Chapter 1 Introduction

Rationale Tomato or Solanum lycopersicum is one of the most important vegetable plants in the world. It originated in western South America, and domestication is thought to have occurred in Central America. Because of its importance as food, tomato has been bred to improve productivity, fruit quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Tomato has been widely used not only as food, but also as research material. The tomato plant has many interesting features such as fleshy fruit, a sympodial shoot, and compound leaves, which other model plants do not have. Most of these traits are agronomically important and cannot be studied using other model plant systems. There are 13 recognized wild tomato species that display a great variety of phenotypes and can be crossed with the cultivated tomato. Knowledge obtained from studies conducted on tomato can be easily applied to these plants, which makes tomato important research material. Because of these facts, tomato serves as a model organism for the family Solanaceae and, specifically, for fleshy-fruited plants. Lycopersicon esculentum or Tomato Plant is a perennial plant in the tropics but in northern climates it is grown as an annual. Botanically this vegetable is a fruit (a berry). Flowers are generally borne in clusters of 4 to 8 but small fruited types may have 30 to 50 flowers per cluster. The flowers are mainly self pollinated by the wind. The fruit has 2 to 18 locules (chambers or sections). The tomato is a native of the Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador area of the Andes Mountains. Its antiquity is uncertain in regard to cultivation but it was being cultivated when America was discovered by Europeans. It was not until 1835 that the tomato was considered suitable as a food crop in the northeastern U.S. Tomatoes grow well with seven hours of sunlight a day. A fertilizer with an NPK ratio of 5-10-10 is often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer, although manure and compost are also used.

Nutritive Value of Tomato

Constituents Moisture Energy Protein Fat Carbohydrate Fibre Vitamin A b -Carotene Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin Ascorbic acid Magnesium Oxalic acid Phosphorus Sodium Potassium Copper Sulphur Chlorine

Nutritive value 93.1g 1.9g 0.1g 3.6g 0.7 g 320 I.U 192mcg. 0.7mg 0.01mg 0.4mg 31mg. 15 mg 2 mg 36 mg 45.8 mg 114 mg 0.19 mg 24 mg 38 mg

Background Nowadays, most of the people in middle class, rich or poor have no desire in terms of plant ministry. It’s either of caring difficulty, indifference about treatments and lack of time due to pressure of work. Indifference about treatments is one noticeable problem for planting activities. Natural planting leads to a regular plant or fruit and approachable treatment guaranteed higher rates of crops and quality. Different handling affects the outcome of the seedlings. Because of negligence about treatments, planters and people involve in establishment can do nothing except to plant according to their common treatment which is most often than not. Projects may require less financial due to their cheapness traits. The elevation of plants development affected by treatment is a very earnest problem. One of the most usable treatments is applying fertilizer. This fertilizer does not assure the constant minerals and nutrients that be taken in harvest time. The chemicals contain by the fertilizer has the conceivable in security but has the percent in subversion of plants nutrients. The nutrient solution is another common treatment which planters most applied. It is the compound mixture of water and in/organic nutrients. This implies the prosperity of plants instead of plain. Its attributes and properties enhance the growth of the plants without any chemicals. It is an aqueous solution containing the essence of soluble elements from in/organic materials that contributes to plants properties. There are four classification of nutrient solution: the non-mineral nutrients; primary nutrients; secondary nutrients; and micronutrients. The primary nutrients are the main nutrients which is the plants poverty. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium are the principal nutrients in plants necessity. In some meagerness plants encountered, it’s either insufficient in NPK. Most of the plants require these primary nutrients in order to endure. Some plants are not enough for a regular treatment to meet the complacency of their

appearance and nutrients value. It is possible that some of their needs go to deficiency stage in reason for their outcome. Plants can’t live healthy with water and soil; it needs the right management and method in their production. Some plants undergo in hydroponics which is without soil; some is with soil and; some without soil through mist. Treatment undergo through mist is most often called aeroponics. Thus, Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate medium known as geoponics. The basic principle of aeroponic growing is to grow plants suspended in a closed or semi-closed environment by spraying the plant's dangling roots and lower stem with an atomized or sprayed, nutrient-rich water solution or nutrient solution. Nutrient Solution will be contained by an organic materials rich in Potassium and Iron regarding Camote tops and Calamansi. Camote tops or Ipomoea batatas are excellent sources of antioxidative compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which may protect the human body from oxidative stress that is associated with many diseases including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Sweet potato greens have the highest content of total polyphenolics among other commercial vegetables studied. To be accurate It contains calcium, 30; magnesium, 24; potassium, 373; sodium, 13; phosphorus, 49; chlorine, 85; sulphur, 26; and iron, 0.8 mg/100 g; iodine, 4.5 g/kg; manganese, copper, and zinc are present in traces. Calamansi is the smallest and probably most widely used fruit amongst the family of citrus. Calamansi is a small citrus fruit, like a small orange, with skin and flesh that are green in color. The pulp of it tastes sour, and the fruit contains twice the amount of juice as the yellow, larger lemon. The juice, as a drink, makes one of the best thirstquenchers. The acid content of calamansi is known to slow down the oxidation of freshcut fruits and vegetables, thus preventing discoloration and acting as a preservative. Nutritive Values: Per 100 gm. Vitamin B: Thiamine .04 mg; Riboflavin: trace Niacin: .1 mg Vitamin C: 27 mg. Calcium: 40 mg. Iron: 6 mg. Phosphorus: 22 mg. Fat: .1 gm

