We wish to present a small scale demonstration of wireless power transfer between two coupled series LC tuned circuits, each consisting of a copper conductor loop acting as an inductor and a capacitor. Both LC circuits are tuned to equal individual resonant frequencies. One of them is a part of a 12 kHz frequency RC Phase shift oscillator powered by 15 volts DC, while another is loaded. Brought in proximity, copper loops share a small mutual inductance, essentially forming a transformer. In order to transmit significant amount of power through this transformer, a very large amount of reactive power needs to circulate in its primary. Receiver coil's leakage inductance is in turn canceled out by another capacitor, allowing for the maximum power transfer to the load. Experimenting with copper loop orientations, one can find positions of the receiver close to transmitter where no power is received, as total magnetic flux crossing through the receiver loop is zero. Hence this is a directional method of power transmission.

Figure.1 WPT model

Due to small size of the apparatus, very little power is actually radiated in far field, with losses being mainly ohmic heating. Hence this method is also sometimes known as nonradiative or near-field power transmission. This technology would be helpful for recharging batteries of pacemakers. Further power cords can be avoided.

Department of EEE


GEC Thrissur

Nicola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. One of his more spectacular displays involved remotely powering lights in the ground at his Colorado Springs experiment station.

Figure.2 Nicola Tesla’s inductive coupling experiment

The idea behind the project was to create a small tabletop demonstrator of magnetically coupled wireless power transfer, resembling a miniature version of the MIT witricity device. The goal was to keep the circuit simple with easily obtainable parts, and to keep voltage and power levels low so the device is safe for handling and doesn't require special methods of cooling.

In the early 2000s, Professor Marin Soljacic and a team of physicists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) used magnetic resonance coupling to enable energy transfer over midrange distances. They transmitted power over a two-meter distance, from the coil on the left to the coil on the right, where it powers a 60W light bulb. They wrote a paper in 2006 and an article for the Journal of Science in 2007 describing their research. A lot of interest was created, and in October, 2007, they formed the WiTricity Corporation to further develop the technology and commercialize it.

Department of EEE


GEC Thrissur

At this ω0. a point is reached when reactance is zero. PRINCIPLE Figure. Department of EEE 3 GEC Thrissur . As ω increases. In series resonance. the reactance part of Z decreases.3 RLC series circuit Resonance is identified with engineering situations which involve energy storing elements subjected to a forcing function of varying frequency.3. The effective current flow caused by sinusoidal function is given by A change in frequency means a change in the magnitude and phase angle of the complex impedance. thus causing an increase in current. Specifically resonance is the term used to describe the steady state operation of the circuit or system at that frequency for which the resultant response is in time phase with the source function despite of presence of energy storing elements. As ω continues to increase. there is a series arrangement of L and C along with resistance R.

This has a reactance at the operating frequency Xm = ωM). Two circuits give two resonant frequencies whose separation depends on the value of the mutual inductance M (the ratio of the voltage in the secondary to the rate of change of primary current with time. and the unit is the henry). The coupling constant is concerned with how the lines of magnetic force produced by one coil interact with another coil. √ Since k is defining the relationship between magnetic flux linkages in the circuit. which will be produced for a given current. The coupling constant is independent of the number of turns in a coil. when a series RLC circuit is at resonance. The number of turns in a coil determines the magnetic field. Hence to obtain the best coupling between primary and secondary in an aircored transformer we can only change the size and spatial relationships of the coils. A value of k=1 means that all the flux produced by the primary is linked with the secondary and vice versa. A value of k greater than 1 would mean that more than all of the flux produced by the primary is linked with the secondary.√ The frequency ω0 is called resonant frequency of the circuit. consequently. the current is maximum and is also in time phase with the voltage. and hence the coupling constant between two air spaced coils depends only on their physical size and disposition in space. The mutual inductance coupling between primary and secondary can be related to their self-inductance by means of the coupling constant k. it can never be greater than 1. At resonance the impedance of the circuit is minimum and specifically it is equal to R. Department of EEE 4 GEC Thrissur .

