonometric equations: (a) tan4x = 1 (b) sln(x + 27r) + sin (x .0) (d) frO) ~ .cot(30 .l = 0 (e) 3 sin 2 x .4281 (a) 0 ·7071 (d) .(SO . f(x + 3) ~ ((x ) Pio l a graph of Ihis function for .7 cos(56 .30 + 4 + 11") = cot 3(.0 + 4/ 3 + 11"/3) so the period of ((0 ) is 11"/3 an.( 5.d frO) leadscot(30) by the p hase 4/3 with an infin. (b) .1·7321 (e) . The maximum value of f rO) is 3 and the average value is 0.cot (:W . amplit ude and phase (in radians) of each of the following. (c) tan (2 .1I"/ 13) (c) tan (12S0) (d) cot(30") (e) co.0 ·6235 (f) 2·4072 (a) 3sin 90=3sin(9B + 211") = 3sin9(0+21T/9) so the period of ((0) is 271"/ 9 and the phase is O.3/ 5 and the amplitude is 7.3/ 5) so the period of ((0) is 2rr/S.0) = tan(20 +1T) = lan(0 + 2+ 7I") so the period of frO) is 7f and f«() leads tan (. 0 <: x < 3.Functions 401 Revision exercise I Use a calculator to find the value of each of the following (take care to ensure that your calculator is in the correct mode): (a) si n (31r14) (b) cosec(.1786 (c) . so the amplitude of f rO) is 3.3) = 7 cos(SO. (d) .3 ) (e) ((0) ~ tan (2 .1.x +4.21r) = (c) 2cotO + 3cot tb = 1·4 ~ cotOcot ¢ = 0·2 (d) 18cos2 x + 3cosx .4) = cot(.ite amplitude.O) by the phase 2 with an infinite amplitude.4) A function is defined by the following prescription: 2 3 ((x ) ~ ./7) (0 sec(1S_{ ll ) Find the period.3 + 2w) = 7 sin 5(0 + 271"/ 5 .cos 2 X = sin 2x (f) cosx + J3sinx = Vz forO :5 x $. 271" I Using your calculator you will find: (b) 4. the phase is . (a) ((0) ~ 3 . (a) 3 (b) ' 5 (e) 0 2 3 .9::. .
That is: 3 sinz x . .3cot ¢ = 0·6 adding yields 5 cot 0 = 2·0 so that o= cot.rz =.rz so that: 311' v2 ~ with solution 0 + x = !!.2 sin x cos x .cosx) = 0 so that 3 sinx + cosx = 0 or sinx . ...I G) = O·2526 ± 2mr radians.O·3218 ± 1lr.0 ·8 0·2 so that ¢ = coC 1 (0 '2) = 1·3 734 ± nr.. The equation then becomes: Rsin ocos x + RcosOsin x = That Is: Rsin(O+x) Now. cot ¢ = 3 (d) This equation factorizes a s (6cosx .cos x = O.cosx = 0 then tanx = 1 and so x = r... 4  x ± 2r11r .402 Foundation topics 4 (a) If tanO = 1 then 0 = so that x = 16 ± rl . This means that 2sio(0 + x) = sin(O+ x) = Thus: 0= .. Thus x x = ± 1·9106 ± 2mr radians.rz = 12 + (v'31 = 4 R2 sin 2 0 + R2 cos2 0 = ~ so that R = 2. That is (3 sin x + cosx)(sinx . substituting cotO = 0 ·4 into the first equation gives 1A .. Since tan 4x = 1 then 4x = " '4 ± mr " 4· (b) LHS = (sin x cos 2r. = ± 1·4033 ± 2nr. =1 right·hand side = 1/ 4 so x = sin. or 0 + x = 4 4 ± 2mr 4  3r. cosx) = 2sinxcos21r =2sinx = 1/ 2 Therefore sinx becausecos2r. radians.cos z x = 2sinxcosx. and if sinx . + sin 2r. wril e RsinO = 1 and RcosO = J3. (c) Multiplying the second equation by 3 yields: 2cot O+ 3 cot &= ]A 3cotO . radians.. '4 ± nr. If 3sinx+cosx=0 then tan x = 1 / 3 and so x = . ± Zrlr. .cos z x = O.x ± 2mr or 0 = 11' ./ 4 ± 1lr.1)(3 cosx + 1) = 0 so that: cosx = 1/ 6 or ] /3. Also. (I) To solve cosx + J3sinx =.cosx ) + (sin x cos 2r.1 (~) = 1·1903 ± nr. radians or (e) This equation can be written as 3sin 2 x .sin 2r. radians.J2.
.= tan 0 = 1 Fi so that {} = tanRcosO v3 v3 the solution r. r. The general exponential function is given by: y = tr wherea > O and because a = dn a the general exponential function can be written in the form: y= ed na Because In a < 1 when a < e you can sec that the graph increases less qUickly than the graph of e! and if a > e it grows faster.. . = 6 ..' " " " " . x = 46 = 12 orx ="4 . 71T • . cr = l +x+ 2' + x2 Xl X4 0 . Exponential and logarithmic fundions Exponential functions The eXlxmemial function is expressed by the equation: Y= cr or y = exp(x) where e is the exponential number 2·7182818 . gives rad.Functions 403 Rsin{} 1 (Fi ') Now . The value of e! can be found to any level of precision desired from the series expansion: 3!+ 4! + . In practice a calculator is used.rh1S the original equation as: 3r. .. ~ ~ .6= 12 wlthmtherangeO $ x$ 1T 2 1T. 10 r. . 'nle graph of this funrnon lies entirely above the xaxis as does the graph of its reciprocal y = e\ as can be seen in the diagram: . r.
x = 2.404 Foundation topics The inverse exponential function is the logarithmic function expressed by the equation: y= log" x with the graph shown in the diagram: . give that 122. .1: Taking logs of both sides . .1+1 'me first line in this solution is " . When the base a of the logarithmic function lakes on the value of the exponent ial number e the notation y = lox is used.1584 = 0 ·71766 : . . . Indicia' equations An indicia l equation is an equation where the variable appears as an index and the solution of such an equation requires the application of logarithms. .and using 10g(A") (2x)1og 12 ~ log 354 = 35·4. (2x)1·0792 = 1·5490 2 ·1584x = 1·5490 15490 :. . " " . . ' . x = 0 ·7177 to 4 sig fig Example 2 Solve the equation 43>2 = 26. " . Example 1 Here is a simple case.e. = nlogA we have i. We have to find the value of x. . . .
12834 O·5164x= 1 ·2834 2·4853 .0·9138) = 2·0436x .6936 0. x = .. we eventually get X= .. You can finish it off..0 ·9138 = 2·0436x (0·7324 + 1·8276)x + (2·1972 ..] ·2042 (1 8063 ... Now we wifJ deal with al/otiler example Example 3 Solve the equation 5·4. .. t04 sigfig I 6694 I Because we have (3x . here is one to do aU on your own.3913 x = 6·694 to 4 sig fig Care must be taken to apply the rules of logarithms rigidly. . = log{ 4'8 u } (x + 3) logS·4+ (2x . we have log{ 5·4x+1} + log{ 8·2 2x i..2)log4 = (x + 1.2)0 6021 1·8063x . ..2WOO21 ~ (x + 1)14150 Multiplying out and collecting up.2·485 to 4 sig fig Finally..0+1 )( 8·22....20436)x 1·2834 0 ·5164 ~ .14 I 50)x (x + 1)14150 = )·4) SOx + ) ·4150 ~ (14150 + 12042) 0 ·3913x = 2·6192 ~ x = 2·6192 = 6.. .1)09138 ~ (3x)06812 O·7324x + 2·1972 + 1·8276x ...l ) log8·2 = 3xlog4·8 10 4 sig fig Here is the working as a check: (x + 3)0 7324 + (Ox .e. 2·5600x + 1·2834 = 2'0436x (25600 .Functions 405 (3x .1 = We recall Ulat 10g(A x B) = 10gA 4 · 8J~ + 10gB I } Therefore.. finally getting X= ..log26 (3x .
Example 5 Solve the equation 2Z:t .. We can. ... Solve 2 x 32.. 'll1at is 2 X Try this one... x .6y+8 ~ 0 which factorizes to give: (y.>:+5) x 6·4Z:t = 294 = :.1·501 to 4 sig fig Some indiclal equations may need a little manipulation before the rules of logarithms can be applied. wri te y = 2x and substitute y fo r 2'" in the equation to give: y' . therefore. .4· 1533 :. x 4·1533 2 ·7677 . .7765) = 2·4683 2·7677x + 6·6216 = 2'4683 2·76Tix = 2·4683 .6 >< = 2 or 2'" = 4 SO thai x = I or x = = 2. 3'" + 4 O.6 x 2'" + 8 = 0 Because zZ:t = (2"')z this is an equation that is quadratic in 2"'.6·6216 = .0 .1. 711e lIlIswer is ill Frame 67 .. 1 '50' I Check the working: 7(14'3. log 7 + (x + 5)1og 14·3 + (lx ) 1086. giving the resuil to 4 sig fig.4 = log 294 0 ·8451 + (x + 5)1·1553 + (2x)0·8062 2·4683 0 ·8451 + 1·1551x + 5·7765 + 1·6 124x = 2·4683 (11 553 + I '6124)x + (0 ·845 1 + 5.5006 x = .4 ) ~0 so Uta! y = 2 or y = 4..406 Foundation topics Example 4 Solve Ute equati on 7(14'3 HS ) x 6'42>: = 294 Work right through it.2)(y..
= 0·631 to 3 dp or x O. write y = 3X and substitute y for 3" in the equation to give: 2y'6y+4~O which factorizes to give: (2y . Notice how the graph of the cosine function is reflection symmetric aoout the vertical axis through () = 0 in the diagram in Frame 31. For example. ( is called an even function. On the other hand. like the sine function.0) = cos () the cosi ne function is an even function. That is 3 x That isx = 2 or 3" = 1 SO that xlog3 = log2 or x =0.4) (y .sin 0 the sine function is an odd function and because cos( . if: ((x ) = x 2 then f( . The graph of the sine function is rotation symmetric about the origin as it goes into itself under a rotation of 180 about this point as can be seen from the third diagram in frame 29. by replaCing x by . For {(x ) = x3 then {( .Fundions 407 x = 0 ·631 to 3 dp or x =0 Because 32x = (3.x) = (_X )2 = xl = (x ) so that ( is an even function . is odd and has an antisymmetric graph (see the diagram in Frame 34).l) ~ 0 = so that Y = 2 or Y= 1.x) = ( _X )3 = _x3 . And now to tile {inal topic o( Part I Odd and even fundions If. All even functions possess this type of symmetry. All odd functions possess this type of antisymmetry.0) = . )2 this is an equation that is quadratic in 3 x • We can. Because sin( . Notice also that tan( 0) = .x in (x ) the expression docs not Change its value. if: = . 0 ..tan () so that the tangent function.(x) then = r is called an odd function.{(x) so that (is an odd function . therefore. if (x) example. = :~: .
. .2 2x2 . Answer ill next frame .408 Foundation topics @ Odd and even parts Not every function iseithcr even or odd but many can be written as thc sum of an even part and an odd part. (3X +ZX+ l ) 2 2 3x 2 +1 and 2 2 fo(x ) = (3x 2x + 1) .x) is odd.3(x) + 4) 2 2"..(3x + 2x+ 1) .3x+4x3 2 +3x +4 _2x 2 I.2X2 ...3x 2 Make a note here that even polynomial functions consist of only even powers and odd polynomial (unctions cOllsisr of only mid powers.3x + 4 are . Apply the hvo formulas.2(. . So the odd and even parts of ((x) = X 3 ( X2  3x + 5 ) are .(x) ~ . given ((x) where ( .{(x) 2 (x 3 Xl _ 2x 2 _ 3x + 4) .« _ X)3 _ 2( _ X )2  3 (xl + 4) 2 _ZX2 3x+4 + xl + 2X2 3x 2 4 "....x )+ 1 = 3..x ) is also defined then: fe (x ) ((x ) +!( x) is evcn and (o (x) ((x) /( .2x + l then f(x ) =3(x)2 .. the answer is ill the next frame I '. Furthermore re(x ) is called the evet1 Palt of ( (x ) and (o(x) is called the odd part of {(x).2x 2 So.. if f (x)=3x2. If..(x) = xl  3x ((x) + ((x) 2 (Xl _ 2x 2 _ 3x + 4) + «Xl  xl l _ 2(_X)2 ..4  2x2 + 4 =_2x 2 + 4 2 and (o(x ) ~ {(x) .(x) (3X ..2x' + 4 fo(x) Because '. the even and odd parts of (x) = x3 . For examp le ... .r + 2x + I so that the even and odd parts of «xl arc: (...3_3x+X3 .2x + I ) .
' )(x+ l ) x Because fo (x ) ~ ((x) + (( .''''' ' (x.((x) ~ 2 1) x 1) =2 (x ... are . Now try this.I) '" (XI) Ix + 1 .1) I 2 (x (x 1( 1 1 )~2 1(1 1) (x.l ) .. Next frame I 1 (.x ) 2 ~ 2 (x.. . 2 I I )(x + 1) 2 1)(x+ I ) l )(x + l ) and (o(x ) ~ ((x ) . I"")(""x+ ~ I) lliJ (o (x ) ~ 7C". Consequently. The even and odd parts of ((x ) = "  1 x .(x .Fundions 409 Because Even polynomial functions consist of only even powers and odd polynomial functions consist of only odd powers. the even part of ((x ) consists of even IX'wcrs only and the odd part of ((xl consists of odd powers only.( x ) ~ " (xC.l ) + (x + ll lx + l +x l 1 2x 2 (x l )(x + I ) 2 (x l )(x + 1) (x l )(x + 1 ) 1( (x 1 ) '( 1 l) Next frame Now show lhal if {(x) is even then: " " J ((x)dx ~ 2 J((x ) dx "~ .(x + l ) 2 (x . . lliJ x=o .
~=O integrating first from a to 0 and then from 0 to +a changing the variable of integration from x to . At this point let us pause aUlI summarize tile main (acts so far Ofl expoflential afld logarithmic (lmctions as well as on odd afld even functions ." .1<=" .... That is. J ((x)d(x) + J ((x)dx .dx " . "4) _ ~~ J ((x ) dx + J ((x ) dx .zexp(.e.( .x) is not defined .x ex + ( : !I No more will be said aoout these hypcroolic trigonometric functions here.x) = (x ) and d( . ~ ~ ~ " " J ((x )dx + J ((x)dx " ___ . Instead they will be looked at in more detail in Programme 3 of Part II. exPe(x) = exp(x) +2exp (X) and expo(x) = exp(x) .I< eK _ e.410 Foundation topics J ((x ) dx .. These two functions arc known as the hyperbolic cosine and the 'Wpcrbolic sine respectively: eK + e.x)..x) = . x=O interchanging the li mits on the first integral Odd and even parts of the exponential function The exponential function is neither odd nor even but it can be written as a sum of an odd part and an even part.x in the first integral so changing the sign of the limits because f ( .1<"". The logarithmic function y = iog" x is neither odd nor even and indeed docs not possess even and odd parts because lo&. "4) o " " " J ((xJdx + J ((x )dx x:cO ~2 J ( (x)dx =0 ..x cosh X = 2 and sinh x = 2 Using these two functions the hyperbolic tangent can also be defined: tanh x t? ..
( (x ) then f is called an odd function..9 x 7 x + 14 = 0 2 Show that: " J {(x ) dx x==.Fundions 411 1'f.l+1 x 9·42.0 ·4471 .3 4 Taking logs: (lx + 1) log2·8 + (lx ..xl = . r 4 If fe(x ) { (x ) +!(.x ) = {(x ) then is called an eVl'n function and if { (. x = 3 10gB 3.4 1 0g6'3) So that: = log9·4 .. .l+! x 942. 2 The exponential function ((x) = cr and the logarithmic function g (x ) = log" x arc mutual inverses: ( .x) can be defined it if called the even part of ((x ) and if (o(x) = ((x) !( . ..1(x ) = g (x) and g . 3 If f( ..I (X) = ((x ).4 0·9242 .log2·8 21 0g2·8 + 2 10g9·4 410g6'3 0·9731 . 3x log 13 = log 8·4 so that: log 8.1·474 to 3 dp . 0·277 to 3 dp (b) 2 ·82.. ) .) + 2(0·9731.1) log9·4 = 4x log63 )< Factorizing x gives: x(2 10g2·8 + 2 10g9·4 . 1 (a) 133.) 4(0'7993 .1 = 6.u = 0 if (x ) is odd.l.3418 ...1 = 6·3 4X (c) 72>: .l. 2(0·4471.x) can be defined it is called the odd part of {(x) .>: = 8·4 Taking logs of both sides gives. .log2·8 log9·4...::n Revision summary lEll 1 Any function of the form { (x) = at is called an exponential function. ~ Revision exercise I (ill Solve the following indicial equations giving the results to 4 dp: (a) 13 3x = 8·4 (b) 2·82.
.2)(y .x=O J 11=0 . A set of Further problent. + 9x7 x . After that try the Test exercise. Work througll them at your OWfi pace. You will notice that these questions match the Learning outcomes listed at the beginning of the Programme so go back and try the Quiz that follows them.o. A li st of Can You? questions follows for you to gauge your understanding of the material in the Programme.f xa ((x) dx = J ~ ~ ~ = ~ O 0 ((x) dx + J ~=O . 0 which factorizes to (y . ((x ) dx J (( 11= 0 u)d( . ( (x ) dx from the rules of integrals xa Changing the variable of integration in the first integral on the righthand side by substituting x = u so that dx = dll you find that: J x ~_ a . provides additional valuable practice.9y + 14 .u)du + J " J ((x) .412 Foundation topics (c) 7b.7) = 0 with solution: y = 2 or Y = 7 that is 7x = 2 or 7x = 7 log2 so that x = log 7 =0·356 to 3 dp or x = 1 = 2 .ul+ J x~O " ((x) dx " (( . ~=O f(ll)dll + J X= O .f(ll) f(x ) dx You have now come to the end of this Programme. by interchanging the limits in the first integral since {(II) = . " =ll ill J (( .14 = O This equation is quadratic in 7 x so let y = 7x and rewrite the equation as: r . there is flO fleed to hurry.u)du + J ((x) dx U=() .
amplitude and phase of a periodic function? Yes 0 0 [1 [1 [1 No • Distinguish between the inverse of a trigonometriC function and the inverse trigonometric function" Yes [1 [1 [j DO No • Solve trigonometric equations using the inverse trigonometric functions? Yes [1 [1 0 [1 0 No • Recognize that the exponential function and the natural logarithmiC function are mutual inverses and solve indicial and logarithmic equations? Yes [1 0 0 DO No • Find the even and odd parts of a function when they exist? Yes 0 [1 D [1 [1 No • Construct the hyperbolic functions from the odd and even parts of the exponential function Yes [1 0 0 [1 [1 No 00 to I}[) C!DtoG!) [![)to ~ (EJto(E) (][) . On a ~cale of 1 to S how confident are you that you can: Frames • Identify a function as a rule and recognize rules that are not functions? Yes [1 [1 [1 [1 C No • Determine the domain and range of a function? Yes [1 [1 [1 [1 0 No • Construct the inverse of a function and draw its graph? Yes [1 [1 [1 DO No • Construct compositions of functions and deconstruct them into their component functions? Yes [l [1 0 [1 [1 No • Develop the trigonometric functions from the trigonometric ratios? [1 [1 [1 Yes No OJ to III IIltoQ] (]]toCEJ I2D to(ID [!!]to(E) (][ItoI}'[) o o • Find the period. 12 Check this list before (lnd after yUIi try the end of Programme test.Fundions 413 ~ Can You? Checklist F.
Is the inverse a fUnction? Given that (x ) = (Sx . O ::.CEI QI]tomJ emtoG!J f into its component functions and find its inversc.4 decompose 6 Usc a calculator to find tile value of each of the following: (a) sin(320 (b) coscc (lr/ ll ) (c) cot(.6 $. J( :S 6 and find: (a) the period (b) the amplitude (c) the phase of [(x ) + 2 with TC5pect to [(x ) Solve the following trigonometric equations: (a) tan(x + 11') + tan(x .. x < 3 + 3) ~ «x «x) Plot a graph of t his (unction for .x2. 70 (b) {(O) ~ .1r/2) 0 ) find the period.e(30 +4 ) 8 A function is defined by the following prescription: { (x) = 9 .Scosx = 2 .4 )3 . amplitude and phase o f each of the fo llowing: (a) «0) ~ 4eo." / 2) (c) «0) ~ . c(x ) _ x find: (a) « x ) ~ a[b(c[d(x )J)[ + 3 and d{x ) .r.12 I \'\' hich of the following equations expresses a rule that is a function? (a) y ~xl Frames uN::!] s: x < 3 2 Given the t wo functions ( and g expressed by. b(x) = x4.".3sin22x + cos2 x = O (c) 3sinx .Vi (b) (x ) ~ a(a[d(x)J) (c) (x ) ~ b[c(b[c(x )1II [E). 1 ( {x) = x _ 2 for 2 < x 5.I for 0 find the domain and range of functions II and k where: (a) h(x ) ~ 2(x)  3g(x ) (b) k(x ) ~ _ 3«x ) 58(x) Use your spreadsheet to draw each of the following and their inverses. Is the inverse a function? (a) y = 3x4 (b) y=X' (c) r _ 3 _ x2 4 Given that a{x ) = Sx. 4 and g(x) = x .) = 0 (b) 6sin2x .414 Foundation topics Iii Test exercise F.2 ' h1(20 .
Tv.[S(x )[' ~ 1 (h) S(2x) ~ 25(x )C(x ) )n (c) C(x) ~ as(x) 5 Show by using a diagram lhat. for functions f and g.).0:+ ] = 32000 (c) Jog x 36 = 2 (e) In(xt/2) = Inx + In3 12 Find the even and odd parts of ((xl = aX . is given by g(x) = 2f(x). 3 4 Describe the graph of x2 9y2 = O.Functions 415 Frames 10 Find the value of x corresponding to each of the following: (a) 4> ~ 1 (c) ~ = 5 4·32 (e) loglO(X3)=0· tOl (b) exp(3x) ~ e (d) logs x = 4 (0 InlOO=x (b) e" 5e' + 6 ~ O (d) i 1og(x2)= Slog2 .12 Do the graphs of (x) = 310gx andg(x ) = 10g(3x) intersect? 2 Let ((x ) = In G ~ . (b) Show that the new function g fonned by replacing x in ( (x) by . 6 Is it possible to find a value of x such that log. Plot from 0= S to () = + S with a step value of 0 ·5.+25..I.2 and = x3 find the inverse of: (a) f(x) = a(b [c(x )]) (b) ( = c o b o c (e) f = b o c o a obo c 8 Use your spreadsheet to plot sin 0 and sin 2lJ on the same graph. (f o g). [fij Further problems F.rl 0 ( .'o functions C and 5 are defined as the even a nd odd parts of f where ((x ) = 0". . b(x ) = x . (x) c(x) =« for a > 1? Given the three functions a.I =.2x .410g3 CEJtoCEJ Solve for x: (a) 4 .. band c where a(x ) = 6x. Show that: (a) [C(x )[' . +x  (a) Find the domain and range of f.
::S to with step value 1. 40 with step x va lue 4..4 :S x :S 4 on a sheet of graph paper. (b) Find the derivative of y.2 5 x 5 2.) Solve the following giving the results to 4 sig fig: (a) 6{83x+2} = 52~7 11 (b) 4 · S 12~ X 6021~+4 = 12 075~ (c) 5{l 7o Zx+4} x3{So6 2x } = 4 0 7~.416 Foundation topics 9 The square sine wave with period 2 is given by the prescription: f (x ) = {I 0:S x < 1 . (You will have to enter the value nO) = 1 spccifically in cell B11. sin x . (c) Does the derivative exist at x = O? Use the spreadsheet to plot the rectified Sine wave f(x) = ISin xl for 10 5 X.I 15 x < 2 if x 2': 0 If x < 0 Plot this wave for .1 . 10 The absolute value o f x is given as: Ixl ~ { x x (a) Plot the graph of y = Ixl for .40 5 x ::.for . 12 Use your spreadsheet to plot f(x ) = .
PART II 417 .
.
Programme 1 Complex numbers 1 Learning outcomes Frames OJ'"@) When YO" have completed this Programme you will be able to: • Recognize i as standing for J=I and be able to reduce powers of. to ± j or ± 1 • Recognize that all complex numbers are in the form (real part) + j (imaginary part) • Add. subtract and mu ltiply complex numbers • Find the complex con jugate of a complex number • Divide complex numbers • State the conditions for the equality of two complex numbers • Draw complex numbers and recognize the parallelogram law of addition • Convert a complex number from Cartesian to polar form and vice versa • Write a complex number in its exponential form • Obtain the logarithm of a complex number 419 .
9= ±. if 2X2 + 9x + 7 = 0. If symbol F represents Ihe force.~ee flOw The symbolj liJ Quadratic equations 4 The solution of a quadratic equation ax 1 + bx + c = 0 can. III the mass and a the acceleration then we write: F = mxa So when you manipulate symbols you are often manipulating ideas.8. In fact all quadratics can be factori zed into hvo linear factors but with the present state of your knowledge yOll ca nnot always find them. be b ± JlJl 4ac obtained by thc formula.. The numerals were originally devised to record ideas of quantity so when a !>ymbol such as arises to which there is no corresponding quantity we must ask ourselves why? Why does the symbol arise if there is no quantity associated wilh it? Often. '. v . mass. then we have 6 x ~ _. symbols are used to represent these ideas.lor . for inslance.. This will now be remedied .3·5 4 14 . force.420 Engineering Mathematics Introcludion W Ideas and symbols Engineers and scientists use ideas about the physical world to explain observed events.a whole stack of ideas. Take. the everyday numbers that are used for counting and measuring. the only way to answer a question such as this is to accept the symbol and carry on manipulating with it to sec if any new ideas are forthcoming. In an earlier Programme it was stated that there are some quadratics that cannot be factorized into two linear factors. A force is observed being applied to a mass and the mass is observed to accelerate.Sco x =. Isaac Newton said that: Force applied = mass )< occt!leration produced Unking the force applied with the acceleration produced in this way involves ideas about space.. rales of change . x 2a For example.4"0r""4 x= . rr Read 01/ and . of course. lime. In mathematics.9±v'2S 4 9 ± 5 4 .
Complex numbers 1
421
That was straightforward enough, but if we solve the equation 5x 2  6x + 5 = 0 in the same way, we get
x ~6 v= ±,v~ 3ii6~_~"I",OO~
10
6 ± J=64
10
and the next stage is now to determine the square root of 64. Is it (a) 8, (b) 8, (c) neither?
I neither I
It is, of course, neither, since +8 and  8 are the square roots of 64 and not of  64. In fact "'64 cannot be represented by an ordinary number, for there is
w
no real number whose square is a negative quantity. Howcver,  64 = 1 )( 64 and therefore we can write
v  64 ~ V 1 x64 vClV64 ~ svCl
=
i.e. J  64
8vCl
Of course, we are still faced with ...,cT, which cannot be evaluated as a real number, for the same reason as before, but, if we write the letter j to stand for So although we cannot evaluatc ...,cT, we can denote it by i and this makes our working a lot neater.
vCl,
then
v 64 ~ vCl.s ~ is.
v64 ~ vCl V64 ~ ;8
Similarly, J36 = vCl V36 = ;6
N
~
vCl.J7
~ ;2·646
SO J  25 can be written as ........... .
w
6±J=64
10
We now have a way of finishing off the quadratic equatjon we started in Frame 2.
5x 2

6x + 5 = 0
x = O·6 ± jO·8 .. x x = 0 ·6 + ;0·8 or x = 0·6  ;0·8
We will talk about results like these later.
For now, on to Frame 5
.
=w
6 ± j8
422
Engineering Mathematics
Powers ofj
I3ccause; stands for
j~ ~
vCT,
let us consider some powers of;.
j~~
;Z =
 I
i' ~ U')j ~  I .j ~ j }4 = U2)2 = (_ 1)2 = 1
i' ~ I i' ~ j
,4 = 1
Note especially the last result: ;4= 1. Every time a factor ;4 occurs, it can be replaced by the factor 1, so that the power of i is reduced to one of t he fo ur results above: e.g.
P = (l)z;=( 1)2;= 1.; = ;
f' ~ U~ )' ~ ( I )' ~ I
j'" ~ U~)'j' ~ (1)'(_ 1) = 1( 1) ~  I
and
So, in
4)3f = 1(;) = _; U the same way, is = . .. ... .
jtS =
w
4 Because is = U )i = 1.; = j Every one is done in the same way:
j' ~
(r )i' ~ 1(1) ~ 1(
1) ~  1
i' ~ (I~ )i' ~ 1(j) ~ j i'" = (,4)2 = (1 )2 = 1
So
(a) j42 = . .. . . (c) = . ..
w
;n
(d)
(b)jt2 = ..... . ..... . IfX26x+34 = O,
(e)  j
x = . .. .
I (al
 1
(bl 1
(d)
x ~ 3 ± j5
The working in (d) is as follows:
r6x+34 = O '
X=
6 ± ","'36 ""13"'6 2
6±v'=1OO 2
x =6 ± jlO =3±i5
2
i.e. x = 3 + ;5 or x = 3  jS
So remember, to simplify powers of j, we take out the highest power of that we can, and the result must then simplify to one of the four results: i,1 ,  i, 1.
r
Move on now to Frame 8
Complex numbers 1
423
Complex numbers
The result x = 3 + is that we obtained consists of two separate terms, 3 and is. These terms cannot be combined any further, since the second is not a real number (owing to its having the factor i). In such as expression as x = 3 + is: 3 is called the real part of x 5 is called the imaginary part of x and the two together form what is called a comrie): number. So, a Complex number = (Real part) + i(lmaginary part) In the complex number 2 + i7, the real part = ... . ....... . and the imaginary part = ..... . ..... .
I real part = 2; imaginary part =
7 (not i71)
CD
Complex numbers have many applications in engineering. To use them, we must know how to carry out the usual arithmetical operations.
1 Addition and subtraction of complex numbers
This is easy, as a few examples will show:
(4 + ;5)+(3  ;2)
Although the real and imaginary parts cannot be combined, we can remove the brackets and total up terms of the same kind:
(4 + ;S) +(3  ;2) ~ 4 + ;S +3  ;2 = 7 + j3
Another example:
~4
~
(4 +3)+ ; (5  2)
(4+i7J  (2  ;5)
+ i7  2 + ; 5 ~ (4 2) + ;(7 + S)
_ 2 I i12
So in general. (a + i b) + (c + id) = (a + c) Now you do this one:
+ i (b + d)
(5 + i7J
+ (3  ;4)  (6 
j3 ) ~ ...
12 +;6 1
since (S + i7J + (3  ;4)  (6  ;3) =S + i7 + 3j4  6 + j3 ~ (S + 3  6) + ; (7  4 + 3) ~ 2 + j6 Now you do these in the same way:
and
(a) (b)
( 6 + jS) (4j3 ) + (2  i7 ) ~
( 3 + ;5)  (5 ;4)  (  2  j3) ~
.. .
424
Engineering Mathematics
LiD
Here is the working:
(a)
! (a) 4 + ;
(b) ;12 !
(h)
(6 + ;5)(4;3 )+(2j7) =6 + iS4 +i3+Zi7 ~ (6  4 + 2) +;(5 + 3  7) ~ 4+; (3+ ;5)(5 ;4)  (2;3) = 3 + i s  5 + ;4 + 2 + ;3 (Take ca re with signs!) ~ (3  5 + 2) + ;(5 + 4 + 3) = 0 + ;lZ = ilZ
This is very easy then, so long as you remember that the real and the imaginaty parts must be treated quite separately  just like x's and y's in an algebraic expression.
On to Frame 12
@)
2
Multiplication of complex numbers
Take as an example: (3 + ;4)(Z + JS ) 'll1ese are multiplied together in just the same way as you would determine the product (3x + 4y)(2x + Sy). Fonn the product tenns of (a) the two lefthand terms / ......{~1::::,:::.:!!1}.......... (b) the two inner terms (~.+ j4).,~? + (c) the two outer terms ············(,w·········· Cd) the two righthand tenns
j?)
= 6+j8+i l S+l zo =6 + J2320 (sinceF =  I ) =  14 + /23
Likewise, (4  is)(3 + iZ) .....
(ill
Because
! 22;7 !
(4  ;5)(3+;2) ~ 12  ;15 + ;8  ;'10
~ 12  ;7 + 10 (f ~ I )
=22  ;7
Complex numbers 1
425
If the expression contains moce than two factors, we mUltiply the factors
together in stages: (3 + ;4)(2  ;5)(1  ;2) ~ (6 + ;8  ;1 5  f20)(1  ;2) ~ (6  ;7 + 20)( 1  i2) ~ (26  ;7)( I  ;2)
Finish it off
12  jS9
Because (26  ;7)(1  12)
=
26P  ;S2+F14
 26  jS9  14  12  jS9
Note that when we arc dealing with complex numbers, the result of our calculations is also, in general, a complex number. Now you d o this one on your own . (5 + ;8)(5  ;8) ~ .... .. ..... .
Here it is: (S + ;8)(S  ;8) = 25 + j40  j40  ;264 = 25+64
~ 89
Tn spite of what we said above, here we have a result containing no j term . The result is therefore entirely reaL This is rather an exceptional casco Look at the two complex numbers we have just multlplied together. Can you find anything speCial about them? If so, what is it? When YOllllave decided, move on to the next frame
426
Engineering Mathematics
t::!!J
IThey are iden tical except for t he middle sign in the brackets,
i.e. (5 + i8) and (5  i8)
A pai r of complex numbers like these arc calk'd conjugole complex numbers and tile prodllct of two coniugate complex numbers is always entirely real. Look at it Ihis way: (a I b)(a  b) = a 2  1Jl Difference of two squares Sim ilarly
2 (5 + ;S)(S  is) = 52 _ (8)2 = 52 2 2 2 =5 +S U = 1)
F8
= 25 + 64 = 89
Wi thout actually working it out, will the product of (7  j6) and (4 + j3 ) be (a) a real n umber (b) an imaginary number (c) a complex number?
Lill
I A complex n umber
sincc (7  j6)(4 + j3) is a product of two complex numbers which arc not con jugate complex numbers or multiples of conjugates.
Remember: Con jugate complex numbers are identical except for the signs in the middle o f t he brackets. (4 + ;5) and (4 jS) (a + i b) and (a  j b) (6 1j2 ) a nd (2+ ;6)
a"
are not
l10 t
but
a"
(5  i3) and ( 5+ j3) are
conjuga te conjugate conjugate conj uga te
complex complex complex complex
numbers numbers numbers numbers
So what must we multiply (3  ; 2) by, to produce a result that is enti rely real?
(ill
I (3 + i2) or a multiple of it. I
because the con jugate of (3  j2 ) is identical to it, except for the m iddle sign, Le. (3 + ;2), and we know t hat the product of two conjllgate complex numbers is always rcal. Here are two examples:
(3  i2)(3 + i2) ~ 3'  U2 )' ~ 9  14
=9+4=13
(2 + i7)(2  i7) ~ 2' 
U7)' ~ 4 
j'49
=1 119 _ 53
and so on. Complex n umbers o f the form (a + jb) and (a  ; b) are ca lled . . ......... . complex numbers.
Complex numbers 1
427
Icon jugate!
Now you should have no trouble with these: (a) Write down the following products
0)
(4  ;3 )(4 + ;3)
Oi) (4+;7)(4  ;7 )
(iv) (x  iy)(x
(iii) (a
+; b)(a  i b)
+ ;y)
(b) Multiply (3  jS) by a suitable factor to give a product that is entirely real. When you have finished, move 011 to Frame 20 Here are the results in detail:
(a) (i)
®
(4 j3 )(4 + i3 ) = 42_;Z3 2 = 16 +9 =
(H) (4 + j7 )(4 _ j7 ) = 42 _j272 = 16+49 =
1 251 1651
 i2 lJ2 =la2 + b 2 1 (iv) (x ;y)(x + ;y) ~ x'fy' ~ Ix'+y' l
(iii) (a+;b)(a  jb} = a 2 (b) To obtain a real product, we can multiply (3 
is) by its con jugate, I.e.
(3 + ;5), giving:
(3  is )(3 + ;5) = 32  ;ZS2 = 9 + 25 = 1341
Now move 011 to the next frame for a short revision exercise
Revision exercise
1 2
Simplify Ca) Simplify:
j12
(b)
ro
(ill
(c)
,23
(al (5 ;9) (2  ;6)+(3  ;4) (b) (6;3)(2+;5)(6;2) (C) (4 _ ;3)2
(d) (S  ;4)(5 + ;4) 3 Multiply (4  ;3) by an appropriate factor to give a product that is entirely real. What is the result?
When you have completed this exercise, move on to Frame 22
Here are the results. Check yours.
t
(a)
r
2
= (rt)3 = 13
=0
=~
(b) ;10 = (rt)2;2 = 12( _ 1)
(e) ;23 = (rt)Sr
=p =1 _; I
428
Engineering Mathematics
2 (a) (Sj9)  (2 ;6) + (3;4) = 5  ;92 + ;6 + 3  ;4
~(S  2+3 ) + ;(6  94 ) ~16 ;71
(b) (6  ;3 )(2+;5 )(6  ;2)
~ (12 ;6 + ;30  j'15)(6  j2 )
~( 27 + j24)( 6  ;2 )
=
(C)
162 + ;144  jS4 + 48 = 1210 + j90 1
(4 _ j3 )2 = 16  j24  9
(d)
~ 17  ;24 1 (5  j4 )(5 + ;4) = 2Sl16 = 2S I 16 = ~
=
3
A suitable factor is the con jugate of the given complex number:
(4  j 3)(4 + ;3)
16 + 9
=
1 251
All correct? Right.
Now move on to tile next frame to continue the Programme
(ill
Now let us deal with division. Division of a complex number by a real number is easy enough:
5 ; j4
=~  i~ = 1·67  i1.33
7  ·4 But how do we manage with 4 + ~3 ?
If we COUld, somehow, convert the denominator into a real number, we could divide out as in the example above. So our problem is really, how can we convert (4 + j3) into a completely real denominator  and this is where our last piece of work comes in. We know that we can convert (4 + j3) into a completely real number by multiplying it by its ... .
I con jugate I
i.e. the same complex number but with the opposite sign in the middle, in this case (4  j3).
Complex numbers 1
429
But if we multiply the denominator by (4  j3 ), we must also multiply the numerator by the same factor:
7;4 4 + ;3 (7;4)(4;3) (4+;3 )(4 ;3)
28;3712 16 + 9
16  j37 25
16 .37 064 .1 4 8 25  / =. / . 25 and the job is done. To divide one complex number by another, therefore, we multiply numerator and denominator by the con jugate of the denominator. This wil.l convert the denominato r into a rea l number and the final step can then be completed.
Thus, to simpHfy 1
4
:;"2' we shall multiply top and bottom by.
5
the conjugate of the denominator, Le. ( 1  ;2)
If we do that, we get:
4 jS 1 + i2
(4  ;5 )( 1  ;2) 4  }13  1O (1 + ;2)(1j2) 1+ 4 6 .13 _  6  i13 _   1   12 . I26
~
5
5
5
Now here is one for you to do: Simplify
~ ~ ;~
When you hmoe done it, move on to tile next frame
1 0 3+ ;1 1 I
Because
3 + i2
I  j3
(3 + ;2)( 1 + ;3:1 3 + ;11  6 1+9 (1 /3 )( 1 + 13)
_  ", 3",+c!;' 'C ~  0 3 + ;H 10 '
Now do these in Ihe same way:
4  jS
(a)
2_;
(b)
3 +;5
5 ;3
() c
(2 + /3)(1  ;2)
3 + ;4
When you lwve worked tllese, move 011 to Frame 27 to check your results
Here are the solutions in detail:
(a) 4  ;5 ~ (4  ;5)(2 + 1 1 ~ 8;6 + 5 ~ 13;6 ~ 126  T 21
2;
(b)
(2
j)(2 + j)
4+1
5
_
I
_
3+j5 5  ;3
(3 + j5 )(5 +j3) _ 15 + ;34  15 _;34 _ 1:"l (5 J3)(5+ ;3) 25 + 9  34  LLJ
430
Engineering Mathematics
(e
) (2+;3)(1  ;2) (3 4 ;4)
2  ;+6 8; 3+j4 3 + ;4 (8  ;)(3  ;4) (3+ ;4)(3  ;4)
24  j35  4
9+ 16
20  j35
2S
AIl(1 'lOW YOII kllow how to apply t},e (ollr niles to complex Ill/mbers
Equal complex numbers
Now let us see what we can find out about two complex numbers which \','e are told are equal . Let the numbers be Then we have Rearranging terms, we get
a + ;b and c + ;d a + jb = c + jd a  c = i (d  b )
In this last statement, the quantity on the lefthand side is entirely real, while that on the righthand side is entirely imaginary, i.e. a real quantity equals an imaginary quantity! This seems contradictory and in general iI just cannot be true. But there is olle special case for which the statement can be true. That is when ... ... .
I each side is zero I
a  c = j(db )
can he true only if a  C = O. i.e. a = c and if d  b = O. i.e. b = d So we get this important result : If two complex numbers are equal (a) the two real parts are equal (b) the two imaginary parts arc equal For example, if x + iy = 5 + j4, then we know x = 5 and y = 4 and ifa +ib = 6  r3, then a = .. . . . . .. and b = .. . . ... . . . .
Complex numbers 1
431
Be careful to include the Si!,'fl! Now what about this one?
If (a + b) + i(a  b) = 7 + ;2, find the values of a and b. Well now, following our rule about two equal complex numbers, what can we say about (a + b ) and (a  b)?
I a + b= 7 and ab = 2
since the two real parts are equal and the two imaginary parts are equal. This gives you two simultaneous equations, from which you can determine the values of a and b. So what are they?
(ill
I a ~ 4 ·S; b ~ 2 ·S I
For O+ b = 7}2a = 9 ab = 2 2b = 5
(ill
a = 4 ·5 :. b = 2·5
We see then that an equation involving complex numbers leads 10 a pair of simultaneous equations by putting (a) the two real parts equal (b) the two imaginary parts equal This is quite an important point to remember.
Graphical representation of a complex number
Although we cannot evaluate a complex number as a real number, we can represent it diagrammatically, as we shall now see. In the usual system of plolting numbers, Ihe number 3 could be represented by a line from the origin to the point 3 on the scale. Likewise, a line to represent (3) would be drawn from the origin to the point ( 3 ). These two lines are equal in length but are drawn in opposite directions. 'll1erefore, we put an arrowhead on each to distinguish between them .
+3 321023
• , I
'i
A line which represents a magnitude (by its length) and direction (by the arrowhead) is called a vector. We shall be using this word quite a lot. Any vector therefore must include both magnitude (or size) and . . ..... . .
432
Engineering Mathematics
d irection
If we multiply (+3) by the factor ( I ), we get ( 3), Le. the factor ( 1) h as the effc...'Ct of turning the vector t hrouJ::h 180~
,80" .,, ., , , , ,• , o
2 I
3
2
1
o
" L
,'J
2
,
.,
2 ,
Multipl ying by ( 1) is equivalent to multiplying by p, i.e. by the factor i twice. Therefore multiplying by a single facto r i will have half t he effc...'Ct and ro tate the vector thro ugh
only ... . .......
,0
lliJ
The facto r i always turns a vector through 90~ in the positive direction o f measuring angles, i.e. antidO<:k\visc. If we now multiply i3 by a further factor;, we gl.1 jZ3, i.e. ( 3) and the diagram agfl.'l.'S with this result. 2 " If we multiply ( 3) by a further factor ;, sketch the nl.'\'1 poSition of aj.) the vector on a similar diagram. ,.,'
,
. J_~ ,
2
'L
,
3
2
I
TIle result is givell ill the lIext frame
Let us denote the t wo reference lines by
the Xaxis and the Vaxis, as usual. You will see that
(i) The scale on the Xaxis reprc...'Scnts
y
1>
real numbers. This is therefore
called the real axis.
(ii) The scale on t.he Vaxis represents
,
,
J'
.,
x
imaginary numbers. This is then.'fore called the imngitlory axis.
On a simi lar diagram, sketch vecto rs to represent :
(a) S (b)  4 (c) j2
(dl  j
Rc.w lts ill 'he flext frame
Complex numbers 1
433
y
i2
•
Check that each of your vectors carries an arrowhead to show direction .
(ill
I
x
If we now wish to represent 3 + 2 as the sum of two vectors, we must draw them as a chain, the second vector starting where the first one finishes .
o
2
•!
3
The two vectors, 3 and 2, are together equivalent to a single vector drawn from the origin to the end of the fmal vector (giving naturally that 3 + 2 = 5).
Continue to the next frame
If we wish to represent the complex number (3 I ;2), then we add together the vectors which repR>Sent 3 and j2.
•
• x
Notice that the 2 is now multiplied by a factor i which turns that vector through 90<. The equivalent single vector to represent (3 + ;2) is therefore the vector from the beginning of the first vector (origin) to the end of the last one. This graphical representauon constHutes an ArgmuJ diagram. Draw an Argand diagram to represent the vectors:
(a)
(C)
zJ=2+j3 z3 = 4;3
(d)
(b) zz=  3 + i2 Z4 =  4  j5
Label each one dearly
434
Engineering Mathematics
lliJ
Here they are. C heck yours.
y
4
j
4 z._4/S 
Note once again that the end of each vector is plotted very much like plotting x and y coordinates. The real part corresponds to the xvalue. The imaginary part corresponds to the yvalue. Move on to Frame 40
Graphical addition of complex numbers
1€1 us find the sum of z, = 5 + ;2 and Z2 = 2 + j3 by an Argand diagram. If we are adding vectors, they must be drawn as a chain. We therefo re draw at the endof Z I , a vector Ai> representingzz in magnitude and direction, i.e. Ai> = OB and is parallel to it. Therefore OAPB is a parallelogram. Thus the sum of Zl and Zz i ~ g iven hy thf' vertor joining thf' starting point to thf' f'nrl of the la<;t Vf'rtor,
Le.
or.
•
.A
· ,
p
o
• 'X ~~~~~r~~.c~~'. 234567
1 · · . , · .
•
, • , ·
• • •
The complex numbers Z l and Zz can thus be added together by drawin g the diagonal of the parallelogram formed by z. and Zz. If 01' repre~nts t he complex number a + I b, wha t are tile values of a and b in this case?
Complex numbers 1
435
a= 5+ 2= 7
OP = z = 7+i5
b = 2+3 = 5
YOu can c heck this result by adding (5 + i2) and (2 + i3 ) algebraically.
$0 the sum of the tv.'o vectors o n an Argand diagram is given by the
... of the parallelogram of vectors.
I diagonal I
How do we do subtraction by similar means? We do this rather craftily witho ut learning any new methods. lbe tric k is simply this:
z \  Zz = Zl
+ (zz)
That is, we draw the vecto r representing ZI and the neg(1live vector of Zz and add lhem as before. The negaLive vt.."Cto r of Zz is ~impl y a vt.."Cto r with lhe same magnitude (or length) as Zz but pointing in the opposite direction. e.g. If ZI = 5 + j2 and Zz = 2+ ;3 vector OA = ZI = 5 + j2 OP=  zz =  (2 1 j3 ) Then OQ = z\ + ( zz ) = ZI  Zz Detennine o n an Argand diagram
(4 + ;2)+ (2 + ;3)(1 " ;6)
y
6
,
,
2
0
Q
4
f 6  C (z,)
. . .
f f f f f
lzt·z,zsl
•
,
6
7
OA = zl = 4 + j2 OB = Zz =  2+j3 OC=  Zl = I  j6
Then OP=ZI +Zz OQ =ZI fzz z3 = 3j
436
Engineering Mathematics
Polar form of a complex number
It is convenient sometimes to express a complex number a + i b in a different (OnTI. On an Argand diagram, let or be a vector a + j b. Let r = length of the vector and 0 the angle made with OX.
y
Then
and Also
r2 = a2 + 1Yb tanO=a
r=
"fa2 +fil
b 0 = tan 1 a a = rcosO and b = rsinO
5ince z = a + j b, Ihis can be written z = rcosO + jrsin 0 i.e. z = r (cos 0 + isin 0) This is called the polar form of the complex number a + jb, where
r= Ja 2 +!J2 and 0 = tan I ~ a
Let uS take a numerical example.
Next frame
To express z = 4 + ;3 in polar form. First draw a sketch diagram (that always helps).
We can sec that:
y
(a),"2
= 4 2 + 32 = l6 + 9 = 25
3
r=5
(b) tanO = '4 = 0·75
O,~~74~'
o~ 36' 52'
z = a +jb = r(cosB + jsinO)
So in this case z = 5(cos36"52' + jsin 36°52')
Now here is one for you to do. Find the polar form of the complex number (2 + ;3).
When rem have fi"ished it. consult the lIext frame
Complex numbers 1
437
I z = 3·606(cosS6°19'+ ;sinS6°19') I
Here is the working: z = Z + ;3
=
,
r(cosC + i sinO)
,z =
4+9 = 13 3 tanO=2 = I·S
r = 3·606
O= S6°19'
i sinS6 ~ 19' )
z = 3·606(cosS6°19' +
x
We have special names for the values of rand 0: z = a + ib = r(cosll + isin O) (a) r is called the modU/1lS of the complex number z and is often abbreviated to 'mod z' or indicated by Izl. Thus if z=Z + iS, then Izi = VZz + sz _ J 4 + 25 =
m
(b) 0 is called the argumelltof the complex number and can be abbreviated to 'arg z'.
So if z =Z + iS, then argz = . . ........ .
1 "8
Z ~ 68' 12'
1
z= Z+;S. Then algz = 0 = tan 1 %= 6S· 1Z'
Warnillg: In finding 0, there are of course two angles betwL >en 0° and 360°, the
tangent o f which has the value!:. We must be careful to use the angle in the
a
corr<.>ct quadrant. Always draw a sketch of the VL>ctor to ensure you have the right one. e.g. Find arg z when z = 3
;4
,'::rbtn''xv
o is
measured from OX to OP. We first find E, the equivalent acute angle from the triangle sho wn:
4 tan£ = 3 = 1·333
:. E = S3' 8'
Then in this case:
0 = 1800
+E=
233°S'
arg z = 23rS'
Now you find arg ( S + J2)
Move on wilen
you have finished
418
Engineering Mathematics
y
Z = S + jZ 2 tan E =  = 04
•
x
denote the polar form. e.g. If z =  s + ;2, r =
5
In this particular case, 0 = 1800

E
: . 0 = 158°12'
Complex numbers in polar form arc always of the same shape amI differ only in the actual values of r and e. We often usc the shorthand version rLQ to
J25 + 4 = v'z9 = 5385 and
l S8~ 1 2'
The full polar form is z = 5385(cO$ be shortened to z = 5·385 1158°12'
from above e = IS8~ 12' .. ;sin 158°12') and this can
Express in shortened form, the pola r form of (4  ;3)
Do not forg<.'t to draw a sketch diagram firs t.
y
x
r = v'42 + 32 ,=5 tan£ =O·75 :. E = 36"52' o~ 360'  E _ 323' 8'
:. Z
= 5(cos323<8' + jsin323 c g')
~
51 323"8'
Of course, given a complex numbLy in polar form , YOll can convert it into basic form o i jb simply by evaluating the cosine and the sine and multiplylng by the value of r.
c.g. z = 5(cos 35" + j sin 35°) = 5(0,8192 + jO·S736) z = 4·0960 + i2·8680
Now you do this one.
Express in the fonn a + ib.
4 {cos65 ~ I j sin
65 )
z = 1·690.5 + j3 ·62.52
Because
z = 4 (cos65· + jsin 6.5°) = 4(0,4226 + jO'9063 ) = 1·6905 + ;3·6252
Ir the argument is greater than 90
Q •
care must be laken in evaluating the
cosine and sine to include the appropriate Signs.
Complex numbers 1
439
e.g. If z =
2{ COS210~
+ jsin210") the vector lies in the third quadrant.
All
cos 21 O~ =  cos 30" sin 210" =  sin 30e Then z = 2{  cos 30°  i sin 30°) ~ 2( 08660  jO5 ) = 1'732  i
Here you are. What about this one? Express z = 5{cos 140~ + iSin 140°) in the form a + ;b What do you make it?
I z = 3·8300 + i3 ·2140 I
Here are the details: cos 140~ =  cos 40~ sin 140 = sin 40
0
(ill
y
z = S(cos 140 + isin 140°)
= 5( cos 40° + jsin 40' ) = S( 0·7660 + i O·6428)
,
=  3 ·830 + i3·214 Fine. Now by way of revision, work out the following: (a) Express 5 +;4 in polar form (b) Express 3 1 300~ in the fonn a+ i b
When
yOIl
Iwve finished both of them, check YOlir results with those ill Frame 52
Here is the working:
(a) r = 4 2 + S2 = 16 +2S = 41
y
:. r = 6·403 tan E = O'S E = 38c 40' : . 0 = 141 c 20'
•
•
0,
 5 + ;4 = 6·403(cos 14 rZO' + jsin 141"20')  16'403 1141 20' 1
440
Engineering Mathematics
(b)
3 1 3000 ~ 3(cos300o + jsj n 3000)
cos 300" = cosW
sin 300" =  sin 60~
3~
s,"
AI,
= 3(cos60<  jsin60")  3(0500  j(866 )
~ l l '500jz.s981
"'"
z = a + ;b
z=r(cos8+;sin O)
v,
Coo
Move to Frame 53
We
SL'C
then that there are two ways of expR'SSing a complex numocr: in standard form in polar form
(a)
(b)
where r= Jaz + fil b 8 = tan I and o If we remember the simple diagram, we can easily convert from one system to the ot her:
v
•
(1
II
So 011 1I0W to Frame 54
Exponential form of a complex number
There is still another way of expressing a complex num}x>r which we must deal with, fo r it too has i ~ uses. We shaU arrive at It this way: Many functions can be expTL'SSed as scriL'S. for example,
~ = 1 + x + 2!
Xl X2
xl x4 x:5 + 3! + 4! + 5!
x5
t ..••••.
sinx=x   , +51 . 3.
,+
X7
X9
cosx = 1 4' .  6' . +. 2.! +
You no doubt have hazy recollections of these seriL 'S. You had better make a note of them since they have turned up here.
Xl
7.
9 1 + ... .
X4
X6
Complex numbers 1
441
If we now take the series for et and write jO in place of x, we get:
e  1 + 10 +  ., + 3' + ,+ ........ . . 4.
2
= 1
=
• _
.
00)'
00)3
00)'
. FeZ Pol 1 /0 1 2! 1 3!
. e'
jo'
I 4!
rrr
I ...
1 + ,0  2! 
31 + 4! + .. .
IJ'
=
(1  ~ + ~  ..... ... .) +;(9 ~+ ~ .. .... . )
= cosO + jsinO
Therefore, r(cos O+ j sin O) can now be written as re i6 . This is called the expolleutial form of the complex number. It can be obtained from the polar quite easily since the r value is the same and the angle eis the same in both. It is important to note, however, that in the exponential form, the angle must be in radialIS.
