~"

~ preface of the staff of glasgow university, through a grant which enabled me to make a study tour in north mrica in 1960. my thanks are also due to my colleague, professor nicola ziadeh, for his help ]. s, t. in reading my draft and calling my attention to mistakes beirut and to matters which needed clarification. september .1969
abbreviations

contents
ix of schools of
1 31

i.

the

formation

mysticism i i. the chief tariqa lines iii. the formation of ta'ifas

67

.

ıv. nineteenth-century revival movements v. the mysticism and theosophy of the orders vi. the organization of the
vii. ritual and ceremonial

1°5
133 166
194
218 24-5

orders

viii. role of the orders in the life of islamic society ix. the orders in the contemporary islamic
appendices

world

a. relating to early silsilas

.

26 i

b. Şüfis, malamatis, and qalandaris 264 c. suhrawardi silsilas 27° d. qadiri groups 276 271 e. independent orders of the badawiyya burhaniyya 274 f. shadhili groups in the maghrib deriving from al . j azüli g. madyani and shadhili groups in egypt and syria h. rifa'i ta'ifas in the arab world 278 and 280

1

viii
bibliography

contents
282

r
i

indexes

abbrevia tions
300 315

glossary of arabic terms general,index

a.i.e.o .

annales de l'institut d'eıudes orientales de l'universite d' alger. archives marocaines. ibn = son of. bulletin de l' institut français d' archeologie orientale du' caire. der islam, berlin. encyclopaedia of islam, ıst edition, 2nd edition. hastings' encyclopaedia of religion and ethics. brockelmımn, carl, geschichte der arabischen literatur. supplement to g.a.l. e. j. w. gibb memorial series. journal asiatique, paris. journal of the royal. asiatic society, london. muq.ammad. middle east journal, washington, d.c. melanges de i:institut dominicain d' etudes orientales, cairo. mitteilungen des seminars für orientalische sprachen, berlin. the muslim world, hartfofd. revue des etudes islamiques, paris. revue du monde musulman, paris. rivista degli studi orientali, rome. zeitschrift der deutschen morgenliindischen gesellschaft, wiesbaden.

i i,

archiv. maroc. b. b.i.f.a.o.

d. ısı. e.i.', e.!.' e.r.e. g.a.l. g.a.l.s. g.m.s. j. asiat. j.r.a.s. m. m.e.j.
m.i.d.e.o.

1 :1 1 1. ' 1 iii

ii i ! ,. i

m.s.b.s. m.w. r.e.i. r.m.m. r.s.o. z.d.m. g.

l

but rather a reaction against the the~eby become transformed or absorbed into external undifferentiated unıt 'mysticism'. making use of intuitive and emotıonal spiritual faculties which are generaııy dormant and lat~nt uı:l~ss called into play through training under . another special sufi terrn). thought of an as 'travelling path' though the (salak at-tariq). it is a sphere of spiritual experience which runs parallel to the main stream of islamic consciousness deriving from prophetic revelation and comprehended within the shari'a and theology. i define the word şüfi in wide terms by applying it to anyone who believes that it is possible to have direct experience of god and who is prepared to go out of his way to put himself in a state whereby he may be enabled to do this." i . r . from ıt comes the form taşawwuf for i t to islamic mysticism and all that is necessary by way of introduction is to give same idea of how i am us ing the terms şufi and sufism in the context of this study on the mystical ways and their expressian in orders.~" i wh~ dothed themselves in coarse garments of of wool the formatian of schools he term şüfi was first applied to muslim ascetics (şüf). i . guidance. y it is t 1 : no prımarı y ıntellectual the process. e?erıe~ce of the mystic led to the formulation of aıms at dıspersing the veils which hide the self from various the real types and o mystıcal philosophy.'hıs traıı:ıng. there are excellent guides mysticism i . for it means that the mystics are daiming a knowledge 'of the real (al-lfaqq. 'ı. ' the term sufism as used in this book is equally comprehensive.. m~sticism is a particular method of approach to reality (ljaq~qa. this contrast is the reason for the enmity legalists have always borne towards sufism. many will not be happy about this definition. their term for god) that could not be gained through revealed religion which in islam became codified religion.. .>eople involved in the orders. it embraces those tendencies in islam which aim at direct communion between god and man. . i i i i . but i find it the only possible way to embrace all the varieties of ı.

and conditions of drunkenness. move throug e the early masters were more concerned with ment displayed many aspects.. sufi teaching and practiee m ters of the way say that every man as ın erent wıt ın hi: the possibility for release from self and union with god. teachıng about the state of ianii' (transmutation of self) will n?t help anyone to attain it. directing teach. r and disciple. though it developed such a system. consequently teaching succeeds rather than precedes experience. and practices of the orders which are its objective expression has scarc~ly been attempted. and it continued to stress them as an essential aspect of the way. .arıqa was a practicalmethod (other terms were madhhab. as the organized cultivation of religious experience it is not a philosophical system.! aighazali's own intellectual back ~round. with its emphasis upon ritual observance and a legalistic morality. and sulük) to guide a seeker by tracing a way at 124-5. owing little to non-muslim sources. as in the form of 'recollection' (dhikr).iamid al-ghazali. in arabıc murshıd (dırector) experiencing than . and mo des ofworship of these ways that this book is concerned. a vast and elaborate mystical system was formed which. ecstasy.d and . t f . seeking contact with the source of being and reality. or other systems. toi the capacity ' '. abu i. over against institutionalized religion based on authority. the aspirant in ways of meditation ance oose t relatıonshı)' whereby he himself acquired ~nsight into s'piritual truth and was shielded against the dangers of illusions. ıs the ~yste~ sufi path. sufism was a natural development within islam. a theorist of ethical mysticism. and inward transformation'. sufism was a natural development out of these tendencies manifest in early islam. pp. this practical aspect is our main concern. the underlying mystery of the qur'1in'. sufism has received much attention from western scholars. o mas e traversed (aspirant). yet he is drunk. it was an assertion of a person's right to putsue a life of contemplation. the outcome was an islamic mysticism following distinctive islamic lines of development. though receiving radiations from the ascetical-mystical life and thought of eastern christianity. subsequently. the way of purificatioh. .the . the spirit of qur'anic piety had flowed into the lives and modes of expression. practical organization. his inability to submit himself unreservedly to guidance. ~! a~a. . ımpos:d too great a barrier for him to attain direct sufi experience. without guidance . a one-way master-slave relationship. since ma'rifa (gnosis) is reached by passage through ecstatic states. early sufism was anatural expression of personal religion in relation to the expression of religion. sufism in practice is primarily contemplative and emotional mysticism. but this is latent and dormant and cannot be released.' for thereby the burden is adjusted ai-ghaziili al m 'dh of ' the ındıvıduaı. as did the sufis themselves. i per guides and t to g attached d . whatever it may owe to neo-platonism. and it is with the historical development. t e peop ways which throu from a were ı use e i d medium of religious orders. .guı the . causes. - unqı mın atl-tlaliil. ir ' . the drunken man knows nothing about the definition. .f d to guide h sought h they murıd with theosophical theorizing. tariqa) are concerned with this process. sufism in practice consists of feeling and unveiling. it was natural the to accept te aut who had stages (maqiimiit) of. ! 2 the formation of school s of mysticism rationalization of islam in lawand systematic theology. writes of his own realization that what is most peculiar to sufis 'cannot be learned but only attained by direct experience. yet the study of the development. hence the great importance. sing. beliefs.. gnosticism. damascus edn. of the early devotees (zuhhiid) and ascetics (nussiik). recite adhkiir (mystical exercises) and ea ıng through a successıon of 'stages' undertake re~re~ts. we may truly regard. g ff d illuminates i h growth d weredıssemınate among . whilst the sober man acquainted with the theory is not drunk.as 'the inner doctrine of islam. as a communal matter. an as a re ıgıous of partteu a h th leader.' . orıty an rather than hthe foundation h h r and h of the orders. these seekers af ter direct experience of communion with god ensured that islam was not confined within a legalistic directiye. 1358/1939. except the formation of school s of mysticism 3 hout the islamic world through the withd certain gifted by god.. but it is a 'w ay'. christian mysticism. only guidance under an experienced dı~e~tor. aiming at spiritual freedom whereby man's intrinsic intuitive spiritual senses could be allowed full scope. writings. their aim was to attain ethical perception (we shall see how this was to recur in later developments) and this was redirected or transformed to the aim of the sufis to attain mystical perception. the various ways (turuq. mıssıon ac to ıon.

which he calls taifüri. capital of palestine.selves upon alms. i949. at ramlah. pp. (şuf:ıba) rules became a religious obligation. nicholson. theist and monist. lami. london. survived his death.day-to-day p. tr. and became especially well known. and all the shaykhs have 4 ibid. see kashj. 380--9°.4 the formation of schools of mysticisl\1 (maqiimiit. seeking train. on of al-bistiimi see difference in their on pp. al-junaid comes to to beas-sahlaji. 37-i48) biography entided an-nür 'safe'. ~hilst others were the retreat (hhalwa or ziiwiya) of a spiritual director. . centres for devotees are mentioned at damascus around 15°/767. though concerned with general ethical ai-maqdisi. 429. . 465/i072). 34. he which inc1udes (pp. kppears ' ıster ! 954 . in arab regions many were :~tached to frontier-posts or hostels called ribiit. ı84-5. i on rim/s. i57. of individuals pursuing their lexıque mystique. u8. ceming their life.q. and migrant. attributed theas ideas of a far more significant contemporary.ıjilb. become 3 . even genius of though many followed heterodox teaching.they ı859. kas!ıf alofmaj. doister). founded bya christian amir before a. aı-aakim at the way'.:!ch work. the was personnel ofby88ı these iate to any value by itself (the book written in a. al-maqdisi. some eamıng t eır way.. p. places was ai . as characterized by ghalaba (rapture. arantee of orthodoxy. edited m.5 the formation of schools of mysticism 5 " r t~ ı i i . ~ . i9i2. two contrasting tendencies came to be distinguished as junaidi and bistami.numerous. yiiqüt. i. r.6 he first s.. i i i1ı i alunaid 'is based on sobriety (şaf:ıw) and is opposed to that 3j abu 'ı-aasan 'ali al-julliibi al-hujwiri (d. a. all these terms came to mean a sufi convent. 177/793). own way. abu'!qasim al-junaid (d. ing through association or companionship. by as-sulami (330/94i-4i2/i02i). whose range of interests was wider than relatlonshıps. safe and suspect. it is the best-known and most 2 in their genealogies bykhane-gah the fifth/eleventh century organize d convents of a (monastery. najal. even though associate d with and . . was a gu . i936.! those in khu asan were associate d with rest-houses or hospices (khiinaqiih2).ıba. ca1cutta. adopted the bare minimum of institutional rules co nupon earlier ru p. but foundations came into being which t :ved as centres for these wanderers. iii.ıat al-um. ı62. these two are held to embody the contrasts between the way based on tawakkul (trust) and that on malama (blame). solitude and companionship. p.eventually ed. i a ujwiri refers to a number of treatıses though based i h i exp aınıng t e material).h. 800. whereas that derived from see appendix b. s were very loose and mobıle. the tayfüris ..see sarriij. see sayingş sarriij. . notwithstanding there is much fact hem esoteric views) sought to tone that downand explain away his ecstatic utterance~. regarded 'the shaikh of min kalimat abi raifür. vi. which grew up around an ascetic cal1ed 'abd al-wal:ıid ibn zaid (d. luma'. 295/908).ıba wa 'd-dars wa 'r-riwaya 'anku. and they i h .h. c. though they stili retained their character as collections massignon. who captured the imaginations more than any other of their contemporaries.3 other ribiiıs were found on the marches with byzantium and in north africa. l. 260/874).2 between intoxicated and sober. ı89. skat!. a that of . quite different character hadp. .4 in khurasan about the same time. an early rimi was found on 'abbadan island (the name itself is significant) on the persian gulf. guidance under a this-world director (with a chain of transmitters to regularize in conformity with standard islamic practice) and guidance under a spiritshaikh. i i : . the common ancestor '(d. 'ali al-hujwiri refers3 to bistami's teaching.ılit aş-Şüfiyya: ı. in integral association with psychological experience called 'states'. such sufi 'companionship' ~ı-kindi.d. for asound isniid can support a . guest. . j. 598. . pp. ecstasy) and sukr (intoxication).. fen into oblivion until resurrected by the oftirmidhi most subsequent mystical congregations.'4 'abd ar-ral. or 'iraqi and khurasani (but must not be taken too seriously or called schools' of thought) af ter two men. p. c. tobe beof adab aş-şul. as the aposde of moderation (though he in adopted it. because won the approval of a orthodoxy as relatively cairo. abu yazid al-bistami. p 'd seeking masters. though this reference sought guidance from experienced men and ascribed is too themselves to such guides. p. his indusion ibn al-'arabi. 338. iliuminate and conformist.stili impermiment . ı67-8. cirdes of disciples began to gather around an acknowledged master of the way. ot ers g th iy travelled h h supportıng es . members rou e multitude of heresıes. qwjat mişr.! but not linked to him by any initiatory tie or vow of allegiance.ımiin badawı. i li 'ş-şul. see chap. the ethics Şüfiism. af:ıwiil) to experience of divine reality (f:ıaqiqa)s at first a tariqa meant simply this gradual method of conternpla~ tive and soul-releasing mysticism. 298/910) and abu yazid taifür al-bistarni (d. whilst 'there appeared in alexandria an organization (tii' lfa) calling itself aş-Şüfiyya' in the year a. r. celebrated of junaid all doctrines. 200. p. luma'.

43°. and at another recite poems to them. o sociated such before this they i occasion. and has to be looked for. 4 op.and khawiiniq in ferghiina. . 323). saying that they had never seen a more excellent showed sur asranju!a. in the syrian jawlan mountains al-maqdisi writes: 'i met abu is~aq al-ballüti with forty men. 379. every day i used to spend hs h h anaqa w ic were supported by endowments engaged in devotions. cit. the school ofp. d i as directed to a congregatıon of sufis. '. here where ıt ıor g " you are unknown. on another i might yell with them. a non-sufi usage of the that term their dhikr jurist of1906. ! iı - . al-maqdisi writes that in jerusalem (iliya) were sustenance consisted ofstory-tellers acorns (ballüt).~ise at my reluctance and . and cf. piety. on one occasion i might engage in antiphonal singing with them. which i would accept but immediately hand over intact to the sufis. it ~ . ii . en t ey thataman it was as easy to be a false sufi in those days as at sent the formatlon of school s of mysticism 7 well as showing as an movement he shows that the karramiyya2 in his time (he is writing around a. went on until.'s .no ti emse ves mıgrants.. 'there was a khiinaqiih in dabil (dwin. gives some information about sufi groups. stripping the veil of bash fulness from off my face.a ıt . since i was well off.p. 415. concernıng poınts o .welcomed me with drawn to associate wıth thıs congregatıon and open find out about their method.absen~ion th hfrom t~eir they took ceremoniai. and then mixedop. with wild barley. existed in his 202. foundedby muq. i found out (completed that this in man was a learned de goeje. . as are common: 'the karramiyya have a group (jalaba) in herat and gharch of the sher. people began me [to obtain baraka] and 1 touching permanent those which were. iiı ii i . a~an at-taqiisim shiraz in 375/985). having . being visited [for my virtue] and being sent presents of garments and purses. and in marv ar-rı1dh a khiinaqiih. engaging account shows that organized congregations 3 and even outside. i just ran away from them at dead of nıght and by moming had got well clear. . ample means. as i approached .. became.. 255/869. time and that see al-maqdisi. d b it chanced that i was wearıng aj~ a o yprıot woo an a b ii ii ii . and kh ' p. most e eleventh century marks a turning-point in the their masters were th secr~ts historyand of learnt all that i wished.. sufyan ath. " broadcasting grou af 1 s o peop e possessıng wh ecome dıscıples of alan 1 self-contınua based upon th:d bh . 975) was more effective. organized i ttı d me among them and began questıonıng me. 'this is your opportunity. . performing the dhikr (yukahbir) in their mosques af ter the friday prayer and reciting blessings on the prophet from the pulpit'. 327.ianifa have a majlis dhikr in the aqşa mosque where they ofabı1 dates. references the in the section on you needed to belong to like one tofollowing gain insight into sufi khurasan experience. khuttal. by god. and gı1zganan. centres. cf. it was a experiences revivalist and ascetic school by a special mode of dress.2 ı elearly not a quest' f . p. ed. al-maqdisi calls ai-maqdisi was assiduous new them men of zuhd and ta'abbud in (p. d. when the time came that i had penetrated into death. . al-maqdisi o ' ıon o acceptıng normal hospİtalİty but aritual whilst some centres of withdrawal. p. had not h mosque. p. living in the straitest poverty. bitter.. p. a group wen with . i would go out with them to visit ribti!s and to engage in religious recitals. 182. they so i said within myself. . which is split.( h see ıng a .ing food. that i won a place both in their hearts and in the hearts of the people of that place to an extraordinary degree. for they had their own section in fatimid fustat. cıt.' i therefore threw off all restraint with them. .]. p. all wearing wool.' p ve orders but sımı ar splrltu honoured master wıth my fame. k' shaikh whom i mıg t questıon fhd .book'. sweetened. p. having khiinaqiihs allover islamic asia.ı i felt ~nl' ~anted that i myself was a sufi and. b fc . t so eit bond allegiance master was purely personal. who had a place for worship where they i al-maqdisi..a and the the followers of l. . and the following no means happy with the sufis.'4 yet the karramiyya ~as relatively short-lived (two centuries) whereas the sufi movement went on from an individualistic discipline to change the whole devotional outlook of muslims.: aspliatıons who reputatıon of of a hparticular broke up af ter his faqir. especially with the' quietists. op. capital of armenia] whose inmates were gnostics ('iiri/s) in the system of taşawwuf. fruit size 'mudhakkirün who are [piousj (quşşiiş). i gained a great reputation. and what devotions! and they used to (awqiif) suppose i did it out of any other: :e b. and another in samarqand' (p. the only reference i have come across in al-maqdisi to a khiinaqiih where sufi exercises take place is. arms. 5 al-maqdisi. 439. i felt ill at ease about taking the food since i i sought out the main i entered sus [in khuzistiin] lı ". congregated.' with the result. be says that in shiraz 'Şüfis were numerous. seeking 365). cit.there were . and leam the true nature [of sufism.ammad ibn karram.thawri. more especially the ribii!s meal.d. 188.3 and it seems that it was from them that sufis adopted the khiinaqiih system. cit.. they were by as well as distinguished geographical information.6 the formation of schools of mysticism most geographers. ground up recite from a.

which had attained political power in the dynasties of the fiitimids of north mrica and the büyids of persia. at twelfth century many khiinaqiihs had become rich and flourishing establishments and ıbn 1086). a circle around a learned master. concert ik i k h t e fifth century o b the end wıt of the a.om the wrıtes eleventh century the ziiwiyas and khiinaqiihs which provıded temporary resting-places ribtits for sufis lı' h h for wandering sufis spread num~ro th' ere go under the name of khawiiniq. the change in the attitude of ' the formation of schools of mysticism 9 . 'oplucal works befor h i~ son. the next stage is the formation of mystical schools consisting of circles of initiates. this is shown by the parallel institutional development of madrasas and khiinaqiihs. endowed. martyr to the fanatidsm of non-arab the regıons in central asia and north africa. us. the institution is a means of control. . had be. which flow ornamented all of b i . of damascus: fr.d.d. by the tlı. but islamic religious spirit could not be limited and confined within this institution alone and the cultivation of the deeper spirituallife to ok the form of the parallel institution of the organized. and the sunni doctors had no conception of what was to happenj ub' when h it was mediated to the .8 the formation of school s of mysticism islam. ~ıscıp!e alqushaırı. [ for inducing ecstasy. when this reconciliation or compromise was accomplished sufism was still a way which appealed only to the few. in a.ecısıve role in the islamization of borderland and crthodox 'ıılamij' of eal e was trıed and e~eeuted. saladin. and their lieutenants and successors had made sufi associations respectable. egypt. d . and provoked a reaction to which shihiib ad-din yal)yii as-suhrawardi the zirids of ifriqiya. litur f the than suspect g h horthodox congrega ıo . isla~ic legalists towards a grudgi. to an official institutian to which the seljuqs ensured the recmitment of masters sympathetic to their religious policy. are ' w ıc e h ıstınguıs ed from the tar/qa leaders 8arnc nisba the n~~ life throughout the countryside y the devotional h ' h 't h m through bearing the qtül palaces . whilst the profane sciences which had flourished equally under the early 'abbasid and shi'ite dynasties were discouraged or banned. the overthrow of political shi'ism was brought about by the se1juq rulers of turkish nomads from central asia.an~ qualified a~:eptance of sufism. berber vassals of the fatimids. repudiated the!r authority.ıdeas.a aır. al-mu'izz's reeognition of the 'abbasid ealiph in the khutba ıs aseribed to various dates between 433/1041 and 437/1°45. in these institutions the stress was placed on the religious sciences. but though accommodated in this way orthodoxy and mysticism followed not only separate but divergent paths. begun by as-sulami and hıs. when the formation of separate congregations for liturgical 'recitals' became possible there began the 'development of an inner islam with its own leaders.en brought to a conclusian by al-ghazalı. and eventually the maghrib. the speculative sufi spirit was viewed with suspicion. ensured the triumph of sunnism in its m~li i form when Şanhaja from westem sahara overwhelmed moroeeo (at the tıme the seljuqs were taking baghdad) and then spain (battle of zal1aqa in a. . age of 38 in s87/ii. and wrote a number of remarkable theo a d. among other things it was characterized by the suppressian of shi'ism. 1183-5) ın the near east 10 ın s tıme. the turks were upholders of the sunna and opponents of shi'ite tendencies.ng . e taught ın anataha at the thısqilij suhrawardi is to b d" . the murabitün.~po. or i spıntua toget er ' h f ical organızatıon o tesama. and forms of worship. h t' ns reactıon _' fell vıctım. assocıa tions ca ring for religious needs other than the ntual sanctıfied and fixed by the law was recognized. where even then it seemed likely to become the persian form of islam. ~ ° trave ed (a. in the maghrib and egypt the power of the fiitimids weakened luntil finally they were overthrown by the kurd saladin in a. the counter-revolution they accomplished in the islamic sphere took the form of the reorganization of the madrasa from a private school. ey are eplt et al-ma and of played colu't arslan ii and h' ' e artyr . whılst t~e need for. people in the ii form of popular mavement. hierarchy.d. the association of sufism in its klıiinaqiih form with the official favour of nür ad-din. which w~s more ı e y to provo e t e i i mystical . and supervised khiinaqiih with which the seljuqs were familiar from those of the karramiyya in central asia and iran. '.h. ~°55 they gained control of baghdad and took over tutelage of the 'abbiisid caliph from the büyids. by al-malik a?-zahir at the order of saladin. the dissociation of sufis from recognized religious leaders had always been suspected and resented by the 'ulamii' (doctors of law). in far western isıa~ other namads.p. but it is to their credit that they encouraged the foundation of khiinaqiihs and endowed them liberally. salad" .2 . . the new form of madrasa soon spread from iraq into syria. ' i but it was the formation of esateric f and outside the regular organızatıon o s am. . 117i. .