as long as they all resonate at the same frequency.1 RESONANT INDUCTIVE COUPLING Resonant inductive coupling or electro-dynamic induction is the near field wireless transmission of electrical energy between two coils that are tuned to resonate at the same frequency. The theory uses a curved coil of wire as an inductor. Since a magnetic field spreads in all directions. this type has a high Q and is often air cored to avoid 'iron' losses. which can hold a charge. attaches to each end of the coil. As long as both coils are out of range of one another. According to the theory. chargers hold devices at the distance necessary to induce a current. While many transformers employ resonance. Similarly. but if a second coil is Department of EEE 5 GEC Thrissur . streams of energy move from the transmitting coil to the receiving coil. but the process would be extremely inefficient. As electricity travels through this coil. The researchers have named this non-radiative energy transfer since it involves stationary fields around the coils rather than fields that spread in all directions. one coil can even send electricity to several receiving coils. This generates an oscillating magnetic field. A larger. The two coils may exist as a single piece of equipment or comprise two separate pieces of equipment. which can only happen if the coils are close together. 3.Household devices produce relatively small magnetic fields. Because the coil is highly resonant any energy placed in the coil dies away relatively slowly over many cycles. Resonant transfer works by making a coil ring with an oscillating current. Induction can take place a little differently if the electromagnetic fields around the coils resonate at the same frequency. Its resonant frequency is a product of the inductance of the coil and the capacitance of the plates. The equipment is sometimes called resonant or resonance transformer. For this reason. if the two coils resonate at different frequencies. nothing will happen. stronger field could induce current from farther away. A capacitance plate. But if two resonating coils with the same frequency get within a few meters of each other. making a larger one would waste a lot of energy. since the fields around the coils aren't strong enough to affect much around them. the coil begins to resonate. nothing will happen.

Another application of the resonant transformer is to couple between stages of a super heterodyne receiver. and are able to provide much higher current than electrostatic high-voltage generation machines such as the Van de Graff generator. Department of EEE 6 GEC Thrissur . One of the applications of the resonant transformer is for the CCFL inverter. the coil can pick up most of the energy before it is lost. even if it is some distance away. Resonant transformers such as the Tesla coil can generate very high voltages with or without arcing. near field (sometimes called evanescent waves). as all hardware is kept well within the 1/4 wavelength distance they radiate little energy from the transmitter to infinity. such as passive RFID tags and contactless smart cards. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by tuned transformers in the intermediate-frequency amplifiers.brought near it. The fields used are predominately non-radiative. Resonant energy transfer is the operating principle behind proposed short range wireless electricity systems such as Witricity and systems that have already been deployed.

The voltage stepped down to a suitable value. At first level. It was connected to the transmitter coil which is coupled inductively with the receiver coil. Figure. which could be used to drive an output from a distant place. TWO LEVEL WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION Two level wireless power transmissions incorporate ideas of witricity and smart home. AC input was given to a step down transformer of suitable rating.4. uses radio frequency to send signals. At second level. appliance was powered by the output and the control and selection of appliance was performed by RF transmitter-receiver circuitry.4 Block diagram of transmission side At the first level. and was converted to DC via suitable ADC converters like bridge rectifiers. which generates an alternating waveform of desired higher frequency. Figure.5 Block diagram of receiver side The RF module (Tx/Rx) was used for acting as a wireless remote. RF module. These signals are transmitted at a particular frequency and a Department of EEE 7 GEC Thrissur . The DC thus obtained was used to power the oscillator circuit. as the name suggests. power was transmitted wirelessly from source point to destination point.

The outputs from the receiver can drive corresponding relays connected to any household appliance. there was a two level wireless control of a device. A four channel encoder/decoder pair has also been used in this system. RF receiver-transmitter circuitry performed the task of controlling and selection of devices. The circuit can be used for designing Remote Appliance Control system. The principle of witricity along with inductive coupling was responsible for power transmission in the first phase.6 Block diagram of RF Transmitter side The switch board has several switches corresponding to each appliance. The input signals. From the receiving coil. Thus. It was coupled with an RF receiver which selected respective decoder line. In the second phase. Department of EEE 8 GEC Thrissur . Figure. at the transmitter side. The decoder was responsible to select the appliance according to the signal from the switch. are taken through four switches while the outputs are monitored on a set of four LEDs corresponding to each input switch. This encoder gave respective output to the RF transmitter. A receiver can receive these signals only if it is configured for that frequency. turning the respective relay ON. Pressing of a switch selects a distinct pin of the encoder. A particular appliance was enabled and it was supported by the wirelessly transmitted power. appliance was connected to decoder via relay.baud rate.