Move
Oil
to the Ilext frame
The three ways of expressing a complex number arc therefore:
(a) z = a t jb (b) z=r(cosO + jsinO ) (c) z = r.e jl!
Polar form Exponential form
Remember that the exponential form is obtained from the polar form : (a) the r value is the same in each case (b) the angle is also the same in each case, but in the exponentia l form the angle must be in radians. So, knowing that, change the polar form 5(cos 60" t j sin 60<» exponential form.
Tllell cum
(0
into the
Frame 57
Because we have S(cos 60° + ;sin 60°)
r= S
o=
Exponential form is ScI! And now a word about negative angles: We know eiO
=
6(Y =
i radians
cosO + i sin
°
If we replace 0 by  () in this result, we get
ei6 = cos(  0) t ;sin (  0)
=cos Ojsin O
442
Engineering Mathematics
So we have
e;tJ = cOSO + j S in O} elfJ= cosOjsinO
Make a 110'£ of these
There is o ne operation that we have been unable to C<lTTy out with complex numbers before this. That is to find the logarithm of a complex number. TIle exponential fo rm now makes this poSSible, since the exponential form consists only of products and powers. For, if we have:
z = re,e
then we can say: In1 = In r + jO e.g. If 1 = 6'42e/1"S7 then In 1 = In 642 + j1 ·57 = 1·8594 + j1 ·57 and the result is o nce again a complex number.
And if 1 = 3·&10"236, then In z = ........... .
lnz = ln3 ·8  jO'Z36 = 11,3350  jO·236
I
finally, here is an example of a rather different kind. Once you have seen it done, you will be able to deal with o thers of this kind. Here it is. Express elJ7(/4 in the form Well now, we can write:
a
+jb
et  r./ 4 as e 1eto/ 4
= e(costr/ 4  j sin 11:/ 4)
~ eC2  i Jz}
~ ~(1 i)
This brings us to the end of t his programme, except fo r the Can You? dlCCklist and the Test exercise. Before you do them, read down the Revision summary that fo llows in the next fram e and revise any points on which you are not completely sure.
Move to Frame 60
Complex numbers 1
443
*lED Revision summary
1
Powers ofj
j = vCI, j2 =_ I, P =_j, ,4 = 1. A factor i turns a vector through 90' in
2 Complex nllmbers
y
the positive direction.
a = real part b = imaginary part
x
3
Conjflgate complex numbers (a + j b) and (a  j b) The product of two conjugate numbers is always real: (a + j b)(a 
i b) =
a2
+ If
4
Equal complex Jlllmbers
If a + ib =c + jd, then a = c and b = d.
SPolar (orm of a complex tll/mher z= a+ jb
= r(cosQ
~ r l!!
+ jsin (;I)
r=
Ja2 + b2; Q = tanl{~}
a = rcosO; b = rsin Q
also
61 = the argument of
r = the modulus of z mitten ' mod z' or Izi z, written 'arg z'
iO
6
Expotlentinl fonn of a complex fIt/mber
z = r(cosQ + jsinQ) =
and
7 Logarithm of a complex nflmber
re . } r(cos (;I i sin 8) = re Ie
61 in mdians
z=
or if
re iO
Inz=lnr + jQ ln z = lnr  jQ
z = re iO
444
Engineering Mathematics
~
Can You!
®
Checklist 1
Check this list before and after YOll try tile end of Programme test.
On a scale of 1 to S how confident are you that you can:
Frames
• Recognize j as standing for R powers of j to ±j Of ±l? Yes 0 0 0 D
and be able 1'0 reduce the
mto(!J
ONo
• Recognize that all complex numbers are in the form (real part) + j(imaginary part)'!
Yes
m
mtoOIJ
()!] to lID
D
OC
DO
No
• Add, subtract and multiply complex numbers? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Find the complex conjugate of a complex number?
Yes
0
0
0
DO
No
No
• Divide complex numbers't Yes 0 0 0 0
o
• State the conditions for the equality of two complex numbers? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Draw complex numbers and recognize the parallel law of addition? No Yes
(]!}tolJ!) CEJtoCEJ
~tornJ
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
• Convert a complex number from Cartesian to polar form and vice versa't No Yes
o
o
o
• Write a complex number in its exponential form? Yes D DDDD No • Obtain the logarithm of a complex number?
CEJtomJ
Yes
DDD
DD
No
Complex numbers 1
445
~
Test exercise 1
You w iJI find the questions quite straightforward and easy.
1 Simplify: (a) j3 (b)
;S
b:
(c) j12
(d) jl4.
2
Express in the form
(a) (4  j 7)(2 + j3)
a / j
(b) ( 1 +;)'
(c) (S+ i2)(4  iS)(2 + i3)
(d) 4 + ;3 2 I
3
4
Find the values of x and y that satisfy the equation: (x + y) + j(xy)= 14'8+ ;6·2 Express in polar form: (a) 3 + i5 (b)  6 + i3 Express in the form a + j b: (a) 5(cos225° / isin 225
0 )
(c)  4  ;5
(b) 41330'
(b)
6
Express in exponential form: (a) ZI = 1013r 15' and Hence find In z, and In Zz. Express
2
Z2 =
101322"45'
= el+;,</z in the form a + j b.
Now are YOll ready to start Part 2 of tlie work
011
complex 1Iumbers
~
Further problems 1
Simplify:
(a)
~ 1
2
(S + i4)( 3 + j7)(2  i3)
(b) (2  i3)(3 + j2)
(4 j3 )
(c) cos3x+~si n3x cosx + / slnx
, 2 + j3 2 Express '( .) I ; In the form a / / b. /4 / 5 /
If 2 =
~
3 4
2~j3+1 ~ j2' express z in the form a + j b.
2 . If Z = 1 / '.. find the real and imaginary parts of the complex number I
2+  .
z
1
m lSJJ
S S' lil (2 '5)' 5(7 + j2) Imp y + / / 3 j4 a + jb.
; (4  j6 ), expressing the result in the form
446
Engineering Mathematics
IQJ
~
1 I + , 1 eva 1 f ·b . Z2 = Z+I4 . an d =If ZI = Z + I, uate 23 . lfl the orm a + I . Z3 21 22 If 21, 2Z, 23 arc represented on an Argand diagram by the points P, Q, R, respectively, prove that R is the foot of the perpendicular from the origin on to the line PQ. 7 Points A, B, C, D, on an Argand diagram, represent the complex numbers 9 + i, 4 + i13, 8+ i8, 3 ;4 respectively. Prove that ABeD is a square. 8 If (2 + j3 )(3i4 ) = x + ;y, evaluate x and y. 6
9 10
If (a + b ) + i(a  b) = (2 + i5)z + ; (2  i3 ), find the values of a and b. If x and y arc real, solve the equation: ix 3x + ;4 1 + ;y x + 3y
~ 11
12
c+/ a a ·f 2iS · entlfe · 1 · I h en b =c d and (b) 1 y· Imagmary I h en b =
If 2 = a + ~db, where a, b, c and d are real quantities, show that (a) if 2 is real
 d
c·
~ 13
Given that (a + b) + j(a  b) = ( I + j)z+i(2 + ;), obtain the values of a and b. Express ( 1 + i) in the form re jl} where r is positive and  1r < 0 < 1r.
1 51 15
14 Find the modulus of 2 = (Z  ;)(5 + ;lZ)/(1 + ;2)3.
If x is real, show t hat (2 + i)e<l+/lJx + (2  ;)e(l /l)!t is also real. and lot = R4 + . _~ ; and IW\...J 1 "'''4 ex press Rand L in terms of the real constants Rl , Rz,
16 Given that 21 = R1 +R+jwL; Zz
= Rz; 23 = . ~;
also that ZIZ3 =
l2Z4,
Bl t7
IQJ
~
R4 , C3 and C4.
Ifz = x+;y, where x and y are real, and if the real part of(2 + 1)/(z+ ;) is equal to 1, sh ow that the point z li es on a straight line in the Argand diagram.
ZZ23
18 When 21 = 2 + j3,2z = 3  ;4,23 = 5 +jI2, th en Z = 21+  . If
E = Il, fin d E when
19 If Rl ;:WL
L
( =
5+ ;6.
22
+ 23
14
Rz . I' where R1, R2. R), R4, w, Land C are real, show that
1"£
20
If 2 and z arc con jugate complex numbers, find two complex numbers, 2 = 21 and 2 = 22/ that satisfy the equation: 3zz+ 2(z  z) = 39 + ;12 On an Argand diagram, these two numbers are represented by the points J) and Q. If R represents the number ii, show that the angle PRQ is a right angle.
Programme 2
Cotnplex nutnbers 2
Learning outcomes
When
Frames
(D 1o(!!J
YO" ilave completed tltis Programme YO" will be able to:
• • • • • •
USE' the shorthand fo rm for a complex number in polar Conn Write complex numbers in polar form using negative angles Multiply and divide complex numbers in polar form Use DcMoivre's theorem Find the roots of a complex number Demonstrate trigonometric identiti es o f multiple angles using complex
numbers
• Solve loci problems using complex numbers
447
448
Engineering Mathematics
Introcludion
In Part 1 of this programme on complex numbers, we discovered how to manipulate them in adding, subtracting, multiplying an d di viding. We also finished Part 1 by seeing that a complex number a + jb can also be expressed in polar form, which is always of the form r(cosO + j sin 0). You will remember t hat values of rand 0 can easi ly be found from the diagram of the given vector:
y
and tan O= a
b
b 0= tan  1 a
o
•
x
To be sure that you have taken the correct value of 0, always draw a sketch diagram to sec which quadrant the vector is in.
w
CD
Remember that 0 is always measured from ... .. .
loxI i.e. the positive axis OX.
Right. As a warmingup exercise, do t he following: Express z
=
12 ;5 in polar form
Do not forget the sketch diagram. It ensures that you gel the correct value for O.
WIlen YOll have finished, alld not before, move on to Frame 3 to check your result
113(COS337~231 + jsin33 T'23' I
Here it is, worked out in full: ,2 = 122 + 5 2 = 144 + 25 = 169
y
12
£
: . r = 13
tanE
i
,
, ,5 ,
,
X
5 = 12 =
=
0·4 167 :. E = 22"37' 360'  E = 360' =
22 ~ 37'
In this case, 0
.. . 0 = 337°23'
z
r(cosO + j sin 0)
=
13(cos337°23' + jsin 33T23')
Did you get that right? Here is one more, done in just the same way: Express s  ;4 in polar form. Diagram first of alH Then you cannot go wrong.
When YOII have tile result,
Oil
to Frame 4
. _. = 5 First the diagram: v 3 tan£ = "4 = 075 : .Complex numbers 2 449 w Here is the working: check yours.. _. i. £=38°40' 180~ e= + E= 21 8~40' So z = 5 .iting the result above. sin 105°) is written is written is written 57213Z2°1S' S IlOS" 3'4(cos ~+ . They are all the same shape and differ one from another simply by t he values of __ . r = J4'f=6'403 • v tanE=~ =0'8 In this case.Sin ~ 3'4 ~ They arc all complex numbers in polar form... Z = . _.3 in polar form.e... From this: . . Express z = 4 . . .. 6403 (cos2 18~4O' +. we have a shorthand method of quoting the result in polar form.. Do you remember what it is? The shorthand way of .sin218 40') is . r(cosB + .. __ . _..i4 = 6'403(cos218' 40' + isin 2 18°40') Since evel)' complex number in polar form is of the same shape... ..sin 8) and differs from another complex number simply by the values of rand 8.2 = 5 2 + 4 2 = 25 + 16 = 41 : ... £ = 36°52' 8 = 36()0 . _and _.. : . .36°52' = 323"8' z = 4 ... .. . ... .. _. G and[8J Now let us consider the following example.. 1 6 403 1218 ' 40' 1 w w Correct_ Likewise: S·72(c053ZZ" ' 15' + jsin 32Z"15') 5(cos 105° + .j 3 = 5(c05 323e8' + isin323e8') or in shortened form... Le. _..
...1100]) ~ 4( .O J = cosO and sin [O ] = .. But you alreay know that cost..sin[. vety much like the polar form but with a minus sign in the middle. In the same way: z = 4(cos 250' + i sin 250°) = 4(cos[110"] .sin 31O~ ) = .sinO. . z= 5(cos36~ S2' .. measured flOm OX. This comes about whenever we use negative angles. . could be given as 36°52'.) L!J since cos( .e. the minus sign showing that we are measuring the angle in the opposite sense from the usual positive direction. we have: z = S(cos323°g' + jsin323~ g') But the direction of the vector..j sin 145~ ) z = 6(cos 310' + .e. Similarly: and .j sin 130") > z = 3(cos300u + isin 300") = 3(cos60" . .450 Engineering Mathematics In the previous example..110°) = cos ] 1O~ and sin(1100) = sin110" It is sometimes convenient to use this form when the value of 0 is greater than 180c ... i. in the 3rd and 4th quadrants. . i We could write z = S(cos[36°S2'J + jsin[36C S2']) . Here arc some examples: z = 3(cos 230' + j sin 230~) = 3(cos 130° . . .sin 70°) z = 2(cos21 S0 + jsin 21 S ~ ) = 2(cos 145 0 . y . ..jsin 60°) z = 4(cos290a + jsin290~) = 4(cos70" ..... .isin36"52') i. .
sin 260°) Because z. z = 4 (cos260° + .Complex numbers 2 451 Iz Because = 6(cos50° . Express l = 4 (cos 100" .g.sin 50° A moment ago we agreed that the minus sign comes about by the use of negative angles. Theil on to Frame 10 Because z = = 5(cos40° .j sin 30") = 4(cos[. it all depends on Ule use of negative angles. .40 + j sin [.j sin 100°) in proper polar fonn.j sin 40") = 5(cos[.. i.sin 50") w cos 310° = cos 50" and sin 310" = . e.jsin40") into p roper polar form. = 4(C05 100" . A complex number wi th a negative sign in the middle is equivalent to the same complex number wit h a positive sign. but with the angles made n egative.4Cf']) 5{cos 320" + i sin 320°) C ] Here is another for you tD do. we simply work back the way wc camc. z = 4(cos30" .300] +.HXn) = (ill 4(cos260" + isin 260°) We ought to see how this modified polar form affects ou r shorthand notation. You do this one: Convert z = 5(cos40° .e.sin [30"]) = 4{cos330° + isin 330°) and we are back in proper polar form. To convert a complex number given in this way back into proper polar form. with a '+' in the middle. Do not forget.isi n 100°) = 4(cos[.lDon] + i sin[.
+ iSin 0. 2 = .sin lh sin ( 2) + itsin 0.e.(COSOI 1 (a) 1 1W' (b) 1 135" 1 The polar form at first sight seems to be a complicated way of representing a complex number.g. However it is very useful. sin Oz) + cosO. sin ( 2)1 Rearranging the terms and remembering that. we get 7.jSin 135 ~ ) in the shorthand way? LID lei z. 5 [.6( f. sin Oz) ought to ring a bell.. in the negative direction.D resembles the first quadrant and indicates measuring angles) Le.452 Engineering Mathematics Remember. = . as we shall see.15°] + j sin(.e they? . cosOz + jcosO. in the positive dJrection.SinO.z = " '2\(COSOI cosOz .sin 15°).1. cosOz + jSinO.T .. e.600] + isin [60°J) so we could write 5 1.iSin 45°) = 3 [_45 0 =. for the sign . which is reaJly (cos[.. 3(cos45° . But instead of using the negative angle we use a different symbol. COS02 Now the brackets (cos 01 cosOz .j sin 60°)? We know that this really stands for 5(cos[. 1 3 [450 1 This is easy to remember. 7.(cosO.n l .. Suppose we multiply together two complex numbers in this form: + iSin OJ) and Zz = 'z(coslJz + isin Oz) Then ZIZZ = . (cos 15 ~ + jsin 15°) is writlen [150 but (cos 15 ~ . What a.. )' 2(COS02 + isin(2 ) = "'z(cosO.60" becomes . 5(cos60~ + jsin 60°) is written 51 60 How then shall we write 5(cos60" . while the sign V resembles the fourth quadrant and indicates measuring angles J Le. sinOz) and (sin 01 cosOz + cosO. Similarly.Z sin 0. sin Oz +.x 5160'.15°]) is written [150 So how do we write (a) (cos 120" + i sin 120v ) and (b) (cos 135" .. i.
So therefore... multiply the . all we do is: (a) multiply the moduli. + 1' ... 2(cos 30" + j sin 30") x 3( cos 40') + i sin 40°) = 2 x 3(cos[30° + 40"] + .. .. Note this important result. ..sin2100 ) x 3(cosSO" + . . . . Here you are then.... . all done the same way: (a) 2(cos 120 + iSin 120") x 4(cos20" + iSin 20°) = 8(cos 140° + jSin 140°) (b) a(cosO+js inO) x b(cos rJ> +. sin [30° + 40°]) = 6(cos 70" + jsin 70°) So if we multiply together 5(cos50° + j sin 50°) and 2(cos65° + jsin 65°) we get .sln 290°) (d) 5(cos50° + isln 50°) x 3{cos[. Now let us see if we can discover a similar set of rules for division. . . + (2) + cos 0 1 sin 02 = sin(O] + ( 2 ) In that case. . (b) add the arguments. (a) multiply the r's together. .. ... We have just shown that 'I (cos 0] + isin 0d"2(COS€h + isin (2) = '1'2 [ COS(0] + €h) + jSin(O] + €h)] i. 4 (cos35° + jsin 35°) x 3(cos20° + jsin ZOO) = .sin[_ 20°]) = 15(cos30° + jsin 30°) 0 Have you got it? No matter what the angles are. (b) add the angles.. Z ]Z2 = '1'2 [COS(01 + fh) + iSin (OI + (2) [..g. It is just as easy as that! e. .sin800) = 18(cos 290° + .200] + . . add the O's.Complex numbers 2 453 cosO] COS02  sin 0] cos 02 sin 0 1 sin O 2 = 'OS(O. To multiply together two complex numbers in polar form. We already know that to simplify 53 + ~6 we first obtain a denominator that is entirely real by multiplying top and bottom by . 0.'s..n[6 + ¢[) (c) 6(cos21O~ + ..sin rJ» ~ ab( cos[e + ¢[ + i s. . together. . (ill Remember.e.
/4 .sln (O . sin 62) + j(sin 8. 2(cos4 ] ~ + jsin 4 ] ") .3(C053 1 + 151031 ) So we now have two important rules: If 21 = .02) + jSi n{61 62)J '2 So. cos fh ...isln ( 2 ) ' I (cosO] (05(12 I. Now here is on e for you to thin k <lbou!.5io02) . 3 ... (cos8. of cou rse.454 Engineering Mathematics Lill '1 (cos 6..1n02) + jsin lh) ' 2(C0582 + isin 6z)(coslh . (cosO .tJz  j ... Then let us do the same with ( " . sin ez)] 1 ~ = ~ [(OS(Ol . + 02) + . the rule is .. i. cos 02 . If t l  8 (cos 65° + j sin 65") and (a) ZIZ2=· Zz = 4(cos 23' t.cosO..(COSOI +. 6«(05 72 + isin 72' ) " '. .jcosO. Z2 then (ill I (a) (b) ZIZZ = 32(cos88" + jsinSS") ZI 22 = 2 (cos42" + jsin 42") . . + lh )] '] (b) :={cos(OI .. = . Ih)] 22 Zl 'z The results are still.• then and = ( ](2 [005 (8 . + sin Ol slnOz) '2 (cos 2 8z + sin 2 0z) 1". .. T jsinOa) RIght.g. " e.ih)+/SIO(O. ( 2«(0562 the con jugate of the denominator.i sin O.e. in pola r fOrm. [( cosO] cosOz + sin O. for division..jsin 23") and (bJ 1. sin fh..is!n O.. I •. Id ivide the r's a nd subtract the angle I That is correct. J ' 2 COSIl2 + / snuZ + /5In(1) (.. + /sinOd (a) 2122 and 22 = fz(cos8z + . .)(cn.
40°)] = 24(cos90 +isin90") Now what about a few revision examples on the work we have done so far? Move to tile next frame Revision exercise Work all these questions and then turn on to Frame 22 and check your results.jsin57°) C ) Solutions are in Frame 22.jsin 55°).Complex numbers 2 455 Of course. 4 . 1 Express in polar form.5Y) + i sine. giving the results in polar form: (a) 3(cos 143" + jsin 143~ ) x 4(cos57~ + jsin 57") (b) 1O(eDS ]26 + jsin 126°) 2(cos 72° + jSin 72°) 0 lliJ 4 Express in the form a + ib: (a) 2(cos30' + . 5(c0560° + isin 60°) x 4(eos 30° + isin 30°) 2(c0550D+ jsinSOO ) 20(cos 90~ + j sin 90°) 2«(0550" +jsinSOO ) = 1O(cos 40 c + i sin 4O~ ) What does the following product become? 4(cos20 Q +isin 20°) x 3(c0530" + jsin 30 Q ) x 2(c05 40 0 + jsin 40") Result in next frame i.. Z = 5(cos55° .2 = 22 + 4 2 = 4 + 16 = 20 . 0 .g. r = 4·472 tan E = 0·5 .e. we can combine the rules in a single example: e.. E = 26 c 34' .55°)] c = 5(cos30S + jsin 305°) . Z = 4 + j2." .sin30 (b) 5(cos57".". e = x 15r 26' = z = 4 + i2 4·472(cos 153 ~26' + jsin 153"26') 2 z = 5(eos55° . 2 Express in true polar form.jsin 55°) = 5{ eos( . .:. (4 x 3 x 2)[cos( 200 +30" + 40~ ) + jsin ( 200 +30~ 1. Move on and see /Jow you /Jave fared 1 v . 3 Simplify the following.
j ) then we have l'. + Oz + (3) + ... Similarly. sin Oz ) (. ZZZ3 = "'2(3 [COS(0 . we square the modulus (r value) and multiply the argument (0) by . we just CtIbe the modulus (r value) and multiply the argument (0) by 3.Z2l'3 = r'(2[cos(0.' .sin 57") = 3 x 4[cos(143° + 5]<.n( J 26" _ 72")[ 2 = 5(cos54 + jsin54°) ~ 4 {a) 2(c0530~ ~ + jsin300) 2(0 ·866 + .j + jsin 03) Zl = (. +Oz)] Z3 = fJ (cos 03 + . . sin 0)..sin(O.'21.4' 193 Now continue the Programme in Frame 23 Now we are ready to go on to a very important section which follows from our work on multiplication of complex numbers in polar form.fZ[COS(O. to square a complex number in polar form. Then the result above becomes: Z11. (cos 0.' Z. +fh) + jsin(O .'l(cosO +.z( cos 02 +. + 02)]r3(COS£l.jO·8387) =2·723.. . Z3 are all alike and that each is equal to = (cosO + .r [c05(O + 0 + 0) + . sin 72°) J 0 [cos(J26" . .'l(cos 30 + j sin 30) = [r(cosO + j sin 0) ]3 = .sin (O+ 0 + 0») = . .jsin5 7") = 5(0·5446 . + O z + 03 ») because in multiplication.72") + is.sinO)3 = .5) ~ J ·732 + i (b) 5(cos5 7" .( . . we multipl y the moduli and add the arguments Now suppose that z" Zz. if we wish to CtIbe a complex number in polar form. We have already established that: if then So if + j sin OJ) and Z2 = . 1.'3 = z3 Z3 = r .Z2 = (ill 1. .3(cos30 + jsin 30) or That is.0.. sin £I. + 02) + jsin(O .) + isin (14r + 57°)1 = 12(cos 200° + j sin 200°) (b) lO(cos 126" + jsin 126°) 2( cos 72° + .456 Engineering Mathematics 3 (a) 3(cos 143" + jsin 14r) x 4(cos5 r + .
n = ~ 70" 70°) = 4! ( (os 2 +js1n2 = 2(cos35 + .. no matter whether the power is positive.. e. . then.... . . Here goes: If z = r (cosO + .sin50ol z = 4z[cos(2 x 50°} + jsin(2 x 50 ») 0 = 0 ]6 ( cosl00 o + isin]OO~ ) and [3(cos 110 + jsin 110.. ..... This is where the polar form really comes into its own! For DeMoivre's theorem also applies when we are raising the complex number to a fractional power.g.. It says that to raise a complex number in polar form to any power 11. negative..s(cos50 + jsin 50) and so on In general. whole number or fraction. To find the square root of z = 4(cos 70' We have .. i..sin O)JZ = rZ(cos 2fJ + jsin 2iJ) Let us take another look at these results: [r( cos fJ + j sin 8)Jz = rZ( cos 28 + i sin 28) Ir(('os fJ +j sin fJ) ]J = ~(cos 3fJ + j sin 30) (r(cosO+ jsinO)]4 = fl (cos 48 + jsin 40) [r(cosO + jsin 0)]5 = . we can say: [r (cosO + jsin 0)]" = . DeMoivre's theorem is so important..sin 8).sin 35°) U It works every time.e.g.. when we are finding the roots of a complex number.Complex numbers 2 451 o Similarly: i. [4(cos50~ + . [r(cosfJ + . In fact. [ r(cos(J + jsin8)r =1 r'(cosnO + isinnO) 1 This general result is very important and is called DeMoivre's theorem. then z" = .e.. . we raise the r to the power tI and multiply the angle by fJ: e. let us write it down again..e..fZ = z! = [4(Cos70o+ isin700)]1 + j sin 70°) i..» )3 = 27(cos 330c + jsin 330°) and in the same way: [2 (cos37° + jsin 37"'»)4 = .
. Let us find the cube root of z = 8(cos 120~ + . etc. then z" = r'(cos nO + jsin nO) I I y for any value of n. we could say that 0 was 'I revolution + 120°': the vector would still be in the same position. Of course. as follows: 2 .11'. ..3 480 or s! 1 .or 81112000 3 3 [f we simplify these. .. Make a sketcl! of the first tllree vectors on n single Atgnnd diagram . or.. 0 If we put each of these on an Atgand diagram..3> or or. and if we now apply i. (3 revs + 1ZO~ ) etc.. Look again at finding a root of a complex number. 840° or 81120(Y etc.sin 120 Here is the given complex number shown on an Argand diagram : C ) . = 21 40 or 2 1 160~ or 21280" or 2 1 400 etc.458 Engineering Mathematics z = r(cosO + jsin 0).e... Any subsequent calculations merely repeat these three positions.. for that matter (2 revs + 120°). or 811840' .. z = 8 1120" . we get: z1 = s! 1120' . 2 no· we see we have three quite different results for the cube root of z and also that the fourth diagram would be a repetition of the first. l = 8 1 120~ or 8 1 480~ or 8 1 DeMoivre's theorem to each of these... we get: fi.
.Complex numbers 2 459 Here they are. l . degrees. ""i"x 22 = Z3 = 2140° 21160° = 21280° We see..3. 0 Notice lha l lhe three cube roots or a complex number are equal in modulus (or size) and equally spaced at intervals of Now let liS 3~0" Le. that there are 3 cube roots of a complex number. Le.and so on.. take another a. 120~. sin 120°): y '.. On to tile next frame To find the three cube roots of z = 5(cos225° +jsin 225°) The first root is given by z..+ isin3= 1·71 (cos 7SO + isin 7SO) 225° 2250) z. so sketch them on a combined diagram.ample. . lliJ That is right. = 1·71 175" We know that the other cube roots are the same length (modulus). 120' _ z.. 17 1. Le. therefore. and separated at intervals of So the three cube roots are: 3~O. any two adjacent vectors being separated by . . if you consider the angles. .. The cube roots of z = 8(cos 120° +. Also. you see that the 3 roots are equally spaced round the diagram. = 1 7 1 175 0 Z2 = 1·71 1195° Z3 = 1·71 1 315° It helps to see them on an Argand diagram.. Therefore all we need to do in practice is to find the fi rst of the roots and simply add 120 on to get the next . . =zi = s! ( cos .
J J ! Then log A = 510g12 letA = 12. A = I ·644 The first of the 5 fifth roots is therefore 21 = 1·644160" The others will be of the same modulus.2. n A complex number.Le. . So the required 5 fifth rooLS of ]21 300" are: zl = ] ·64416O° Z4 = 1·644 1 276° z2 = 1 · 644 1 1 :~2° lS = z3 = 1 ' 644 ~ 1'644 1348" Sketch them on an Argand diagram. ] '644. separated by 3. . separated by . . .5And now: To find the 5 fifth roots of 121300° 1 z = 12 1 3~ :.Le.. has: 360 .460 Engineering Mathematics lill Here they are: We find any roots of a complex number in the same way: (a) Apply DeMoivre's theorem to find the first of the n roots. 180' 3 cube roots. 90'" 5 fifth roots. .. (b) The other roots will then be distributed round the diagram at regular .. 360 < i. as before.I.e. 72° There would be 5 fifth roots separated by 11 . 2 square roots... and equally separated at 3600 intervals of 5. Do it by logs. therefore. 1(360 mterva s 0 . . i.e.. 72°. separated by .Le. etc.e.~ 13~O = lzi l60" We now have to find the vaJue of 12!. = 5 (1 '0792) = 0 ·2158 So. ] 20~ 360~ 360" 4 fourth roots.. separated by 4. z\ = 12.
draw an Argand diagram to illustrate these roots. the priudpal root is therefore Good.I = 7* 120" Now find 71 by logs. we are sometimes asked to find the principal root. We have to find the 4 fourth roots of Z = 7(cos 80° +. Follow it. it may be the last root. it may be the first root. The onJy test is to see which rool is n earest to the positive OX axis. Now here is another example worked in detail. .= 90<1 Therefore the 4 fourth toots are: Z\ = 1·627 1 20" ZJ = 1·627 1 200° 36if Zz = 1·627 1110° Z4 = 1627 1 290° And once again. Let A = 71 Then Jog A Zl = = "41og7 = "4 (0 8451 ) = 0·2113 Q I I and A = 1627 1627 1 20 The other roots will be separated by intervals of ~4.(JO = ]644 1 204° = ] 644 1 276 0 Zz = J '644 1132° zJ " '.Complex numbers 2 461 y Zl = ] ·644 1 £. sin 80°) The first root Zl = 7! 180" l. This is always the root whose vector is nearest to the positive OX axis_ In some cases. In others. the principal root is taken to be the first root. If the first and last root are equidistant [rom the xaxis. In the example above. Z4 Zs = ]·6441348° Although there are 5 ruth roots of a complex number.
=1<.2 Z3 = ] ·8171200" = ] ·817 1 320' '. 7."x ~..3.. y mo~'t' on to Frame 39 and check your results 1" I z\ = 1·8171 SO' =~_. Zl = I ·BI7l.:::~r====XX ] ·6271 20" ] ·627 1110" Z3 = 1·627 1 200° 74 = 1627 1290" And in this example the principal fourth root is . Represent them on an Argand diagram and indicate which is the principal cube root. Whetl you Ilt1ve finished it. since it is the root nearest to the positive OX axis..= 120" Therefore the roots are.§!t Z2 = ] · 8J7 1 200~ Z3 = 18]7 1 320° llle principal root is the root nearest to the positive OX axis.'".40.462 Engineering Mathematics (ill y l'l = Z2 = :::. then. Find the three cube roots of 6(cos240° + jsin2400) . = 240~ ()i t 3 360" = 1 ·8 ]7 1 80~ Inte rva l between roots = .7. In this case. the principal root is z3 = 1·8] 71320" On to tile next frame . Now you can do one entirely on your own. Here it is. Principal root: Z3 = 1·8171320° Here is the working: z= 61 z40 Q z.
3 cos 0 sin 2 0 sin 311 = 3 cos 2 8sin II . after which we can equate real and imaginary parts.. we get " ond cos 30 = .Complex numbers 2 463 Expansions of sin nB and cos nO. . . where n is a positive integer By DeMoivre's theorem. we know that: cos till + . . An example will soon show you how it is done: To find expansions for cos 30 and sin 30... (all in term" of cosll) sin 30 = .. . .1 .is3 since / 2 = .3cs2 . sin3l1 = ...3c2s .sin 30 = = c 3 + 3c2 Us) + 3CUS)2 + US)3 c 3 +. . We have: cos 30 + jSin30 = (cosO + jsin 0)3 where c = cos II s = sinll Now expand this by the binomial series ..sin 3 0 If we wish... ...3c2s ...3cs2 ) + /(3c 2 s _ S3) Now. . (all in terms of sin 0) ..like (a cos30+jsin30 = + b )3 so that I c3 + . ... . we can replace sin 2 0 by (1 .cos 2 0) and cos2 0 by (J .sin 2 0) so that we could write the results above as: cos3l1 = . = I = (2 . cos 30 = cos 3 0 .. .. sin til} = (cos II + j sin 8)" The method is simply to expand the lighthand s1de as a b1nomial series.3cs2 . equating real parts and imaginary parts.S3 I Because cos 30 +.
ha~'e When YOII finished.3 sin 3 0 . it is really the method that counts.cost 8) () = cos 0 . check )'OJlr result witll the next frame Working.sin] 0 = 3sinO .I . So now do this one in just the same way: Obtain an expression fo r cos 40 in terms of cos O.4 sin3 e Because cos 38 = cos3 (I 3  3cosO(1 . On to the next frame . cos 40 + i sin 40 = (cosO + jsin 0)4 = (C+iS)4 = c4 + 4c1US) + &2U5)2 + 4CUS)3 = c4 + US )4 + j4c1s _ _ 625 2 _ i4cs1 + 54 4cs3) = (c4 Equating real parts: cos 40 = c4 _ + 54) + j(4c 3s _ 6252 + S4 6c2s2 62(1 .4siJl l O 'While these result's are useful.e l ) = c4 = c4 _ + (J _ 2 )2 6c 2 + 6c4 + 1 _2e 2 + c4 = 8c4 _ &2 + 1 = 8cos 4 0 .8coszO + 1 Now for a different problem.464 Engineering Mathematics cos 30 = 4cosl 0 .3cosO + 3cosl = 4cos103cosO and sin30 = 3 (] sin 2 0)sinOsin 3 0 = 3 sin {.3 cosO sin 30 = 3 sin 0 .
. and = .. from the four results that we noted: 1 z+= z and z3+)= . =izsinno Make a note of alese results in your record book.~ = jZsintlO z'I Let us collect these four results together: z = cos 8 + j sin 9 z+=Zcos61 z . z z Now here is the t rick: we rewrite thiS.. .Complex numbers 2 465 Expansions for cos'VJ and sin'VJ in terms of sines and cosines of multiples of 6 Let then 1 z = cos6l+. cos n61 + j sin n61 .sinO ~=zl=cosO.. by DeMoivre's theorem: z. + z" = Z cos nO 1 zn . Then move on and we witl see how we lise /lleln We shall expand coslo as an example.. = [I' = cosn6ljsinn8 z" Z' + ~ = 2oosn8 and Z' . collecting the terms up in pairs from the two extreme ends.... ] =I ·Z sln · 8 z z z. .= Z cos 9 Z 1 (2cos6l)l = (z+~r 2 = ?+ 3Z (!) 3Z('. thus: (2 cos B)l = (z3+ ~) +3C~ + ~) I z And. From our results: z +.isinO z z+= Zcos8 and z= /ZsI08 z z Also.) z + z +~ z = z3 + 3z+3+]" .
3 cosO I cos3 e = '4(COS30 + 3cos 8) Now one for you: Find an expression for sin4 o. but.z" When ):011 /lave obtained a resll/l. ~ 1= 1 ·2· smn0 z" U2s inO)4 = (z . . sin40 = ~ [COS40 .~r ~ z' 4z'(!) 6Z'('. remember that z . ~.. Work in the same way. 70 = /2sinO and 7!' . ·2 · 70 = z / 6: Sin..4COS20 + 31 Now let liS move on to something flew They are aU done in the same way: once you know the trick.6cos(J 4cos3 0 = cos 30 I. .!. . this time..) z + z 4Z(~) z +'. = 2 cos flO 16sin 4 0 = 2cos404 x 2cos20 + 6 :.466 Engineering Mathematics (2 cos8)3 = 2 cos 38 + 3 x 2cosO Scos3 8 = 2 cos 38 I. z = (704+~)4(zZ + ~Z) + 6 Now: z' +  . = j2sin nO. cfleck it Wit/l the next frame I sin4e = 4 rcos48 Because we have: 4cos20+31 .!:. the fest is easy.
Izl = JX'+Y' = The locus is defined as / x 2 + y 2 2 5 . we said that: (a) r is called the modulus of z and is written 'mod z' or Izl and (b) 0 is called the argument of z and is written 'arg z' .1 {~} Similarly. That was easy enough. x +r = 2S This is a circle. let us just revise a couple of useful points.. . . with centre at the origin and with radius S. i.e. Move 011 for Example 2 .Complex numbers 2 467 Loci problems We are sometimes required to find the locus of a point which moves in the Argand diagram according to some stated condition. z = a + jb = r(cosO + jsinO).. Now we know that in this case. find the locus defined as Izi = s. andargz = Keep those in mind and we are now ready to tackle some examples. You will remember that when we were representing a complex number in polar form. if the n Izl = . Also r= J a2 + 1J2 and so that O = tanl{~} argz = Izi = J a2 + b2 and z = x + jy tan . Example 1 y If z = x + jy. Bdore we work through one or two examples of this kind.
1 = (x .y:c ""*x So the locus arg z = • is therefore the straight 4' line y = x and y > O. zJ z + 1 = x + . Next frame Example 3 If z = x + iY.Oz zl r2 ~ '2 Z+ ll =:!= l!!l= V(X + l )2+y2 Iz. .l {~} :. y=x Inthiscase:a rgz = tan. tanl{~} = i t = tan ~= tan4So = 1 x 4 y x iA. All locus problems at this stage are fundamentall y of one of t hese kinds.I ' 2 IZzl V(XI )2 + "z V(x+ J )' + r' J<Xl)Z + y2 2 (x + J)' (x  +r' J)'+r' 4 All that now remains is to multiply across by the denominator and tidy up the result.y. Of course. So finish it off in its simplest form.y = 'I~ = ZI = x + iY .xample 2 If z = x + .y+ 1 = (x + 1) +.1 61 . Let us look at a more complicated one.y: z ] IZ +1 1= 2.l ) + iY = r2~ = Z2 z+] = '1~=:!. find the locus defined as arg z = i' t=l :. find the equation of the locus Since z = x + . the given condition may look a trifle more involved. but the approach is always the same.468 Engineering Mathematics ® .
3x'IOx+3+3r~O 111is is the equation of the given locus.~ 4 tan2iJ = tan( V =1 ZtanO 1 . z = x + .1)' + y' So therefore 4 (x+ 1)2 +r +r = 4{ (X _ l )2 = +r} y) x 2 + Zx + ] 4(x 2 . The given condition must be a function of either the modulus or the argument'.1 x . Do it carefully. find the equation of the locus arg(z + 1) =i. Although this takes longer to write out than either of the first two examples.y = r[. Olen dud witll the next frame .Xl r = x2+Zxy In that example.z2 = r 2 l£!l arg(z2) = 2iJ = . Here is one for you to do: If z =x + iY.2x + 1 + ~ 4x'8x+4+4r c.2 .Complex numbers 2 469 We had (x+ 1)2+0 (x. the basic principle is the same. Move on now to Frame 54 for Example 4 Example 4 If z = x + iy. the given condition was a function of the argument.x2 2xy = y . find the equation of the locus arg(r) = i.Q tan6= r x By DeMoivre's theorem .tan 2 6 ZtanO = tan l O1 But tanO =r x 2y _ .
2x+ l + r = 2S Every one is very much the same. You will have no trouble with it. So on now to Frame 57 (if) Revision summary I ' Polar form of a complex nllmber z = a +jh = r(cos8 + j sin O) nr~~no'' r = mod z = Izl = 8 = argz = tan l va = r~ 2 + lJ2 {E} 2 Negative angles z = r(cos[ . find the equation of the locus IZ.470 Engineering Mathematics @ Here is the solution set oul in detail.sinO z= r(cos O .jsinO) = rle . read down the Revision summary (Frame 57).y : .y Iz.O] + i sjn [OJ) cos[8] = cosO sin[OJ = .1 = x + iyl=(x1)+.11= 5 z . Now do this one. just to refresh your memory of what we have covered in this Programme. Before you work through them.2x+y=24 This brings us to the end of this Programme.y + l = (x + J) + jy arg{z + l)=tan l{x:J}=i Y = V3(x + 1) for y > 0 And that is all there is to that. move on to Frame 56 Here it is: z = x + jy. z + J = x + .I)'+r' ~ 5 (xl)' + y' ~ 2S x2 . given lools Iz . except for the final can You? checklist and Test exerdsc.11 = 5 Wilen you have finished it. x2 . If z = x + jy. If z=x + .11~ )(X . find the locus arg(z + 1) = iy= tan~ = v'3 x+ J 3 z=x + .y.
sinO 6 Logarithm of a complex number z = re iO : .O 7 1£lei prnhlum If z = x + ."{cos nO + .sin nO) Exponential form of a complex number z = a+. lnz=ln r+ . 1 701 = 2+ y2 JX arg z = tan.Complex numbers 2 471 3 Multiplication and division in polar (orm If then z .02 r2 4 DeMoivre's tlleorem If z = r(cosB+. On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident arc you that you can: Frames • Use the shorthand form for a complex number in polar fonn? Yes Yes (I)torn fIlto£ID 0 D D D D D D D No No • Write complex numbers in polar fonn using negative angles? DO .b = r(cos O+ .y. rz l&l + 02 702 ~=~ IOI. z2= r2~ Z 1 Z2 = r.sin 0) = re ]f! standard form polar form exponential form [0 in radians] Also elO = cosO+j sinO eiO= cosO.1 {~} That's it! Now you are ready for the Can You? checklist in Frame S8 and tile Test exerdse in Frame 59 Can You? Checklist 2 Check this list before and after you try the end of Programme test.sin O). = rl ~. then z!' 5 = .
2 Express in the form a + ib: (a) 2 11560 (b) 5137" If ZI = 12(cos 125 + isin 125< ) and Z2 = 3(cos 72~ + .41 ~ 3 (b) arg(H 2) ~ 6 n .sin 72°). find the equations of the two loci defined by: (a) Iz . Show all three roots on an Argand diagram. 4 z. Find the three cube roots of 8(cos 264 ~ + i sin 264°) and state which of them is the principal cube root. 6 Expand sin40 in !XJwers of sinO and cosO.5 . .sin25°).y. find (a) 0 ZtZZ and (b) ZI giving the results in polar form.i3. 8 If Z = x + . find Zl in polar form. ~ . If Z = 2(cos25" + .472 Engineering Mathematics Frames • Multiply and divide complex numbers in polar form? Yes 0 0 0 ~ O No • Use DeMoivre's theorem? Ycr 0 0 0 0 o No No • Find the roots of a complex number? Yes 0 0 0 ~O • Demonstrate trigonometric identities of multiple angles using complex numbers? Yes 0 0 0 ~O No • Solve loci problems using complex numbers? Yes 0 0 0 U 0 No ~tol3!J CIDtoG!) lil Test exercise :z ® lflJ 1 Express in polar form. 7 Express cos 4 0 in tenus of cosines of multiples of O .
Express the principal root in the form a + jb and in the fonn re iO • 12 Solve the equation Z2 + 2( 1 + j)z + 2 = 0.3 and 1 . if one of the nonreal roots is denoted by w. evaluate (~+ form. Mark on the Argand diagram the JXlints whidl represent the three roots and show that they are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. Find the complex numbers representing the other vertices. 14 Obtain the expansion of sin 70 in IX'wers of sinO. I Express 2 + . the origin is the centre of an equilateral triangle and one vertex of the triangle is the point 3 + jV3. 8 + 64 = 0 in the form a + . +/ ~ giving the resuit in modulus! 10 Show that the equation z3 = 1 has one real root and two other roots which are not real.Complex numbers 2 473 ~ Further problems :1 If z 3z = ~l 2 x + . Express sin6 x as a series of terms which are cosines of angles that are multiples of x.3 in polar form and in exponential form.b. and that. + / = 3( In the Argand diagram. giving each result in the form a + . the other is then J. rind the fifth roots of 1. . Express the principal root in the fonn a + ib. Express the principal root in the form re iO • Determine the roots of the equation x. with a and b correct to 2 places of decimals.y. giving the results in the form a + ib. giving the results in polar form.. giving the results in the form a + jb and in the fonn re i8 • 6 7 Determine the fourth roots of 16.5). 2 in polar form and apply DeMoivre's theorem to i!r. where x and yare real.b. giving the results in modulus! argument form. Express eLiftj 2 in the fonn a + jb. Express the result in the form a + ib and in exponential 4 Find the fifth roots of 3 + .12 in polar form and hence evaluate the principal value of ij(5 + i12). S Express 5 + . where ~ . Determine the three cube roots of 22  argument form. find the values of x and y when 3z 4 1.3 a and b are real. Detennine the fifth roots of (2 .
474 Engineering Mathematics 16 If z = x + iY.21 2 = 40.Zz 22 If l = x + jy.(b) arg  I} _ " _ 2 Prove that: (a) if IZI + zzl = IZI  zzl. determine the Cartesian equation of the locus of the point z which moves in the Argand diagram so that Iz + i 21 2 + Iz . Il3j 19 If z = x + iY.zz } ~ 2 .I and z. Ifarg {ZI . defi ned (a) Iz + j21Z Iz . ~)} = ~ is a circle. determine the equations of the two loci: (a) IZ:2! =3 a nd (b) arge:2} =i { z+ 2 20 If z = x + iy. the difference of th e a rguments of II and Zz is i • (b) . show that the locus cirde and detenninc its centre and radius. I:: ~I = 2 is a ~ 17 If z = x + iy. Find its centre 18 If z = x + iy. determine the lOCi in the Argand diagram. where x and ya re real.jkl' .thcn IZl l=Jzz l Zl .i212 = 24 (b) IH by: jkl' + Iz .+ .10k' (k> 0 ) . defined by: (a) Bi21 I H21 ~2 z. determine the equations of the lod in the Argand diagram. show that the locus ar g{ : and radi us..
Hyperbolic functions Learning outcomes Wlutll YOII l /ave completed this Programme YOII will be able to: Frames OJtoCEJ • • • • • • • Define the hyperbolic functions in terms of the exponential function Express the hyperbolic functions as power series Recognize the graphs of the hyperbolic functions Evaluate hyperboliC functions and their inverses Determine the logarithmic form of the in verse hyperbolic functions Prove hyperbolic trigonometric identities Understand the relationship between the circu lar and the hyperbolic t rignnnmf'tric functions 475 .
= 1 +x+ 2! + 3! Xl xl + 41 + . = l . coshx 2 so that cosjx = coshx The graph of y = cosh x is called a catenary from the Latin word catena meaning chain because the shape of the graph is the shape of a hanging chain. X4 X4 If we replace x by .adjacent over hypotenuse. + eiix.x.476 Engineering Mathematics Introduction The cosine of an a ngle was first defined as the ra tio o f two sides of a righta ngled triangle . and e. giving rise to the equations: cosO + jsin O=e J9 cosO .. a common one is ex.I2.. it is the even part of the eXJXlnential function which is called the hyperboliC cosine: eX.x+ 21 . You m ight just check that out to refresh your memory by rereading Frame 31 of Programme F. 2 where the righthand side is ent irely real. + e . I 2. you have seen this before in Frame 75 of Programme F. .JI are the foundations of the definitions we are going to usc. .x. Now.jsinB = ri6 If these two equations are added you find that: 2cosO=efO+e .: eX. positive or negative. In Programme F. Move on to Frame 2 and start the Programme You may remember that of the many functions thai can be expressed as a series of powers of x. xl xl and these two functions eX..31 + 41 . we get: e x. In fact . in Frames 55 to 57 of Programme I in Part II you learnt how a complex number of unit length could be writte n in either polar o r exponential form.I2 of Part I you learnt how to extend the definition of a cosine to any angle.jlI so that cosO If B is replaced by j x in this last equa tion you find that: cos j x eiiX.
e.Hyperbolic functions 477 (a) If we take the value of eX..X = hyperbolic tangent of x tanh x (pronounced 'than xl We must start off by learning these definitions. .X eX + e.. So now then. so we shorten it to sinh x. . . in the same way. we have two other definitions: hyperbolic cosine of x = cosh x [pronounced 'cosh x') eX _ e . w In much the same way. we form what is defined as the hyperbolic sine of x: hyperbolic sine of x This is a lot to write every time we wish to refer to it. subtract e. the h indicating its connection with the hyperbola.. sinhx So. We pronounce it 'shine x'. and divide by 2.x sinhx = 2 Here they are together so that you can compare them: sinh x cosh x tanh x eX _ e .x (c) eX+e .x.x eX _ e X eX + e • 2 2 Make a copy of these in your record book for future reference when necessary. . eY . eX _ e. .. . for all the subsequent developments depend on them. .Y 2 would be \"'ritten as . what was the definition of sinh x? sinh x = .
3! + 4!  2x Z 2x4 x e" +e. If we subtract. ' tanhx We started the programme by referring to eX and e.478 Engineering Mathematics w (a) sinhx eX _ e. sinh x has al.. we get a similar result. we get: e . (b) If we add the series for eX and r X . Let us try.= 2 +2f + 4f+ e~ + e x '" X4 x 2 2 coshx=1+ 2 !+4! + '" Move on to Frame 7 w So we have: Xl xS X7 sinhx = x+ 3! + 5! + 7! +. cosh x = 1 + 2! + 4! + 6! Note: All terms positive: x2 x4 x6 + ..x as series of powers of x. What is it? xl x' w Because we have: e~ = 1 + x + 2! Wilen you have decided.. Xl X4 Xl X4 x e.e " _~ zi! 2x = 2x + 3f + Sf ' s Divide by 2: sinhx = x+ 3! + 5! +. .= I  X + 2! ..3! + 4[ . Series for sinh x eX XZ = 1 + x + 2! + 3! + 4! + xl X4 x2 il x4 e.x = lx + 2! . It should not be difficult therefore to find series at least for sinh x and for cosh x. move on to Frame 6 x2 x2 + 3! + 4! + ..1 the odd IXJwers cosh x has all the even powers ..x = 2 .
::. No looking! e" . . At any value of x. without actually crossing it.. . y y = e" and y = e " cross the yaXis at the point y = 1 (eo = 1)..:. getting nearer and nearer to it as it goes away to infinity in each direction.. This is given by P. .. Make a note of these two series in your record book. since the graphs are always above th(> xaxis. the value of cosh x is the average of the values of eX and eX at that value of x.g. . Each graph then approaches the xaxis as an asymptote.. we had better just refresh our memories of what these graphs look like.. positive? =..0.e. Can you sketch in what the graph will look like? . we shall obtain the graph of y = coshx. So. the midpoint of AB... (e) tanh x =. Then. e. If we can imagine a number of ordinates (or verticals) like AB and we plot their midpoints.::::::==x e~  and e ~ are positive for all values of x Correct. so we will leave that one to some other time. Since they depend on the values of eX and e"..e" 2 I sinhx = cosh x w AU correct? Right. Graphs of hyperbolic functions We shall get to know quite a lot about these hyperbolic functions if we sketch the graphs of these functions. for what range of values of x arc e" and e .Hyperbolic functions 479 We cannot easily get a series for tanhx by this process.:=+....... cover up what you have done so far and see if you can write down the definitions of: (a) sinh x = (b) coshx= . x = cosh x = e~ + e ~ Xlt 2 ' i...
I . equally spaced about the o rigin. Pl.I I . i.. Br is negative and is therefore placed below the xaxis. there are two values of x... Now let us see about the graph of y = sinhx in the same sort of way. . (d) for any given value of cosh x. x = ±a. Le...480 Engineering Mathematics L!!J Here it is: y . \ .e. The corresponding point on the graph of y = sinhx is thus obtained by standing the ordinate BP on the xaxis at C. .% r.. I I I I / " .. Note that on the left of the origin..e.COIh % x We see from the graph of y = cosh x that: (a) cosh 0 = 1 (b) the value of cosh x is never less than 1 (c) the curve is symmetrical aoout the yaxis.cosh(x ) = cosh x "o / / " . So what can we say about y = sinh x? . i. \ \ .
~~~~~~x From the graph of y = sinh x. If we draw y = sinhx and y = cosh x o n the same graph. . cotI'I % o Note that y = sinh x is always outside y increases: i..00 to + 00 (c) the curve is symmetrical about the origin.~ (ill .e.Hyperbolic functions 481 y y=sinhl( . what do we get? y y . there is o nly one real value of x.. sinh (x) = . we see: (a) sinhO = 0 (b) sinh x can have all values from . I.e.sinhx (d) for a given value of sinh x. ~ . as x > 00. = cosh X. but gets n ea rer 1'0 it as x sinh x > cosh x Move on And now let us consider the graph of y = tanh x.
let us now sketch all three graphs on one diagrdm so that we can compare them and distinguish between them .. 1 as x . The two graphs therefore slide into each other and out again.tanh x (d) as x . It is worth while to remember this combined diagram: skelch It in your record book for reference. eX _ e ... however. we take values of eX and e .X.co....X and then calculate y = and eX+ e X plot points.. tanhx . ..x If. tanh x ... y = sinhx and y = tanh x have the same slope.xl = . They do not cross each other at three distinct points (as some people think). ~~o~x ______ 7 / / One further pOinllo note: At the origin.482 Engineering Mathematics It is not easy to build y = tanh x directly from the graphs of y = eX and y = e .. ..1 Finally. we get a graph as shown: We see: (a)tanhO = O (b) tanhx always lies between y = 1 and y = 1 (c) tanh( .. 00 . . (ill Here they are: y y'" coatI:s:...
.x (c) 2 eX _ e .x 2 cosh x (d) ... ..:0"'. (aJ eX + e ... . (cJ (dJ eX _e .. ........ y ~ .... .. Check YOllr answers carefully Here are the results: check yours.. :7'1.. ..... y ~ . 2 eX + e ...... .x 2 y oor.. .. Results in the next frame. y ~ ..~ .Hyperbolic functions 483 r:a (a J Revision exercise Fill in the foHowing: (ill (eJ ':0'...x ~ = sinh x y = tanh x .  (bJ eX + e X tanhx eX _ e .t (0 ______ _ _J .. ........
0· 279) 2 ~ 2(3 .1' 275 = _ 1 _ sinh 1·275 = 3·579 = 0.484 Engineering Mathematics <e) y <0 y • o y = coshx ~~~.127S) 2 l 275 I 275 We now have to evaluate e ' and e. cosh x and tanhx can be found using a calculator in just the same manner as the values of the circular trigonometric expressions were found. When you have finished.• . y = sinhx Now we can continue with the next piece of work Evaluation of hyperbolic functions The values of sinh x.300) ~ 1 J65 sinh 1·275 = 1·65 In the same way.2794 ! (3'579 . you now find the value of cosh 2·156. e1' 275 = 3. Usi ng your calculator. Example 1 To eva luate sinh 1·275 sinh 1·275 = ! (eI27S_e . you will find that: Now sinhx = ~(eXe X) . However. if your calculator does not possess the facility to work out hyperbolic expressions then their values can still be found by using the exponential key instead.579 and e. move on to Frame 20 .
