Topic 1

Networking at the Workplace a. Introduce yourself: You need to use the right words, smile and eye contact b. Introduce others: you need to mention the name and position of those you are introducing. c. Making small talk: chatting about things not related to anything in particular. Do not talk about political, racial or personal issues. Talk about holidays, weather etc. Start with exploratory questions or statement to see whether person is eager to talk.

1. Starting a conversation

2. Getting down to business a. In conversing with people at your workplace, you will need to describe your job and organisation. You need to project a positive professional image of yourself and your organisation. b. You need to be familiar with the products or services that your company specialise in. c. The differences between sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation. Topic 2 1. Basic telephone skills Getting ready: a. Before calling: i. Think about a suitable time to call ii. What is your objective/s of calling? iii. Anticipate question from the other person iv. Have pen and papers ready v. Update yourself of the most recent conversation vi. Desk calendar ready at hand vii. Fax ahead if it is your first call b. receiving calls i. train staff to be: 1. brief

2. clear 3. polite c. telephone etiquette i. answer phone promptly ii. identify yourself right away iii. use caller’s name iv. resolve caller’s problem, if not pass on to another and give reason why v. sound positive vi. reduce jargon vii. speak at appropriate pace viii. practise active listening ix. end politely d. Business calls: you need to save time by quickly asking probing questions to get more information about the telephone call. You need to: i. Identify the problem ii. Verify the product iii. Determine if warranty applies iv. Ascertain how the product has been used v. Find out what steps have been taken to rectify the problem e. Common telephone words i. Learn and use standard phrases used in phone calls (p27) f. Taking and leaving messages i. Five simple steps 1. name 2. time and reason for call 3. make a request 4. leave number 5. end call g. difficult calls: be professional in handling difficult calls.

Topic 3 -

Discussions and meetings

Meetings are for exchanging information, discussion and make decisions. Each member need to contribute actively and be aware of the appropriate expressions and functions.  Starting a meeting  Introducing the agenda  Stating objectives  Keeping the meeting moving  Closing the meeting

Language in meetings


Why do you need to know all these? Ideas in meetings need to be articulated tactfully, all the time showing respect for the others. We want our message to be understood by everyone.

Expressing opinions

 Forceful  Neutral  Tentative This occur both when asking and giving opinions. Why are there differences in giving opinions? Think about purpose/intention.  Strong  Neutral Discussion will gain momentum as each responds positively or negatively.

Expressing agreement and disagreement


Making and requesting for suggestions during meetings are common. Suggestions can be made strongly, neutrally or tentatively.

Topic 4

Making Presentations page 64. 1. Why am I giving this presentations? 2. What do I hope to achieve? 3. What do the audience know about the subject? 4. What visual aids can I use? 5. What do the audience need/expect? 6. What can I do to make my talk interesting? - Structure of subject matter or the facts and ideas. Arrangement of ideas to be presented. Consider mind mapping, outlining and organizational patterns. - Structure of presentation, how to present it? Consider audience awareness, opening lines, visual aids and gestures.

Making a presentation


Structuring subject matter Gathering, collecting ideas and materials, brainstorming and sorting it into logical sequences. Brainstorming – where theme is central and develops into many branches. Mind mapping Outlining – ideas arranged in linear fashion. Organisational patterns: - chronological - spatial - topical - comparison-contrast - cause-effect - problem solution Structuring the Presentation


Audience awareness – focus on the needs and temperament of audience. You need to pitch your talk according to the requirements of the talk.


Effective opening lines – to create impression and capture attention. Appropriate visual aids – help audience follow ideas closely, or to drive home specific points. Non-verbal communication – posture, gestures, will create indirect messages to the audience.

The Presentation proper Topic 5 objective of presentation simple, logical structure strong opening relevant examples visual aids enthusiastic be sensitive to audience listen carefully to questions be polite Business writing 1

The language of business writing

1. • • • • Communicating message without misinterpretation Direct writing style / reader-friendly Remember tone and clarity sentence length and paragraphing Choose familiar words, be concise and precise. Avoid clichés and jargon unless familiar to reader. Be aware of gender bias

Words i. ii. iii.

Sentence Readability (sentence length) and punctuation (adds clarity to message). Vary length of sentence. Sentence usually between 15 to 20 words. Paragraph i. coherence and cohesion. Structure paragraph properly. ii. organise ideas to suit the purpose: a. to inform b. to instruct c. to persuade Tone i. ii. iii. 2. 5.2 1 2 Word choice and order of information set the tone. Be courteous. Avoid imperatives. Use logical connectors to help reader focus on intention and purpose Grammar: word order in sentences  Sentences should be complete

The format of business letters • Formal communication to elicit specific response • Essential parts are details of the communication Parts of a letter • Letterhead Info on the writer, the organization and its address. • Date Between the letterhead and the inside address. • Inside address After the date and before salutation. Contains name and address of recipients. • Attention line Below the last line of the inside address where a specific person’s name is mentioned. • Greeting First name would be personal, inclusion of title before name would be more formal.




