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, Raia Biology 10 TFIJ2, Mr. Mark Jun Alcantara 8 July 2013
Cell transport is the mechanism at which cells absorb and excrete foreign matter through a semipermeable membrane. Diffusion and osmosis is an example of passive transport wherein matter moves down the concentration gradient where there is no energy consumption. This paper is a follow-up of the experiment done which aims to describe a semipermeable membrane and explain its role in osmosis, to define hypoosmotic, hyperosmotic and isosmotic in terms of relative concentrations of osmotically active substances, and to explain the importance of diffusion and osmosis to cells. The significance of the study is to give a more concrete explanation of the processes in cells. Part A introduces the semipermeable membrane and the diffusion of molecules wherein a dialysis bag is subjected to certain solutions. Part B details the osmotic activity in animal cells wherein slides with blood is subjected to solutions with different molarities. Part C details the osmotic activity in plant cells where the Rhoeo discolor leaf is subjected to a sugar solution and water. Cells therefore have cell membranes which are semipermeable allowing the exchange of matter through cell transport. Students should not deviate from the procedure as it is written. 2. KEYWORDS Diffusion, osmosis, cell membrane, plasmolysis, hemolysis
INTRODUCTION Communication within the cell and between cytoplasm and the external environment is facilitated by the regulated movement of materials into or out of the cell. The cell membrane separates the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment both of which are aqueous solutions. These solutions contain dissolved substances, or solutes, in the dissolving medium, or solvent. The cell membrane and membranes of the cell organelles are
semipermeable, which regulates the movement of solute. There are two types of cell transport: active and the passive. The active transport expends energy in the form of ATP to accomplish movement against the concentration gradient. On the other hand, passive transport is accomplished down the concentration gradient without the expense of ATP and consumes only the kinetic
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As the name of the test suggests the reagent is called the Benedict’s reagent. one is hemolysis.5% concentration.5% and red indicates 2% or higher concentration. Part B explores the human blood in relation to solutions subjected to it and the processes that it undergoes. Le Chatelier’s Principle in chemistry suggests that a system tends to shift towards equilibrium. orange indicates 1.. It is the diffusion of water through a partially permeable membrane from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution – down the water potential gradient. hypertonic. Osmolarity and tonicity are related. It is often used in place of Fehling's solution. Thus. and alpha-hydroxy-ketones. hyperosmotic. The four solutions may either be isosmotic. Benedict's solution can be used to tell if there is a sugar in a substance such as glucose in starch lamo. Benedict's Reagent provides a quantitative test for reducing sugars along with qualitative test. Hemolysis may occur in vivo or in vitro (inside or outside the body). it is an alpha-hydroxy-ketone. but isotonic – if the total concentration of solutes in one compartment is different from that of the other. although the ketose fructose is not strictly a reducing sugar. causing momentary changes in cell volume as the solutes "pull" water molecules with them. Hemolysis is the rupturing of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e. These are precipitated as red copper(I) oxide which is insoluble in water. A greenish precipitate indicates about 0. This includes all monosaccharides and many disaccharides. Benedict's reagent contains blue copper(II) ions (Cu2+) which are reduced to copper(I) ions (Cu+). yellow precipitate indicates 1% concentration. ions or molecules) from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. whereas tonicity takes into account the total concentration of only nonpenetrating solutes..g. A solution can be both hyperosmotic and isotonic. the terms ending in osmotic (isosmotic. The ability of bacterial colonies to induce hemolysis when grown on blood agar is used to classify certain microorganisms. Penetrating solutes can diffuse through the cell membrane. hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic to the Page 2 of 8 .3 g of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate. including those that occur in certain ketoses. Thus. it cannot draw water with it. 173 g of sodium citrate and 17. the intracellular fluid and extracellular can be hyperosmotic. The copper sulphate in Benedict's solution reacts with reducing sugars. and therefore osmosis of water must occur for the solutions to reach equilibrium. but ions cannot cross the membrane. Osmosis is a special example of diffusion. thus causing no net change in solution volume. The terms are related in that they both compare the solute concentrations of two solutions separated by a membrane. a six-carbon sugar. but different concepts. Non-penetrating solutes cannot cross the cell membrane. and gives a positive test because it is converted to the aldoses glucose and mannose by the base in the reagent. blood plasma). Diffusion is the net passive movement of particles (atoms. Benedict's reagent is used as a test for the presence of reducing sugars. One litre of Benedict's reagent can be prepared from 100 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate. hypotonic). The terms are different because osmolarity takes into account the total concentration of penetrating solutes and nonpenetrating solutes. including lactose and maltose. For example. This is particularly useful in classifying streptococcal species. hyposmotic) are not synonymous with the terms ending in tonic (isotonic. The solutes that exhibit osmosis are called osmotically active substances (OAS). Part A utilizes the osmotic activity of glucose.energy of the constant random motion of molecules inside the cell. and tested through the Benedict’s test. where the net movement is equal to zero. The color of the obtained precipitate gives an idea about the quantity of sugar present in the solution. A substance that causes hemolysis is a hemolysin. Benedict's test will detect the presence of aldehydes. Even more generally.