. one more.Hyperbolic functions 485 cosh 2·156 = 4·377 Here is the workin g: Example 2 cosh 2·156 = ! (e 2" 56 + e2" 2 S6 ) cosh 2·156 = ~ ~ (8. cosh and tanh is easy enough and depends main ly on being able to evaluate el:. When youlJave finished. evaluating sinh.1·Z7 e ' ·Z7 + e I ' Z7 3·561 .637 + 0·] 16) 2 (8 753) J ~ 4377 cosh 2·156 = 4·377 Right. where k is a given number. Find the value of tanh 1·27. move on to Frame 21 I tanh 1·27 = 0·8538 I Here is the working. And now let us look at the reverse process.281 3·280 3. Example 3 tanh 1·27 = tanh 1·27 = e '·Z7 _ e .0 ·281 3.561 + 0. So on to Frame 22 .842 tanh 1·27 = 08538 So.
x = In 3·257 .. to find the value of x such that sinhx = 1·475. lherefore the only real solution is given by eX = 3 ·257 .. i.486 Engineering Mathematics Inverse hyperbolic fundions (ill Example 1 To find sinh..0 ·307 2 But e~ is always positive for real values of x. = ± 1·5054 to 4 dp Ik{ofe we do the next one.I 2·364 = ± 1·5054 to 4 dp To evaluate COSh. orO·2219 ..1 1·475. cosh x = I (e x)2 _ 4·72S(e X) cosh. Therefore: x = In 4·5060 .. x = 1·180S = )·1808 Example 2 Now you find cosh . giving: 2·95 ± J 2·95 2 + 4 2·95 ± J S·703 + 4 eX = "''''''''''''' 2 2·95 ± ~ ~ 2 2·95 ± 3·564 6·514 2 2 2 0·614 _ m . eX _.".... = 4..950 Multiplying both sides by eX: (eXf . .!. LID Because .. let x 2·364 = cosh.e. ) = 4 ·5060 .".I 2·364."..= 3·257 or .I 2·364 in the same way.I 2·364 2·364 2 4 eX +. = e"  2.. or In 0·2219 . what is it? . Here it Is: sinllx = 1475 ~ (eX _e ") = 1·475 .728 e' +1= 0 e' ~ 4·728 ± J 4·72S 2 2 I Z(4·n8± 4·284 .!. .1 = 2·95(e X) (e")2 _ 2·95(e X ) 1= 0 This is a quadratic equation and can be solved as usual. do you remember the exponential definition of tanh x? Well....
1 ~ 0 e = .Hyperbolic functions 487 That being so. sinhx = O·S o·s (e~ ) 2 e~ .1 0 ·5.~ = 1 c' _ 1= e~ (e')' .:6. oX = In 2·075 = 0·7299 tanh.!J>23 0 .1 2 2 = 1·6 180 or .0·6180 gives no real value of oX e~ = And just one morel Evaluate tanh . I sin h. e~ = 2 · 07S :. Let x = sinh . Let x = tanh .(e') .1 0·623 = 0 ·730 Now one for you to do on your own.0·5 0·4812 .'. l ± yT+4 2 = 2 l ± VS ~_ 3 '_ 23_6 _ ' or _ .1 0 ·S : . we can now evaluate tanh.I 0·623.377 :..1 0·623 ..0·6180 oX = 1 In 16180 = 0·4812 = sinh.l '~23::. Evaluate sinh .)2 = .e~ e~ +e  ~ 0623 = 0 · 623 (e ~ e~ e ~ + e ~ ) (1  0·623 )e ~ 0 · 377e ~ = (1 + 0 ·6 23)e ~ = 1 ·623e ~ 1·623 e' (e.1 0· 75. tanh x = 0·623 e~ .1 O'S = 04812 I Check your working. .
I 0·75 = 0·9730 Log form of the inverse hyperbolic fundions Let us do the same thing in a general way..Y(1 + x ) =. .75 ~ 0 9730 I x = tanh..Y e" + e .x .I Q. .x eX _ e . .y t!y = l + X I. Therefore e = 2·6458 is the only real solution. To find tanh.0·6) = 1 .x :. e"eY = x(eY + e .X (e~ )2 = 1·75 = 7 0·25 e"" = = ±2·6458 ±.x {1+ X} tanh .Y) e"( I .X ) (1 .Y x :. tanhx = 0 ·75 0 ·75 eA + e A e A _ e .1 x in log form.!. 2y = ln I . y = tanh So that: _ .In 2 0·5 1 I ~ In 3 ~ (I0986) I {'S } 2 2 ~ 05493 And similarly: tanh.I 0·75 :.n But remember that e" cannot be negative for real values of x..I x x = tanhy eY . As usual. x = In 2·6458 = 0·9730 tanh. we start off with: Let y = tanh.488 Engineering Mathematics li!J Let I tanh.0'75 )e A = (1 + 0·75)eX 0 '25e A = 1·7Se . (J + x ) .0·5 I = .I {l+X} I x = z ln I .x ) = e .A '= 0 '75(e A + e .e. :.(.
In{OA} 1 + 0·6 2 1·6 = 2InO'25 ~ ~ ( .r('sult in Frame 29 sinh .1 x = In{ x + V'X2+J} . e = x .1 .(something > x ). in the same way.I x .] = 0 e Y = 2x± J 4x 2 + 4 = 2x ± 2v'.~ x  : . but notice this: In the second result v x2 + 1 > x Y . Start off by saying: Let y = sinh .' x = In{x + ~ } Because (eYi .) The only real solution then is given by eY = x + JXZ+1 y = sinh .e.eY = 2x 1= 0 e Y = 2x 1 e' (e y )2  2x(eY ) Now {if/ish it off . (Remember the graph of eX .0 '6) = 0'6} = .Hyperbolic fundions 489 Because 1 tanh... fi nd ao expression for sloh .3863) 2 = 0'6931 Now. x = sinh y eY. there appear to be two results. e Y .2x(e Y) .'.X2+! 2 2 = x ± Jx2+l eY = x + VX2 + 1 or eY = x  VX2 + 1 At first sight.x =4In{~ ~ ~} ~ In{ 1 2 1 tanh' ( . i.!.e Y =0 2 =. negative Therefore we can discard the second result as far as we are concerned since (X)wers of e are always positive.1 x.
1 x~ x 2 _ (x2 _1 ) x.1 1} or . for they are very nearly alike. Compare the first two carefully.~ So our results can be written : eY = x +..1 y= }_ l + Jx 2  In{ l' + J x2 cosh . since Jx 2 ./4x 2 2 e }' =x + ~ • x±~ e" = x . Here are the three general results collected iogether: sinh. Note also that: (a) sinh.In{ X = l' 1} ± In{x I./x2.I x. let y = cosh.I X : .1 } tanh .i x= In{x + vx + I} 2 X = ± In{x I. They w ill be useful./x 2 ... However x l 1 JX2="1 x + Jx 2  x.1 cosh .. So what comes next? We shall see i n Frame 32 .I x = ~Ing ~ : } Add these to your list in your record book.J x2 .1 } Nolice that the plus and minus signs give two results which are symmetrical about the y· axis (agreeing with the graph of y = cosh x).~ and Both these results are positive.~ l ' x .1 < x.1 and er x+Jx2 1 er = x + &=t or {x + J x2 .I x has only one value (b) COSh I X has two values. le t us find the general expression for cosh.Jx 2 .490 Engineering Mathematics Finally. x = cosh Y eY+ ~ = 2:x Y e eY = 2x± .
011 to Frame 34 . how like trig function s these hyperbolic functions are.h 1 cos x (c) cosech x (i. hyperbolic cotangent) tanh x (b) sech x (i.n trig.e. These remind us.x . cosh z x . hyperbolic secant) = .e.X). hyperbolic cosecant) = ~ h Sin x These. } { so there is a difference in sign here.sinh z x = 1 I. are pronounced (a) coth . we have reciprocal hyperbolic functions: 1 (a) coth x (i.hcos :x (3) cosh:x = { Very tan o= mu~h [.sinh x) = eX. let us consider one or two relationships based on t he basic definitions.X) 2 Add these results: cosh x + sinhx = e~ cosh x .1.e.X e~ eX + e . we have cos 2 8 + sinz 0 .".Hyperbolic functions 491 Hyperbolic identities There is no need to recoil in honor.x Subtract: Multiply tilese two expreSSIons together: (cosh x + sinhx)(cosh x . Like the trig ratios.sinh x = e. by the way.x e' .e.x 2 = (ill +e x tanh x sinh x h tan x = . You will see before long th at we have an easy way o f doing these.ke} Sill ()  cos8 ~ (e~ + e . First of all.(c~ _ c .x Z eX _ e. sinhx=. (b) sheck and (c) cosheck respectively. once again. Make a list oftlzese tllree definitions: Olen mOlt? Qt1 to Frame 33 (2) Let us consider sinhx cosh. c . (I) The first set are really definitions themselves.!.
..I.COSh2 X 1 .sinh x = e.I = cosech2 x :..O = 1 + cot 2 0.. we obtain (a) ..sinh2 x = 1 and divide this time by sinh2 x.sinh2 x coth2 x .. cosech2x = coth 2 x . .2x Zsinhxcoshx sinhlx = eb _ elx = Z sinh2x Zsinhxcoshx If however we add the two lines together. we get: 4 sinh x cosh x = ezx _ e.. we get .< So if we subtract as they stand. sech2x = 1 . .Zsinh x cosh x + sinh2 x = e .x If we square each of these statements.cosh2 X ..492 Engineering Mathematics (4) We have jmt established that cosh2 x . } { so there is a sign difference here too. Move 011 to Frame 35 (6) We have already used the fact that coshx + sinhx = eX and cosh x . Divide by cosh 2 x : si nh 2 x _ 1 .I In trig. we get: 2 1 cosh x 1sinh2 x . .taoh 2 x 1 {Something like scc2 0 = 1 + ta0 2 0. we have cosec:z...tanh 2 x = sech2 X ...sioh 2 x . isn't it?} (5) If we start again with cosh 2 x . . (b) (a) cosh2x + Zsinhxcoshx + sinh2x=ezx (b) cosh2 x .2..
so move on Trig identities (1) cot x = l / tanx sec x = l / cosx cosec x = I j sinx (2) cos2 x + sinz x = I Hyperbolic identitiej cothx = I/ tanhx sech x = l / coshx cosech x = 1 j sinh x cosh z x .l If we look at these results. we have: cosh 2x = 1 + 51nhz x + sinhz x cosh2x = 1 +2sinh z x rosh Zx . (ill = cosh 2x + e h cosh Z x .'.. For example.Hyperbolic functions 493 2(coshZx + sinh z x ) = ez~ + e z~ cosh z x + sinhz x = 2 cosh 2x = coshz x + sinh z x We already know that e2x.I sinh 2x = 2sinhx cosh x cosh2x = cosh z x + sinhz x = 1 + 2 sinhz x = 2coshz x . .tanh Z x cosechzx = coul x .l sechzx = 1 . This sign change also occurs when sinz x is involved without actually being written as such.tan Zx cose~x = 1 + cot Z x (3) sin2x = 2sinxcosx cos 2x = cos z x .·e find that some of the hyperbolic identities follow exactly the trig identities: others have a difference in sign. .. These are all listed in the next frame.J = sinhz x Or we could say cosh 2x = cosh z x + (rosh z XI ) cosh 2x = 2cosh z xI Now we will collect all these hyperbolic identities together and compare them with the corresponding trig identities.sinhz x = 1 . tan Z x involves sinz x since tan 2 x could be written as SID Z x The change of cos x sign therefore occurs with tanZ x when it is being converted into tanh z x cot Z x when it is being converted into coth Z x cosecZ x when it is being converted into cosech Z x . cosh 2 X = 1 + sinh2 x Substituting this in our previous result. \.sin z x =12sinz x = 2cosz x .siohz x = 1 secZ x = 1 t. This change of sign occurs whenever sinz x in the trig results is being converted Into slnhz x to form the corresponding hyperbolic identHies.
0 = cosh ..becomes ] tan x tanh 2x 2tanhx 1 + tanh 2 x So provided you know your trig identities. the hypcrbolk identities can be written down from the trig identities which you already know. you can apply the rule to fonn the corresponding hyperbolic identities. the trig identity costA + B) = cos A cosB ....sin A sin B gives the hyperbolic identity cosh (A + B) = coshAwshB + sinh A sinhB. Relationship between trigonometric and hyperbolic fundions from our previous work on complex numbers. then. . 2cosO So that: cos 0 I< which is of the form e :... cos() = ..sin() Adding these two results together. we have: e/O +e/B = ... For example: tan2x 2tanx ..e=cosO.g. .'==... is our first relationship: cos 0 . . . we know that: and ci8= cosO+isinO e . Apart from this one change. +e .0 Make a note of that fur the moment: then on to Frame 42 . e.I< 2 ' with x replaced by UO) cosh Here.494 Engineering Mathematics The sign change also occurs when we have a product of two sinh terms.
.. and we have sin.i6 2 sinh jO So: sinhjO = isinO Make a note of that also So far. . we have two important results: (a) coshjO = cosO (b) sinhjO= jsinO Now if we substitute 0 =. gives: cosh x = cosjx Another result to note Now do exactly the same with the second result above..fx) = sinh{..rf6 = ... cosjx = coshU2x)= cosh(..x) = sinhx [since sinh (x) = sinhx ] Finally.jsinO and this time subtract.Hyperbolic functions 495 If we return to OUI two originaJ statements: e i6 = cosO + jsinO e ..x in the first of these results. divide both sides by j. cosjx = coshx [since cosh (x) = cosh x ] Writing this in reverse order.JO = cosO ..sinhx On to (lie next frame . we have. i. I 2jsinlJ So that: jsinO = eJO _e . we get a similar kind of result ejf! .e. put 0 = ix in the relationship jsin 0 = sinhjO and simplify the result.x) :..x = . What do you get? I Because we have: jsinhx = sinjx jsinO = sinh jO jsin jx = sinh(.
of course. Now we know that: sin(A + 8) = sin A cosH + cosA sinB sin(x+.496 Engineering Mathematics Now let us collect together the results we have established. Here is an example of an application of these results: find an expansion for sin(x + iY). here is just one example for you to work through: Find an expansion for cos(x .jy) Here is the working: = cosxcosh Y + .iY) = COs x cos iy + sin x sin iy coshy jsinhy cos x coshy + I sinxsinhy .y) = sinxcosiy + cosxslniy so using the results we have listed.iY) = But cos.y = . we can also obtain: I tanjx = jtanhx I tanhix = jtanx I Copy the complete table into your record book for future use. that we must distinguish between them: sin jx = . Tiley arc so neaTly alike.x sinh ix = isinx cosh jx = cos x = cosh x and. a complex quantity.sinhy I So that: sin(x + iYl = sin xcosjy + cos x sin iY becomes sin(x + iY) = sinxcoshy + icosx sinhy Note: sin(x + iY) is a function of the angle (x + iy). In this case. which is.y = and sin.sin xsinhy cos(A .B) = cos A cosB + sinA sin B cos(x . by division. Then check witl! Frame 50 cos(x . sinjy by I cosjy = coshy I sin .y = cos(x .iY).sinhx cos . we can replace and cosjy by . (x + iY) is referred to as a complex variable and you will most likely deal with this topic at a later stage of your course. Mean while.
or revise any parts of the Programme on which you are not perfectly clear.Hyperbolic functions 497 All that now remains is the Can You? checklist and the Test exercise. On a scaJe of 1 to 5 how confident arc you that you can: • Define the hyperbolic functions in terms of the exponential function? Yes Yes Yes Yes Frames o 0 0 0 o 0 0 o 0 0 0 o o ITJ to m No • Express the hyperbolic functions as power series? DO DO DO No No • Recognize the graphs of the hyperbolic functions? • Evaluate hyperbolic functions and their inverses? (EJ toCEJ 0 No • Determine the togarithmic form of the inverse hyperbolic functions? Yes Yes o 0 o 0 o 0 o D o O No • Prove hyperbolic trigonometric identities? No • Understand the relationship between the circular and the hyperbolic trigonometric functions? Yes 0 0 0 DO No . look through your notes. but before working through them. move OrJ to tile next frame ~ Can You? Checklist 3 Check this list before and after you try tile end of Programme test. Whe1l YOIl are ready.
6 The curve assumed by a heavy chain or cable is: y = CcoshC [f C = 50.I 0·75 and (b) cosh. ~ Further problems 3 1 Lffi ~ P<oveth. 6 Prove that tanh . x find t? and hence evaluate x. .498 Engineering Mathematics Ii:! Test exercise 3 1 On the same axes. the equation: 2 cosh 2x .1 1·25 If tanh x = ~. Imp I 1 sinh2A coshZA· 8 Obtain the expansion of sin(x .1 2. the value of: (a) sinh .1 1·532 (b) cosh.iy) in tenns of the trigonometric and hyperbolic functions of x andy. Express cosh 2x and sinh 2x in exponentiaJ fonn and hence solve for real values of x. L find L when H = 63 and C= 50. calculate : (a) the value of y when x = 109 (b) the value of x when y = 75.tco.sinh 2x = 2 If sinh x 2 3 4 = tany. prove that (a + b)2e 2x = a2 _ If Evaluate: (a) tanh . 4 S Calculate from first principles. draw sketch graphs of (a) y = sinh x. show that x == In(tany ± secy). (c) Y = tanhx. 2 3 If L = 2Csinh~. (b) y = cosh x.h2x ~ l+2'inh2x. If a = ccosh x and b = csinhx. If VZ = I .I e : ~! } = In x. IQJ ~ S· ffy] +sinh2A + cosh ZA 7 .SLtanh 6·3d . find v when d = 40 and L= 315 .
j in the fo nn a + jb.z  Show tha t the coordinates of any point on the hyperbola a 2 be represented in the form x 10 Solve for real values of x: = lJ2 = 1 can a cosh u. ~t= a= n~ h~ x ~+~ t~ an ~h ".: 18 ~ ~} = In ~_ .Hyperbolic functions 499 ~ 7 Express (a) cosh 1 . find eX and e . ~ 15 x If tan. Given tha t sLnh. = (.I (2+i) in the form a I. = 2 _'COM' at cos at Prove that tanh I { .1 x =Jn {x+ JX2+]"}. and hence show that sinhx = tanO.x = 24 ~ 13 14 If x = In tan{i+£} .jb." " 12 If l = tanh 2' x Zl prove that sinhx = t _ t 2 and cosh x = 1 _ t Z' l + lz Hence solve the equation: 7 sinhx + ZOcosh. prove that: tanx 2 = 1 I sin 2A sinh 28 2A h2B cos cos 16 Prove that sinh 30 = 3sinh O+ 4sinh 3 O .. giving a and b to 4 significant fi gures..x . 8 Prove that: (a) sinh(x + y ) = sinhxcoshy + coshxsinhy (b) cosh(x + y ) = cosh x cosh Y + sinh xsinhy Hence prove tha t: tan h (x + y) = .fYc 1 + Ianh x tanhy x2 }. calculate>. 3 cosh 2x = 3 + sinh Zx [crJ l1 1 + tanhx Prove that: ] tanh x _?. determine sinh. ~ 11 lQJ al { sinh at + sin at } .= tan A tanh B. i and (b) sinh 1 . If >. when a = OZ15 and t = 5. y = b sinh u.
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Programme 4 Determinants Leaming outcomes When you have completed this Programme yOll will be able to: Frames OJ"@) • Expan d a 2 x 2 determinant • Solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations in two variables using 2 x 2 determinants • Expand a 3 x 3 determinant • Solve three simultaneous linear equations in three variables using 3 x 3 determinants • Determine the consistC'ncy of sets of simultan eous linear equatio n s • Use the properties of determinants to solve equations written in determinant form 501 .
... . of course.10. i. In just the same way. identical by multiplying (a) by w I(a) by hz and (b) by b l Correct..e.. e. of course.b1dz = 0 so that (alb:! . we should multiply (a) by 4 and (b) by 3 to make the coeffident of y the same in each equation. By substituting back in either equation.10. x = . If: al x + b1y + (h = 0 fa) azx+bzy + dz = 0 (b) then to eliminate y we make the coefficients of y in the two equations and (b) by . To solve 2x + 3y + 2 = 0 3x + 4y + 6 = 0 (a) (b) we could first find the value of x by climinating y. Y = 6 That was trivial. = 0 azx+hzy + dz= O become aliJzx + b1bzy + bzd l = 0 azb)x + b1iJzy + b1dz = 0 Subtracting. .g.SOl Engineering Mathematics Determinants You are quite familiar with the method of solving a pair of simultaneous equations by elimination. So Sx + 12y + S = 0 9x + 12y+ IB = O Then by subtraction.dz .. we get: (a1bz .azbdx = b.. So. finally. You have done similar ones many times beforc. we get x + 10 = 0. . To do this.bzd l Then x = . .. . So the equations: alx + b 1y + d. x = .. . we then obtain y = 6.azbdx + bzd 1 . .
value of x.5 x 7= 6 .azb l = 3 x 3 . .azb] then we must multiply the terms diagonally to form the product terms in the expansion: we multiply aJ and then subtract the product 1 a2 e. That is.Determinants 503 w In practice. this result can give a finite value for x only if the denominator is not zero. a] = 3.35 = 29 .azb!) Consider these equations: to. 3x+2yS = O 4x+3y 7 = 0 In this case. U be a fiOlte not wi w The expression albz .e. {wm} .. hz = 3 alb z . bt li. the equations: atx + bty + cit = 0 azx + bzy + dz =O give a finite value for x provided that (alhz . so there .ls 71 = 3 x 2.4 x 2 =98= 1 1 hIS IS not zero. We h ave a shorthand notation for this: a]bzazbl=I:~ ~ I For I :~ t~ 1 to represent albz .g. + '" and  I hz I / 1 ~ 3 ~ I=1 21 . az = 4.azb t is therefore an important one in the solution of simultaneous equations. b l = 2.
~ Iis called a detennitJalll of the second order (since it has two rows and a. . . d'l' la. . . .Q'lb t .4x1 ~ 64 ~ Hol b.bzdl each be written as a determinant. l I ~ ~I' (c) I~ ~31 Finish all three: thm move on to Frame 6 w I ~ il~4X35X2~ 12!o~ IT] I ~ ~ 1 ~7x3 .: d~ . in solving the equations {atX + bbt Y + ddt = 00 azx + 'lY+ z = we (ound that x b1dz ..az 1 atbZ .azb! = . . and y = .~d~ . CD al lib.. ... evaluate the following determinants: (b) +" /. . .bzdl an d y _ : alln . .alb l Each of these numerators and denominators can be expressed as a detemlinant. ~3 1 ~2(3) . Now. .504 Engineering Mathematics w Just for practice.a2 1 So..bzd1 k b and the numerator and the denominator can a lVl . You can easily remember this as a. we have x b)tiz . . for any pair of simultaneous equations: a)x+b1y + d l = 0 azx + bzy+dz =0 a ~.d z . 50. . ... we obtain Y = _ {al~ ... . _~a ~. . . . . . = . .2h H I I. b'l bz tlz Qz bz If we eliminate x from the original equations and find an expression for y. ... . .6X4 ~ 21 . . (aJ (b) (c) two columns) and represents Q1b'l .. . . ..a'l:I} . .alb) atbl . ... x = ...
y + dl =: O { azx + bzy + dz= O gI ·ves6z=lal dl l az d z . Ib a. b'l la. w x Ibz b.Y + dl = O. d' i la Oz d z az b z Each variable is divided by a determinant. Ibz x d'i dz y I . ~ I la.. a. omit the yterms and write down the coefficients and constant terms in the order in which they stand : aIX + b.X + b.. b'l Ma ke a note of these results and then move on to tile next frame So if Then a IX+ bIY + dl = 0 { a 7.t. 6 1 = l ~~ ~~ I To form 6 1 from the given equations.~y+d'l = O w b . by 6.z tiz (b) Similarly for rill I I' Y dI Oz d z 0. omit the xterms and write down the coefficients and constant terms in the order in which they stand. i.e. thus: i z I z d' b. ~ a. (a) Consider b x d l 1 I I· Let us denote the determinant in the denomlnator '" d.Determinants 505 x Ia. let 6 . b d x y 1 la. Let us see how we can get them from the original equations. d 'i tlz We can combine these results. l k { azX + hzy + tiz = O gIves . a.x. az I To form D.z from the given equation s. '" a.
to find 1:::.506 Engineering Mathematics (c) for the expression In.3X2 =206 =1 4 (a) 14 Now.2. omit the yterms: ~2 = 3 1 5 191 17 = 85  Substituting the values of t:'1. omit the x.. To form 6Q from the given equations. and y = . ~1 . .. . . omit the constant terms and write down the coefficients in the order in which they stand: Note finally that ~1 x Y  ~2 ~o Now let lIS (10 some examples. so on to Frame 10 Example 1 . 1:::..6. . { SX + 2Y +19 = O 10solvetheequanons 3x + 4y + 17 = O The key to the method is: x y I ~ l = 6. . . I' 1 b. . . to find :.2.. 60 in the key. . we get x y 1 42 28 =14 from which x = . ~~1 = 3476 =42 57 = 28 (c) (b) Similarly.ferms: ~1 = .2 = . omit the constant terms: l: :.. liD Because 6 l =1 .0 To find 60. b. . denote the determ.o = l~ 60 ~ !1 =SX4. . .... _ .nant by 60· n..
=l x y 6 0= .62 in the same way.Determinants 507 X ~=.0 y+ 5 First of all. L'lq =13 14 ~ 10 1 (42) ~ 52. £:"2 = 52 (ill 2x +3Y 14 = 0 Because we have { 3x _ 2y + 5 = 0 1.60 (Note that the terms are alternately positive and negative. 6 2 = 52 and .=13.6 1 and.61 . {2X+ 3Y .6 .60 = Ii :21 = . I . 1 x ~~.1 3. write down the key: x y . Example 2 .13 x= ] 6 u 13 52 Y=. = 6 2 = 60 6 .6 L>1~ 1 ~2 L>' ~I ~ So that 1 = 13.12 . 6 2 = 52.H 51 .14 =O Solve by determmants 3x.49 = 13 (a) Now you find .) Then .28 =.3i 42 14 Y = 14 ' 28 (ill y=2 Now for another example.2 .1 3 = 15 .14 1 1.60 = 13 = 4 Do not forget the key: 60 62 y=4 y 1 6 ) 62 60 with alternate plus and minus signs.13. Make a tWte of tllis in your record book x .62 1 .H2sl.
Z x = L:l..2 and hence determine the values of x and y. write down the key..3 Y +ZO=0 { 3x + Zy ...z 6.J = .2 1 6 .l = 123 60 6.4 .3Y + 20 ~ 0 3x + ZyZ = O Hrst of ali.6 1 y 6.Z 17 y =~=. 231~8(9) ~ 8 + 9 ~ 17 L:l. complete the following: (a)l ~ :I ~ (b) (C) I: ~I ~ .2=O x .. I~· ····· · · · · . Example 3 Solve by determinants: { 4x .60 17 68 y= 4 Now. move all to Frame 15 Here is Ihe working in detail: 4x . z 1 60 6o ~1 . 1: 3 =!I ~ (d) l~ .508 Engineering Mathematics @ Here is another one: do it on your own. 2 =1 ZO 2 4 20 3 . When YOLI have finished.. Then off you go: find 60..40 = = 34 1= _8_60= _ 68 x= . by way of revision.. 6 1 and 6.34 = .
= 1 . the minor of (/z is .22 (h) ._ I .r.. we simply ignore the row and column containing az.g. which is fo und by Omitting the row and column containing the element con cerned . a.... 1. .. c. Cl I la3 ' ~ C3 aJlb]lc] 1_ _ I the minor of CI is Ia.Determinants 509 Here are t he results. the minor of h3 is . I Because. Iobtained i ~ ~ hz. I Minor of az is So. move on to frame 17 Determinants of the third order A determinant of the third o rder wiU contain 3 rows and 3 columns. 11 a l I . to find the minor of az. the minor of al is b.. ~.... bz C3 I .I I al . b3 Cz C3 Each element in the determinant is associated with its minor... . I:. . Ia.T: ~~ ..l IlaZ . C' Iobtained . .1 hi C1 .rq For the next section of the work.. i.. .r . in the same way. . hJ CJ Similarly. . ~ hz~ ez C..' . Ib..1=' .a. ia~:hJ Cl 'T . hi . e..e. (a) 20 .. You must have got them correct.. thus: al hi CI az (13 bz.ezC...42 = ..206 ~ 26 (c) acbeI (d) ps . the minor of hi is a.
2(.£:G ~)_ ' azJ hz:Cz . + '\. multi ply it by its minor and give the terms a plus or minus sign alternately: at Q3 hi b3 az bt (z =a1 1 b.2S) . bb l h3C3 a3 c3 a3J C3 Cl Then.63 ) =153 + 12+120 =21 .14) + 5(3612) 3(.2 x5) =1254+ 12 =30 (ill Here is another. we already know how to expand a determinant of the second order by multiplying diagonally._~ i.51 ) . .10) 1(12)3( \ 8)+ 2(6) 325 292 4 6 7 =3 J : ~ ~ J 21 : ~1 + 51 : :1 ~ 3 ( 12 . 248 ~ 1 15 '1 _ 314 48 28 = ~ ~ 'I 51 + 214 24 1(5 >< 8 4 >< 7). omit the row and column containing b3 • .2(S . I CI Minor of hl is la c) II az l C2 i. we can write down each element along the top row.3(4 x 82 x 7)+2(4 x 4 . C' I_ bIIQZ Czl+C1 Ia.510 Engineering Mathematics (ill ai' hI r .6) + 5(24) Now here is one for you to do.14) + 2(16 . .3(32 .I Now Ot1 to Frame 20 Evaluation of a thirdorder determinant To expand a determinant of the third order. of course. Example 2 \ (40 . ./ Example 1 1 4 3 5 2 .e.
•.+ + + + + etc.or . + TI1C key element (in the top lefthand corner) is always +..30) ~ 2(21 ) . if we wish. .. The appropriate 'place signs' are given by + + + + . .7 (4 .27) .12) ~ 2( . so long as we assign to each product the appropriate + or .Determinants 511 Example 3 Evaluate 2 4 7 6 5 3 8 9 Expand along the top row. . If we expand down the first column in the same way. etc. .signs to the products.42 + 152 72 = 38 w hich is the same result as that which we obtained before.9) = . multiply each element by its minor.. multiplying each element by its minor. still assigning altcrnate + and . So in the determinant: 3 7 5 6 9 428 the' place sib'Tl' of the element 9 is . The others are then alternately I.4(38) + 8(. as you proceed along any row or down any column . We can.21) ..27) .sign.45) + 8 (21 .. . we get: 2 7 5 463 8 9 ~ 2 (6 . .24) + 5(36 . move on to Frame 22 for the result (ill ~ 2 (6 . When YOII are ready.48) " 5(.4 (7 .signs to the products. and assign alternate + and . expand along any row or column in the same way. .7(20) = 42+140 60 =38 We obtained the result above by expandi ng along the top row of the given determinant.
182 + 104 .2) .512 Engineering Mathematics (ill + .+ + place sign. the 'place signs' are: + . When you /lave done it. Result in Frame 27 . Finish it off.4) .91 ! ~ !I ~ ~ . Now consider this one: If we expand down the middle colu mn.+ =s l ~ ~ :1...24)+ 2(2 .7(26) + 8 (13) .9(12 .+ + + .16) ~ 25 + 119 One more: Evaluate 7 3 1 by expand ing along the middle row. J1len move on for the result Because 71 ~ :1 + 81~ ~1 .7(30 .4) + 8 (15 . The others follow from 3 7 2 684 9 5 Remember that the top lefthand element always has a it.+ +  [J Because in a thirdorder detenninant. move to Frame 26 for tile answer 572 We have 6 1 3 and remember 5 7 2 234 + .7(18) + 2( .78 So now you do this one: 234 Evaluate 6 1 3 by expanding along the bottom row.7 1 ! ~ 1 +21! 128 469 ~1 = 5(9 .18) 126 32 ~ 5(5) .12) .9 (0) ~ . we get 3 7 2 6 4 195 8 = 71 1:1+81 21_13 21 ~ 6 13 5 9 6 4 .7(6 .
d.1(6 . d.) = the del of t he coefficients omitting the zterms 60 = the det of the coefficients omitting the constant terms.Determinants 513 (ill 2 8 Because 7 3 4 h 9 . x Y ".2. c. b. . c. d. ".1(2) =2 10 . d. c.8) . Notice that the signs are alternately plus and mi. d. ". d. b. c. So move 011 to Frame 28 Simultaneous equations in three unknowns Consider the equations: QIX + b1Y + C1Z + d1 = 0 { Q2X + hzy+ C2Z +dz = 0 a3 x + b3Y + C3 Z + d3 = 0 If we find x. b. Y and z by the elimination method.7(18 .3 60 wllere 6 1 = the del of the coefficients omitting the xterms 62 = the det of the coefficients omitting the yterms 6. d.32) .1 a. c. we obtain results that can be expressed in determinant form thus: x y z b. . We can now extend the method to solve simultaneous equations in 3 unknowns. ". a. c. b. d. CZ a.nus. b. b.6. c. .69+2 = 143 ~ ~ We have seen how we can use secondorder determinants to solve simultaneous equations in 2 unknowns. d. c. We can remember this more easily in this form: Z I L::q 6. a.48) + 3(9 . b. ".30) + 3(23) . Let us work through a numerical example.7( . b.
and 60.129 + 37 + 36 = 129 + 73 =. omit the constant terms. the key.1 First the key: ~~ .13 = 0 { x + 2y .4) 2 11 ~ 3(.4(9) = .65) + 1(11 + 26) .4( .18 + 51 . which is .60= 3 1 2 2 ... .e. 2 3 .~ L'l l 62 6J 60 X 1 To find the value of x.1 4 Because 6 1 = 1 2 .s .4 = 0 3x + y + 2z ..1 :. given that : 2x + Y SZ+ l1 = 0 xy + z6=O { 4x + 2y .3z+ 8 = 0 First.31~ _~ I .5 = 21~ _~1 .5 13 ~ 3(22 .43) + 1(37) . we use 6 . 3 . without necessarily finding the others. Example 2 Find y.56 1 28 : .l l ~ ~I = . (a) To find Do. x = 28 = 2 S6 x=2 Note that by this method we can evaluate anyone of the variables. we must find 6.56 But x 6 1 1 6 0 x .5 = 28 (b) Now you find 6 11 in the same way.514 Engineering MathematiCS Example 1 Find the value of x from the equations: 2x + 3y . = 60' i. Let us do another example.5z+11 =0 x y Z .z .
o 6.1[ 2 2(3 . we must find l:..5(2 + 4) 62 So we have = 2 + 7 .>(ause 2 6..1 l:.4 ) .1 t:..6 1 511 . t:.o .o.... omit the xterms and form a determinant with the remaining coefficients and constant terms.I 3 4 [I 1 [ . which is associated with x in this case.~  63 "" .z = l:.6 8 = zi 3 3 1 .0 1 = 4 ~ 1 2 3 = 2 . ..30 = 21 . Similarly for t:.2) .2 .. .. (b) To find t:.6 = 0 { 4x + Zy3zt8=O To find 6. we use l:.21 The Important things to remember are: (a) The key: x y z ..o y .z and The equations are ZX + Y SZ+l1 = 0 x ..4) 20 + 160 ....1(3 .. z• omit the y·terms. ~ .y 1 6') 60 y~. .. 1 = 6.3 . Next frome .5[ ' 3 4 .Signs.' [ 2 1 [.77 = 63 omit the constant terms To find "" ~..2 = 6 3 with alternate + and .6 1+ 11 11 ' 1 8 + 4 8 4 3 = 2(8 . (ill B{. t:. . Z S 62= ~ I 4 11 1 .Determinants 515 To find y..18) + 5(8 + 24) + 11 (.y+z . Therefore.3.
516 Engineering Mathematics Revision exercise Here is a short revision exercise on the work so far. y = . divide it by the associated determinant. check your (Itlswen: 3 with those given in the next frame (ill Here are the answers: Y = 4 2 X= .~I Did you get that one right? If so. y and z. If you have not got them alI correct. z=5 3 x = 2. and include the appropriate sign.4Y +Zz+S=0} x + 5y . it is well worth spending a few minutes seeing where you may have gone astray. take each variable in turn.2z + 3 =0 Find x . The equatiOns were f X+2Y 3Z . 3x + 2y + z + S =0 2 3X .l1 =0 Hndy.z+6=O 2x .Y . move on straigh away 0 Frame 41. Find the foUowing by the use of determinants: 1 { X + 2Y3Z3~O } 2x . move to Frame 34 The answer to question 1 in the revision test was y = .1: 1 z= 3 If you have them all correct. In this case: x To fill in the missing terms. f( YOII made any slips. is to write down the key to the solutions.3 = 0 2x .z . The first thing.3z + 2 = 0 Findxandz.2. If you did not manage to get it right.z . { 3x + 4y3z + 7 = 0 Wilen you have finished them all. always.y . for one of the main applications of determinants is in the solution of simultaneous equations.Z3~O} 4x + 5y.2Y . let us work through it in detail.II = 0 { 3x+2y + z + 5 = O Copy them down on your paper so that we can refer to them as we go along. { 5x+3y . turn straight on to Frame 52. So what do we get? On to Frame 35 '" .
3(2 + 3) 6 + 129 . form a determinant of the coefficients omitting those of the yterms ] 2 3 3 .2 = 120 (ill Because 6. 2 = 120 We also have to find 6. ~II We now evaluate each of these secondorder determinants by the usual process of mu ltiplying diagonally. we .0. 2 and 6. we have to fmd y...0 2 . y ./ So we get 6. Le.1 1 3 . So ...1 So we have to find 6.0 • To find 6.15 = ~ 6 + 3 (43 ). .Determinants 517 (ill The signs go alternately + and .. .2. ~II + (3)I . I.15 = 135. 2 = Expanding along the top row. so we use the second and last terms in the key. this gives: 6F II11 ~11(3)1 .. In this question...e. the detenninant of the coefficients omitting the constant terms. 2 = . 6.5 + JI )+ 3(IO + 33) .....60 = . 6. ~ 1(. ..3 (5 ) = 120 6. = 6..11 5 I So 6... remembering the sign convention that + "and ..
2( 2+ 3) . . . If we expand this along the top row. Did you get revision exercise 2 correct? If so. When you have finished.: 5 1 2 Did you get those correct? If so. have another go at it. now that we have worked through 1 in detail . Here it is: The equation..4 Y = 60 = _ 30 =4 ~ ~ ~ . ..4Y + 2z + S=O x + Sy ..3z + 2 = O { Sx + 3yz + 6 = 0 Copy them down on to your paper.2(5)3 (7) ~ 1 . we get L10 = (ill Now. .21 l\o ~ 30 6 2 120 y ~ . = . . .1+ 2) .. were: 3X . turn on right away to Fmme SO. ..30 Every one is done in the same way. .I 2 3 1 1 . . move on to Frame 41 The answers to revision exercise 2 were I.10 . Fill i/l the missing tems and Olen move Oil to Frame 42 . . turn slraight on to Frame 50. If not. If not..<. evaluating the secondorder determinants in the usual way gives 6 0 = . . . follow through the working. B(>c3use So So we have "0 1(. The key to the solutions is: X 6 .3(4 + 3) 1( 1) .518 Engineering Mathematics 1 60 == 2 3 2 .
form the determinant of coefficients omitting those of the xterms.e.. (a) To find 6 1. : . :. We shall use: X .6... :. £13 = . and 6 1 =.he zterms.60 z 1 ..6) + 8(5 +9) 4( t6) .2(24) + 8 (4 ) + 2 ) = 64 .Determinants 519 We have to find x and l .1 5 2 8 2 6 Now expand along the top row.6.6.6 1 =4 3 3 1 1. 1 . . £11 = 4 L~"1 = 3 3 . So we must find .6 . .60 ..1 ~ 1 ..0 i..6 1 = 48 (b) To fmd .21~ ~ 1+ 81 ~ 1 Finish it off: tllen on to Frome 44 .48 + 32 = 96 ..6 1 = 4( 18 ~ 2 (30 .6.6. 6 ) and 6Q.. "" I. x = . form the determinant of coefficients omitting t.3.48 = 48 .e. . Because . z = .
.. ·.520 Engineering Mathematics 3 L:::. ...... So that ~3= .. Work it right through: so that "" ~ . On to Fmme47 Because L.. ...0. ~ ~ 3(30 ~ 6) + 4(6 ~ 10) + 8(3 ~ 25) 3(24) +4( ~ 4) + 8( ~22) ~72~ 1 6~ 1 76 = 72192 = . /':..0.0 = 6 0= 3 1 5 4 5 3 2 . .. .120 63= 120 (c) Now we want to find 1:::. Then evaluate the secondorder determinants which will appear and so find the value of 1::. Now evaluate the secondorder determinants and finish it o ff..3 ....l = 1 ~4 8 2 5 536 Expanding th is along the top row gives 63 = . .1 Now expand this along the top row as we have done before.
2z+3 = 0 3x + 4y . lx2yz3 = 0 4x + 5y . Did you get that right? If so.but take care not to make a slip wit h the signs. If not..60 = 24 .6 1 60 .3z + 7 = 0 When YOIi have finished this Orle. . . .6 and z = .. The method is the same every time .. have another go at it.6 1 = 48. and z= . move Orl to the next frame and check YOlir resu[15 . .21 5 Iz ~ 5 1 Well. Now what about revision exercise 3. y and z.22) . .60 = 24 So we have: Also we know that: X = .44 = 24 . 6 3 = . . move on straight away to Frame 52. . . x=.= 2 Z= 24 (120) 24 48 1'. there you are..25) 3(4) + 4(14) + 2(. Here are the equations again: copy them down and then find x.Determinants 521 160 ~ 24 1 Because L1o= 31~ =~ 1 + 41 ~ =~1 + 21 ~ ~ J ~ ~ = = 1 2+5644 68.. 3(5 + 9) + 4(..1 + 15) +2(3 .3 100 So that X = .120.
1 3 3 7 = 2 . ~1 y 6 . they have a _ .~.o = 4 3 60 27 5 4 . The solutions of (b) and (c) do not satisfy (a) and the three given equations do not have a common solution .522 Engineering Mathematics I x ~ 2.1. . 3x .2 1 4 3 7 3 4 1 t:::. 1 = 5 4 2 t:::.3 . \ 1 6{J t:::.2 .1 3 54 6. so that you can check your own working: x = y = z L". They are thus not consistent..2y + 3 = O If we solve equations (b) and (c) in the usual way.4 = O 2x + 3y . 60 ~ L~11 54 X =.60 1 1 y =l::..4 = 3 ..2 =27 3 x 6 .y .3 (and not 0 as the equation states).0 27 z 63 60 l= ~. If equations are consistent. z ~ 3 Here are the main steps.2 3 7 ~ 27 3 5 3 3 = 81 2 2 3 ~3= 2 . There are no values of x and y which satisfy all three equations.z =.3 81 60 27 l =+3 All correct now? On to Frame 52 then (or the next section o( the work Consistency of a set of equations Let us consider the (oUowing three equations In two unknowns.2 t:::.y .~ 2 x=Z y .E. z = 4 .= +3 6. we obtain 3x . we find that x = I and y = 2. If we now substitute these values in the lefthand side of (a)..4 = .=_ l 6.z .8 ~ O (a) (b) (c) x. y ~ .
as before. Substituting these 3x + y .z = .0 ~I so thai x~ .6.y + d3 = 0 (a) (b) (c) If we solve equations (b) and (C): we get x y 1 . lhe ll Ul =0 i.6. .Ib.6.ummon solution Let us now consider the three equations: 3x t. I b.~ =0 ". =0 azX + bzr + dz = 0 a3X + b:>. d ' l_btla. x in (a) gives: = 1 and y = 2. az h z dz a3 h3 d) which is therefore the condition that the three give n equations are consistent.e.6.Determinants 523 f. . h3 d3 a3 b. 01 .6z + d.e.. So three simultaneous equations in two unknowns a re cOnsistent if the determinant of coefficients is . . ~O al hi dL = 0 i. 1 = . .6. all three equations have the common solution x = 1. 60 6 1 60 + bl .S = O i.S = 3 + Z . Y = 2 and the equations a rc said to be consistent Now we will take the general case: alx + b1y + d.62 6 + dl 0 If these results also satisfy equation (a). 1 b l . 1 6z andy =. i.e.e.A.yS = O 2x + 3y8 == O x2y+3 = 0 (a) (b) (c) The solutions of (b) and (c) are.
k) .78+ 13 + 65 = 78 + 78 = 0 ~ The given equations therefore . Given { 2kx + Sy .16=0 : .5(. done in just the same way. .10 3) . (are/are not) [ill Example 2 Find the value of k for which the followin g equations are consistent: 3x + y + 2 = 0 4x + 2y .10 1= 2 [4 . ..1 2(. consistent.k = 0 2xy + 3k~0 3 1 2 = { For consistency: 4 2 k 2 .3 1:] ..1 .. .3 = 0 3x + 7y + l = 0 find the values of k for which the equations are consistent. k .: I l l ~ .1(12k + 2k) + 2(4 .13) = .13k 0 ..14k .12) ~ 2( .S = 0 x + 4y + l = 0 { 3xylO =0 2 1 5 For the equations to be consistent 1 4 3 \ 2 I must be zero .40 + 1) .10 5 4 1 I 3 .1(.16 = 0 .39) ..:1 + 21 ~ :11 Example 3 X+(k + l )Y + J = 0 =0 3(6k .524 Engineering Mathematics Example 1 Test for coruistenty: Zx + y .(13) . k = 16 Now one for you..5( .4) ~ 0 ISk . .
k = lork =..'2 1 The condition for consistency is that: k+ 1 1 3 = 0 2k 5 3 7 I I :.k=O kx .2e + 3k + 2 = 0 2k23k . ( 2k + 1 )(k1 ) ~ O 1 . Example 4 Find the values of k for mnsistency when x+y.3y + 11 = 0 { Zx + 4y.:2 . 2k' .kl ~ (24 .4e + 2k + 2 = 0 .2 Because k k 2 3 4 11 =0 ~ 8 4 1 1 ~3 ~~I .22)k(1k + 6 ) 3 1=0 0 .(8k .8 = 0 1 k = lor .Determinants 525 k = 20r . 1 5 7 2k 2k I .2 ) ~ O k = 20rk =.6k = 0 .(k + 1) 1 3 31 1 + 11 3 51 7 =0 1 31 ~O (5 + 21) .4k2 .44).IS) 262k2 l1k9+ 14kIS = 0 .! 2 Finally.(k + 1)(2k + 9) +( 14k .I ~ O c.20 + Sk + 22 . (2k + 1 )( k .k .2 ~ O c.l l ~ ~~ I . one more for you to do.
I~: :Z~ ~ J = J ~: ~J Note: The properties stated above are general and apply not only to secondorder determinants but to detenninants of any order.526 Engineering Mathematics Properties of determinants Expanding a determinant Ln which the elements are large numbers can be a very tedious affair.lllmt is multiplied by that factor. J :~ ~ J= J :: ~ J 3 If two rows (or two collimns) are identical. the valu£' of the detennill(/Ill is unchanged. I ~: ~ I=I ~~ :~ I 2 If two rows (or nvo coillmns) are interchanged. So here are some of the main properties. the detenn. by knowing MJmething of the properties of determinants. The vallie of a determinant remains /lncha/lged if rows are changed to coilimlls and columns to rows.r row (or coillmll). the vallie of the detemlinant is zero. Move on for some examples . I ko. the sign of the determinant is challged. It is possible. a2 (12 a'l ~ o 4 If the elements of anyone row (or colllmn) are all multiplied by a common (actor. b2 a2 bz ho i 5 If the elements of allY row (or colllmn) are increased (or decreased) by equal multiples oflhe corresponding elements ofally oth£. Make a note of them in your record book for future reference. (/2 kb2 1 ~ kla. however. to simplify the working. la.
(0) Naturally. the better. thus: 427 4291 ~1 427 429.1) from the bottom row (rule 4) ~ 1 2 5 3 1 .I 3 I Now expand along the top row We could take a factor (. move to Frame 61 Example 2 Evaluate 1 2 2 4 3 5 4 2 7 1 0 2 4 2 5 4 5 7 0 0 Column 2 minus column 3 will give us one zero Column 3 minus twice« :o lumn 1) will give another zero 4 2 4 5 .427 1 369 371 369 371 .I )I ~ ~ I ~ 1(2 . For another example.13 ~ (. we could apply our knowledge of the properties of determinants.15) ~ Next {Tame .(369)(429) which is rather deadly! On the other hand. the more zero elements we can arrange.369 1 (Rule 5) Subtract column I from column 2) = = ~ ! ~!~ ~ ! I 369 2 58 01 ~ (Rule 5) Subtract row 2 from row 1 116 (58)1 2) .I )I.1) from the top row and another facto r (.Determinants 527 Example 1 427 429 1 1369 371 Of course we could evaluate this by the usual method Evaluate (427)(371 ) .
2 In this type of question.. but by . apply as many of the listed properties as possible. x 5 x 3 = Solve the equation 5 . move on to f"rame 63 The answer is ~.528 Engineering Mathematics (ill Example 3 Evaluate 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 You do that one. we try to establish common factors wherever possible. It is quite fun...\ 0 \ 3 .ay of practice. so follow it through. 8 outside the determinant . 4 2 2 2 8 I 2 8 I 0 8 I 2 4 2 2 I 2 2 4 I \ We can take out a factor 2 from each row... not the only way by any means.8(4) ~ 32 Here is another type of problem.. . giving a faclor 23..e. When )'011 have finished it.I f l :I f' ~I sl! ~ I 3 4 Example 4 Now row 2 + row 1 ~ .3 +1 4 0 x. This is one way of dOing it. but what we are more interested in is the method of applying the properties. Column 2 minus column 3 will give one zero in the top row Column 1 minus twice(colurnn 3) wiIJ give another zero in the same row Expanding along the top row will now reduce this to a secondorder determinant 2 I 2 I 2 0 I . . i.
Determinants For example.. we get (x + 2)[(x. 2 x 2 3 1 =0 3 2 x Check YOlir working willi that given ill the next frame . we get: (x + 2) 5 3 529 (x + 2 ) (x+2) x+ 1 1 = 0 4 x. ExampJe 5 Solve the equation: 5 . x + 2=Oorx23x8=0 which finally gives x = 2 or x = 3 ± /41 Finally.1" . what do we get? When YOIl have done it. move on to the next frame 1 We now have (x + 2) 5 3 x4 1 o o 4 ~O x+ l Expanding along the top row reduces this to a secondordcr determinant: (x+2) I X4 1 x+1 = 0 41 II we now multiply out the determinant.2 Taking out the common factor (x + 2) gives: 1 (x + 2) 5 x + l .3x . if we add row 2 and row 3 to row 1..8) = 0 .4)(x + 1) (x 41~ 0 + 2)(x 2 .3 4 1 =0 x2 Now if we take column 1 from column 2 and also from column 3. here is one for you to do on your own.
brush up on any parts of the work about which you are at all uncertain.qo whicJl follow.3 2.2x . (x+4)(2x ..x 1 ~ O x x+l 1 (x + 4 ) . Before you work through them. .t exerci. gives 2 x ~ O Taking out the common factor (x + 4) Take column 3 from column 1 ~ O (x +4 ) x + 2 2 1 3 2 x 0 0 1 1 and from column 2 ntis now reduces to second order 1 (x + 4) x+1 x.s x I 2.x3 2x I (x H) 1 I 0 Subtract column 2 from column 1 We now finish it off I..530 Engineering Mathematics I 5 x =4or l ± v<5 Here is one way of doing the problem: x 3 x+2 2 3 x + 4 x+4 x+4 x +2 2 1 x 3 2 1 1 = 0 Addingrow2androw3 to row 1.5 = O which give~ x = 4 or x = I ± v'6 You have now reached the end of this Programme on determinants except for the Can You? checklist and Te.x ~O : .x' r S) ~ O x+4 = Oorx 2 .
4y + Zz14=O { 4x + 2y . 0 0 0 0 Frames o No • Solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations in two variables using 2 x 2 determinants? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Expand a 3 x 3 determinant? Yes 0 0 0 0 lIJtoCEJ (ElIO@) o No • Solve three sim ultaneous linear equations in t.3z+6=O . There is no extra credit for speed . find the va lue of x.. you should have no difficulty with this exercise. Take your time and work carefully. On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident are yon that you can: • Expand a 2 x 2 determinant? Ye.Determinants 531 ~ Can You? Checklist 4 Check this list before and after you try the end of Programme test. Off you go then. They are all quite straightforward.hree variables using 3 x 3 determinants? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Determine the consistency of sets of simultaneous linear equations? Yes 0 0 0 ~O No • Use the properties of determinants to solve equations written in detenninant form? Yes 0 0 0 DO No [ID to(!D IEJtolID C!!JIO CEJ ~ Test exercise 4 If you have worked steadily through the Programme. given: 2.x + 3yz+3=O x . Evaluate 1 (a) 2 (h) 1 2 3 1 3 2 2 1 1 121 2 3 1 2 By determinants.
+ I)y .Sz = 11 4 Use determinants to solve the equations: 4x3y + 2z = 7 6x+2y .Sy + 7z = 14 9x + 2y 1.532 Engineering Mathematics Use determinants to solve completely: x3y + 4z S= 0 2x + y+z .4yz =3 Solve by determinants: 3x + 2y .l )x+ 7y+S = 0 3x + Sy + l =0 .S = 0 (A.y +z = O 6 rind the values of Afor which the following equations arc consistent: Sx+ (>.y .3 = 0 { 4x + 3y+Szl = 0 4 Find the values of k for Wllich the following equations are consistent: 3x + Sy+k = 0 Zx + y . x + 1 S 6 .1 x 2 = 0 3 2 x+ 1 Now YOIl can continlle with tile n~t Programme ~ Further problems 4 (ill ~ 1 Evaluate: <a) 5 7 9 13 15 17 19 11 3 (bl I 428 861 2 535 984 3 642 1107 I55 226 81 77 112 39 74 111 37 2 Evaluate: (a) 25 16 34 3 6 35 (b) to .3z = 33 2x .S = O { (k + l )x + 2y1O ~ O Solve the equation.3z = 47 x .2z = 16 4x + 3y + 3z = 2 2x .18 38 Solve by determinant's: 4x .
i]) + 2(il + (i2 .4y .2 correct to significant figures.Determinants 53 3 Determine the values of k for which the following equations have solutions: 4. ) = 24 (i2 .. ) = 0 ..i.(k.9 ~ O 8 (a) Find the values of k which satisfy the equation: k o 1 0 1 k 1 ~ 0 k 1 (b) Factorize abc a] 1Y cl Solve the equation: x 2 3 Z x +3 6 =0 3 4 x +6 10 Find the values of x t hat satisfy the eq uation: x 3+x 3 3 2 2 ~ ll Express 1 a' (b +C)2 as a product of linear factors. .i2 ) +5(i] ..<. 12 A resistive network gives the following equations: Z(i] .5 ~ 0 2x + ylO = O ( k + l ) x .2)y .i]) + 2.2) + i l = 6 Simplify the equations and use detenninants to find the vaJue o f.2 5(i1 . """"0 Show that (0 + b + c) is a f'dcto r of the detcnninant b+c c+a a+b a a] b lY C c3 and express the determinant as a product of five factors.