With this new potential nutrient solution the subject is said to be high probability to endure through aeroponics, that researchers were prompted to experiment the study.

Conceptual Framework



Nutrient Solution Tomato Plant • Camote tops • Calamansi

Plant Development • Germination • Budding • Leafing Plants Growth • Leaf Length Supply • Supplements Ratio Efficiency OUTPUT Figure 1.

A Conceptual Framework Showing the Interplay of the Variables Involved in the Tomato Plant and the Nutrient Solution plays by Camote Tops and Calamansi as Extract Juice.

Conceptual Framework Figure 1 on the previous page shows the conceptual framework showing the interplay of the variables involved in the Tomato Plant that was proven by using Nutrient Solution which plays by camote tops and calamansi as extract juice. The First box contains the Tomato Plant which is an Input. The second box contains the Nutrient Solution of selected organic materials which are camote tops and calamansi. The third box contains 3 Main Groups and its sub-groups. They are the 1 st batch which is the Plant Development such as Germination, Budding and Leafing, the 2nd batch which is the Plants growth such as Leaf Length, and the 3rd batch which is the Supply such as Supplements Ratio Efficiency. The Arrow connecting the boxes indicates the sequence of the relationship among the variables. Statement of the Problem This experiment aimed to determine the relationship between the tomato plant growth corresponding with nutrient solution which is plays by camote tops and calamansi as extract juice. And how does it contribute to tomato plants development. 1 What is the effect of camonsi as nutrient solution on tomato plants in terms of : 1.1 Plant Development

1.1.1 Germination

1.1.2 Budding 1.1.3 Leafing 1.2 Plants Growth

1.2.1 Leaf Length 1.3 Supply

1.3.1 Supplements Ratio Efficiency

2 What is the difference among the treatments of camonsi as nutrient solution on tomato plants in terms of : 2.1 Plant Development

2.1.1 Germination 2.1.2 Budding 2.1.3 Leafing 2.2 Plants Growth

2.2.1 Leaf Length 2.3 Supply

2.3.1 Supplements Ratio Efficiency

Insignificance of the Study The experimenters believed that this study will be a great help in finding out the different and the outmost kind of support that the different organic materials can give their ability to enhance and specially to know more about the significance of using camonsi for tomato plants development. To the Farmers, this is experiment is important to them by limiting the budget and space you will acquire in growing tomato plants with a good quality. To Vegetarian, this experiment is important to them for gaining more knowledge about the system of tomato plants which will me imply in patient’s life. To Agriculturist, this experiment will prove them that tomato also has capability in growing through aeroponics with the corresponding nutrient solution. To Horticulturists, this experiment will help them to increase the rate of quality in your crops. To Botanists, this experiment will help them to use more organically than chemicals that affects the plants nutrients. To Chemical Engineering, this experiment will help them to develop new organic fertilizer that can be trending among the sight of plants lover. To the Actor/Actresses, this experiment will help them for more confident face and youthful looking due to the perfectively of tomato plant when undergo in a none chemical treatment. To the sellers/buyers, this experiment as well as the study will help them for more balance demand and supply. In demand more buyers will become handsome and beautiful. In the side of sellers, they will became rich even there is no empty space of soil

to be planted. But when aeroponics revealed the sellers keep on developing their business. To the Government, this experiment and study will help to develop the economic status of the Philippines which will be someday that our country has the unlimited supply of tomato with a good and fresh appearance. To the Family, this experiment and study will help them to grow more impotent and knowledgeable with fresh and balance body chemistry. To the Students, this study will help them to search more and serve as additional knowledge that can help them in some extra-curricular as well as specialization. To the Researchers, this experiment and study will imply the significance and efficiency for their other related studies and titles that can be part of a source for additional information that can be modified as far as it is related. This study is a free guide in pursuing their study.

Scope and Limitations