Through observation of plasmolysis and deplasmolysis it is possible to determine the tonicity of the cell's environment as well as the rate solute molecules cross the cellular membrane. can occur if the cell is in a hypotonic solution resulting in a lower external osmotic pressure and a net flow of water into the cell. a drop of solution A was put and then added a drop of blood then observed under the microscope. the two slides were compared. In a 400-ml beaker. Part C distinguishes the plant cells from the animal cells in part B. The test tubes were heated in a boiling water bath for 3 minutes. In case there are spills. Physical changes were recorded. Without the stiffness of the plant cells the plant would fall under its own weight. Part B Four clean microscope slides were labeled A. longganisa skin was used.0 M sucrose solution on a slide labelled F. One drop of Benedict’s reagent was added to each test tube. A drop of blood was then placed on slide D and then was observed under a microscope. After 30 minutes. The skin was placed in the beaker making sure that its contents would not spill. 300-ml water was poured in added with seven droppers of I2KI solution until the color turns golden-yellow. Turgor pressure allows plants to hold their posture/form. making the protoplasm push against the cell wall. 4. The Benedict’s test was then performed to determine the presence of sugar in a solution. This is also the reason that plants stand upright. A solution isosmotic and isotonic to the blood has a 0. so that the increased volume of water in the cell will increase pressure. cytolysis. One of the specimen was mounted in tap water on a slide labelled E and then covered with coverslip. which stops plant cells from bursting as animal cells do in the same conditions. a condition known as turgor. Observations were then recorded and tabulated. Plant cell walls resist further water entry after a certain point. The other specimen was mounted in 1. dispose the beaker solution and filled it again with the mixture. and plants without turgor pressure (known as flaccid) wilt. The longganisa skin was filled by a mixture of four Pasteur pipettes of 15% glucose and starch solutions. and then viewed under LPO. The original procedure says that we need to make a dialysis bag (serves as the selectively permeable membrane) out of collodion but for practical purposes. The reverse process. known as full turgor. Results were then recorded. Plasmolysis is the process in plant cells where the cytoplasm pulls away from the cell wall due to the loss of water through osmosis. A plant cell in hypotonic solution will absorb water by endosmosis.red blood cells. The specimen in slide F was then irrigated by placing tissue on one side of the coverslip then introducing water on the other Page 3 of 8 . the bag was removed from the beaker solution. The cells of the leaf were observed under low power objective (LPO). covered with coverslip. The next is experimentation or the methods used then the discussion of results and lastly the conclusion.15M. The process was repeated for slides B and C. Turgor makes plant cells push against each other in the same way and is the main line method of support in non-woody plant tissue. and D. B C. Part C A thin layer of the lower epidermis of Rhoeo discolor was stripped off and cut into two pieces using a scalpel and forceps. EXPERIMENTATION Part A Diffusion of molecules through a selectively permeable membrane will be observed. Two Pasteur pipettes of the beaker solution were put in the first test tube while the same amount of the dialysis bag solution was put in the second test tube for testing. After two minutes. Plant cells have cell walls made of strong material. In slide A. This occurs in a hypertonic solution. Two clean test tubes were labeled. The cells may either lyse or shrivel or remain intact.