3 = 4 3il . ill in a network arc related by the following equations: Zi1 + 3h + 8i3 = 30 6. h.1 ..z = O k(ya) + Zyz=O k{z .Mz)z = 0 . 1 16 Solve the equation x+ l x+2 3 Z x+3 x+ I = 0 1 x+2 x+3 ~ 17 If x. I + r yz Express 1 + yZ zx 1 + z2 xy 1 1 as a product of four linear factors.Mzx + 2M2 y + (MJ .Z+ Z. y. z satisfy the equations: (~Ml + MZ)X .lZiz + 8i3 = 0 By the use of determinants. MJ and Mz_ 18 Three l'lJrrents. find the value of h and hence solve completely the three equations. 19 [f k(x .M 2 y+GM 1 + M2)Z evaluate x in terms of W.a) + Zx .x .534 Engineering Mathematics 14 Find values of k for which the following equations arc consistent: x+(l + k)y + l = O (Z+k Jx + 5y10 = 0 x + 7y+9=0 ~ lS . iI .y + 2z = 0 show that x ak(k + 3) k2+ 4k + Z · 1r 20 Find the angles between 0 = 0 and 0 = 1 + sin 0 sin 2 0 sin z 0 2 that satisfy the equation: coszO 4 sin Zo 4sin20 = 0 1 + cos 2 0 cos 2 () 1 + 4sin20 .MZy = W =0 .a) .
Programme 5 Matrices Learning outcomes When YOIl llave completed this Programme you will be able to: Frames (D to @ • Define a matrix • Understand what is meant by the equality of two matrices • Add and subtract two mat rices • Mu ltiply a matrix by a scalar and multiply two matrices together • • • • • Obtain the transpose of a matrix Recognize special types of matrix Oblain the determinant. cofacto rs and ad joint of a square mat.rix Obtain the inverse of a nonsingula r matrix Use matrices to solve a set of linear eq uations using inverse matrices • Use the Gaussian elimination method to solve a set of linear equations • Evaluate eigenvalues and eigenvectors 535 .
50 the matt'x G D (~ ~ is of order and the matrix ! ~) is of order . 8 are the elements of the matrix. (4 3 7 2) is a row matrix of order 1 x 4.536 Engineering Mathematics Matrices . A matrix is indicated by writing the array within brackets e. Le. e. 2. 7. Move 011 to the next frame . Also. e. 4 rows and 3 columns. ..definitions A matrix is a set of real or complex numbers (or elements) arranged in rows and columns to form a rectangular array. . matrix having 111 rows and" columns is called an In x n (i.. w 3 x 2: 2x4 A matrix is simply an array of numbers: there is no arithmetical connection between the elements and it therefore differs from a determinant in that the elements cannot be multiplied together in any way to find a numerical value of the matrix.g.. a '2 by 3' matrix. e... . in describing the matrix.e. Column matrix: A column matrix consists of 1 column only.. . ( ~7 6 8~7 5.e. /I. a column matrix is sometimes written on one line but with 'curly' brackets. I 63 8 I is the same column matrix of order 3 x 1. 2) is a 2 x 3 matrix. in general. 6. i. 7) is a matrix of order 4 x 3. A matrix has no numerical value. (n 's a column matrix of ordcr 3 x 1..g.g. Row matrix: A row matrix consists of 1 row only. where 78 6 3 (5 5.g. rows and columns cannot be interchanged as was the case with determinant'>. the number of rows is stated first and the number of columns second. 3. 'm by II') matrix and is referred to as having order m x 11. Note that. To conserve space in printing.
(a) column. thus: all ( all a3 1 all an an a3l an a33 (l14) a24 tl34 : .. (a) tl24 (c) 042 w Move on . . 7 . i ~) (! = 2 9 7 . .. .and ycoordinates of a point relative to the x. . . the first indicating the row. having 1 row and 1 column. .and yaxes. an indicates the clement in the second row and third column. _. however. .Matrices 537 So. . . (c) the clement 9 can be stated as .. (b) the clement .... in the matrix . . Double SUffix notntion: Each clement in a matrix has its own particular 'address' or location which can be defined by a system of double suffixes.l x 4 w (c) column.. In matrices generally.. (b) row... . . . _. Therefore.. . the second the column.. 2 x 1 w We use a simple row matrix in stating the x.. . Single element II1ntrix: A single number may be regarded as a 1 x 1 matrix.. . 5) then the 3 is the xcoordinale and the 5 the ycoordinate... 3) is a . ..e. .. . . i. if P is the point (3.. . no commas arc used to separate the elements.1 the location of (a) the clement 3 can be stated as . .. .. 3 x 1 (b) (4 (c) 1 2 6 91 is a .. . matrix of order . from what we have already said: (a) (~) 0 is a . .1 can be stated as . .. . matrix of order . matrix of order .. .. For example.
. we can indicate boldface type by a wavy line placed under the letter. .538 Engineering Mathematics Matrix notation Where there is no ambiguity. thenrl = .) So.g. For a row or column matrix. a. a whole matrix can be denoted by a single general element enclosed in brackets. using the double suffix notation. . we usc a bold capitallctter. So.l) SO.. . Therefore. .. if (all then all = a 2l al2 a22 al2 an) ~ (4 a23 =' 2 6 '7 ) 3 4: a b de 6: a\3 = 5: a2 l = X ii 2: etc.. . a24 S. g /. write out the elements bij in the matrix.. if (al. we use a lower~case bold letter.) 0' (x ) o. the two matrices must also be of the same order. .. e.7. if B represents a 2 x 3 matrix..k = . (In handwritten work. or by a single letter printed in bold type.. . For example: an a l2 a22 a32a \3 a23 a 33 a" ( aJ> a" ) can be denoted by (all) or (a) or by A. CD a ... two matrices are said to be equal if corresponding elements throughout are equal.. nlb is a very neat shorthand and saves much space and writing. d = l. ..if ( = (Xi}) then aij = 2 4 7 3) 6 8 for all values of j and j.k =.3 .mpty by x . . w For an (m x f/ ) matrix. e. . This gives I B = (b b:zl ll b12 b:z2 bz3 n ) b Next frame Equal matrices By definition.. .g. e. Aor )S. h = ..milady 0:) a" can be denoted by (x...g. . x. b = . A. Thw..
e. a scalar).. . tw"o matrices must be of the same Qrder.IO 8 + 5 ~ (3 2 ll) 13 8 12 10 7 6 So.7 8 3 + 6 1 0 2 5 8 (' 4 2 ~) ~ ..1 ) ... Le. and 3) + (135 84 9) ~ (4 + 1 2 + 8 3 + 9) 47 26 (5 5+3 7 + 5 6 + 4 ~ (5 10 12) 1) (63 57 12 .... (a) G (b) n DU 2 0 (a) 5 4 1) 3 . The sum or difference is then determined by adding or subtracting corresponding elements. ~ ~) = (kaij)..... D~ ...Matrices 539 Addition and subtradion of matrices To be added or subtracted. in reverse.5 = 9 .) (b) (_! D 1 3 (ill 8 Multiplication of matrices 1 Scalar multiplication To multiply a matrix by a single number (i. Therefore. 10 25 ..g..)=(~. ( 35 15 45) 50 can be wntten ..2 4 .. each individual element of the matrix is multiplied by that factor: (ill C. e.g. we can take a common factor out of every element ...4X(~ f .. .. in general.. ...not just one row or one column as in determinants.. (~ 9 6 2 7 1.. k(aij) It also means that.
.540 Engineering Mathematics LID Sx (2 5 9) 7 3 ]0 2 Multiplication of two matrices Two matrices can be multiplied together only when the number of columns in the first is equal to the number of rows in the second .b = .(~) ~ (4x8 + 7 X5 + 6x9)~(32 + 35 + 54)~(1 21) (4 2 3 1 9 2x8 + 3xS+lx9 16 + 15 + 9 40 Similarly (! ! ~ ~)m ~ I (6+12 + 1O + 9)~(37) 12 +24 + 0 + 63 99 In justthe same way. + UI2b:z + a13b3) + 022bz. each element in the top row of A is multiplied by the corresponding element in the first column ofb and the products added. the second row of the product is found by multiplying each element in the second row of A by the corresponding element in the first column of h. .(b ~ ~'· ) 1 aZI a22 a2:'1 ~ (alIbi allb.h = (all a12 au) . Similarly. . + aZ3b3 Le. if A A . then A . Example 1 7 6). . ~ (~ ~ nand b ~ G) then The same process is carried out for each row and column.
. ~ (same) In general then. . (30 56) 23 99 since A.B ~ GDG : ! ~) l XS + 5 X2 l x 4 + 5 x5 l x 3 + 5xS I X l + 5 X 6) = 2 x S + 7x2 2 x 4 + 7 x 5 2 x 3+7 x S 2 x 1+7x6 ( 3xS + 4x2 3x4 + 4x5 3x3 + 4 x S 3 x 1+4x6 = = 18 29 43 31) 30436244 ( 32 32 41 27 Note that multiplying a (3 x 2) matrix and a (2 x 4) matrix gives a product matrix of order (3 x 4) Le.D = . order (3x2) x order (2 x 4) . IfhG: ~)andB ~ (! I D then A. order (3 x 4). .Matrices 541 Example 2 Ifh (a#)~ then 0D andB ~(bl/ ) ~ (~ : ! ~) 8 + 10 16 + 14 ( 24 + 8 4+25 3 + 40 1 + 30) 8+35 6 + 56 2 + 42 12 + 20 9 + 32 3 + 24 A....... .1S + 20 3 + S1 + 15 = 23 99 .D = 4 6) 3 9 5 (2 (! D := (30 56) 14 8+24 2+36 + 1S) ( 21 ..... the product of an (1 x m ) matrix and an (m x n) matrix has order (I x n)..
e. tf A is an (m x n) matrix } then products A . The order of the factors is important! in the product A.( 41 9 12 = 7 + 40 8 + 44 ( 9+48 18 + 60 27+72 !) 14 + 50 21 +60) (47 64 81) 16 + 55 24 + 66 52 71 90 = 57 78 99 Note that. A. . .H and B. the number of columns in the first the number of rows in the second = That is correct.) A2 = ( : ~)(: ~) ~ (16 + 35 28 + 14) ~ (51 42) 20 + 10 35 + 4 30 39 Remember that multiplication of matrices is defined only when . . . . .D. in matrix multiplication..e. and B is an (f/ x m) matrix Example If h (! ~ D and II ~G in 68) 167 thenAII ~ C ~ ~)(~ :~) 9 12 = ( 28 + 40 + 54 7+16+27 10 + 22+36) (50 40 + 55 + 72 = 122 2 5 and II. multiplication ·is not commutative. (~ .A are possible.A ~ (~ :~) . i.. (! ~ ~) .A. IfA=(: . B is premultiplied by A and A is postmultiplied by H. the number of toWS equals the number of columns.542 Engineering Mathematics Example 3 It follows that a matrix can be squared only if it is itself a square matrix.. i) has no meaning. . i.B f B.
.ll = . . _ .. then the new matrix so formed is called the trafl5pose of the original matrix... . We shall use the latter..B = . the second row becomes the second column... etc. its transpose is denoted by A or AT. .Matrices 543 So. and B.. and (A. A .. then A.H = 0D = .B)T (35 79) 20 32 .. If A ~ Gn' then AT 75 2) ~ (: 9 Therefore.. if A = (~ ~ 5 2) and B =(2 92 3 then A . . .A = ( 29 30) 14 Transpose of a matrix If the rows and columns of a matrix are interchanged: i. 9 18 71 B. the first row becomes the first column.e. . . the third row becomes the third column..B = T (35 20) 79 32 .... given that h (~ ~ ~) and B ~ I A.A = 41 All = ( ~ ~~ ~~) . ... .. If A is the original matrix.
(g ~~) .. A square matrix (all) is skewsymmetric if alj = aji e. it is symmetrical about the leading diagonal. .g. ' 25) ( 6 B 9 isa3 x3 matrix .g. 7 4 A square matrix (ali ) is symmetric if alj = all.544 Engineering Mathematics Special matrices (a) Square matrix is a matrix of order In x m. . . (g ! n n The unit matrix is denoted by I.g... A = _ AT. Note that A = AT. e.e.. 5 2 If A = I 3 BandJ = O l ( 7 9 600 4) (' 0 thenAh . (~' 2: :5) i.agonal are all un.e AhA .S 9 0 In that case. (b) Diagonal matrix. i. . (ill o~ i) i.y. e.e. . thus 007 (c) Unit matrix is a diagonal matrix in which the elements on the leading (~ ~ ~) d. is a square matTix with all elements zero except those on the leading diagonal. .
When you have completed them.18 54 .18 36 (0 0 ~) That is.Matrices 545 Similarly. AB = 0. = determine (a) SA. check YOllr results with tile next frame .A =A 0+8+0 0+0 + 6 4 + 0+ 0) = (S 2 4) 1 3 8 9 6 7 =A TIlerefore. B~(! =~)G 3 = :) = 2+ 4 .e. the unit matrix I behaves very much like the unit factor in ordinary algebra and arithmetic. i.. if we form the product I.A. 3 IfA ~ 0:) andB ~ G D thenAB ~ (i ~ ~) 4 Given that A determine (a) AT and (b) A. (g gg) °°° and is denoted by O. . (d) Null matrix: A null matrix is one whose elements are all zero. (c) B.I = I. 0 and D ".. Now a short revision exercise. .. but clearly A ". 8 3 I) 2 4 6 determine (a) A + B and (b) A .AT.6 12) ( 6 + ] 2. . we cannot say that therefore A = 0 or B = 0 2 1 forifA = ( 6 3 =~) B ~ G:) and then A. If A .A we obtain: IA~ G~DC~D 5+0 + 0 = 0 + 1+ 0 ( 0+0 + 7 A... (b) AD. .H = 0. Do these without looking back. 2 If A ~ 0D ~ n~ n and B .H.. O.6 18.
48) ~ 150 + 48 Note that the t ranspose of the matrix is 50 8) ( 2 6 4 1 37 ~ 48 ~ 150 and the 5 0 8 determinant of the transpose is 2 6 4 the value of which is 1 3 7 5(42 .12) .A= 54 20 (~~ ~) 3 A.48) ~ 5(30) .) 30 (b) A.ll = (~ ~) .2(0 . .2( .2 32 36 32) 18 60 2 . ) is not possible since the number of columns in 2 3 the first m ust be equal to the number of rows in the second. Check your results. • A ~ (1 ~ ~)AT~O A AT _ (1 .546 Engineering Mathematics Here are the solutions. For example: the determinant of (~ ~ ~) 847 is 847 ~ ~ ~ and the value of this deterntinant is 5(42 .B = 5 ( 34 38 (C) B . A matrix whose determinant is zero is called a singll/ar matrix.24) + 1(0 .II = .0(14 . 1 8 n 2 6). th e determinant of a square matrix has the same value as that of the determinant of the transposed mat rix.(~ ~) ~('6 1 1 1 36 7 6 7 = ( 62 1 1 16 1 42) 4 + 16 + 42 1 + 64 + 49 56 62) 114 Now move on to the next frame Determinant of a square matrix The determinant of a square matrix is the determinant having the same elements as those of the matrix.12) .I 2 8) 13 2 2 (<I) 5A= (~g ~.24) + 1(. 1 (a) A + B = 6 (8 14 8 3 5 6) ( 2 10 . (b) A .6) ~ 5(30) 150.4) + 8(6 . That is. (~ 4 I .
3 4 3 2 5) ( 4 7 9 has the value . Similarly.Matrices 547 The determinant of the matrix 1 8 6 (2 0 0 ) and the determinant value of the d iagonal matrix 0 5 0 h as the 004 value . we can form a determinant of its elem ents: a" a" a.2 a. The appropriate place si&'l1S are given by: alternate plus and minus from the lOp lefthand comer which carries a + .minant of the m......) a" a" an a" au a" a" a. the det.. which is simply the minor of the element in the determinant together wi th it<. The place sign is . 2 5 7 9 (ill ~ 3(. The place sign is +."ix A 235 ~ (~ ! ~) is det A = IAI = 4 1 6 which has a value of 45.24. . which was described in detail in the previous programme. Fm e"mple.30) ...G.. 'place sign'.2(\5) + 5(25) ~ 5 1 2 0 0 6 0 0 5 0 0 4 8 Cofadors If A = (ail) is a square matrix.e. 140 The minor of the element 2 is I! ~ I = 0 . ...6) = 6. a"" I'.24. In each case the minor is found by striking out the line and column containin g the element in question and formi ng a determinant of the remaining elements.24 = . a". the minor of the elemen t 3 is (~ ~) ~ 0  G = .. Therefore the cofacto r of the element 2 is + ( 24) i. Therefore the cofactor of the element 3 is ( .ach e lement gives rise to a cofactor.3 Ql" a~.
3) =. from which we can form a new matrix C of ~~ ~~) where All An A 11 is the cofactor of all AIj is the cofactor of aii etc. .. 8 .(0 A11 20) = 20 = A22 = +I~ ~ I = + (0. . for the matrix (~ ~ ~2 ).. .(8 . .10 The matrix of cofactors is C = ..5 13 8 24 20 ! J=(12 . ~I ~ + (0  24) ~ ..its determinant 4 0 2 3 5 detA = jAI= 4 1 6 Ihe cofactors. Therefore the cofactor of the element 6 is 5.. CT = C 6 5 5 15 1~ 13) This is called the adjoint of the original matrix A and is written adj A. .3 = 5. .esh with A ~ 1 4 0 035) 1 6 .548 Engineering Mathematics bo . the mInor of the e Iement 6 IS 1 2 I 31 4 Le.20J =8 +I ! ~ J = + (2  12) =. 3 is .3) = 53 3 8 9 and that of the element 4 is .rt 'f. .. i. . Therefore.15) 5 10 and the transpose of C. m the exampIeave. So.5 : 1= + (18 .I! 6 C24 20 . the cofactor of the element ICofactor of 3 is 4 (.1) = 15 ~ I = . ~! =+{'6 . 'Ole place sign is .5) =5 = I ~ !J .. .. . Adjoint of a square matrix If we ". .10) = 14 Cofactor of 4 is (56 . .5)= 13 A33 = A32 =. .e.24 A n =+! .
Matrices
549
Therefore, to find the adjoint of a square matrix A: (a) we form the matrix C of cofactors, (b) we write the transpose of C, i.e. CT. Hence the adjoint of
(~
4
i
6
!)
3
is . .... . ..... .
 21
ad jA =C"f =
(
I~
 22
1~ 1~)  1
(ill
Inverse of a square matrix
The adjoint of a square matrix is important, since it enables us to form the inverse of the matrix. U each element of the adjoint of A is divided by the value of the determinant of A, Le. IA I, (provided IAI i: 0), the resulting matTix is called the inverse of A and is denoted by A  I.
For the matrix which we used in the last frame, A =
235 4 I 6 I 4 0
23 5) (
4 1 6
I 4 0
de'A~ I A I ~
~2 ( O24 )  3 (O  6) + 5 ( 16  1 ) ~ 45 ,
the matrix of cofactors C
=
 24 20 ( 13
6 S 8
15)  S  10 20 5
5
and the adjoint of A. i.e. CT = Then the inverse of A is given by
24 20 45 45 6 5 45  45 15 5 45 45
13 45 8 45 10  45
 24 6 ( IS
13)
8
 10
A I
=
 4S
_ ~C24
6 15
20 5 5
l~
13)
550
Engineering Mathematics
Therefore, to form the inverse of a square matrix A ; (a) Evaluate the determinant of A, Le. IAI (b) Fonn a matrix C of the cofactors of the elements of IAI (c) Write the transpose of C, Le. CT, to obtain the adjoint o f A
(d) Divide each element of CT by IAI (e) The resulting matrix is the inverse A I of the original matrix A. Let us work through an example in detail: To find the inverse of A
=
I 2 3) (
4 I 5
6 0
2
(a) Evaluate the determinant of A, i.e. IAI.
Because
I AI~ G
23 )
o
1 5 2
~ 1 (2  0)  2(830)+3 (0  6)~2B
(b) Now form the matrix of the cofactor'S. C =
22  16
......• . .. . .
6)
12
~ 22 ;
7 7
Because
An
~
+ (20) ~ 2;
A" ~  (8 30)
A~ I =(4  0) =4;
A31 = +(10  3) = 7;
A22 = +(218)=16; An =  (5  12) = 7 ;
An = + (0  6) =  6 An ~ (0  12) ~ 12
A33=+( 18 )=7
(c) Next we have to write down the transpose of C to obtain the adjoint of A.
adjA = CT
= ........... .
(ill
I adj A = CT =
(2~ 1~
 6
12
;)  7
(d) Finally, we divide the elements of adj A by the value of IAI, Le. 28, to arrive at A  I, the inverse of A.
: . A  I = . . . . .. . . . . . .
Matrices
551
2
A I
4
7
=
28 28 22 16 2B  28 6 12  28 28 
28
7
lill
~ 2~
4 16 ( 2: 6 12
28
7
28
D
Every one is do ne in the same way. Work the next one righ t through on your
own.
Determ;ne the ;nverse of lhe mal,;x A
AI = . .. .. . . .
~
Go7 4)
I 6
8
 56
4
35
Here are the details:
1~
38 )
274 del A ~ IAI ~ 3 I 6 508
Cofactors:
All =+(8  0 }= 8;
~
2(8)  7(  6)+ 4(  5) ~ 38
A12 = (24  30)= 6;
A22
An
A13=+(O S} =  S
An
AZI =  (56 0)
A31
= =
56: 38:
= + (16  20) = 4:
=
=
+(42  4)
 (12  12) = 0 ;
=  (0  35 ) = 35 A~3 = +(2  21) =  19
c ~ (5:
38
:
0
~:)
 19 5
c
T
~
56
( :
5
then A '
~ 318 ( : ~: 3~)
3S
 19
~: :D
Now let us find some uses for the inverse.
552
Engineering Mathematics
Product of a square matrix and its inverse
F<om a previous example, we have seen that when A
A' = ds(2~ _~:
6 12
 7
i)
4 4+0
~
(! i ~)
60
ThenAlh;8C~ :~
2  16 + 42
DG~ D
620 + 14)
~~ n  M+G
28 ( 6+4842
«  16+0
=
MOO+14
= 1 :. A I .A=!
 12+ 12+0  18 + 6014
1 (2~8 28 _
AlsoA.A = ( : 6
1
0 28
0) 0
(I
0
0 1 0) 0
028
001
0
~ ~) x Z1S (Z: 1: ~)
2 6 12  7
1 =2 8(6: o ~ 2~) (2~ ~: ~) ~ .. 6 12  7
Finisl! it off
I A.A 1 =Z8 1 (28 0 g zg
28~) ~ (~0
That is, the product of a square matrix and its inverse, in whatever order the factors are written, is the unit matrix of the same matrix order.
Solution of a set of linear equations
LID
Consider the set of linear equations:
UUXt
+ a12xZ + UllX3 + ..... ... . + at.,x"
= hI
+ Uz"X" = b z
Matrices
553
From our knowledge of matrix multiplication, this can be written in matrix form:
an
all
a12 a13
au
all2
all
(
a"t
a,,)
au
:~). (:. :) (:.: )
arm x"
btl
i.e. A.x = b
where A = (:::
a12 ... a,") . . . a2n
· ·
· i
.. .
X=
(X')
Xl
. .
.
; andb =
(b') bz
. .
.
a",
an2
arm
x"
b"
If we multiply both sides of the matrix equation by the inverse of A, we have:
A l .A.x= Al .b ButA t.A=1 : . I.x=At .b i.e,x = A1.b
Therefore, if we form the inverse of the matrix of coeffidents and premultiply matrix b by it, we shall determine the matriX of the solutions of x.
Example
To solve the set of equations: Xt+ 2x Z+ X3=4
SX l
3XI4xz2x3=2 +3xz +SX3 = 1
First write the set of equations in matriX form, which gives . . . . .. .. , . . .
10 ; DGD CD
i.e. A.x
=b
:. x = A1.b
So the next step is to find the inverse of A where A is the matrix of the coefficients of x. We have already seen how to determine the inverse of a matrix, so in this case AI = . . . . . .... . ..
554
Engineering Mathematics
_I
A
~ 35 ( ~
1
 14
I
IAI~
Because
1
I A I~ 3
2 4
3
I 2 = 14  50+29 = 29  64
5
 35
5
Cofactors:
All =+( 20+6) =  14: A l 2 =  (15 + 10) =  25 ; Au = + (9 + 20) = 29 Au =  (10  3) =  7; A" ~ (3  10) ~ 7 A22 = +(S  5 ) = O; A32 =  (  2  3) = 5: A:n =+(4  6) =10 A3 1 =+ ( 4 + 4)=O:
Mllltiply it Ollt
(ill
I
X ~~(l~~) ~ ( i)
3S 140  4
Soflnally x~
If
G) ~ CD .. xl ~ 2 x, ~ 3 x, ~4
~ 2
Once you have found the inverse, the rest is simply x = A I .h. Here is another example to solve in the same way:
z"
x,
Z,I
+ 3X l
z"
 x, +3X3 x,
+5xj
= 11
~ 3
then
Xl = . . ,
.;X2 =
•. ..• ... ...• ; X3
= . . . ... .. . ..
Matrices
555
Xl =  1; Xz = 5; Xl = 3
(ill
x = A  I .b
The essential intermediate results are as foll ows:
Xl = 1 ; Xz = 5; X3 = 3
Gaussian elimination method for solving a set of linear equations
a"
aZI
a" an
an a23
(
anI
... a", . )' (") . = (b') .
... az.n Xz
b2
Le. A .x =b
a,(l
a,,3
... a;1II
;"
b n
All the informatio n for solving the set of equations is provided by the matrix of coefficients A and the column matrix b. If we write the elements of b within the matrix A, we o btain the augmented matrix B of t he given set of equations.
all alZ
an
a23
Le. B =
(
aZI
.
au
.
... a,,, ' ... all, :
.
,
b') bz
.
a,,)
a"z
a,,3
... a;m : b"
(a) We then eliminate the elements other t han all from the first column by subtracting azl/a n times the fi rst row flOm the second row and a31/au times the first row from the third row, etc.
556
Engineering Mathematics
(b) Thjs gives a new matrix of the form:
all
o
· · ·
al 2 au
(22 C23
(
o
. . .
C,,2
. . .
... a,,, ' "') .•• C2" : d2
: I . ,
e,,3
...
C""
I
: . d"
'the process is then repeated to eliminate Crz from the third and subsequent rows. A .~pecific exampJe wiJ/ explain the method, so move 011 to the next frame To solve Xl + 2x2  3X3 = 3 2XI  X2 x] = 11 3Xl +2x2 + X3 =5
This can be w,itten
0 ~I
~~)
(~
3
G:) ~ (~n
2 3
1  1
The augmented matrix becomes
, 3) :11
: s
2
1
Now subtract and This gives
~ times the first
row from the second row
~ times the first row [rom the third row.
(~ ~
o
4
 3
5 10
4
Now subtract 5' i.e. lbe matrix becomes
5'
4
times the second row from the third row.
I 2 3: 0 5 5 : (o 0 6 :
3) S
 18
Note that as a result of these steps, the matrix. of coefficients of x has been reduced to a triangular matrix. Finally, we detilch the righthand column back to its original position:
~ ; (o
0
~) . (;:) ~ (  18 ~) 6 x3
6x3= lS :. x3 =  3
Then, by 'backsubstitution', starting from the bottom row we get:
5X2 + 5x3=5 :.  5x2 = 5 + 15 = 20 x2 =  4 x , 8 + 9=3 :. xt= 2 Xl = 2; X2 = 4; Xl = 3
Matrices
557
Note that when dealing with the augmented matrix, we may, if we wish: (a) interchange two rows (b) multiply any row by a nonzero factor (e) add (or subtract) a constant multiple of anyone row to (or from) another. These operations are permissible since we are really dealing with the coefficients of both sides of the equations. Now for another example: move on to tile /lext frame Solve the folJov.ri.ng set of equations:
XI 
4xz  2x3 = 21
2xl +xz + 2x3 = 3 3xt +2xz  X3 =  2 Firsl write the equations in rnatcix form, which is . . ... . .. . . . .
1(' 42) (X')
2 1 2 · xz
3 2 1
X3
=
(21) 3
2
The augmented matrix is then
1(1
We can now eliminate the by ........ and ........ .
4
2
2 3
Xl
1 2 21
2~)
2
coefficients from the second and third rows
subtracting 2 times the first row from the second row and 3 times the first row from the thied row.
(44 J
So the matrix now recomes
14 5 :  65 and the next stage is to subtract from the third row ............ times the second cow.
(o
0
2 : 21) 1 4 9 6 :  39
558
Engineering Mathematics
(ill
4 I  39 9 6 I 0  4 ·33 I 4·33 4 39 9 Refo<ming the mat"x equation  433 0 Now, starting from the bottom row, you can finish it off.
If we do this, the matr;x becomes
(g (g
2
21 )
4'3~
2)
t:)
( 21)
XI
=
• •••• j
X2 =· ·· · ········; X3 = ········ ··
I Xl
= 3; Xz = 5; Xl = 1
Now for something rather different.
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
In many applications of matrices to technological problems involving coupled oscillations and vibrations, equations of the form A.x = AX
occur, where A = [aliI is a square matrix and>. is a number (scalar). Clearly. x = 0 is a solution for any value of >. and is not normally useful. For nontrivial
solutions, i.e. x i 0, the values of .\ are called the eigellvalues, characteristic valLies or latent roots of lhe matrix A and the corresponding solutions of the given equations A .x = Ax are called the eigenvectors or characteristic vectors of A. Expressed as a set of separate equations, we have:
au a21 a~ . .. a:" (
a"
a,,,) (X')
Xz
= ).
(X') Xl
x"
a,,1 a,,2
a"",
x"
i.e. a " x, + alZx z + .
OZtXt
+ a]"xn =
>..xl >..x z
+ aZZXZ + . . . + aZ"xn =
Matrices
559
Bringing the righthandside terms to the lefthand side, this simplifies to:
(all  >')Xl + alZXZ + . .. + al X" = 0
I1
aZIX j + (azz  >.)xz + . . + Qz"x" = 0
a"jXt
+ a"zxz + . .. + (am/  ). )x" =
(an  A)
0
i.e. (
a"
alii
(a22  >.)
a"
A.x = ).x becomes A .x  >.x and then (A  >.I)x = 0
=0
Note that the unit matrix is Introduced since we can subtract only a matrix from another matrix. For this set of homogeneous linear equations (I.e. righthand constants all zero) to have a nontrivial solution, IA  >.I I must be zero (see Programme 4, Frame 54) .
(al l  ).)
I A'I I ~
a"
ao,
a" (a22  >') a"2
al"
a.,
~ O
...
(a""  ).)
IA  ),11 is called the characteristic delerminalll of A and IA  ),11= 0 is the characteristic equatioll. On expanding the determ inant, this gives a polynomial o f degree 11 and solution of the characteristic equation gives the values o f >., i.e. the eigenvalues of A.
Example 1
To find the eigenvalues of the matrix A
A.x
=
(~
1) 1 •
(I A)
 I
= AX i.e. (A  AI)x
= 0
Characteristic determinant: IA _ ).1'1= I(4 Characteristic equation; IA  Al l = 0 (4  >.) (1  .>.)+2 = 0
~ >.)
I
: .45.>. + .>.2+2 = 0
A2 _ " + 6 ~ O C. ( A  2)( A  3) ~ O
>' = 20r 3 : . >.\ = 2; ..\z= 3.
Example 2 To find the e igenvalues of the matrix A =
(2~ 1~3 = 2) ;
The characteristic determinant is .
560
Engineering Mathematics
3 (4  A) 10
2 2
( 5  A)
Expanding this, we get: (2  AH(4  A)(  5  >.) + 201  3{(  5  A) + 4)  2{1O  2(4  All
~ (2  Al{  20 + A+ A' + ZO) +3(1 + A)  2(2+ 2>.) ~(2  Al{A' + A) + 3(1 + A)  4(1 + A)
~ (2  A)A(A+ I )  (I + A) ~ (I + A) (2).  A'  I ) ~  (I + A)(I  A)'
Characteristic equation: (1 + >..)(1 :. ).1 = 1 ; ).2 = 1; ).3 = 1
>l = 0
>.. =  1, 1, 1
Now one for you to do. Hod the eigenvalues of the matrix
A~ (
 2
!
~ ~)
1  1
Work through the steps in the same manner.
>. = ... ... . ... . .
>'1
Here is the working:
= 1 ;
).2
= 1;
AJ
= 2
(I  A) Characteristic equation:
1
2
I (2  >.) I
0
1
=0
~
( I  A) 0
(I  A){(2 A)(I  A)  I} + 1( 1 A+2) + 0
(I  A){A'  A  3}+IA~O
1 ). = 0 or).2 ).  2 = 0 ).= I or (>.+ 1)()'  2) = O i.e.). =  1 or2
).1 =  1; >'2 = 1; >'3 = 2
Matrices
561
Eigenvectors
Each eigenvalue obtained has corresponding to matrix.
Example 1
it
a solution of x called an
eigellvector. In matrices, the term 'vector' indicates a lOW matrix or column
Consider the equation A.x = The characteristic equation is
..\x
where A =
(! ~ )
1(4; A)
(2 ~).) I = 0
(4  .1)(2.1)  3 ~O .I'  6.1+5 ~O (.I  1)(.1  5) ~ 0 c. .I ~ 1 m 5
A1
= 1;
).2 = 5
For >"1 = I, the equation A.x = ..\x becomes:
4x
3X I
>+2
+
Xl = Xl } X2 = X2
Either of these gives
Xl =  3Xl
This result merely tells us that whatever value times it. Therefore, the eigenvector
Xl = (
XI
has, the value of
Xl
is  3
~k)
is the general form of an
infinite number of such eigenvectors. The simplest eigenvector is therefore
x,
~ (!3)
Xl =
For ).2 = 5, a Similar result can be obtained. Determine the eigenvector in the same way.
X2 =
(~)
is the general solution;
Xl =
(i) is a solution
isasoTution
=
Because, when >"2 = 5,
: . 4X1 +Xl
(i
~}(:~) = 5 (;~) = (~;~ )
XI = Xl:.
= 5xI
Xl=(~)
Therefore, and
Xl
= ( =
_~)
is an eigenvector corresponding to >"1
).2 =
1
X2
(~)
is an eigenvector corresJXlnding to
5.
562
Engineering Mathematics
Example 2
Determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the equation A .x = ),xwhereA =
(i ~ ~)
1 2 0 (2  .\)
1
 I
o
(4 A) 2
The characteristic equation is
1 1 =0
A
~O
(2'\){  '\(4  ,\) + 2) + 1(  2 +(4  AJJ
(2  A) {A'  4A + 2) +(2  .\) ~ 0
( 2  A){,\'4A+3} ~ O
), = .. .. ... .... .
(ill
For )" = 1 :
(  1 2 1 0  1 3
),=1.2 . 3
X, + X3 = 0 :. X3=X,  Xl + 2.x2X3 = 0 xl+ 2x2 + XI = 0 :. X2 = 0
:. x,
~(
j)
is an eigenvector coHesponding to A,
~ 1.
For),2 = 2 :
( ~1
~
2 2
:).(;:) ~ (g)
X3
0
Therefore, an eigenvector corresponding to
X2
),2 =
2 is
= . . ......... .
Because Xl = 0 and  Xl + 2xz  Xj = 0 : . XI "" 2x 2 · For )'J = 3, we can find an eigenvector in the same way. This gives
XJ
= .......... ..
Matrices
563
BecausewithA, ~ 3, (=~ ~
1 2 3
EillJ :)
Xl
(~;) ~
(g)
0
: .  Xl + XJ = O :. X J= Xl  XI + XZ  X3 = O : .  b',+XZ = O :. x2 = 2x, .
So, collecting our results together, we have:
x,
~
(D
2 (0 ,)
ison eigenvectm ronesponding to A,
~,
2
X, .. 
is an eigenvector correspond ing to A2
=
X .. • 
(2',) is an eigenvector corresponding to
AJ =
3
Here is one for you to do on your own. The method is lhe same as before. 1 If A.x = Ax where A = 2 and the eigenvalues aTe known to be  2 1 1 Al =  t, ).2 = 1 and AJ = 2, determine corresponding eigenvectors.
(!
~)
Xl = ....
XZ = ........... .
XJ= .......... . .
uSing((l ,A)
2
'x' ~ CD x' ~ CD x3 ~ (=D (Z~\) ~ ).(~;) ~ (g)
1 ( I  A) XJ 0
simple substitution of the values of ). in turn and the knowledge of how to multiply matrices together give the results indicated. As we have seen, a ba5ic knowledge of matrices provides a neat and concise way of dealing with sets of linear equations. In practice, the numerical coefficients are not always simple numbers, neither is the number of equations in the set li mited to three. In more extensive problems, recourse to computing facilities is a great help, but the underlying methods arc still the same. All that now remains is to check dovm the Revision summary and the can You? checklist. Then you can work through the Ta1. exercise.
every element multiplied by the same constant. for addition or subtraction. e. Coillmn matrix .one row only.of order (m x m ) (a) Symme' . {) l~(ag+bh +d e f I dg + ell + fi j ai +bk +d) dj+ek+f1 9 Sqllare matrix . 12 14 Co(actoTS .(f. matrices must be of the same order. k [aii! = Ikai.add or subtract corresponding elements. a (d b C).a matrix order of (In x 1/) denotes m rows and n columns.minors of t he elements of IAI together with the respective 'place Signs' of the elements.all elements zero except those on the leading d iagonaL 11 Vnit matrix . Transpose of A is AT.g.8 poSSible only if the number of columns in A equals the number of rows in 8. i. e. Le.a34 denotes element in 3rd row and 4th column. 8 Multiplication of matrices (a) Scalar multiplier . 15 Adioint of a sqllnre matrix A .aU clements zero. Null marrlx .one column only.l.fonn matrix C of the cofactors of the elements of IAI.564 Engineering Ma thematics ® 1'Fil Revision summary lEJ 1 Matrix _ a rectangular array o f numbers (clements).a. (~ ~ 001 g) denoted by I. 3 4 5 6 Row matrix .corresponding elements equal. Therefore. 7 A ddition and subtraction of matrices .! J !) 1 10 Diagonal matrix . I.".rows and columns interchanged .ic if aij ~ ai'. . Equ(/ I matrices .e. Double suffix P lOtntion .g. 13 Trampose of a matrix . Le. ad jA=CT • . (. then the adjoint of A is CT .product A . (b) Ma t rix mlilliplier. 2 Order .a diagonal matrix with elements on the leadi ng diagonal all unity. the transpose of C. 02 4) 6 1 1 5 (b) Skew symm""c if a'i ~ .
"CD D No m:HJD ODtoCEI CEJto[![J • Multiply a matrix by a scalar and multiply two matrices together? Ves D D D D D No • Obtain the transpose of a matrix? Yes D D D D D • Recognize special types of matrix? Yes No rnJ toCEI 0 No D DOD • Obtain the determinant.~ Checklist 5 Check list before ami after YOLI try the end of Programme lest.1. Frames On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident are you that you can: • Define a matrix? Ves D D [JJto[D D D D No • Understand what is meant by the equality of two matrices? Ves D D D D D No • Add and subtract two matrices? Ves D D D D (D.solutions of x corresponding to particular values of A.1 = A . then use 'back substitution'. cofactors and adjoint of a square matrix? Yes No D D D D D (E)toCEJ ~ .x = AX.x = h x = A1 .b 19 Gaussian eliminatiot! melhod . 20 Eigenvalues .Matrices 565 16 Inverse of a square matrix A A _I adj A CT ~ lAI~ IAI 17 Product of a square matrix and its inverse A . Now for the can You? clJecklist ~ Can You? thj.A = 1 18 Solutiot! of a set of linear equations A . 21 Eigenvectors . for which A .values of ).A .reduce augmented matrix to triangular form.
.JtoCEJ 0 0 0 DO No • Use matrices to solve a set of linear equations using inverse matrices? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Use the Gaussian elimination method to solve a set of linear equations? Yes 0 0 o o o No • Eva luate eigenvalues and eigenvectors? Yes 0 0 0 DO No ~ Test exercise 5 lbe questions arc all straightforward and based on the work covered.566 Engineering Mathematics Frames • Obtain the inverse of a nonsingular matrix? Yes m. . + H and 2 Given that h U~ _43) and B ~ U4 n det«m ine (aj 3A.B. 4 Show that the square matrix A = ( .I. 6 Find the inverse of the matrix A = (i ! ~) 206 . ~ 5 Lf A = (! ~ ~). 1 7 0 determine (a) IAI and (b) adj A. form the transpose AT and deteIDline the matrix product AT.8. (cj BA 2 3 IfA = 1 ( 8 0 7 :). 1 8 2 ~) is a singular matrix. ~ 1 IfA = (~ (3) A . You will have no trouble. g ~)andB = (~ ~ ~ ~)determine (b) A . (bj A.
B. wher. where. (b) A . (c) C.1 .6xz . express (a) A.U. determine: (a) 8 .A and (d) A Z in terms of other matrices.x ~ AX.A 2 IfA=(b If A = ~i) U =(~l 6) c = (~ b) ] = (~ ~).B. ~ Further problems 5 1 ~ IfA=(~ (a) A i)andB = (: ~). (d) B.A 4 Determine the value of k for which the following set of homogeneous equations has nontrivial solutions: 4xJ + 3xzxJ =0 7x] . Xl +2xz + 3xJ =5 3X1 Xz + 2x3 = 8 4x1 .I .C. (0~5 g :i) and H = (~ ~). (b) D.4xJ = 2 10 If A . = J=T.xz3xJ = 0 3Xl 4xz + kxJ = 0 . A ~ G22) 3 2 1 determine the eigenvalues of the 2 matrix A and an eigenvector corresponding to each eigenvalue. (c) 8 . (b) A .8. (c) A .determine: + 8.Matrices 567 Express the following set of linear equations in matTix fonn: 2x] + 4xz5xJ =7 xl 3xz + xJ = 10 lx] +5xz + 3xJ = 2 8 Solve the following set of linear equations by the matrix method: Xl +3xz+2XJ = 3 Zxl .Xz .3xJ = 8 5x] +2xZ + X3 = 9 For the following set of simultaneous equations: (a) fonn the augmented coefficient matrix (b) solve the equations by Gaussian elimination.
] =3 2/.3= 2 .Z3.2 + 6.i2 + 2.e2 = 65..X3+3X4 = 1O 3 = 5 2x1 + 3XZ+X4=8 XI . = 10.1 5.2.e) methods to determine the values of I" h.2x" = 3 Xz +3X3 +X4 ==7 ~I In 6 to 10 solve. 6. .2+i3=8 il +3.4x3 . C. i3 in a network are related by the following equations: Zli 1 + Z3i3 = V Z212 . where possible.2 3.Z2.3i) =9 lit 10 3xt 4Xl 8iz + 9iJ = 6 3x+2y + Sz = 1 xy+z=4 6x+4y + lOz =7 + 2xz +Xz 2X3 = 16 Xl +3xZ + 3x3=2 = 1 . in terms of Zit Z2.4i2 = 12 6.>:.n a starconnected circuit.i t .iz . .h = O Determine expressions for it . h. + iz + i3 = 0 Z. Z3 = 3.Z3h = C2 .ZXl In 11 to 13 form the augmented matrix and solve the sets of equations by Gaussian elimination: ~ ~ 11 5. Z3.3/3=33 4il 2iz +i3 = 3 13 + 12i2  711 . = 160.3 = 0 it . apply matrix B] IS Currents of it.3 flowing through impedances C2 Z2it .2 = iz.+i2 + i3 = 8 5.3xz .4il 12 it +2iz +3i:J =4 2i 1 +6.3 = 0 .6i2 + 14i3 = 0 14 I.3 = 3 8it .3. +4.2x.2. Z2 = 8. the sets of equations by a matrix method: 6 2i..568 Engineering Mathematics Express the following sets of simultaneous equations in matrix form: (a) 2x1 .2 + 2i]=3 7h + iz +3i3 = 20 7 3x+Zy+4z=3 x+y+z = 2 2xy + 3z=3 8 4. currents i lt Z..X3=2 Xl +4XZ+ ZX3 = Xl Xl + X3 I (b) xl . h. . . are given by: . Z3 and V.e3 Cl  If Z.1 .7iz . Z2. ez .
For the coeffident matrix A given in each case.x = ).x.Matrices 16 to 20 refer to the vector equation A. determine the eigenvalues and an eigenvector corresponding to each eigenvalue: 16 569 18 20 I A ~ (i I D A ~ 4 ~I ) o 3) A~ G 3I 3 1 U' 1 2 2) I ~ 17 A ~ O 3 2I ~ 19 4 3 0 2 hG2 !2) 3 3 .
I · .
..Programme._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _J Vectors Leaming outcomes When you have completed this Programme you will be able to: Frames OJtoCEJ • Define a vector • Represent a vector by a directed straight line • Add vectors • Write a vector in terms of component vectors • Write a vector in terms of component unit vectors • Set up a coordinate system for representing vectors • Obtain the direction cosin es of a vector • Calculat e the scalar product of t wo vectors • Calculate the vector product of two vectors • Determine the a ngle between two vectors • Evaluate the direction ratios of a vector 571 ..6 :....
Ivector I w w w (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) P ~ "".g. ... but also its ... . .. ."F I .. ...'l1itude. length. (C) and (e) the complete description of the quantity includes not only its magnitude. quantity. A northeasterly wind of 20 knots is a ... (b) A vector qUaI/tity is defined completely when we know not only its magnitude (with units) but aLw the direction in which it operates..... So (a) a speed of to km/h is a sca lar quantity. the quantity is denoted entirely by its size or magnitude.... quantity. velOCity. ... and alw (b) its . .. e.g.572 Engineering Mathematics Introduction: scalar and vector quantities Physical quantities can be divided into two main groups. The sum of £500 is a .. quantity. A vector quantity necessarily involves directioll as well as magnitude... .. ... etc.. (b) vector (c) vector (d) scalar (e) vector I (a) scalar Since. . force. quantity.. direction So that: A temperature of 1(XYC is a .. . quantity. since to define it completely we must give: (a) its ma!. The weight of a 7 kg mass is a . Once the units are stated. e..'clion Move 011 to Frame 6 . mass...... acceleration. (a) A scalar qllautity is one that is defined completely by a sIngle number with appropriate units. but (b) a velocity o f '10 km/h due north' is a w . in (b). An acceleration of 9 ·8 mH/ vertically downwards is a . . dirt.. time. A force F acting at a point P is a vector quantity. area. ~  /' I' / ____ . . .. .. scalar quantities and vector quantities.. . quantity. volume...
. Similarly. are said lO be equal. i. A / i3AAi§ __ a On to FrtJ11Ie 8 Two equal vectors If two vectors. (b) their directions? // . if fivo vectors a and b ale such that h = . the two vectors are parallel and in the same sense. w The vector quan tity AB is referred to as AB or a 'nle magnitllde of the vector quantity is written IABI. C!J they have the same magnitude and the same direction.'(\ by a line .. The sense of the direction is indicated by an arrowhead.. or simply AB or o. drawn so that : (a) the le/lgth o f the line denotes the mah'l1itude of the quantity. em long.g. what can we say abou t: (a) their magnitudes.e. A horizontal force of 3S N acting to the right. according to some stated vector scale (b) the directioll of the line denotes the direction in whi ch the vector quantity acts. or lal. Ua = b. a and b. the Line would be . would be indicat<. e.a.and if the chosen vector sca le were 1 cm::= 10 N. then (a) 0 = b (magnitlldes equal) (b) the direction of a = direction of b.Vectors 573 Vector representation A vector quantity can be represented graphically by a line. A • a Note that BA would represent a vector quantity of the same magnitude but with opposite sense.
lliJ Because ~ ~ p' + q' q p = 1600 + 900 = 2500 r = J2500=SO N . Most of the vectors we shall consider will be free vectors LiD Addition of vectors c i. (b) A li/1e vector is such that it can slide along its line of action.e. .e. we draw them as a chain. .'Ctors are parallel but opposite in sense i. if b = .g. to Fmme 11 The sum of two vectors. if p q ~ :0: a force of 40 N. .. acting in the direction due north then the magnitude of the vector sum r of these will forces will be . . . acting in the direction due east a force of 30 N. . . (c) A free vedvr is not restricted in any way. . AB and Be.a.g. a mechanical force acting on a body. It is completely defined by its magnitude and direction and can be drawn as anyone of a set of equallength parallel lines. e. is defined as the single or equivalent or resultant vector AC AB + BC = AC or a+b = c To find the sum of two vectors a and b then.574 Engineering Mathematics W I(a) Magnitudes are equal (b) The v<. e. then @ Types of vectors // So Oil /lOW (a) A position vector AS occurs when the point A is fixed. starting the second whe re the first ends: the sum c is given by the single wctor joining the start of the first to the end of the second. . .
that the vector sum was given by the Single equivalent vcctor joinin g the beginning of the first vector to the end of the last. C • b • a B Think carefully and whm you have decided. b. c . What is the sum of the vectors 0 a. b . and discover that the resulting diagram is. AE. c. d.vectors The sum of a number of vectors a + b + c + d + . move 011 to Frame 14 I Sum of the vectoTS = 0 I Because we said in the previous case. (a) Draw the vectors as a chain. e . is given by the single v(.•. a closed figure. in fa ct. a . Similarly: R tvT P (ill Now suppose that in another casE'. SO that the rcsult'ant sum is a vector with no magn itude.'Ctor joining the start of the first to the end of the last . (b) Then: 575 a + b = AC AC + c = AD a+b + c= AD a B AD + d = AE a + b+c + d=AE i. But.c.d. This follows directly from our previous definition of the sum of two vectors.>ctors. the end of the last vector m incides with the beginning of the first.e. e in this case? d E . b. the sum of all v(. if the vector diagram is a c10S<.><1 figure.in this case. . d . we draw the vector diagram to find the sum of a .
AD When you have the result. check with the results in the next frame .CB + CD .DC . . . .. .CB + CD . ..ED = AB + BC + CD+DE ~AE Now you do this one: Find the vector sum AB + BC . .'Ctor sum AB + BC + CD + DE + EF. . Sum = AF In the same way: AK + KL + LP+PQ = .CB = BC.. . we can see that the Vl. .. Now here arc some for you to do: (a) PQ + QR +RS+S'f= (b) AC+CLML~ .. the same magnitude and d irection but in the opposite sense. Remember that . .ED We must oc'Ware of the negative ve<:tors. .AD = AB + BC + CD+ DA and the lettering indicates that the end of the last vector coincides with the beginning of the first.. The vector diagram is thus a closed figure and therefore the sum of the vectors is O..e.. . move on to Frame 16 Lill Because AB + BC . . (d) AB+BC+CD+DB= When you have finished all fOllr.576 Engineering Mathematics Now for some examples: Find the Vl.'ctors are arranged in a chain. Right.. . . . Also ED = DE AB . Without drawing a diagram. . . . TIle sum is therefore given by the vector joining the beginn ing of the first vector to the end of the last. . (c) GH+HJ+JK + KL+LG = . Now what about this one? Find the sum of AB .DC . .. i.. . each beginning where the previous one left off.
g. we could say DC= . Show that AB + DC = 2GH. ..g.'d:or coincidt.ML = AC + CL + LM =AM (c) GH + HJ + ]K + KL + LG =0 [Since the end of the last V(. Example 1 ABCD is a quadrilateral. we could say i<\ o .vectors 577 Here are the results: (a) PQ + QR+RS+ST=rT (ill (b) AC+CL .'Ctor PT can be replaced by any number of component wetors so long as they form a ch ain in the vector diagram. . so any single vt.'<i by AE.'S with the beginning of the first. We can replace vector AB by any chain of vectors so long as they start at A and end at B c.. beginning at P and ending at T.) (d) AB + BC+CD + DB = AB The last three vectors form a closed figure and therefore the sum of tilese Ihree vectors is zero. e. Now 011 to Frame 18 Components of a given vector Just as A]'5: + BC + CD + DE can be replact. leaving o nly AB to be considered. with G and H the midpoints of DA and BC respectively.~~ Similarly.
vectors AG and DG arc equaJ in length but opposite In sense. Show that: (a) AB + BC + CA = O (b) ZAB + 3BC + CA = ZLC (c) AM + BN+CL=O (a) We can diSpose of the first part straight away without any trouble.HB) ~2G H NeJ( t frame Example 2 Points L. .'d:ors form a . M. .ALi) + (HB . CA of the t riangle ABC. . (ill Now for part (b): Iclosed figure I To show that ZAB + 3BC + CA = ZLC . DG ~. . SC.HB AB + DC ~ 2GH + (ALi . Similarly He = . .. .. G is the mid. . N arc mid·points of the sides AB. TIlerefore. We can see from the vector diagram that AB + BC + CA = 0 since these three v(.578 Engineering Mathematics li!J So we have: I DC ~ DG+GIHHC I o I~\ c. .AG AB = AG + GH + HB DC = DG + GH + HC c AB + DC= AG +GH + HB + DG + GH + HC ~ 2GH + (AG + DG ) + (HB + HC) Now.point of AD.
(BC+CA +AB) Fin ish it off I AM + nN+ CL~O I Because AM + BN + IT = (AB + BC+CA) +~(BC + CA+AB) Vector sum :.3AL+ 3LC ..Vectors 579 From the figu re: AB=2AL. So AM+BN+CL= AB+BM + BC + CN+CA + AL = (AH + BC + CAl + (tiM + CN +AL) _ _ __ 1 _ __ _ ~ (AB + BC + CA) + . . BC = BL+LC. Vector sum = = Now AB + BC + CA is a dosed figure and BC + CA + AB is a closed fi gure 0 0 .AL = 4AL . AM + BN +CL = O Here is another.". gives 2AB+3BC + CA = . CA=CL + LA LA = .LA Now BL = AL.AL . . (ill Because 2AB + 3BC + CA = 4'i\L+3BL + 3LC + CL + LA = 4AL ...4AL + 3LCLC = 2LC Now part (c): To p rove th at AM + BN + CL = 0 From the figure in Frame 21. CL = LCi Substituting these in the previous line.".. we can say: AM=AB + BM BN = BC +CN Similarly CL = .LC . 2AB + 3BC + CA = 4AL+3BL+ 3LC+CL +.
. "QD = . to Frame 25 A To prove that AS + AD + CB + CD = 4PQ ~ • c 0 Taklng the vectors o n the lefth and side. [ill AddIng all four lines together. just draw the figure..580 Engineering Mathematics Example 3 ABeD is a quadrilateral in wh ich rand Q are the midpoints o f the diagonals AC and BO respectively.PC = AP I AP +CP ~ o l Because P is t he midpoint o f AC : . Sh ow that AB +AD + C B + CD=4PQ Theil move 011 First.. (QB + QD) = . AP + CP = AP . QB + QD ~ QBQB~O : .. AB +AO + CB+CD = 4PQ + O + O = 4PQ . Since Q is the midpoint of BO :. we can write: AB =AP + PQ +QB AD = AP + PQ + Q D . we have: AB + AD + CBI CD = 4PQ + 2AP + 2CP + 2QB+ 2QD ~ 4PQ + 2(AI' + ee) + 2(QB + QO) Now wh at can we say about (AP+CP)? [ill CP = ... CB ~ CD = . .QB :.....AP = O.. .. In the same way. one at a time. . AP = pC :.