was sent to a 230V/15V step down transformer. In this RF system. The RF module. The output was given to the transmitter coil.7 Elaborate block diagram of transmitter side In our prototype. the digital data is represented as variations in the amplitude of carrier wave. The corresponding frequency range varies between 30 kHz & 300 GHz.2 RECEIVER SIDE The inductively transferred power was then connected to four appliances.5. The output of the inverting amplifier is fed to the transmitter coil. CONSTRUCTION 5. which is coupled with the receiving coil. 5. Here 4 LEDs are connected to denote 4 appliances.5. as the name suggests. The DC thus obtained was used to power an oscillator. This kind of modulation is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). They are connected to an HT12D decoder via relay. from where it was sent to a bridge rectifier with filter. Figure. we have used an RC phase shift oscillator designed to operate at desired frequency of 12 kHz. operates at Radio Frequency. we have used an inverting amplifier operating at gain of 4. Further. The output of the decoder is fed to an RF receiver. Department of EEE 9 GEC Thrissur .1 TRANSMITTER SIDE Single phase AC input-230V/50Hz.

8 Elaborate block diagram of receiver side The RF transmitter was connected to switches via HT12E encoder. the respective line in the HT12E encoder is activated. which is passed to the RF transmitter. Department of EEE 10 GEC Thrissur . The respective appliance was activated and it was supported by the wirelessly transmitted power. When one of the switches were ON. from where it went to the HT12D decoder.9 Elaborate block diagram of RF transmitter side The 434 MHz RF transmitter sent a signal to the RF receiver.Figure. The decoder selected the appropriate relay and activates that line. Figure.


2 Design: Frequency of the oscillation. Let R1 = 1.1. The opamp is in the inverting mode.01µF.2kΩ. Thus the total phase around loop becomes 360o. The feedback network provides a fraction of the output voltage back to the input of the amplifier.7.  Rf ≈ 33 kΩ Department of EEE 12 GEC Thrissur . An additional 180o required for the oscillations as per the Barkhausen criterion is provided by the cascaded RC network. 7. WORKING 7. any signal which appears in the inverting terminal is shifted 180o at the output.1 RC Phase Shift Oscillator The RC phase shift oscillator consists of an opamp as the amplifying stage with three RC cascading networks as the feedback network. R = 510Ω. Therefore.1.  fo ≈ 12 kHz Gain. √ Let C= 0.1 TRANSMITTER SIDE 7.

Rf is the feedback resistance and R1 is the input resistance.1.2 kΩ.4 Design: Gain. the output will be an amplified sine wave with 180o phase shift.1.54 Department of EEE 13 GEC Thrissur . Rf = 10 kΩ. If a sine wave is fed to the input of this amplifier. the amplitude of the output can be varied. 7. The polarity of the input voltage gets inverted at the output.Figure.  A= 4.10 Circuit diagram of transmitter side 7. R1 = 2.3 Inverting Amplifier This is one of the most popular opamp circuits. Inverting amplifier can be used as a scale changer because by varying either Rf or R1.

The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter. Next. The Department of EEE 14 GEC Thrissur . The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps . RF signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between transmitter & receiver. Also. The transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at a frequency of 434 MHz.11 Circuit diagram of receiver side depicting RF Tx/Rx RF communication uses a specific frequency unlike IR signals which are affected by other IR emitting sources. This RF module comprises of an RF Transmitter and an RF Receiver.1 RF Receiver-Transmitter Transmission through RF is better than IR (infrared) because of many reasons. RF transmission is more strong and reliable than IR transmission.2. An RF transmitter receives serial data and transmits it wirelessly through RF through its antenna connected at pin4. The RF module is often used along with a pair of encoder/decoder.7. Firstly. Figure.2 RECEIVER SIDE 7. while IR mostly operates in line-of-sight mode.10Kbps. signals through RF can travel through larger distances making it suitable for long range applications.

7. Figure. They are paired with 212series of encoders. The input data code is decoded when no error or unmatched codes are found. HT12D converts the serial input into parallel outputs. It decodes the serial addresses and data received by.encoder is used for encoding parallel data for transmission feed while reception is decoded by a decoder.2 HT12D Decoder HT12D is a decoder integrated circuit that belongs to 212 series of decoders.2. The data on 4 bit latch type output pins remain unchanged until new is received. It is mainly provided to interface RF and infrared circuits. into parallel data and sends them to output data pins. like burglar alarm. an RF receiver. HT12D is capable of decoding 12 bits. of which 8 are address bits and 4 are data bits. This series of decoders are mainly used for remote control system applications. security system etc. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same number of addresses and data format. say.12 HT12D decoder Department of EEE 15 GEC Thrissur . car door controller. A valid transmission in indicated by a high signal at VT pin. In simple terms. The serial input data is compared with the local addresses three times continuously.