the violet color inside the cell exhibited slight expansion. the sugar solution was completely replaced with water. The average cell seems to have expanded as the outlines (dots in the center that carry oxygen) are more visible Cells set as the controlled set-up (Purely blood) D Final Color blue Color after yellow Benedict’s test Table 1 Part A Results So lu ti o ns A Diagram of Cells Description Table 2 Part B Results Cells are smaller than normal blood cell. seemingly deflated in appearance Cells seem to have more space between one another. although there are deviations. the violet color seen in the sample shrank thus became smaller leaving the cell wall in its original shape and position. After five minutes of exposure to sucrose solution.side. the average cell size seems to be as large as that of the normal blood cell (d) Mounting Medium Tap Water Description After five minutes in tap water. The cells were again observed under LPO. pushing the cell wall outward. B Sucrose Solution Distilled Water Page 4 of 8 . 5. After some moment. while the cell wall remained intact. uneven. Data Results Bag starch and glucose solution cloudy white Beaker water and I2KI solution goldenyellow pale yellow orange C Original Contents Original Color Cells are visibly larger than the normal blood cell. The shrunk violet portion of the cell was entered by water and became bigger.
Therefore. On Page 5 of 8 . The only substance left in question is glucose. After 30 minutes of leaving the bag in the beaker. and the starch. glucose can also pass through the pores of the bag. Unlike water and I2KI ions. respectively. This is because the I. I2KI ions were able to pass through the bag. Diagram of F after addition of distilled water Table 3 Part C Results 6. The color of the bag solution and the beaker solution turned bluish and pale yellow. specifically iodide. The large starch molecules may be accounted to why not all of the glucose molecules pass through the bag. The change in color from cloudy white to blue of the bag solution is due to the reaction of the diffused ion of I2KI in water.Diagram of Tap Water Diagram of F before addition of sucrose Diagram of F after addition of sucrose the other hand. Table 1 shows the concentration of sugar in a solution via the resulting color changes. starch molecules were not able to diffuse out of the bag since it is larger than the pores of the semipermeable membrane.0% orange ~1. It is a test primarily conducted to determine the presence and concentration of sugars in a solution. DISCUSSION Part A The mixture of starch and glucose in the dialysis bag produced a cloudy white solution. From the results. the color of the beaker solution turned pale. Most probably the starch molecules blocked the pores of the bag disallowing all glucose molecules to pass through. the Benedict’s test was performed.0% or more Table 4 Part A Benedict’s Test The resulting color of the bag solution is yellow while that of the beakers is orange. In order to determine whether or not glucose diffused out of the bag.ions were consumed as the reaction proceeds.5% red ~2. the color of both solutions changed. Instead.5% yellow ~1. It is already given that water will diffuse as it is the universal solvent. This is supported by the observed increase of the bag solution’s volume. the water and I2KI mixture resulted to a golden-yellow solution. The same color was not observed in the beaker solution giving the idea that starch didn’t diffuse out of the bag. it is evident that both solutions contain glucose. Solution’s color Glucose concentration green ~0.