Ekample 4 (ill Prove by vectors that the line joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and h alf its length. DE and BC are parallel.. OY direction. of BA and AC respectively and see if you ca n get the required results.e.Vectors 581 Here is one more. then then Similarly. i. Check through it. or can be written as: ox and OV directions. . Then 011 to Frame . i.e. vector a in the OX direction + a vector b in the a (along OX) + b (along OV) If we now defi ne i to be a Imit vector in the OX direction. Let D and E by the midpoints of AB and AC respectively. It could also be defi ned by its two components in the OX and OV directions._ DE=zBC DE is half the magnitude (length) of BC and acts in the same direction. 0aor is equivalent to a or = ~: 8 = ai )( The vector or is defin ed by its magnitude (T) and its direction (0) . Now for the next SectiOIl of the work: move on to Frame 31 Components of a vedor in terms of unit vectors y i.e. if we define b=hj So that the vector r = ai + bi wh ere i a nd j are un it vectors in the i to be a unit vector in the OV direction. D[= DA + AE = zBA +2 AC = 2( BA + AC) _ 1_ 111 . We have • ~ • c Now express DA a nd AE in term.10 Here is the working.
.1j ZI + Z2 +Z3 = .Z) = i + 1 Because Z2 21 = (4i + 3j) .z.582 Engineering Mathematics L!!J LetZl = 2i+4jandzz=5i + 2j y O~2~~.4 . ZI .3i .e. = i+j Similarly. total up the vector components along OX..ZI = I 22 .Z3 = ····· · When YO" have the results. + Zz.2j. draw the two vectors in a chain. y + zz = 08 = (2 + 5)i + (4 + 2)j = 7i + 6j i.2j = H + 1. . move on to Frame 34 ..Z2.. we can do this without a diagram: If ZI = 3i + 21 and Zz = 4i + 3j ZI + z2 = 3i + 2i + 4i + 3j = 7i + 5j And in much the same way." .~==:j0X To find ZI ZI . then (a) and (b) Z2 = 3i + 3ii Zl = 4i . and total up the vcctor components along OY Of course.. 22 . if ZI = 5i .(3i + 21) = 4i + 3j .
. ~ ~ (51 2j) .71 1 Because we have OA + AB = OB (from diagram) AB~OBOA (ill ~ (51 .. As usual. Here it is: y • \ \ o~~~x \ All = . .(41 . If OA = 3i + Sj and OB = Si .4)1 + (.11) (5 3 . z. .. find AB. OZ form a righthanded set if rotation from OX to OY takes a ri ght. . a diagram will help.3 + l )j ~ 214j Now this one. .71 011 to Frame 36 vectors in space z The axes of reference are defined by the 'righthand' rule.2 .21. OY. OX. from the diagram.z.(31+5j) ~ 21 .z3= Si2i + 3i + 3i + 4i1j = (S +:1 +4)i+(3 . \Nrite down a relationship between the vectors. fotation from OV to OZ gives righthand corkscrew action along the positive dircction of . .(31 + 3j) . 00 y x Similarly. . .handed corkscrew ac ti o n along the positive direction of OZ..2 .21) . . Then express them in terms of the unit vectors. IAB ~ 21 . First of all.Vectors 583 (a) 12i Here is the working: (b) .21 41 (ill (a) z \ IZzl.1)j = 12i (h) z. .
Let i = unit vector in OX direction j = unit vector in OY direction k = unit vector in OZ direction Then OP = ai + bj + ck Ol2 = cil + b2 and Ol. b 0__ I. 0 I I I I I a along OX b along OY (along 02 I 1 A!. Now you can do lhis one: 1f Po."'"t+" .J/ . .' _____ ::::... .1= .z = OL2 +cZ OJ)2 = a 2 +b2 Also So.c" +""b'2C" +c" This gives us an easy way of finding the magnitude of a vector expressed in tenns of the unit vectors. I IPQI ~ m ~ 5385 I Because PQ = 4i + 3j + 2k IPQI ~ "'4' + 3' + 2' = J16 + 9 + 4 ~ m = 5·385 Naw move 011 to Frame 39 . if r = +c2 oi + b j + ck. = 4i + 3j + 2k. .'"1 P/ I iI I I /~ . then 1 1'0.584 Engineering Mathematics z Vector 01' is defined by its components ".. then r = vra'C.
find the direction cosines [I. m=. So for the vector t' = oi + b j + ck abc r~~~~ 1= ..ofcourser= y a2 + h 2 + c2 . . a I. n = 7 Just as easy as that! 0" to the next frame . n] written in square brackets are caJled the direction cosines of the vector OP and are the values of the cosines of the angles which the vector makes with the three axes of reference.z cos 2 {3 + rcos 2 "f = r cos 2 a + cos 2 (3 + cos 2 ')' = 1 If l = cOSQ m = cos{3 n = cos')' then fl+m2+n2 = 1 Note: [I. b = rcos {3 c = rcos ')' Alsoa2 +tl+c=r :. and. r =J9+ 4 + 36 r = V49=7 3 2 6 1=']. n=. ..= cos {3 • I I I I I "y a ." ________ .Vectors 585 Direction cosines The direction of a vector in three dimensions is determined by the angles which the vector makes with the three axes of reference. So. c=6.= cos')' ..2 i + 6k Then to Frame 40 t' = 3i2j + 6k a=3.. m. m = '7. In.v Obi c . til of the vector r = 3i . l€tOPt" = ai + hj + ck r::.. rcos 2 a +. b=2. a = rrosa I I ."~ I I I I I Then .= cosa b .: I I I I I I :. with that in mind. ..
b (often called the 'dot product' for obvious reasons).OB = .586 Engineering Mathematics Scalar product of two vectors (ill If a and b are two vectors.b = = = 1 • abcosfJ a x projection of b on a b x projection of a on b In both cases the result is a scaJ(lf quantity.. OA. The scalar product is denoted by H. a..c0545 ' = 35 ". the scalar product of a and b is defined as the scalar (number) abcosO where a and b are the magnitudes of the vectors a and band 8 is the angle between b them.. DA. .. For example: :~:..7.. " •.cosO = 5. Because we have: o /.2 ~ = 35y'2 2 Now what about this case: b • The scalar product of a and b = H..GB = DADB. ".b = .
.b = abcosO = ab. i ..b = a l b •.i = 0 (b) a .k + ozb1j. with two vectors in the same direction.b = ab cos 90° = abO = O.b = . And in this case now.90') ~ 0 : .b a = ali + azi + a 3k b = b.e.O + a l b 3 .k + a3b1k.i = (1 )( 1 )(cosO~) =1 (a) : .. we just sum the products of the coeffidents of the unit vectors along the corresponding axes.j = 1. . Because a . So the scalar product of any two vectors at rightangles to each other is always zero. ] a .(bli + bzj + b3k) = albli . i. j.O I.0 + a3bZ'0 + G3b. So.1 = ab Now suppose our two vectors are expressed in terms of the unit vectors i .. USing the reSults (a) and (b).1 ~ (1)(1) (co. + alb l +a3b3 i..i + a3h3 k. Let and Then a . Because i.i = l . .l . we get: Because a .O + a3b\ ..i + o3bzk.k = 0.k = l AI".Vectors 587 Because in lhis case a .1 + a Jhz . k.b • = . k This can now be simplified.j + a\hJi. .j = 0.1 + I1 Z b3 . ) and k.b = alb. .0 + albl .a l b l . k.i + azhz j·j + a Zb3i.i + albzi. ..i + hz ) + b3k = (al i + a zj + a3k). i. 0 = 0° b so a. ..
.q = 3 x 2 + (....in thai order.(a x b j If O = O~.2) x 3 + 1 x (. The product vector acts in a direction perpendicular 10 both a and b in such a sense that a.b = 41 One for you: If p = 3i . . then la x h i =. then la x b l = .4k then p .4) = 6.588 Engineering Mathematics For example: If a = 2i+3j+Sk and b = 41 + Ij + 6k thena.. b x a = .4 = 4 : . and if 0 = 90".. p. b and a x b form a righthanded set .2i + lk. q = 21+31 ..6. Because p . (axbj I I I • • b (bxa): la x hi = absinO t I Note that b x a reverses the direction of rotation and the product vector would now act downwards. ..q =4 Now on to Frame 47 Vector proclud of two vedors The vector product of a and b is written a x b (often called the 'cross product') and is defined as a vector having magnitude absin 0 where Ois the angle ~tween the two given vectors.q = . Le.b = 2x 4+3 x I + 5 x 6 = 8+3 + 30 = 41 a. .
Remove the zero terms and tidy up what Is left.Ia x b l= ab If a and b are given in tenns of the unit vectors i. Then to Frame 49 011 Because b 1 0 + a 1bl k + Q 1b 3(i ) + al b 1(k ) + Ql hzO + Qlh3i + a3bli + a3bl ( .vectors 589 1 0 = 0'.l hd i + (o.b z . i x i = But Ii x i l = (1 )(l )(sinOO )= 0 i )( i = k x k=O (a) Also Ii x jl = (1 )(1)(sln900) = 1 and i x i is in the direction of k. j and k.a3hz)i .(alb J . . you can simplify the expression for a x b . + a3k and b = bli + bzi + b3k Then: a xb = al b1i x i + a lbzi x j + a1bJi x k+azbli x i + al iJzi)( i + aZh3j x k+oJhl k x i + a3bl k x j + a3h3k x k :.(I x k ) since the sense of rotation is reversed Now with the results of (a) and (b).l .a.al b') k a x b = Q1 and you may recognize this as the pattern of <t determinant where the first row is made up of the vectors i. j and k: a = ali + az.(k x j ) k x i = .lb..x j ~ .lO a x b = (al b. Therefore: i xI= k i x k= i k xi = i =k (b) And remember too that therefore: .i ) + a. la x b l =O (}=90 . and this last reminder. i x j (same magnitude and same direction). Le.(I x I ) j x k ~ .
b and a x b a righthanded set.590 Engineering Mathematics 50 now we have that: If a = a l i + azi +ojk and b j az = bl i + bzj + bjk then: i a x b = al bl k a) = (azb) .ajb1)i + (alb z .u}bz )i .aZbl )k b z bj And here is one final example on this point.(a l bj .azbl )k b z bj and that is the easiest way to write out the vector product of two vectors.4) = il ~ !21il ~ ~12 1+ kl ~ :1 =23i + 7j + 6k So.15) . .. + 3k and q = i + 5j .3) + k(10 . by way of revision: (a) Scalar product ('dot product') a .4j + 2k and q = 2i + Si  k .. Find the vector product of p and q where. first write down the determinant that represents the vector product p x q i j k p xq = 2 4 3 1 5 2 Unit vectors Coefficients of p Coefficients of q And now. (c) The third row consists of the coefficients of b.2k...{albj . I I I I (b) The second row consist): of the coefficients of a. [ill Because I k p xq = 2 4 3 1 5 2 ~ 1(8 . Noles: (a) The lop row consists ofthe unit vectors in order i.b = abcosO a scaJar quantity (b) Vector product ('cross produce) a x b = vector of magnitude absinO.. For example. expanding the determinant. acting in a direction to make a .. p = 3i. k.a3b1 )1 + (a1bz . we get: pxq= . Also: i a x b = al hi j k az aj = (azb) .1(4 ....ajbz)i . If p = 2i + 4. j..
 + (m .jl ~ _~I + kl ~ :1 ~1(4 .n) and pi h as coordinates (It.Vectors 591 (ill Because k p xq = 3 42 2 5 1 = il: qxp ~ _~ I . m'.nil I. Then I' has coordinates (I. /11.d + li2 I = (tl + nil . (a) (pp')2 = 2 _ 2(lY I. .f)2 = (1.(ttZ I. z Let 01' and be uf/it vectors parallel to a and b respectively."d) But (P I.IlJ (ill or let b be the other vector with direction cosines [l' .mm' I.nP I. Then (pp'l = (/ .2n . m.m' I.nf2 I. m.2(lf I.Innt I./1 2) = 1 and «(2 I.23k ~ (p x q) 011 to Frame 53 Angle between two vectors Let a be one vector with direction cosines [1. it is a simple matter to verify that: 61  71./11)2 + (11 _ 11')2 2If + (l + n? .1f2 ) = 1 as was proved earlier..4) + k (15 + 8) = 6i + 7j + 23k Remember that the order in which the vectors appear in the vector product is important.m.2.2) I.rntZ + n2 .10) .11'] We have to find the angle between these two vectors. d ).1(3.11'2) .m( ) .
find the direction cosines of p. we have.. 0 '83. and OP' are} { umt vectors So from (a) and (b). (pp.1I1= [0'54. 0·60. . So. 0'141 a nd [Y.2 ...1. if II.m. just sum the products of the corresponding direction cosines of the two given vectors..)2 = 2 . 0 = 90 . 0 == 0' For perpendicular vectors.014)(Q. + 4k and q == 4i  31 + 2k First of all . So do that. cosO = If + mn{ + 1/11 That is.76) (}1064 = 0·5266 e= 58 13' y Note: For parallel vectors. . we have: cos O = 11' o~ 58"13' + + + mnf + .592 Engineering Mathematics Also. . (}76] the angle between the vectors is () == .2 cos e I cosO = ..2(ff + mnf + IIII') and (PP')2 = 2 ..OP'.cosO (b) =22cosO OP. .2. (0 54 )(0. by the cosine rule: (Pl"i = = OF + 01'.z5) = D· 1350 = 0 ·6330 ~ (083 )(0 60) 0'4980 D· 1064 I1fI (.1..2'oP.. cosO 1 + 1 . Now an example for you to work: If + mn! + lin' = I If + mm' + /lit = 0 Find the angle between the vectors p = 2i + 3.I/ ] = [O·ZS .. m' . Lill Because.
!2fj ' .111 of Q in just the same way.J16 + 9 + 4 [f.!2fj We already know that.J29 Because p= !p! = JZl+3 l +4l v4+9 + 16 v'z9 f = ~ =~ P .!2fj Because q= Iql = V4 2 + 32 +22 .!2fj. "I ~ [Jzo. When YOLI hnve dOlle that move on to the next frame In' =  3 .!2fj.!2fj 8 9 8 = 29 .!2fj ' .= 0'2414 0=76' 2' 29 Now all to Frame 59 .!2fj .!2fj ' .. "I ~ [. Because cosO = ~.= .. using cos e = II' + mnt + wI'./29 '11 ==  b 3 P .Jzo'~] IO~ 76"2' I So.!2fj. m.111'.vectors 593 m ~ 3 .!2fj /1 4 = . Off you go.(3) + _ 4_ ~ . you can finish it off and find the angle O.!2fj .[I./29 2 c 4 11 = .29 + 29 7 =. m.dl ~ .!2fj ' .!2fj 3 4 1 Now find the direction cosines [f .~+~ . for P: [ 4 3 2] m [1m. ./29 P .
OZ. c. respectively.. So move Oil to Frame 60 (ill iBJ Revision summary ]. m = .594 Engineering Mathematics Diredion ratios If OP 0::: ai + bj + ck. Now read lhrough the summary of the work we have covered in this Programme. II. m=. lfOP = ai + bj + ck then IOPI =r=Va Z + fi2+c 2 3 The direction cosines [I... respectively and they are sometimes referred to as the directioli ratios of the vector or. k denote IIIlit vectors in the directions OX. b. and I Z+mz+1I2 r r r = 1 4 Scalar product ('dot product') a . 11 =r r r Wc can sce that the components. OZ respectively. OX. are proportional to the direction cosines.. 111. we know that: 10PI = r = vaz + IJ2 + c 2 a nd that thc direction cosines of OP are given by: abc 1=. 1. abc For any vector: 1= . so that (a x b) form a righthanded set. OY. OY.b = alb] +azbz + (l3b:J 5 Vector prodlld ('cross product') a x b = (absinO) in dircction perpendicular to a and b. Alsoaxb= H. Note: The direction ratios can be converted into the direction cosines by dividing each of them by r (the ma!. k (12 03 b. A scalar quantity has magnitude only. m . a. III are the cosines of the angles between the vector and the axes OX. are chosen so that they fonn a righthanded set.11 =.'llitude of thc vector). 2 The axes of reference. b. OZ. If a = ali + azj + a:"k and b = b l i + b:zj + b3k then a . b.b = abcosO where 0 is the anglc between a and b. The symbols i. OY. I. band a. . a vector quantity has roth magnitude and direction.
~ Can You? Checklist 6 Check this list before and after you try the el1d of Programme test.Vectors 595 6 At/8ft' bt'lwet'fl twu vectors = cosO = tr+mm' + ml For perpendicular vectors. If + m"f + //If 0 So off you go Now you are ready (Or the Can You? checklist and Test exercise. On a scale of 1 to S how confident are you that you can: • Define a vecLor? Yes Frames [DtoIIJ c o o o No • Represent a vector by a directed straight line? Yes 0 0 0 D O No • Add vectors? Yes o c o o o OIJtomJ No • Write a vector in terms of component vectors? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Write a vector in terms of component unit vectors? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Set up a coordinate system for representing vectors? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Obtain the direction cosines of a vector? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Calculate the scalar product of two vectors? Yes DOD D D No • Calculate the vector product of two vectors? Yes 0 COD C Nu • Determine the angle between two vectors? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Evaluate the direction ratios of a vector? Yes 0 C DOD No mJtoGIJ C!IJto(EJ (E)tornJ lliJto(ID @)to[EJ @)to(ID .
14). Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the two points (4.2j + 3k. find (a) a . i .j .b=2i + 3j+k (b) a = 2i+3i+4k. k are the unit vectors.5j + 3k and c = 21 . Find the modulus and the direction cosines of each of the vectors 31 + 71 . determine the scalar and vector products.k and 08 = 1 . detennine: (a) the value of OA.j. the problems are all straightforward so avoid careless slips. where i. find AB.b and (b) a x b . j. 6 7 Find the scalar product (ab) and the vector product (a x b ). Find the direction cosines of the vectors whose direction ratios are (3.3). .OB (b) the product OA x 08 in terms of the unit vectors (c) the cosine of the angle between OA and 08 Find Ihe cosine of Ihe angle between the vectors 2i + 3i .6.2k. If a = 5i + 4j + 2k. Further problems 6 ] 2 The centroid of the triangle OAB is denoted by G.2i + k .596 Engineering Mathematics ~ Test exercise 6 Take your time. If 0 is the origin and OA = 4i + 3j. If a = 21 + 2i . b = 4i .k and 3i . when (a) a = i + 2jk.+ 2k. OB = 6i . .veen the vectors a and b (b) the magnitude and the direction cosines of the product vector (a x b) and also the angle which this product vector makes with the vector c.2j I.j.2j. Be and CA. 4. 5) and (1. 2.5j . OC = 2i. 6.12k. determine: (a) the value of ab and the angle ben. Hence find the angle between the two vectors.k and b = 31 . lS:2J ~ 1 2 3 4 IfOA = 4i+3j.5j+2k. 4 5 If a = 2i + 4j . i and i. Find also the modulus and the direction cosines of their sum.3k and b = i + 3j + 2k. find OG in terms of the unit vectors. Diagrams often help where appropriate.b = 5i .8k and 6i . 2. 2) and (7. and deduce the lengths of the sides of the triangle ABC. If OA = 2i + 3.4k. and the angle between the two given vectors. 08 = 61.
j + 2k. B is the point (1. j. 2. 3. a and b are vectors defined by a = 8i + 2.2j + 4k respectively. (a) the (b) the (c) the (d) the vector AB vectOr BC vector product AB )( BC unit vector perpendicular to the plane ABC.2k. (b) Find the magnitude and the direction cosines of the product vector a x b.i + k and 3i + 4j . where i. OC = .0). Calrulate the sine of the angle between the t wo vectors. . If a = 3i . j. .k. k are the mutually perpendicular unit vectors. k are mutually perpendicular unit vectors.vectors 8 Find the unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors 21 . find the direction cosines of BA and BC.7k and Si . OA.2k. where i. find PQ and determine its direction cosines.4k. ~ 13 If position vectors. determine: + 3k. (a) Calculate a . OC. ~ 1l 12 If the position vectors of P and Q are i + 3j . If A is the point (1.i + 3j .j OB = 3i + 2j .61 + 4k.3k and b = 3i . b = i + 3) . OB.b and show that a and b are perpendicular to each other. 2). 1. determine the magnitude and direction cosines of the product vector (a)( b) and show that it is perpendicular to a vector c = 9i + 2j + 2k. and hence show that the angle ABC = 69°14'. 2) and C is the point 597 ~ 9 10 (4. are defined by OA = 2i .
 .
Programme 7 Differentiation Learning outcomes When YOll Frames [IJ'.Cill 'lave completed this Programme you will be able to: • • • • • • Differentiate by using a Ust of standard derivatives Apply the chain rule Apply the product and quotient rules Perform logarithmic differentiation Differentiate implicit functions Differentiate parametric equations 599 .
1 e' 2 .cotx cosh x sinhx The fasl lwo are proved in Frame 2.lna cosx . 1 x. tan x cosecx.. 6. 5 3 cP a' kcP a~ . lna Inx 1 x 6 7 8 log. so move all 11 ]2 13 ]4 .possibly 4.. 11 and 12.600 Engineering Mathematics Standard derivatives OJ Here is a revision list of the standard derivatives which you have no doubt used many times before.sinx sec2 x cosx tan x 9 to cotx sec x cosec x sinhx coshx cosec 2x secx. x sinx .. Copy out the list into your recold book and memorize those with which you are less familial . Here they arc: y 1 ~ (xl dy dx x" e' nxn. 10.
.(.fI. x . Move 011 to Frame 3 Let us see if you really do know those basic derivatives. 2 sinhx dx 2 e' + (r" ) 2 :..e. First of all cover up the list you have copied and then write down the derivatives of the following.Differentiation 601 The derivatives of sinh x and coshx are easily obtained by remembering the exponential definitions. All very easy.. and also that: d d dx V) ~ e' and dx V ' ) ~ . We will find the derivative of tanhx later on. //love 011 to the Ilex! frame to check yollr results . ! (COShX)=sinhx Note that there is no minus sign involved as there is when differentiating the trig function cosx.' (a) y = sinhx Y= dy dx ee. e' . • tanx In x 1 x' 2 sinx 3 i" II cosx 12 sinh x 13 cosec x 14 n' n" 5 15 cotx 6 7 8 9 10 2' secx cosh X loglOx e' 16 17 18 19 20 x' log.jX e'" Wilell YOIl have finished them all.I< 2 e' .c') 2 e' + e" ! 2 cosh x (sinh x) = cosh x (b) y = coshx y dy e' + efI.
e... w So ~nr is a function of a fu nction of . sin(2x + S) is a function o f the angle (2x + S) since the value of the sine depends on the value of this angle. i. since its value depends on x. sin(2x + S) is a function of (ZX + S) But (2x + S) is itself a function of x. (2x + S) is a function of x sin(ZX + S) is t h erefore a function of a function of x and such expressions are referred to generally as fU1/ctions of a {lmdion.s 12 13 14 15 16 18 l / (x lno) 19 ~xI_ 1/(2Jil 20 ~e'l/2 9 l /(x In 10) 10 eX 2 If by chance you have not got them all correct.>: ln 2 7 secx.>: ln a 17 _ 4x. . ur tu the list you copied. When you are sure }'Oil know tlte basic resllft~...e. Sx' 2 cosx 1 11 . . Because e"nr depends on the valu e of t he index siny and siny depends on y.cosecx. Similarly.602 Engineering Mathematics Here are the results.sin x cosh x . move on Functions of a function sinx is a function of x since the value of sinx depends o n the value of the angle x. Therefore einr is a function of a function of y. and brushing up where necessary. Check yours carefully and make a special no te of any where you may have slipped up. tan x 8 sinh x 0 cosec2 x a.cot x 3 3'" 4 l /x 5 sec2 x 6 2. We could do them from first principles. We very often need to find the derivatives of such functions of a function. These are the tools for all that follows. i. it is well worth while returning to Frame 1..
y = cos(Sx .4) x the derivative of the function (Sx . · y=e" .4) replaces the single x : : = se2(Sx .4):. if y = InF.4) x 5 ~ 5se2(5x . ! {cos(5x . i. dy dy du If Y = ((u) and II = "'{x).e. : .4)1 = .4).=sin(Sx4). where'" is a function of x. dd =sin.·.4). u1 ' I dy h' h h dll . (As before. then: dy dy dE 1 dE dx = dF · dx =P · dx So. :: = S. y = coslI:.e.OifferentiaUon 603 As a first example. dy dy dy dll . dy = secZ x dx In this case (Sx .._l_ . then dx = du · dx' i. } =cosx. To convert our result into the required derivative. we m tIp y dll (w lC we ave) by dx to obtam dx " (which we want). Putu= sinx.4) Basic standard form is y tan x.Ssin(Sx . : is found from the substitution u = (Sx .sin(Sx .4) .nx . not : .. dx {e"nX} = e='"". if y = In sinx ~~ = _. differentiate with respect lo x.e.cosx This is quite general. dY = ff w d" But dx= dll · dx and dx=cOSX dy dy dll du d .4) So now fi nd from first principles the derivative of y = (flnx.4) ~ . . y Letu=(Sx . But this gives us ~~.cos x = cotx UA smx It is of utmost importance not to forget this factor : ' so beware! Just two more examples: (a) y = w = tan (Sx .e2(5x .4) x 5 = .e~m x Becausey=e1nx . we use dx = du· dx' I.) Iax{e d . put u = sin x.
(4sinx) 4cosx 4sinx 3 4cosx 7 8 y = lncos3x y = e in2x y = sin 2 x y = cos3 (3x) 10 Y = loglO(2x .2 = 2cos2x : = .. w t y ~ (4x_S )6 y=~_l" I (fX" dy = ..4 = 24(4x .3) replaces the single x ~~ = 5(4x  3)4 )( the derivative of the function (4x . ) . then dx = .5)5.' (.2x = .4 cos x) Now do these 6 1 . Check to see that yo"rs are correct y = (4x _ 5)6 : = 6 (4x .1) 9 Take your time to do them .2xsin(x2) 4 = COS(X2 ) S Y = In(3 .1) ~ _ "'. check tllem agail1st tl1e results ill Frame 11 . now you differentiate these: 2 3 Y = sin2. . When YOll are satisfied willI your results.3) = 5(4x _ 3 )4 )( 4 = 20(4x . dy = SX4 dx Here (4x .])4 50 what about this one? dy If Y = cos(7x + 2). dx dy dx = cos2x.7sm(7x + 2 Right.sin(x 2).x 4 y ~ cos(xl) s y = In (3  4cosx) The resl/lts are ill Frame 10.5)s 2 Y = i"x 3 y = sinlx y dy ~ <'.604 Engineering Mathematics (b) y ~ (4x3)S Basic standard form is y = xS.
2cos2x Zsinxcosx = = 2coslx.t : = e'n2. eZ'(1 + Zlnsx) ~ when: 3 Now here is a short test for you to do.t. Find y=x 2 tanx 4 y = x3sinSx 1 2 y=&"(3x+1) 5 y=x 2 lnsinhx Y = x cos lx When you have completed all five. differentiate the second. 1 Le. move on to Frame 14 . plus (b) put down the second. Ify = x 3 .g. To differentiate a product: (a) put down the first. where II and v are functions. So what is the derivative of fiLt In Sx? IdX=~ dy (1 x+ZlnSx ) Because y = dy dx = = ezo. Next frame Of course.3COS3X + 3x 2 Sin3X = 3x2(xcos3x+sin3x) Every one is done the same way. II = eZo<.eJn2.( 3 sin 3x) = 9sin 3xcos2 3x 10 Y = 10g10(2x .sin3x then : = X3.Differentiation 605 6 Y= e1n 2._ .= sin lx 8 9 y=lncos3x y = dy = ~3 (3sin 3x) = 3 tan3x dx cos x : = cos 3 (3x) 3cos2 (3x). v = in Sx e2t Sx·S + Zeln Sx _ . differentiate the first.1) dy <Ix 1 (2x 1) lnlO · 2 2 (2x 1)ln1O All correct? Now 011 with the Programme.t Cill 7 y = sin z x :. In Sx. If y = 1 Products flV. then you already know that: dy dv du dx= lI dx+ v dx e. of x. we may need to differentiate functions which are products or quotients of two of the functions.
. if II and v are functions of x.x' dx e"x 1 e'b. the rest is easy.sin3x. cos2x dy You do this one. If y=xz' dx = .e'b d = _ .. .\(3x + 1) ::: ~ e" .3 + Se" (3x + I ) = eSX (3 + lSx + 5) = eS X (8 + lSx) x(.x 4 y=x 3 sinSx : = = il .z.ScosSx + 3rsinSx x 2 (SxcosSx + 3 sin Sx) 5 y = x2 lnsinhx Y= ddx x2~h coshx+Zxlnsinhx sm x =x(xcothx + Z ln sinh x) So much for the product. and y V/l =~ v dx v' Here are two examples: then : If = sin3x dll dx dv Y [f x+l' I = ~ dy dx (x + 1)3cos3x .606 Engineering Ma thematics : = x2 sec2 x + Zxtanx = x(xsec2 x + Z tanx) 2 Y = e'i..Zx sin 2.In x. cos2x 3 Y = x cos 2x ~= = cos 2x .= __ &.l (x + 1)2 Y fib..2sin 2x) + 1. What about the quotient? Next frame 2 Quotients In the case of the quotient.GZ lnx) e" Z lnx 1 x e" If you can differentiate the separate functions.E X.
2sin2x) .cos2x. cosh x . (work it through in detail) I~ ~ Because " =  cosx.2x(x sin 2x + cos lx) . dx cosh x COSh2 x .sinh 2 x cosh 2 x cos 2 x 1 = sec x coshx.sinh x ...2(xsin 2x + cos2x) x' x' X2 Because ~{COs2x} = x2( . x' fory= " v dy dv dll dx = lI dx + v dx dll dv dy = dx v2 x' (a.= .2x dx X4 . sinx y = cosx· Then by the quotient rule. :. for if y = tanx. You can prove the derivative of tanx by the quotient method./lax (b) Be sure that you remember these.Differentiation 607 ~{COS2x} ill . Vax . sinh x cosh 2 x d ill (tanh x ) = sech 2x Add this last result to your list of derivatives in your record book...cosx + sinx.sinx cosx cos2 x In the same way we can obtain the derivative of tanh x sinx dy dx sinhx dy y = tanhx = . So what is the derivative of tanh (5x + 2)? Iax d { tanh(Sx + 2) } = Ssech2(SX + 2) .2(x sin 2x + cos2x) So: for y = Ill'.
Bearing that in mind.dW} wdx This is not a formula to memorize. remembering that are all functions of x.rivative is best found by what is known as 'logarithmic differentiation'. we merely have to multiply across by y" Note that when do thiS..s. Where there are v more than two functions in any anangement top or bottom.+ .... _. but a method of working. uv case where y = . v and w . where II.are functions of x. dv dx w udx vdx {!. Let us do an example to make it quite dear.and also y . . Le. "".608 Engineering Mathematics Because we have: If then !{ ! {tanhx} = sechzx tanh(Sx + 2)} = sechz(Sx + 2) x derivative of (Sx + 2) = sech2 (Sx + 2) x 5 = Ssech 2(Sx + 2) Fine.y"dx . ... we put the grand function that y repcesent. ". Now move on to Frame 19 for the next part oftlJe Programme Logarithmic diHerentiation The rules for differentiating a product or a quotient that we have revised are used when there are just twofactor (unctions.!.u ' dx v ' dx w ' dx H. If Y = rsinx fi d dy cosa' n dx The first step in the process is . w First take logs to the base e. uv or ~. since the actual terms on the righthand side will depend on the functions you start with.!. ". dy = IIV du +. : .. It all depends on the basic fact that ! { x} In = ~ and that if xis replaced by let us consider the a function F then! {lnF} = ~ . What do we get? 11dy ldu Idv ldw . wand y So to get : we: by itself. . the de. . Iny = lnll + lnv lnw Now differentiate each side with respect to x. v.
2x + .h sec+ 3+ dx x tanx {4 2 X} There it is. secx y x rX tanx =i + 3 + sec2x x tan x dy = x 4 rtanx .. but the original function was also somewhat Involved! Do this one on your own: If y= x4 eu tan x.= .+.. tanx {4 "'C" X} xe. remembering that d l dF dx (lnF) =13' dx Idyl 1 .cosx Y dx x2 sin x 1. rollow it through. In y= In(x'") + In(iM) + In{tan x) Idy 1 3 1 3>. ...Differentiation 609 To take logs of both sides xlsinx Y = cos2x lliJ lny = In(x2) + In(sinx)  In (cos2x) Now differentiate both sides with respect to x. ( 2sIOZx) cosZ.. Find : ' given that y e" x3 cosh2x .. y = x 4 e1"tanx : ..' dx=4. 3 +x tanx (ill Here is the working.4x + ::l.2tan2x x dy 2 dx ~2cos x xlSinX{2 tcotxt2tan2x } x This is a pretty complicated result. Here is just one more for you to do. AJways use the logarithmic differentiation method where there are more than two functions involved in a product or quotient (or both). then Idy dx : = u.3e + . 1 _1 .x = + cot x t.
. 1 2 1 .. ..610 Engineering Mathematics (ill e" x3 cosh Z.3x .In(cosh 2x) Idy 1 4.4x·4e 1. loy = In(e4l ) . y . Check yours. Move on for detaib Revision exercise Differentiate with respect to x: 1 (a) ln4x (b) In(sin3x) 2 ell sin4x 3 4 5 sln2x 2x + S (3x + l ) coslx XSsin "" z.In(x3) .2 SlOh2x y x = 4 . dx = ~.cos hlx. cos 4x WI'eIl you have {iI/iS/led them all (and nor before) move on to Frame 25 to cilCck your results (ill 1 (a)y = ln4x (b) y = lnsin3x dx dY=~ .3 cos 3x 3cot3x 2 y = eJ x sin4x : = eh4cos4x + 3e3~ sin4x = e3 (4 cos4x + 3sin 4x) (Zx + S)Zcos2x 2 sin2x X sinlx 3 Y = 2x + 5 dy dx (ZX + 5 )2 . before continuing \o\!ith the rest of the Programme...x Id ye" {3 4..2tanhZX } dx x cosh 2x x = 3 Working. here is a revision exerdse on the work so far for you to deal with..4 = ! 4x x dy dx = = 1 sin 3X.2tanhlx 3 x dy dx X 3 C::h2x { 4 ~ 2tanh2x} Well now.." .
4x + 2.g.eZx· 2 ~ _3 __ 2tanlx_2 3x+ 1 (3x + l )cosZ. .4tan4x x : = 5 x 5 sin2xcos4x{~ + 2cot 2x . All we have to remember is that y is a function of x. ) I i" ydx=3x+l' + cosZX· . this is really an extension of our 'function of a function' routine.. e. as it stands is an example of an .x cos 4x Iny = In(xs ) + In(sin 2. In fact.. it may not be possible (or desirable) to separate y completely on the lefthand side. I n such a case as this. xy + sin y = 2. even if it is difficult to see what it is.DifferentiaUon 611 4 y ~ (3x+ l )cos2x e'' lny = In (3x + 1) + In (cos2x) .. Now O/l to the next pmt of the Programme ill Frame 26 Implicit fundions If Y = X2 . r . y is called an imp/idt ftlllction of x. y is completely defined in terms of x.4tan4X} So far so good.In(eZ X) 1 dy 1 3 I ( .. because a relationship of the form y = f (x ) is implied in the given equation. It may still be necessary to detenninc the derivatives of y with respect to x and in fact lhis is not at all difficult. and y is called an explicit function of x_ When the relationship between x and y is more involved.x) + In(cos 4X) Idy 1 4 dy {_3__ 5 Ydx = xS·Sx + sin2x + cos4x (.2sm2x .x 2tan2x _ 2} fib 3x+l dx Y = x5 sin 2.4sin4X ) 2coslx 1 =+ 2cot2x . function. x2 + = 25.
(4) I 5 Now this one.6 dx = 0 .y) . Ifx. .2 d d' +r .. If this as (2x)(y). dx 2 .I )...2) .612 Engineering Mathematics (ill x2 implicit Once again.3)2 dx2 = (2_3)2 :. When you come to 2xy treat . we gel 2X+2Y~:=O Note that we differentiate y2 as a function squared.~ . dy dy Differentiate as iI stands with respect to x.x y3 dx .. all we have to remember is that y is a function of x.. The rest is easy. if +r = 2S. (2y ..dx 2 . 2) d'y (3 .(I . 2) I .6) : at (3. let us find If we differentiate as It stands with respect to * X. times the derivative of the function'.~2 1.= x dx dy dy dx x y As you will have noticed. find fxand dx~ al x = 3. 2x + 2y . Let us look at some examples. dy .x) dx (y _ 3)' " (3.(I . but beware of the product term . .2x .~ . giving 'twice times the function.3 2 3 d'y _~{ ~} dx 2 dx y3 dy (y3 )(.2) Then dy ~2 2x 2 ] . 2x + 2Y!'=O y.2x 2y . x2 + by + 3y = 4. So. with an implicit function the derivative may contain (and usually does) both x and ..(1x )  dx (y _ 3)' dy (3 . find : Away you go.6y + S = O.6 I... . At (3 . y = 2.
.+ 31=0 (X (y 2 t dy dr 2xy) dy = ·_(x 2 t.ich starts in Frame 31 Parametric equations In some cases. any value we give to t wiU produce a pair of values for x and y. is called a parameter. just one more: 3 If x + y3 +3xr = 8. dr . + 3x.< . dx ~ (}2 (x'+ y' ) + 2xy) That is really all there is to it..g.g. y = cos 21. =: ~ dy ~ . x = sin I. t. which could if necessary be plotted and provide one point of the curve of r ~ ( (x ). X = sin t.(2< + 2y) .. may still need to find the derivatives of the hmction with respect to x.2y u. The key to it is simply that 'y is a function of x' an d then apply the 'function of a function' routine. so how do we go about it? Let us take the case already quoted above. Tn this case. We arc requircd to fi nd expressions for dx and dxz' Move to the next frame to see flaw we go about it dy d 2y .y 2) ill . w/. it is more convenient to represent a function by expressing x and y separately in terms of a third independent variable..Differentiation 613 Here is the working. e. dx (2< + 2y) (2< + 6y) (x+ y) (x + 3y) And now.. Now 011 /0 the last section of this particular Programme. We. and the two expressions for x and y Iwrametrk equations. The third variable. e. x 2 + 2xy + 3r = 4 2X + Zx: + 2Y+6Y~~ = O (2x + 6y) .. find =~ Tum to Frame 30 for the solution Solution in detail: x 3 +y3 + 3xr = 8 3x 2 + 3r. All examples are tackled the same way. The parametric equations of a function are given as y = cos 21 .
Therefore we say dx 4 sin t d( .2 sin 21 <lx . dx' d 2y 1 . F 'rom x = SlOt. Now how do we find the.. x = cosJO dy d 2y Find .) . So w hat do we do? (ill To find the second derivative..  (.4sintcOSI.= ..2 = . cos t = .X=SlOt.e.Find~ and~ From y = d d' cosZt. dt 1) notmg that dx = dx / d t 1 cost : =4sint That was easy enough. we can get ~~ = ... t )d' . we can get dt = cost dy dy dl We can now use the fact that d. we must go back to the very meaning of :J I.sin t But we cannot differentiate a function of t directly with respect to x.614 Engineering Mathematics (ill Y=COS2t. ) = dt d( . .4c05 t . dx 2 = dx <IX) .4 sIn . second derivative? We callnot get it by finding ::.sin J O.and ::~ from th e parametric equations and joining the m Ou to tile next frame and all will be revealed! together as we did for the first derivative. What about this? The parametric equations of a function are given as: y = 3sin O. 1 dx = 25m 21. d'y d(d1:"l = dx d(4.and <lx <lx' Move 011 to Frame 34 .x = d t ' <Ix so that dy ..4 lU cost dx 2 = 4 d'y Let us work through another one..
cot O d dO d 2y d dx2 = dx (cot 0) = dZy = dO(cot O) d. If x = a (cos O+ OsinO) and y = a (sin 0 .sin J O x = cos3 0 dy dx dy dB dO ' dx ~~ = : 3 cosO .3 sioz Oc05O = 3 cosO(1 .(cos('~O) 3cosz OsioO 1 dx2 3 cos! Osin J 0 Now he re is o ne for you to do in just the same way.I d.I + t 'iO dx Wheu you /lave dOl/e it. move on to Frame 3S Because x ~  y=1+T dx Z .3 .3 . .2 + 3t (I 5 (1 + t)z .(2 .3t .31) (I +I)' ( l + t )(Z) .. dy dt (1.=".sin 2 0) = 3 cos 2 O( . If _ Z .3cos2 OsinO = 3 cosO( l . t )( 3) . . It is done in just the same way as the oth ers.Differentiation 615 y=3sinO. dy dx  1 S And now here is one more for you to do to fini sh up this part of the work.= .1 + t .y .2L ( 1 +I)' dy dt dt ' dx 1 (1 +I)' (I + t )2 1 (l + t )z ' 5 S .OcosO) dy dZy fi n d dx and dxz . dy + I )z d' dy dx 2 +2t .x 1 ..=.(J + 2t) (1 +I)' ..3t _3 + Zt fi d dy x . dy ..3t 1 +I J+2t dx d.sin 2 0).sin 0) = . 3coszOsinO dx I] dx = dx / dO [Remember: dO 3cosJO 3 cos z Osin O A I".
Beos 0) ~~ = a(eosO + Osin 0 . 1 : = tan 0 d 2y d dx2 = dx (tan 0) = dO (tan 0). Next frame ~ Can You? ® Checklist 7 Check this list before and after YO" try the end of Programme lest. This brings you now to the Can You? checklist and Test exercise. <Ix d dO . x ill dO = = a(cosO + Osin O) a(. aOeosO = tanO . (10 cos fJ d 2y ] . .cosO) = aOsin O dy dy dO dx = dO · dx = aOsmO. set out like the previous examples.sin () + OeosO + sin O) = a(Jcos 0 y = a(sin () . dx 2 aOcoslO You have now reached the end of this Programme o n differentiation .616 Engineering Mathematics Here it is. On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident are you that y ou can: • Differentiate by using a list of standard derivatives? Yes m tom Frames 0 0 0 DO No No No • Apply the chain rule? Yes 0 0 0 o o • Apply the prod uct and quotient rules? Yes DDDDD • Perform logarithmic differentiation? Yes 0 0 0 DO No O!JtomJ . 1 = sec O. much of which has been useful revision of what you have done before. so move on to them and work through them carefully.
Differentiation 617 Frames • Differentiate implicit functions? Yes DOD 0 0 No No • Differentiate parametric equations? Yes DOD 0 0 ~ Test exercise 7 Write out the solutions carefully. If x = 3(1 . ~ Further problems 7 Differentiate w ith respect to x: (a) In{COSX + s~n X} (b) In(secx+tanx) ~ l cosx smx (c) sin 4 xcos 3 X 2 Find: when: (a)y 1 + cos x xsinx ~ 3 4 U Y is a function of x. They are all quite straightforward.cosO) and y = 3(8 .3xy2 = .x ): . Y = 3. find dx and ~ at the point where x = 2. (b)y = ln I ~ XZ 1 show that {' X '} . :~ = x(l +r .n 0) find : and ~ in their simplest forms. I ~ Differentiate the following with respect to x: (a) tan 2x (h) (5x + 3)' 2 (d) IOg IO(X 3x I) (e) Incos3x x' (g) ibsin3x (h) (x + I)' (e) cosh2 x sin3 4x e"x sin x (i) x cos 2x (0 2 If x 2 3 4 +1  dy d2 2x + 2y = 23. and x = Find::: when x3 e': 8. Find an expression for : when x 3 + Y' + 4xl = 5.si.
verify t hat d dy dx.showthat4(1 +xZ)dxZ+ 4xdx .r (b) y = In{ COShX . If Xl . 12 ·'11e parametric equations of a curve a re x = and co. ~:~ in terms of O.provethat(2x + Y)~~ = X I 2Y. d' y If x = In tan and y = tan 0  z o e.coi' e.I} cosh x + 1 (c) y = In { e" ( X X : 2)"'} 2 6 Differentiate: (a) y = xl cos l X (c) y = e2'lnx (x .9y = O.~ 28.4 dx + By = O. . d' + 2xy + 3yZ = I. prove that dx z = Z dZy tan ZOsin O(cosO I 2secO).XY+yZ If Xl = 7.sin) 0. q a nd k are constants.618 Engineering Mathematics Differentiate: (a) y ::.1)l ~ 7 8 9 10 If(X _ y)3= A(X + y). Find: and ~ if x = acos3 e. ~ 13 14 Ify = + J l + xl } l /z dl y dy . eiols. prove that y ~ = (~~r + l· 18 Prove that x = Ar·' sinpt. 16 Sh ow that y = ez". Find also the equation o f the c urve between x and y. 20 If sinhy 4sinhx . satisfies the equation dl x £Ix dt Z + 2k dt + (jf + kZ)x = O. find Ix d and ~ at x = 3.showthat dx 5 4 + 3sinhx' .c()y = O. express : and ~ 1S If x = 3 cosO . ~" If Y = 3eU cos(lx .y = asinl O. Y = I + sin2D. 8.~ sin 4111x is a solution of the equation dly dy dJil I.4111 + 20mZy = O.3). Y = 2.kt (A coshqt + 8sinhqt ) wh ere A. Find : as a relationship :?z at 0 {x = 7r/ 6. dx ~ 17 If" = secx. ~ 19 If Y = e. prove that (x + 3y)l dx Z " 2(Xl + 2xy + 3?) = O. show dZ y d}1 that dt l + 2J: dt + (J? .3 dy 4 + 3sinhx. y= 3sin 0 .
Programme 8 Differentiation applications 1 learning outcomes Wi.en you lIave completed this Progmmme you wiff be able to: Frames m to mJ • Evaluate the gradient of a straight line • Recogn ize the re lationship satisfied by two mutu all y perpendicula r straight lines • Derive the equations of a tangent a nd a normal to a curve • Evaluate the curvature and radius of curvature at a point on a curve • Locate the cen tre of cu rvature for a point on a curve 619 .
(. Y = 2 2 = 11I. when x = ."... ..g.. it is more convenient to use the form: y .2) + (. I). 3) with gradient 2 is simply . .e.e.5...2. 1 :z 111(.. when x = 3... )( tan 0 e.620 Engineering Mathematics Equation of a straight line w The basic equation of a stTaight line isy=mx + c. where m = grad ie nt v = 8y = dy bx dx c = intercept on real yaxis Note that if the scales of x and yare identical.y. So we obtain a pair of simultaneous equations from which the values of ttl and c can be found .. the equation of the line passing through the point (5. Therefore the equation of the line is x 7 y = S+S' i.Q~_1r... til.. i. of a str<light li ne passing through a given point (x" yll and we are required to find its equation... . we could argue thus: _. . Y = 1 . .3 +c. To fi nd the equation of the straight line passing through P (3. . which simplifics to .. line passes through Q. In that case.. .. i.... : = .tll:+c • Line passes through P. Therefore t he equation is . 2) and Q (2.. w I We fi nd m = 1/ 5 and c = 7/ 5. = m{xxl ) For example..21 r .5y=x+7 Sometimes we are given the gradient. . Move on to life next frame . . .e.
..2x + 4 :. This line passes through m (4. So in general terms.(l )~ Hx(2)} 2y + 2 = x+2 is . in the same way.e. And since m = 2.2(x4) 1 x(2 + 2 x y = .3) ~ .. . w So for one last time: If a point P h as coordinates (4. then mt = 2. Y= Z y .7 I i. Y = 2x . y + 3 = .1 1 i. the equation of the line passing through the point yd with gradient m is .hat mint = ..5 Tne equation of the line through P. y = l 2x (XI . 3) and the b'Tadient m of a straight line through Pis 2.4) ~ 2x8 :.S) : . 3) and having !.e..( . RighI....3 ~ 2(x. y=2x. the line passing through (2. such t.x!) I It is well worth remembering. So.10 w Similarly...Differentiation applications 1 621 I gradient yh2(x .2) :.. then the equation of the line is thus: y. 2y = 10x = .. perpendicular to the line we have just conSidered. the equation o f the line through the point (2..1) and h aving a ~ is x :.2(x . 3) and its equation is therefore: y3~ . ... Move 011 to Frame 5 Iy  YI = m{x .. y .!. .'Tadient (2) Because y ... m 1 = _...... will have <I gradi ent Int..3 = Lx .z+S.
x = 4 and 2y + lOx + 3 = 0 w I Because (a) y = 3x5andY = j" + j" (c) and (d) I If we convert each to the fonn y = mx + c.611 Engineering Mathematics If III and 111 ] represent the gradients of two lines perpendicular to each other. Y=Z.3x . we get: x 2 m = 3. Perpendicular.z: m= 1 '2. 1 1111= . l1Im] = .l or ml = . in this case.5 and 3y = x+2 (b) 2y = x5andy=6x (c) y . (d) Y = S+5 and y = .1 Therefore we know that the two given lines are at rightangles to eilch other_ Which of these represents a pair of lines perpendicular to each other: (a) y = 3x . 1111 = . then nWII =.1 Not perpendicular.1 Do you agree with these? . "'to get: =.m 1 Consider the two straight lines: 2y= 4x . x S andy =x+6 1111 = 1 1111111 =f  I Not perpendicular.5 and 6y=23x If we convert each of these to the form y = mx + c. (e) y = 3x + 2 and Y = m = 3. 1n1 ='3 (b) 1 :. m11l1 / .4 S 1 1 (a) y=2xz: and (b) Y = '2x + 3 So in (a) the gradient m = 2 and in (b) 1111 = the gradient nil We notice that. _2.2 = 0 and 3y + x + 9 = 0 (d) 5y . m =S.5 :. or that 111m] = m .5X  x 4 3 Z Perpendkular.3"  x 3 mm] = 1 1 3 :.
2 )~ 2(x .Differentiation applications 1 623 Remember that if y = mx + c and y = then: mini InIX + CI are perpendicular to each oth er. I m Here is one further example: · h gra dlent A line AB passes throug h the point P (3. 4) is a point on the line y = Sx .II. just one more to do on your own.( . When you have finished. move on to tile next frame .2 )~ 2(x .8 So we have: o Imm! =11 And now. I.2 2 Equation of CD: gradient In. Whell YOIl have finished it.I.e. That should not take long. Find the equation of the line through P which is perpendicular to the given line.3) y+2=2x6 y=2x .= . = . = ..2 ) wit IF· 2' 'm d its equation and also the equation of the line CD through P perpendicular to AB. 2 y .. check YOllr results with those in Frame 9 Equation of AS: y .I = w x I I I m . nil = . .(.3 ) I x 3 Y+2=Z+Z x I y~ 2 2 2y+x + I = Oory=. . The point P (3.
eql lation? We know that the tangent passes through P. i.~ The line passes through P. i.e.2 Gradient o f tangent = {:} = 6! 6 . It is also given by the value Of : at the point P..}'1 = m(x .=O.S(x3) 1 Sy . Le.10 .2x . Y . : ~ 6x' + 6x . y . y = 4. which we can calcu late. Find the equatio n of the tangen t to th e curve y = ~ + 3. This is sufficient infonnatlon for us to find the equatio n o f the tangent. Y = O. Sy + x = 23 Tangents and normals to a curve at a given point .20 = x+3 :.' =.}. whe n x = 3. x = 1. when x = XI.e.x2 .1) Therefore the tangent is y = lOx . at a point P on the curve is given by the gradient of the tangen t at P.Yt Correct.624 Engineering Mathematics Because gradient of the given line. y = Sx . Thus we ca n calcu late the gradient of the tangent to the curve at any point P. Le. W hat else do we know about the tange nt w hich will help us to determine its t~or~.4 ~. y = «x).2 = 10.xI) gives y .11 is 5 gradient of required line =. 111 = 10 Passes through P. knowing the equation o f the curve.3 at t he poin t P.0 = lO(x . Let u S do an example.x = I. T angent The gradient of a curve.
for example. 5). Do this one just to get your hand in: Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve y=KJ . Anyway. Y = . Do it in just the same way. yS ~ 7(x 2) 1 7y 3S = x+2 Normal is 7y + x = 37 You will perhaps remember doing all this long ago. when x = I.. When YOll have got the results. We know. x = 2.e.. if required. ~~ = 128+3 = 7 Tangent passes through (2. Gradient of tangent The normal also passes through P. Ofr you go. 5).9 1 For normal. move on to Frame 15 I Tangent: y = 7x Here are the details: 9 Nonnal: 7y +x = 37 (ill y = r . Y = 5 Y . 5) :. find the equation of the normal at P which is defined as the line through P perpendicular to the tangent at P. that the gradient of the normal is I Gradient of nonna) 1 (ill o. gradient gradient of tangent Normal passes through P (2.4x + 3 At P(2.0 =  1~ (x  1) 10y=x + 1 lOy + x=l That was very easy. Equation of normal is y .e.l ~= 3x2 . i.Differentiation applications 1 625 We cou ld also. 5). on to Frame 16 . i.~ + 3xl at the point (2.2) Ta ngent is y = 7x .5 = 7(x .2x 2 + 3x .
Nonnal is8y = 7x + 9 Thai's that! Now try this one: Find the equations of the tangent and nonnal to the curve x3+ x2y+r _ 7 = O at the point x = 2. But this will not worry you for you already know how to differentiate functions in these two fonns.l ) 8y16 = 7x7 :.'7(X . find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve X2 +y2+Jxy _ II = 0 at t he point x = I. So differentiate right away.. 2) 7y14 8 = 8x + 8 Tangent is 7y + 8x = 22 Now to find the equation of the normal. y = 3. Grad ient = Gradient of tangent . Lill Because dy dx 2+ 6 . . be presented as an implicit function or as a pair of parametric equation:.4+3 . 2) :.=.626 Engineering Mathematics The equation of the curve may. y2 = s (x . al x = 1.=== 8 7 Normal passes through (1. Tangent passes through (1.2 = . Y = 2. 2). y .=7::'. of course. 2.1' + 3y) 2x+3y 2y + 3x dy dx Therefore.x + 2ydY + 3xdy + 3y=0 (2y + 3x) ~~ ~ (2. y = Z. Let us have an example or two.1 7 "'=.l ) 8 Now we proceed as for the previous cases. First of all we must find dx dx ~~ at (1.
