Experiment No.

1
Objective :
To verify law of moment using bell crank lever.

Apparatus :
Bell crank lever apparatus, slotted weights, spring balance etc.

A lever is a solid object that is used to transfer force. It can be used to increase the force that is applied, or make something move in a different direction, or through a greater distance. It can be used to lift something that is far away. You've used many levers in your life without knowing it. This page will tell you how they work, and show you some examples.
Let's look first at what makes a lever. The wheelbarrow is a classic example, and it is being used here to lift a load much heavier than you could otherwise manage. That's one use for levers which we'll look at more closely in a moment. For now, notice that there are three features identified; these are features that

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Theory:

. But you can use it to move large loads that you wouldn't ordinarily be able to budge. but now the fulcrum is exactly half way between the load and where you apply the force. But levers like this are still useful. and what it can do.are common to every lever: . The disadvantage of using a lever like this is that you have to apply a force over a large distance. so you can put a large force on the load. The fulcrum is placed close to the load. and the load itself will move only a short distance. .The load is a force which must be overcome by the lever. Here's a similar lever. and describe the kinds of jobs a lever can do. This is one of the main uses of a lever.co m Here is a lever set up to move a heavy load. which just means that the force you apply gets multiplied. Let's look at a very simple lever first. because they take ag las em . . Using a lever this way gives you mechanical advantage. as we'll see below. Where these three features of a lever are situated in relation to each other determines what type of lever you have. A lever set up this way has no mechanical advantage. even if they don't move very far.The applied force is the force you use to move the lever. and this will let you move the load with just a small applied force. Whatever force is necessary to move the load is the force you must apply.The fulcrum is the point around which the lever rotates. You don't get any help.

it will require much more force than would be needed if you were to just lift the load by yourself.. But in the meantime.co m . Each class works differently. and move them over large distances. There are three types of levers. but that force can be applied over a small distance . that's OK.advantage of another property of some levers: they reverse the direction of the force. you must apply much more force than the force of the load itself. and the load moves the other way. second class.. and it can lift and move loads that are far away. The fulcrum is nearer the applied force. and third class. This is the other thing levers are good for: moving things at a distance. The difference is where the fulcrum and applied force are. identified as first class. ag las em . as long as we are willing to apply a very large force with a motor. and all this with only a small movement where we applied the force. because we can let a motor do it. and is used to do different jobs. In a situation like this. because we're using a motor. It takes a big force to move the load. You can push in one direction. This is a lot to gain. in relation to the load. If you're lifting something. we've managed to lift a load that is far away. Why would you use a lever if it makes the work harder? The answer is that sometimes we don't care how much force is needed. Here's the third situation. make it move a long distance. If we have to apply a big force to make the load move.

where a force must be overcome to cut through some material.. or in this case. As explained on earlier pages.. that's what makes them first class levers. The applied force is where your fingers are.co m . It may look like the position of the fulcrum is not closer to the load..Types of levers: The first class lever is the one you may be most familiar with. in order to make the heavy load move just a small amount. The load is at the blades where they meet. you can control the mechanical advantage. The diagram at the left shows a first class lever set up to move a heavy load with a small applied force. and the applied force and load are at opposite ends. At the right is a common use for a first class lever . a pair of them. the more force is applied. Notice that the two levers have a fulcrum between the applied force and the load . It uses a fulcrum in between. By adjusting how far the fulcrum is from the load. ag las em .. pushing inwards on the handles. the force must be applied over a long distance. The closer it is to the load.

. you don't get this advantage. You get more mechanical advantage if you place the nut closer to the fulcrum than to your hand. We know these are second class levers because the fulcrum is at one end. If you want to move a very large load with a small applied force. The load is in between. The closer it is.. and the applied force at the other. you must put the load very close to the fulcrum. and the applied force is at the other.. The second class lever is one where the fulcrum is at one end. The wheelbarrow we showed on the first page was a good example of a second class lever.co m This lever is different in how it works . If the blades are doing the cutting at their tips. it causes the load to move in the same direction as . the more your force gets ag las em . how close the load is to the fulcrum determines by how much your force will be multiplied. a nut cracker.. and again we are using a pair of second class levers. The load that is to be moved is between them.but it depends on where the blades meet. the force you apply. so you get mechanical advantage and multiplied force . Cutting something close to the fulcrum puts the load closer. Just as with a first class lever. Here's another one. you can easily cut through thick material.

your arm is a third class lever. If you were using this lever to lift an object at a distance.. This lever can not give any mechanical advantage. The fulcrum is at the elbow. and you apply a force in between.co m . the force isn't getting multiplied as much.. and obviously ag las em .multiplied.. which is convenient... So is the application of force between the load and the fulcrum Have a look at the third class lever example at the right to see what we mean.. and the one you use the most! The fulcrum is once again at one end of the lever. Yes. but this time the load is at the other end. Regardless of where you apply the force. The third class lever is the strangest . so you have to apply more force . using the lever will require more force! So why use a third class lever at all? The answer lies in the fact that the load moves in the same direction as the force you apply. you can't get it as close to the fulcrum as you can a small nut. it would require less force to just stand above it and lift it up . That's why it can still be difficult to crack a very large walnut ... the force you apply must always be greater than the force of a load.