Simply put. Figure. the programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium. When a trigger signal is received on TE pin.2. Department of EEE 16 GEC Thrissur .7. HT12E converts the parallel inputs into serial output. HT12E begins a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable.13 HT12E Encoder HT12E has a transmission enable pin which is active low.3 HT12E Encoder HT12E is an encoder integrated circuit of 212 series of encoders. the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops. It is mainly used in interfacing RF and infrared circuits. As soon as TE returns to high. They are paired with 212 series of decoders for use in remote control system applications. This cycle is repeated as long as TE is kept low. It encodes the 12 bit parallel data into serial for transmission through an RF transmitter. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same number of addresses and data format. These 12 bits are divided into 8 address bits and 4 data bits.

The RF module has been used in conjunction with a set of four channel encoder/decoder ICs. 7. The transmitted signals are received by the receiver module placed away from the source of transmission. Department of EEE 17 GEC Thrissur . Encoder IC (HT12E) receives parallel data in the form of address bits and control bits. The serial data is fed to the RF transmitter through pin17 of HT12E. Transmission is enabled by providing ground to pin14 which is active low. Here HT12E & HT12D have been used as encoder and decoder respectively. The transmitter module takes serial input and transmits these signals through RF. These signals are serially transferred through RF to the reception point.14 Micro switch Micro switch is used for getting 5 volt (VDD) while in normal condition and ground condition while in pressed position. The control signals from remote switches along with 8 address bits constitute a set of 12 parallel signals.7. The encoder converts the parallel inputs (from the remote switches) into serial set of signals.5 RF module (433 MHz) This radio frequency (RF) transmission system employs Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) with transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operating at 434 MHz. These outputs can be observed on corresponding LEDs.2. The decoder is used after the RF receiver to decode the serial format and retrieve the original signals as outputs.4 Microswitch Figure. Resistors are connected for limiting current. namely. The system allows one way communication between two nodes. The encoder HT12E encodes these parallel signals into serial bits. transmission and reception.2. The control signals are given at pins 10-13 of HT12E.

15 RF Tx/Rx Transmitter. To send a particular signal. upon receiving serial data from encoder IC (HT12E). When signal is received by receiver. Address bits are configured by using the by using the first 8 pins of both encoder and decoder ICs. Department of EEE 18 GEC Thrissur . On reception of signal. The corresponding output is thus generated at the data pins of decoder IC. it is given to DIN pin (pin14) of HT12D. IC HT12D then decodes the serial data and checks the address bits three times. The serial data is received at the data pin (DIN. An LED is connected to VT pin (pin17) of the decoder. transmits it wirelessly to the RF receiver. oscillator of HT12D gets activated. it remains in standby mode and consumes very less current (less than 1µA) for a voltage of 5V. If these bits match with the local address pins (pins 1-8) of HT12D. This LED works as an indicator to indicate a valid transmission. then it puts the data bits on its data pins (pins 10-13) and makes the VT pin high. A signal is sent by lowering any or all the pins 10-13 of HT12E and corresponding signal is received at receiver’s end (at HT12D). The receiver. When no signal is received at data pin of HT12D. a single RF transmitter can also be used to control different RF receivers of same frequency. By configuring the address bits properly. sends them to the decoder IC (HT12D) through pin2. address bits must be same at encoder and decoder ICs. upon receiving these signals. pin14) of HT12D. The decoder then retrieves the original parallel format from the received serial data.Figure.

on each transmission. 12 bits of data is transmitted consisting of 8 address bits and 4 data bits. The signal is received at receiver’s end which is then fed into decoder IC. If address bits get matched. decoder converts it into parallel data and the corresponding data bits get lowered which could be then used to drive the LEDs.To summarize. Department of EEE 19 GEC Thrissur . The outputs from this system can either be used in negative logic or NOT gates can be incorporated at data pins.