Passes through (2.3y2 (a) Tangent passes through (2.4+27 dy ill 24 31 3x Z + 2xy .and yvalues of a point through which it passes.3 . 3) dy 12 + 12 dx =.( x .3 ~.2 ) 24 31 31y93 =24x+48 :.Differentiation applications 1 627 Tangent: 31y+24x = 141 Norma l: 24y = 31x + to I Here is the working: x 3 +x Z y + }. y .62 24y = 31x + l0 Now OIl y3 ~(x . dx . At P: 3t 6 6 ~ 4 X = 1 + t = I + 2 = 3=2. 31y + 2~ = 1 4 1 31 (b) Normal gradient = 24.. First find the value of ~~ when t = 2. 3) :.7 = 0 dy dy 3x2 + x2 + 2xy+ 3l =0 dx dx (x z t 3Y): = _ (3x 2 + 2xy) : . dx . we must know the x . Y= 1 + 1 =3 Continued ill Frame 20 . 3t t2 3t x = l+£ il dx (1 +£)3 3t dt ( l + t )2 dy df (1 +t)2t il 3 + 3t31 = 3 (l + 1)2 2 dy dy dt 2l + t {1 + l )2 2t + t2 . At (2.dt .x 2 1. dx = 3" To get the equation of the tangent.(J + t )z 3 3 At I y= 1+t = (1 + t )2 2( + 2£2_t 2 2t + t2 (1 + t )2 (1 + l )2 = (1 + t )2 dy 8 2.2 ) 31 24 10 the next frame for at/other example Now what about this one? The parametric equations of a curve are x = 1 + t' y = 1 + t Find the equations of the tangent and normal at the point for which t = 2. 3) 24y72=31x .
s a g<adient of ~ and passes through ( 2.1 4y = 2x + l (Normal) .628 Engineering Mathematics li!D So the "ngent h. 3y = 8x .~ =.16 y.4sin t At L =i. 2yl=4x + 2 2y + 4x = 3 Gradient of normal Equation is = ~.4sintcost cost ..) 2) 1 Its equation is 3y . = ~ (x  : . gradient Also passes through 24y .32 3 gradient of tangent :. . : = 4Sini=4(~) = .satisfied with your result. Line passes through (0·5. Tangentlsy .~ (X . Normal: 4y = 2x + 1 ~ Tangent: 2y + 4x = 3 Working: y = cos2t x=sinL ~~ = 2sin2t= 4sintcost dx dL = cosL dy dx dy dt dt·dx .4 = 8x . ~) y .2) = = . check it with the results in Frame 21.9x + 18 24y + 9x 50 (Normal) Now you do this one. "8 (2. find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve at t = 6.z:=2 .2 = 2x . Y = cos ] = 0·5 • 1T r.12 (Tangent) fOr the normal. When you are .2 gradient of tangent = 2 Passes through x = sm'6 = O·S. (') xz: (Tangent) :. Here it is: If y = cos2t and x = sin i..0·5) yi=i(xi) 4y .
y!) is given by the value of ~ a t that point.0455 1 dy x O 2 = 24~28' 0=81(h=4742' .. Y = 3·641. = 1·099 (b) Similarly for x 2 + r= <Ix :.'''' x = 1·657 or [9·657J Not a real point of intersection When x = 1·657. dy dx = (aJ y' ~ 8x 2ydy = 8 tan O.19·314 x 2 8 ± 11 ·314 2 3·314 m '""2. Now we have to find : for each o f the two curves.2y <Ix ~ O tan 02 = 0.Differentiation applications 1 629 Before we leave this part of the Programme.910 = H)99 1·657 4 4 ] (ill 4r42' 16: 2x . Since the gradient of a curve at (XI.16 = 0 v'64+6"4 2 VI28 2 . Do tha t. and :: = tan 8. One example will be sufficient. Coordinates of P are x = 1·657. . Find the angle between y2 = 8x and x 2 + = 16 at their point of intersection for which y Is positive. Y = 3·641 . = 16 x 2 + 8x. then we can use these facts to determine the angle bet\veen the curves at their point of intersection..4551 Finally dy . solve We have x2+8x = 16 8 ± r = 8x and. where 0 is the angle o f slope. Y = 8(1·657) = 13·256. 01 =y = 3·641 = 0. l:irst find the point of intersection: r I.(24 °28') = 4742' + 24 28' = 72 10' That just about covers all there is to know about findin g langents and normals to a curve. We now look at another application of differentiation. let us revise the fact that we Can easily find the angle between two intersecting curves.(l + r 8± .<Ix ~ y~ 3641 ~ .e.
Thc average rate o f change of direction with arc from P to Q is the change in direction from P to Q the le ngth of arc fTOm P to Q ~ . Let us see in the next few fram es what it is all about.s . we must know not only the change of direction. the anglcs 01 and H z can be found using a calculator. The length o f a rc from P to Q is 6s. If we are concerned with how fast the curve is bending. 0 = 02 . Lill I The a rc PQ I That is. but also how far along the curve we must go to obtain this change in direction.01. knowing the equation of the rurve. Now let us consider the two points. then t he a ngle of slope a t Q can be put asO+bO.. Then from the diagram. .f" ~ 0 x From the values of tane! and tan 02. ~"~~'. Let us first consider the change in direction of a curve y = ((x) between the poin ts P and Q as shown. Gradient at P = tanOI = { : } p G radient at Q = tan O 2 = {:}Q These can be calculated. so that if 0 is the slope at P. which provides this change in direction . Curvature is concerned with how quickly the curve is changing d irection in the neighbourhood o f that point. we must consider not only the change in direction from P to Q.630 Engineering Mathematics Curvature The value of : at any point on a curve denotes the gradient of the curve at that point. P and Q. n1t~ change in direction will not be great. . but also the length of . . . near to each other. . The change in direction from P to Q is t herefore (j().\0 tliat PQ b a !lmail arc (= 6s). The direction of a curve is measured by the gradient of the tangent.
s '0 60 8s 1 R 0. Since P and Q are close. It tells us how quickly the curve is bending in the immediate neighbourhood of P. os = RIJO If f. the radius at rightangles to it will also turn through the same angle). y = ((x) and the coordinates of P. CP ~ QC (= R say) and the arc PQ can be thought of as a small arc of a circle of radius R. That is. and the point C the centre of Q/tvoture. in the diagram above. Let the normals at P and Q meet at C. In practice. If Q now moves down towards P.. is the curvature large or small? If you thin(. this becomes : = ~ which is the curvature at P. it is difficult to find : sJnce we should need a relationship de @ between Band s. If you think 'small' go on to Frame 30. i. and usually all we have is the equation of the curve. This is called the radius o{curvoture. 'large'. 6s > 0. arcPQ = 6s = . So we have now found that we can obtain the cUlVature ~~ if we have some way of [inding the radius of curvature R. If R is large. move on to Frame 29. So we must find some other way round it. we finally get ds' which is the atrvahlle at P. we can state the curvature at a point. Note that PCQ = 60 (for if the tangen t turns through fiO..Differentiation applications 1 631 This could be called the average curvature from P to Q. .e. You remember that the arc of a circle of radius r which subtends an angle B radians at the cen tre is given by arc = rOo So. in tenns of the radius R of the circle we have considered..
If you walk round a circle with a large radius R. the curvature is small = Correct. . h 1 R·IS ds sown t h at dO ds = R' the denominator. or between the direction of the chord and that of the tangent. 'or t e curvature = dO an d we h ave Just . then the curve is relatively a gentle one. since the curvature : 1 In practice. For knowing the equation y = ((x) of the curve.rge. Since 6s is very small. i. Let us consider our two points P and Q again. . but if R is small. So. .632 Engineering Mathematics Your answer was: 'If R is Ia. there is little difference between the arc PQ and the chord PQ. I If R is large. if R is large.. so that a large value for R gives a small value for the fraction I R and hence a small value for the curvature. n 1IS LS not so. . dy dx = tan 8 and <Is ill = cos 8 p tan8. since this is something we can appreciate. Then: !{:} = !{tano} ! {~~} . small value of curvature.. when 6s : = > 0. F h · . we often indicate the curvature in tenus of the radius of curvature R. the curvature is large'. Now l\'e have got somewhere. the curve is more abrupt.: = :0 {tan8} . So once again. Differentiate with respect to s. ..e. You can see it this way.. . . .. : Now: dO d. the curvature is . we can calculate the first and second derivatives at the point P and substitute these values in the formula for R.
rz R = 2. = ~ at the point (1. SO IIOW for lome examples.4 dx XZ and At(2. xy =4 dy = _4x. lliJ At x = 0./2 = 2'828 units TIlere we are. find R at x =0. dy = ] Atx = O. dx dZr dx2 = 6 212 6 12 3 Now you do this one: Find the radius of curvature of the curve y.z = .. Allotller example Oil Frame 32 Example 2 If y = x+3x z _x 3 .2) {I + (_1 )Zf/2 R I {1+1} 3/Z 1 (2)3/2 = 2.Differentiation applications 1 633 This is an important result. check witll ti.e so/lltior! ill Frame 33 . but you will certainly be expected to know it and to apply it. Copy it down and remember it.4) Wilen YOll have finished. You may never be asked to prove it. Move 011 to Fmme 31 Example 1 find the radius of curvature for the hyperbola xy = 4 at the point x = 2. Y = 2.
24 }'I' 8 R=5·21 units Of course. as in the previous example. .24 .cos f). sm O= Z ' cos O= 2' dx=1d y d { SinH } d { SinO} d O dx2 = dx 1 cosO = dO 1 cosO ' dx (l .sinf) (1 .8* .g.cos 0)2 '1 1 cosO 2 cos 0 ." .ts dy .3X 2.2 .cos f) :.sin f) and y = 1 . : = ~ .1 (1 .cosf))3 At 0= 60 ~..24. or a pair of parametrlc equations. = ICOSO} . " 1 sin f) dx = smu' l cosf) t cos f) _ v'J 1dy v'J AtO = 60 .cos 2 f) .4 =.. e. dx 2 64 y2 24 . find R when f) x= f) sin f) y = 1 . d2y (:r= t6 8y(6x) . = 60" = i radians.18 3 16 9 { 1 +16 3 16 8 8 125 _ 125 _ 5 5 3 ' 64 .634 Engineering Mathematics lliJ Here is the solution in full: r~ 4 R ~ S21 un.4 = .sin 2 f) (1 . R = 2 units 1 R = {l +3}3/2 4 2' 8 .cos 0)3 1 (1 .i 24 .cosO) cosOsinO. ~. df) = sm u dy dx dy dO dO' dx dy .cos 0)2 dy dx2 2 1 (1_!)2 T =4 :. dx I x' 3x 2 Sy At (1'~). Ule equation of the curve could be an implicit function. dy . cos f) . If x = f) .
Also dy dx = . You v·till see an example of this later. iI is usually necessary to maintain Ihe negative sign.Differentiation applications 1 635 You notice in this last example that the value of R is negative. Since R is a physical length. If the value of R is 10 be used in further calculations however. Here is one for you to do in just the same way as before: Find the radius of curvature of the curve x = 2cos 3 0. TIlis merely indicates which way the curve is bending. at the point for which 0 = i = 45".] (:)'~ 1 1 ~=!{ tan o}= :0 {.~::o~e'ii::::co. Work through it atul then go to Frame 36 tn check your work R=3units Because x = 2cos10 y=2sin1 0 : = 6cos2 0(sinO) = 6sin ()cos 2 0 ~~=6sin2 0cosO 8 sinO cosO=tan dy dy dO 6sin2 0cosO dx = dO· dx = 6sinOcos20 AtO = 4S' . R is taken as 2 units long. y = 2sin1 0.tan 0 }: = "6.ces"'''e 6sinOcos 4 0 412 212 6 3 {1+ }'" 1 212 3 3)( 2J2 212 3 2 3/ 2 212 R = 3 units 3 .. then for all practical purposes.
If the centre C is the point (II..e. 90~) ..l sin8 = .lanfl= {:::}p . tan O=..1 (3 _ x)z As an example. YI). we need to know also the position of the centre of the dIde of curvature for the lX'int P (X I ..e. 8 =45 t8 measured between ± and oos8 =_.l =_ l '<Ix 1 (:)'~ 1 {1 t. 3). i. k) we must find the angle of slope () from the fact that tan8 = : at P.4x (3 _ x) z dx Atx = 2 dy = . R is the radius of curvature at P and 8 is the angle of slope at P.x )(4) (11 . i.4x)(I ) (3 _ X)2 . {h=XIRSin 8 } 10at IS. k = Yl + Rcos8 where XI and YI are the coordinates of P. dy (3 .636 Engineering Mathematics ® Centre of curvature To get a complete picture.12 + 4x+11 .l}3/ Z 2 Now before we find the centre of curvature (II.4x of curvature of the curve y 3 x at the point (2. we Y can see from the diagram that: h = XILP=xlRsin8 k=YI + LC=YI + Rcos8 . k). find the radius of curvature and the coordinates of the centre 11 .
the calculated value of R is negative. So the safest thing to do is this. in the problem stated above. Next fr(/me for (/ {inal ex(/mple Find the radius of c urvature and the centre of curvature for the curve y = sint 0. tan8 = {:} p Now. cllange tile symbol of the p(/rameter tn sometlling otller them 8. n ot when we are finding R only. let us heed an important warning. You will remember that the centre of curvature (II.. in this case. sm8 I =./2 So we have: Xl = 2. if we proceed with our usual notation. 11=1 k~Y'+RCOS 8 ~ 3+(/2)(~) ~3 . the min us sign must be included when we substitute for R in the expressions for II and k.Differentiation application'> 1 637 . Start off by finding the radius of curvature only.n t for which t = j.J2 II=XIRsinO = 2(. at the point for which (J = i Before we rush off and deal with this one. R~/2 Yl = 3 1 ..1 ~ 2. So. k) is given by: ll = X I k = Yl I(J RR sin ~ } cosO' and in these expressions is the angle of slope of the curve at the point being considered i. by chance. x = 2 cos (J. WI/ere YOliltave to find the centre ofcufllatllre of a CllflIe giver! in parametric eqllatiotlS involvillg (J. we will rewrite the problem thus: Find the rad ius of curvature and the centre of curvature for the curve Y = sin 2 t. at the poi.v'Z)( )z)=21 =1. 2) Note: If. e is a parameter and not the angle of slope at any particular point. 'I11en you will be safe. to say the least. we shall be using () to stand for two completely diffe rent things and that can be troublesome.j2' cos 8 = . Then check your result so far with the solution given in the next frame before setting out to find the centre of curvature.1 SlnO' I /2 cos 8 = . " =. x = 2 cos t.. k ~ 2 centre of curvature C is the point (1. . In fact. The trouble occurs only when we fin d C.e.
+ Reos() w he re tan() = ~ = .1 y.26~ :W (9between ±900 ) sln ( . XI 9= .04472.cos t} d'y dx' :t { ros t} _: sin t 2sint .cost dy dt 2sinlcost dx= dt dx = 2sin t dy = dx Att = 60' . move 0" to tile rleJlt frame . i.Rsin () k = y. k): lI = xl .e. 2·795 units I y= sin 2 t x = 2eost dy ~~ = 2sinteost dx dt =2sint .2·795 . ~ 'm'& ~ {'7}' ! and you h ave already proved that R = . ~. dy dx' 2 R= {I + (:)'}'" {1+ 4I}'" .638 Engineering Mathematics (ill Here is the working: 1 R = .11 ' 1805 4 R = . Also ros60~ = =_! dy dx ~ 2 2 I =:z = ! { .2·795.~ .2795 All correct so (ar? Move on to tile lIeJlt frame then Now to find the centre of curvature (h . What then are the coordinates of the centre of curvature? Calculate the m arid when you /Ja ve (illislled.2361) 4 4 .10JS 8 SJS ~ S(2.26~34') = cos( 26~3 4' ) = 08944 Also = 2 COS600= 2.
(2795)( 04472) = 11 ·250 II = 0·25 and + (. you must know quite a lot about the topics we have covered.025.2·50 k = . . If you have followed it carefully and carried out the exercises set. ~ Can You? Checklist 8 Check this list before and after YOIf try tile end of Programme test. So move on now and look at the Can You? checklist before you work through the Test exercise.2795)(08944) = 0·75 .) ·75) This bri ngs us to the end of this particular Programme.1'75 II ~ 1 . On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident are yolt that you can: • Evaluate the gradient of a straigllt line? Ves 0 0 0 DO Frames No m ooeD (I) toGIJ C!D to QI] mJtoCEJ IEJ toCEl • Recognize the relationship satisfied by t wo mutually perpendicular straight lines? Yes 0 0 0 DO No • Derive the equations of a tangent and a normal to a curve? Yes DOD D O No • Evaluate the curvature and radius of c urvature at a point on a curve? Yes Yes 0 0 0 DO No No • Locate the centre of curvature for a point on a curve? DOD 0 D .1·75 Therefore. th e centre of curvature is the point (. k = .0·25.Differentiation applications 1 639 I Because k ~ 015 h ~ .
o~ 60°. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve at the point (6. Find the equation of the normal at the point for which 0 = 4 r = 5 at their II . y = 1 + cosO + cos 20.5 sin O). 1f the tangent and normal meet the xaxis at the points T and N respectively. y = sin 0  ! cos 20. . Y = 2sin 3O. If x = 1 + sin 20.2 169 + 25 = 1 at the point (Ucos O. find the equation of the tangent at 5 Find the radius of cUlVature and the coordinates of the centre of curvature at the point x = 4 on the curve whose equation Is y = Xl + 5lnx . 1 2 Find the angle between the curves Xl + = 4 and SXl + f point of intersection for which x and yare positive. 0 being the origin of coordinates. 6 Given that x = 1 + sin 0. show that ct'y ru Z = 2.24. 2 4x 3 + 4xy + Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve = 4 at (0. Now yOIl (lrc rC(ldy for thc rlext Programme IIj Further problems 8 Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = x + z2x 1 at the point (3.OT is constant. 0'6) and the equation of the tangent at the origin .4 10 r = x i = 45' . Hence find the equation of the nonnal to the curve at the point (1. Find the radius of curvature and the centre of curvature for th e point on this curve where 0 = 30". 4).640 Engineering Mathematics ~ Test exercise 8 The questions are all straightforward. r Obtain the equations of the tangent and normal to the ellipse xl . show that ON. The parametTic equations of a function are x = 2cosl 0. 3). find ~~ in its simplest form.. 4 If x 2y + xyl  Xl  r + 16 = 0. and find the coordinates of a further point of intersection of the tangent and thc curvc. 2).
~ dZy _I ~ 'S Prove that the centre of curvature (II . Zat) on the parabola y = 4ax has coordinates 11 = 2a + 3at Z.2 pasSe5 through the origin. y = bsin8.Zasin t cost = D.6y . 7). 14 Find the radius of curvature of the curve 2x z + y.. x3 . For th e point where the curve y = determine: x' 1" . of the ellipse a2 + lJ2 = 1. If p is the radius of curva ture at any poin t on the curve. +x x_x2 (a) the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve (b) the radius of curvature (c) the coordinates of the centre of curvature. 4) 2·5 1" (b) y2 = 4x _ x 2 _ 3 at x = (c) y = Ztan(}. determine the area of the triangle POQ. V If the tangent at P cuts the yaxis at Q. 7). find the radius of curvature and the coordinates of the centre of curvature for the point stated. 8 Find the equation of the normal at the JXlint x = a ees (}.Differentiation applications 1 641 Find the radius of curvature of the catenary y = ccosh (~) at the point (X l . Y1)' 6 7 6y ..Za) is 5~. Show that the 1000L~ of the midpoint of PN is an ellipse and state the lengths of its principal axes. prove that the radius of curvature at the point (3a . show that % = CO( 8 and that . k = _ Zat 3 • . = x(x  1) on the curve 12 If 3ar a )z with a > 0. If 2x 2 t r Show that the equation of the tangent 10 the curve x = Za cos3 t. 10 In each of the foUowing cases. ~ ll Hnd lhe radius of curvature at the point (1. determine the equation of the normal to the curve at the point (1.2xY + r=D. <lx 4sm (J sh ow that Pz = Sy.. y = asin 3 t. at any point P (0 S t :5 isxsin t I 2ycost .9x = 0. .9x = 0 at the point (1 . k) at the point P (at Z . I f x=28sin2B and y = lcos2B. (a) Z5 x' + 16 = 1 at (0.x=3sec(}at8 = 4S". The normal at P on the ellipse meets the major axis of the ellipse at N.
where 0 is the Origin of coordinates. 0). (b) Show that the angle behveen these tangents is tan. (c) Find the radius of curvature at the point (1. parametric equations of a curve are x = cost + tsint.1 (2v1z). and S is the point (0.l cos t . Determine an expression for the radius of curvature (P) and for the coordinates (1/. ~ 17 The y = sin t . 20 The equation of a curve is 4y2 = r (2 . If C is the centre of curvature at the origin 0 and S is the point (a. . show that p = 2 J( SP)3 I SO.642 Engineering Mathematics 16 If p is the radius of curvature at any point P on the parabola x 2 = 4ay. Y1) on the parabola fl3j 19 y2 = 4ax is 2(a + x )3/ 2 all. k) of the centre of curvature in terms of t. . 18 Find the radius of curvature and the coordinates of the centre of curvature of the curve y = 3lnx. at the point where it meets the xaxis. Show that the numerical value of the radius of curvature at the point (Xt. 1/2). a).x2 ): (a) Determine the equations of the tangents at the origin. show that OC = 2(OS).
Propamme 9 Differentiation applications 2 Leaming outcomes Wilen YOII have completed this Programme you will be able to: Frames CD"' mJ • • • • Differentiate the inverse trigonometric functions Differentiate the inverse hyperboli c functions Identi fy and locate a max imum and a minimum Iden tify and locate a point of inflexion 643 .
i x. . of course.= cosy dy '" = .1x Now we can differentiate this with respect to y and obtain : '" . dy w .. They are therefore functions of x and we may well be requi red to find their derivatives. on the va lues assigned to x. Go throllgh the same steps lImi finally check your resllit witll that in Frame 3 d . We have to find: :.1 x} in exactly the same way. (I) Let y = sin . COS.I x. thus: We know that cos2 y + sin 2 y = 1 cos 2 y = lsin2 y = 1 _x 2 (since x = siny) cosy =~ 1 .. So let us dea l with them in turn.....644 Engineering Mathematics DiHerentiation of inverse trigonometric fundions sin ....I x. tanI x depend. write this inverse statement as a direct statement: y = sin.. x = siny First of all. dx Jl . dy ~ ~ Now we express cosy in terms of x.x2 1 (2) Now you can detennine dx {cos..
= .' xl x v Ix2 ~ ~} ~ d 1 (2) ill {cos. x = tan y dy = sec2y= I + tanly= 1 .. " Jf=XZ dx d { coSX _. I ax d { _.I X } Here is the working: let y = cos.t X dx \ w 1 x = cosy dy 1 dx = sin y dy .x Now you find the derivative of tan . } 1 dx tan x = l + Xl Copy these results into your record book. dx 1 sin 2y = I _ cos2y = l _ x 2 . Here they are: ! {Sin1x} d { _. dy .". } \ tan x = J+X2 Working: tet y = tan.x} = :x2 Let us collect these three results together.xl . The working is slightly different. dy dx I + x l 1 1+ x2 (1) (2) (3) :x {tan. but the general method the same. You wilt need to remember them. On to the next {rame . See what you get and then move to I:rame 4 where the detailed working is set out.Differentiation applications 2 645 I dx d { cos.1 Di(ferent only in sign v i .xl d { _. } So we have two very similar results: (1) dd {sin.1 x.siny cos2y + sin 2y = I sin y = v Ix2 . } dx cos X \ VI.1 VI .xl (3) .tx ill dX = l +x? dy t w .
l x..9xz 1 2 1 +(2)). given that y = (I  XZ) sin.1 (r ) S y = r. check YOllr resllft~ will1 tliose . There }'OU are.l 2x 4 y = sin.2Sx2 (5x )' 2 Y = cos.1).1 x Example 2 If Y = tan. 00 aU the questions.lx + l and so on. etc.sin.1 x Here we have a product ux ~ = (1 _ xz) ~ +sin. (2x) = Jl  XZ  1 _xz 2x.sin.I Sx dy dx V' V 1  1 .t (lx . products. these derivatives can occur in al1 the usual combinations.i (xl ) J 2> (x')' ·  2x Vt=7 .3 = J l .11 Frame 7 CD 1 Y = sin. find~ This time.l )z ·2 = 1 + 4xz .1 Sx 2 y = cos.5 _ 5 J l . it is a function of a function dy 1 2 dx = I +(lx.13x 3 y = lan.g.I lx dy dx dy dx dy dx V I_(3X)2 . +4xz . quotients. e. Now here is a short exerdsc.1 3x 3 Y = tan . Revision exercise Differentiate with respect to x: 1 y = sin.4x + 1 2 = 2+4xZ 4x 1 Zx2 .1 3 4 y = sin.646 Engineering Mathematics Of course..2 .i(i) Wilen you I1m'e finisl1ed them all. Example 1 Hnd ~~.
x = sinhy dx dy = coshy dxcosh y dy We now need to express cosh y in tenus of x.I x and then we will take a look a t them. now on to tile next frame Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions In just the same way that we have inverse trig functions. cosh 2 y = sinh 2 y + 1 = K. sm _' x' .Differentiation applications 2 647 ~ 2J{t < }+ 2x . So on to the ne. 1 1 . The method is very much as before. d.' x } . We know that cosh 2 ysinh 2 y = 1 :.xt frame ." ~+2x.I x and lanh. (~  Right. Anyway. (4) y = sinh I x To fmd: First express the inverse statement as a direct statement: Y = sinh..xsm d { .+ 1 coshy = J x2+ 1 dy . let us see what we get. dx JXZ+T Let us obtain similar results for COSh.. so we have inverse hyperbolic fllnctions and we would not be undul y surprised if their derivatives bore some resemblance to those of the inverse trig functions. (X) " 4 _ x2 x' .I x : . h.
} = vx 2 ~ _ I 1 Now you can deal with the remaining one. however.tanh 2 y 1 _ x2 dy dx 1 l _ x2 dx tan d{ h '} 1 x = 1_ x2 \<\'(' Now here are the results. (6) If Y = tanh . Wilen YOII flOve finished. all together.".I x. Now on to Frame 11 . x = tanhy = sech2 y = 1 . so that can compare them: (4) (5) (6) Make a note of these in your record book. Ii dy = sm y dy dx 1 sinhy Now cosh 2 ysinh 2 y=1 :. move to Frame lO ax Because dy 1x2 y = tanh .tanh 2 x. remembering this time.1x dx _ dy = . that sech 2 x = 1 . ~~ Tackle it in much the same way as we did for tan.648 Engineering Mathematics W We have just established (5) Y = COSh.I x.1 = x 2 _ 1 sinhy = vx 2 1 dy dx 1 Jx 2  1 dcoshx X d { _.I X ! {~nh' x} ~ ~ X = coshy dx . sinh 2 y = cosh 2 y . You will find that useful. You will need to remember these results.
.l _ I . sec 2 x = .1 {v'X y = COSh .I(tanx) 4 5 2_1} y = SiOh.4x 2 1 3x + 2 ../x2 3x + 2 Example 2 Y = tanh.I (~X) dy dx 1 e:f'4 =. (ill Differentiate: 1 y = sinhI 3x 2 y = COShI c. Then move on to Frame 13 for the resllits 3 y = lanh .{2) .16~ 3 16 9x 2 4 I 3 I 16 12 16 3 1 _ 9"z "4 9x 2 Example 3 Y = sinh. dy 1 2v'X2 2 " dx = V(3 _ Z.= sec x 5€C 2 X Jsec 2 x Now here are a few exercises for you to do.Differentiation applicatiom 2 649 Here are some examples. using the previous results Example 1 liD Y ~ COSh'{32x\ ..) Finish lIlem aU.I{tanx} dy "" dx I v tan 2 x + 1 ../9 2 12x + 4x2 2 ./8 12x t.l(~) .
inverse trig functions Inverse hyperbolic functions y si n . 1 1 (OS.650 Engineering Mathematics Lill 1 y = sinh.3 1 ~ 3 V(3X) z + 1 J 9xz + 1 5 2 y=cosh .".I x tan.x2 .1 dy dx 5 J Z5x z 1 dy ~ . sec2 x <Ix Itan Z x seczx 1 tanZx {v'X2=l} .I 3x dy 1 <Ix .1 x tanh. so that you compare and use the results.1 x dy <Ix 1 Y sinh.·2 5 zJ = 5 2S t 4 .xl. Do that: it wi ll help you to remember them and to distinguish clearly between them..1 eX) 2 dy <Ix Je:).4 3 y = tanh.1 COSh . ~(x' _ 1)1(2x ) 1+ 1 2 dy <Ix All correct? On then to Frame 14 Before we leave these inverse trig and hyperbolic hmctions.1 (tanx) 4 Y = sinh.I x vI _xz 1 1 f.4 ZJ25X: .1 x dy dx 1 J"l=XZ vxrtT 1 . let us look at them all together. .1 x I _ x2 It wou ld be a good idea to copy down this combined table. Jxz .
Revision exercise 1 2 Differentiate the following with respect to x: tan.check yOllr reslIlts with those ill Frame 17 Take care with these.and YOIl are slife YO" !Jave done what was required .I ( SC(X) tanh. we have mixed them up to some extent.I x dy dx dy dx Now check your results with your table and make a spedal point of brushing up any of which you are not really sure.'0" ..'x uy 3 dy <Ix dy <Ix~ 4 U Y = sinh.x 2 dy <Ix .1 (sinh x) d { _.' x lfy = tan.' (sinhx) sinh.Differentiation applications 2 651 Before you do a revision exercise. cover up the table you have just copied and see if you can complete the followi ng correctly: 1 If Y = sin. } I dx tan x = 1 1.l (sin x) sinl 3 4 S G) Wheu YOII have finisl1ed tllem all .~ ta ~n ~ x .sccx \l tan 2 x . tanx Jseczx 1 "sec::o.Ittanx) cosh.JX2=1 d { cosh 'x } dx dy <Ix "=='F=~ ' sec x..~E~ · sec2x 2 v'tan x t.l sec2 x Jsec2 x sec x 1 =.1x Ify = tanh.x..I x dy <Ix <Ix 2 Ify = cos. 1 Y = tan. cosh x 1 + sinh 2 x COSh2 cosh x x sech x dy <Ix 7.I x S 6 If y=cosh .
. . . a maximum value of y occurs since at A.az I 1 1 1 I a . . You have done this kind of operation many times in the past. Y = nx ) whose graph is shown above. At the point A. A y . i.a ~ a · . but just to refresh your memory. so off you go loFrame 18 Maximum and minimum values li!J .e. at B. .= 2 cosx = ... f :.. .= secx dx Isin x cos x dy dy dx /. .(x\i(X)' . y is a . let us consider some function. . at x = Xl .. the yvalue is greater than the yvalues on either side of it and close to it. yl'aJ V1. fI:r1 • You are already familiar with the basic techniques for finding maximum and mlnimum values of a function. you now know qUite a lot about the derivatives of inverse trig and hyperbolic functions.652 Engineering Mathematics dx tan d { h'} I x =tx2 cos x I . or nearly all correct./2 I val  X2 If you have got those all correct.. since the yvalue at the point B is less than the yvalues on either side of it and dose to it.. . Similarly. YOli (Ire now rearly to move onto the next topic o(this Programme. . ..
The graph we obtain is the first derived curve of the function and we are reaUy plotting the values of ~~ against values of x. We have no actual values for the gradient. y (mox) yPoint of inflexion C (mini fI~) A t 0 • .1 • 0 x.x. We shall be taking a special look at these. it then goes on with an increasingly positive gradient . TIle point C is worth a second consideration. it is essentially a form of Sbend. X 2 .. or stationary values ory. It looks like 'half a max and half a min'. 0 X We see that at x = XI. the graph of :. mOle or less steep. Band C are called stationary points on the graph. Therefore. Points A.x. X If we consider the gradient of the graph as we travel left to right. "111e curve flattens out at C. • • 0 0 . Le. we obtain the first rule. dy dx. IAt B. is al the xaxis and at no other points. Such a point is an example of a point o(ill{1exion. Y is a minimum value I I_I A Pointot inflnion C (min) y . . X dO . On to Frame 20 '" x. . . but we can see whether it is positive or negative. and while you know how to find the positions of A and B. x ] (corresponding to our three stationary points).fI::r.Differentiation applications 2 653 . which is that for stationary points. we can draw a graph to show how this gradient varies.' Move on to Frame 21 . but instead of dipping down. you may know considerably less about points of inflexion.
654 Engineering Mathematics (ill For stationary points.z. . . . against x.'.. .. . ."1%1 x From the first derived curve. . .. dx 2 IS zero fOr point of inflexion Copy the d iagram into your record book. .. . for m inimum y.. x . It summarizes a ll the facts on max and min values so far. 0 y . At B. y" IIxl . . C= * c =0 If we now trace the gradient of the first derived curve and plot this against x. . ~ee that: ~ is negative ~?z is positive dZy.. x '" "" 0 y . d' we obtain the second derived Clltve.. we for maximum y. which sh ows va lues of d. .z.'(xl "". we see that for stationary points: dy =0 <Ix For the second derived curve.
~ 2x + S."2  2x + S.. min. we can now detennine: (a) the values of x at which stationary points occur. then y may be a point of inflexion... . then y is a minimum. Hnd the stationary points on the graph of the function y = ~.Differentiation applicalions 2 655 From the results we have just established.. We shall need both the first and second derivatives.. so make sure you arc ready.. .. two stages: (a) Stationary points are given by : = 0 (b) The type o f each stationary point is determined by substituting the roots dy d 2y of the equation dx = 0 in the expression for dx 2 If If If :J ~ ~ is negative. then dx dy = . Is zero. There are. and dx 2 d'y = . by differentiating the function and then solving the equation :~ = 0 (b) the corresponding values of y at these points by merely substituting the xvalues found. Distinguish between them and sketch the graph of the function.... . .... Or point of inflexion) by testing in the expression fOr dx 2 d'y With this infonnation. is positive.. So let us apply these results to a straightfonvard example in the next frame. we can go a long way towards dravving a sketch of the curve.. in y = ((x) (c) the type of each stationary point (max.... If y x' x' ="3 . then y is a maximum.. of course.
. tZfl .1 in the expression for dx z d'y . d'Y = 4 . i. Ymin = 1 ~ and x = . • .t .. (x ..2 .e... Do it (ill We know t hat: (a) a t x =.. x There is no point of inflexion.1..1 gives Ymax Substituting in Y = ((x) gives x = 2.1.y = S o 3 4 . s tationary points OCCur at x = 2 and x = (b) To determine the type of each stationary point . dx 2 = . negat IVe d 2y x = . Move on . o z . AI.1· . x = . I.1 = 3' At x = 2'dx .!""" x = 2. Ymln = 2 1 "3 • z (c) at x=O. substitu te x = 2 and then x = . on this particular graph.2 ~ O c. I.656 Engineering Mathematics (ill (a) Stationary points occur at : = 0 d' dx~=2X l c. 5. like the point C. 4 .. positIVe 2 At x = 2 gives Ymln.e. • . • . Now let us take a wider look al points of inflexion... that when x 6~.. w e can see a t a glance from the function.Ymax = 6 '6 (b) at I . x' . =0.x .1.I that was just by way of refresh ing your memory on work you have done before. Yrnax = A1so.. . x = 2andx = . Y = YOlI am now sketch the graph o( tll e {Unction.2)(x + l )~O . 61tt ..e.1 . x Joining up with a smooth curve gives: .
. or from a left hand bend to a righthand bend.:ero. then.) to a lefthand bend (L. a I'ofI. it will not appear in Our usual max and min routine.. . from a righthand bend (R.:r: The point C we considered is. Points P and Q are perfectly good poin ts of inflexion and in fact in these cases the gradient is: POS itiVe} Which? At the points of inflexion. . i. but it is not essential at a PofI for the gradient to be .. the gradient is in fact I positive I COrrect.. How. A point ofillflexiotl (PofI) is defined simply as a point on a curve at which the direction of bending changes. of . . is simply a paint on a curve at which there is a change in the . it is not necessary for t he curve at a point of inflexion to have zero gradient.H. then. :d negative { zero y. but there is no restriction on its sign..H. . for : will nor be zero. . . . of COurSe.).. .. . are we going to find where such points of inflexion occur? . In general. . P and Q. .Differentiation applications 2 657 Points of inflexion The point C that we considered on our fust diagram was rather a special kind o f point of inflexion.. . Point of inflexion: a point at which there is a change in the I direction of bending I If the gradient at a PofI is not zero. . . A point of inflexion.e. The gradient can of course be positive.. negative o r zero in anyone case.
In curve 2. Le. . . 0 . x. . ". ..z.H. d.:::\ ~ . In curve 1. dx 2 = 0 d' y We see that where points of inflexion occur. dz 0 \. the gradient is always poSitive.z. Similarly in curve 2.0 . . = 0 So. .. reaches a maximum value but not zero.1/+ . . .. .658 Engineering Mathematics Let us sketch the graphs of the gradients as we did before: . . . . at x = X4 and x = XS. ++ indicating a greater poSitive gradient than +. is this the clue we have been seeking? If so.: reaches a minimum value but not zero. • x P and Q are points of inflexion . . 0 ~. In curve 1 . . ~. it simply means that to find the points of inflexi on we differentiate the function of the curve twice and solve the equation dx 2 = 0 Thai sOl/lids easy enol/gil! Bllt move on to the next frame to see wlwr is involved d'y . : For both points of inflexion. d'.+ ){.Z. . x . the gradient is always negative. . .. .
r.r.r. . this is nol the whole of the story. . W '"' X6 Notice lhe difference between the two second derived curves.0 . V 0 0 . . . d' y d'y = a Let S be a true point of inflexion and T a point on y = ((x ) as shown. .r.Differentiation applications 2 659 We have just found that where points of inflexion occur. How can we decide? Let us consider just one more set of graphs. . . . move on to Frame 31 . T is not a point of inflexion. . Unfortunately.r. y . . how do they differ? Wlten YOII have discovered the diffrrence. for it is also possible for dx 2 to be zero at points other than points of inflexion! So if we solve dx 2 = 0. Although dx 2 is zero for each (at x = d' y and x = X7). This is perfectly true.• 0 di d.+ . d'. C12<!rly. This should clear the matter up. ' . . The first derived curves could well look like this. we cannot as yet be sure whether the solution x gives a point of inflexion or not.. ~ .
x = 2 + a.l~ = 2x  1 For PofI. then. This Is the clue we have been aher. as we go For poin ts of inflexion. dx 2 = 0. . (b) Test for rl::mge of sign. on the graph of the function: X3 Xl r=T . Move un . ~~ = 0 with Ichange of sign I H 1is last phrase is allimportant. . ddY = xl . the graph of ~ only touches the xaxis d' and ~ does. e. = ~. . d'y (ill For a PofI. . if any.X _ 2. not change sign.. and gives us our final rule: For a point of inflexion. d' In the case of no P. dx 2 d' y = 0. of . x = ~ . Example 1 Find the points of inflexion. . to find where points of inflexion occur: (a) we differenUate y = f(x) twice to get (b) we solve the equation dx 2 ~ d'y =0 (c) we test to see whether or not a change of sign occurs in through this value of x...l. . f and a point lust a ter x I 1 = 2' Le. d' ~= 0 and there is a change of sign of ~ as we go (In the phoney case. . it occurs at x = ~. . :.a. d. i. the re is no change of sign. .) So.of. ~. with change of sign. through tile poitll. ..[z crosses the xaxis. . . with .660 Engineering Mathematics In the case of the real Pof·I.1=0 x=2 1 If there is a PofI.. .z  2x + S x <X (a) Differentiate twice. and investigate the Sign of ~~ at these two values of x. 2x . the graph of d. We t ake a poin t just before x . where a is a small positive quantity.
~ __ .. ~ ..Differentiation applications 2 661 d Y=2x _ l dx' (a) 2 (ill Atx = ~a. n lere IS In sIgn d'y as we go t h rough x = '1 0 f dx 2 2 There is a point of inflexion at x = .m~. ~ = 2(~+a) = + 20 .. This will give the values of x at which there are possibly points of inflexion. you will see the point of inflexion where the righthand curve changes to the lefthand curve.. First.. ~=2Ga)1=1 .l = 2a (negative) 1= I (b) At x = 4+a.I 2a (positive) ._t3__.X If you look at the sketch graph of this function which you have already drawn..orr_L~~'. Example 2 . ______ :_. move on to tile next frame d'y .. 1322.2a . · a change . differentiate twice and solve the equation O. (ill ~= Find the points of inflexion on the graph of the function: y=3xS Sx4+ x + 4 .x .. So start off by finding an expression for dx 2 and solving the equation ~.~ c_~. We cannot be sure until we have then tested for a change of sign in Course. We will do that in due d'y dx 2 = O.:.> .. When YOIl lTave done that.
60.x = 1 Atx = I .:.tl)2(1 . where 0 < a < 1.(x ~1) For Pof1. ct' dx~ =60(+a)2(a_l) = No Sign change. (a) Forx = O Atx = a. Pof1. (+)(+)() = negative (b) For.) = negative Atx= 1 + a. d y 2 dx' ~ 60(. i.a.0 ~ 60x.l ) = (+)(+ )(+ ) = posiHve Therefore. of course.a) (.l ) = (+H+) (.a . with change of sign. The functions with which we have to deal differ. x = Oorx = 1 60x 2 (xl ) = 0 If there is a point of inflexion. d'y d'y Change in sign . : . dx 2 = 60(1 . d' S = 0. take points on either s ide of it.662 Engineering Mathematics We have : y=3x S Sx4 + x+4 = lSx4 20x3 + 1 . No PofI. :. the only point of inflexion occurs when x = I.y=3 That is just about all there is to it. the same. from problem to problem. Now go on to tlIe next frome and complete the Can You? checklist and Test exercise . Now comes the test for a change of sign. or both. x = 1. dx 2 = 60(I + a)2(I + a . For each of the two values of x we have found. differing from it by a very small amount a.a . x = 0 and x = 1. it occurs at x = 0. Le.e.I ) = (+ )(+ )() = negative 2 At x= +a. ~ 60x' . at the point x=l. but the method remaim.
t G) (f) y = tanhl Sx Hnd the stationary values of y and the pOints of inflexion on the graph of each of the following funcdons.1 (.0'6428) Differentiate with respect to x : (a) y = sin .x 1 x Well done. YOII are now ready for the next Programme . On a scale of 1 to S how confident are you that you can: • Differentiate the inverse trigonometric functions'! Yes 0 0 0 D O No • Differentiate the inverse hyperbolic functions? Frames (!]tom [!Jto(!!) Q!]toOO Yes Yes D 0 DDD 0 0 D D O No No • Identify and locate a maximum and a minimum? • Identify and locate a point of inflexion? Yes 0 0 0 DO No kiJ Test exercise 9 The questions are all very st raightforward and should not cause you an y anxiety. ~ l 2 Evaluate: (a) cos.I X x (e) y = sinh.Differentiation applications 2 663 ~ Can You? Checklist 9 Check this list btfore and after YOli try the end of Programme test.6X2 + 9.I(I3x) (b) Y = COS.l (cos x) (c) y = x2 tan. and in each case. draw a sketch graph of the function: (a) y = ~ .x+6 y~x+ (b) (c) y = xe.1 (3x + 2) (d) y=cosh .
(aj y ~(x . in each case. ~ ll Find the stationary points and points of inflexion on the tollowing curves.xl . Determine the smallest positive value of x at which a point of inflexion occurs on the graph of y = 3e2'" cos(2x . x+y= l ~~ = 8 ~ Sy' Hence find the maximum and minimum values of y. show that when and 8 ~ = o.3Xdx~Y dZy dy when: Hnd the coordinates of the point of inflexion on the curves. = 8 + 2v'f4 and the minimu m value where in the form AeJ< cos(x + a) and show 10 For the curve y = e. If y3 = 6xy  Xl  dy Zyx' 1. ~ 7 If 4x2Z+ 8XY + 918X24Y + 4=O.{I 1 + tanx} (b) xvI . express : that the points of inflexjon occur at x = ~ + k1r for any integral value of k. 6 Find the values of x at whjch maximum and minimum values of y and points of inflexion occur on the curve y = 121n x + x.sin.Z)'(x .zvT4.I ) x Z x + sinx (take x and y scales as multiples of 1f) (b) y .7) (h) y ~ 4x'+3x'18x9 Find the values of x for which the function y = ((x ).2 .l )z has maximum and minimum values and distinguish between them.J< sin x. prove that dx = ZZ and that the maximum value y  x of Y occurs where x3 x' ~ 8 .2) = (3x .1 (c) y = x(x .lOx.1 x ~ .3). defined by y(3x .664 Engineering Mathematics ~ Further problems 9 DHferentjate: () a tan _.prove v l _Xl dy thatfor05x<1: Find: 4 (aJ ( 1 .x')dx~xY+l (bJ (J x'jdx. sketch the h'Taph: (a) y = 2x 3 sx2+4x .1 vI _ x 2 tanx 2 Ify sin. and. Sketch the graph of the fu n ction.
fi nd A and B and show that the maximum value of x is 2.1JI / 2 .Differentiation applications 2 665 12 Find the values of x at which points of inflexion occur on the following curves: (a) y = e. w here A and B are arbitra ry constants. y being the displacement from its mean position at time t. wv1.10xZ + 7x+4 The s ignalling range (x) of a submarine cable is proportional to . If x = 0 and ~: = Cwhcn t = 0. for the case when f = 4r. Find the speed at which the transmitted power is a maximum. Find the value of r for maximum range.211"r25). =  2C a n d t h at t h'IS occurs when t  "' " . Show that y is a maximum when t = ztan . Calculate th e width across the open top so that the crosssectional area of the channel sh all be a maximum. T = tension on the driving side and w = weight per unit length of belt. prove that the vertical angle (0) of the cone for mahlmum volume is give n by (i = 2sin. 18 The velocity (v) of a piston is related to the angular velocity crank by the relationship v = wr{ sin (i + ~sin 1 ("''> of the 20} whe re r = length of Bl 19 crank and f = length of connecting rod. where r is the ratio o f the radii of the conductor and cable. A right circular cone of base radius r has a total surface area 5 and volume V. The crosssection of an open channel is a trapezium with base 6 cm and sloping sides each 10 cm wide. Prove that 9V2 = r2(SZ . 16 The motion of a particle performing damped vibrations is given b)' y = et sin Zt. when its volume is a maximum.xl (c) y = x4 . 14 The power transmitted by a belt drive is proportjo nal to Tv _ g v = speed of the belt.1(2) and dete rmine this maximum displacement to three significant figures. If S is constant.2 In G). Show that. the ratio of the height to the base radjus is V2 : 1. rind the first positive value of 0 for which v is a maximum.1 G)' 20 Show Ihat the eq uati o n 4 dt 2 d 2x 2 + 4~ dx dt + ~ x = 0 i s sat is fi ed by x = (At + B )e. where Bl 15 A right circular cone has a given curved surface A.
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Programme 10 Partial differentiation 1 Learning outcomes Wllell YOII have completed this Programme yOIl will be able to: Frames OJ to CEJ • Find th e finit partial derivatives of a function of two real variables • Find secon dorder partjal derivatives of a function of two real variables • Calcu late errors using partial differentiation 667 .
1 = rr. . . We already know the meaning of fly and dY dx Now we have a new one. I... . .J If we keep r constant and increase the height 11. . rand h. .. and one with respect to . ~~ = 7f. Bit' BlJ is called the partial derivative of V with oV OV 'x w respect to h and implies that for our present purpose.. .. 8V Or = rr2rlt = 2rrr/J In the statement V = rrril.. taking all symbols except V and h as being constant .z Of course. Iconstant I V = 1rr1i.'. v I • f. It therefore has two partial derivatives. in which case. the value of r is considered as being kept ... one with respect to . e. V depends on two quantities..z. [d~ / d J r constant . Notice the new type of 'della'. .is kept constant.. a change in r would also produce a change in V... we differentiate the given expression.e. we can consider the derivative of V with respect to It but only if . We can therefore talk about : which simply means that we now differentiate V = 7rrzh with respect to " taking al l symbols except Vand r as being constant for the time being.. the values of r and 11.. wntten "/ IS BV v . In these circumstan ces... the volume V \ovilJ increase. we could have considered It as being kept con stant.. To find ~~.668 Engineering Mathematics Partial diHerentiation The volume V of a cylinder of radius r and height /1 is given by V = rr'z/ i.. ... V is expressed as a function of two variables.
. .. .: = br/l and &Ii = 2wr w ax vr Of course. . . differentiate with respect to x. To find ~~ we differentiate the expression for A \vith respect to II. iJA I VA VA a. regarding yas a constant. If A .1 I ' To find ~~ we differentiate the expression for A with respect to r.. . For exam ple. keeping all other symbols constant. 8A DA r. = 2x 3 Y =. w A . as being fo r the time being . except the o ne with respect to which we are differentiating. .. so we can find Dr and Vii . .... then Dr iJA = . . Here z is a fu n ction of x and y. consider z = xzyl.. . The same will happen with any function which is a function of two independent variables. differentiate with respect to y. . keeping all other symbols constant.. . we are not restricted to the mensuration o f the cylinder.'1 Partial differentiation is easy! For we regard every independent variable. regarding x as a constant. ~~..and iJh = . So. .. = 27rrh. We can therefore find 8z and (a) To find 8z iJx (b) To find &y ~.. .Partial differentiation 1 669 lOne with respect to r. o ne with respect to h I Another example: Let u s consider the area of the curved surface of the cylinder A = 2rrril A IS a fun ction of r and II. az ~ x'31 ~ 3. ....
Partial d lff W. x of X Z = 2x Partial diff W. Partial diff W. x of xy = Y (y is a constant factor) Partial diff w.r.3y ii.y)(x + 3y) This is a product.f.2 + 0 .2>:' ~ 3y' .0) = Zx .1) ~ 6x .2 . we regard x as being constant. ax = (b . I ii. we regard y as being constant. x of i)u r = 0 if hi a constant term} ax = 2x + y (bJ To find : .Lt.f. Y o f xy = x (x is a constant factor) Partial diff w.t.6y .y}(l + 0) + (x + 3y)(Z .r.Zx2y ax = 3".670 Engineering Mathematics W Here are ~me I Example 1 constant I examples.~ O + 3y' .2 is a constant term) Partial diff W.2>:' By And it is all just as easy as th at.t.3y ~ Sx.4xy = 3".4xy iJ.t.t.t. Example 3 z = (Zx .. II = xz+ xy + r (a) To find ~. 'With respect to' is abbreviated to w. Y of ".Y t Zx 6y = 4x + Sy /I)' ~ (2): .y)(O+ 3 ) + (x + 3y)(O .2 = 0 (". x . Dy = x + Zy Another example ill Frame 6 w Example 2 z = xl + {)z r .Lt. and the usual product n ile applies except thai we keep y constant when finding :~ and x constant when finding : . y o f = 2y r ill. .r.
iJy (x+y)(O I )(2xy)(O+ l) (x + y)' . az al loz ...e. un lU rile ne>:l frame 8z .y find ()z and az x + y' ax 8y 3y (>: + y )2 Applying the quotient rule.6x .20y az liJ Because z = (4x .y)( l + 0) Dx (x + y) 2 and a. Now what about this one? Example 4 If z = 2x . product ill Dx ~ (4x .2y)(3 +0) + (3x+ Sy)(4 .2y)(3x + Sy) .6y + 12x +20y = 24x+ 14y iJy ~ (4x . we have: az (x +r)(2 .1Oy . Now you do this o ne: If z = >: _ 2.0 ) ..0) = 12x . fm d ax and tJy Filld the results and tllen move on to Frame 7 .20y There we are. i.(2x .=24x + 14Yi ax tJy = 14x . find lJ>: and S>: + y 8l ay When you have finish.1Oy = 14x .2) 8z = 20x .2y)(O+ 5 ) + (3x + Sy)(O . 3x (x+ y)' That was not difficult.:".Partial differentiation 1 671 Here is one for you to d o. If l = (4x  2y)(3x + Sy).
... .2y)(5+ 0 ) .. . and (b) &y' we treat x as constant. So we apply the usual procedure. we regard y as being constant. as being for the time being .(5x + y)(O .. az ay= (x2y)(O + I ) . so move on to tile next frame Example 5 If z = sm(3x + Zy) find ax and 8y . .2y)' (a) To find :.. & 8z 8z oy ox =. 8z 8z Here we have what is clearly a 'function o f a function'..) )( Ox (3x 0 + Zy) = cos(3x + Zy) )( 3 = 3 cos(3x + Zy) = cos(3x + Zy ) x Z = Zcos(3x + Zy) = cos(3x + 2y) x 8y (3x + Zy) [) There it is. Here goes then. except that we regard the independent variables other than the one we ace using.2y)' (x .(5x + y)(I O) (x _ 2y)2 5x1Oy5x. except to remember that when we are fi nding: 8z (a) ox ' we treat y as constan t. .y l1y (x . w Let us do one more example.. we can apply all the ordinary rules of normal differentiation. but this is how we think.2) (X_Zy)2 x Zy + lOx + Zy (x _ 2y)' lly (x _ 2y)' In practice. So in partial differentiation.. .672 Engineering Mathematics w 8z laz Here is the working: l1 y [)z l1x ax = (x2y/ &y ~ (x . we do not write down the zeros that occur in the working. ox (x.cos(3x + Z.2y)' (b) To find : ' we regard x as being constan t.
.Y l=4x2+3xy+Sy2 z = (3x + Zy)(4x .Partial differentiation '1 673 Iconstant In each of the following cases. and : : l = 1 l = 4x 2 +3xy + Sy2 2 3 4 z = (3x + ZyJ(4x .sin(3x+Zy) x2y ()z Oy 2ycos(3x + Zy) .lS x .24x . turn straight on to Frame 15. Now here is a short exercise for you to do by way of revision.1Sy = Z4x . move to Frame lZ. tllen move 011 to Frame 11 for tile rest/Its Here are the answers: 1 2 (ill 8z 8x=8x+3y 8z_ 7 8x.7y ~ (3x + 2y)(5) + (4x  5y)(2) = .ZOy Move on for tile solI/nom to 3 and 4 . or are at all uncertain.5y)(3) ~. 8x + 3y 8z 8 3 8x = x + y 8z = 3x+ lOy 8y Product rule Similarly. find I Fine.sin(3x + 2y) xy2 If you have got aU the answers correct.Sy) 8z = 3x + lOy Dy & ~.lOy + 8x .lOy = . Le. 1 z = 4x 2 + 3xy + sy2 To find ax' regard y as a constant: oz .5y) tan(3x + 4y) l = sin(3x + 2y) xy Finish them all.3x+lOy 2 l ~ (3x + 2y)(4)< . '( 3x+4y) Ox=3sec az = 4 sec. Le. regarding x as constant: 8z &y = O + 3x + lOy. 8z ax = 8 x + 3y + o.7x . Let us work through these examples in detail. If you have not got all these answers. ~ (3x + : = 12x +8y+ lZx ..(3x + 4y) ay az ax xy 3xcos(3x + Zy ) .5y) 2y)(4) + (4x . ~.7x2Oy iJy 3 z = tan (3x + 4y) 4 Z = sin(3x + Zy) 8z .