ıbn khallikan describes fuqara' having 2 . ree o . . 284. a. the ılatter are the mul.w ıe ımplıes that the . freeing their minds from concem with the need to eam their living so that they can devote themselves to his service.h.i i' 'ii iİ i i ii . the doctrıne of personal iink. a. . two condemned training. junaydis. and the sayyaris.' or ' g i e sizsila-path was not mtended to rep ace can t e be necessary . 287. was the means of gaining this link. peculıar practices and ritua!. ee al-waslti..1 ( d h. this happened when a centreor circle became focused on one director in a new way and turned into a school designed to perpetuate his name.2 from the beginning of the thirteenth century certain centres (if we think of the centre as being a man. 5-6. ıs eve opment i d th on (ruk ) concessı .' many b i' e a i ıs. 467/1°74) . frequently a wanderer travelling around with his circle of disciples.ı ~. they follow an honourable calling and their life in comman is admirably conducted. w. iink p. pupils had normally traced or ascribed3 their madhhab (method). hulülis wh d' . de goeje. the members of this type of sufi organization are realiy th kings in these parts. type of teaching. or f.eır ıoun e~s aintained carefui linkswıth the orthodox mstıtutlon and dıd ~ot repudiate the farrnal duties of islam. ' da i'ti qad) with ıbn ar-rifa'i . i i ~ llre obscurethe figures a ~g~ı. all these assert the truth and . i. one of their fun~tions in islamic life was to fill the gap ieft through the suppresslon of shi'i sectarianism. regar e never develope~ sectarıan these paths ten th d d mstıtutlon.ıasibis. are ' . it is true ai-hujwiri c. 1 - the formatlon of schools of mysticism ii however. s y. whereby the seeker esateric character. the nüris. to their revered teacher. d as the . 13°5. presenting as delightful a picture as anyone could wish for. re ıgıous .. all the same they formed inner coteries within islam and introduced a hierarchical structure and modes of spirituai outl~ok and worship foreign to its essential genius. . the spiritua! heirs of edn" the founder. wright and m. most the of the links linking him ı:a~furıs. . appr~v~d (maqbüi). in types of organızatıon. u u an the s-i' ' mcor ıon ımtızaj . ship is peculiar. but their link with orthodoxy was guaranteed by their acceptance of the lawand rituai practices of islam. but so of far this had been the primarily a dırect firsects tl . . how this process of ascription came about is not clear. sametimes in his zawiya home in the big city. the difference between the paths lay in such aspects as ioyaity to the he ad . while the ~bn khal~i~an. wa!ıiyat. 'i ıli i "i' i. orat p d enumerates . ın.: i i . and tasamma are the terms used. . mysticai exereises. ed. .d. f ' ı: en~ıes. such tıe uq . the gives ' . since gad has provided for them over and aba\': the material things of life. he has lodged them in palaces which provide them with a foretaste of those of paradise. th kh ft . cam. p. . so these fortunates.2 babl y . methods of teachmg. ibn }ubair occasionally mentions these humble ascetics of desert or mountain if something speciai calls them to his attention.3 the i the travels of ibn jubair. mysticai schools or teaching centres. of ~he order and belief i~ a particu~ar power-line.an wıth whom are 'is who ' the halla j y the whole body of aspirants to süfiism is composed of connected tion . ]. sametimes settled in a retreat far from the distractions of khanaqah life.lo the formation of school s of mysticism i i i streams of water. for he was their guarantee o~ validity and e° ng to the mass orthodox muslims. the eariiest consclous i y mamtame whose . enjoy through god's favour the blessings of this world and the next. 1182). their mode of conducting their forms of wor . swore an oath of allegiance to founder and earthly deputyand received in return the secret wird which concentrates the spirituai power of the chain. the process whereby the ıorma us hsa ım beginning of . ma. . each such tariqa was handed down through a continuous 'chain' (sizsila). remaining tentirya ar~al h "bb' . i' i i i. they differed considerably in their inner beliefs. ' ibid. sametimes. anization which the sufis regarded asth a .rce silsilas culmin f ~ hı:ıu. it was not through such establishments that the next development i~ sufi institutionalism took place but through a single master. to human frality. and initiation.. therefore.. h 1m 1 1 sılsı a ıs pro .'. such as when he finds christians paying tribute to their dedication to the religious iife. d d anne e mto an creatıve b h d m of the mystic was to eii c . j imasaba inta . or mysticai isnad. sahiis the hakimis with al-junaid the khar \!!erc chains were not invented as so razıs later. twelve schoois of ( ) sufism: . so enraptured do same of these absorbed ecstatics become when under the influence of a state that they can hardly be regarded as belonging to this world at all.ariqa (course). their custom of assembling for impassioned musical recitals (sama') is delightfui. (d. pp. which qaşşaris. the of a person with this silsila acquired an 3 see appendix a for some early silsilas. caıro. -' i the mcarna (h d i) . 19°7.' o erıve t h'ali eır name from(d. 95. the tb. not a place) became the sees of tariqas. and secondl twelve sects two of which are condemned (m~rdüd). and rule of life.1 a ı:.. the favoured ones among the sufis. a ımı sect of anthropomorphists. '2nd derivative shaikhs are.

a. tableau. ~ion of is reality. in the third ıtatıon now becomes ass?cıated a ime and of e ma:as increasingly to become belief in his wıth mediumship ascrıptıo~ so fa. the naqshabandiyya). and the cause of this fact is that nasa and merv have never been without some person who acknowledged his authority and to ok care that his foııowers should maintain the doctrine of their founder'. mıtıator therefore. hence d h t h ırteent i hu c . 2. though. p. a new aura emanates rom . pp. i i . the sufis being those who submit to direction and conformity and the malamatis are those who retain their freedom. 121. 1~ a dream to convey al-]unaid's very organizations.d. th?ugh as a sufi figure uwais was ium than by any formalorganization. allah's treatise on t e ı r2 w ıc gıves t eh eıg t h d. their teaphing was modified by their pupils in accordance with their own mystical experiences. tb er o~r as a wali(protege) of god. prophet. common devotions.. 130-1.iaııaj is not normaııy found in them (though a way was later attributed to him). p 8 such spirit and ~t !lny .!ı'. writing around a. . and rules were ascribed to the kashf on them in books of khirqa lines such as as-sanüsi's pp. known in fact.:d'nvishes had n144. . iv.a.'abbas assayyari whose 'school of Şüfiism is the onlyone that has kept its original doctrine unchanged. 47. certain masters would claim to initiate into 3 although of these'figures. appendix b. o.h. it is not a simple question of condemnation by orthodoxy. 619-21.e told. ancestry. . p. were frequently called uwaisis. .. ~ormulae. in fact.h. and cf. (guıde initiators) bestowed the tariqa.. salsabil. the key figure in the lines of most tariqas is abu 'i-qasim aljunaid (d.iusain ibn manşür al-i. a. ıscnbed themselves to their initiator and his spiritual sha'riini. was s ai-wiisiti.a 6]unaıd m egypt af ter İts obliteration'. et . spedfie i kashf al-ma?ıjüb.bo ara'aİm alliih of m' stripping the soul and eliminating self to attain . says that there were two distinct primitive sanads to which aıı the then existing khirqas went back. 176-266. lata'if alc::. ib n. i t ~entury?).3 is missing from the isniids. 1320 when the ways were fully established. some figure as founders of artificial tariqas.6 the grounds for incorporation in the chains. the earlier groups had been linked by en were prepared to foııow his path and transmit it th. to ture generations.usİasm.7 that is.s and two extinct lines. .ı. minan. dhikrs.4 ai-wasiti.1 but these are theoretical ways. tiryaq.4 the change in the sufis can be seen in the nature of the bond which unites them.q t h e il relationshıp whıch had prevaı ed so far. though continuaııy quoted in support of mystical thought.ı al-falal. spiritual discipline. similarly. 768/1366) 'was development of s~ch a collegium pietatis into a ı . pp. were. ". p. these schools are studied in esoteric doctrines.' d' " . i 9. tcace er-pu . p. 83-4. the sufi f !ıfe iio r. century dh k h h h i[i! ~n 'a . 13:5° . salsabil.eco d e~tıon d an ~e. o i as had a new e yt i ement. the attribution see j. the junaidi and the bistami.and 251. and methods of fu themselves pp. it~ wird. mnrgin of sha'riini. ' 7 as-sanüsi. the distinction within sufism between sufis and malamatis now becomes defined. 6 ibid. ta f his wa y. ~7' d 8 he was unacquainted with the prophet and is said to have been inıtıate af ter his death (traditionally in a.. ut was inherited by aıı the unaı ers. a yemeni contemporary of the that inspired inventions had.who ~357. ii. t' 'p' . sals:b. a~d symbol~. and we have just mentioned that attributed to al-i. . and with whom are connected the lbal)atis and the farisis.rıo. but 1 tari th e rue '. not mere i h sı 'zsila.12 the formatlon of schools of mysticism have abandoned the sacred lawand have adopted heresy. and time arather sufi mi h b . are not made clear. p the f full of director and dıscıple. 910). they integrated by &udbution i t' ( 6 oh ırect were. sayings may not of be the authentic it must be the dhikrs most of these one earliest was remembered uwais al-qarani. which eventuaııy. ' status with god. h .jrom ıın qnrly da te. i. none of which developed into silsila-tariqas. i8!osno\lsi.. own to a . as from their dead master and guıded theır own pupds along hıs way in his name. .d. 37) by the spirit of the.dı or d sconfined puı atıons . p.ıami al-küriini (d. hujwiri singles out as exceptional the transmission fröm abü '1.prophet. 44.m j'wiri i and is mentıone . 49-50. . this was primarily a consequence of the islamic ideal of providing oneself with an isniid of guarantee and authority.11.3 tı j bto one me. this method...i the names of certain of these early masters were incorporated in the mystical isniids of the tariqas.iallaj. salsabil.8 the method (tariqa or madhhab) of al-junaid 4 as-sanüsi.to be in line with the sufi's known genuine thought."ı:vivify the tarfq a: ~usuf ~i. . as intercessory the majority of sufi aspırants were concerned. murshıds stage.{< r mation of schools of mysticism 13 .asm the collegium initiati whose members ' the fo .i s!\c k. or for their rejection. .ıjüb.1 see ashf al-mal. wlth the . kashf. for loose example th g t. iftal. was not "id.. yet dhü 'n-nün al-mişri. where as al-bistami is found in the chains of many orders (for example. al. d'ohsson. the change came with way. the bilaliyya and the uwaisiyya. ud 4 see 1 il .1 'i i' i: i i t!?ıı cairo. on his dhikr nd.

ıı66).d.f " i ii ~ naqshabandiyya. ıı66). the badawiyya of a~mad al-badawi (d.w ajayat. by >ls alt~ce ın 15°0.d.4 wa' ~ . na/ayat al . eco rou s contınue a tıme as .. \ten e . a. .u-. 562/ıı67). there was also some linkage with and transmi~sion from artisan futuwwa orders.d.227~3.: 5 his line ritter. shihiib ad-din abu i. r attracted (judhiba) to a life of piety and sanctity . m. 1234).ballikan o became a edlta~ ta lfa. h i h )(d. leıpzıg/lstanbul. .d 'ali al-kharaqani. caıro. a.d. ii.9. rnove~ ment of the spirit. a.uta vl~lted th~t clty m 13z5 (paris ' p:ıetry' are giv. a. accounts . 1: anıyya but unlike the qadırıyya. from that time s ~ sımp e ta ıja.2 as such a tariqa manque. '. the tariqas which became the most significant for the develop ment of institutional sufism were the suhrawardiyya attributed to piya' ad-din abii najib as-suhrawardi (d. jalal ad-din ar-rumi (d. th g .he ghuta.lll" " qa ar'uc.d. i asked a group of hİa followers who was his shaikh and they replied. a.. to ok over the shi'ite custo~ of bai'a. about the time of saladin.d. but . 'ajıi . i 199. such '. a.d.jilani (d. acting as an-nasir'8 envoy in girding those grandees whom the caliph wished to honour. where his tomb is well known and attracts pilgrims.. of another he writes: ylious ibn yüsuf ibn musa'id ash-shaibani.icd in 619 (a. .d. 1258). a. a.d. 1236).d. . troubled time of th~ mongol conquest~ (baghdad. 1273). _ . shaikh of the fuqarii' known af ter him as the yünusiyya. a. w ıe so was a hah 1 lor ong 1 cl 0. 391. . . t d familyorder.d. h 1 d f d t~nded in slıiraz by ruzbihiin baqli (d. lı ext cha .~j11:' . . 1931. a. 117:)8 .' nition that ıs theır ue. ther .. centre in shiraz ~ ziiwiya as ~)(arnples of h' -a yan.' by this word they designate one who has no shaikh . 1: . 706/1306) went to liye in damascus where ~tırus ılır 'a" zi/wwar 1 . .:ı' . a mystical school. still in '" :ıa ı r ı ta rıkh al-quds. the shadhiliyya deriving from abu madyan shu'aib (d. a.en. initiation with oath of allegiance to the shaikh. es but do not have a l sı l sı a name a terh t em. asım unaıd shirazi.ı ( oh b e gıven y ab 'i q j . 1328t -mazar (wntten 791/1389).ı:~rıc e . futuwwa orders were brought into prominence by caliph an-naşir's (a. the mawlawiyya inspired by the persian sufi poet. 'bi' ı. ed. kazerüniyya .h. qazwini and he was 'abbas !tu famous whenli~o. anather compensatory reaction against the suppression of open shi'ism. 1168). 1: . a significant feature of the change is that th groups.. mainly confined to india. as well as urban.t~me ıt feil mto oblıvion. i the rÜ2bihaniyya -':. .za . 1221). ged ıts ro ie mto a re iıgıo-commercıal guıld. and was settled during the.d. a denvatıve of the . ii.' which became ter when other masters. th~ hous~ of the wazir amin 243-54: ad-dawla for his an.d. which was restricted to anatolia.d. a. 1258).editary from the death of the founder1but did not spread out side fars or even survive for very long. a. ". 1222-3) in his viiiage of al-qunayya in the province of ai{a [in the jazira]. whose line of ascription did not extend before the fourteenth century. in jerusalem.d. hıfwas a majdhüb.3 ~us's great-grandson. op1 ayed an ımportant ro1 e ın dmt en w h 1 i an .. was associated.ja~mad al p . " ' ater uz c an """9 an grandsons of r .d."ii wl.. . in Şalal:ı ad-din khalil aş-Şafadi. the nomadic yasaviyya of a~mad al-yasavi (d. with whose patronage the great murshid. whıch . . developed by his nephew. shadd al-iziir fi khatt tehran. the kubrawiyya of najm ad-din kubra (d. rvıany o -. 1°55: fatimids in egypt. sabiq b. wı d f 1e b dmgi m un . _. whıch were accompanıed by considerabl sufi migrations whereby it became a rural. . arnı or oca ıze f ucy dlor 1 1 1uzdi 'ways such those just mentıane was t e gas p .11' ers. dıd not ea to t e ıormatıan o ıstınc ' ds h h r bh . .iafş as-suhrawardi. and the central as~an { of school s of mysticism 15 orm ation 'i'he f . a. c . a. 'ı:he tomb"khallik. the rifa'iyya deriving from a~mad ibn ar-rifa'i (d. l b. ~~d k.14 the formation of schools of mysticism the transformation of sufi companionships into initiato colleges began with the sunni triumphs over shi'ite dynas/y (buyids in baghdad. chishti (d. a.boh-' i an s w were als o invested with the suhr. was a holy man.iafş (d. the just-mentioned shihiib ad-din abü i.iasan 'ali ash-shadhili (d. he . ıbn khallikan mentions the kiziiniyya founded in cairo by abu 'abdallah mu~ammad.d. 1276) centred in egypt. fp. de si ane ix junaid shirazi'sn o att.~ edn.has been d. p t' o. i. 'he had no shaikh. the qadiriyya attributed to 'abd al-qadir al. hilal on d b. 1219-36) attempt to create a knightly futuwwa.a 83). .. and was al u ' ""'. extraçts tr. wıth a branch . . a. tr.. saif ad-din rajihi b. 12°9).d. the chishtiyya of mu 'in ad-din m. known as ıbn al-kizani (d. ıı82). 347 ':::1 a: vııı:~e ın t. ıı97) but attributed to abu '1i. first called khwajagan. . as. 1 d r .

ıı~a of sufi thought whıch may be desıgnated as the ın.e ~rre ~o. . nd f e.wed many together with the western turkish khalwatiyya. 1883. deriving from abu madyan (d. aıo~ . these were founded. sauvaire. .) lesperle 5 373 h '". -21. but such elements are not seen in the arabia. and ~or damaseus the translation of ' an zawıyas (pp.g " ' e usıve i syria a'a from ic scljuq tr eonquest of of northern and damaseus was qq eompleted ' a es. o~:hat. later. a. . 21 . a. 538. tr. time (a.8 ~ line. s fi accelerated . i and the tendency h .. saladin's brother-m-iaw (d. 20 qalandaris) unattached to any recognized master or i' . 'des~ription yd. ıv. 1876. gwe ıt as for a waqf in the 'the yribat period 7~~alj" is charac. ~uvaıre. and but developed his independent he is said to have been the first to ınt. an aeeount his life is from given in ıbnlist shiikır with the seljuq period as canof be seen any of:s ıbrahim " ~ '" ' : al-wafayat (bulaq. thought ~ spiritual exercises. ıe difference between the institutions mentioned to be hıs shija' al-gharamfi akhbar estabiished and recognized as sunni they in süd-arabien.then . ' a the persian-type hospices in particular is asso~ ciated al-fiirisi [as-siri.~ya whieh survived for some ti~e and witho~t e:ear 52of ra gate.ıkim) into hadramawt (see f. _~ther so numerous a concourse that everyone marvelied.the rimt was an arab type of hostel or trainingcouldincorporate all sorts of other elements. 'erected a ribiit at. they were strong among the large he passed the . but though the 1m11t two klıiinaqiihs [at irbil] for the sufis. came from the large maghrib . those staying . . but once silsilas were duee sufi diseipline (tal.2 i. die ~i/'ı~. '" {>0. am~s 1-. who were frequently men trained in celebrated ~. ana . xbo khallikan ' auikiin.h. the (cairo centre.ta !ıstenıng to ii: sufi gökböri also built a n. ~se name was ~haikh abü 'i-qasim faı a. 1933.d. 8 in hadramawt and has survived until the present day is the 'alawiyya ın and associate with them in con1*.. 101-2). riimusht hthıs tıme. asmli. fift . in the maghrib until much later. 884/1479) sou81 . seems . ix.e.!>. 330p. mentions a zawiya-yünusiyya in jerusalem k h qah al b ı-' th fi survived o wa< both were -ı e. tr. 77. pp.rophet'. 18' . 547.d.829)..nı. rimıs (pp. saladin welcomed sıatıc u s to gypt [~ .166. i. i but those mentioned ab lch .d. or the mesopotamian and central asian. 1429) 7 ibıd. by abü bakr ıbn qawam ıbn ~i. 387the legal sciences. qaraq~sh though' th~ ıbn abdallah al exponents were not confined to these areas. characteristics. a e tes w en ..'pı.1-1. i.7 ta'rikh 9 3himself and central asia. 63°/1233). festival days used he and his successors only received recognition and to draw l o?1 a~d 1°79.d' (584/rr88-658/1260).9 sufism had now become a profession this ~ı:laram seen~ f~mily z:!oz:. of the _latm schools.534].ch of whom must accept his expenses al-khawl 'i there. i fem " . antı .377-81) 521.2 mu]ır tion iines sponsoring distinctive ways of mystical ~~~ a~as accounts of these places in j erusalı:. example. asıat. qawamıyya-balısıyya. p@l'iarch. r.ndowed a ah e to rst provide new-type all eonvent that was in ale needed by in his in egypt and his line of attribution did not ment pp 'sh by 7 ı"] 1. p.bjıı khailikan describes the pomp with which he these areas. i.i. d ziiwiyas of whıch al-maqrızı gıves a long lıst. 1500). e y rı ats ın meeea (i.3 saladin in 585/118.2 were ~hiinaqii~~. . though by no means exciusive to ed tin .h. founded by mul:ıammad ibn 'ali of the ba 'alawi tribe (574/1~\' 11$ a/-}a/il alread e d ' silsila-founders.' 1 erusalem.ı.and mediated to the islamic world.9 endowed a the silsil~-founders belo?ged to two main ~chools khanaqah Şalal. göttingen. iv.s birthday at irbil in a. wüstenfeld. 74-8. elty. khanaqahs 403). names so 'b m lb. khiinaqiih at t 3concerts. 1283.5 his heutenant m egypt.. in 509/ iantinomian one sueh early family tariqa which were had great influenee upon hj when he departed. v (1895).m. ree man of rıçlwan ıbn tutush. .i. wh o wear the mura aq . mu j'ir ad d -ıntrhs' .~.97). klıita .. ıv. ams . 1qod to visit them frequently tendencies stronger in isl~mıc khorasan aghıb at-tabbiikh. 5.p al)mad al-fiisi (a. but the isma'iii fatimid state in egypt . . 1324-6. 4 d~vertiilg fo~ thıs purpose junaıdi and bistaın" t~e p~lace. encourage~ h. i'lam an-nubala' fi y' . through the se tariqas the sufi message :n ~ebro~. 159. an example of a .. ' . ' become popular. terized by a great growth of 9 pan?in. .'the ayyübids. dervishes (maliinıatis. a . i12. f d . i. 1876. ~. mu?affar ad-din 1197). al-maqs'. jtrnober.1js. p. which housed a main silsila-founder. 195. tnale sufis ex . 271-306 tı".6 whılst maghribi sufism.ormation of school s of mysticism 17 a and nd his followers fo~nded and. both of residents and visitors. numbers of vagrant way. ash-shadhili.q 232. as ]l)a. 'f when he waşş u u. h ptl 2 diseussion of' the khalwatiyya has been reserved for the third c a see pp. who were above the law. e. a. the fou.nac':-ch~l. 332 unspecialized sufi founded establishments'j the popularity of riimusht . see abü dharr (d. ii. snuvaget(tr. ser..16 the formatlon of school s of mysticisl\1 there were many other smail independentlineage tariqas wh' had only a restricted local influence. gökböri cppo 1 2 6qu::e~o~erı: 1alıab. were founded about '.roascus. 12°7 when 653/1255) who was initiated into the way deriving from abu madyan sh? İre.195 c oı~ıesd beirut. 7). .6) .ı~a. was to forın a third area with its own special gfkbôri.d. ~~d°.ın lll. 100.kunüz -' .

m. the 271.). .~nd his followers fo~nded and ~~do. e. reeto man of rıçlwan tutush in 509/ 110 in hadramawt and has survived until the present day is the encourage: y' . .' ıt~' numbers of vagrant dervishes (maliinıatis. or the mesopotamian and central asian. aeeount of his life is given in ibn shakır s is charac. 8 . . 63°/1233).7 "tlihab.1 .ıple. 'the rim. traİnin pp o sh l eonquest those staying there. 547. 1500). 'erected a rimi at. ['lam fi ta'rikh i~ associate himself with them İn eon qm.i .. i but those mentioned ab ich together with the western turkish khalwatiyya. 166. e:rpan?in.y ams f d ' survİved upon isla. . ri time (a.~ 3°6. see abü an-nubala' dharr (d.s w e saladin welcome sıatıc u s to gypt the ayyübids. sıat. ofy ramusht ıra'.d. h n these were founded. 77. . deriving from abu madyan (d. through the se tariqas :ıebro~. any 5. qaraq~sh İbn schools. to ınt. 101-2).ormation of schools of mysticism 17 . 4 divertıng for thıs purpose the of sufi thought whıch may be desıgnated as the palace of the latın junaıdi and bistaın" pıftıiarch.mad al-fasi (a izoısıes d ib.~ 3 silsila-founders. 100. ib . v (1895).d. unattached göttingen. lısu mu]1r tion iines sponsoring distinctive ways of mystical ~~~ a::as accounts. who were frequently men trained in s tr. 330-7). i~. ~'--. by a abü bakr ıbn qawam ~i. a fal sufism had nowfounded become profession and ıbn this period tual e sufis ex i " . 159. . iıkhallikan. p. eity.. a.~ ' .. jıstenıng to sufi concerts. . 12°7 when he passed -97). ppo 'alawiyya ın sou8" 6218-21. . festival days a third area with its own special characteristics. j erusalem. iv.s sh~ ' at an zawıyas (pp. a. ~lf':ı1 qalandaris) to recognized master in süd-arabien.3 saladin ~n 585/1 1~9 endowed a khanaqah the silsil~-founders belo?ged to two main ~chools Şalal:ıı~a ın. riba. ... 'abdallah al though' th~ . for exan. came from the ." had only a restricted local influence. who were above the law.wed many ~hiinaqii~:.e. an example of a or 41:ı::laram (caira . kunüz arabia. and for damaseus the translation (574/i~7. 377-8) d' '. mentions a zawiya-yünusiyya in ] g-centre'9 used to draw though the seems to be erusalem the in hi! . . wüstenfeld. ii. but .' cq:~:e~o~erı: 23 ment in egypt and his line of attribution did not qrızı. of ~hat. 538. 1933.16 the formatlon of school s of mysticism: there were many other smail independent-lineage tariqas who . sufi establishmentsj the popularity of the persian-type chapt' hospices in is assoi ciated the seljuq . . khanaqahs i!\.. built two khiinaqiihs [at irbil] for the sufis. [as-sir5. tr.e 'ls a/-}a/ıl. !'~the ' ribiit . ix. cthısusıve es.' i. eth rst northern new-type eonvent syriaaeeept and ın ale damaseus was .ı. sauvaire. 1876. though by no means exciusive to ~~.d6)i373-1429) ın hıs slzija' al-gharamfi akhbar line. 332. ı. and ~. 1197). d ziiwiyas of whıch al-maqrızı gıves a long ~ i i i . 520 7 the legal sciences. raghıb at-tabbakh.~kböri. '. qrdı of whom must his expenses ' .ılw al:ı.m. and . klzi'a' ed a h . al-maqs'. founded by mul:ıammad ibn 'ali of the ba 'alawi tribe 6 1001 f} khallikan then become popular' in the maghrib until much later...and the tendeney . pp.h. but the isma'iii fatimid in egypt 1 were h k .. ~:p:rophet'. tig$:her so numerous a coneourse that everyone marvelied..ale ' e to.hlln h departed. . both of residents and visitors. but such elements are to not seen ~' s~uvaıre.. khallikan'" i but developed his independent way. as :aaı:nascus.s (pp.d' l main silsila-founder. ii. .and the sufi message ~n mediated to the islamic world. r. -ıınbcj'. p. later... p. . he is said have been in the the first the these areas.i:rc. thought ~ spiritual exercises.pomp with whİch he . "' ~. ıv.534].g ~~~ih . 1876. ash-shadhili. . " . ' du.iıı. 829). 'deser andal.' ruvaget(tr. ~e difference between the İnstitutİons mentİoned h.." '. which at housed a large was to for~ ~14i:p'po. they were strong(see among the large duee sufi diseipline (tal.«ııı. :'tr1jp. . celebrated ı o d ptı d antinomian tendencies stronger in abu khorasan of 653/1255) who was initiated into were the way deriving from madyan j a. terized an by a great growth of unspecialized al-wajayat (bulaq. 387i ı~]'bn 403). aşş u u. saladin's brother-ın-law (d.' 521. needed anaqah al-bal fi maghrib t of i one such early family tariqa which had great influenee wa . ..ıv. " . central asia.ıt: was an arab type ofali hostel orstate both 1fti endowed to provide that was by o?1 a~d 1079. din maghrib" . "'" "" . .195.an d f . . estabiished and whieh recognized as ti~e sunni seen~ f~mily z:!'ı?~ya survived for some witho~t they ear 52 9 ~ra . beirut. h w o wear the q . of these places İn j erusalc:. a. ramusht t tıme. 74-8. e .o scljuq a. m4iir ad-din' ıu.i. of femal i~ al-farisi232. . 171. diseussion of particular the khalwatiyya has been reserved forwith the thırd period as can be seen from any list of: see pp. die c.h~se q ibrahim muraname was ~haıkh abü 'i-qasim ' qawamıyya-balısıyya. gwe ıt as a waqf in the (584/1188-658/1260).2 were the fou:.i ' l iii .ına.nac~-chıl. gökbörİ also buİlt a khiinaqiih ":''':ıtfii sufism. ~ccelerated s fi e da te. 884/1479) 1 9 .describes 1324. but once silsilas were a~] ıılili were found~di~~ou na~e~ some fifty rimts in meeea (i.6 whılst mu?affar adexponents were not confined to these areas.111. 1883. i. q a'acfrom couldincorporate all sorts of other elements.d.mıc i~ he and his successors only received recognition and a -khawl 'i ' eompleted when he gökböri ~ visit them ibn frequently and . tr. i.assdi.ıkim) into hadramawt f. 1283.cate. aıready referr d ne amas' birthday irbİl İn s a.lesperlesc '..5 hİs lieutenant İn egypt.