The hyperosmotic solution is the cell’s vacuole. 3. of the cell is equal to that of distilled water. when exposed to sucrose solution. caused by loss of water through osmosis. the tendency to give out water. reaching equilibrium. the cell exhibited plasmolysis. predict the size of I2KI molecules relative to the glucose and starch. Guide Questions Part A 1. This happens when water flows from the less concentrated fluid in the cell to the more concentrated liquid in the environment. water. it will swell and most likely.1M. solutes of which are waste products and small molecules which are in higher concentration than that of tap water. However. It can be said that the hypoosmotic solution is tap water as it may contain very small amount of dissolved substances such as minerals and dissolved gases. Blood cells on B seem to have appeared to be similar to that of D's indicating the solution's isotonic nature. I2KI and glucose passed through the bag while starch being a large molecule was not able to pass through it. Therefore. water. the flow of water from a hypoosmotic solution to a hyperosmotic solution through a semipermeable membrane. glucose. This is due to the absorption of water by the cell due to the solution's hypotonic nature. but the vacuole eventually stopped swelling when the water potential. causing the net movement of water to be 0. From there. Due to the greater amount of solute outside the blood cell. which has a relatively high concentration of 0. the solute inside the cell and that of its surrounding environment is alike. 2. The molecules of I2KI molecule is smaller relative to the size of the starch and glucose since I2KI molecules were able to pass through the dialysis bag. Plasmolysis is the shrinking of the protoplasm in a plant or bacterial cell away from the cell wall. Part B Blood cells on A can be observed to have shriveled. This phenomenon can be explained by osmosis. which can be attributed to A being a hypertonic. 7. is an example of cytolysis. reaching equilibrium. then the I2KI molecules. and the largest substance was the starch molecules. we can say that placing glucose and I2KI inside the bag while the starch and water in the beaker would yield us to the same observation of the bag’s permeability. Page 6 of 8 . pushing the cell wall outward. water comes rushing into the cell in order to attain equilibrium. this cannot happen due to the absence of solute in the water. From your results. When the sucrose solution was replaced by distilled water. Part C The slight expansion of the violet portion. Distilled water has no solute. I2KI and glucose all have small molecules passed throgh the dialysis bag unlike the starch having a large molecule. the plant cell did not burst because the cell wall is rigid and strong. With an isotonic solution. Cytolysis is the net flow of water from a less concentrated environment to the more concentrated fluid in the cell. the smallest substance was water. burst. Since the cell has absorbed water. Blood cells on C seem to appear larger than that of D's. The hyperosmotic solution is the sucrose solution. In this case. In contrast. the opposite of cytolysis. It can be concluded that the hypoosmotic solution is the cell’s vacuole. vacuole swelled.In summary. the membrane pores. What colors would you expect if the experiment started with glucose and I2KI inside the bag and starch in the beaker? We have already concluded that in terms of sizes. Explain your results in terms of permeability of the dialysis tubing to the substances being tested. The dialysis bag allows molecules to pass through it only if these molecules are smaller in size compared to the pores of the bag. the water would theoretically flow out to balance the concentration outside the cell. water is flown inside to balance the concentration of the cell. which is the vacuole of the cell. Since the red blood cell has more solutes than its environment. Unlike the animal cell.
The lack of water inside the meat product would cause it to become sturdier. hypotonic or isotonic. such as intravenous feeding? Intravenous feeding is done by suspending the drug or the material. Hypertonic crystalloids are used to increase blood volume. reaching equilibrium. the solute inside the cell and that of its surrounding environment is alike. Salt and sugar are both materials used to regulate the amount of water inside the meat via osmosis. Since this solution is hypotonic. This is due to the absorption of water by the cell due to the solution's hypotonic nature. The most common type of intravenous feeding is crystalloid injections. causing the net movement of water to be 0. Blood cells on C seem to appear larger than that of D's. Blood cells on B seem to have appeared to be similar to that of D's indicating the solution's isotonic nature. Since the cell has absorbed water. which can be attributed to A being a hypertonic . II. causing it less likely Page 7 of 8 . The starch molecules are too big to pass through the bag’s pores leaving it outside the bag. the movement of water go outside of the cell to attain equilibrium) Hypoosmotic. the movement of water is outward to attain equilibrium. Hemolysis. the net movement of water goes outside of the cell to attain equilibrium) III. The beaker solution will turn blue while the bag solution will be pale. causing it to expand and burst.A (since A has more solute particles in the outside environment. burst. such as water in a saline solution. which