All you have to remember is that for the time being.(x) oy x2 y2 2ycos(3x + 2y) . We could therefore find its partial derivatives with respect to x or to y. This business of partial ctifferentiation is perfectly straightforward.sin(3x + 2y) x' y Now have another go at finding : in the same way. .\y Then syz ~: = 6x+4y and: = 4x lOy The expression ~: = 6x + 4y is itself a function of x and y. Now let us move on a step.674 Engineering Mathematics (ill 3 z = tao(3)( + 4y) {JZ Ox : = = sec (3x + 4y)(3) 2 = 3 sec(3x + 4y) _ _? sec2 (3x + 4y)(4 ) = 4sec 2 (3x + 4y) 4 z sin(3x + 2y) xy xycos(3x 8z ax + 2y)(3 )  sin (3x + 2y)(y) x'Y' 3)('05(3)( + 2y) .and behave like constant factors or constant terms according to their positions.4. Consider z = 3x 2 I. all the independent variables except the one you are using are kept constant . (2) .5io (3)( + 2y) xy' That should have cleared up any troubles. Theu check it with Frame 14 [ill IJere it is: z sin(3)( + 2y) xy fJz xycos(3x + 2y). 011 you go 'lOW to Frame 15 and continue lhe Programme Right..5io(3)( + 2y).
. This would give us: on the 01 ax.Partial differentiation 1 675 (a) If we differentiate it partially W. but with the partial a) °{OZ} If'z axz=l))I. (b) If we di fferentiate partially w.x + 4y = 6 o( ) This is called the second partial derivative of z with respect to x .ax left~hand Note that the operation now being performed is given by the the two symbols in the denominator.ay iflz . y . we get: ay ax o {OZ} an d h" t IS IS . 6. If'z ax ax an d t h is 'IS wrttten ax 2 (much like an ordinary second derivative. fIlz wntten &y.10 Eflz = 4 li'z Note th at IJy 8 means . of So we have this: z ~ 3x'+4xy5y' 8z ax = 6x + 4y IJy 8z ~ 4x  toy fIlz = 6 8x' fIlz = 4 1Jy.r.t. x ayax ° {OZ} so 8li'z 8 means x. x.8x Of course. y. t. we could carry out similar steps with the expression for : right.r. we get: .
. :.~x = {)~~. It looks more complicated.iJy We see in this case. move to Frame 18 (ill Here are the results: z = SxJ + 3x 2 y + 4y3 az 2 ax = l Sx + 6xy ax~ a'z = 30x+6y ay &z fPz 8x. we h ave: z = 3x 2 + 4xy .8x Ih 6x Again in this example also.=6x 8y.676 Engineering Mathematics I means iJ'z 8 {DZ} 8x. we see that :.&y ax By Collecting our p revious results together then.:. that EPz = 4 are then. .an . + 3 x 2y + 4y .x = a~~' 'I'lere two first derivatives and {ollr second derivatives..x vy uX uy x.2' 8 . take your time and all will be well.iJy iJr.ycosx. 3 f· d [)z 8z EPz. though the last two seem to have the same value. Do not rush at it. but it is done in just the same way. <i""2' "". 10 8' .Sf 8z . 111ef1 to Frame 19 . Here is one for you to do. find all the first and second partial de rivatives of z = xcosy .ax WIlen you /lave completed all tllat.. Now do this one.=4x toy ay iJy az~ = 10 8x. Here it is.jlz fPz d &z If z = 5x .&y {)z = 3x2 + 12y2 8y' ~ 24y = ..
&y = .cosx When differentiating W. if you have found ::.r.[)x = smy + smx if'z if'z 8y2 if'z = .4x 2 (x' ~ (X2 + 0 )2 Now you find ~ in the same way and hence p rove the given identily.vy " ~.>. smx 8z . a". move? all to Frame 21 .x.t. of course.Lt..x.Partial differentiation 1 677 Check your results with these. z = xeos>. EP z In fact this will always be so for the functions you are likely to meet. so that there are really three different second partial derivatives (and not four) .cosx iJz . 0 x &z vX .smy .siny + sinx And again. 8x 2 = y. So we get: 8x = cosy + y. So here goes: V ~ In(x' 8V + 1") I 2x 8x (x' + 1") 2x = x2+ y2 if'v /)x 2 + 1")2 . In practice.2x (XZ + >. . y. x is constant (and therefore cos x also).2x. When differentiating w.Z)2 2x2 + 2f . 'fIley should give the same result. x. also). . When YOIl are ready. 8y= .x it is a useful check to find iJ~~ separately.cosx [j2z . cosy 8x. >' is constant (and therefore cos>.uy. \oVh<lt <lboul this one? If V = In (x2 + f). . prove that 8X2 &V + ayz &\1 = 0 TillS merely entails (inding the two second partial derivatives and substituting them in the lefthand side of the statement.
2x2 .2 I. we can treat this as a 'function of a function' and write f'(x.:~ (x2 + y2)z 2y2 _ b. So making a fresh start from V 8V = In(x2 I.t.2 Ito represent the derivative of the function w.2y ax = av nXI I. Example 1 If V = f('? I.f).2. its own combined variable (Xl I.2f (Xl 2"z .4"z 2x' .f'(x' + y') .y2 )2 (Xl I y2i (b) Substituting now the two results in the identity.f'(x' + "z ). By (x' + r) ~ ('(x' r "z ).f).y ax ~ x.I).y2) 8V X ax (x z I 8 I x &y .2x ~ 8V 2xy. r.678 Engineering Mathematics (ill We had foun d that &'v  ox 2 = 2"z2x' (xz+yZ) 2.2x' 2x' . show that x By .Zy (x' +"z)' 2x' + 2"z . we get: &y &V W 1 2 2y (x'+"z)· Y ~ x' + y' (X 2+ y2 )Z _ Zy.y.'..y2 )2 + .yl) b ut the precise nature of the function is not given.Y 8V 8V =0 ax Here we are told that V is a function of (xl I.2y .2"z + . r) r )= (' (Xl yz). gives: &'V + {)x2 oy2 8'V (X2 I.f'(x' + "z) Let us Ilave anot11er one orO/at kind.a)l o Now on to Frame 22 Here is another kind of example that you should see.2y' (Xl I.11 the /lexl frame ~O . However.2xy.f'(x' + "z ).x av 8 ay ~ f' (x' + "z).
show that x + ~ = x iJx fly 0 Much the same as before: 8z ax &y 8z ~ f'{t} "{t} ~ r{t }(. this is how it goes. V ~ f(ax + by) DV 8 ax ~ ('(ax + by).a &y = ab.b ~ b.~ 8z y = 8z x .f (ax + by) .ax (ax + by) = ( '(ax + by).f(ax + by ) (a) ~ = (.Partial differentiation 1 679 Example 2 If z = iJz r{t}.ab·r (ax + by) ~ O av av Move 011 to Frame 25 .Xl L) ~ _L f'{t} x {)xx x Xl X ~ r{t } ". ~. check yo"r working against tllat in Frame 24 Here is the working.{t } ~ r{t }} ~ !r{t } x8yx xxx. just to get your hand in: If V = (ax + by).aav &y = 0 WIlen YOll /Jm'e done it. (ax + by) ~ f' ( ax + by) .x + 8xoy x2 (J')f'{Y) .( ax + by). show that &V bfix .f[ax + by) (h) v:ax .+ y lr{Y} x xx ~~r{~Hrm ~O And one for you.a = a.
we can fin d: flz 8z ax If'z By &'z &'z ax' &'z BY' ByBx &x.By And also: &'z By. all independent va riables other than ya re constant for the tim e being. If z = x.&x ~ &'z Dx.t.680 Engineering Mathematics (ill So to sum up so far. x. if z = f(x. i.({xy ). e.Lt. check witlt tlte soill/ions in Frame 27 (ill 1 (a) Z = 3x 2 +2xy +4r &z ax =6x+2y  &z = 2x + By Oy Dx' &z = 6 &2z 8 ayz ~ {j1z {jlz = 2 {)y.8x = 2 Dx. r. if z is a function of x and y.3x2 + 2x)'+ 4r (b) z = sinxy x+y (c) z = . all Independent va riables other than x are constant for the time being. express x 8z ax _ /Z in its simplest fo rm. no matter how complicated the expression to be differentiated may seem. y).By . To differen tiate partially W . ay M Ien you l!aYe finiShed.xy 8z 8z If z = In(e X + eY ) .By Now (or a revision exercise L!!J ~ Revision exercise 1 2 3 Find all fi rst and second pa rtial derivatives fo r each of t he fo llowing functions: (a) z . Partial differentiation is easy. sh ow that 8x t {)y = 1. So that. To d ifferentiate parti ally W. y.
y)' (x .y )' 2 (X _ y) z 4x (X_y)3 lx .y)' 2x+2y .ax = y( x sin xy) + cosxy = cosxy . fly.(2y)2(x .y)'(2) .x StIlxy 2 .y)] a'z 8x.y) I (x _ y)4 2(x _ y)z _ 4x(x _ y) (x .fJy (x .2x .xysinxy x.Yl' a'z lJy.2y (x Yl' rJ' .y) (x _ y)4 Yl'  2 4y (x .xysin xy (c) z = x+Y ') "il'z By = x( .y)'(2) .2 8z 8y = xcosxy 8.y)( 1) (x _ y)4 2(x 4y(x .2y (x _ y)2 (x y)l (x+y)(.4y . By 8x z  (xy)l (x+y) l (x y)2 .2(x .2y = (X _ y)3 (x . 8x 8. = cosxy .YStn xy + cosxy ox. &l ay2 = .l ) (xy)' 4y (x _ y)] Y (x _ y}3 lx (x Yl' a'z _ (2 ) (2) a'z~2x (.y)' (x .lx.4x (x  2x .2y .2) ( l )~ 4x 8y2 (x .y 8.Partial differentia tion 1 681 (b) z = sinxy ex = y cos xy iJ'z iJ'z ax 2 = r sinxy .8x (x .
lod II both change SimultaneoUSly. Now let us look at one of Its applications. So move 011 to Frame 28 Small increments If we return to the volume of the cylinder with which we started this Programme. av ah = lTr Now let us see what we get if r . Do not be unduly worried if you made a slip or t wo in your working.f(xy). Try to avoid doing so. We have seen that we can find [)V with Ii OV Dr constant. and 81i with. av Dr = 2mh.y + ((xy) 8z az ~ x2If(xy) + x((xy) x 2yf(xy) Yay Yay ~ x((xy) ~ z oz That was a pretty good revision test.((xy ). of course. So far we have been concerned with the technique of partial differentiation. V = lTrh.f(xy) az az By ~ x. constant.f! ox &'+eY oz = Oz [)z e +.. we have once again that . but you are doing fine.= ." &'+&' &y ex + &' eY +ex + eY = e+&' = l e'+& OZ + Oz=l ax [)y 3 z = x.682 Engineering Mathematics 2 z = In (e'" + eY) oz = _I_.ax &y _1_. . Now on to the next part of the Programme.x xax xax f)z ax ~ x.
lill av av 6V ~ 100. Find Ihe approximate increase in volume when r increases by 0·2 cm and h decreases by o·} cm.(0 2) = + 25rr( 01) 2(}. Then the new + liV + lir)2(h + bh ) = 1I"(. when r = 5 cm . giving: liV = 7r(2rMr + h [lir]2 + r 26h + 2rbrlih + ]lir ]26h ) since tir and lih are small and all the remaining terms are of a higher degree of smallness. A cylinder has dimensions r = 5 cm. that is: "'" 1r(2rhlir + r2lih) Therefore 6V :::: 271rhhr + 7rr2{jh.zh + 2rh6r + h [lir ]2 + r 2lih + 2rlirlih + [lirf = 1I"(r lih ) Subtract V = 7rFh from each side. 6V :::: av fj. h = 10 cm so av ar = 21r5.z 11"5 = 251r 2 In this case. h = 10 cm. let V become V volume is given by: V + li V.r .or = lir = 0·2 and 6h = .2·51r = 17·51r bV:::: 54 ·98 em 3 Le.z + 2r lir + [6r]2)(h + lih ) = 7r(.Partial differentiation 1 683 If r becomes r + lir .] 0 = lOOrr av 2 8h =. Well now V = ~h so ar = 27rrh 8V av ah = rr.. the volume increases by 54·98 em3 Just like that! .0·] (minus because h is decreasing) tiV "'" er·tir + 8 h . and h becomes h + lill.:br + a h till 0/1 to Frame 29 av Let us now do a numerical example to see how it all works out.
w) az 8z az then 6z = "ijfx + ayoy + ~\V If we remember the rule for a function of two independent variables. The result is quite general and a similar result applies for a function of three independent variables. making by ... Here it is once again: az ..y. the increase oz will also be relatively small. y ) and if x and y increase by small amounts 6x and 6y. if x remains constant.y) ax oz bz = ax6x +. Here is an example: If z is a function of x and y. y) then 8z=jfxbx + W Y Copy this result into your record book in a prominent position.684 Engineering Mathematics This kind of result applies not only to the volume of the cylinder. we get: liz = A6x + B8y + higher powers of 8x ilnd 6y. then: = A6x +. this becomes A • = ox & Similarly. for example: If z = (x . i. If Y remains constant. az If z = f(x .higher powers of 6x . z = ((x . 0 gives B = : higher powers of very small quantities which can be ignored (ill ~8. 6x = A. where A and n are functions of x and y. we can easily extend it when neces~ry. if z= f(x. So that if fix 4 O.8. If we expand 6z in powers of 8x and liy.. but to any function of two independent variables.y This is the key to all the forthcoming applications and will be quoted over and over again. such as it deserves! .e. so that by fjz = 0.
liV = 1 and liR 1 V = 0 ·5. 81 OJ~WV + 7iitR 8I f)fl V 8V = "R and E)R =. V = 250.RzliR So when R = 50.20 = 0 ·02 . what are the values of liw. y is a function of three variables. The 6y ~ ~w+~s Ow os + ~d o(f We have fly Ow s3 d4.4ws3 fiy = d4fiw + ~5 + ~d s3 3wsZ Now then. R) c. Example 2 ws 3 If y = (j4' find the percentage increase in y when w increases by 2 per cent.0·03 Le. why not? . Notice that.Partial differentiation 1 685 Now for a couple of examples Example 1 (ill = SO ohms.l frame I If not. lJ!> and lid? 2 Is it true to say that liw = 100 .2500(0'5) 1 I 50 . formula therefore becomes: 5 and d. J ~ f(V. I decreases by 0 ·03 amperes 1 250 Here is anothe r example.R2 : . s decreases by 3 per cent and d increases by 1 per cent.0·05 = . in this case. lis = LOd 3 6d = 100? Nn:. find 8I the change in 1 resulting If I V = 7f' and V = 250 volts and R from an increase of 1 volt in V and an increase of 0·5 ohm in R. w. fJy {)d ~ 4ws 3 . OJ ~ 50 (1) . til = "RtiV . fly as 3ws z ~.
bw = 100 2 0 f IV = 100 2" Because bw 3 35 d Similarly. Move on IQ Frame 35 lill (ill Now here is an exercise for you to do.r ~ 2Whd(± l~) + w'd(± .) + ""h( ± . This is very much like the previous example. hand d. (~g~) _ 4.".686 Engineering Mathematics No.. is not 100 2 0 f a urut.100 =Y {l~} 9 4} 11 per cent of y 2 i. so you . i. it is not 100 of a unit.. by = ~: (~..e. and the symbol w must be included. but 1~ of w. Now W 6tv= ± 100 : h 6h =±100 ' d 6d =± 100 . all plus or minus..viII be able to deal with it without any trouble. Work it right through and then go on to Frame 36 and c heck your result.~) = 2w'hd w'dh w'hd ±wo... find the maximum pOSSible percentage error in the calculated val ues of P. lis = 100 of s = 100 and M = 100' Now that we have cleared that point up.± 100 ± 100 The greatest possible error in P will occur when the signs are chosen so that they are all of the same kind. we can continue with the problem. It is not correct .C~) = l~~3 C~) WS'{2 1~!3 c~o) .. they would tend to cancel each other Out. i.. . ' b ut 2 per cent 0 f w.100 .e. y decreases by 11 per cent Remember that where the increment of IV is given as 2 per cent.e. If errors of up to 1 per cent (plus or minus) are possible in the measured values of lV.3 (1~) = = (i4 100 . If they were mixed.. . P = wZhd.) +3.
(a) 6A = 1 per cent of A (b) 8h = 0 ·5 per cent of II Here is the working in detail: (a) A = i M = 8a ·Sa +8h ·6h 8Ah8Aa a Va 2 ' 8b = "2 . find the maximum possible error in ca lculating (a) the area of the triangle and (b) the length of II. ( ' + b')!( 2b) Also hh = ~ (± 2~) + ~(±2~) a 2 + Jil 200 J ai + lfl 1 ~± = ± 2~ va2 + b2  ± 2:m (1I) hh = 0 ·5 per cent of II .".". 6a =± 200 ..b [ 1 1 ] 1 ±z ZOO + ZOO = ±A. here is one last example for you to do. Maximum possible error in P is 4 per cent of P Hnally. hP =±W2I1d{1~+1~ + 1~} =±P (1~) ..'. The two sides forming the rightangle of a rightangled triangle are denoted by a and h. Work right through it and then check your results with those in Frame 37. nb oA oA 6h =± 200 b h A a M ~ ~(± 2.!.) + ~h~) = a.Partial differentiation 1 687 . ]00 • 6A = 1 per cent of A (b) h~ hh = Va' + Ii' ~ (n' + iJ)! ah aa 6a + 8b hb a 2 Dh ah ~ ~ (a' + iJ )!(2n) an 811 a {)b 2 =. If there are possible errors of ±0'5 per cent in measuring a and b. The hypotenuse is h.
ay). find ox2 and &y2 and h ence prove that xax + Y&y + zaz' (b) U z = f(x 8y2 = a 'ax2' &z 2&Z . But for the time being. do them carefully. there remain only the Can You? checklist and the Test exercise. So on /lOW to Frames 38 alld 39 ~ can You? 00 Checklist 10 Check this Jist before and after you try the end of Programme test. rind all first and second partial derivatives of the following: (a) Z = ~ I (b) . On a scale of 1 to S how confident arc you that you can: Frames • Find the first partial derivatives of a function of two real variables? Yes o o o o o ITJtoQI) mJto(!!] No • Find secondorder partial derivatives of a function of two real variables? Yes Yes o 0 o 0 o 0 o o No No • Calculate errors using partial differentiation? DO ~ Test exercise 10 Ta ke your time over the questions. We shall meet partial differentiation again in the next Programme when we shall consider some more of its applications. express in its simplest form av av {flz &z + ay) + F(x .688 Engineering Mathematics That brings us to the end of this particular Programme.5xl + 3r z = cos(2x + 3y) 4x3 (c) z ~ e"r' X2 (d) z= 8V sin(2x + 3y) 2 (a) If V = Xl + y2 + zZ.
find the change in P resulting from a drop of 5 volts in E and an increase of 0 ·2 ohm in R. L and V. . where (is an arbitrary function. .ySiny).8y I. If V . = xly+z au au all !' show that xO + y.20a~~. 10 az az Eh' In the form ula D =1 2(1 _ v 2 )' h is given as 0·l±O·002 and v as 0·3 ± 0·02.2y). Express the approximate maximum error in D in tenns of E. If x and y have the same percentage error P.+ zO (x2 +r l. = In{x2 + f ). If z = sm{3x I.2 ].~. verify that If U = 2 8x2 &z 6z. ax 2 ~ 9 If z = (x I.1 &y2 = o.. filz 3ay  filv + E¥ = ~V = O.. show that 8x 2 + &y2 = O.l~) 2 6 If z = t""{xcos Y . show that xax +Yay = z . verify that 8 If z = 4:~ I. show that the percentage error in z is approximately 2p(l The formula z = 2 :~ 2 is used to calcu late z from observed va lues of + z ). then 8x 2 . where k is a constant. and there are JX)ssible errors of ± 1 per cent in measuring H. = 0. show that x. 5 Show that the equation z = :~ I. filz filz ~ 7 If u = (1 + xl sinh(5x . find the maximum possible error in the calculated value of B. is satisfied by In /x + y2 + ~tan. uX a'Y x + r 2 3 4 Prove that.Z2 ) x oJy z o.Y). +Yn:: = 2z(1 + z ).f(D. f( Y) &'z &'z x .Partial differentiation 1 689 The power P dissipated in a resistor is given by P = R' E' If E = 200 volts and R = 8 ohms. 4 If 0 = kHLV!. I. . ~ 1l x +r a x and y.25~ = O. That's it ~ Further problems 10 1 8z 8z 1 lf z = 2 .show that x ih ax2 + 2xY .2y) .
18 If Y = Asin(px + a ) cos(qt + b). where k is a constant. ao} .~/z at in x and t respectively.. show that the Change in k due to small Changes of (/ per cent in T and b per cent in p is approximately (na + b) per cent. determine the maximum percentage error in R1 . B] '9 Show that ¢ = Ae.R4 have known tolerances of ±X per cent. ±y per cent. is given by Show that one solution of this equation is y = A sin px sin(pt + (I). where c A. y and z. find the percentage increase in y. at a distance x from one end. expressed in terms of x. p.690 Engineering Mathematics 12 In a balanced bridge circuit. .I:tI Zsinpt cosqx. If w increases by 2 per cent.t. k' 8xz=c2 8tz + kat . and d decreases by 2 per cent. find the error in ydue to small errors 6x and =r = 2. ~ [lJ IS If k/ ko = (T / Tot.providedthatp =cftf"4' azv + azv a'V .:. TIle deflection y at the centre of a circular plate suspended at the edge and uniformly loaded is given by y = y:J' where w of plate.2 = 0 VT is satisfied by V tan . t = B]13 kwd 4 = tota\load. Calculate the approximate percentage change in y if w is increased by 3 per cent. 14 The coefficient of rigidity (n) of a wire of length (t) and uniform diameter (£I) is given by n = ~.p/ 760. 1 {az. R3. determ ine the maximum percen tage error in the calculated value of n. 8y2 + 8z = 0 is satisfied by ()X Z 2 20 Show that (aJ the equation V v'X2+YZ+Z2 = • and that (b) the equa tion . 15] 17 The displacement y of a point on a vibrating stretched string. RI = RzR3/ R. If Rz . I by 3 per cent. satisfies the equation az.1 G). d is decreased by 2i per cent and t is increased by 4 per cent. a'V aXZ + +a'V J). d = diameter thickness and k is a constant. at time t. where A is a constant. If errors of ±O·2S per cent and ± 1 per cent are possible in measuring Land d respectively. ±z per cent respectively. 16 The deflection y at the centre of a rod is known to be given by y = k. c and (/ are constants..
and secondorder partia l derivatives of a fun ction of two rea l variables • Apply partial d ifferentiation to rateorch ange problems • Apply partial d ifferen tiation to change<}fvariabJe problems 691 .Programme 11 Partial differentiation 2 Leaming outcomes When YOII 1 1ave completed this Programme Frames OJtoCEJ roll will be (lbJe to: • De rive the fi rst.
." (y is constant) (x 8z . !~ this expression. we said. would be the foundation of most of the applications of partial differentiation to follow. Before we tackle any further applications. (lJ If z = tan{x .fly f)x f)y oz oz We were able to usc it. just to remind you: z = x 3 + 4x 2 y  If then and 3.y). and you will remember that to find: (a) : ' we differentiate the function z. then 6z = ax ox + ay by az az . .. of course.. we do not write down the zero terms. so copy it down into your record book.. then flz= . if z = (x. we estabHshed a result which. for the time being. thus: ax f)z If z = (x .>! ::ieriVdtlVeS. ~.r ). to work out certain problems on small increments. • az Dx ay When r(1Il lIave finished it. have a go at this one. just as it stands. . ax = 3x + 8xyO 8y aZ = O+ 4x2 _ 9r is constant) In practice. for the time being. and : are the partial derivatives of z with respect to x and y respectively.). i. keeping all w independent variables other than y. flOd ax and 2 .. It is also the key to much of the work of this Programme.6x+ .. ....692 Engineering Mathematics Partial diHerentiation In the first part of the Programme on partial differentiation.). (b) !:V we differentiate the function z with respect to y..e. You surely remember it: it went like this: If z is a function of two independent variables.1. so with the reminder above.. I constant (in both cases) I An example. .) then flz = ax ox + ayoy w If z = (x... keeping all independent variables other than x. we must be expert at finding parti.. x and y.. errors and tolerances. with respect to x. check willi lhe next frame .
{Jy filz = 3 e2~3y .3y {Jy.ly f' d {flz {flz {flz (2) If Z . check your work with the soluHotlS in the next frame .3) ~ 3. 3) = 9.2~. too.3y 8x. before we move on to new work.fJy ._ 3y All correct? You remember.3'(.6. . .8x ..3y (  &~ = _3.Partia' differentiation 2 693 Because z = tan(x2 ax 82  r) {)x ~ ~ sec' (x' _ I) x ~ (x' I) ~ sec'(x' .1)(2x) 2xsec'(x'  I) and {Jy 82 ~ sec'(x' _I) x ~(x' I) By = sec2 (x 2  r)( Zy) = _Zysec 2 (X 2  rJ That was easy enough. 2 &z {Jx {Jy = 2 Cb.ly {)z = e2'..2 ~ 6 .e' .3Y..e2'3y w IJx : ~ <.{Jy = filz = 6 t/b .. So in this case. that in the 'mixed' second partial derivative. the order of differentiating does not matter.<..3. Now do this one: _ . Find all the first and second partial derivatives of the following: (a) z = xsiny (b) 2 ~ (x + y) In (xy) When you have (oulld (Ill tile derivatives.8x . I filz 8x.3y 2 _ 4 '. Tllen move on to Frame 5 and check your results Here are the results in detail: z = fib . . then fJy.2 = Z. since fiZz _ _ t/b3y filz _ 8x.10 {Jxz' {JyZ' {)x .t: . • .elX.r· _'.e b . CD Well now. see what you make of these.3y .By Finish litem all..
x =+&y.. Check your results carefully.+ .8x x xy x y y+x xy ax.a = cosy 8y... that was just by way of warming up with work you have done before.. x (b) z ~ (x + y ) In(xy) <. .!. flx = smy 8z . (a) z = xsiny :. .694 Engineering Mathematics Here they are.By = cosy &z ~z = (x + y).t .+ In(xy) xy y x(x + y) =xr&z By2 x2 x y +xy'Y = 1 t .x + In (xy) ~ . ax.y x2 +X 1 y (x+y) 1 y2 + xy 'x yx 7 .oy = &z 1 1 1 1 &z y+xy ·y = y+x x+y xy 1 1 1 1 Well now. 8z By = xcosy xsmy &z=O 8x' &z .y + In(xy) = (x + y) + In(xy) xy 8z ~ &y (j2z x 1 (x + y ) (x + y).=.IX oy2 &z = . Let us now move on to the next section of this Programme..
. Like this: Example 1 The radius of a cylinder increases at the rate of 0·2 cm/s while the height decreases at the rate ofO'S cm/s. Therefore on the diagram we keep the symbols r and II to indicate that they are variables.n values for its dimensions.h/l (Here it is. for the radius and height are changing and the given values are instantaneous values only.hr + . ~ hV dV a' 6 + t dt'  So our result now becomes dV dt = w This result is really the key to problems of the kind we are about to consider. will remain unchanged. 0511 dh ~ . .e.. If we know the rate at which r and It are changing.. but the partial derivatives.. WarnitJg: The first inclination is to draw a diagram and to put in the give. ht dt'.. It = 12 cm. 6t 8V 05/1 Then if .Partial differentiation 2 695 Rateofc:hange problems Let us consider a cylinder of radius r and height II as before. popping up again!) .5t hr d. we can now find the corresponding rate of change of V.::. we also know that hV = . This we must NOT do.t. M = {)(' 8V 6r U + 8/1 .5t dt' which do not contain ht .. hV Now dlvlde both sIdes by E. r = 8 cm.2 Since V is a function of r and II. i. . Then the volume is given by _~l_l &V ar I T 8V vII V = 7rr 2 /J 8r = 8V 27rr/J and 011 &V = 7r. Find the rate at which the volume is changing at the instant when r = 8 cm and h = 12 cm.
is to express z in tenns of x and y..:j 8r = ov Z1I"rh. z = .2 r = 8. BV 0/1 = 11". of course.0 '5) = 3B ·41r . The first thing to do..2 dh dt dt dt Now at the instant we are considering: . x is increasing at 2 cmls while y is decreasing at 3 em/s. d'Odh dt = 'Z. ill = . Calculate the rate at which z is changing when x = 5 cm and Y = 3 cm .2 dt = 2 7rB.. . dt + 11".0 ·5 (mmus smce h is So you can now substitute these values in the last statement and finish off the calculation... .12.+~6h av I dV = 27rT1t dr + 11". Example 2 % .~ v v = 7rr 2 h OV 8r 011 dV OV dr OV dJ1 dt = a.. That is not difficult.. giving: di = ······· ····· dV LiD Because dV dr ~ = 20·1 dV dt em 3 /s ill = 27rrh..696 Engineering Mathematics ® Here it is then: f"t11 ' r.3271' = 6·471' = 20·1 cro3 /s Now another one. h "" decreaslOg ") = 12.. In the rightangled triangle shown..(0 ·2) dh + '/r64( . ' dt bV = ~c. ' dt + OJ. .
Then move to Frame 14 and check your result .75 cm/s .8x+ . . . . Take your time: there is no need to hurry.J52 5(2) I.8x'dT + &y odl In this case 8z = ! (X2 _ r r!(2x) = x 8x 2 ~ &y dz dt 8z ~! (xzr'r'(2y) ~ 2 x ~ ~ y ill ydy ~i 'dt .. Y = 3. Fiuish it off.8y [)x [)z [)z [)y (The key to the whole business) d. .13 I dz = de dz Because we have d t ~ 4·75 cmls 3 (ill ( 3) 32= 5 J 52 32 (2) .~ ' dt So far so good. Do that one entirely on your own.z 8z ill 8z dy dt .3(3 ) = 10 +2 = 19 4 4 4 4 4 Side z increases at the rate of 4·75 cmls = 4. dt = 2. Now here is Example 3 The total surface area S of a cone of base radius r and perpendicular height II is given by S = rrr+ 1rrv r2 + 112 If r and II are each increasing at the rate of 0·25 cmls.. . Be quite sure that each step you write down is correct. . dy ~3 de dz dt .. find the rate at which S is increasing at the instant when r = 3 cm and II = 4 cm. ... tllen move to Fmme . Now for the numerical values: dx x = 5.Pam'a! differentiation 2 691 8z= .
698 Engineering Mathematics L!!J Here is the solution in detail: 5 = if + 1r. dt = 8. Rateofchan ge problems are all very much t he same. This converts the result into the (b) The secon d resu ll follows directly from lhe first.2 + liZ = 1ril + 1IT(il + IJZ )! OS {}S 65 = 8.4 127r 5 dZ = S·"4+S "4 = 5+"5=5 = 3 ·811" = 11·94 cm 2 /s 16r. 1 1211" 1 3r... O.J. So there we are. What you must remember is simply thi s: (a) The basic statement Oz {)z If z = f(x .8x + tty. mow Oil to Frame / 6 . Make a n ote of both of these in your record book for future reference.!(il + IIz)~(2') + 1l" (. = 21l"r+ 2 1rr2 vrz+ii'l 5 +7rvr2+h2 ~ When ..8 y form for rateofchange problems: dz 8z d..~ "U2 + h') (2h) 81 1 2 11". = 3 and 11=4: OS Jr9 9"11" 641r .5 = 111r+ .'.·dt + 81/ · dl 885 = 21l"r+ 1IT.11 vrz+1i! dr db .x 8z dy dt = 8x· dt + ay.dt (a) (h) Divide this result by 8t and make 8t . 19r. ·8r+ 811 811 (I) dS OS dr {)S d/l .= ~ 5 5 (2) IlS 1 j .2 + IJZ)+' . 64r..= 211"3+ 1 r. Then for tile next part oftlJe wort. y) then 8z = Ox . Also we are gIVen that dt = 0·25 and dt = 0 ·25 dS s 11"3 .
In this particu la r example. ..by /.. O ~(2x+2Y)+(2X+3y'): From this we can find : . loz ax = 2x /.. For example.2y.Partial differentiation 2 699 Partial differentiation can also be used with advantage in finding derivatives o( implicit (unctions.....+ . .. If fix _ O... Le. Cill re~uh iilld olJtiiill iiI! eX jJre~ioll fur Substituting these in o ur previous result gives us: ~ ~ (2x+2y)+ (2x + 3y'): If only we knew : ' we cuuld leiiHiiIlge IlIb dy . r i.. We can set about it in this way: Let z stand for the funct ion of x and y... .. If we divide both sides by 6x.e..ax ay · fix . and oy oz . where z = x 2 + 2xy +. lix + : liy..3.l = O.. l is a constant (in this case zero) and hence : = O../ x 2 + 2x)' + Refe r back t o the beginning of the problem.. . Oy dx ..fix . d\ = az az ax + Vy · dy dx ~: and : we shall be quite a way towards If we now find expressions for finding : (which you see at the end of t he expression). z = the basic relationship hz = r + Zxy + y3 . Therefore z = 0. su ppose we are required to find an expression fo r : when we are given that x2 + 2xy + y3 = O. .. So finish it off. . Again we use ~. 011 to Frame 18 . dz Now. We have used z to stand for and we were told initiaUy that x 2 /. .. dz dx· So where can we find out sometlung about d. {Jx oz = .. :... we get: 6z 8z 8z 6y .
1 dx 1\11 very easy so long as you can find partial derivatives correctly.y+ l .x ax ay + 0. evaluate : at (0. tr + 1} x. Example 1 If eXY I x + Y = 1. y) ~ 0. 8utz=0 8z ay=e"Y. In general.t''' + dy = dx _{y. dy ~ . dy dx 8x &y dx {)z 6)(.fJx . 0 11 to Frame 20 . etc. dz {)z fJz dy dx = ax+8y ' dx {ddXZ = lJz (}z o} Make a n ote o f this result. By The easiest form to remember is the o ne t hat comes direct from the basic result: hz = ax6x + fJyh y Divide by lJx. Letz=tI"+x + y . find dx . Divide by 6x and make f. 0). + fJz 6y. in which But z = 0 (constant) .l = O.1 lJz fJz liz = {)x. dy lJz/a.(]x Ox Dr dx e""' + x + y . dy = Let z = f(x. we have: If f(x .lJx + Oy . The function can be written dz {)z {)z dy =+. .eXY Y l): I 1 .6y fJz fJx = rY..700 Engineering Mathematics I dy dx Zx + Zy Zx + 31" Th is is almost a routine that always works. dz dx = 0 glvlOg dx = .y) then 6z case: dz= lJz + {)z .X+ I dz dx =(ye"Y 1 1) + (x. (ill Now for some examples..
yeosx ) + (x sec y .+ .. ey = x + cos y dz dy dx = y + (x + eosy) dx Butz = O dz = 0 dx y dx x + cosy Here is one for you to do: Example 3 dy Find an expression for: when xtany = ysinx.ysinx = 0 fJz fJz {)z = ox6X+ fJyfl y dz 8z 8z dy . 71wl1 check your working with Owl ill Frame 21 t dy dx tany .Partial differentiation 2 701 Now here is: Example 2 If xy + sin y = 2. If not.ysinx = O Let z = x tan y . go straight on to Frame 22. here is the working below..yeosx xseeZy sin x On now to Frame 22 . find: Ler z=xy + sin y2 =0 az 8z hz = {)x + .dx ax &y dx az 8x = tany. Follow it through and see where you have gone astray! xtany=ysinx : .sin x) dx But z = O : . dx = O dz dy dx tan y . Do it all on your own. .yeosxi dz 8z _.ycosx xsee 2 y sinx (ill Did you get that? If so.= .{)y ax iJy dz=az + oz . x tany . dy dx ax 8y dx az 8z ax=y. 8y = xsec y smx _2 dy dx = (tany .
702 Engineering Mathematics Right. Now here is just one more for you to do. Let z = e"+r . lbey are really very much the same.{)x + {)y ax 8y dz az az dy dx = ax+ay dx So continue with the good \vork and finish it off. But now there is one more process that you must know how to tackle.e" ~ r eH . dx dz = O ... 2xZy 0 ax : ax = e"+r _ 2x1.xZ zx.xZyZ = 0 az az {)z= . fin d an expression for: ~+Y  x2yZ = O. dy dx dy dx (e'+r . finally getting that dy dx Then move to Frame 23 dy dx Because z = eK+r .2) + (e"+r _ 2X Z y): y Butz=O . So on to frame 24 . Example 4 If ~+Y = X2y2.xly2 = 2xy2 . = (e"+Y  az _ e"+Y ay   2..2xfl (eHr 2.x2y) 2J:y2 (&"+r e"~ r 2xZy) That is how they are all done.
ax 8r and Or = cosfJ az = 2xcos8 + 2ysin 20 and Z = 2rcos28 ~. where x = rcosO and y = rsin 20.. til/ oz az ox oz oy If \' is kept constant for the time being.Partial differentiation 2 703 Change of variables (f z is a function of x and y.2xrsin 0 And in these two results.y).. and x and yare themselves functions of two other variables II and i'... Oil . . fJv oz fJy Note these Next frame Here is an example of this work. {)z oz If z = x 2 + yz. =rsino : = 2x( r sin 8) + 2y(Zrcos 28) 8z &0 = 4yrcos ze . Oil ax ·(tv + fJy .ox · 811 Dz az ax fJv = {)z _ iJz Ox '. then ~x when OU . ~ . Oil ox 011 ay till 6 becomes Dy. . z = {(x. az az az . 0  becomes iJu°X and au . find Or and (ill m and Now.y) oz=ox +oy ax fJy oz Divide both sides by 1m: =..+. Le. then z is also a function of 1I and v.l.Oz OY} fJy... We may therefore need to fmd Oil and &v. and . {(x . the symbols x and y can be replaced by rcosO and rsin20 respectively. How do we go about It? 7.
check witll the result . 1 X. Ji.cos(u . I. = y. Wehave. & 8y = cos(x I. find (hI & and ()v & The method is t he same as before.y) ax = 211 au 8z = fJz ax + fJz au Dy = 2v all = ay ax'au ay ' au cos(..Y). When you !/ave completed the work..e"Y. u+v cos(u  V )} Now move on to Frame 27 Here Is one for you to do on your own.ax ' 8u l az ay d 8x _ ax ax fJz 8y ay ' au an av . 8z = cos(x &Y = 2u EN + y)...11 Frame 28 z = sin(x I..x.+ x..v)} V" II I· v ~ e"'{ Y . 8z x=u2 + v2.rr. = 2UlI.. ·a . .:l.8 'a +.V)} u+v X uy u)' 8z{)z{)x8z8y 1 n. cos(u ...ax'{Jvllly'{jv rl I.J and y So you do this one..q.' + y). All that it entails is to find the various partial derivatives and to substitute them in the established results: {)z _ az ax fJu .v).2u + cos(. ( ) y = 2uv {)x = COSXlY.' + y ) 2v Also az az ax az ay fJv=ax ' &V+ay '&V 8v {)v = 2(11 + v) cos(x + y) 8x = 2v.{ .2v+ cos(x + y).. aII x II UT 11 + v ~ and V I' e"'{y .2u = 2(u + v ) cos(x+y) . cos(u .y )...704 Engineering Mathematics One more example: If z = e>:Y where x = In(lI + v) and y = sin(u .' <>0.y. where x = .e' .v) ax {)z fJy _ II 1 r.j. = & .e"Y.. <l. find az~f)z (1 /1 ~z and uv a:. If z = sm(x I.
and secondorder partial de rivatives of a function of two real variables? Yes Frames m to ITJ (DtoQIJ m:J to{]!) D [] D [] D [] D [] D [] No • Apply partial differentiation to rateofchange problems? Yes Yes No • Apply partial differentiation to changeofvariable problems? D D D D D No . !"J can You? Checklist 11 Check this Jist before and after you try the end of Programme test. On a scale of 1 to 5 how confident are you that you can: • Derive the first. I Small increments z ~ ((x. t5x + t5y 8y az ax az (a) 2 Rates of clwnge dz dt ax dx ax dy ax' dt + ay'dt (b) 3 Implicit functions dz 4 az ax dy dx ""' ax+ay ' dx (e) Change of variables &J  az = az ax az Dy ax'au + ay'au az {)z {)x az [)y f)v={)x ' {)v + [}y ' f)v (d) All that now remains is the Can You? checklist and the Test exercise. so le t us list them once more. We have established some important results during the work. so move to Frames 30 and 31 and work through them carefully at your own speed.y ) t5z "".Partial differentiation 2 705 You have now reached the end of this Programme and know quite a bit about partial differentiation.
1). and : in their simplest forms .and .+ y . .+x .f'(l ) + 3f(t) }. show thai DF DF DF DF DF DF . h.y) where x = e" cosv and y = e" sin v. ~ Further problems 11 If F = ( (x. dy Dz Dz If z = f(x.yZ )( {I) where t = xy and (denotes an arbitrary function.j o f ( (t ) If V = xy /(x'l + 0)'l and x = rcosfl. 4 If Z = x 4 + 2x2y + y1 and x = r cosO andy = rsinO. The questions are just like those you h ave been doing quite successfull y. ~ l Use pa rtial differentiation to determine expressions for dy in the dx following cases: (a) x 3 + y3 _2I::'ly_0 (b) e"cosy .706 Engineering Mathematics [il Test exercise 11 Ta ke your time a nd work carefully.y) = 0.&' sinx (c) sin'lx . show that 1&V 8 r 'l + 8 +"2 run = 0 . r.3x'ly a nd x is increasing at 2 ants. find :.. show that ill = . If z = 2xy . Du Dx Dy &v ax oy ~ l 2 Given that z = x3 + y1 and x 2 + Y = 1. prove thai o~~ = W. is changing when r = 2 cm and h = 3 cm. V. is increasing at t he ra te of 0·2 cm/s.. is decreasing at the rale of 0 ] cmls while the perpendicula r height. determine a t what rate y m u st be changing in order t hat l shall be neither increasing nor decreasing a t the instant when x = 3 cm and y = 1 cm . y = r sin fl. (x'l .= x .OX/ Or.= y . Find the rate at which the volume.y){t. L Note: ("(t) is the second derivative t.t. The cu rves 2y2 ~ in 8= 0 + 3x  a nd Xl + 2xy + 3y .1 = 0 intersect at the point (2. 4 If u = (x'l . rrrvlr OZv 1 DV . determ ine an expression for terms of x a nd y. Find the tangent of the angle bet ween the tangents to the curves at this point. I.5sin x cosy + ta ny = 0 2 The base radius of a cone.
)' Ox.F uX uy az _ m ax (b) x ~+ 2xy ~ + r"F2 = O uX ztflz filz fJ2z ox.2y) + F(3x + y). and r2 = x2 I y. ~ by using partia l differentiation.8r _8f .+Y.fJy = By. verify that: (b) [ilz d b) fiZz fiZz (a) 8x. y ) and x = reB and y = re.oy uy If z _ e"(r"" where k is a constant. fin d the values of a and b.by partial diffe rentiation. By means of partial diffe rentiatio n. ar + 8r and2y8f ~ . wh ere f a nd F are arbitrary flmctio ns. ax ar ae 8y ar fJ(J 8 9 If z = x ln (X Z +y) . prove: (a) 2Zk 8z = O (8Z) .)+F(~).By y) aar x Is:lJ ~ 1I 12 Ifr ~ VI 8z 2xy+y' 1 .5 sin xcosy + ta n y = 0. Lf z .2x'y + 3xy' . prove that r au _ s fJll = 2(r + s2) fJu . = z . when xtany = ysinx. determi ne cases: (a) xy+2yx=4 ~: in each of the following i'y' .+ ~ 3 x Y 10 If z = 3xy ..+(az)2+ ax By (b) ffz + &Z + 2k ax 2 fJyl ax az =kZ r 14 If z = f(x .ax an ( Ox2· OyZ = &z (8'7. venfy that axz + 8y2 =O.y3 + (y2 . ." . Ql l S 16 ~.f(.l (B Verify thatx~~ + y: = z t 2x. prove that 2xar ~ .2ytan. If sin z x .+ r ) .Partial differentiation 2 707 6 If It = ((x . 8'. fJr fJx as If f = F(x . show that yfJ(ay = (x _ IfZ = X. 8'z =xy/ (x.2x)lj2.6 . find ~ 17 Find:. y ) wh ere x = r2  S2 and y = 2rs..8xy ~ 5 4y 2x (c) .8y + b 8y2 = 0. a nd if filz filz filz 8xZ + a Ox. prove thal : (a) X.
.708 Engineering Mathematics 18 If V = tanl{x22~y2}' prove that: av + y &y i)V = (a) x ax 0 (b) ax2 &V + E¥ &V = 0 ~ 19 Prove t hat.f(B then x~~+y: = Z + 2xy. 20 (a) Find : (b) Find given that x2y + sin xy = O. ifz = 2xy + x. ~: given that x sin xy = 1.
Programme 12 Curves and curve fitting learning outcomes When YOII have completed tl1is Programme YOIl w ill be able to: CD·o em Frames • Draw sketch graphs of standard curves • Determine the equations of asymptotes parallel to the x.and yaxes • Sketch the graphs of curves with asym ptotes. stationa ry points and other features • Fit graphs to data using the 'stra ightline' forms • Fit graphs to data using the method of least sq uares 709 .
put x = O. ~ '" o 3 2y+3. . Of course. . . .110 Engineering Mathematics Introduction The purpose of this Programme is eventually to devise a reliable method for establishing the relationship between two variables. if (I. 6 'Y x Any firstdegree equation gives a straightline graph. . 3) I Because when x =0.and ycoordinates of any three points on the line. two points are sufficient to determine values of m and c. .. . . indeed.. (3.e. . its equation is .x + c. put y = O. These results in practice are highly likely to include some errors. owing to the imperfect materials used. There are methods by which we can minimize any further errors or guesswork in processing the results and. eradicate some of the errors already inherent in the recorded results. To find where the line crosses the xaxis. . . ~~ . 2) lie on a straight line. i. 6). Standard curves w w (a) Straight line The equation is a firstdegree relationship and can always be expressed in the form y = m. c denotes the intercept on the yaxis. Therefore. I (2. corresponding values of which have been obtained as a result of tests or experimentation. 2y=6 3x = 6 y=3 x=2 y 0 2 x We can establish the equation of a given straight line by substituting in y = mx + c the x. . but before we consider this important section of the work. and when y = O... the line 2y + 3x = 6 crosses the axes at . some revision of the shape of standard curves and the systematic sketching of curves from their equations would be an advantage. So. 2) and (5. To find where the line crosses the yaxis. but the third point is taken as a check. the limitations of the measuring devices and the shortcomings of the operator conducting the test and recording the results. however smaU. where m denotes the gradient. 0) and (0.
.t"""x When x = 1.6 + 8 = 2 which agrees wit h the third point. Y = . 3). in terms of the original variables.2)2 i. 6) (5.y = 6 015. 6 =2 + c :. y = 2. band c. .21 (1 . Y Considering a sampl e fXlint P. the equation of Ihe new parabola w Because Y = X 2 becomes y . . y .2 o is .2) y = 2x+c o .3andX = x .Curves and curve fitting 711 y =2x + 8 w 6 = Im+c 2 = Sm +c . Change of vertex: If the parabola y = x2 is moved parallel to itself to a vertex poSition at (2.3 = (x . c= 8 : . determine the position of the vertex and the 'width' of Ihe parabola . we see that: Y = y . its equation relative to the new axes isY = XZ. . . a parabola symmetrical about the yaxis and existing only for y 2: o. . x So. where the three coefficients. o x The general seconddegree curve is y = ax 2 + bx + c. a. . x and y. . .4x + 7.21 :.x + 8 Check: When x = 3. .4x + 4 which simplifies to y = x 2 .8=4m m = 2 v P 11.e. (b) Seconddegree curves v The basic seconddegree curve is y = Xl. 61 R 13. .3 = x 2 . .. y = ax 2 gives a thinner parabola if a > 1 and a flatter parabola if a < 1.
z... the parabola is inverted e.. y is negative. y = . y y y a 0 b .. and the xaxis at x = . a thirddegree curve has a more accentuated double bend and cuts the xaxjs in three pOints which may have (a) three real and different values. .712 Engineering Mathematics Note: If the coefficient of x 2 is negative.. and x = . . 3 y yxl o x o x In general. (b) two values the same and one different.x 80 x Now let liS coOed ollr ideas so far by working through a short exercise... . .lVe upside down: y y _ . .. or (c) one real value and two complex values.. x = 0·68 and x = 3·68 (c) Thirddegree curves The basic thirddegree curve is y = Xl which passes through the origin. .. y 9·5 The vertex is at (1'5. Writing y = Xl turns the CU. x w The paraoola cuts the yaxis at y = . y ... y is positive and for x negative. = 5. 9'5).x2 + 6x + S.... For x positive. Move all to the lIext frame .g.
Do not plot the graphs in detail.. ...4 2y + 5x6 = O y~x'+4 10 y = 2(x+3 )3 Whell you Iwve completed the whole set. 3_4 X 4 10 4 o x . indicating relevant information. 1 y=2xS 2 y=2 + 7 3 6 Y = (X _ 3)2 1 Y =(X + 2)2 _ 4 8 y = x _ x2 3 4 y~2x+4 9 y ~ x' .I. _ J)2 l!J 0 x y 7 yv..2 0 x Now we will revise (I further set of curves. . """" .Curves and curve fitting 713 As an exercise.. Next (mille .+2)2_4 X 4 8 y yax_x 2 0 X 9 y y . . sketch the graphs of the following. check YOlir results with those ill the next frame 5 Here are the results: 6 y y.
... x = ±a :. ..3) radius = Vg2 +P c .3 alsoc =.1.. Ellipse The equation of an eUipse is where a = semimajor axis and b = semiminor axis obtain .n = (.I I + 9 + 15 V2S = 5..g. . r centre (.yl Moving the centre to a new point (h... 3)....f) and radius = Vg2 + f2 Co Note that.6y . r ~.714 Engineering Mathematics L!J (d) Circle TIle simplest case of the circle is with centre at the origin and radius r: v The equation is then Xl + y2 = ..k and X = x .. . k) gives )(l + y2 = r2 y k "h where Y = y ......h X o • The general equation of a circle is x 2 + + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 : .. for a seconddegree equation to represent a circle: (a) the coefficients of x 2 and are identical (b) there is no product term in xy..1... and radius . ~: + ~ = 1 :. y = 0.. (x _ h)2 + (y _ k) 2 = ? r where the centre is the point (.. x = 0. g ~ 1 } centre (g. So the equation Xl + y2 + 2x . radius 5 Because .....15 (e) . y = ±b ( 2) v Of course..z v ~ c/ Iy ~ Plx.. when a2 and lJ2 are equal (say we .IS = 0 represents a circle with centre .
/ /y·}( Three points are easily located. x=c (c) the line y = x cuts xy = c at the point (±v'C.. y = :.Curves and curve fitting 715 Ithe equation of a circle.:z I (ill Hyperbola The equation of a hyperbola is a' b' When y=O. 2 3x + 4y + 2.e. A more usual (orm of the rectangu lar hyperbola is to rotate the figure through 45° and to make the asymptotes the axes of x and y. so move 011 to 1l1e next (mme As an exercise.49 = 1 xy = 5 Wilen you have sketclletl all six. x (I) 2 + y2 = . Le.Jil not cross the yaxis.. When x = 0. Rectanglilar hyperbola 1£ t he asymptotes are at rightangles to each other. 1 /('C 'C) 1/ v ... The equation of the curve relative to the new aX(.y = c (b) wheny= 1.. / 1£ xy = c: (a) whenx = l. the curve is then a redanglilar hyperbola.1 x2 ). compare your reslills with those ill the flext frame .>$ then becomes . Now for al/olller short exercise.1 . = . x These three points are a great help in sketching a rectangular hyperbola.. Rectangular hyperbolas fIequently occur in practical considerations.. c y xy zc xy=c I.2 x the curve does r Note that the opposite arms of the hyperbola gradually approzch two straight lines (asymptotes). ± v'C).z = 100 X2+y2 _ 4x+6y _ 3 = O 5 6 i' y' 36 . .z=O 2 3 x 2 + 4. showing relevant facts: 1 x2 +r = 12·25 4 'b:. x= ±a. V" '. sketch the graphs of the following.
. tog.. . I 71":.... "1. 5 3 6 .716 Engineering Mathematics (ill flle sketch graphs are as follows: 1 Y 4 Y o x C (0·75.1) X R=1·25 2 5 . c... .X c ~ OI./ Y ...urves 'Y y . . then when x = 1. / / / \ Y / I / / \ ..j5 OtJ to Frame 14 for a third set of curves frequently occurring (g) Logarithmic. .e. . y = log 1 = 0 i. log x does not exist for x < O. x Also. but continues to increase at an everdecreasing rate.• x .j5 1.I' .. y = logx flattens out as x . 2 5  x .. 10 . Y . If y= logx. the curve crosses the xaxis at x = 1.. J . 00. .
. y+ 0 Sometimes known as the growtll cllrve. we also frequently have curves of the form y = a(l . The &'Taphs of y = {j log x and y = a In x are Similar..... v _eX o y Sometimes known as the decay curve. y . oo as x .11 tile next (rame (h) Exponential curves y (ill y = e crosses the yaxis at x = 0 i. 00 (since e..eX) ... I The graph of y = In x also has the same shape and crosses the xaxis at x = 1. Hyperbolic curves y V cos h ..x and e 2 o x _ e. y e... but with all ordinates multiplied by the constant factor a... passing through the origin and tending to y = a as asymptote as x ..00. y > 00 = = o y x 1. This is an inverted exponentia l curve.x gives the hyperbolic curves of y = cosh.00. I I I v· x Corttinued .8Inx '" 8 log ....x also crosses the yaxis at y As x + 00..e. but the function values are different.x . 0 as x + (0).y .x = e +e. y =.. 0 as x + . Combination of the curves for y = e and y = e.... ....f = 1 As x "'" oo.. x • x (i) In electrical work.x y = sinh x = '' 2" . .Cwves and curve fitting 717 y / /..
Y . w Amplitude = A Perlod = w .JI' and r = Ze ~ S Y = 5sinx and . I I J~Y Sinh 2. (a) r = Asintlx 360" Period = .::+~ .. Y y ..1= 3sinZx 6 y = 4sin wtand)'= 2sin3wt (ill Here they are: 1 v . Amplitude = A " v (b) Y = A sinwt 2.. as an exercise. we can sketch a furt her selectio n of curves.118 Engineering Mathematics ~y ! We have already dealt with these functions in detail in Programme 3. Now. iirlh It x o x . i. so move 011 to tile next frame 0> v TrigonometricaJ Cllrves The most common occurring in pract ice is t he sine curve..c:osh Jl' Y · iinhlt o y x If we draw the two graphs on the same axes.e. we see that }' = sinh x is always outside y = cosh x. Sketch t he following pairs of curves on the same axes. We have olle more type of atrve to list.tt . Label each graph clearly and show relevant information. c()!'h It ... so refer back if you need to revise them fu rth er.:: . fo r any particular va lue o f x. cosh x > sin h x. 1 y = cosh x andr= 2 cosh x 2 Y = sinh x andy = sinhZx 3 y=eandr =~ 4 Y = e. 2 y . .