colleges and ibtic houses are numerous ruler wished in cairo. ' \lrists and sufis. lin organize d group. members unlikely a syrıa in means egypt and h ave b een erectıng ii co ".rtmaın gıfts] rulers andgndowed [them] with lands that yıelded ıncome j [sufficıent] to pro~'$tipends for students and whom sufi ascetics . was only honorifie and did imply any wider jurisdietion than that of his own establishm and later the title was frequently given to heads of other khiinaqiiı. 4°~. $ııbh iv 193 . the term with whieh he was kj1~n unde:e~:r to czıro ~e . a. 1928. 521/1127) n was ' i his p ıe~. . 4 maqrizi. 222-5 ı. y . as a result.d. 6 maqrizi. . a.'umari (writing a. 11-80. 141 f.s so ealled (its proper name was aş-Şalal:ıiyya) fr being situated in the eonfiseated house of sa'id as-su'ada'. iv.. a qas andı.ara.ıı ı--. he is espeeially eoneerned ~ list of head . madiiris dimishq.without they now furnish livings for t' savt~c w. however. see at-ta'rif bi 'l-mufta ' !~ z89-90).7 whieh. ı: . <! ermıtage was sometımes ca e shaikh dwelt a rawith ıla. ed. i " -' 11 battüta deseribes these khiinaqiifıs and their rules.d. there were many women sufis.'deseription de damas'. o at~ b h 1 d number.ı. 6. ii. )i} h' 939. . at. more is ' known as bint al-baghdadiy and her followers. asiat.~.4 whieh stili exists in ad-darb alaşfar. as-suyüti. 1173. 1342-9) has preserved the i~ (waşiyya) that the ehaneellery of the egyptian mamlük sultans gaye t~alı ı . purpose sufis] to govern~sponsored follow the i ru es ior acquırıng ort o khiinaqiihs..s the first to hold the post . 1933. $ubl. 801) is the best known. eunueh employed in the fatimid palaee who was enfranchised al-mustanşir and put to death in 544/1149. in cairo there was ribiit al-baghdadiyya. ai-irbilli. pp. the bı mysticism was the only religious sphere where known. =-y~hey took over that [custom] ~ro~ t~e preceding . muqaddama. . iii. around ealled a zainab ibnat abi 'lquently a eell mosque square. ı. khitat.ta'rif d muh '. alleities found between a. 4)0. d' ~ 7 ıbn faqi aliiih al. uc i rı . ta tl). sauvaget. v~ry lu:rative to their heads. ca ira i ' e term hawanıq. k hthat n that dy the aa. 115° and 1250. anyone the . 1418) i' ıng . built wome whilst a khalwa designated the 'retreat' of a single by dervis1up. 1370/1951). i i lı l see margaret smith. khitat. xıı. 4356.qalqashandi (d. r mamlük sueeessors o t e yyu ı s.ıth a sinecure affeeting his own poeket was ~tl! gıven the appointment. ziiwiya was the term alone. ii.d. damaseus. chs taken by th .. . q. but it expanded its funetions to beeome the ch' 'eentre of egyptian sufism. "'dnttuta gene sı~ ian ıs by f. 193. maqrizi says that the first khiinaqiih in egypt was dar sa 'ı as-su'ada'.1 of al-malik a{:-~ahir baibars in daughter 684/1285 for situated a shaik. none of the heads of the ıışatıyya (or Şaliil:ıiyya) khiinaqiih in damaseus (founded c. dahman.3_ baghdad also had 'a apr°l'. x1l1. and monastıe ouses ior t e h h ur ısh g . . . 1366/1947. ifusn al-muf:llifj.221. pp. 27. lts primary funetion was to serve as a hos for foreign sufis.e ~arıous g:oups. 105-6. cou find a place.' . . . but it the is s ofthis their the ayyübid rulers. 5~i.as andi.~- j. nib f h a b d are per d the ın atlon o id d y . bulaq edn" ii. 0. i during this p~i~' there are referenees to eonvents for women. they set up buildings for [t~ose ıns~ltutıons as these institutions were in the gift of the mamlük mo.\.d. lts shaikh had the official title of sh.has just speeified that he is deseribing . 301-3 ~ i~ cı ~auv~ıre. h d oor the e tcac ın [ bi p ox d of behaviour through dhıkr exercıses an supererogatory -. of whom r-b'! al-'adawiyya (d.i ' ır?) a~ o men of eulture and trained in the way of &ün wrıtes: taşawwuf... most of whom . 68. 121. ı: eges ) perpetuating ast a partieular rule. i p. n. a. a barakat.shandi $ubh . ser.d. . ıbn khallikiin. ai-irbilli2 18 thetb formatlon of schools of mysticism uses term khiinaqiih for eonvents for men and rimı khiinaqiih was the persian non-training hostel typefor those of womerı int d there were seven eonvents for women in aleppo into the of the arab world..r . ıbn khaldiin. ash-shuyükh. . s ibid.ammad at-tımjl (caıro. . yeditepe ash-shuyükh at the time of his appointment. .6 klıiinaqiihs of egypt and syria with the mamlük ~alii?hal authority.. 1326. describes briefly the relationship . i. ~' ılh) s~ems to have been a sufi.d. ıbn jubair university . ' . ziiwiya2 inma ii for iihs eontinued under the bal:ıri ~ ':15 tii'lfa of dervishes.d. xii.4 ries. 293-4.. at the of hi~'visit to cairo in a. les perles choisies. f khiinato a q d assigned ' (a. riibi'a the mystic and her fellow-saints i" lı! cambridge.'3 is masters. khııldiin. ıs 3 see j. iv. eertainly not in the of the sciences.'hesbove tran i t' ~ e .150 carried the eharge of mashyakhat ash-shuyükh)6 was '. ' . 273-85. .6 it was eonstitul a waqf in a. he writes: 'eaeh tion of school s of mysticism 19 . smaller establishments where one 1 raziya whieh the ribii! of fatima (d. . rosenthal. iljlnr but in ra y ~ses th~ word ziiwiya.. 415.

:<\:<\:<\-5 i. Şubj. t~above transl f '. ~alii?hal ' in battüta describes these khiinaqiifıs and their rules.6 it was coııstitut' a waqf in a.) s'::ems. in cairo sfi . i. 68. muh .1' perpetuating a particular rule.5 the first to hold the to c aıro ~e has just speeified that he is deseribing t ermkhawanıq post .. most of whom are per men of culture and trained in the way of taşawwuf. eunueh employed in the fatimid palaee who was enfranehised: al-mustanşir and put to death in 544/u49. xii. carrıed the eharge . al-irbillp . see margaret smith.d. number. of whom rb'l al-'adawiyya (d. co~le. a quently a eell situated ealled zainab ibnat abi 'l-barakat. v . 105-6.u. 1366/1947. sauvair '.. xill.'dat. les perles choisies. was only honorifie and did imply any wider jurisdietion than that of his own establish~t and later the title was frequently given to heads of other khiinaq( i iso ro. d f.' 1 khalwa whilst a designated the built 'retreat' women there was ribat al-baghdadiyya. a. 1. he is espeeially .. sauvaget. 521/1127) the bt known. a.5 so called (its proper name was aşŞala1. as-su'ada'. theys set buildings for [t~ose ıns:ıtutıons as of up their masters. are te as?etics '. the term with whieh he was own under ~~r ~ 3 see j. ed. ub?ı. as resul~. 1418) describes briefly the relationship khi1naqiihs of egypt and syria witl.rtmaın gıfts] mdowed [them] with lands that members ' ii co es b een erectıng h ave n y dy in egypt and syrıa :t k h ur is students .'3 this 's an orgarıized group. 19:<\8.~. one u5° and 125°.d.ahir baibars in 684/1285 for a shaikn around a mosque square.ı the mamlük authority.for ziiwiya the term for those of wome ap ol' uc. there were seven eonvents for women in aleppo 'i ° _ smaller establishments where dwelt with atı . sufis. by of a single dervisbup.ammad at-tanji (cairo.' .' i mystieism was the only was religious sp here where fatima raziya (d. known as bint almore is ' baghdadiy and her followers. tıÜll writes: ties. Şubh iv 193 :<\ . varıous groups. Ş io. al-lrbijli. but it expanded its funetions to become the cf eentre of egyptian sufism. rabi'a the mystic and her fellow-saints in f. damascus.: . the . 'f . yeditepe 435-6. 2 pıaldün.jubair 4°~. baghdad also had a öe whieh the ribiit of ' . _n~ne of the heads of the ıyya (or Şala1.d.ılyya) khanaqah ın damaseus (founded c. madilris dimishq. but it is unlikely that that means a . 1933. j. 1370/1951). to have been a sufi. the ayyübid rulers. 1939.. ~hand ser. maqrizi says that the first khiinaqiih in egypt was dar sa. dahman.~ppointm:nt. term khiinaqiih for arab eonvents menwas and ribiit into the cities of the world.i cambridge. 801) is the best known. h .. 1326.d. !alqashandi (d. there were many women u s.1 'i o of schools through of mysticism 19 of on behaviour dhı r exercıses an ati :form supererogatory iihs eontinued under the ba1:ıri . shuyükh)6 was taken by th ' . i t~ta general~ lon ıs. a qas andı. i n o d 7) an o . xii. ıed.d. 1: h and the aa. . eertainly not in the govern sponsored khiinaqiihs.ges and asric rules forhouses acquırıng oor [sufis] to follow the bl' the p numerous ın caıro. he writes: 'eaeh ziiwiya2 in . however. ' :<\ i .4 ese institutions were in the gift of the mamlük rulers and ry lucrative to their heads. rose:ıt~al. n. teaching of a the eg sciences. found!! between a.. yıelded ıd d y mo. his p. co f ind a p aee. but in re y ~ses t ~ word zawıya. h ermıtage was sometımes ea a ra ıta.ıiyya) fr being situated in the eonfiseated house of sa 'id assu 'ada'. 301-3' cf q 1 '~. muqaddama.. its primary funetion was to serve as a hoş . during this p:ri~" 18 the formation of schools of mysticism i ~ khiinaqiih uses tl was the persian non-training hostel type intr d there are referenees to eonvents for women. . e nandi. . ıncome [suffieıent] to proŞtipends for s~fi h ast -e. university 1. anyone whom the ruler wished .' . :<\7.eserıptıon de damas'. its shaikh had the offieial title of sh.3 r b shaikh 11 d .1:.ith a sineeure without affeeting his own poeket was ~~ gıven the. all alone.d. ii.7 whieh.ıs assigned to a tii'ija of dervishes. .4 whieh still exists in addarb al-aşfar. . eoneerned t of hea ' e e. pp. at the bf hi~'visit to cairo in a.. pp. iv. ash-shuyükh. ~de w. u73. of mashyakhat ashasiat. ther ~~y~hey took mamwk over lundatlon that [custom] ~ro~ t~e preceding a bid h b f sueeessors o t e yyu s.: daughter of al-malik a~-z. 193. f khiina q (a.ı8<r90). and monastıc ouses l~r. lbn 4) o.ta 'rif ds ın h. they now k furnısh ' lıvıngs for vjwists and orthodox d purpose ı ıng . for foreign sufis.

whose successors consciously carried on his part~ ı~ı 20 tre formatı on of scrools of mysticisi\1 teaching and method. and it these were waqf foundatıons. a. i at s fi 1 the religio: (and concert halls for the great) and ribiits had an in~ fi establıshments of the great muslım cıtıes. referring .this ' abd !w. iis-18.7 nian regions do not seem to have developed the officially iored khiinaqah and the change of their sufi hostels to repretion of a holy line (stage three of change) was not marked y change of name but by the addition of an honoured tomb. no necessarı y au.. .ımadi:ni [= rifa'iyya]. . ' 1146-73) and given the post to provide for his su slnce a ziiwiya was elected by the ikhwiin (brethren). ar. which ı under hindu rulers.1 un w. 106. that h. of qonya he writes: 'in th city is the tomb of .d. ııil ~ ~. therefore.ahmiin " r ~d. being called t j alaliyya. all along the malabar coast. amin rava . 54. later turk and mongol (d 8 56/ i see h rulers d ii i ruht the tombs of famous saints and associate d ' ' g . for instance. organization (tii'lfa) exists in the land of rum whose membe deriye from him.iaidariyya. an where he lodged in the khiinaqiihs of of fuqarii' ) the(t fi nc ore insurance ( zaund kanbaya (cambay in gujarat). u : f 1f ese establishments ' outside his successor ' the ribiit known as the riwiiq dto iıi/aı" ed. 1332). the pp ca. mawlaı in qonya.il225. eıng murdered in a. were sufi tii'ifas in the full sense. maqrizi says that the . :h more commonly the later khiinaqiihs were new founda }8 in association with a tomb.ianbali. 1364-1442 t e ınes o erıvatıon were yestablished.z and are known by his name. pp. ıbn khaldün. une sa ' convents on bı bl des h ' ıvres constıtues en.4 about the same tıme ~he qadırı attrıbutıon i to expand and a branch was formed ın damascus towards d of the fourteenth century. -. 1326. .magnificent ıot cque bde 'c al" " . za: ~l khiinaqiihs was made by by nur the ad-din secular authorities. arnı y' subse one superior b ' ' quent . sa 'id ibn sahl al-falaki lı detained in damascus mal:ımud ort b.. 1515.h. es .ianbali who a number of ter hıs death the composed sultan chose for his id.w~'a da'üdiyya founded by a l. . a ıtatlons pour les t ufis :une trained in these institutionsfounded daughter . thus he writes of t~e fuqarii~ ~1:al:ım.-' r. 109-10.3 _ h i ) and eru calicut! maqrizi's day (a.! these. founders. establishments were in the expansion of muslim commerce" accommodation to their hindu environnient. in 791/1392 ıbn khald was in the o appointed to the directorship of khanaqah baibars.ad~y'ya ifitiyya in cairo.ne of them s fi af w:ıs a l. en faveur la lines.d.. erıe ou se trouvaıent un ıwan. on the l.h ay agar) where he came actoss a company a. in damascus (!:lariri branch).° \f: superio~ o .in t?~ of whereas the khiinaqiihs were little more thanaccou~ts hostels fo s ı: . ıbn teaching and a particular rule of lodged in many ziiwiyas and eastem khiinaqiihs distinguished b specific attributions: suhrawardi in isfahan (a. 691/1292) an i~troducer of the rifii ısputes over the leadership were tııto egypt. see below. " ti j'l unctıone nİırht dubs and this is an d as pious ~ b~t\üta.6 some even found in madrasas. ' le s parıs lodges in g i i f jariyy " . similar to the derivation of the 'iraqian al.. ı su n. . or the khurasanian i. . known as mawİ1ina. jalal ad-din. theır u. but developed by his son 'abd ar~rahmiin .ta 'rif. tanji. 294. cairo edn. ll. out 800/1397. is a large ziiwiya in which food is provided for all migrants. .s sufis were frequently allowed . 806/ o 7 ibid. and in the difi'usı: of islam. this building still exists outside 'biib zuwaila iv. iv. p.ıi (d. il ' ' ' i .i i . pour .company.~a~ fd . ~l. as well as di founder-centre in the bata'il:ı of iraq. 1928. he was entertained in khiinaqiihs: at haun i at.use of mosques for their exercises. . matio n of scrools of mysticism i e for 21 " ji b ) at that of shaikh mul:ıammad an-najöri.d. whereas appointments to the a former wazir headsh~u a of khwarazm.ereditary succession began. abu bakr ibn 'da'üd (d. around his to .iaidariyya. 108. zawıyas were centres lor a genuine tea h" shaikh. a. only of the ziiwiyas character as the establishment of a teacher or preache e do the authors assert or impl' continuity of nit . ıbn battuta's narrative also demonstrates how important th . 39. aqbuga's madrasa in the azhar g a permanent group. though not a sufi~ . ' ii . ii l u iı i ~ ı m .13o. iv.'~ar was open to sufis and dhikrs w~re performed there. ed. waqf mosquee. pupiıi and successors. bl a'et des h . .rıad ıbn sulaimiin al-batii'il. and numerous rifa'i establishments in anatolia an caucasus (a. o.d. battüt life. 311-13. 1326). ii. .

iim ad-din. l. a special ' schools mysticism ". 1236).ılıat rnany of these leaders were frequently and other nor such nür ad-din was mubiirak ghaznawi (d. t~ chief being i:iamid. ~d brmation by riazul of islam in]. z3 sac.wıthout )..ve erıng h . a~~epted ajtigir 100as villages tughluq for the . a. ıbn ai whom thedamascus. of pakistan or. the decline :d (725/1325)movement at the beginning tughluq's reign. mu'in ad-din chishti of sijistan (d. walad. .d. 1235). eiated with khiinaqiihs and the wanderers. born tive ~arııbj' organizer of the role and chain in india. the finds expression in the retlections of latter's ~p mal:ımüd (d.d. 757/1356). a. baghdad being conquered in a. 201). ~~es .that shaykh rukn ad-din as-suhrawardi of multan. intriguers for "çr.din awliya] darwishes used to eome by twenties bal}ii' and thirties. 'ıi'have deteriorated. ioi-z.uil convent ilt seems rather that sufism had not yet (trance).. s'. though not in ~ \vas noted for his avoidance of courts and tughluq's son. traetions of the sufi way declined from the time ni~iim of ıad ibn tughluq (a.who interfered in politics were dealt with severely. the khiinaqiihs were i. and it was this which attracted indians to them. probably the aın8 z his proper most e/f~ name is fakhr ad-din ibriihim b.. others wl the '~ir ad-din for the night. subservient khtinaqtihs benefited from his patronage. delhi) and ba!i i ad-din zakariya (d. delhi. 'many sufis fou a new home within the jurisdiction of the turkish sultanate n. men have to wait [in vain] for xi "'as suspicious of the influence of some of these the dar ~p1e.'(i. m.\smb. persı qalandari poet. their own countries or in entirely new pasture 1258. 1274). ir o c aracterıstıcs an ten encıes. d d maintained direct contact with which see .. w d . shihiib ad-din himself designated khalifas for india.2 'associated' for some twenty years. ih~"1.~liaykb used to keep of them guestsfrom for three days -olia the seljuq period was significant in that the when upkeep mystical '.:. 1z62at multan). of other tariqas only the suhrawardi gained a followıng india.te for whom these khiinaqii ıorme centres ıor were numerous and acted as p " cultural i i 1 ooı~preading and s am. sprang up d fi e nıte ascrıptlons. there were two categories of sufis.an ii unpredictable and stabıızıng not opposed to sufis as such.d. those ass. cl hos ~. the hagiographers lash itn of the army] and darwishes would arrive from all sides .d. among these were institutionl and became independent schools with anatolia in~~ the~ot north-west and hindustan in the south-east.. 632/1234 kiizerÜfiiyya one of the exceptions. both persian refugees like bahii' "~l. see als o with pp. izl3. and sufi training. contrary to the arab-wori institutions bearing the same persian name. indian islam seems to have been essentially a holyman islaı these migrants in the hindu environment acquired an aura holiness. ~. at z36. voiced complaints dedine. nar such ad-din slaves. 1325-51). . an ~ ma h o j'ority . and buried near his inspirer. two distinctive tariqas we formed. with a.d. conse 'iocf the restrictions imposed on and '. much to tughluq's annoyance "din awliyii'. qutb ad-din bakhti~ kiiki (d. .> there are neither such soldiers. rath than farrnal islam.tled in theyto rarely h india. 'these ıbn days llu' of darwishes has deereased. culture give . (the khwajah) said. . an 'urs. 'iraqi. see p. af ter a lifetin of wanderings. a. iii (1955). d spiritual hs about re. . successor of ni:ı. this . grew up around a holy man and became associated with his tariı and method of discipiine and exereises. capital of a powerft hindu state. in the days of the .d. mul:ıammad ıbn traınıng. fervou ascetic exercises. used to visit him he when he was in a leaders state of l.h: (ıu. the indian khiinaqii. grandson of . sense focal points of islam-centres of holiness. but one . from him stemmed a silsila which won widespre popularity under his khalifa and successor.. ' the thirteenth century was an age of disturballce and ch as the mongol hordes swept over central asian muslim stat an zz the formatlon of schools of mysticis af ter the other. its outburst as taken such a popular was of [ılater.'ı shaikhs and os~ regulation and supervision he exacted led to measures of . and form i'a. khiinaqiihs itality.d. successor to the great shaikh ia'cd in carrying his bier.rtot ı: se within their sphere of rule. 204. (ıbn ndars had arrived and were staying as guests of khwajah tt). to become eventually the leading i~dı tariqa. a.shahriyiir. 324. gion.1arshness to naşir ad-din.ifis " ı:'.ttraet indians. died ız89. the shaykh [ni?iim ad-din] would invite all lt was vitally linked the spread of islamic :t. grounds refugees those parts of the muslim world .ad-din of najore (d. finally settled at ajmer..he pecı more remote from the scourge..

