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• Topics
– Plane mirror, Two parallel mirrors, Two plane
mirrors at right angles
– Spherical mirror/Plane mirror comparison in
forming image
– Spherical refracting surfaces
– Thin lenses
• Warmup problem
Geometrical Optics:Study of reflection and refraction
of light from surfaces using the ray approximation.
The ray approximation states that light travels in straight lines
until it is reflected or refracted and then travels in straight lines again.
The wavelength of light must be small compared to the size of
the objects or else diffractive effects occur.
Reflection
Refraction: Snells Law
n
1
sinu
1
= n
2
sinu
2
u
1
=u
1
'
n
1
n
2
Using Fermat’s Principle you can prove the
above two laws. It states that the path taken
by light when traveling from one point to
another is the path that takes the shortest
time compared to nearby paths.
Plane mirrors
Normal
Angle of
incidence
Angle of reflection
i =  p
Real side Virtual side
Virtual image
Problem: Two plane mirrors make an angle of 90
o
. How
many images are there for an object placed between
them?
object
eye
1
2
3
mirror
mirror
Problem: Two plan mirrors make an angle of 60
o
. Find all
images for a point object on the bisector.
object
2
4
5,6
3
1
mirror
mirror
How tall must be a mirror be for a person to see
his entire reflection in it. Let H be the height of
a man and let l be the height of the mirror?
What happens if we bend the mirror?
i =  p magnification = 1
Concave mirror.
Image gets magnified.
Field of view is diminished
Convex mirror.
Image is reduced.
Field of view increased.
Thin Lenses: thickness is small compared to object
distance, image distance, and radius of curvature.
Converging lens
Diverging lens
Thin Lens Equation
1
f
=
1
p
+
1
i
Lensmaker Equation
1
f
= (n ÷1)(
1
r
1
÷
1
r
2
)
What is the sign convention?
Sign Convention
p
Virtual side  V
Real side  R
i
Light
Real object  distance p is pos on V side (Incident rays are diverging)
Radius of curvature is pos on R side.
Real image  distance is pos on R side.
Virtual object  distance is neg on R side Incident rays are converging)
Radius of curvature is neg on the V side.
Virtual image distance is neg o the V side.
r
2
r
1
Rules for drawing rays to locate images
•A ray initially parallel to the central axis will pass through the focal point.
•A ray that initially passes through the focal point will emerge from the lens
parallel to the central axis.
•A ray that is directed towards the center of the lens will go straight
through the lens undeflected.
24(b). Given a lens with a focal length f = 5 cm and object distance p
= +10 cm, find the following: i and m. Is the image real or virtual?
Upright or inverted? Draw 3 rays.
p f i
1 1 1
÷ =
m =
' y
y
= ÷
i
p
1
i
=
1
5
÷
1
10
= +
1
10
Image is real,
inverted.
. .
F
1
F
2
p
Virtual side
Real side
m = ÷
10
10
= ÷1
i = +10 cm
24(e). Given a lens with the properties (lengths in cm) r
1
= +30, r
2
=
30, p = +10, and n = 1.5, find the following: f, i and m. Is the image
real or virtual? Upright or inverted? Draw 3 rays.
( )


.

\

÷ ÷ =
2 1
1 1
1
1
r r
n
f
( )
30
1
30
1
30
1
1 5 . 1
1
=

.

\

÷
÷ ÷ =
f
cm f 30 =
p f i
1 1 1
÷ =
15
1
10
1
30
1 1
÷ = ÷ =
i
cm i 15 ÷ =
m =
' y
y
= ÷
i
p
m = ÷
÷15
10
= +1.5
Image is virtual,
upright.
Virtual side
Real side
r
1
. .
F
1
F
2
p
r
2
27. A converging lens with a focal length of +20 cm is located 10 cm to
the left of a diverging lens having a focal length of 15 cm. If an object is
located 40 cm to the left of the converging lens, locate and describe
completely the final image formed by the diverging lens. Treat each lens
Separately.
f
1
f
1
Lens 1 Lens 2
f
2
f
2
10
40
+20 15
f
1
f
1
Lens 1 Lens 2
f
2
f
2
10
40
+20 15
Ignoring the diverging lens (lens 2), the image formed by the
converging lens (lens 1) is located at a distance
1
i
1
=
1
f
1
÷
1
p
1
=
1
20cm
÷
1
40cm
. i
1
= 40cm
40
This image now serves as a virtual object for lens 2, with p
2
=  (40 cm  10 cm) =  30 cm.
30
Since m = i
1
/p
1
=  40/40=  1 , the image is inverted
1
i
2
=
1
f
2
÷
1
p
2
=
1
÷15cm
÷
1
÷30cm
i
2
= ÷30cm.
Thus, the image formed by lens 2 is located 30 cm to the left of lens 2. It is
virtual (since i
2
< 0).
f
1
f
1
Lens 1 Lens 2
f
2
f
2
10
40
+20 15
40
30
The magnification is m = (i
1
/p
1
) x (i
2
/p
2
) = (40/40)x(30/30) =+1, so the image
has the same size orientation as the object.
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