+ azr .'... we have: + (11Y + au = 0 If ao = 0 and a. + a.~_ 6 ....!.. +a.2 = 0 allY . + an_1y +a" = y"y"lIny" + (1._z. the equation reduces to: ...r + a.. two infinite roots for x.._ly .e. . o x Asymptotes We have already made references to asymptotes in the previous work and it is always helpful to know where asymptotes occur when sketching curves of functions.. x y • .6 \. ' 3""'"  o x 3".. = 0.. i. It can also be thought of as a tangent to the curve at infinity." + a. + azl If we now multiply through by y'J and reverse the order of the terms. Condition for infinite roots: llQX" If we consider the equation + a 1x". . the curve touches the asymptote at two coinciden t points at infini ty.1 + . the equation becomes y 1 1 0 au y" .'.e" " o '\ .3 + . Le... + . + .....+al ..1.1 + .. y .. + a2 = 0 Therefore with the stated condition. r = 0 gives two zero roots for y._Iy". 4 .. Definition: An asymptote to a curve is a straight line to which the curve approaches as the distance from the origin increases. . !W:' 1800 \ 36o"X \ I \. I = 0 or a"y"Z + a"_I1'.:._lx + a" = 0 and substitute x I 1 =. since y =! and hence x =!.CUNes and OJNe fitting 11' _ 63>' 719 5 3 y I I J y . .
. . ..6 .or3 " 0' m = l} ( = 0 :. / . 2y _5y_.. ..I + ...l )0 + c? .. From the graph. . . . . •. and . _ 00. . Detennination of an asymptote From the result we have just established. v 5~ . I / 'I ft '\. ..5c = 0 Equating to zero the coefficients of the two highest powers of x: m. . ....Sy . /'+ . to find an asymptote to y = f(x): (a) substitute y = mx + c in the given equation and simplify (b) equate to zero ... ... .Sc _ x3 = 0 (m. .. . ' ..S(mx + c) _ x 3 = 0 = O. + a"_IX + a" will have two infinite roots if (10 = = 0 = 0 and at O.720 Engineering Mathematics Therefore.. To find the asymptote to the curve xZy ...Smx .x 3 = 0 is as shown on the left and we can see that the curve approaches )' = x as x _cc andasx .. mx3 + cx z _ Smx .Sy ..l =O c= O . . A~)'mptote isy = x In fact.. " / . / )..x3 Substitute y = mx + c in the equation: xZ(mx +c) .. ... (ill I the coefficients of the f\... however. it appears that there are two further asymptotes which are the lines . . .. the graph of xz)' .. the original eqllalion aoX" +alx.\'0 highest powers of x and so determine the values of m and c Let us work through an example to see how it develops... / . / /0 x x =2·2andx = 2·Z These are two Hoes parallel to the yaxis.// .
"5 In fact. Example 1 Find the asymptotes. the asymptotes parallel to the xaxis can be found by equating tile coeffjdent of the hjghest power of x to zero. I . if any. .'.y = O·S isanasymptote. is also an asymptote. the asymptotes parallel to tile yaxis can be found by equaling tile coeffjdent of tile highest power ofy to zero. The only asymptotes are y = 0·5 (parallel to the xaxiS) and x = .3)= :.x+2 = 0 b + 3 = 0 :. y = O·S : .2y = 1 :. I X ~. (b) Asymptote parallel to yaxis: Equate the coefficient of the highest power of y to zero. I o . x =. First get everything on one line by multiplying by the denominator.2xy+3yx +2=0 (a) Asymptote parallel to xaxis: Equate the coefficient of the highest power of x to zero. 2y .l ·S is an asymptote. Similarly.15 (2x + 3)y .and yaxes These can be found by a simple rule. (2yl )x+3y + 2 = 0 : .l·S 1 (ill Because rearranging the equation to obtain the highest power of r= . the graph is positioned as shown abovc. +3 x2 ~i .V +0·5 1·5 1 J ___ ~:~~ _ _ _ _ _ x Asvmptotes . . Y"2..1 = O :.Curves and curve fitting 721 Asymptotes parallel to the x. of y = y(2x+3 )=x 2 ~ ~.. .1·5 {paraliel to the yaxis). x =. (lx I. . I It " . For the Olrve y = f(x ). Let us do another.
TIlerefore.. i. TIlis not the equation of a line... O. Its coefficient is 1.e.. Work it rigl1t thmugh to the end I y = x _ ~ is also an asymplote Because substItuting y = mx + c in x 2 (x2 X4 = m 3 x4 + 2) = y(x + S) we have + 2x2 = ( '~X3 + 3~X2 C + 3fl1xc2 + il )(x + 5) + 3m2 x3c + 3mx2r + Cl x 2)x 2 + s. 3 IS an asymptote .122 Engineering Mathematics Example 2 Find the asymptotes of the curve X 2 (X 2 + 2) = (a) Parallel to the xaxis: X4 + ZX2 = (x + 5)y. we equate the highest power of y to zero. (b) Parallel to the yaxis: This gives . which was to Isubshtute y = mx + c in the equation and equate the coefficients of the two highest powers of x to zero If we do that with the equation of this example. Now.. x + S = 0 .... EQuate the coefficient of the highest power of x to zero. . we carry out tile method described earlier. we get . which gives 1 = Ix= S is an asymptote Because for an asymptote parallel to the yaxis.filx3 + lSnrx 2 c + lSmxr + 52 (. nol necessarily parallel to either axis.w .. x = S is an asymptote parallel to the yaxis..1 )X4 + (5 m3 + 3m 2c)x 3 + ( 15m2c + 3mc2 _ + (lSmc mll=O m=l 2 t 2)x + 52 =0 Equating to zero the coefficients of the two highest powers of x: Sm 3 + 3m2 c = 0 c ~  s 3 y= x  's.. . Hjghest power of x is x4.. there is no asymptote parallel to the xaxis. rex + 5). to find a general asymptote. x = S Therefore.
2mcl'" + (8mc.2 are asymptotes..7r = 0 from which 1 .2cx 3 + (10 .2m = 0 (=0 x. ( = Z and y = x + 2 and y = . Just apply the rules. m= ±l When m = 1. Putting y = mx + ( and simplifying produces: (1 . y ="2 IS the only asymptote. Substituting y = mx + ( and collecting up terms gives: (1 . then.2mlx4 . x=4 1 There are no asymptotes parallel to the axes. There are no tricks.'. .Z Now let ll. .m'1 x' + (4m' . 2 x = 4 is an asymptote parallel to the yaxis.14mcx ." I In fact. c= .1" . Determin e the asymptotes. 2m = c.e'lx He' .~ :. ~ is the only asymptote 2 y=x+Z. y =xZ. There is no asymptote parallel to the xaxis.5 ~ 0 so that I .m 2 =0 and 4"~ . . the graph is shown on the right.70 = 0 2 x3xf + 4fs~o 1 Y= /// :~:5 /1 . nr=l . two asymptotes: x =S and y=x 5 3 x " 5_1 .2mc = 0 when m = 1.10 5 / 5 10 15 . IIere are two similar problems for you to do as an exercise on your own.Curves and curve fitting 723 There are.'ing curves: 1 X4 . for the fol\o\'.". if any.X .7"i )x2 .zily + lOx 2 .15 . ill apply these methods a wider context starting in the next frame . :. .
0 = 400 i ~ symmetrical about bot h axes. (b) If only even powers of x occur. lliJ 2 Cro~ses Iboth odd and even fKlwers of y occur I Intersection with the axes x Points at which the curve crosses the the xaxis: Put y and yaxes. This."es tne yaxis: Put x = 0 and solve for y.724 Engineering Mathematics Systematic curve sketching. the function ((x) is known.0 + 3y ...and ycoordinates of a number of selected points.. the curve is symmetrical about both axes For example: r+ 2Sx 2 + 16..2 = (x2 + 7)2 is symmetrical about the yaxis. = 0 and solve for x.. So. but not about the xaxis since .. . There is a list of steps we can take. then . ho wever. . 1 Symmetry Inspect the equation for symmetry: (a) If only even pov. the graph of the function can be pIoUed by calculating x .rers of y occur. for y = f(x).2 = x + 8 crosses the x. the curve ... the curve is symmetrical about the xaxis. the curve is symmetrica l about the yaxis..and yaxes at .. 3y .. Cr::.:. v o x 2 o x (c) If only even powers of y and also only even powers of x occur. can be a tedious occupation and considerable infonnation about the shape and positioning of the curve can be obtained by a systematic analysis of the given equation. given the equation of the curve If..
and yaxes is positioned thus: y "'/"""~X nI''rfx 14. i. 3) 4 Asymptotes (ill We have already dealt with asymptotes in some detail. the curve is: y ~S v2 + 3V2 " .1)(x + 6 ) y ~ (x+3)(x 4)" OJ .+8 5 X 2 m 5 o 513 Change of origin Look for a possible change of origin to simplify the equation.. the equation becomes 4V = X Z which is a parabola symmetrical about the axis of Y. and (b) those of a more general nature. As an example. for the curve 4(y + 3) = (X_4 )2. for example.Curves and curve fitting 725 xaxis at x = 10 yaxis at y = 2 andy= In fact. So the curve relative to the original x. (a) Parallel 10 the axes Express the <quahon 'on one H ne'. We investigate (a) asymptotes parallel to the axes. (iii) Equate to zero the coefficien t of the highest power of x to find the asymptote parallel to the xaxis. remove algebraiC fractions.e. find the asymptotes parallel to the axes for the colVe (x . if we change the origin by putting Y = Y + 3 and X = x ~ 4. (ii) Equate to zero the coefficient of the highest power of y to find the asymptote parallel to the yaxis.
e. ( = 0 41112)X 2  8mcx . i.4) = (xl)(x + 6) Asymptotes parallel to the yaxis: (x + 3 )(x . y = 1 Because y(x + 3 )(x ..4~ =0 m =! } . . i.4) = 0 x = .2m)x4 .1 = 0 The graph of the function is as shown to the right: y= 1 . . . :.4y2 = 0. .2cx 3 + (S 12m = 0 2c = 0 :. y = ±XVZ. Similarly.. .'. . gives: (1 . .(y + 5)x . if x or y is large.726 Engineering Mathematics LID Ix =3.. x = 4.] 2y + 6 = 0 Asymptote parallel to the xaxis: Y . 5 Large and small values of x and y If k or y is small...2ily + 5x 2 . Thus.e. I~earranging the equation gives (y .. Because substituting y = mx + c and simplifying the lefthand side. when x is large y = 2x2 7x + 4 approximates to y2 = 2x2 .. y x = "2 is an asymptote. for the curve )(. the higher powers have predominance and lower J.r I .~ I I I I x I (b) Geneml asymplotes Substitute y = mx + c and equate the coefficient of the two highest powers of x to zero to determine m and c.I). . the asymptote is .. v I I '~(K1HK+6) ) V " ix +3 1(X 4. higher powers o f x or y become negligible and hence only lower powers of x or y appearing in the equation provide an approximate simpler form.3 and x = 4.:! .Xlwers can be neglected. . .
1" no real values of " . consider: (x+1)(x.Curves and curve fitting 721 6 Stationary points Maximum and minimum values. points of inflexion. no real values of y.3) x+4 y2 is negative For x < . We have dealt at length in a previous Programme with this whole topic..4. Restrictions on the possible range of values that x or y may have. . Ix + IIIx 3) . y2 is negative For y2 is positive 3 < x. real values of y exist.4 < x<I.. The curve finally looks like this: . We will just summarize the results at this stage: dy d2y dx = 0 and dx 2 is negative (curve concave downwards) then the point is a maximllm dy d 2y dx = 0 and dx 2 is {Xlsitive (curve concave upwards) then the point is a minimum dy dx = d2y 0 and dx2 = 0 with a change of sign through the stationary point then the point is a poillt 7 Limitations or inflexion. For example. real values of y exist. I' is positive For . For .1 < x<3..
the curve crosses the axes at . (i) Hrst find any asymptotes parallel to the axes..e....(x 2 . y~ I':::: . When x is very large: (e) Asymplotes: y <:: x' X i. so. in this example. no symmetry about yaxis. no real values of x (ill Because If y = x 2 x . x+ (a) Symmetry: First write the equation 'on the line'.X  6) (x + 1 )2 x2 + 2x+5 (x + 1)2 2± !=l6 2 i.. :. .3 ) =x2 ~ X  6 Both odd and even powers of x occur. no symmetry about xaxis. Only odd powers of y occur.6... there are no stationary points on the graph... This gives ~~ = 0 at x = .X +1 I. : =0 y x2 + 2x + 5 = 0 :.e. Therefore.. y(x + 1) = (x + 2 )(x .~mal1: I':::: .728 Engineering Mathematics In practice. :. x (d) Wilen x is very .1) . x+6 For stationary points. (ill I xaxis at x = 2 and at x = 3 yaxis at y = 6 (c) Stationary points: The first essential is : = O.e. Let us work in detail through one such example. These are .. x :.6 1 x+ dy dx (x + 1H2x .. Sketch the curve whose equation is y = (x + 2)(x . x is complex. y x. (b) Crossing the axes: This is done simply by putting y = 0 and x = 0.3) 1. Obtain an expression for : 10 find the values of x at which = and solve : 0 for values of x. not all of these considerations are applicable in anyone particular case.
Do that and then check YOlir result with that shown in the next frame . (g) TIle only asymptotes are x = .1 Because y(x + 1) _ x 2 + x + 6 = 0 :. This gives .... c + 2 = 0 : .~ketch the OlfW. we have (a) No symmetry about the x. collecting our findings together. (b) Curve crosses the xaxis at x = 2 and at x = 3..2. c = . the curve approximates to y = . Y = x . (d) lllere are no stationary points on the curve. (e) Near x = 0. by putting y = mx + c in the equation: (mx +c)(x + I) ~ (x + 2)(x . y is large and positive and when x is large and negative.. (ii) Now investigate the general asymptote. if any.6. Le.6 = 0 Equating the coefficients of the two highest powers of x to zero: mI = O :.Curves and curve fitting 729 parallel to the y. the curve approximates to y = x. when x is large and positive.x + I = O (ill x = .6 (m.x . lliJ This is obtained.1....I (parallel to the yaxis) and y = x . (c) Curve crosses the yaxis at y = 6.l )x2 + (m + c + l )x tc t. m = l and m+c+l = 0 : . .axis: x = . (f) For numerically large values of x.2 :. With these facts before liS. So.3) mr + mx + cx + c = xl ..2 is an asymptote.or yaxis.. as usual. Y is large and negative.. we cal! flOW .
Unless very few readings are taken. . we then draw as the graph the middle line of this narrow band of points. resulting in some of the values being slightly too high and some slightly too low. . y . c'X_'_'cc'C''''. Having plotted the pOints. it can be assumed that the inherent errors will be of a random nature. Now let 115 move on 10 somet11illg ratller different Curve fitting Readings recorded from a test or experiment normally include errors of various kinds and therefore the points plotted from these data are scattered about the positions they should ideally occupy. of course. You can. 5·5 13·5 If the law relating V and 11 is V = (Ill + b. (a) Plotting the points is quite straightforward. .. but from now on it is this line which is used to determine the relationship between the tv._'''' . .730 Engineering Mathematics Here is the graph as it should appear. values of V and 11 arc recorded in a test: " V 6·0 10 7·0 1. always plot an odd {Xlint or t wo in critical positions if extra help is needed.. Do it carefu lly on squared paper. You get . (a) plot the graph of V against 11 (b) determine the values of (I and b..'o variables. 9·5 18 12·5 21 25 16·5 where a and b are constants. 1 Straightline law For example.. It may well be that the line drawn does not pass through anyofthe actual plotted points.
Provided we can express the law in straigh tline form. If we therefore find the values of m and c in the norma l way.Curves and curve fitting 731 v 20 15 V 10 5 • • 10 • " • • 20 h • 0 • 25 X We now estimate by eye the straight position for a st raightline graph drawn down t he middle of this band of points. (b) The law is first degree. we shall use this line as representing the equation and ignore the actual points we plotted. m = W = 0'5S3 :. Substituting these values in y = mx + c gives t wo equations from which we can find the values of m and c. which are . 15). . Because we have 4·5 = Sm +C } IS·0 = 23m+c c=1 . they are all tackled in the same manner.e.. Draw the line on your graph . c= I 583 1O·5 = I Sm and then 4·5 = S(0 'SS3) + ( The equation of the lin e is and the law relating V and his ( = 4 ·52·917 V y = 0'S83x + l 'SS = 0'SS3h + 1·58 .4·5) and Q (23. We now select two convenient points on the line and read off their x.. P (5. V = ah + b Compare this with y = tIIX + c. i.. . .SS I 10·5 : . Im = 0'S83.and ycoordinates. . For instance. these values will be those of a and b. v 20 lID X 15 V 5 5 10 15 20 25 h Henceforth..
.. Let liS work through an example. along the Yaxis and .. .. where a and n are constants To convert this into 'straightli ne fo rm'... .. ..732 Engineering Mathematics 2 Graphs of the fonn y = ax".C we see we have to pIal .... The equation then becomes . we take logarithms of both sides. Values of x and y are related by the equation y = ax": x 2 5·62 5 13·8 12 52·5 25 112 32 160 40 200 II.. . . logy = lllogx+ loga Y=mX+c We must first compile a table showing the correslxmd ing values of logx and logy.. Ulcn ".. Do tliat alld check with tile reslllts showlI before movillg 011 logx logy 0·3010 0·750 0·6990 1·14 1·079 1·72 1·398 1·505 2·20 1·602 2·30 2·05 Now plot these points on graph paper. alo ng the Xaxis to obta in a straightline graph.. . = II and c = logo :.. Y Determine the values of the constants a and y = ax" : . ... logx aiong the xaxis logy along the yaxis and draw the estimated best straightli ne graph. ! logy = IIlogx + loga I If we compa re this result with Y = //IX I..... a = HY.... .. logy alo ng t he Yaxis logx along the Xaxis logy = II 1 0gx + lOgO } Y = IIIX + C If we then fi nd III and c from the straigh t line as before.
taking natural logarithms of both sides. then c = 0·311... the value of m will give the value of II.. . As before. . Iny = llx + lno I If we compare this with the straightline equation. a = 2·05 3 Graphs of the form y = at!"' Exponential relationships occur frequently in technical situations..C52~~=X ''''' . . we express the equation in the form . the equation is y = 2·05x··u . 0 ·94) and Q (1 .. ..=~lc. So. O~07. . hence 0 = e.2 ·45) we can calculate the values <Jf m and c which are m = .. . . Because Y = mX + c 245 = 1·70m+c 0·94 = 0'50In + C 1·5 1 = 1·20m :.50..70. and c = . but the work involved is less if we use natural loga rithms.. If we select from the graph two points. and the value of c will be Ina.. our first step is to convert the equation to 'straightline fonn' by laking logs of both sides. P (0. '·5 1~ 2~ P o. a '''' .. 11 = 1·258 and log o = 0·311 Therefore. . Therefore y = 1·258X +O·3 11 logy = /I logx + logo . we have: Iny =nx+ lno Y = mX + c which shows that if we plot values of lny along the Yaxis and values of just x along the Xaxis. We could use common logarithms as we did previously.OC7. . m = 1·258.Curves and curve fining 733 y 2·. .. .
0"067T . The required law is therefore W= .0·0668 c = ln a = 1418 :. 2 3 o. So. plot the poi. lill y I W = 4 ·13e.734 Engineering Mathematics Let us do an example.~~~~~~~~~~~~x 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 a 5 llle required law is W = 4· 13e...393) = 80m + c 0 ·75 = lOm + c . The following values of IV and T are related by the law W = ae riT where a an d 1/ are constants: T W 30 3·857 10 1·974 15 1· 733 30 0·4966 SO 0·1 738 90 0{X)9 1 We need values of In W . and from it determine the va. . draw the best straightlin e graph.0"067T I 2 lo W .3·93 . c = 0·75 + 0 ·668 '"" 1·418 m = 1/ = . we plo lln W along the Yaxis and T along the Xaxis to obtain a straigh tline graph. In = 0·0668 : . a = 4·13 ..... so compile a table sh owing values of T and In W.... T (o W 10 0·68 IS 30 0' 70 SO 1 .nts. Q ~ (80. . p ~ (10.75 90 4·70 InW = IIT+ ln a Y = lnX + c Therefore. 07S).4·68 = 70m : .lues of // and a. i1 =e'. from which In = /I and c = lna :..
+ h x 2 y=ax + h 4 y = ar + bx C/Jeck >.+b x r = ax+b I 2 y against x2 >' against x y against! x x y = ax 2 + bx x r against x x = And now just one more. a and b can be easily found. it a x+ Because if y=~b' then xy + by= a x+ by = xy + a a 1 :. the same method can be applied.y/Y + b That is..b a 2 y = ax + b y = ax + b y=il . Finally.ollr suggestiolls with the next frame Here they are: Equation Straightlille form Plot y = ax + b y = ax+h y = . if we plot values of y against values of the product xy. and c = ~. How about these? How could you arrange for eadl of the fo llowing to give a straightline graph? a 1 y = ax 2 + b 3 y =.l. to w/mt is per/taps tile most imporumt pari of this Programme. we shalL obtain a straightline graph from which m = .Curves and curve fitting 735 If we can express the equation or law in straighttine foml. Y = . If we convert y becomes b to straightline form. From these. Let /IS stnrt willI a /lew frame .
. Vi) if +bxj or.bLx. yz) . Quite considerable variation can result from various individuals' effort s to draw the 'best straight line' .= 1 .e.hX.. PQ is the difference between PK and QK. i. " Xi = LYi " joe l (. Yi): QK is the value of y = a + hx at x = Xi. Therefore. an + b L . The flrst gives i.e.=O . .) . ' a .1 = 0..~ . a + hx/. . PQZ= (y.21)Yi " 1". for the sum of the squares to be a minimum: 8S {)a = 0 and ab =O a/)Xi) as fJa = as .hx.abxi K o 'i x If we lake a sample point P (Xi . . given by S = l)Yi i".8 +bx v p Ix. Le. Therefore. )2.. LYi .Ia . Let liS start with the case of a linear relat ionsl/ip [ill Fitting a straightline graph We have to fit a straight line y = a + bx to a set of plotted points (XI. 1 .".) so that the sum of the squares of the distances to this straight line from the given set of points is a minimum.e. We have to determine the values (l and h so that S shall be a minimum. i.a . y. (xz. in the ydirection. using the set of recorded results. the sum S of the squares of these differences for all n such points is . The righthand side contains two unknowns a and b. x . The form of the equation has to be chosen and this is where the previous revision will be useful. The distance of any point fro m the line is measured along an ordinate. y.736 Engineering Mathematics Method of least squares All the methods which invo lve drawing the best straigh t line by eye are approximate o nly and depend upon the judgement of the operator.. yll. The method of feast squares determines the best straight line entirely by calculation. v V . (x".".
Curves and curve fitting 737 The second gives II LX/Yf ...e.2 0·75 12·16 35·2 6 1·31 25 64 32 n·o 13·4 L 22 Th e normal equations now become and . the specific values of a and b can be determined.. whe<ey = a + bx_ = L. We willllow work Example 1 throllgll some examples Apply the method of least squares to fit a stra ightline relationship for the following points: . = 5 and the normal equat ions a re a L.. From these normal eqllatiolls.and yvalues are those of the recorded values..24 . aLXI + b L xi = L i~ l II XiYi ..= 1 " i".. .b L xT " II II = 0 (b) i=l . an + bEx=Ey } aEx + bExl = Exy fo r all the n given pairs of values..... we Ileed to sum the values of x. x 2 and xy.... l i.a LXi . y.50 1 ·5 xl 5·76 0·64 0·09 3·61 10·24 20·34 xy 12·0 1. 1 i~l Equations (a) a nd (b) are called the lIormal eqllations of the problem and we will now write them without the su ffixes. remembering that the x. ..x + b LX an+bLX = LY} " . This is best done in table fonn: x 204 OS 03 19 y .0·8 03 25 19 32 11·0 I . I " 50 11 1·5 64 For this set .xy Therefore..
8·80Sb=2S·19 a = 2·68 . in the same way. The result should look like this: y V '" 142 + 2·8& I.1·2588 y=1 ·42 + 2·8fu b = 2·861 Therefore. Y 1 . plot the set of values for x and y a nd also the straight line whose equation we have just found on the same axes.10 2 3 4 6 X x Any relationship that can be expressed in straightline fOfm can be dealt with It is required to fit the best rectangular hyperbola xy = c to the set of values given below: x y 0·5 ' ·0 28 20 17 3·0 9·0 4·0 7·0 5·0 5·0 62 . the best straight line for the given values is To see how well the method works. Example 2 3 2 o 5 .738 Engineering Mathematics Sa + 2·2h = 134 2·2a + 2Q·34b = 61·31 Dividing through each equation by the coefficient of a gives: a + Q·440b = 2·68 a + 9·245b = 27·87 :.
.") ~ o &: &: 1Srx. .CUlves and curve fitting 739 In this case. c = 30A Here is the graph showing the plotted values and ruso the rectangular hyperbola we have just obtained: . n = 6_ Also Y = c_ ! x Ordinate difference between a point and the curve = Yi _. v" 304 10 0'~~~~3'4'5XX o 2 x ..... ~. 30 20 50 . ~) 2 and for S to be a minimum... So this time we need values o f x. ~O x x /= 1 v 60 i= l 166·25 = S'4635c :. _. &S~O /JS~_2~ ~(y.. _. Because n "1 L[ cL ...333 025 02 124 28 85 3 1·75 1 166·25 40 10 025 01 11 0·0625 004 54635 7 5 L From this we can find c and the equation of the required hyperbola which is therefore . y. X . ~ [ X and :2:  x 05 10 20 30 40 50 y 62 28 17 9  1 1 x x' 20 10 05 0.£ 111e sum of the squares S = t (YI x.
Therefore.' 1·450 0·0111 0·2816 0·8396 1·9218 1·204 0·105 0·531 0 ·916 1·3863 822 12·20 23026 28092 5302 Now total up the appropriate columns and finish the problem off. y...0 ·672 17 3·63 25 4·41 40 8·22 10·0 12·2 Y Y= alnx will give a st raight line if we plot y against Inx.. . . 2 3 4 5 6 1 . .alii) = 0 L 1=) LlljYl . " and since LflyaL.. Determine the value of II to provide the best fit for the following set of values: x 0 3 .fl =0.a Ln x....~ 8 9 10 X ~ • :." .I~~~. Because 2 y L uy = 54·603 alld L u = 9·806 .7 25 40 10·0 II (_ Inx) Y 754 0672 3·63 4·41 "Y 9·078 0·0708 1·9262 4·0408 11·3953 . The equation is finally . Ordinate difference = YI .a In Xj = YI For minimum 5. .a • ..7·54 0 9 . /I " mil as ~ O iJa i_ I  ...aL u~ = O '~ 1 Therefore we need values of x.568 ." .. In x (Le. let 1I = lnx.2 " III(YI . ~·51I1'" • ~ U{ = 5. II). uY and 1/ 2: x 03 0·9 1. Y = S·571nx . 5 then a = v .. . ..740 Engineering Mathematics @ Example 3 Values of x and yare related by lhe law y .
c) 1 =1 " 0 LX. . XY and X 2. .mX.mLx/Z . Here is the working: x 1·792 1398 0 ·8573 0 4472 y Xy X' 3·211 1·954 2·079 2114 2230 2·301 8·724 3·726 2955 1·912 1029 9·622 Q.:Xi .Y. 5 = t b l (y.IIC=O I_ I '~ I So we now need columns for X.ing results: Speed v (m/min) Life T (min) 120 62 130 170 72 200 28 2S If the law relating vand T is v = aP: determine the constants a and k to give the best fit. v= ar 10gv = klogT + loga r X = logT y = logy = mX + c 1·792 2·079 1·398 2·114 0 ·8573 2·230 0 ·4472 2·301 Arguing as before.mXi =  C)2  as am = . so finding the required law. . . Y.c) ~ 0 {)c I~ I " " LY. Compile the appropriate table and finish off the problem.CUlVes and curve fitting 741 Example 4 A test on the length of tool life at different cutting speeds gave the fOUol'.2 LXi(Yi .mL.1 i~ 1 " " " 85 " ~ 2L(Y' . .cLX."'X.73S 0200 6100 L 44945 . = O i_ I .
. if necessary. c = 2·375 . (b) intersection witll tile axes Put x = 0 and y = O. Parallel to the yaxis: equate to zero the coefficient of the highest power of y. (b) General asymptotes Substitute y = mx + c in the equation of the curve and equate to zero the coefficients of the two highest powers of x. Even powers only of both .'. loga = 2·37S2 : .m4·495 .742 Engineering Mathematics The normal equations give and 9 ·622 . All that now remains is to check down the Revision summary that follows and then to work through the Can You? checklist and Test exerdse as usual. (c) ClJouge of origin to simplify analysis. 2 Asymptotes Rewrite the given equation. so that the working tends to become unwieldy without some form of computing facility. (d) Asymptotes (e) Large arid smaflmlues of x or y.m6·100.c4 = O. we have: m + O·7369c= 1·5774 m + O·8899c = 1·9408 : . in general. n = 0·173 m=n c = loga :. (a) Asymptotes parallel to the axes Parallel to the xaxis: equate to zero the coefficient of the highest power of x.c4·495 = 0 8· 724 . 3 Systematic curoe .o·173 The same principles can be applied to fit curves of higher degree. 0 ·153Oc=0·3634 'Olen 111 :. The law is v = 237T.0 ·1729 = 1· 5774 0·7369(2·375) = 1·5774 1 ·75m = Y=O ·173X + 2·37S . Dividing through each equation by the coefficient of m. Revision summary 1 Standard curves Refer back to Frames 2 to 17. Even powers only of y: curve symmetrical about xaxis.'? (a) Symmetry Even powers only of x: curve symmetrical about yaxis. on one line. to sets of values but. (f) Statioflmy poil"lt~ (g) LimitaliorlS on possible range of values of x or y.x and y: curves symmetrical about both axes. fitting a seconddegree curve involves three normal equations in three unknowns and curves of higher degree involve an increasing number of simu ltaneous equations.~ketclJin.
i. stationary points and other features? Yes Yes o o o 0 o U o 0 (IDtoCEJ No No • Fit graphs to data using the 'straightline' forms? U . sketch the graphs of the following showing relevant lnformation on the graphs: (a) Y = (X _3)2 + S (b)y = 4x .2x . (b) Plot values and draw the best straight line as the middle line of the band of pOint's.14 . (d) Line of 'best fit' can be calcu lated by the method of least squares. ~ Can You! Checklist 12 Check this fist before and after you try the end of Programme test. (a) Express the law or equation in straightline fonn. Test exercise 12 1 Without detailed plotting of points.x2 (c) 4r + Z4y .J • fit graphs to data using the method of least squares? Yes 0 0 0 DO No lE1 to fE) .and IJ!J CEJ to Yes 0 0 rJ DO No • Sketch the graphs of curves with asymptotes.and ycoordinates of two pOints on the /ine.16x + 4x 2 = 0 (d) Sxy~ 40 (e) y = 6 . (c) Determlne m and c from the x.e.Curves and curve fitting 743 4 Curve fitting. Refer back to Frames 54 to 63. On a scale of 1 to S how confident are you that you can: • Draw sketch graphs of standard curves? Yeo yaxes? Frames OJ CEJ to 0 0 0 D O No • Determine the equat ions of asymptotes parallel to th e x.. Check with the coordinates of a third point.
determine the asymptotes parallel to the x.4yl . where a and k are constants.1 = 0 (c) yl + 2y2x 2y t.to Further problems 12 1 For each of the following curves.y . P newtons.16 = O (b) xyl _ x 2y + 3x 3 . was re<:orded.2 2 Determine all the asymptotes of each of the following curves: (a) xi . V metres per second. P F 126 1·86 178 2·34 263 2·75 398 3·6 3 52S 4·17 724 479 If the Jaw connecting P and V Is of the form V = ark.744 Engineering Mathematics 2 Determine the asymptotes of the following curves: (a) x2y_9Y+Xl=O (b) r' ~ x(x  2 )(x + 4) x 4 x+2 ISJJ ~ 3 Analyse and sketch the graph of the function y = (x .and yaxes: (a) xr' + x'I ~O (b) (c ) x'y' Y ~ "cC=i'x 3 ~ 4(x' + x2.3x + S r) x(x + 4) (x + 3 )(x+2) (e) x 2 y2 .and yaxes to give a straight line: (a)y = Ax + Bx 2 (bJy ~ x + Ae" (C)Y = B + x (d)X' (y'l ) ~ k A The force.:xl = +1 (d) Y r (D r' ~_ x_ x. . required to keep an object moving at a speed.3)(x + 5) 4 Express the following in 'straightline' form and state the variahles to be plotted on the x.xr + 4x . apply the method of least squares to obtain the values of a and k that give the best fit to the given set of values.x + 4 = O .
x'y+x + y ~ 2 3) ~ (x 1) (x +4) y 4 (x 2)(x Variables x and yare thought to be related by the law y = n + bx 2 . show that f' and Ware reJ<lted by a law of the form P = av'W + b. are relat ed by the law y = 1 !:bx 2 ' where a and b are constants.4 ) (b)Y = x 2 + 1 x (e) Y ~ x . v 460 14 ·2 7·20 7·59 10. J:rom the values given below. where a and b arc constan ts. and determine the values o f a and b. Using the values given belOW. x and y.1 4·74 15·3 266 20·4 1·78 300 \ ·04 P . x 50 13·1 75 281 12 15 109 25 301 y By pl otting a suitable graph. where II and c are constants. plot a suitable graph and hence detenninc the values of 1/ and c. Determine the va1ues of a and b that best fit the set o f values given. draw a su itable graph and hence determine the best values of nand b. x 8 10 11 11 4 y 662 900 8 The pressure p and volume v of a mass of gas in a container are related by the law p''' = c.2 (d) 1 (f)x2(yZ .25) = y (g) xY .Curves and curve fitting 745 Analyse and sketch the graphs o f the fo llowin g functionS: (a ) y = x + 1 x (e) y(x + 2}= (x 13)(x . W P 70 9 76 !O 11·0 15 12·8 24 15·4 40 18·9 60 22·4 6 b _ If R = a + cf2' find the best values for a and!J from the set of correspondmg values given below: d R 01 5·78 02 2·26 03 160 05 1·27 08 1·53 15 1·10 ~ 7 Two quantities.
required to rotate shafts of different diameters. D 7·0 0·974 !O 1·71 18 4·33 25 7·28 40 15·3 T . where a and b are constants. T newton metres. +~. draw a suitable graph and determine the vCllues of the constants a Clnd II. the following results were obtained: t V 2·0 153 3·0 200 5·0 282 to 14 563 18 666 449 If the law connecting V and t is V = (I I". where a and It are constants. t millimetres. draw a suitable graph and hence determine the values of a and It. x Y lOA 32·0 62·8 16·3 95 ·7 19·2 136 22·1 186 25·3 8·14 12·8 ~ 11 The following pClirs of values of x and yare thought to satisfy the law y = ail x the values of the constants a and h. ~ 13 The torque. where (I and It are constants. for insulation of different thicknesses. in a arcult is measured for various values of applied voltage V volts. By drawing a suitable graph. If the law connecting I and V is 1 = (IV". on a machine is shown below. If the law is T = aD". V 1 8 41 ·1 12 55·6 15 65 ·8 20 81 ·6 28 105 36 127 10 Values of x and yare thought to be related by a law of the form y = ax + b lnx. D miJIimetres. V kilovolts. test whether this is so and determine the values of {l and b. Draw a suitable graph to confirm that this is so and determine 3 4 27·0 x y 5 41·5 6 12 In a lesion breakdown vOhClges.746 Engineering Mathematics The current. draw a suitable graph and determine the values of a and n that best fit the set of recorded values. J milliamperes.
Programme 13 Series 1 learning outcomes Wilen you have completed UI.S Programme you wifl be able to: Frames [j]toCEJ • Manipulate arithmetic and geometric series • Manipu late series of powers of the natural numbers • Determine the limiting values of arithmetic and geometric series • Determine the limiting values of simple indeterminate forms • Apply various convergence tests to infinite series • Distinguish between absolute and conditio nal convergence 747 .
5. etc.S. . . since they never come to an end. e. A fif/ite sequence contains only a finite number of terms. 54. .. liZ. is a sequence (the next term would be 9). is a series. . So the sum of the first n terms will be stated as . 7.. ordered by the alphabetical letters of the surnames of the subscribers. . . 7. etc. 2. Also 1. 3 2.. .3... 12. w IThe page numbers of a book The telephone numbers in a directory Clearly. will represent the!th term and /l a • the (r + l)th term. e. . . I . is a sequence (the next term would be 52).6. . So which of the fo llowing constitutes a finite sequence: (a) all the natural numbers.. 113.e. i. 2. . 11.g. 3.. The natural numbers form an infinite sequence... etc. .. 37. so that II. . . Series A series is fonned by the sum of the terms of a sequence. is a sequence. Le.22. tl3 the third term.748 Engineering Mathematics Sequences A sequence is a set of quantities.. . . _ 4".. 1I2 the second term. the page numbers are in fixed order and terminate at the last page. . = ( (r). 11..stated in a definite order and each term formed according to a fixed pattern. 6. The telephone numbers form a complicated sequence. . I. is a sequence but 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + . . Also. .. !!le sum of the first 5 terms will be indicated by 55. 18. . but its pattern is more involved and the next term cannot readily be antidpated.g. (b) the page numbers of a book (c) the telephone numbers in a telephone directory.. 1. . We shall indicate thc tcrms of a series as follows: 111 will represent the first term. 3. is a sequence (the next term would be 162). An infil1ite sequence is unending. .5.
The general arithmetic series can therefore be written: a + (a + d)+(a+2d)+(a + 3d) + . etc. Then move to Fmme 7 . These are (a) aritllmetic series and (b) geometric series.8=3. denoted by AP An example of an AP is the series: 2 + 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + . h owever. we will first review the important results relating to these two series.2 .1)d (b) the sum of the first n te rms is given by S" = Z (2a + ~ n .d) (b) (a) " (e) Make a note of these three items in your record book.g. You will reme mber that: (a) the nth term = a + (n . You will note that each term can be written from the previous term by simply adding on a constant value 3. Arithmetic series (or arithmetic progression).Series 1 749 w You will already be familiar with two special kinds of series which have many applications. find the sum of the first 20 terms of the series: 10 + 6 + 2 . 5 .6 . etc. where 1I = first t erm and d = common diffe rence.l.2 = 3.11 . Just by way of revision. By way of warming up. This regular increment is called the common difference and is found by selecting any term a nd subtracting from it the previous term w Move on to tile next frame e.
4 ~ S" = Z( 2a + I1 .. = Wand d = n 20 2. find the series. ~ . Therefore..4.56) ~ 560 Here is another example: If the 7th term of an AP is 22 and the 12th term is 37. 3D.S and the 10th te rm is . AP = dandQA = d AP = QA 2A = P +Q .l. w Because 6th tenn = 5 10th term =2 1 I 5". a+ 6d= 22 } 5d= 15 a + lid = 37 ..76) ~ 1O( .2 .d) ~ 530 30 2 (30 + 29[41) 15(30 . P and Q . then .6 . etc. d = ~ ..116) ~ 1 5( 86) 1290 Arithmetic mean We are sometimes required to find the arithmetic mean of twO numbers. the arithmetic mean of 23 and 58 is . .560 Because (or the series 10 + 6 + 2 . A =P+Q .1290 I a + 5a=S } 4tl = 16 a + 9 d =21 11 = d= .750 Engineering Mathematics CD II S20 = . 2 The arithmetic mean of two numbers. so that P + A + Q forms an AP. Find the. etc. slim of the first 30 terms.1. This means that we have to insert a number A between P and Q. S" ~ = ~ (2n+Il .4 a = 15 a = 15. We know 7th term and 12th term So the series is 4 = 22 = 37 .2 1.6= .d) 5w ~ 2 (20 + 19[41) ~ 10(20 . is simply their average.. d= 3 a= 4 + 7 + 10+ 13+ 16 + Here is one for you to do: The 6th te rm of an AI' is .
Then 12 + A+B + C + D + E + 21 6formsan AP_ :. P and Q it means that we have to supply three numbers. A. B. Then 8 + A + B + C+ 18 forms an AP. the others are just like it. fifth term = a + 4d = 18 :. a = 8. a+&1=21 6 :. so that P + A+ B +C + Q forms an AP. Then move to Frame 10 Here is the working: Let the 5 arithmetic means be A. d = 2·5 n~8 } 4d = 10 a + 4d = 18 c. B. Now we will see how much you remember about geometric series_ So.Series 1 751 The arithmetic mean of 23 and 58 is 140'5 1 If we are required to insert 3 arithmetic means between two given numbers. H. A = 8 + 2·S = 10·5 } H = 8 + S = 13 Required arithmetic means are to5. &1 = 96 :. First term. 011 to Fmme 11 . E. d = 16 Then A = 12+ 1·6 = 13·6 A = 13·6 B = IS·2 B= 12 + 32= 152 C = 12 + 4·8 = 16·8 C = 16·8 D= 18·4 D = 12 +64 = 18·4 E = 12 +8·0 = 20·0 E = 20 So that is it! Once you have done one. CD For example: Insert 3 arithmetic means between 8 and 18. a= 12. D. 13. C. C between P and Q. C. 15S C = 8 + 7·S = I S·S Now you find five arithmetic means between 12 and 21·6. Let the means be denoted by A.
.. Tllen Oil to Frame 13 . find t he sum of the first 8 terms. etc.752 Engineering Mathematics Geometric series (geometric progression). etc. r = common ratio.l (2) the sum of the first /I teons is given by: SIt = a(1 .. (e) (fj Make a nole of these items in your record lxlok. . r.r" ) I . This constant factor is called the common ratio and is found by selecting any term and dividing it by the previous one: e... So in the geometric series 5 . So.~~= 20 10 2 The general geometric series is therefore: + .etc. 9 ..40 + .9 = 3. now you can do this one: For the series 8 + 4 + 2 + I + ~ + . . etc.10 + 20 . 27 . where a = first term... the common ratio.3 = 3..j'. etc. etc.+ m3 .g... A GP therefore has the form: a + ar + a(l + ar + . lill a + ar + ar. (d) and you will remember that: (1) the nth term = ar. denoted by GP LiD An example of a GP is the series: 1+3 + 9 + 27 + 81 + . is .. Here you can see that any term can be written from the previous term by multiplying it by a constant factor 3.
.. a = 81 . . Of course. If the 5th term of a GP is ] 62 and the 8th term is 4374.. 4374 ar" = 162 ar7 = 4374 4374 ~27 ar ar4 7 ] 62 c.. . . etc.3 4 = 162 . . .. 2... For this same series. We have 5th term 8th term = = 162 :. . . ar7 = 4374 and r = 3 :_ a. r' r=3 a= . 1. Wilen yOIf Ilave (ini5hed.. we could calculate the value of any term Of the sum of a given number of terms. find (a) the 10th lerm (b) lhe sum of the first 10 tenns. etc. ]62 :. move: to Frame: 15 ..Series 1 753 15' ~ lS1S I 16 Because for the series 8. fInd the series. Because ar4 = 162. Sn @j = a(l 1 ~ r" ) r Now here is another example. now that we know the values of a and r. 4.. a = 2 The series is: 2+6 + 18 + 54+ .
To insert 3 GMs between two given numbers.s = 1215 5 r=3 . C. Then 0" to Frame 17 . 45. At B. ~ = rand P A Q P II . means to insert 3 numbers. r = 3 = (a) 10th term (b) 510 ar9 = a(1 . P and Q.rIo) 1 r 2 x 39 = 2( 19683) = 39366 2( 1 _ 3 10 ) 1 3 59048 2(1 . 59048 Because a = 2. Let the means be A. D.9. Therefore.59049) 2 Geometric mean (GM) The geometric mean of two given numbers P and Q is a number A such thai P+A + Q form a GP. Then 5 + A + B + C + D + 1215 form a GP. C.754 Engineering Mathematics 39366. insert 4 geometric means between 5 and 121S. For example. Le.=r A So the geomectric mean of 2 numbers is the square rool of their product. 135. 405 Now here is on e for you to do: Insert two geometric means between 5 and 8·64. the geometric mean of 4 and 2S is . a = 5 and a. 15. such that P + A + B + C +Q form a GP.s = 121S = 243 A = Sx3 = ]5 B= 5 x9 = 4S C = SxZ7 = 135 D = S x8 1 =405 The required geometric means are. 8.
So let us look at these in the next frame.7. Because ~. where a = I and d = I. ar3 = 8·64. = ~). The sum of the first n terms is given by: " = ] + 2+3 +4 + 5 = .. 2101 ) L. Then 5 + A + 8+8·64 fonn a GP. :.Id) " n(n + I ) 2 L:r~ . " = "2 (2£1 I~ n .. is an example of an AP. the sum of the first 100 natural numbers is Tllen 011 to Frame 19 ' 00 L> ~ 5050 ~. + n 2) .r= I·728. of course..=1 This series..1 The series 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + S + . A (ill r = I·2 = 5 )( 1·2 = 6·0 } B = 5)( 1·44 = 7·2 Required means are 6·0 and 7·2 Arithmetic and geometric series are. Series of powers of the natural numbers . _ 100( .0.. + II etc.. special kinds of series. you will see. :. .Series 1 755 IRequired geometric means are 6.. These consist of the series of the powers of the natural numbers. 50(101) ~ 5050 . :.21 Because Let the means be A and 8. n(II + 1) 2 So. " . a=5. There are other special series that are worth knOWing..
.] )3 _ (II . L ..3 + 3/12 +311+ 1 We write this as: (" + 1)3 _.2 + 11) = 1 2. we make use of the identity: (.3 2 + .2)3 ...l )2 + 3 (II .11 .. we should eventually arrive at: 33 .l )+ ] and again (11 .756 Engineering Mathematics 2 That was easy enough . I.•.3 + 6.. we get . .22 + 12} +3{n+ (III) + (n .(n " + 3Lr " +u = 3.2) + 1 and (n ..(tl ..)2 r_ 1 2)2+ .42 I.3 =3n2 +311 + I Replacing II by II  1..2+ (n _ 1)2 I. is . the sum of the first 12 terms of the series 12 + 22 \.I)] = 3(n...2)2 + 3(n .... we find on the lefthand side that all the terms disappear except the fust and the last.4n = " + 3/12 + 3" 6L:r = 1 " 6L"z .2) + . .. (11 1.1)3  e = 3 {......(n .2 I.1)3 = . 1.52 I.il..2] = 3 x 22 + 3x2+ 1 2] _ ] 3 = 3 x 12 +3 x ) +1 If we now add all these results together. = 2n3 + 3n2 I.3) + 1 Continuing like thiS.3)3 = 3(n .3 ... I.3)2 + 3(11 ...~. + 2 + I} + 11(1) T= I IF +3112 + " 3 211= 3L::r2 + 2 (. Now let us look at this one: To establish the result for the sum of n terms of t he series 12 + 22 + 3 2 I...2)3 = 3(n . "'"' r' ~ "l" + 1)(2" + I) 6 ._I So..
1) over and over again. so copy them into your record book..= 1 = 3. we use the identity: (11 I.... ~ n(n.611 2 + 4tl + I We rewrite it as before: (11+ 1)4 _ /1 4 = 4.S . + 1)(211+1) 6 12(13)(25) 6 26(25) ~ 650 3 The sum of the cubes of the natural numbers is found in much the same way..1)4 = tl4 + 4//3 I.411 I.=1 .6n2 I. I)}' ~.~11 =45 + 110 = 15S It is just a question of using the established results..' ) n~ 1 n~ 1 n~ ] . Workillg itl Frame 23 .!!. Here is one for you to do in the same manner. Here they are: 1 t. Find the sum of the series L)ZIJ + til ) . " 11(. +L2n' ~ 3L" +2L . .1 If we now do the same trick as before and replace 11 by (11.2n ) 5 5 5.. and finally total up the results we get the result: t" ~ r( "+ I)}.= 1 n= 1 n= l S 5 5 5 n' .Series 1 757 I 650 I Because ~)2 so " L)' ~. Now move Oil to Frame 22 and we can see an example or the lise or these results Find the sum of the series L"(3I. This time. These are handy results.z f:r 11(11 + 1)(2n + 1) (h) 6 3 trJ ={11(tl.1) ..(3+ 2n) ~ L (3n + 2.=1 (g) 2 .. ~ L3.. • • 2" Note in passing that " }' L:r = { L r T~ I =. Let us collect together these last three results. ~ L. Si 6 +2..3 I.
+1 ) 2 . . 2" will be very large and therefore .. 4.S {4. In fact. consider the infinite series 1 + ~ + ~ + This we recognize as a G P in which a = 1 and r = terms is therefore given by: ~ + . 5"" = Lim 5" = 2(1 .758 Engineering Mathematics Because 54 = L(2r1 + rfl ) 11= 1 • =2LI1 + L.= 1 = 20 + 100=120 . The sum o f all the terms in this infinite series is 1/ > Now if" is very large.4...0) = 2 "~ x . as 11 > 00. we must be carefu l about the steps we take." will be very small ..11 > therefore given by 5". This result means that we can make the sum of the series as near to the value 2 as we please by taking a sufficiently large number o f terms. = the lim iting value of 5" as i. we have been concerned with a finite number of terms of a given series. When we are dealing with the sum of an infinite number of terms of a series. No:. t frame . The sum of the first tJ s" 1 1 2 2(1 ' ) 2" O.(..3 2+ 2 Remember: Sum of the first Sum o f squares of the first rJ • • _2. For example.S}' n atural numbers natural numbers 11_ 1 .e..(n + 1)(2// + 1) 6 1l( 1l { f1 Sum of cubes o f the first" natural numbers = + 2 I)}' Infinite series So far.
which is not a definite numerical value and therefore of little use to us. a ' I. Move 011 now to Frame 26 In the previous two frames.d ) = 2 (2 +rI .:. then as . a = 20' . in this case. we always obtain +oc or . 1 = a( ~  . for 20+4 + 0·8 + 0 ·16 + 0·032 + .2) t! ~ /I ..r "' > 0 • In t h at case S0< = a{l 1 . ee. S0.O) r a . S" 11 .e. we made two important points: (a) We cannot evaluate the sum of an infinite number of terms of an AP because the result is always infinite.=1 50..co as the result. In fact . 00...16 + 0 . This always happens with an AP: if we try to find the 'sum to infinity'. This is an AP in which a = ] and d = 2...2 Of course. . depending on the actual series. Then SI! = 2 (Za +rJ 1. Consider the infinite series 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + .. for in the case of an AP things arc very different. = . Sec = 2S Because.1.. find tile 'sum to infinity' of the series 20 + 4 + 0.r .. if then S" .. r = . for such a series. . if /I is large then the value of S" is very large. .032 + . .2) ~ 2 ( 2 + 2n .4 =0·2= S (j 0·8 1 SX'~ I_r ~1 ~ 4· ( 20)~ 2S 20 S 1 S .8+0. ') and provided ~I ' Irl < I. (b) We can sometime:s evaluate the sum of an infinite number of terms of a GP since.Series 1 759 This is not always possible with an infinite series.::1 n 5" 1/ 10 00..
00 ..3/"z 6 / n / 1/ " Z 2+ 0 . ".7/ 11 L' lin 5+3/ 11 Now when 11 > OC'.... A few examples will suffice. 00 .3 as II . .3/.. Before we leave this topic. each of these lends to zero.. 0/1 to the "ext frame tllen Example 2 . 3/ " . So we do it this way: 511 + 3 211 7 5 + 3/ n 2 7/ tJ = 511 To find the limiting value of 2 I.. . let us look a little further into the process of finding limiting values. 2112 + 411 . the first thing is to . Hrst of all.760 Engineering Mathematics Limiting values Tn this Programme..._'" · {5n L "n ....2 5 To find Um 2n3 II _ x + 3n 4 Move 011 In this case.. 2 .3 5n z 6" +1 .. 0 and 7/ 11 . 2tl7 "_ ".0 5 Ll m = Um ~~ u_ "". to Frame 31 . (dividing top and bottom by II) ...7 We cannot just substitute 11 = OG in the expression and simplify t he result..7/ n 2 . in this case "z... 0 :. because when II . 5tJ I. l et us try another example.3} 2n7 11_"".3 611 + ] 2 I. 50 move on to Frame 29 Example 1 n.. we divide top and lxmom by the highest power of " which is involved....0 2 5. we have already seen that we have sometimes to determine the limiting value of 51! as tJ + oc..2 5 6 / 11 + ] / 112 Um 2 "Z + 4n .!:!! 5 L' 2 + 4 / 11 ..4/ . 511 z 11_00 2n2+4n . 00.3 _ 5 + 3/ n 5 1..3 To find the limitmg value of 5 2 6 as n n+1 II .~? 0.0+ 0 Example 3: /13 . 2 . since 00 is not an ordina ry number and does not obey the normal rules... n c " elc.+ .0 2 We can always deal with fractions of the form ~... which is a precise value.
. 3 The sum of n terms of this series tends to the defmite value of ~ as" therefore a . 0 For example.. ....Series 1 761 I Divide top and bottom by n I l (ill Right..) of 11 tenns of the series tends to a definite value..:xl.. I I I 1 We know that for a GP... 0 LIm 5" = 2 ". series... 00.. consider the GP: I +"3 + "9 + 27 + 8 1 I.II) 1 1 r . 00..'" > ..."3 As n ... is called a COIn'f'TgetJt series... .. If 5" does not tend to a definite value as f/ x ... ..... ..  _l(l .2 13" 1..  "3 I 3" . (conve rgent/divergent) It is . S" have: a( I .'.so inthiscasesincea=landr = "3.L l . So we get: tl 3 _ 2 2 + 3/n2 4/ nl Finish it off. . as II . .. TfletJ move on (Q Frame 32 Next frame Convergent and divergent series A series in which the sum (5... the series is said to be dh'Crgent.. . .. .we S..... _~ ( _') 1 2 .
we could determine the limiting value of 5" as n _ 00. n_ x #. Remember the notation for series in general. A series c::annot be convergent unless its tenns ultimately tend to zero. tile series is divergent. as we did in the examples a moment ago. . =z alw. was convergent) or not. for if the sum is to a pproach some definite value as the value of 11 increases.ary.e. i.<. Here is another series.e. unless Lim u.762 Engineering Mathematics convergent If 5" tends to a definite value as the series is convergent. the series is (ill I divCT£cnt I We can make use of infinite series only when they are convergent and it is neces. /1 + 00. .3" Of course.r 1(1 . s" = a(l  r") \ . and this would tell us directly whether the series in question ten ded to a definite value (i. If S" does not tend to a definite value as tJ t 00.= 0 n _~ If Lim II. therefore. ..O. Lim5H = OJ (which is not a definite numerical value) So in this case. We shall denote the terms by II ] + 112 + 113 + 14 + .. This is almost just common sen se. convergent. in fact. the series is diveJgent. Let us investigate this one. SO IIOW 111m'e on to Frame 36 Test for convergence Test 1.3") \ 3 3" . the numerical value of the individual terms must dim inish . to have some means of testing whether or not a given series is. when n > 3" > 00 :.I 2 00. That is the fundamental test. but unfortun ately. Of course. it is n ot always easy to fin d a formula for S" and we h ave therefo re to find a test fo r convergence which uses the terms themselves. This is also a GP with a = 1 and r = 3. 1 . 1 + 3 + 9+27 + 8 1 + ..
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