mueh .d. of the orders. of qonya and there are many references to official patrona 24 the formatı on of schools of mystıc other courts. the confuslon . r: gı 418 ff. received hospitality from akhis (c. this isla~avcl -is true in spite of the faet that ther. not for :~ e~ . t if in associations d an ın a ire ıgıous cu ture i. as the latter <i had a grand ~i ~if. much t~anization e ii ca i. cairo.:ı. h. akhi orgi tion injalal anatolia was asimilar turkishfutuwwa craft authorities. i christians of the region.- . it had to accept 'igins of the corporations are stressed.a] asıan mongol-period futuwwa orders. veryf ıorm "' e i f iliut orders o . such as that of mujahid ad-din bihrüz . gıven d b ter y . originally t naturally became associated with arabic akhi. and futuwwa order craftsmanship and chivalry. . we have shown that the encouraged the sufi organization at the stage it had hed-assoeiation in khiinaqiihs.irt~: it is important distinguish between the dervish activity mystical orders prı' and such corporations trade-guilds2 was just as strong af ter the as collapse of ı:ons.. they had the support of the " Şinf (pl. seland have similar forms of organization y th . ii. rathersocial than in types of organization and itself the in practical aspects such as hospitality linka' tariqas are purely religious organizations. ~unüf).~ . .eer . and regional terms like mo~ ~o pl. the kazeruniyya. a partlcu ar gm an ıts mem i id to . who is~e num era ers ınto nato ıa during the th' " founded ai century.er political shi'ism the necessity for reeognizing them ited by the sunni doetors. url masters.. but the pur of the guilds was eeonomie assoeiation. i and that the initial organization of the 3 similarly theyare to be distinguished from the anatolian gmzı ~o~. manifesting a fervour are known under s term. risala. 90-100. : behind the banner of that tariqa that the guild ation of school s of mysticism 25 members .d.'.nres from guild organization.the initiation and oath of the guilds."'. see travels.. aspirit which religious aspeets. lı . 472. sinee legal islam tolerated the secret . theyare referred to more simply as ıa'lfas.were and ~ot that . medical doctors too. or shaikh al-~irfa) and a hierarehy of appren /tadı'). 1006-89).!. . which were also seeular associations in some . when defined İjystical tradition had emerged.ıirfa (pl.i y ported as saying. aspects ! rttionship to the life of the eommunity. .~ to and from the 'id prayer-ground. eraftsmanship. l. ious rites were the predomınant . of fata. ~: . the m~ were called fityan (pl. or tı a and religious tii'ija eould not of and care for the sick po or.:!ietıng .ci arac i :. it may on occa~ıo~ be (ai-wasiti. arowes ether for what we secu purposfs l-~ 'i' . which term.-. tiryaq. were mediators strietly be at the same time a or eraft tii'lfa..pr.ıl' ~nctı y su . and s tii'lfa. 'youth'.. from then. tr. this type of organization dısap during the 15th century with the full establishment of ottom~nr jj po~i craft orders of a different type were an important aspect of the lıfe of s ' turkey. and po different from that of legalist i~lam. r~fid own special sense of an ethical self-offering. hanati. and be em nies g linked a partieu ar and tarıqa an saınt.acquired by dr.ımad ar.3 which state of rüm. . on eeonomıc 1: and the ch although seeular centred assoeıatlons. tr. p. 1638) of the various guilds ın . however.i i i e e c. 1333). based on the futuwwa principle whose religious affiliation~ w~re w~t t ii darawish. . osocıa socıal neither were they sufi orders. sufis used the term futuwwa. would reeeive simple initiation le seydbat-name.~ ın as apossible source of spiritual aid to them in". s '~xceptıon . and mastercraftsmen ~'so the religious orders acquired a hierarchy of noviees. 1962. . 47-8.. of the act of allegiance to the shaikh \iısh w. at baghdad. o ed 'abdallah al-anşari al-harawi (a. a~naf. 103. turkish . to tx. rashid ad-din 'ali in a..is chelebi's description (a.". . h "(. pp. mc. a.id gm s. though not strictly a youth organ except in enrolment) and the head akhi. to that of re1igion. al-qusliairi. not for an organızatıon. 1218. the .nazil as-sa ırın. the differenee between them is one pur alsoof ~ırlt and intent..?~(nii '. . given in . r. von hammer. entral' father biibiis from c d of jaliil dad-din bl rümi. 45). being i i ıttons . companions (şiini'). the the mystics.ı especially during theto time of the mongol inv . a. consequently. ıbn j. organization of the ['c c. t ınıtıatlons o with !t~ite states with the triumph of the re1i ayyübids and . . !:ıiraf).hich was the essential purpose of certain at-tariqa ractıc~ was maintained. the . 'my brother'. ad-din rümi was highly honoured b i - . " ~ corporation. on these see e. 'akhi'. as when al. ~ciations. art. iii... see bel?w. the imam j a 'far.:.t in their traditions. . t~ey wes to that of the. flourisheddunder ers s: these guilds had fatimid a . ıbn khallikiin.d.qrm "to[' feature. organız~tıo~s without liuı. ~~ngıng to a guild. 'futuwwa means working for god's sake.nıin. onfutuwwa as understood by sufis ~~~'. b and a imove ibn ın 'abd:' consı prefect of iraq under mas 'üd ibn ghiyath. ıs r~dıes 1 se g . the hanla. beaurecueil. :. b . p. though it took the name of an eminent ii devcloped rather as a religious-economic guild association. drew f~! more and " .e.

at such places his intercession ca sought. . cairo. ascetic ~. such 158-9.s the mawlid ~a. i it was faırly wıd espread ın n ib ' refers to .d. no dear distinction can h ec. l f n towns i and '. . a.~. 1908-11.6 religious aspirations man who . the earlier spiri leaders dissociated themselves from the working of such pow~ though theyall accepted the principle that saints did perf~ them as gifts from god. but the need for spiritual had necessitated the association of sufis. . this meant ı. . bl .a. 2 (d. e ıe ın t e ı eals for whıch the tarıqa th the i k dedicated disciples (fuqarii'. majmü' fatdwi. or ec:qıl indeed probably. . the other is in the constitution of the body of adherents. thesome extraordın graces divine grace iswere favoured are a confirmation of t which they able to.' f h b 694/1295).d acquıred. marks. . ıbn ractice. '. y valu' ieoıall . a. impostor.ed to follow their ordinary mode of life. know tha~ one. . the saint-cult with the orders and a ~ding new rever i. ttavels. h not mer h p l y h fhese features and the wrıtıng ofdspecıal . y t e tım~ ~ of scrools of mysticism 27 t' n 'rmatio ' a. the celebratıon of of ~ s at least in part. the f:ıadith qudsi: 'my saints are beneath my tents. acceptable'innovation. ~n during this time. of 1 mission. it is effected with divine support. ro embrace tertiaries or lay adherents who 'took the . d sufi m ay see. ut ıt ume. this..' were mediums of his power. 15°5). .' popu ar s pırıt of muhamma as t e ogos. a. eır b i f h d sought .' t an aspect of the people s re ıg~on..ti. . od es wıth o wors as were compatıble f h ıp ~ mg e m the baraka of the saınts .affirmed th . 2 cf. progress and can nevertheless and confirm how~ver~ the faithful: serve to distinguish a real wali from an counted as a kind o(sorcery. 1907.d. the . (visitation) to saints' tombs. the .c poem. ' darii wıth f d fı e. .mncludes that it is a bid'a f:ıasana. but also led to the :ı eve c . gifted spiritual powers.tsfor ociated a new reverence ass t ht him into the category ' lo pmen ı d brou g ch~ra~terıstıc t: el i of ular the level. ._!khwii~) o e o such association oa coı:ıtiı:ıued normal s-u~h rules and m m to devote themselves to . /fum al-maqsid fi .26 tre formatı on of scrools of mysticls and now we find manifestations of spiritual power b associated with the orders. 'ers at . f a pressıon o ubair (travelled a. tice of the people. ' . duues wıthm the order. sin enct} proteges (awliyii' li ' lliih) are within the orders. exercise an influence uponedify worldly conditions. necessity and ought r~~ to hi de any they had ıbn khaı~~. under nopp. prac l:(ya.b . concerned \. were 1319(1902). . sufisrn ce ( a philosophy of election which was diluted and adapte~royi needs of the masses by the orders. estructıon ' } '. we are mainly etp of it' (muqaddama. ı. their con hin hospices concerned for the welfare of travellers and bhe sick and unfortunate brought them back into the !(ıifhe hospices with their associated tombs became the . ıstill. . te d preserve ' 'bırth lid demonstrations af d ter . not merely the great \İj but his successors who inherited his baraka (spiritual s.ı:sta ıs h e . pp. i ı. of . d p qaşidat al-burda..2 the writings of attitude and approach (of these men) result from prophecy and are a sufis contain a vast amount on thıs cons ject of the validity of wiliiya. the state of sanctity (wiliiya) is characterized by the manifı tion of kariimiit. by al-büşiri . 'among the sufis who are favoredwith by acts of involuntarily made.of .d.. of the saints.. tr. the ordinary .. . but 167). . with this was associated po. . .~üti.. ai-qushairi -remarks that though phets needed mirades (mu'jiziit) to confirm the validity i see al-qushairi. d.the prophet is one aspect of the change. be made between the orders and saint-veneration.h. 2nd edn.. concern . 114-15. an (khalifa).~n spiritual welfare had led the devotee and early sufi himself from the world. the mystic carries out a ziyiira for the purı of muriiqaba (spiritual communion) with the saint. to be a compensatıon the o ~ at gatherings belong to the next stage. 1183-5) but the ' p . risala saints (cairo.. i. rosenthal. but the popular belie that the saint's soul lingers specially associated with him whilst he was on earth or at wk he had manifested himself.' for it comes under hıs con emnatıon. amal al-mawlid-a kind of fatwa the the on shaikh or more usually his representative . finding in material symbol an aid to meditation. about his tomb and places (maqi none kn°w but me. 1326-9. but membership was now 312. "recıtatıons f the e ıe ı r for '. iii. regımes. i tf enpo b the universe. as in other aspects of sufi thzt~ and practice between the :: there is an essential distinction which the genuine sufi approached a saint's tomb and the. a wali does not necessarily. .

guidance concerned from a shaikh. . bein '~ it the states f this nature.l e 'i whilst najib ad-din 1 wrote one o '. invested orthodox ritual with esoteric si sc in the hands of the washer of the dead becomes !üftila (cair popular. 67 god) is ad . which includes investment with a mantle.ith han illul11inating their search and f gp d 1 ow i.tlter manual on th sulami's work .ın. but every action within has its ethical and theyand mystıcal thı mea successors clung to the externals of islamic practice and ba~1 their litanies solidıyon the qur'an. suhrawardi in the book just one. o were paets.rs a. . it is easy to see why this aspect was so important and how « it was to islamize borrowed material.' ilted to god: 'th: trı ute to.mulatıng. the medıeval . . by fallowing which the novice may attain union with exercise ry gato perer yer tasks o s su observances additional ıunded up an a series of . and who~ın magic-tech: which professed.h. ~d. novice 1 r.d. of418/1027. which is t 'b . ' . by . the ideals of the orders were co maintained.. meıer. thus the not much they were compromised in practice.. and magical invocation. . giv these magical properties. cha o 319)' p.'. as w~h adepts. popular wo brought all this within the range of the ordinary practitioner' became part of the equipment of the shaikhs and brethren. . 3 o. chapters (süra ya sin). islam.. and hundreds of booklets have be written on the virtues and properties of the names of god. (o honour whi islam accords to jurists is reflected by the fact does wuçlü' (ablution) signify the abandonment of that certain of t pr~fane ac ~io silsila founders were wuçlü' also professional jurists. . .h .t. divination.wıe ıng an ımmense ın uence roughout mo socıety.' . . the association of these 'words'. 1021) . 622/1225). with and imitation it a. deservedl~ shihiib ad-din. astrology. r.guı rt' d. it adab involves a noviciate. o dee er l11ysteries the effect of theır stress f~°.11. ' li~rnj' ~~aıı:ı a -}aşşaş. therefo primarily based on gnificance.t al-adö. j i h with the development of new forms of ofalong this sys::ıno devotion and adherence belongs to the next stage.ziib.a. power d for symbolism in islam is. . when the acceptance parallel to ritual prayer went the process tariqas c of acco represented by local organizations throughout the dating the sciences of astrology. they played an i~mense ~( in enriching the devotionallife of the ordinary musbid. it pop who ~rote w?~t.ın spiritual directors.d deals with the rules of behaviour in such an institution. the dconcerned the letter of ascetlc-l11ystıca the law was s.com i e ru es o t e novıcıate was abkarn alornuridin.o ıtanıes.s. manuals show that the ritual is now a tracedout way. but to control them. pupı als s. ~'the it is n::ı~e receives ~~ manners. . this development is especi associated with the name of al:ımad ibn 'abdallah al-b" (d.28 the formatı on of school s of mysticl ' rmı\ti01" ~. wh'ı sı one hand. 'every e this broadening of membership led to changes in e ısı . t e h or f es as d d h c g roduce 8pırıt ıns~ea d ıs suus ha e.4 ~perior allats various pra . he turn s it 9oı:shipper sho id b fi~st stage ın tawakkul (dependence upon mmanded by the law denotes a mystery'.t\1al and duties d. aş-şuqba by rj. 'of life.'arabi's al-amr alhas been muj. the i'!jconcilin ın conte~t. who put the seal to the work of his predecess operating less openly by finally systematizing the sciences divination.rıence . r me words. .tions fl" asosularni during (d. : h e ~n the. "t of schools of mysticism 29 was especially linked with membership of guilds. and ınvocations (adhkiir. or qur'anic verses (ayat al-kursi). phrases like the basmala.ır or al-]aziili's dalii'il alkhairö.1 adiib al-muridin.o. 29-55. ..' ırector '-the manua s n as-suhrawar . 'awiirif al-ma arif. " ' ular by many 'ulama' because of its author's reputation as an 'an. the collective dhikr.1nted b g faşa~f wıth orthodoxy. other manua s were ajm was his uide.o d bn wıth t morally and e towards greater systematızatıon eory. not merely to reveal the secrets of the u~il world. id id fl h wor stra st ~e. has its place asaj. howe~ i wılls wıthout though impulseitor initiative onin its part'. . new techniques for the individual dhikr we ı st. within the sphere of the regular islamic institutıons.d sahl ibnespecially 'abdalliih at-tustari (d. tthe full development . i f h to the b. praıses. the orders stressed t power of the word of god. ~ifö. pte must be in the hands of his " '~bat the .riginal. and headdress. hands of god like a corpse in the hands ~minates in initiation. all the same.b2 and ıbn al. dd n i est manu g ~.kam. . xxxii (1957). and now that thes e~ ' al . director like of y . as ash-shadhili's ljizb al-bal.dedıcated group of aspirants and adepts in a convent under ghect supervision of a superior. is of .. way under guidance implies a life in common (mu'ashara) ". vade . 'ein knigge für Şüfi's'.

487/1094 abmad al-ghazali (d: 520/1126) ll ı 'abdallah al-anşari al-harawi. 469/~°76) abu 'i-husain al-busti mul:ıd al-i.iafş r al:ımad as-suhrawardi al-bidlisi al-qaşri al-abhari 632/1234 abhariyya i. 1487 --ıı i . c.iajji bektash d. 'ali al-hamadani ni'matallah wali d. 1335 i i 'ali (d. abu bakr an-nassaj d. 1397 khalwatiyya yai)yai shirwani d. 1393 i mul:ıammad 'ala' ibn ıbrahim = i.iraqian tradition j unaidi i sü n . 618/1221 kubrawiyya 'abd ar-ral:ıman i al-isfara'ini d. i i shaikh zahid = ıbrahim ibn rüshan d. c. 1335 jibiiwiyyasa'diyya i 'umar al-khalwati d.826/1423 ightishashiyya i i i i sa 'd-addin al jibiiwi d. 786/1385 ni hamadaniyya 'matallahiyya isl:ıiiq al-khuttalani d. 869/1465 barzishiibadi i i dha. 1524) ete. 1222 i ash-shaibiini Şafiyyaddin alardabm d. d. 1135 . 535/1140 ii ti i lı 'ain al-quç!at abu 'n-najib alhamadani as-suhrawardi d. unaid (d. i i i ii ~i abu 'amma isma'il d. 1460 i Şadr ad-din (müsa 1) d.1334 Şafawiyya ı suhrawardiyya najm ad-din kubra (appendix c) d. 1296 t mui)ammad nür aikhalwati d. lahidniyya i . c. c. 1350 al:ımad alyasavi d. 736/1336 rukniyya ii nür ad-din m. 562/1169 yasaviyya luqman perende al-khurasiini ı i i i abu'l i barakat i i yünis i i l i i i i d.i . i i ml:ıd nürbakhsh 'abdallah d. 1447) 1356--1433 j i i i. umar rüsheni ıbrahim (d. 481/1089 yüsuf ibn ayyüb alhamadani d.iaidar (d. d. 525/1131 d. 1524 i i. 912/1506 . 1460) d. 834/1431 d.1430 i shiih isma 'il jilwatiyya.iajji bairam i mui)amm ad demcrdas h d. 1429) anwar' iı bektashiyya mu'in ad-din 'ali t i 'qasim-i d. 563/1168 i abu fadl albagh~di ı quıb ad-din i.j.iamüya.717/1317 nüriyyai 'ala' ad-dawla as-simnani d. 1488) i bairamiyya.1 i abu 'i-qasim al-gurgani (d. (d.abiyya faiç!-bakhsh i nürbakhshiyya t shams addin al-liihiji d.

ıf highl conf~sede.eat~ (khalwa.qatı (d. we have shown that they the chief ar'iqa came into through an outstanding director being succeeded lines utlined theg by . stemming originaliy from co.maghrib. since ı. stagnatıon. favoured by autho whilst others fouowed the strictest principles of poverty unwoddliness.n. as may mortifications as vigils (sahr) and fasts (şiyiirn). who made coliections of his sayings and episodes life. . and con ~ distorted. ~ ) . and had their own rules and linkages bu! ~. . y but. it is here that sufism won a the first qualıfied :qucntly ?eveloped along lines of its own and its from the doctors of islamic legalism. the of the convent. if not the reality. ments. it forms an aspect of any study of the orders since these qualities. flz/l0zl). hagiographa is simply biography designed. embracing syria .8ı. 'uzla. mwn and exten? areas of sufi thought and practice from the point egypt.~di the ~d. but they . of such beliefs. although the ]' re is r wlt~ the practice of the mystical way had been worked out th'~ a:6~:~! . together . vanc. the sufi organization leadıng to the formatıon ot schools ofteaching and training we may now say son:ıethıng abo~t ii ao:.ıman aş-8ulami (d.and . .ving o . on the phases one hand. the historian ... mesopotamia ount for the existence of the cult and help to elucidate itscentred on baghdad. i from central zoo/815) . and deriye organization. see appendix the bufi establ b.fism ~ e~pression in an organization. and manifestations are real to the believer. others were under authority of one leader and had become attached to one siı whilst others were governed by a council of elders. i the historical personality.ı"tiziil. i be seen from these manuals. to serve the cult of the saints. same were rich and luxurious. = ındıvıduauywere ın hısstili cellar. same had no shaikh.30 the formation of schools of mys1' i els eneral stages in the development of . who ma de of these hostels. lines of ascription go back through alof subsequent tariqa development were iunaıd mesopotamia. . at the same time. i'ti~iif. then t were wandering dervishes such as the qalandars.d. the diffi utilizing the lives of the saints as historical sources is well . 251/865).alities from whom the great tariqas derıve and theır 'ilt development. and revival owed little to non-indian ine work of 'abd ar-ral. there were great variations too between i on qalandars.( combined practical abilities along with spiritual qualities t. and taught their own pupils in his name. ad ı a t " make periodi~ retr.. 298/910)anatolian to ma'rüfforms al-karkhi (d. or ofquadragesıma) the sufis in association variable. wriid). limited. graded according tosocıety a person's stage. st sufism in india.ı. rned with the effects.

. tmf as-sad' a. iit this stage u ıseıp told ıne he received nom b . at-rabaqat ash-shiifi'iyya. 9 rı abu 'i-qiisim i see as-subki.465/1073 (wojii. was hıs fbtl.'..- for his .' brother of the ethical theologian abu i:liimid. 49. o/. 'abdrevelations . i.. al-qushaİri al-khar~qiini (al-karrakani) khallikiin (wrİtİng c. alof the (waridat) and b.a.d. 55. tr. . and. with its family antecedents centred o' basran marshes. 'sal r~~ their lieutenants and successors. 1337-70) brıngs h~"bere his sincerity immediately won people's tted to ?'3 "~i i 7 ) a s bk ( ~~9\1. 'jrdiyya his elder brother. ı""~.1.the way.hi.ll' be was 'at one and the same' time withdrawn 'ı1ve in the world. d 1 . f ııfııterial he eould find 'i~' h?' s. not much İs known about hİs life for he attracted no ha. 425/1034 d. al-fiirma. the i:ia qadiriyya is also included since 'abd al-qadir. of persian o was a contemporary of the other two.~ı~g:. 'dabu l.' then follow i was wi11 . although he enga guidan an-niissaj h put myse the guidance crisis of .d.. bu l.ımad al-g .. a.1. aphe( al-gurgiini . . .yo d.h.iamld qutb ' ' ıng diseiplİnes un~'~' i e persevered in the task of b i ~~rbe part that he played in his brother's life seeptl .4)' quo:':':.d. haunt of outlaws.ı al. yüsuf an during .tüsi d at qa .~dhi's ~ii az-zab" . serving his apprenticeship ". and his equally important master.'. 8 murtaçlii. but he was . . 54-5). the" i jin which he.. and even then it was fiirmadhi nassiij attime before it at-tüsi became a universal tariqa.alsa a 'ffısi but teachıng at nısapur. de slane .o. 1911..1 which c his name oiily i abu 'ali alabu bakr an came into e~istence later. .2 he spent a period of parallel institutions of madrasas and khiinaqiihs.ıba and silsila sufi ascriptions and the tariqa . 465/1072) who taught in b ~fi wrote books on ash'arite theology as well as taşa~j d. 505/11 ii). 1324. combinedi the lines of sufi aqmad devotionalexpression is al-ghaziili shown: at. it was the only tariqa in this tradition which gl any great following in the seljuqid empire. even thou~ of the leaders were not arabs. s an account of the dialogue between l1bıa in lıf)af as-sada c:ıurtaqa s ı?-troductıon to hıs ~w god and commen lv. ab~ h. . both stand squarely in the abu 'i-qiisim . . we find two main line suhrawardi and the rifıi'i. ıs tabaqat (iv. i j yoursel . the suhrai school was distinctively urban and orthodox shafi 'i. i. ~t iqa may be regarded as going back to di much g ed '.stressed strongly the' ancestry of al. cte~ to the sufi life. on the other th all] association with the official favour of nür ad-din. i d fi cl also ' ' ıro.jo. .~ .~' 33 the chief rariqa lines 'he chief t ariqa line s 33 the khorasanian traditionalist and historian of early s disciple al-qushairi (d. ' yii' ad-din hearts.ı-g- '~n only be uons conjectured. a.ımad ar-rifıi'i a~d his standing in direct succ to arab sufis.ıammadh ( 2 azıuı abu 'l-futül.rıam.. i:iamid al-ghazali (d.ımad ald. and even preach 9 the way of approach to god'. the ~ latter was in the throes of his spiritual cein ınta course of s under studied und h' of h' 'ad-din . 487/1094 ghaziili. who encouraged the deva i ı < . e o the mesopotamian tradition is the nearest that we ca an arab sufism and its objective expression. 477/1084 d. 9).'. iv. at first . ıbn mul.? l in for a tirne at the ni:?iimiyya. i.. tüsi the key figure in this tradition is al. 469/1076 tradition...mid to break the bonds with this world. ~°9 and brother th ernostıes ım 'xh:~~era as well as yüsuf an-nassiij' if until i g refining me f ca a out th " . 1356) has only a short account d. according to m. ı"". but he does not count i of the i i şu1. i i. caİro.': ho vouehsafed '-. deputizing .:. the rifıi 'i. 19.i a. id of his that ~aı:ıe later through e reaıity of under the eestatic states of the 'hı. abu 'i-hasan traİnİng under al-qushaİri.en whoııy devoting hi~self to . no khiinaqiih sufi but avagrant 'lring villages and the countryside.