The witricity devices produced so far could only operate at short distances. and having enough communications and control so that the system could operate in the real world. They do not give enough energy to power large vehicles and equipment. Also the cost of supplying it to the public is very high. The concept is still under production and improvement. There was an obvious need to miniaturize the components. which would increase their manufacturability and make them small enough to integrate into electric devices. The original experiments that showed that 60 watts could be created over a two meter distance featured coils that were two feet in diameter. and a lot of signal generators and amplifiers. CHALLENGES Some of the biggest challenges for WiTricity in developing the technology were the miniaturizing of the components. Department of EEE 20 GEC Thrissur . Moreover. electric devices have metal content and other electrical components.8.

Scalable Design Enables Solutions from mill watts to Kilowatts. This enables a shift from traditional wiring systems to modern wireless systems. ADVANTAGES  Power cords can be avoided. IR mostly operates in line-of-sight mode. RF transmission is more strong and reliable than IR transmission. Even when non-metallic objects come in between. RF signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between transmitter & receiver.9. Voltage and power levels are low. It can be set up at any location at suitable clearances. no distortion is caused. It is safe for people and animals. The device is safe for handling.  Transmission through RF is better than IR. Department of EEE 21 GEC Thrissur .    It is portable.  In some applications. they can even replace batteries.    Fine tuning is possible using ferrite rods by impedance matching. The circuit is simple with easily obtainable parts. The device can easily be designed to operate at any frequency from few Hertz to MHz range. Signals through RF can travel through larger distances making it suitable for long range applications.  It does not require special methods of cooling.

military.10. as in golf courts Electrically heated clothes Room warming Department of EEE 22 GEC Thrissur .APPLICATIONS          Industrial.pacemakers Power supply for MEMS or nano robots Sensors with difficult access. household robots Portable personal electronics Electric vehicles Less dependence on batteries Implanted medical devices.

In future. there will be no need of charging batteries. This concept is called witricity which seems to have a bright future in providing wireless electricity. with witricity. Department of EEE 23 GEC Thrissur . witricity has a bright future with the many advantages it provides in terms of weight. convenience and portability of electrical appliances. Just as beneficial witricity may be. with debates if it is risky living next to power lines and having a low power witricity network running in the home. However despite these contraindications. where there will be no need of power cables and batteries. FUTURE SCOPE Modern science has now made it possible to use electricity without having to plug in any wires. The city just has to be covered with witricity hot spots wherein you can use your electric gadget battery and wire free making it more convenient to carry around and much lighter.11. there are some contraindications to the concept. or buying new batteries for your electrical gadgets. With witricity.

of say a few years’ time. In addition to this. Department of EEE 24 GEC Thrissur . The potential applications of witricity are expected to materialize in the new future. lots of work is still to be done in improving it as the device used for their research disclosed that witricity power applications operate at only 40% efficiency. CONCLUSION As wireless power transmission is in the developmental stage.12. The future witricity power applications permit us to use wireless energy. there is no need of plugging in any wires and plugs and thus face a mess of wires. after the necessary modifications are made to them. There will be no need of getting rid of these batteries either or of remembering to recharge batteries periodically. without having to replace or recharge batteries. with witricity.

the wide clearance possible in case of radio frequency operation. relays. INFERENCE At the end of this mini project. Department of EEE 25 GEC Thrissur . we came to know about many applications and limitations of several electronic equipments namely opamps. as their gain-bandwidth product is restricted to around 4MHz in ordinary opamps. as our operating voltage was low. We tried several coils-solenoidal (air and iron core). circular and cylindrical.and chose a convenient model for the sake of convenience of accurate experimental result. We familiarized with RF module (Tx/Rx at 434 MHz) and preferred it to IR. RF module etc. We realized that amplification at high frequencies were less efficient unless for special purpose opamps.13. We found that maximum power transfer takes place at resonant frequency of the RLC series circuit. Several experiments were conducted with laboratory equipments for accurate results and measurement. keeping in mind. Therefore we designed our oscillator in such a way that the frequency of oscillation matched with the resonant frequency.

Fairchild semiconductors. Kevin R.com [8] www.com [5] www.engineersgarage.com Department of EEE 26 GEC Thrissur . www. Vincent Del Toro [2] ‘RF based wireless remote’.edu/~soljacic [6] www.com [7] www.witricity.com [9] www.witricitypower.REFERENCES [1] ‘Electrical Engineering Fundamentals’.fairchildsemi. Sullivan [4] Datasheets. [3] ‘Understanding Relays’.kidela. STrobotix.mit. Chandigarh labs & Chawla Radios.