This type of lever lets you lift things at a distance by pulling up. Imagine two people on a see-saw. somewhere along the arm. the scoop. Here is another good example of a third class lever. As with all third class levers. But where is the force applied? The force is applied somewhere in between by a muscle attached above the fulcrum. with the fulcrum on the main boom. but only a portion of that force (the red arrow) can be used to move the load. The load is at the far right end of the arm . on the upper arm.. each of weight m.. under the skin. because the muscle itself is just above the bone . It pulls. at the left end of the lever arm. Moment of force The fact that the ground reaction normally acts 5-6 cm in front of the ankle has big implications. The force is applied by the cables. But this force can only pull at a very small angle to your arm bone. with a force applied to your lower arm where the muscle is attached to the bone (the pink arrow). the applied force must be larger than the load.co m .g Newtons: ag las em .the load is what you have in your hand. But a motor takes care of that. The arm on a power shovel is a third class lever.

g) has to equal. The reason for this is that the turning effect of the force is dependant on the distance of the force from the pivot. ag las em . Nm) is calculated by multiplying the force (in Newtons) by the moment arm (in metres). and in addition it turns the line of action of the effort through 90°. Bell Crank Lever: Lever mechanisms of all shapes and sizes are very common parts of machines. The bell crank is supported on a bushed pivot. particularly in hand operated devices. The bell crank lever offers the typical mechanical advantage of a lever.metres. This traditional item enables the reaction force of a 90° bell crank to be measured by a spring balance when a load is applied at any of five leverage ratios. . and the distance is called the moment arm (or lever arm) of the force. This turning effect is called the moment of force (often abbreviated to "moment"). In most cases the cranked lever would be a casting with a bushed pivot at the corner.In order to balance the see-saw. What happens when one person moves closer to the fulcrum or pivot? Clearly. the weight of each person (m. The experimental model has been built up from plastic to simulate the real thing.co m The moment of the force (in units of Newton. the see-saw will tip down at the green end.

co m . Setting up time is minimal. According to law of moments. The distance d in this experiment is fixed and equal to seven inch. the moment of a force about an axis is equal to the sum of moment of its components about the same axis. Here. So we have to verify : Moment M=WxD=sxd ag las em . in this experiment. and all measurements are made with the simplest possible instrumentation. Each piece of apparatus is self-contained and compact. we have to check the moment of the force about various points on the lever and that moment must be equal to the spring force multiplied by the fixed distance d. Great care has been given to each item so as to provide wide experimental scope without unduly complicating or compromising the design.This equipment is part of a range designed to both demonstrate and experimentally confirm basic engineering principles. so that the student involvement is purely with the engineering principles being taught.

7680 4 0.78 cm) Procedure : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Engage the chain of spring balance with the lever.081 1.052 % Error {(S1S)/S} X100 0.84 0.14 1.05 1.2280 S D (mm) (kg) 304.83 1.8 152.097 1. If point is not matching.072 192.4 254 203.061 1.co m (W X D) 187.1 1. Observations: Spring S.54 = 17.8 279.07 ag las em .06 1. then adjust the weight to get the correct reading.09 1.147 Calculated Moment Value of S S1=(W X D)/d 1. Check the pointer to match with the mark made on the lever.No.055 1. Change the position of weight to be hanged on the lever and repeat the above steps.604 188. Note down the spring reading.27 0.734 195.07 1.227 186. Hang the weight on the end point marked on the lever.where .2 177.4 1.9460 5 1. Weight Distance Force W (kg) 1 0.0480 6 1.71 . W = force applied on lever D = varying distance on lever S = spring force d = fixed distance (7inches x 2.6155 2 0.334 187.6755 3 0.048 1.47 0.

8 = 187.734 kg mm S1 = (W x D) d = 188.47 % 1.604 = 1.050 = 0.6155 x 304.co m % error = S1 – S x 100 S1 = 1.734 = 1.4 = 188. M=WxD = 0.061 kg 177.6755 x 279.055 – 1.Calculations : 1.8 % error = S1 – S x 100 S1 ag las em .604 kg mm S1 = (W x D) d = 187.8 2.055 . M=WxD = 0.055 kg 177.

097 kg 177.227 kg mm S1 = (W x D) d = 192.7680 x 254 = 195.8 % error = S1 – S x 100 S1 ag las em .84% 1.072 kg mm S1 = (W x D) d = 195. M=WxD = 0.co m .097 – 1.8 % error = S1 – S x 100 S1 = 1.9460 x 203.061 – 1.2 = 192.097 4.061 3.= 1.100 = 0.070 = 0.072 = 1.27 % 1. M=WxD = 0.227 = 1.081 kg 177.

147 kg mm S1 = (W x D) d = 187.06 = 1.048 – 1. M=WxD = 1.048 6.334 kg mm S1 = (W x D) d = 186.8 = 186.co m % error = S1 – S x 100 S1 .83 % 1.048 kg 177.081 5.052 kg 177.147 = 1.2280x 152.8 % error = S1 – S x 100 S1 ag las em . M=WxD = 1.09 = 0.4 = 187.334 = 1.081– 1.8 = 1.0480 x 177.1 % 1.= 1.

Therefore. 3.= 1.org/content/m13601/latest/ “Applied Mechanics-Statics and Strengths of Materials” by U. the observed value and the calculated value of the spring force (S) is same.C.co m .052 – 1.71 % 1.Jindal • Encyclopedia : Encarta ag las em . The pointer should be checked to match with the mark made on the lever by placing our eye just above the lever to avoid parallax error. Sources Of Errors: 1.wikipedia.052 Conclusion: Within experimental errors. thereby avoiding oscillations of the lever. 4. References: References: • • • • • Write ups provided in the Applied Mechanics Lab.worselysschool. using the bell crank lever apparatus the value of moment of spring force (S) about its axis comes out to be equal to the moment of the weight (W) hanged on the lever about its axis.org/wiki/lever.07 = 1. The tension in the spring should not be beyond its maximum limit.htm www. as spring may get deformed. The weights should be placed lightly on the lever. The weights should not be kept over the lever for a long time.net/ http://cnx. Hence. the law of moment stands true. 2. www.