.ln ın . lın idıınıascus and aleppo. as hthe . 1956). ed. baqli of shiraz (d. nvn~i. as-sam'ani. edited 1356)by were ahmed collected remzi akyürek. has alsqan writlen a studyfrom of ıbn 'abbad 'alis of 'and his larger cql1ection (beirut. . 373-4. by l:iamid istanbul.iawadith al-jtimi'a. h lu nd lu for ' .d. rüzbihan baqlı travel 3 asi for a time. 1332-90) have been 1). ii 93) 'ammar al-bidlisi (d.4).. 'suhraward'. 1219-36). whieh also became a pl refuge. d 4 see junaid shirazi.z he eut himself off from ordinary society in orde. ansab. the last two of whom were m of the great khwarizmian mystic.ri~a'iyya. i 166). tabaqtit. . but through hıs ded bath-house and aa garden bui1t him a ribiit. ii. c. yaqüt. \~it. tl give me an account of the strange sensations ukftn.hcü! school and hıs pupıls ıntrodueed his. the one he himself passed on. edited and translated with during those when they experienced n on his ıhought and wqtk by dr. shihab ad-din was deeper than that of j~:a~b b khafif. 111l1 i: . i. .4 lsma'il al-qaşri (d.ri i accounts of his life are found in ıbn khal1ikan. training under his direction according to sufi ~ custom. 1962). gızu fr~quently and sometimes resided near the house iv. 426/1034).lf made extended stays at khiinaqiihs in various i towns. najm ad-din kubra. such shadd . ai-i. fawti'id al-fu'adi the letters of there . 535-6. subki. to 'arif has almost every sufi ractices. 1928. qalandar. 383. the persian maktümt ': ' zi' khair al-ma amir hasan si j y ııh -dlt al-hamadani d .11111 r. ir. teaehing into . u 1 li y. among his diseiples were abu mul:ıammad rüz. a manual f~ aspirants. mu1:ıammad ma'şüm.7 the ayyübid al-malik al. but associated with the great.s of the qadırıyy. 'ons leader t to he was a ıntro t9. .m.a~ it in order to associate with shaikh al:ımad al-ghazali t .' h the futuwwa may have encourage th e kh p y h sm a (girding).'3 he bui: on a ruined site on the tigris.~.~' \ıya . 256.' 2 l:iammad ad-dabbas (d. they also sent to him illı seeking pf1nions'. but a later-stage kazerüniyya became .a and . head of the khtinaqtih in shiraz. associated with la. 243-7. ii "i (t. ~.old. s. g. the letters ( 111\1 :(j' have ~u . who received his early training in his unde's: he was no ascetic living withdrawn from the world. through !it~tual insigh_t ?f.were collected b not the >. he '142:ıj.blems. 9s. the ecstatic flt~ al/d writings of al-junaid (londqn.34 the chief tariqa lines reat teac ıng s aı . . pp. 35 i \ !b. in the arab world few cqllections were tliesı include theoccasions rasa'il qf al-junaid. w ose ocla abu 'n-najib as-suhrawardi (490/1097-563/1168)1 . he b ~wın family with initiatory filiation (nisbat al-khirqa). he (beiruı. . tt life of seclusion and retreat. came to whq lrbil as envoy the ~'nwyia 1958). murids eame to put themselv o him and the fame of his baraka spread widely. 2. baghdad.ot only through his pupıls. a. al-fa~<ı:. and the khwii. hım d h o z h was no theoretlcal exponent .. ~tl:ıma? ıbn ya1:ıya maniri(d. influenee up on his nephew shihab ad-din. performed the hıs son.d.:'fbe cbief tariqa lines . the (d. as is seen from this acc~unt by ıbn kh~l1ikan: . turkestan down to the mongollnvasion.v. 606/1209). 1937.' in government 1 of sıill exist only in manuscript.3 ~ initiations. ıber of those who had attended hıs courses and sojourned > . cqrrespqndence became a regular feature which over . g . pp. ~g ~ fro:İı all over the world came to him for . he associated him with his aristocratized futuwwa and sene as ambassador to 'ala' ad-din kaiqubad l. shadd. itiator training. 1381). but i had ~~c ~ore cqmmqn in india. mu'jam.rge . ali hassan abdel-kader. as a youth for baghdad where he followed the custo u~ of uşül and fiqh. 256-7. from' stems the kubrawiyya line of mystical ascription. shihab ad-din abu bafş 'umar (539( 632/1234). upon him the breath of felieity and guided him ala: o path.d. seljuq ruler of cr (a. ie. into which he was initiated by siraj ad-din ~a1:ımu ~c/ı ~ . but his true silsila. ii. the rüzbihanıyya as suhrawardiyya d r~rell1 was restricted tq fars.5 the man regarded as the founder of the way was 'n-najib's nephew. h. . 1200). and the chıshti.~ of many of ıhese mystics. caliph an-naşir li dini 'llah realized the importance of th fluence of sufi leaders and showed shihab addin great fa'. i\"ty sufi leaders in other lands used to write to him putting . e 'wtuc ıne extended . he le~to. been a.g(!. tholi passed periods in retreat. jawad.. was ıhe ~~z~n of abu is1:ıaq ıbrahim al-kazerüni (d.d held assemblies for spiritual counsel. as~subki. al:ıma~ . seeking advice in the form of fatwas.'adil. he was the author of adiib al-muridin.i of seeing him since i was too young. he taught for a while at the ni?ami. for f s fi work. ar-rasa'il aş wclslern mystic ıbn 'abbad of ronda (a. 525/1131) also gave him some sufi ıraıri a1:ımad al-ghazali was his ırue guide. iv. ~~. 1351/1932.

a. Şabians if s).~f . who pp. büstan. ın sueh distinctive characteristics as nür 7 tr. d i bn a as has been 'ri . 809. m.1 .1~8~. we have to distinguish between the khirqa of embraced teach~ng (t.3 manşür gave tn c~ir~ i a. 54°/1145). e shihab ad-din's piety and love for his fellow men.~ a 36 the chief tariqa line s ocus .d. al-qastallani attacked his fellow andalusıs? collect affiliations was invested with a ıbn sab these 'in.s. tiryaq. large nu~~ sufis daımıng to belong to the suhrawardi sımla. receivt\ khirqa from him. 338-9. f w er m g d t erı uished by peculiar praetıces erıvıng the f whole of d .. . 53.ı ad-dm abd ar-raqman al-wasiti (a. and his centre in t?e bata ı.79).d. a. 409-10. tin d h.d. but it is difficult to get confirmation of the t ~ of many.4 such as abü bakr m. shiraz (a.to 'ali sa 'id ~fontrast the careers of as-suhrawardi o hn t e rf ahma . u6. the great persian poet sa'di of 132 pp. sufism and the ways of dervishes. other tariqa. 'ooks of the o d . and incompanionship his büs! (şubba) which includes training. i. h. r.d.d~ 1160) to go on pilgrim ~arned in either fiqh or taşawwuf. p. najib ad-din buz~ (d. 6 -6 a' '. ijawadith. i. w mss~ later leaders c~ ın charge of dar al-i. subsequent manaqib-type works have . p. and he by his son. di. succeeded him as warden of ribat alma'müniyya : ~.iadith al-kiimiliyya in 667/1268. 1106-82) is no .vivi saysı that the suhrawardiyya had more branches (furü. continued by his more immecliate followers.:r«a ın hıs 27th year and established him in umm j just before his death he invested him a. writing abou. ed. ing aminara. sufis. anşur and other members of the . p.2 but ar-raııaq al-kashani (d. though his wide range of understm i~volved. p. ' daımed. ad-din 'abd aş-Ş 8 french edition.8 this shows what in little !le was expelled from mecca but welcomed cairomeaning by sametimes to be attaehed to these initiations. . all parts of the muslim world. 61. many.": battüta was another who loved ıto s g. ~rıt~al jurisdiction) and sajjadat al-irshiid. tor sufis in a way that abd al-qadır s rıbat ın bagh e chief l' ariqa lines 37 ~own ab out the life of ibn ar-rifa'i. ij~ ın . i i 'asit.. . was follower of the sufi type of k i path. ' ' . baıbars.' 1$ a distinctive way hıs imuch ~tıme. 'imad ad-din m~ r. founded a school of 'an zuwwar al-mazar. with the the biographies of m group ainly of ~ayi~:s~nı's account in lawaqi1. could 323. aristotelian gnostican' philosopher. ii.\ife of :\y (pp. .e?~nt~ .h con ' ıs or er eame ' 'abd ' an and al a family silsila h h if . among whom ~ mentioned the well-known shirazi shaikh. ~e. or r er m lawaqib.h. gra:r. _i" e as an a khirqa line untll later. i. tradition~( similarly.. suhrawardi ascription induded all types of 6 sa'di. from 'if al-karkhi(d. a family tii'ifa.ofarghani (d. lis born into arab from familyand spent the . and guidance refers to (tarbı~a).3 and his son and successor. 49. who qazwini and 'abbas iqbal. came under his influence hi 4 such references are incomplete unless one knows what when he was in baghdad. the t~gion was the nurture eentre for arab sufism. opera ii. tehran. om attributed to him are probably not genuine.l. shadd al-izar fi ibn al:ımad al-qası khall o/s (614/1218-686/1287).~~. see l.affilı~tıons are given in . a. his son. ıs " the marshlands of southem iraq between .stinct tii'ifas as compared with t~e. th q d d yy . ed. na eg rom ereas te ~ bata'ii:ı. 15°. ted .d. '-i to add ~~/. 813) whose parents were .:was 'ali abi 'i-fadl al-qari' al-wasiti. and120& ıahir ad-din. 73°/1329).if. 297. . his shaikh aş-şu~ba. cf. then enjoyin~ suhrawardi favouchın pij khirqa at isfahan in a. hardly be called sufis ar-ral:ıman. 3 see mu'in ad-din abu 'l-qasim junaid. 1355. from him only a f organized tii'ifas stemmed. 'abd ar-ral:ıman. f ııxı:eal ınto .an u rawardi school ıs dıs nd the ~~i. leaving it only once (a. 'abd ar-ral:ıman al-wasiti.. zahir ad-din! ıbn al-fuwati. and with anather at outch.1 but it only s~n .)a.şür al-bata'il:ıi (d. iii. dh 700/1300). who invested him with his . ~an. e 1~ ~ ı.ı (cairo. and sufficient ar-rifa'i (a. gibb. 678/12. 334-8.who . but he also rij4'i b t a~ ar-~ıfai i ıs tıryiiq [tmriahe] al-mubibbin fi s h i dar-rifa'iyya 7 812 th 'ıeligious community called from his 1275 appendix c. ' shihab ad-din maintained a careful orthodoxy and th. 114-16. he wrote nothing.. c.

derived frorn qutb ... 1 th ' . situated on the banks of the i through his brother's children until this day. extinguıs h ed ıt entıre y. 7<)-80. an was a yemenite tariqa founded by abu 'i-i:fasan Şafı ad-dm cl ~ı. »ı. ' 'ıııg properties. a. i \ ) ' 9(tıbet rümi in the dexcelled hims~1f abu occasıon jaliil. brought repast. ii. he also offered to teach for a consideration . 665/1266). a notable khiinaqiih was that i r 'rüsi qalandari. dance of . tıryaq. . 404. a focus of attraction for.ıiyya. cairo.. ıs ıs h f v>ctory ol y u eculiar characterıstıc o . his foııowers experience num~es. who took the tariqa from ~~a ı8' yillage caııed umm t one day's journey from wasit ' .ımad ar-rifa'i.-. marshiand retreat spread widely. . said drums and a/-maskyakha ıva '/-ıvilaya. when the afternoon prayers ha1. as well as to the "extravaganıı tices for which they were notorious. 43 } i pp. .' o pa and group . 273-4. b . . cl some of thenı h h ı~ 1 n ~ the flesh and its ternporary annı~ılatıon lı eeth until they bıte ıt c ean t i .un. . a 'on.riu nored 10'.ımad sitting on the prayer-carpet of (o~. most of them sına century family groups. .ı \ i 1 although a1.ad-din . ıbn khallikiin reports that the rıfa/ i and dates. extr un ~ congregate and are all entertained. ~r9san . d . cor . 39 ci-liefrifii rariqa . at a yillage cau d a large concourse of fuqarii' attached themselves to eh' tl . a persian qalandari who founded wed in 630/1232. this ~~ they prayed the sunset prayer and succeeded.ımad was no original thinker.~. r. ar-rifa'i died during which they eat living snakes and enter witho~: ' ovens bto~dıı the spiritual and temporal succession i was maintained in tb ~". 1299.un~ e to ı~ u ge ın 38 the chief t ariqa lines he was an arab and lived in the bata'il.compact of aııegiance foııowing him [as th g " azın h he d. ı:ni .ımad aş-Şayyad. 387-9. 4~-51' -::h 3 the first three are prepared loads of fire-wood which they kindled into a ahj1'1 flarne. was in fact to dance. na . . mul:ıammad ibn yünus ~ho hasan lıat_(~i. ". af ter by'. 603-77). went toal ser.laıdarı~ya spre~d ınto . h' kettle-drums were beaten and the he poor brethreri 2 ibn khallikan. j. i. and fuıı. the" fire-. when.' 'lıth'" 'i lınes exe''''''' "grofy the. i t ıs wh ıc h are t ereupon extınguıs saıd that in the' .t ıs y th dl ad bl :ı d""i. ii. 'attiif ibn 'alwiin (d. which is at a river ' . j)1 an ıt ıst . h. the ep wıll take a .' [the marshlands] they ri de on lions and perform dervish order (at-tii'ija min al-fuqara') deriving from similar ~~r ~ f~r tow festival (mawasim) at which uncountable rifa'iyyagatherings or bata'il. . 'ali al-i:lariri (d. .. absolute ' of mashhad. necks . ad-din ~çe l\eeing before the mongol invasion who settled in shıhiib damascus ıde cair~ lat awalıqı. ıtat. ) 1 lll. kha/lfa of ıbn ar-rifa'ii al-wiisiti.ı. cestor above-mentioned. the fame. ' djsciple of the qalandari. as shaikh of an establishment called diir -. .unu .8 ~ of jbn batma.h. at buşra. 1326. ıbn al-mu'a1\im 592119. capital of the ijawran. the writer a demonstration of snake.'.. so._269)' receıved hıs kkırqa from jamiil'z~rdi. iv. v.' jj u arak.~tant b ttüta rnentions the related ijaidari and ears. prayer.. shiidhihyya. o ıtıes ın ndıa during the tkirteentk century. tr.3 in the time battüta rifa'i ziiwiyas were deady differentiated. ""e of . 286--'7. ~ and al. . first night memorized the poems of the local poet. sufis. he r them frequently in his travels. a.h"h are . d d ijaririyya. ' .' rnale nıernbers so that thej are . snake lı roug di bret re' . gibb. 1ojp'" 's. 'deseription d . tırya1i ~ine of attribute-tö'ifas is given in appendix h. b: lsrii'~l (a. fish.e ıgıon and p r' .e damas.d. musical recita\. the religious n they began 400).. kk' -er . caıro. began to reeı! to dhikr. 3°1. 'ali ibn 'uthman. 'alied. . d b nt through f the ageney th into egypt prese 'iyya adh spread of 'thia' ' esi es uqara an akkıs the dıgnıtarıes of ' . consisting ofalso rice-bread.tbe qalandari trend. sasıat.ıth t eırsot\th 1 ce iron rıngs ın theır hands.. ~rırı zaıvıya amascus an '" maqrizi whence this branch was known as the i .. al. ..İl a' iran. th discussed subsequentlyi see pp. large >lnncıng. in fawiii al~~a iiajr:ı ~~-din m. -' . fı thenı rolled in the fire. with the to shaikh sang them they at their concerts in order excite themselves e~st~sy al.5 and india6 where ıt was hnked wıth and fınally . 2 h ınix. it is a vast convent in whieh tl} thousands of poor brethren .and scorpion ~ sın~p~~)ugg~ery. ~ie al-har-n. 632/1234) and into syria through abu çrç were ~ire.. the ra". 4 5. and others 1 '.' . and 'alwaniyya. 1327 for three days he writes: ' this gaye me the opportunity of visiting the grave of the sa: 'l-'abbas al. tr. 'i of 1u 5. 7 an french edn. when his caravan s' wasit in a. - l rifii:i gaye. gibb. iii.4 the 1. 95-6.ımad tried to get him to compose poetry.. 'iisi~i (d. four of whom founded independent tariqas: bad dasüqiyya. milk son. i eaten and prayed the (d.

whieh 748/1348).ıibbin. . and greeks. jy . once when the shaikh was ~l'-rabbtini f and that under w b (trthe dis th ıon o.. and it seems likely ~tion for soundness was used by others who .ıwdl the p~ . .ıammad abu 'ihudii a~. 62 "sermons deliyered in a.dl fifteenth cen alııbn yusuf ash-shattanawfi(d. 2ii.. about i{b. urıng hıs wanderıngs 4anced' (tr.3 there was awho ziiwiya whole popula!.1 falıbı al-ifaqq. ar. tiij ad-din it seems settle? ın. their extraordinary perforrnances.d. so theyassert that the shaikh took thirteen e collectıon of 78 of his discourses this pupil at a a collecf meeting. 167. 2 u ( 3 founded by 'izz ad-din a1:ımad aş-Şayyiid (i. 2-3) contains 'b statements that ıtuanes are groundless and false. ii.ımiin al-wiisiti a." h d ı a manifest ycmr delight i".(t syrian : ~e chief r ariqa line s 41 . branch (zawiya talibiyya) was founded by talib ar(dl~ tr. the genealogists ~ry~. ix.g~ 19~3) and a treatise on . . bahj~:.z where i:ianba1ism was strong.! fi c. gibb. turks. (1850--19°9). 72.were '~r such developments as paved the way for ordmary ~cipate in the insights and experiences of sufis. p. s book as a tissue of lies. . c~ isnıii'i! or he was a noted malamati who was ed t İmprison hat he kept away from damascus. he mentions the names of sup authori yaq. iv... aiw. rifa'iyya was the most widespread of ali tariqas. tirydq al-mul. 1879. hen ' ' e e b . 141. yet h e ımse hi d tec is not the slightest indication that tion1 there w b he was . ii. whose undoubted qualities are e o abd al 're nd received the khirqa of first investiture at . a. i that he was a kadhdhdb muttahim. anatoha among turks and ibn battüta iodged since ıbn battüta reports on his corning to umm 'abida to fre p. !tl a ı. of saindy of the h d f ll' was cer period. 436.ough. . great"grandson of al:ımad ar-rifii'i. khulaşat al-mafdkhir miraele a ' n (~.l 'of benefits. r island biography of 8 maldive the rnost elaborate of 'abd al-qiidir. shaikh riwiiq umm 'abida. h.a i ıs ıs ero. which mahau comp!ete 1 ash-shaikh 'ab: i ~ . 1928 edn. led . ' -'-' h tm. and has ı.. the shorter and stili later notıce ~ ba va century it began to ioose its popularity in favour of the q! . receıve th. "i ue way to become the inspırer o n:ı 'tions bestower unsermons.. p. lı .d. his . he shows that shattanawfi's book has varied origin . whereupon the lamps 'moved . ture. said. 1283/1866. gibb. ibn kh llikii al-qadır and the notice in his mir'dt al d a sufi subject to al. vısıted th legalistic '. but was released by aş-Şii1i1. a. ii. 449.~ that he struck any new note. gibb. al:ımad had h .5 gr: visited ~ came to baghdad in a. a. o bıtuanes' sh ~'-:' ~ks include aly-li' (d (rom he the ob' " ' i n aı<. jidir was born in jilan. erusalenı. . a.:~ıng that he was and a hands ( . 1282) did not consider him important "(. but ~ after his death (a. eı. s. : rlı<ıib }'.and f from h a evotıon d numbers have accorde ım ıons.ımadi he ealis rifa'is) acco~pa establishments. d. being told on the ıt inof his ons no'worth. on the pı the year 720/1321.iasani nasab a(j~r sa.entitled al-ghıın' a ı-ıp~ı. though never . wherein has produced milk the cud equally. r. asiat. par ty persians. . ho would never have ma e suc c aıms.d. was wntten o~er af dh-.(lı as a great butfigures hıs reputatıon reds preacher. cairo. 1306. (bulaq. . and m b . even though .i it~a. (as 273. 1228-37).h. edited and to expanded as on a tariqa. an indicted liar. on him and his successors see mul.' ' .ıafid a. feel no . tanwir al-abşdı.d. 445. v. another ' 4 mujir ad-din. in maehar. it is probably true to say that untii the ?is _~erson~lity and presents him as a great rniraclem~mger. uns.'1'.'\1 works ~re raune le' . cit. a.6 a group was even 7 parisfou edn. 479.nde' see below: j see j.. abiiki has an s rifa'i see travels. tr. "youtarıq are not moved and 1322/19°5. h sueceeded rif sı nce ıbnal-ghazali.. ibiiwi vısııe: '~ accornpanied by a group of dervishes intriguedin the ] Şayya~iyya. . ıs cntıcısms to a n ı" a ır imse1f. >ii !~he ı:d the and content of his tı d .nterested (d. but based ıbn an-najjiir. had seventy fuqarii'. branehes were the sa' diyya or ] ii.768/1367). so).a i. f: a l. 545-6.h.?'s that none of(d. b. tr. of jıianbali training. 6 tr.q v ondemnation o pe of orthodoxy. ii. acco~t other.ı ar-rifii'~ 40 the chief '!' ar/qa lines 1273. loc. 1876.ır s . for .taqi ad-din 'abd ar-ra1.jami. taqi ad-din al-wiisitithe says that he a1. p.qilj>s. also wf. 713/1314). hey.h. with 764) account ~. 2°3) of how tiij ad-din. fi tabaqdı as-sddat ar-rifd'iyya. i. sauvaire. ii 66). p. 1343). margoliouth. -one was moved. 310). 394. a rıght up to t ~a if h as . 488 and pursued a legalis one ad-din abü bakr ar-rifii'i.an and wh oıı. refusing to study at the ni?:amiyya brother f q -d' h.

p.4 and in some shaikhs ~t. hesitate no longer! mount the pulplt ı wasit~. q1idiri centres great-grandson. and p '(l) as margoliouth has pointed out. - 'l1ire called al-?hawthiyy~ ~r. . ht ıo have done . al-i. a.d. 80. iraq it remained a local baghdadi fii'ifa. ' . . but no such attributions to 'ab a ~t\lo his name because his fame as an intercessor was. before 3 aj-. 528-603] al.dicates that it spread at all widely or rapidly ~pointment of one of them as shaikh of a newly-built . ii.nspıre .. :". m. 54. 496-7). salsabil. abu najib asrardy than al-hamadiini. 1351. pp. for in suhra:ıfigui and other abu yüsuf taqiİnstance. iii.h. with any contact. af ter th~s ~tiı. and pupils was specially built for him (a.440) ofjuqara tracıng tlıemse~v i.' ~~terestıng h' . mongol "jej1tury.3 does not -j~ r bb f l . baghdad. with any of the great sufis of the the p: of let time. baraha and expanded through highland and lowland thi one story of his appealing to y~suf al-hamadani (visite~ two of his children who did not pursue a secular eareer baghdad ~:i ttt were 'a razzaq [a. certain people were given his khirqa. . s y f . and thıs and very 'abd account hısa. mir'iit al-jiniin. 'abd was renowned during lifetime his i ıbnal-qadir aj-athir. .2 from that date his reputation grew. b.:ı went to baghdad 727/1326 he began makes no to initiate . x. 52' there İs no evİdence that he ever daİmed to have a path or' anyone or İnitiated anybody. but a:ra~ preacher. alı al en muhaınınad al-bata'i1)i in syria. but there İs no İndİcation that he remı: b traİning until he attended the school of abu '1~~v~d ad-d abbas (d..ı_c world. ~3-~. af ter his death. troubjed by inner voices or that movement they were assisted by certain and e~l~he sympathetic associates of their father.h. awra . sh'~\'''wfi' ahd . not lik : a madrasa with an attached rimf as a residence for hi: large family. ad-din althe in saı. ı.ıat at. however. pp..qadir" bim ilaihi) to abmad ar-rifa'i.h.ila trııditian music and the rhythmic dance were not tı balıja.h. 1 f ii . temp and modesty. parts of the 1. to he in"oduced.4 the order wasitiattributions wrote.master ter but diri would attrıbute to ıs it .h" . ao. 525/1131). then e~j it grew throtİ da~. we read ın ıbn khallıkan (11.riou. alone training. lack 602]. (oı. for 3.' es . only İn 521/1127 when he was ove fi old did he suddenly come into prominence as a popu~ teaching and other ınaterıal . support ' ' attributed to him produced few famous . 1353. 242. gh '. h sermop.r. 10910. t~ g>i ıef r ariq a l ınes .ı . al-yafi'i.ırıu 4 po .ndthe o~erftow~1ı' 42 the chief tariqa lines of the i:ianbali faqih.y'''''' lot .et:ice was formed. 101. this is unlikely since' abd İn baghdad.h.1 to the disgust of dabbas' alr who resented the İntrusİon of this i:ianbali. p~. fawiit his al-wafiiyiit. such ~s timt ın 2..fuwati..i-ood'" ~npd' ıan~ht. thıngs hke t~e ter qa d 3 ıne o u' . consulted yüsuf aj-hamadani.al-mı. 1ıı.lone path. therules. the muslim introduced . o owers he hıs ater bl id not possı y teachıng he cou lar gel found . ıbn al-athir. tiryiiq. h . not as a sufi. . n.ıyya. he dressed like an 'iilim.courses of religious but he 2 it is noteworthy that his biographers give no indication that never at any time prop he ei khirqat at-taiawwuf.\. existed in iraq andad-din.5 . in the of time a body of conquest !!\ş rame the tomb had acquired and when that teach assiduous tomb xokrences to the family in the chronides of baghdad.if.shows 'aziz [d. r:aferences to course its influence elsewhere. tityiiq. shakir. ijıg of jadhb. al-khaçlir'. xi. y . 1304.a anıyya. these two 9 set to work to propagate their of d 'g b father's way in all sineerity. instruetion. 1"~ mention of it. qiidİri lines. 'the qutb ~yo' yüsuf tojd him: 'since you possess the jight of fiqh and the 9u. abu sa' d 'ali al-mukharri .iawddith al-jiimi'a.. cairo edn. _ ~x d borrowed. now preach to the peopje. 'c his sons propagated his way throughout ~.) in v. .. .3 go out and preach.\6 beıng .ra. and in the story goes that 'abd aj-qadir. y 1 a state . have spent some twenty-five years as a wandering asc:r deserts of iraq. caıro. al. 5. syria in 'abd al-qiidir's shams a.uyu<.. a. and mu1)am as~sam~d in egypt. no sufis ascrİbed themselves: because İt was suspect 'abd ai-qiidİr's silsila but to such men as al:ımad ai-ghaziili.