of the three solutions is… Hyperosmotic . This bursting is hemolysis (hemo-blood lysis-breakage) Crenation.is the formation of different etchings on the cell wall due to the exposure to a hypertonic solution. Since the red blood cell has more solutes than its environment.B (since B has the same amount of solute particles in the outside environment. This is due to the crystalloid's higher tonicity compared to the blood plasma. it will swell and most likely. Hypotonic solutions are used mainly to counter cell dehydration. water or the said hypotonic substance would enter into the blood cell to achieve equilibrium. With an isotonic solution. What impact would be the principles investigated in the experiment on the blood cells have on medical procedures. Since the environment has more solute than the red blood cell. IV. causing the cell to decrease in size and shrink. Based on the results. Due to the greater amount of solute outside the blood cell. Define Hemolysis and Crenation. Explain your results. the water would theoretically flow out to balance the concentration outside the cell. Explain the basis of meat preservation with salt or sugar.C (since C has less solute particles in the outside environment. water is flown inside to balance the concentration of the cell. V. For hypotonic crystalloids. the net movement of water go into of the cell to attain equilibrium) Isosmotic. glucose and I2KI molecules will move out of the bag while water will move in. With sat/sugar added.is the deterioration of the red blood cells membrane commonly detected by a red or pink tinge in the plasma. causing it to shrivel. This deterioration is due to the entrance of the solution (mostly pure water) and other substances. Part B I.Therefore. which can either be hypertonic. the meat gradually loses water. Blood cells on A can be observed to have shriveled. their lower tonicity compared to the blood plasma causes the water from the outside of the cells to enter the cells to dilute the electrolytes inside the blood cell. reaching equilibrium. the water moving outside the red blood cell to dilute the high concentrations of electrolytes within the intravenous fluid. much like colloids injected intravenously.
However. (2009). which has a relatively high concentration of 0. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A cell is a system in which transport of materials occur actively or passively and generally shifts toward equilibrium.eportfolio.lagcc. Loisirc _____________________ MALUBAY. This happens when water flows from the less concentrated fluid in the cell to the more concentrated liquid in the environment. Active transport is important for the distribution of nutrients throughout the plants. Diffusion and osmosis are necessary to maintain a biological balance with the organism’s immediate environment. the flow of water from a hypoosmotic solution to a hyperosmotic solution through a semipermeable membrane. When the sucrose solution was replaced by distilled water.cuny. Therefore. is an example of cytolysis. through the concentration gradient of the system to the surroundings.to collapse. Justin Damian _____________________ PRIMERO. observe the slides carefully as it may have changed over a small amount of time. the tendency to give out water. Retrieved from: http://www. the opposite of cytolysis. hence preserving the duration of food. D. Also. Raia Page 8 of 8 . which is the vacuole of the cell. This phenomenon can be explained by osmosis. Part C 1. 2. Diffusion and Osmosis.1M. water comes rushing into the cell in order to attain equilibrium. Cytolysis is the net flow of water from a less concentrated environment to the more concentrated fluid in the cell. but the vacuole eventually stopped swelling when the water potential. _____________________ GO.ku ncaite/documents/scb201_week3. the plant cell did not burst because the cell wall is rigid and strong. Karl Emerson _____________________ QUITORIANO.edu /scholars/doc_fa09/eP_fa09/Daiva. pushing the cell wall outward. It can be said that the hypoosmotic solution is tap water as it may contain very small amount of dissolved substances such as minerals and dissolved gases. The system may be affected with stresses from the outside environment. salt/sugar can be used as an effective ingredient in removing water. In contrast. Distilled water has no solute. REFERENCES Kuncaite. since water is also a breeding ground for bacteria (since bacteria thrives with moisture). Explain your results The slight expansion of the violet portion. VII. The hyperosmotic solution is the cell’s vacuole. solutes of which are waste products and small molecules which are in higher concentration than that of tap water. caused by loss of water through osmosis. Laboratory manual of biology 10: General biology I hereby certify that I have given substantial contribution to this report. The group recommends not deviating from the manual as it may have different results.do c. VI. this cannot happen due to the absence of solute in the water. Unlike the animal cell. of the cell is equal to that of distilled water. the cell exhibited plasmolysis. The hyperosmotic solution is the sucrose solution. vacuole swelled. It can be concluded that the hypoosmotic solution is the cell’s vacuole. when exposed to sucrose solution. Define plasmolysis. Plasmolysis is the shrinking of the protoplasm in a plant or bacterial cell away from the cell wall.
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