Subject line Identifies writer’s purpose • Body Three parts including the opening and closing. • Complimentary close Match the form at salutation. “Dear Sir/Madam…..Yours faithfully” “Dear..(name)……….Yours sincerely” • Signature block The signature, name and post. Grammar: Singular and plural forms • Countable nouns • Uncountable nouns • Plural nouns Layout • Full block layout – all parts are aligned to the left. • Modified block layout (p93) Senders address is at centre or aligned with the right hand margin. The complimentary close and signature block will follow the sender’s address position. • Modified block layout with indented paragraphs (p95) Same as modified block except that each paragraph is indented from the left hand margin. Punctuation styles • Open style – punctuation used in the body of letter. • Mixed style – comma is placed after the greeting and after the complimentary close. Business writing 2

Topic 6 1

Good business letter • Well planned • Impress recipient of sender’s professional image and the importance of such communication. • The seven checklists 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. purpose of letter what to say jot down all ideas roughly order all points first draft read the letter, think about purpose rewrite

1 2

Types of letters • Good news letters

Neutral letters The first two are for asking or giving information. • Bad news letters As the label suggests! • See page 99 3 Order of information • Good news and neutral business letters. • • • • Purpose identified in the opening paragraph Place good news in the opening State details of good news in middle paragraph Close with statement of goodwill

Letter of enquiry To ask for more info of product or service. Neutral letter using good news letter format. p103

Letter for placing orders After you are certain about the service or product that you want. p.102 Letter of Reply to an inquiry Choice of using openings closing lines depend on purpose of letter and relations between the sender and receiver. P104

Bad news letter • • Telling unwelcome news Must convey message and maintain recipient’s goodwill

Indirect order of information • Courteous opening • Explanation is provided first • Give the bad news • Close with positive paragraph 4 Resumes Statement of all qualifications, experience, achievements, and anything that would of relevance to the reader written positively.


Basic resume – simple and short, for school-leavers. Functional resume – highlight skills and work experience. Job functions of previous job will be highlighted. Specific resume – for specific post where it will follow the criteria set as advertised.

Chapter 8 Memos, e-mail and faxes
1. Memorandum Advantages of memo Many people will get the same message. Takes little time to write but will have reference number. Detailed information can be presented logically and accurately. Internal, written business communication. Less formal but a serious document. Can be used for any number of reasons. Format, style, and organization vary greatly. Look at the overview of a memo P.149. There are five types of memo: 2. instruction Request Announcement Transmittal Authorization

e-mail Electronic communication via internet What is netiquette? Why would you need a layout to your e-mail if it is a formal communication? Minimum requirements receiver’s name sender’s name


subject date body

- e-mail address Faxes Faxes are widely used today and more convenient because you only need telephone lines. The layout should contain: cover sheet confidential information intended recipient advise to sender

You need to attach a cover letter explaining about yourself and the materials you are sending. Why?

Chapter 9: 9.1

Cover Letters and resumes

Cover Letter o Normally used when writing letter of application where the cover letter is the application letter, itself accompanied by resumes. o 4 reasons why it is written (page 157).

9.1.1 Guidelines for writing a cover letter o Opening - To draw reader’s attention of the job you are applying for. o Middle - Persuasive to get the reader interested in you. o Closing - Request for interview and leave contact number/correspondence address. 9.1.2 Useful key phrases page 159 9.2 Resume Statement of all qualifications, experience, achievements, and anything that would of relevance to the reader written in positively.


Basic resume – simple and short, for school-leavers. Functional resume – highlight skills and work experience. Job functions of previous job will be highlighted. Specific resume – for specific post where it will follow the criteria set as advertised.

Chapter 10: Business Reports 10.1 Planning and writing reports 10.2 Reports are to inform, provide background information, make recommendations, a course of action etc. Short report layout Information placed for easy comprehension Three types; formal report: o Title page o An introduction o Sections with headings in the body o Conclusions o Attachments letter and memo formats Order of information dependent upon:      good news document bad news document persuasive document direct approach indirect approach Purpose Accurate and objective information Clear and logical order of information format

It should contain:    


Types of Short Reports Justification – idea/action is presented and rationale is given.


Progress – progress of a project and forecast its timetable for the future. Periodic – information given at regular intervals or over specific periods. In each one, the body and conclusion would be different as each will serve different purpose.

Writing Long reports They are written to provide comprehensive information and expert opinion. It will contain introduction, body, conclusions, and recommendations.

10.4.1 Sequence to follow when writing a long report Develop outline with main headings and sub-headings. Start with purpose statement and introduction. Main body Draw conclusions and relate to purpose Conclusions and recommendations Optional parts – preface, abstract, synopsis References Table of contents and table of graphics Transmittal letter Title page Arrangement of information on the page. Content must be set out clearly.        Headings Underlining Indentation Shading Numbered lists or sections Space between paragraphs, margins Headers and footers

10.4.2 Presentation

10.4.3 Parts of a long report


Front matter; title page, letter of transmittal and table of contents The body; introduction, discussion and analysis of findings, development of ideas, conclusions, and recommendations End matter; references, appendices It must have three sections  Introductory – statement of purpose, terms of reference and scope.  Body – research and analysis of findings, solutions tendered. Sub-headings and numbering are used to show clarity.  Final – conclusions and recommendations


Language used should be objective.

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