tumar töp-khaneh. who claimed descent from '. fashion into istanbul through the energetic a number of eminent sufis were egyptians. he was cal~ d aı ~1 through having arrived in egypt wearing .of the eastern a b ranı (op.abd u.h. the author of a'i . ı.mad '6/u99) was an egyptıan by adoptlon.mad to take his place. al:ı. in ind' .but cam~ from the soil of the nile es ~s gıven in appendix e._ htheh. the greatest arab sufi poet. the order was only introduced in during tlı period to the doctrines and method of any matiye de taşawwuf. he was associated. ':e hijaz. i life of fazlahin. h kh. and he is said to have founded tabd same 4° ( tekkes in the region. .2 o tanta. a.~ith najrn ad-d. 16) says he wore branch . how ~. who 'n-nün (d. he is shown to have been ini~iated into di.d. 5 rita 'i. won great renown. but it is unlikely .ra s) from childhood. 1600. . of syrian parentage but bom and that he was the first to introduce it (the first live~ i~ e master. such ich teaching spread. 'two egyptian tariq. 620 rifati represen ıt. ash tiryaq. and even then it remained localized. ~rab family which had emigrated to fez and then.madiyya but better }. \. al-wasiti.d. d ye thoug . 1355.j .banks. di spread far beyand theirofconfines. ~or it spread into hijaz. a aqat al k b age ınto . ' onal institutlons and had httle effect h and proıes .nısıa.u ra. ın which mal:ınıud al-işfahani? al-wasiti. the maghrib constitute a special zone.3 not conpt. the badawiyya to avoid confusian with other orders name. 1517). he is called pir thiini (second ibn al master). khalifa of al:ı. i. whose father came fro founded a khang' nubian stretch. h : ~.' the electei home ash-shadhili.1isıder~b.h: 1355. a.gjp .froın ı: eventuaııy one 1h s. does not include the tariqa n-ı '" orders represented in india. h few cities schools ofof mystical insight s had 't the abounde wıt a'}aqaw ıc . the sufis of the region contributed httle of that region..d. he died in 675/1276 and his :a was to become the most famous sanctuary and place $gypt. and badawi chains. i.44 the chief t ariqa lines in egypt it has never been a popular order. turkey.t . at. mainly in the distinct \. which i (d.3 chief >ı. 't~e ~uffied'.bu 'l-fatl:ı. and then received i: gives an account f h' r ' tat al-kubra c' o ıs ıfe and dicıa transmitted by his brother his nisba of' ı-~ır~. at initiative of least by rümition: (d. ciiief rariqa llnes 45 become an estabiished order until the arrival of ~ i ghawth (d. to become sı his khana~ahs.hiiji berber~ a:h-s~~~t~t~am. both east and wes~. 860). 143-58. syria. 158-63. a.le notice on him4 consists mainly of quota i jawahır. . gave rise to a number of branches. of iraq~ on the death ın .n abi 'l-majd ad-dasüqi (c~ 644/1246687/1288) was sufi . of cours and al-büşiri (d. next phase was represented among thea multitudes inascription the maghrib they underwent unique of dei development.: f~unders w~o~e orders jınad al-badawi and ib~ahım ad-das~qı. 160. important because of hıs ınf!. around a.dhü 1041/1631 or 1053/1643). 1296). since minor there is no evidence that the qadiri as a orders founded in these regions.'tl of ash-shiidhili and from a.d. a book of instructions to murids 'and httle ut his life. and received divine found his own way.d. cıt. a.. 1234). 155° it was ~~( from hijaz into the funj state of the two niles by 1'/ al-bahari al-baghdadi. or atthe least carving out their niches holiness within outside 1 reiigious eciej further.d. a.' he was orig~~aııy a rifati and receiv~d the centre in the bata ıl:ı. egypt and the during maghrib the turkish expansion egypt andj. i. known as the al:ı. the 'iraqi brethren sent al:ı._. tripoh u. for he ' .a baraka-inheriting familyand deriving his ilo~er vıllage with . being b . a:h.al-qadir).2 2.mad ar-rifati.a writing ab out a. his order. .

1494 i i zarrüqiyy a karziiziyy a rashidiyya ete. 'uqba al-l. luxor.iaı. d.iaj. 'abd ar-razziiq kbaiaf ai-kümi ai.lrami (egypt) i r i .yyiddin ıbn ai.j azüli d. 1182 rilii'iyya yüsuf b. 'arriiq 'ali b. muj). d. 1526 ai-kizwiini d. 1276 d. aiexandria.'arabi ii abu müsii as-sadrati i ~ abu 'il.j pm"' ıbrahim ad-dasüqi i a/pnad b. 797/1394 shams ad-din muj). 1244 shammiis an-nübi i\ d. al-'arüa aqmad azi zarrüq i d. ai-hanşali ai-haznüri 'abd al. lebanon.unad b. al. 1288 ibn 'aiwiin branehes yiiqüt ai.ianaftyya (egypt) i i i 13°7 abu sa 'id 'abd ar-ral)miin yal:ıyii b.ci b. 'alwiinlyya (yemen)707/1307 shihab ad-din aimablaq niişir ad-din aimablaq d. 1i97 madyaniyya ı\1)n1ad ibn ar-rİfii'i. ai-l.'arshi dasüqiyya-burhiimiyya d.liil}iyya hanşaliyya iii i ya!:ıya al-qiidiri (qarafi?) aqmad b. aiexandria muj). 'atiyya d. 1548 (syria) al)mad badawiyya d. 847/1443 l. 1i80 d. 1266 d. c.ıi iiiiiiiii sa 'id ibn yüsuf i i d.'aziz i d. 1702 hazmiriyya l. 1273 'abd ai-wahhiib ai-hindi i i . isli tünisi i iii i 'aiawiin 'ali mm b.ianafi d. tanta.iajjiij yüsuf aiuqşuri d. ~ i darqawiyya .abu madyan. 1530 khawii1iriyya d.ammad at'ali ibn maimün tabmsi (dabbiisi) atd.ammad aii. 124° ai:ımad ai-badawi al)mad aş-Şayyiid d.

613/1216). 'abd .iajjaj i"fame n yusuf.[cs on ıh~ ena. 1~30). 'com . he was summoned to the ' .4 in ierusalem 133.?!'ptand heand djısu there.' " 9 (lawaql.2 these ıncluded abu 1-l. the m.a~-badısi. shadharat.imad.. western s am.. notice on him in lawaqil. n them. and e.}fa.ıat al-qudsiyya was "i 'l-ijasan 'ali ash-shadhili whose wa fi sharl.where his situateq near bab as~ ijaram ashmadyan ined sha' ?s~ıan ongın. . damascus 638/124°). ""that abu madyan himself . ~°7). -'i h ties of fraternity aı:d extrasensory an . other western sufis who found (dial spiritual home in the east were the andalusians :1>i" (d. .e m?ve an account of. an-nafal. the latter's most have . !it. another irnmigrant berber eminent i$htariyya' see . 'abd ar-razzaq al-iazüli.' a grandson of abu 4ian ofthere ch <ı. pupii.'.an's 'v!ay was perpetuated through his ~ vi~ited {i:n~ohas a.vhere he is buried.h ne u e t e son thril:ıla. se poems d m d _. who went zawiya aseribed to dhü 'n-nün at akhmim and then >. caiied y 668/1269 the 'b rta). was to eeome the most in north i 59important 928 wrote . and other whieh still survives. 'h .. mecea ı. d appeare ın a yanı cırcles.sharif sharnmiis an-nübi.!asan n 'qat al. . d d .laqah burhan ad-din. 218. 'ali . . yy d ~nth century ' d whenl:d~as :' caiiıng themselves dasuqıs. cıt. a. sent many ii. ırınta.targhi (d qb (i.y. cairo edn. "' i~ :111 iii ii i 111'11 iii i. 'atiyy (d." 1 b. viii. iili i~ ıili i~i . i on hıs return he settled at f 'd i ) "cl betwee .~ ..grandsons to . 27) afriea l o e gypt. .b 1 popular madyan iii!1ıa{iras from whom to he this day..t from him ~..1. ı. himself and died on hief tarjqa lines 47 d d t~e the. a madyani by mystical ascription. 153-7). #e1'0 . 592/ii96). 1'h' to found an independent "he c cl ht e envyd reputatıon stırre "'''..i~ 1% 'ııı ii iili lll iii iii./hslıamt poems which have continued to be i i ıs_~entıoned. maqfad (pp. '. ctive sons madyani deriveswen. who founded a ziiwiya at luxor in the 'emple of amun where he died (642/1244) and whose jbecame the most famous in upper egypt.ş i see.46 the chief t ariqa lines " permission lariqa. hıs teac contact al hade 'ulama'. it was also known as th ere from his .g. ' iııge of 'dbbiid (presumab y a centre o the fİlsh to gl evotees f s sfi i i f the twelfth-eentury u o. master of abu 'i-i.ı it-qÜsi (d . these . at ena. like the badawİ ~ .ı (i. ibn sab'in (d.3 another \iajjaj's master. İng and . num er o 'hjg spiritual and way ..'. ~ )i !ii~ 1 1 ~ % 1 111 iii 11 i' 1 '11 ~ % ii~ . : mashısh 625/1228). toms obieer. a ziiwiya '~. 19.:a.'. who c.~. e sıte of hi t is.lbra1:ıimiyya until a.rnd the latter's diseiple the poet shushtari (d. b a b f 'iıv ıv1adyani tii'ifas came ınto eıng. ai 136-7).ıajjiij al-u ur-s om op.ı.

1 in 927/ 60. 15. 81--'92 (the ascription' is on ı mubiirak. (d.11"$ al-jal:?n. 19- ii ıili ".~.. . ilm i ii ~i egypt. )-::wafii' caıie~' k~. . abu zakariyya al-l.4 . " ıbn a~mad wafa' (7°1/1301-760/1359).'(417/1026-501/1107). yd-din bsibn into any specıa ru e or ntua. he is to be s d b sauvaire. hıs ii~ ''ii ndence af ter he had been forced to leave the country. he was driven to take refı th each wafii' other. whence deri~ b..ı. abu 'i-wafa'. beirut.11:1 correspondence shows not only that sbadhili i see al. compıled about 720/1320' and 'abd an-nür 'tir (cd t " u.. ~ leader of personal dedicatioı as pilgrimages. partlcu ınel1t al1 1 . ii. prınted on margin of ash-sha 'rani latii'ı .tr.ı. ın . founded by shaikh. ' dh 1m ll d tor.as m.mıııan. 633/1236). iv. İs 'abdaıiii: ıc ıs one of the silsilas to which ibn ar-rifa'i was o famous in ~~nv~rte_~.did 1ut :ta' 'ata' allah 'abbas caıro d ~". he left morocco go west in 593/1196. 'abbad. ed th nte pup usıan 1 f h of both b '\\.-:j. he ı-din menf u i n bakhili and he from ıbn 'ata' ahah. 147. nicknamedcom taj al-' . 1 . w ere e was rawn to t e rıia i school a?u 'l-fat\ı al. anda ar. 1 : ) aı-mursi (616/1219-686 1287 . born in the village of ghunı. see bie of spirimai genealogies. . bal.iasan. pupils carried on ıf ash-shadhili in scattered zawiyas having little con aliye by ''''oup of pupils with whom abu 'i-basan had kept up son alı.~ a :iiwiya in jerusalem in his time (he died cairo if al-minan shams . . alu cl knew how was 'v ı ef 49 . ursı an ıs i b h. . able to others. regar. tor his a~zab sa so ?~ıı. a pupil of abu mad nisba. 42. pp. id.aş-Şafa) ı:n~.h. received his first khirqa to from into retei a cave near a yillage of ifriqiya called abu ~~~~n f shiidhila. came directly from al-mursi. not onlyamong the pop but surprisingly enough even with 'ulama'. he returned and eventually found in 'abd asarabia.~ al mashish of fez who 'prepared him for the walaya'.alıyya. t one egyptian line. so did the persecution become that.lanafiyya. that he ahah was al-iskandari.wiisiti as his shaik~ (a.c~n:ury). this abu 'i-wafa' : it of this had a decf " cairo. or 'vagabond ex .jl 709/1309). 618).i ıs asd as' .~ia. formed no intellectual system.kıtiib durrat al-asriir wa distinguished f i h selections ibn . roaıntaıne . 1958.iafşi. 1939 edn. h . nwyia: / egyptian hu. '.5 . thereby incurring the hostility of the tunisian 'ulama'. in spite of the support u '~iı ı d d h .iarazim (d.rjlspondence' m ı~h " i ". 124. ıo. ~ waliiya used in this way has the sense of 'spiritual office or 3 see ıbn battüta. b. '.r. sae sha'riini.ı. asan ash-shiidhili. 163-5. hence the double name given to f'ffgsent century. where he won great renown.ıız. u-. and for the qutb see below. on the founder muhammad al-hanafi . the former highway robber ~ j p. p. . to extract from his )f an shadhili tariqa at a ıs ~e to a ..2 d d ah .2 . la from da'"d .am~a i n aş.' ewel he beca~ea~~ wıth the search for the qutb (pıvot) of the universel.abbagh.' not d by . was as .ammad 'be wafa'iyya spread into syria6 and survived 'abdahah in egypt b<wafii'iyya h. ) aaccount of the life and sayings 'i d a ribiit with a mosque was uı t or ım. an ' abu 'i-basan . 11.g him in s}( saı~ this abu 'l-l. i ascetic' i ii personal ~ haikh sa' ilj. e ata ıl.. an i-i y lat 6 h h the advice of 'abd as-saliim.. p.nbuki (tcnthırqa lıne founded by abu mul. he made a pr~ of going on i.mad b. khitat jadida. hıs ed his circle 111 alexan na. ibn 'abbdd de randa. at-tabaqat al-kubra.ıbo )oın . . ?y tiij ad-din aqmad ibn 'ata' arifin.ıajj every year and he died at i:iumaithrii on tht sea coast whilst on the way back from one of them in 656/1 we have said that it is usually impossible to pierce throug mists of pious legend to the real men beneath. which also include whose son -'wrote u:ıı~). composed ab out 745/ tariqa lines 'fhe cn . e bis ma .11\\ ii iiı ~\\\ iı ii i i i i ii' i\\~i il . la. . 99-102.anaqıb ab. 1284. m.~e sha ranı.a. the i.ı. o ne ıscıp e ın his disciples. but he ha q correspondence is inaccessible to me but here is a testımony value from p. l. 'l-fat\ı told him the to return to the west where he 48 chief 'fariqa lines would ~n~ from morocco to egypt and alsa to gain a foliowin . al-mafiikhir al. jurisdict ledge of the sufi teaching of the eastem doctors.ı~abbas3 and collected their awrad. sufism whose ' ıt was not so much that his he preached them a sımp e of b his not weaken concern to for the welfare hislt: followers. i. '..d. b addition they enable us to discern he had b how he and other tariqa lt i the quaiities of a spiritual master as is revealed ualil' were able to become the inspirers of enduring he certainly sy~tems. .n deriyatiye was the wafa'iyya. . periodicaliy he went out on preaching and teaching t.-. 1>.t!ıc8c short lives of their master. a few lettı abu 'i-hasan have survived which show him as a very lı sultan. in ifriqiya his name was kept-' aı:nmad (i kn . :1'357-807/14°4) is one of the great names in ı:ü with the kh' . at-tabaqiit al-kubrii.

\11 ıw ıı 'ii . a!::ımad ibn ıbriihim al-miigiri.ıtıon t e i imsamyya. pp.s are ~o:ı~~ in ~oilections like sha 'riini.ı. abu '1-i. a amatı.)1ed berber groups included: the shu' :uian world sufis blended the two traditions aibiyyun. ıtıon m 1 hth .coıınt his kariimiit or manifestations of god's favour.~.enth century his order was in a state of confusioıı ındant. and indi an spheres . w paralleled the fo . pp. lines not ~enty ale~a~dna on ın hıs d th-century g years in 1 al -w revıva. ~ wı be found in g. was there among the disciples of abu 'l-wa~~' ~n~rnrepıied away by the flashings'of ecstasy as 'abd al-qiidir al-jılı?.d. p. ' an. 'crown of the gnostics'. 'm. af ter his capture clear the of and no popular form of .111' ~he hoiy places.. was just tolerated. upon the master. devotıons was encoura tilimsan i i that th faqr (poverty) b hmeant no life d of mendicity or 1337.f aghmatiyya) or hazmiriyya.d. that associated an ı aıı6s) m 1 one and lo~ a. m .. it g w<ıı and be their zti ısa marinid.~nd. d abu yazid " sı. e i entions2 sıx ta ıjas ın western orocco.vıhiij al-wiirji~ in order to preserve the ~\\~ !it \\\1. wntıng ' -' becoming l t h d fif ıe teen . and had 'ıare froın the enmity of the fuqahii' . c~ with it provided the from rioıınd a ribiit at aşfı. ~. in t cl tion of madrasas with patronage sufi:g leaders o (references to investment with theof khirqa now ed.' ' . . q196. a 'ad anıan.ı. 42). where classıcal su. and ancillary buildings. as ali nilotic sudan. h uns 't32~. g d iiy concerne wıt t e i e and prıncıpa 51 iii faqir. but was not initiated by him (tiryiiq. see also p. rather the term refers to th establishment ar" c~. patran saint of . '.iafşids of ifriqiya through the circulation of ibn 'atil' allilh's w k (a.1 . s.. thus fiqh and taşawwuf b~ mutually tolerated companions. . return-to 5"rea ınmadyani tra . and of the masters of abu t e onda b' . it is clear that abasic. ~o~ ~as ii' ibn as one of abu 'l-wafii's starpupils: 'someone said to shaık a~ 50 ci "o my lord. p. aroc. asıtı.1' .iiij::ıi. colin's translatıon of 1 ' n with mesopotamian). he chiefslowly rariqa only westwards. with ': relationship in arab near east in: general.g from abu muj::ıamm~d ?iilij::ı ibn (yanşiiran) " ~ "ii i~ affected every family in the maghrib. shu'aib b. mavement o. t e cu but tıvatıon ıt remaıned o t e ıntenor an ındıvıdualistic he. 207-8. he wrote a talqin al-wird ıı. 92-3. or e.iafşids stro notin used." . ıbn qunfudh in nuclei his al.atabu which cameayyub to be linked with the name . ~~'e~~~~~" abdal-qadır al-jılanı ıs saıd 'to have frequented hıs majlıs an he rog his baraka'. t oug t ıs term was . turkish. ıs ıs roug t out ın or er to poınt the contrast \ " fifteenth-century shiidhili mavement to which the diffu~ abu '1-i.~1 . . became a subject for regular teaching comp with the acquisition of legal sciences. art. wrote a life . 55o/1155-631/1234). . . wyıa. . sa'id. xxvi (1926). 49.which t'1385 of. 1195-'147°) and early l. ~ dıscıple of a?u madyan. as . the marinids and i. !' ttryıiq. faure. isi.iasan. this contrasts. of interior nı.. law~~ii. . shildhilis trad' . the madrasa.d. a. ~ baths. from abu zaid . being known 'ı: '' 'l(e. a devational movement '. continuative madyani tradltıo~ maintained in the maghrib quite distinct from the sh~ which was then more egyptian than maghribi.eırut. .~ lls the . like .3 at the end of the . tiryıiq. the . i the period of the early marinids of morocco (full 50 the chief t ariqa lines cl)) span. i ~ater accou_nt.oveınen . ı: g whic~r hsa~hj h i f h i juqs theplacin east. sufism in the maghrib.. ıntensıfied the f l h . rchıv ya'azza. sponsored the development of a large withdrawal from normallife.ı we fii' se. from " pp. .-'. xxx-xxxi. 'hazmiriyyun'. 1958. 1\\1 li' illi name of the i the charge of bid' a cast upon it by the miiliki bigots. e he.iasan's silsila is largely due. al of lı i to these o~ps gr . tomb of abu madyan by building a mosque. m th 111l .!!socıate be t .1 gham . h h sufism. abu zakariya yaj::ıyii al-i. 1228~ was important the flowering western hili -way began for ~o spre~d in of th~ lv!a?hrib. on him see especiaily al-wiisiti.'.

1965. 5 ff.med l'a col1nu. a. he comes fully within our definition of a sufi. a. p.hamadani (441/1049-535/1140). younger brother of the better-known abu i:iamid. espedal1y devoting himself to 'ilm an-naşar (rationalism). 1049-1140) is espedally assodated. these were to come into the open and consolidate themselves in neworders (dhahabiyya. 1084).2 with this movement abu ya'qüb yüsuf al hamadani al-büzanjirdi (a.aq ash-shirazi (d. il en 19°5-7. i al-bistami(mahimati: khurasanian). and bektashiyya). two of the latter's pupils. i. r. mortels. and consequently it was here that such tendendes are reflected in later orders. 65-6) a number of traits which kharaqiini and bistami savant despp.iafş al-i.d. a..d.01-55. where he studied shiifi 'i jurist. and was put in i cı. a. serves at least to introduce the names of famous sufis whose leadership and ideas were deeply to influence subsequent orders.iaddad 2. cela aurait mieux valu. which shows some aspects of the merging of the two traditions. ii. l'etandard. tirydq. and abu 'uthman al-ha iri (d. sought to follow the way to god by direct divine guidance. l'imam (d. or as with the Şafawiyya. d'un introducteur [des profanes aupres de la divil1ite). comme 52. dans l'univers. il est devenu le guide de l'univers et le 2.mad al-ghazali (d. the accompanying tree of spidtual genealogies. and heterodox doctrines and practiccs. other early khurasanian shaikhs with strong din rümi as commenting: malamati tendencies included yüsuf ibn al-i. the twe1fth century was a period of transition in these regions towards a distinctively persian sufism. divergent tendencies. ed.the chief r ariqa lines 53 ınystique comme al. nicholson. 2. see fiqh under the famous . without the supervision of any murslıid. les saints des derviches tourneurs. nürbakhshiyya. abu isl). 1918. mol)ammed ghazali a nettoye la mer de la 2 on al-kharaqani see e.ımed ghazali. abaki reports jalal adi see al-wasiti. iii. tadhkirat al-awliyd'. beirut. apart from the fact that they came from the same district. 520/1126). on their own. science dans le monde des anges. a l'amour d'un ma1tre.00. the name of abu i:iamid al-ghazali has been inserted in the tree to show why he counts so little in the teaching as well as the ascriptions of the orders. and imamitwelver (and to a lesser degree isma'ili) ideas survived under the cloak of sufism. 3°1/913). he left his native lür-kurd village in hamadan province for baghdad.2 and abu 'ali al-farmadhi (d. actually change from a sunni to a shi'i order. berthel's article in islamica. they were both illiterates who.d. for which the way had been prepared by sufi poets like abu sa'id ibn abi 'lkhair (a. who regarded himself as the spiritual heir of al-bistami. important in that from them the chief lines of mystical ascription are derived. the chief r ariqa lines al).iusain ar-razi (d.d. de beaurecueil has pointed out (khawdd. 47. many sufis were strongly drawn towards 'ali as the source of esoteric teaching. but. et il aurait coi1i1u le mystere de la proximite mahometane. 1083)' he did brilliantly. 1034 at the age of 80).d. 2.ja 'abdulldh anşdri. s'il avait eu un atome d'amour had in common. he is not regarded as being a practising sufi by the ecstatics and gnostics. though his mysticism of intellectual insight and understanding is acknowledged. whose head in the early sixteenth century became the master of iran. later. a leve farid ad-din 'anar. 967-1049). and yüsuf al. are al).ı iranian sufis tended to express greater individualism. d'ul1 directeur spirituel. car il n'y a rien de pareil.65/879).98/911). huart. ni'matullahiyya. two significant figures in central asian sufi history were abu '1-i:iasan 'ali alkharaqani (d. abu i.

8-9. and became lly influential at the far extremes. arslan baba. . he :l his po si tion to return to turkestan to become the head mp of turkish-ascribed shaikhs (sar-i silsila-i mashii'ikh-i a long line of turkish mystics derive from his inspiration with the migration of biibiis. ascriptions and tendencies spread with their dispersion. 584/1188). alfmad began his training under a 1 shaikh. to join yüsuf alani' s circle. and the 1 mul:ıammad i. the main tariqas emerging from the central asian tradition which survived in some form were the kubriiwiyya. chishtiyya. including majd ad-din al-baghdadiz i on najm ad-din kubra see f. mawlawiyya.5-618/1221)1 stem many chains of mystical ascription or deriyatiye orders. the khalwatiyya derived from this central asian turkish tradition. disciple of abü najib as-suhrawardi.ı al-jamdl wa fawdtil. spread among the turks of i. mostly now defunct but important for the historical range of the orders and for their sanads of dhikr practices.h. but from two of his khalifas ticular spring two major lines of ascription. ii 57). the second 'abdallah barqi. whilst that from the founder to the ancestor tends to become stable. 1200). İs the turkish term for a missionary or popular preacher.iajji bektash. i he returned to hamadan. naqshabandiyya. iii. 589/1193). many famous ıscribed themselves to him. 47) that the derivation of the khirqa of sayyid i-khurasani. although born in khiva (khwarizm) najm addin followed a course of ascetic discipline in egypt under the persian shaikh-sii'ilj. and bektashiyya.iusain al-wa'İ~. yasaviyya. in anatolia and india.iasan al-andaqi (d. but formed their own ways from their various sources of enlightenment.d. a. who in turn is quoting abu sa 'd as-sam'ani (d.ıaydt. one persian. which thrived in certain khallikan (wafaydt. 1957) which contains a valuable study of his life and thought.the chief t ariqa lines : of a class of students. 1299. paths of these great central asian sufis. meier's edition of his fawd'il. ess accelerated by the mongol conquests. m him derives i:hijji bektashz as a kin d of mythical symbol :lreds of migrating turkish biibiis. but hisreal trainingtook place under isma'il al-qaşri(d.d. he settled eventually in his natiye khwarizm and built a khiinaqiih in which he trained a number of remarkable men. from al). whilst the order itself comes more appropriately into the next stage of development. c. but its treatment has been reserved for the next chapter. 2 the nisba probably relates to baghdiidak in khwiirizm. hismerv. ata is an >mmon designation and title for a holy man. 562/ıı66). cairo. with the exception of l. 1 from 'abd al-khaliq alghujdawani. rüzbihan al-wazzan al mişri (d. from. these chains of authority are of ten very complicated. belonged to the iranian tradition.4 later. then suddenly 'he abandoned all the tical speculation to which he had been devoted and took f off into retreatto prepare to dedicate himself to the things really mattered-the personal life of devotion in god's :. the difference af ter their establishment is that they become true silsila-tariqas. the yasavi tradition was strongly 1 from the beginning. that is to say. rashal. it İs highly unlikely ıad succeeded to the leadership ol the bukharan circle as yasavi asserts. 426) quoting ibn an-najjar ~45). sufis still wandered about seeking masters. p. al. whom he received his first khirqa. the other turkish. (a) kubriiwiyya from najm ad-din kubra (54°/114. pp.ı al-jaldl (wiesbaden. the chief tariqa lines 55 drcles in anatolia. the lines of each individual khalifa back to the founder varied. 1 from alfmad alyasavi. nazil bildd ar-rüm. to calling people to god. also took hold of the expanding turks. but it was not until his search led him to baba faraj of tabriz that he adopted the full sufi life. . this is particularly the case with the order-founders. the line traced back through certain figures is consciously maintained. bn i. and to guiding his contem~s along the right path'. a. and were jortant factor in facilitating their adjustment to islam. at that time stili largely iranian. af ter whose death he went to a.yasavi stands as the prototype of all the turkish sufis. we will give a short account of the founder and the development of the tradition. then to dividing his time between there and herat. another teacher was 'ammar ibn yasir al-bidlisi (d.mad al-yasavi was accepted 1320. many did not'transmit any one tradition. becoming his khalifa number four. whereas the mawlawiyya. who gaye him the khirqa of tabarruk. irst khalifa was 'abd al-khaliq.uit 'ain al-l. tasiti shows (tirydq. whose re1ationship to the order attributed to him is tenuous. a. af ter taking root iranians. having inserted a genealogical table it may be well to remark that the lines of ascription up to this age do not imply the descent of one rule.3 whose name served as nym of a famous tariqa.

amma d b.anunad d. c.yii al-maniri . 736/1336 i .mad algurpiini d. 1225 ra4i ad-din 'ali-i liilii d. Şiddiq alkhiyüshiibi .ıriibiid ta 'ifa i i rukn ad-din 'ala:' ad-dawla assiınniini d. lndia) i i majd ad-din albaghdadi d.bakhsh nürbakhshiyya . firdawsiyya (in biliar. al. d. i256 ı sa 'd addin ali. ya'qüb ibn al-h. 1322 661/1263 bal. 912/1506 lahjaniyya \ \ .iamüya d.r.869/1465 \ din m.najm ad-din kubrii d. 618jl221 kubrawiyya saif ad-din sa 'id albakharzi d. d. abdallah al-barzisha:badi al-mashhadi r mu\)ammad ibn . 669/1270 i nür ad-din 'a.iusain al-khwiirizmi .asan al-kashmiri ya'qübiyya (in india) shams addin al-lahiji d. ıbrahi anm nasafi d. 642/1244 i aq. al-baidiiwiiri rashid ad- -ı dhahabiyya (shiraz) qasim faiq. 616/1219 i i i i i ı farid ad-din 'aniir d.-i. lndia) r i \ .mad b. bukhara 658/1260 badr ad-din firdawsi assamarqandi najib ad-din mul).717/1317 nüriyya i najm ad-din ad-diiya d. 650/1252 i ı 'aziz Şadr ad-din b. m. 1380 . abdallah al-msa'i =nürbakhsh d. l.isfarii' ini alkasirqi d. d: 8ofj/ı/jp'5 1 ashrafiyya (oudh. yal). 1 'ali al-baidiiwiiri mul). delhi sharaf ad-din al].

who was the shaikh of the great persian poet. persian. and for his ideas. d. and was initiated into the kubrawi silsila by al. these included that of najm ad-din himself ioutside ıbn battüta. and 1383. najm ad-din fell vİctim to the mongol saek of khwarizm in a. 869/1465). meier's art. 346-7.. founded his own khiinaqah. 128491). a pupil of 'ali al-hamadani.l. a. although most of his works are in arabie he wrote in persian a Şifat al-iidiib (rules of eonduet) for the guidanee of neophytes.". al-hamadani. " to be distinguished from the ighit-biishiyya. 1225). as-simnani was a most important influence in the intellectual development of central asian and indian orders. a khurasani braneh.. khwarizml and that of saif 534. to whieh were attaehed a eonvent and aneillary buildings.d. 1379. \ l. majd ad-din al-baghdiidi. i.ıammad ibn 'abdallah. m. sayyid 'ali ibn shihab ad-din b. to islam. in e. 'abdallah barzishabadi mashhadi. 407-8. many establishments of this kind were visited by ıbn battüta in a. from him through his pupil. the term by which najm ad-din' s line is frequently and confusingly denominated. he settled in his natiye place of simnan. iii. tr. g. from him again stemmed two lines: that through his son. that of najm ad-din's built forceful and independent pupil. most derivatives from and one line. followed byanother three hundred under 'ali' s son.l.ıaq al-khuttahini. " ıbn khaldun.d. 1333. 27). hamadan 714/1314.s. whieh forms an important landmark in the trend to wards the lranization of sufism. 263. c. farid ad-din 'ahar (d.a.d. who reeeived the adherenee of berke.kasirqi al-isfara 'ini. paris edn. 1867. sa'd and 3 ıbn battuta (iii.1 ightishashiyya. a khalwati order in anatolia. who had a khiinaqiih in shiraz. af ter surmounting initial diffieulties with arghün he was allawed to pursue his new eourse. who attended asama' at the convent when 658/1260).a'in-i akbari. v. af ter accomplishing the pilgrimage and spending same training spells in his master's khanaqah in baghdad. eame the shi'i order of dhahabiyya (centred today in shiraz). al-lahiji (or lahjani. author of manlig atrair ('speeeh of the birds'). 3 for his works in arabic see g. on as-simniini see f. s according to . a pupil of is1. carried on the nürbakhshi. mir mu1.d.ıammad. a.a. Şüfiyiibad-i khudadad. qasim faiçl-bakhsh.d. bulaq. london. 5-6.. he adopted the mystical life. a. 1895. and lived there tranquilly until his death in 736/1336. the ~efinitive establishment of islam in kashmir is ascribed to three visits of this vagrant sufi in a. then. pp.zal.d. who developed his own distinctive shi'i beliefs. he was the author of numerous works. and buried at khotlan in tajikistan. denison ross. 1372. from many of najm ad-din's khalifas no defined braneh orders stemmed but rather a kubrawi tii'ifa loealized a~ound the khalifa's tomb. 1948 edn. as a result of experiencing an involuntary /. an allegorieal mathnawi whieh traees the spiritual pilgrimage through 'seven valleys' (stages) with deep insight. seethe kubriiwi under timur's patronage. .i. 281. with references to unpub ad-din al-bakharzi (d. bom in 659/1261 in the khurasanian yillage of simnan into a family with a civil service tradition he entered the service of the buddhist ilkhan arghün (reg. 1219).. iii. and the other through shams ad-din m. ii.2 a khurasani braneh founded by is1. 912/ 1506-7). even though his own order was of no great importance.. b. branehed out independently.56 the chief r ariqa lines the chief r ariqa lines 57 (d. 432-3.3 and followed an i ta'rikh-i rashidi. 'ibar. called nürbakhsh (d.2 andbranched whose out tomb eonvent in bukhara .3 anather khalifa was shi'i. most were table. ii. e. he was associated with a migratian of sevenhundred sufis seeking a haven from the mongols under timur. deriving from mu1.ıaq al-khutta lani (assassinated by emissaries of shah rukh in 826/1423). 1221. in pakhli 786/1385. nürbakhshiyya. khan of the songs were sung in turkish golden horde. d.

d. al i i i isl). xxix (1961). a1). 61142. in form of head-jerks developed by his battüta says addition to (iİİ. is shown by tinıür's readiness to erect an edifice (completed in 801/1398) kasirqi. teaching that et the İs also a valuable study by of m. there were few distinctive branches or permanent settlements. 1326-34). 36theo 42. pt. 74°/1339). not an emanation. 1919.e. whose winter camp he visited. türk edebiyatenda ilk ['the first mystics in turkish literature']. later.iasa n 'abd . agra. he1965. these wanderers spread the tradition throughout turkestan and among the kirghiz. and westwards into azerbaijan and then anatolia. but where the yasavi as a distinctive tradition did not establish İtself. ıbn practices derived from the methods of the y ogis. though not in practice. r. near d. except those associated with the tombs of these shaikhs to which pilgrimage became a permanent feature of central asian islam. 236-82. . bouvat or phenoin r. 1218 i is a aux huitieme et neuvİeme sİecles de l'hegire'.m. 1347 i khwarİzmi tashkand t kama! ikani (ikaniyya) al). the following gives some names in direct succession. of reality.h.ı.iajji bektash d. i. the strength of the cult of i:iaçlrat-i turkestan.ıdat an ethnical (vnity of the i colouring to ıbn the altariqa-types being) of 'arabi. 1335 i by l.ıdat ash-shuhüd (vnity of the witness [baba' ad-din naqshabandi] shaikh i malik khaiil ata d. 36) that 'ala' ad-din tarmashirin. mole. summarized be known as wal. he deprecated current the chief tar/qa line s 59 corruptions (bida') in sufi thought.mad and his successor dervishes like yünus emre (d. southwards into khurasan. c. xliii (1921). derivatİves was a thorough-going ecstatic and adopted and like the bektashİyya. pp. rather than a mystical way. disputed the india in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 'les kubrawiya entre sunnİsme shiisme world in linguistic reconciliation through the poems of a1). al(bektashiyya) shepherd l. ıı86 in khwarizm i -i . i reflection. istanbul./. luqman perende i manşür ibn arslan baba d. mad sayyi d i ı uzun l. in the eighth century a. the yasavi way was a way of holiness and a method of religious practice which displaced the ancient religion of the turks. recİted his dhikr af ter initiat()r al the yasaviyya was a tariqa of wanderers. momİng he also taughtthat form of 'confrontation' prayer untİl sunrİse İn turkİsh. and strict adherence to the shari'a as the essential foundation for progress along the path. ii97 'abd al-malik taj khoja d. turkish was used İn worshİp outsİde rİtual popularized dhikr prayer.mad assirhindi.s8 the chief tar/qa lines orthodox line.m. as a1). of dress. 2 i turkish incorporated İnto ritual practiceal-wujüd gaye mena) customs in contradistinction to theand wal. advocating aliteral interpretation of the qur'iin.mad was called.iakim ata d. 1239 [ ı badr i ii zengi ibn sa 'id mutesavvijlar taken up by the indian naqshabandi. his approach. famous in central asian turkish folklore: i ı ahmad al-yasavi su!aiman baqirgani l. where they contributed in the persons of men like yünus emre to the formation of the popular si de of the new islamic turkish civi1ization. came to see köprülüzade mehmed fuad. he condemned ideas concerning wiliiya and saints' mirades.he and methods of cattle sacrifices whİch survİved among sphere. from eastern turkestan northwards into transoxiana (and the region of the volga). women's particİpation although such an orthodox sufi in the intellectual İn seances. the saw-dhikr. there sophical theories ıbn al'arabi.a q :baba d. sultan of transoxiana a particular (a.

h. age ii3. that we need only refer to its place in the general context of the tariqas. expressed in poetical form. works gaye the aesthetic and emotional 3 see abiiki. the development of the principles and organization of the order around the i see the by h.3 but af ter his death (683/1284) the succession passed to ]aliil ad-din's son. !:iasan !:iusam ad-din. w. the mathnawi. it is also a localized order.1 this experience released ]alal ad-din's creative powers and set him upon a new way which derives its name from the title mawliinii (our master). mawlawis regard it asa revelation of the inner meaning of the qur'an. refers to the way as the ] alaliyya. quoted in ]. one over ai.s succeeded by his vicar. in fact. and when he died at an the mathnawi. so obsessed with shams ad-din did jalai ad-din become and his life so disrupted that his murids plotted against the dervish. given to its founder. and the khalwatiyya which developed in the azerbaijan region and spread into anatolia may be regarded as its western turkish extension. r. p. (712/1312) the order had spread widely advanced throughout anatolia and a number of daughter centres had been founded. anecdotal ruminations.the chief tariqa lines on the sir-darya consisting of a two-domed structure. and above all parables. since it derives from a persian immigrant into anatolia who belonged to the khurasa nian rather than to the baghdadian tradition. to ]aliil ad-din's dismay he disappeared as mysteriously as he had appeared. 60 the o~der stressed the retreat (khalwa).2under ii. the inspiring genius of the mathnawi. name of artiele mawlana sultan walad. its influence being restricted to asia minor and chief the t ariqa lines 61 i _i rnonths' assoeiation with a wandering dervish cai1ed shams addin of tabriz. ii.2 the way developed as a self-perpetuating organization immediately af ter ]aliil ad-din's death in 1273.took ritter place İn e. whose visit to qonya in 1332 we have mentioned earlier.ı (c) mawlawiyya this order falls into a special category. ıbn bagüta. his 2 travels. deriving from kamal ikani. fifth in spiritual descent from zengi ata. redhouse's translation of the first book of mystieism of the master.1 a definite order-descendant was the imniyya. baba' addin sultan walad.i. almost from the beginning it was an hereditary order. yasavi shaikhs are stili mentioned in the sixteenth century in central asia and even in kashmir. to 431.ımad's grave and the other over the mosque. it played a considerable cultural role in turkeyand helped in the reconeiliation of certain types of christians to islam. and thereafter rarely was the dynastic succession broken. the famous mathnawi is a somewhat incoherent accumulation of ]alal ad-din's outbursts. it also daimed baha' ad-din an-naqshabandi as a descendant through the der vish-sultan khali1. 393-6. ] aliil ad-din wa. this order is so well known owing to the publieity given to its mystical exereises and the fame of the master' s mystical poem.solidarity a. he had been murdered by the murids with the connivance of one of ]atiil ad-din's sons. gibb. . from the c10se assoeiation of the founder with the seljuq ruling authority the order developed aristocratic tendeneies and became a wealthy corporation. tr. and it was in fact called by ]ami 'the qur'an in persian' (hast qur' iin dar zabiin-i pahlavi).

the suecession from him is as follows: i the members of this order. 772/1371 baba' ad-din. . 48-si. 47. 657/1259 ma1.d. whence they were known to europe as the 'whiriing dervishes'. d. strueture faghna. consolidating these centres. the spirit of isiamic gnosis. served his mu1. apart from the naqshabandi books the silsila is of given in 1544 ne by <abd al-<aziz khiin) became one the al-wiisiti. returned to his/bukharan village of rewartün. i the chief t arjqa lines 63 or 'restraint of the breath'. french edn. 643/1245 (or 670/1272) 'aziziin <ali ar-riimitani.d. 740/1340 (or 755/1354) amir sayyid kulali al-bukhiiri. d. apprenticeship under both as-sammiisi and kulaii ('the 717/1318 potter'). d.d. villages aramir that city.ıammad biibii as-sammiisi.62 the chief t ariqa lines his successor ]aliil ad-din amir <arif (d. ad-din' mausoleum and attached most of bahii' these come froms the neighbourhood ofthe bukhara as is evident from nisbas. the order remained centralized and was not subject to the spiitting process which so typified the khalwatiyya. most z ıbn battüta describes the rise to power of khalil (-alliih i qazan). 7°5/13°6 (or 721/1321) mu1. 'the exterior is for the world. the dance. and in his time the principles ritual. eonvent (atheir magnifieent was erected in a. byai-khaçlir. 1320) travelied widely. 1877.ıammad m..d. the interior for gad' (a~-~ahir li' l-khalq al-halin li ' l-lfaqq). he knows nothing of any dervish upbringings and says that he was the son of the chagatai prince yasavur. but af ter khalil's fall (747/1347) bahii' experience d a revulsion against worldly success. and riimitan are. though its creative inspiratio~ survived into the age of selim iii when the order produced its last great poet in ghiilib dede (me1. infinitely compiex in form yet essentiai1y a unity. 134°) became sultan khalil of transoxiana. and resumed his interrupted spiritual career. iii. riwgar. and organization solidified. 1758-99).791/1389. as he said. d. but he also had turkish links and there is a romantic story of his eneounter with a turkish dervish ealled khalil whom he had first seen in a dream. baba' an-naqshabandi.ımed es'ad: a. became famous for their devotion to music and the nature of their dhikr exereises. for.ımüd anjir faghnawi. d. but this also meant that its influence was restricted to turkey. which is symboiic of the universai life of the spheres. tirydq. though modified through the corruptions of time this way never lost the stamp of <abd al-kbaliq's genius in the quality of its leadership and teaching and the purity of its ritua!. from the islamic point of view it was especially important in ensuring the attachment of turkish peoples to the sunni tradition. bahii' ad-din did not found an organization (whilst his tari"qa he had inherited). like most of the men af ter whom tari"qas have been named. a.2 baba' ad-din served him for six years. ibn who was ad-din a tiijik. !ike ghujdawiin. but gathered around himself iikeminded devotees prepared to striye towards a quality of mystical life along maliimati lines without show or distracting rites. is frequendy referred to in latiii <arif riwgari. p. and his subsequent association with him until this dervish eventually (a.

64 the chief 'l'ar/qa lines

iniportant places of pilgrimage in central asia. the great persian mystical poet jami derives from baha' ad-din through an inter mediary. outside central asia, the order spread into anatolia and the caucasus, among mountain peoples in kurdistan (where it became a factor in kurdish nationalism), and southwards into india, but never became popular in the arab world. (e) chishtiyya from the sixth (thirteenth) century central asian sufis had been migrating southwards into india as well as westwards into anatoha. the formation of various kinds of khiinaqiihs and small associations coincided with the foundation of the sultanate of delhi. apart from the baghdadian suhrawardiyya, the onlyother ord er to be come defined and influential in india during this formatiye age was the chishtiyya. orders which were introduced later, like the shattariyya ('abdallah ash-shattar, d. a.d. 1428), n aqshabandiyya (with baqi bi'ilah d. a.d. 1563), and qadiriyya (by m. ghawth of uchch, d. a.d. 1517), never attained the range of allegiance and influence of these two lines. the chishtiyya1 is one of the 'primitive' lines. mu'in ad-din
chief 'l'ar/qa lines the 65

589/1193, then to ajmer, seat of an important hindu state, where he finally settled and died (633/1236), and where his tomb became a famous centre for pilgrimage. one of qutb ad-din bakhtiyar's initiates called farid addin mas'üd, known as ganj-i shakar (1175-1265), is regarded as being the person most responsible for the definition and wider diffusion of this line, since he initiated many khallfas who moved to different parts of india, and af ter his death maintained their khiinaqiihs as independent institutions in which the succession became hereditary. important figures in the chishti silsila are ni~iim ad-din awliyii' (d. 725/1325) and his successor, naşir addin chiriigh-i dihli (d. 757/1356), who opposed the religious policy of mu1:ıammad ibn tughluq. from the ni~iimiyya many branches diverged. (i) indian a separate line was the Şiibiriyya derived from 'alii' adsuhrawardiyya din 'ali b. a1:ımad aş-Şiibir (d. 691/1291). in the arab and persian spheres few shaikhs attributed themselves directly to as-suhrawardi, as, for example, adherents of the hundreds of tii'ijas in the shiidhili tradition daim that theyare shiidhili. but the suhrawardi silsila spread in india as a distinctive school of mystical ascription to become one of the major tariqas.1 outstanding figures were nür ad-din mubiirak ghaznawi, a disciple of shihiib ad-din, whose tomb at delhi is famous, and i:iamid ad-din of najore (d. 673/1274), shihiib ad-din's chief indian khallfa until he transferred his allegiance to the chishu, qutb ad-din bakhtiyiir kiiki.2 the chief propagandist in sind and
(a.d. 1182

punjab was another disciple, bahii' ad-din zakariyii
1268), of khurasanian origin, who worked in multiin and was succeeded by his eldest son, Şadr ad-din m. 'arif (d. a.d. 1285), the suceession eontinuing in the same family. but also from him diverged a large number of independent lines, some beeoming known in india as bishar' (illegitimate orders). one orthodox line, the khiinaqiih of ijaliii ad-din surkhposh al-bukhiiri (a.d. see appendix c for the various see ıbn battiita, iii. 156. 1192-1291) branches. at ucheh, beeame an important diffusion . centre. contrary to the chishti shaikhs of the onlyother order active in india, bahii' ad-din pursued a worldly policy, assoeiating freely

.

66

the chief rariqa lines

i
i

with princes, accepting honours and wea1th, and building up a large fortune. he and his associates alsa foilowed a rigid arthoda" line, pandering to the 'ulamii' and rejecting samii' (pubiic recital) in the form which prevailed among chishtis.

ı
iii method, tii'ifa is the tariqa is the organization, and though the khiinaqiihs were
hilst

w

correctly described as tawii'if (plurai of tii'ifa), since they organizations of of separate thewere formatian ta' groups,1 they were still not the orders as we know them. the completion of their development as tii'ifas or orders in this specialized sense during the fifteenth century coincided with the growth of the üttoman. empire. in the maghrib this stage coincided with the appearance of sharifism and what the french call maraboutisme. there are, in fact, four areas of significant change: persia and central asia, anatolia (rüm), india, and the maghrib. the fullest development of the variegated robe of sufism had taken place in iranian regions. in the same regions its linkage with the lives of ordinary people had come ab out through the wandering dervishes, iranian and turkish. then had come the mongol conquests. from around a.d. 1219, when the first mongol movements into. khurasan began, to a.d. 1295 muslim asia was subjected to the dominatian of non-muslim rulers and islam was displaced from its pasition as the state religion. with the accessian of ghazan khan (a.d. 12951304) islam once again became the imperial religion in western asia. but there was this difference from its pasition under previous regimes in that sufis replaced the 'ulamii' class as the commenders of islam to mongols and as the significant representatives of the religion. during this period the sufis became for the people the representatives of religion in a new way and af ter their death theycontinued to exercise their influence. the shrine, not the mosque, became the symbol of islam. the shrine, the dervish-house, and the circle of dhikr-reciters became the outer forms of living reiigion for iranians, turks, and tatars alike. and this continues. timur, who swept away the remnant and successor states which had

ifas

-l

i there are many early references to these organizations as tli'ifas. ibn khal1ikiin, we have shown, refers to the kiziiniyya tli'ifa (ii. 391). but for our purpose it is simply a convenient term for the completed organization.

the formatlon of ra'/fas
69

order: very nebulous at first, it became highly organized and
68 the formatlon of 'fa'/fas

centralized, yet parochial, providing a village religion, a system of lodges, and a link with a futuwwa mi1itary order. another turkish tendeney arising out of the haze from the tabriz region, displaying strong distinguished as malamati inspiration, became
1

formed af ter the decline of mongol power, was a sunni, but showed a strong veneration for saints and their shrines, many of which he built or restored. anatolia, where islam's spread followed the westward movement of the turks from ,the thirteenth century until the ottomans became a world power and regulated the religious life of the regions they controll~d, was the scene of religious interaction and confusion, and it is not easy to teli what was happening there. the ghazi states of anatoha in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, in order to supply the religious cement, linked themselves with the only islamic organization available in the marches which possessed any dynamic element-the wandering turkish dariiwish, the biibiis from central asia who accompanied, followed, and fortified the warriors. the orders, with their borrowed symbohsm and formulae for initiation, provided the means of consecrating the ghiizi as a dedicated warrior in the cause of islam. paul wittek writes: we find in the biographies of the mevlevi shaikhs, by eftiiki, written about the middle of the fourteenth century, clear traces of a ceremony of granting the tide of ghazi, comparable to that of investiture with knighthood in the west. we are told how one of the emirs of the house of aydın was designated as 'sultan of the ghiizis' by the shaikh of the mevlevi darvish order. from the hands of the shaikh he received the latter's war-club, which he laid on his own head and said: 'with this club will i first subdue all my passions and then kill all enemies of the faith.' this ceremony means that the emir accepted the shaikh as his 'senior' [seigneur], and his words show that the quality of ghazi also involved
ethical obligations.
i

during the seljuq and early ottoman periods heterodoxy was the evident characteristic of many representatives of islam, especia1ly in eastem and southem anatoha. many of the wandering biibiis were shi'i qizil-biish and i:iurüfis, others were qalandaris and i p. wittek, the rise of the ottornan ernpire, 1938; reprint, ahdiil, both cover-terms. the yasaviyya, 1,958, p. 39; and see the account in afliiki, tr.dispersing c. huart, ii. from 391turkestan, was a tariqa of wanderers, whose hnk with 2; ed. t. yiiziji, ankara, 1959-61, ii. 947-8. al,ımad al-yasavi gaye them a distinctively turkish spiritual ancestry. out of the diverse heritages of heterodox islamic tendencies and christian anatohan and turkish superstitions came the bektashi

the khalwatiyya and bairamiyya. these remained decentralized and fissiparous, spawning many distinctively turkish orders, but also spreading widely through the arab world in localized orders. we have said that this final stage of organization coincided with the foundation of the ottoman empire (by a.d. 1400 the ottomans were masters of anatolia and they triumphed over the syrian and egyptian mamlüks in 1516-17). in turkey under the ottomans relative harmony was achieved through toleration of three parallel religious strands: official sunni legahsm, the sufi tekke cult, and the folk cult. shi'ism, which was not tolerated, was forced t9 seek asylum within sufi groups, among wnom the bektashiyya gaye it its fullest expression. the ottomans in their task of build ing up a stable administrative system came to rely upon the regularly constituted 'ulama' body as the backbone i see p. wittek, op. dt., p. of the whole 42. of madrasas became a feature of order. the foundation this allegiance. they were set up in bursa and nicaea, for

and it had a strong following in the turkish provinces of asia minor. details conceming the relationship between shaikh and disciple. as theologians assert. and when it fell they also were destroyed. in the mortification of the deceitful spirit and in the worship of gad. rules for the disciplinary life and for the reeitations of litanies and liturgies. and even politicallife. silk ad-durar (cairo. and which also provided the impulse and manpower supporting the great shi'ite movement of the Şafawids. tradition affected the biibiis. and manuals dealing with technical aspects of the orders. sufi writings cease to show real originality. they produced variations on their poems in the form of takhmis. except in persia. based up on the writings of earlier mystics. but through an alternatiye stream deriving from the kurdish saint abu 'lwafa' taj al-'arifinl through baba ilyas khurasani. social. invocation series like jazüli's dalii'il al-khairiit. introdueed same new motiye of conduct. the Şafawid order continue d to be a largely turkish order for long af ter it became a military movement.z his primary way was the naqshabandiyya and he was strong on the eatholistie side of sufism. led or at least contributed to the decline of taşawwuf. eolleetions of their table-talk. contributed to the decline of sufism as a mystical way. out of which came the mawlawiyya affecting the iranized' class). during this third stage men who linked themselves with these older traditions developed neworders. as abu 'l-façll al-' alliimi put it: 'any chosen soul who. revisions and simplifications. spiritual insight atrophied and the way became paved and milestoned. on abu 'l-wafii' (die d sol/n07) see above. together with malfü1fiit or majiilis. was the nurturing place for the movement of turkish biibiis professing every known type of islam which flooded anatolia (this was quite distinct from the persian sufi current. among the few original writers within the arab sphere we may mention 'abd al-ghani an-niibulsi (d. pp. yet both are probably symptoms rather than eauses of a deeper spiritual malaise. at the same time as the ottoman state was becoming a world power a sufi order was providing persia for the first time since its conquest by the arabs with a dynasty whose state religion was shi'ite. azerbaijan and gilan. endless repetition and embroidery on old themes. it is interesting that the region where the movement arose.the 7° the formation of ra'ifas role in religious. i formation of ra'ifas 71 whilst it may be true. initiated into many lines. 1874-83). they become limited to compilations. and the integral association of the saint cult with them. numerous biographieal . this development into orders. ii43/1731). iii. 30-8. from this period. z see al-muriidi. the tariqas. and whose spiritual sons in suecession . even the baghdadian. with isniids stretching both ways from themselves as the central point. 49-5°. and maktübiit (eorrespondenee).h. were essentiauy sourceschools. mawlids or nativitie~ in rhymed prose. we have shown. that spiritual expres sion is closely linked with the development and vigour of dogmatic values and that the hardening of fiqh and kaliim in the ninth ll " tenth centuries a.colleetions of saints (tabaqiit al-awliyii') or pure hagiographies (maniiqib al'iirifin) were produeed.

49). 213-15. but this is regarded as only the minimum stage for the vulgar. khalifa).came into prominence with mul:ıammad ibn sa'd ad-din (d. the founder and his spiritual heirs affirmed their loyalty to the sunna of the prophet as a necessary first stage in their code of discipline. 1320 as the khirqa sa'diyya by al-wasiti (tiryaq. the qadiriyya began as a localized tii'ifa in baghdad with family branches in damascus and i:iama. yftnus ash-shaibani) where it acquired notoriety through the celebrated biannual dawsa (dösa) ceremony in cairo. the difficulties of reconciling these ideas with the dogma and law of islam had long been evident. the orders had been bitterly attacked by zealots like ibn taimiya. it is mentioned around a. p.l:ıammad (d. 1020/16ıı) who. he becomes an intermediary between god and man. 152-4. lane. the yünusiyya became an hereditary tii'ija in damascus from about 125°. . and the second as surrender to a rule. a transformation associated with in many instances also shaikh ceased to teach directly but delegated authority both to teach and initiate to representatives (khulafii'. during whose tenure of the sajjtida syria was convulsed by a notorious scandal concerning the arrest in a brothel of his khallfa' in aleppo. modern arabization. when the shaikh rode on horseback over the prostrate dervishes (frequently described. but now a parallel developed in practice. returned to damascus to exploit his baraha so successfully that he became very rich. 298-9). he was succeeded by his son sa 'd ad-din (d. iv. who took the tariqa from the yftnisi and rifa'i lines. if we characterize the first stage. but it was still not a universal practice. he became shaikh in 986/1578 (ai-mul:ıibbi. as surrender to god. khultişat al-athar. the sa'diyya is a family tti'lfa daiming sa 'd ad-din al-jibawi ibn yftnus ash-shaibiini (d. so that groups acquire a new genealogical point of departure from asaint or sayyid eponym. associated with the power emanating from the founder-saint of the tii'ija. (a.1 another hereditary damascene tii'ija is the sa'diyya or jibawiyya2 which still exists. though of course em bracing the other stages. then this stage may be described as surrender to a person possessing baraka. but always remained a restricted lineal tariqa with little influence. af ter being miraculously converted at mecca. 15. 1036/1626). succession in the mawlawiyya has normally been hereditary. indonesia.d.72 the formatı on of rjf'ifas the formatlon of rjf'ifas 73 never become universal. and the east african coast. it .3 throughout the sphere of the ottoman empire hereditary succession was becoming widespread in the eighteenth century. p. pp. in the maghrib it became associated with a peculiar reverence for hereditary holiness. a. in hadramawt leadership of the 'alawiyya and of its family offshoots was hereditary in the ba 'alawi family from its foundation by mu. confreries. and whose ord er spread through the mavement of members of the family into india. in aden 914/1509). as affecting the individual. sing. i. 160-1). near jiba a few miles north of damascus in 736/1335) as its founder. such a group can only be regardedas an expanded family tariqa. 1255).l:ıammad ibn 'ali ibn mu. the orders linked their daily 'tasks' (dhikr al-awqiit) with ritual prayer by requiring their recitation immedi i see above.le chatelier. abu 'i-wafa' ibn m. anather deriyatiye of the 'alawi line is the 'aidarüsiyya tii'ifa of tarim. . founded by abu bakr ibn 'abdallah al-'aidarüs (d.d. a special cult surrounded the shaikh's person. see e. who acquired a kubrawi silsila. a1though the order did not spread widely it was active in turkeyand was introduced into egypt by yftnus ibn sa 'd ad-din (not to be confused with the egyptian. the maghribis in a sense reorientated their past. al-mul:ıibbi. w.

therefore. famous. 130o) tended to favour the babas. 936/1529). ing to these terms. 1421).d. hijaz. from whom stemmed distinctive derivatives. since' "the ways to god are as manifold as the sauls'" ~ there are many thousand ways and rehgious orders'. he was succeeded by muşhl:ı ad-din merkez müsa (d. as a distinctive way it spread first in shirwan and among the black sheep türkmens in azerbaijan. and cu1turai fraternity.iajji bairam (d. mal:ımüd. the khalwati tradition initially had strong links with the cult of 'alpthe lthna'ashari or twelver form. based on reverence for the ieader with power. following the triumphs of the ottomans. but certain sufis or lodges in the ardabil region noted for their ascetic discipline beeame associated with this name. the chief propagators in turkey. in this way there came into existence a mystical school which placed its main emphasis on individual asceticism (zuhd) and retreat (khalwa). the following were the principal anatolian khalwati ta'ıfas: al:ımadiyya: al:ımad shams ad-din of manissa (marmara village). and was the initiator of sulaiman chelebi (ibn al:ımad b. egypt. this tariqa. then into syria. 1487). i see ibid. one early introduction of the khalwati line into anatolia was by mul:ıammad shams ad-din. 959/1552). naqshabandiyya though. 1439). bektashiyya. finding its fo11owing and patronage in the dasses correspond. but with the success of the ottomans the maw iawiyya came into its own. never had a founder or single head or centre.ı the maw~ iawiyya was an aristocratic. author of a famous turkish metrical mawlid. became sinaniyya: ibrahim umm-i sinan. with its miraculous well. whose tombmosque (ne ar yeni-kapü). a. 659-60. d. sünbühyya: sünbül sinan yüsuf (d. then expanded into numerous tii'ija-convents in anatolia. and at the same time its encouragement of individuai . ighit-bashiyya: shams ad-din ighit-bashr.d. d. 1429) manifesting a strong malamati tradition. whohad migrated from bukhara to bursa. areputation for strictness in training its dervishes. watiyya. 958/1551 or 985/1577.74 the formatron of ra'/fas the formatron of ra'/fas in turkey proper the most important orders were the rhal. we have said eariier that it was a centralized ord er and did not spread outside asia minor. and dede 'umar rüshani of tabriz (d. the khalwatiyya was a popular order. and yemen. the founder of the khalwatı order. the qaraman-oğlu dynasty which succeeded that of the seljuqs (c. mawlawiyya. a. were l. head of the tekke of qoja muştafa pasha in istanbul. 910/1504. iv. ii. and the 75 j{halwati wird as-sattar and maste~ of 'umar rüshani) being th~ pir-i thani (the second master). known as 'amir sultan' (d. inte11ectuai. d. as is shown by the legend that 'umar al-khalwati institute d the twelveday fast in honour of the twelve imams-but finding their strongest support in anatolia the leaders had to reconcile themselves to a sunni dynasty and their 'alid teaching was modified or relegated to their body of secret teaching. that ıs.

al-'adawi ad-dardir. ]amiil ad-din aqsarii'i died inbut cairo in 94°/1534 in ii. iv. ii. khi{at jadida. at 'abbiisiyya on the outskirts of cairo was shams ad-din '}\bdaihih al-jarkasi (d. tabagilt. 977/1569 at condemnatory fatwiis qastamuni. 1010/1601 the opprobrium under which his master had laboured.iafniyya). eighth edn. 133.ıiyya: nur himself ad-din m.ı. the !ii'ija is also called siba'iyya af ter his successor. mui.d. in istanbul. against whom sha'baniyya: sha'biin wali. 892/1487). ıı81/1767). 1601.iafnawi (d.ımad ibn m. aigiers. pp. 1146/1733 capital to clear of al-]arriii. khitat jadida. ~harqawiyya. iv. both are buried in the same mosquemausoleum. gülsheni zuwaila. egypt and the sudan.7 Şawiyya: ai. initiated by 'umar rusheni in tabriz who rifıla.ıam 4 an account of his zilwiya-tomb is found in 'ali mubiirak. see muriidi. his outside shirwiini. these were mui.iafnisi or i. c. 932/1526). however. also called nuriyya-siwiisiyya the Şafawid occupation of tabriz he became a refugee af ter and even 'abd al-ai. was shahin ibn a disciple of 'umar rusheni of aydin (d. pupil of ad-dardir and of ai. d.ımad ibn idris. ii. 926/1520).h. ii. deriving from mu1:ıammad ash-sharqi.. founded by abu 'abdallah m.25781. 452-80.ıad nuri siwiisi. 4 to be distinguished from the sharqiiwa. he is to be distinguished from another muştafii al-bakri (d. g.2 sought a more closely linked grouping by binding various groups together in his own bakriyya. disciple of al-i. 50. a converted scircassian brief mention in sha 'riini. ii (1959). who founded the bait Şiddiqi or bait bakri. d.. tabagilt.5 its distinctive development took place under his successor.'arabi's theosophy.ımad siwiisi. whose head functioned as shaikh mashii'ikh aş-Şüfiyya until 1926 when someone outside the family was elected. in greece a in popular among in the turkish tekkes soldiers. also a khalwati. also 'abd al-ghani an mamluk. 'pp. ii. of turkish origin (from amid. 6 ai-jabarti. were promulgated. d. 126. 3 muriidi. 'ali ibr 'İsa (d. but during the twelfth/eighteenth century a khalwati revival spread the order among egyptians and extended into hijaz and the maghrib. ii.ıammad ibn 'abd al-karim as-sammani (a. 302. cairo. al-ghawri. and mui. an the formation of ta. 190-200. 133. he lamiiliyya: mui. heresy. 166. rinn. d. iv. 12-13. iv. 'ali mubiirak.'imiid. p. mad demerdiish (d. bulaq.3 his and in enemies trigued against him in istanbul and he was summoned cairo as well as turkey.the first khalwati ziiwiya in egypt was founded by ibriihim gülsheni. khitat. a syrian khalwati who was a frequent visitor to egypt. 171875). charges of not (or only did he do tableau lv. viii. ıbn al. shadhariit. 626. a moroccan branch of the jazü liyya at büjiid.ıammad ibn salim al-i. 954/1547). d. 8 shams ad-din b. evliya chelebi writes (i. 353. in madina 1241/1825). 'ajii'ib. 1164/1750 in istanbulı were successors of yal:ıyii. sitk ad-durar. vi. ii.a.6 author of a prose mawlid. 1884.'ayyan.ıammad lamiili b. dardiriyya: al:ımad ibn m. 1306. . ii. 29) ziiwiya that 'umar rüsheni biib and edirnewi.ımad assiba'i al. aş-Şawi (d. 1929. 'abd ar-ral:ıman al-gushtuli al-jurjuri (a. to the ]arriii. according to some sources ibriihim's successor at baku was this successfully but left behind him three tekkes in yal. 'abd al-muta'iil. in amasya. 54. ii27/17151201/1786. khar toum. ibriihim succeeded to his chair2 and also to shamsiyya: shams ad-din ai.3 'abdallah ash-sharqawi. 1709). from these came other branches: ral:ımaniyya (aigeria and tunisia). 1061/1650 in istanbul.l. i sha 'riini. another disciple of 'umar rusheni who founded a ziiwiya 3 sha 'rani. (other then af ter sources: d.8 localized in the hijaz. karl baedeker. d.a. became exile on figure isle of lemnos i 105/1694.'ifas exponent of ıbn al.ıammad niyiizi al-mişri of qanşawh mter the ottoman occupation he bursa. nabulsi.d.1 khalwati adherents in egypt had so far come mainly from turkish milieux.iafnawiyya (or i. i 1133/1720) d'ohsson. s l. 2 his dates are 1099/1688-1162/1749. marabouts et khouan. 112-13. works given in g. . 7 'ali mubiirak. 139. 157-8. 27. a.iafnisi.: as-sa'mati wa 'r-rashild. 4 and sammaniyya. al-jabarti. where he was well mişriyya received by or niyiiziyya: mui. p. 479. diyarbakr) he was 76 the formatlon of tji'ifas 77 hved in the muqattam hills for forty-seven years. sitk ad-durar. named muştafa ibn kamal ad-din albakri. kan.s. 1939. tabagilt.d. the bond was personal and his chief disciples set up their own orders af ter his death. d.l.1yii-i turkey. whose orders were known respectively as the i. ai. also called nuraddinis. b.4 b.5 a famous ascetic. 1715/281793). but afterwards the various ziiwiyas became independent. tually (a. 15°7) settled in egypt. 1837).

le chatelier. but at about the age of thirty he became affiiiated to the !. n. 4 the best aeeount of the origins of the bayyümiyya is a. besides a nativity (mevlidi). from 'umar sikkini (d.'ifas tayyibiyya: sammani offshoot in nilotic sudan. but was rather a people's cult. i.2 as a tari"qa the badawiyya lacked any distinctive characteristic such as that shown by the shiidhiliyya.78 the formation of ta.ialabi (d.4 born in the village of bayyilm in lower egypt in ıı08/ı696-7. tr. from sultan bairam. founder a1:ımad at. 3 the 'ulama' were quite ineffeetive unless they eould enlist the support of the politieal authority. his long search for a charismatic leader led him eventually to bairam wali. and maghaziyya. though they were each independent and generally loca1ized. 1448-1509) who.'ai (d. it produced no teaching personalities or writers.tayyib b. 1887. his spiritual descendants included: shamsiyya: aq shams ad-din m. he took the tari"qa from mu1:ıammad ar-rilmi. 'ali ibn i:iijazi ibn muj?.3 the most distinctive among the later egyptian succession iines in importance and width of spread was the bayyilmiyya.ammad went to live. the ottoman conquest of egypt. 'abd al. ibn i:iamza. 79 originally from bosnia he travelled extensively and eventually setded in cairo as a tomb-haunting ascetic. -ı a.ibbi. masal lamiyya. i leaders ascribing themselves to other ıari"qa lines branched out into their own ıii'ifas. '5 'ali al-l. whose manifestations at tanta have at all times been subject to the censure of the 'ulamii'. 1553). see. from this order came the mahdi of the sudan. then under the grandson of 'ali al-!. 7. 1921. and that they eould very rarely do sinee the rulers relied on the saİnts and. the bairamiyya. pp. who was responsible for building the tomb-mosque in tanta and fostering the aıready existing cult which quickly attracted to itself egyptian customs. initiator of a turkish suhrawardi line. other smail egyptian branches included the j)aifiyya. 1276 he was succeeded by his khallfa. 1°44/1634-5). their representatives to provide them with spiritual support.d. 41. an i (i:iamdallah che1ebi. the referenees to badawi shaikhs in ıbn iyas.ammad ]ilwati were the hashimiyya (hashim baba. 838/1435). he had a suhrawardi silsila from zain ad-din al-khwafi (d. who gave him the power. . and he became a famous worker of miracles. since i:iajji bairam al anşarp derives from the line of Şafiyyaddin ardabili. Şalij?. leading the noisy badawi &a4ra which took place on wednesdays in the mosque of sidna see his biography as given in al-muq. when aj?. les confreries musulmanes du hedjaz. nicknamed al-qazzaz. so there are two names missing betmeen the last two. one of shams ad-din 's sons was the poet i:iamdi the formatlon of ta. 1026/1617. d. w. for example. 84.5 he became famous as an iliuminate.ialabiyya branch of the badawiyya. 182 ff. 792/1390-863/1459. d. 1773) and the fana'iyya ( ?).mad albadawi died in a. al-bashir (d. 1239/1824).one of the few badawi writings. various groups ascribing themselves to the badawiyya came into existence. 1332).İn the khalwati ziiwiya of sidi demerdash in cairo. 1617. khallfa of i:iiijji bairam.ialabi was the author of . though with iittle effect until the modern age. the bairamiyya was carried to egypt by ıbrahim ibn taimilr khiin ibn i:iamza. pp. khulaşat al-athar. though nurtured within the same tradition as the khalwatiyya. the zainiyya. is a separate tari"qa. from sayyid ]a'far. salmon. pupil of as sammani. 2 see appendix e.d.'ifas muj?.

af ter his death (1183/1769) the order spread into yemen. persian gulf. who emigrated to anatolia i af ter the mongols had destroyed the seljuq state and the 81 formation of t}f'ifas remains of the the caliphate.d. for taqi ad-din al-wasiti (1275-1343) mentions the khirqa bektiish (deriving from a1:ımad alyasavi.d. 296).2 however. en ı826. was associate d with it from the end of the sixteenth century. and when circumstances became more propitious they began once more to expand. pp. and his migration see evliya chelebi [a. 47.) without adding riifji alliih 'anhu af ter his name. k. but the ritualistic changes he made2 and his personal ascendancy was such that his foııowers regarded him as the initiator of a new way. he probably died about 738/1337. p. a. ghiyiith addin kay-khusrau ii in 124° (see ]. ottoman authorities sometimes took severe measures against leaders. p. one consequence of this association with the j anissaries and. pp. 32. 1937. afliiki says of bektiishi that he was 'un mystique au cceur eclaire. birge. he appeared in anatolia af ter ]aliil-ad-din rumi was well established (d. tr. their tekkes destroyed. ete. though there is no need to assume that he was any more orthodox than other biibiis. the death of the third shaikh as-sajjiida. huart. during his frequent journeys to mecca he preached his tariqa and won a following among both citizens and hadiiwin in hijaz. al-ghujdawani. paris. but immediately the j anissary corps was abolished in i 826 the' bektashis fell with them. 16ır-'79]. and their properties handed over to naqshabandis. some groups within other orders. mu1:ıammad nafi' (time of mu1:ıammad 'ali). the headship of each tii'ifa becoming hereditary. precis histqrique de la destructiqn du cqrps des janissaires par le sultan mahmqud.80 the formation of t}f'ifas al-i:iusain in cairo. 'his name is simply a term to provide apoint of identity. the bektashi order qf dervishes. because they were not a military order but had deep roots in the life of the people. with maintained a strong this organization was associated with the name of a semilegendary turkish sufi caııed i:iajji bektash of khurasan.3 some were killed. he does not need to be a direct khalifa. they survived underground. 1343). the order grew out of saintveneration and the system of convents into a i for legends of his investiture by one luqmiin. disciple of abmad yasavi. ii. but that was through their involvement in the numerous j anissary revolts. and the indus vaııey. lower euphrates. 298-:329. the heretical and shi'i doctrines and ritual of the bektashiyya do not deriye from i:iajji baktash. and consequently incurring the enmity of the 'ulamii'. had ramawt. 19-21. however. 3 see assad-efendi mohammed. 2 ai-wiisiti (d. tiryaq al-mu!:ıibbin. caussin de perceval. mais il ne s'astreignait pas iı suivre la loi apportee par le prophi'te' (tr. the organization of the bektashiyya did not develop until the fifteenth century and the janissary corps. 1833. the bektashiyya centralorganization. a. so he was still aliye about 1320 and known in lraq. not on account of their beliefs and practices. whilst the khalwatiyya was characterized by fissiparous tendencies. who tried to stop him using the mosque. . so with ottoman authority was that the bektashis were rarely attacked on grounds of doctrine or innovations. i. les saints des derviches tqurneurs. this it seems was the isbiiq biibii who led his dervishes against the seljuq sultan.i he was able to hold his own and later the shaikh al-islam even offered hirn a chair at the azhar. 43-4). 1273) and' was recognized by a group there who called him the khalifa of one biibii rasul alliih. caused a splİt in the order and its weakening. narrative. at the same time he retained the red khirqa (=bonnet) of the badawiyya with its silsila and other characteristics to show his filiation. c. and he himself decided that this was more likely to succeed than attempting to reform an old fissiparous order. instİtuted by murad i. 'ali' s aim was the reform of the badawi order by return to its supposed original purity. the orthodox 'ulama' then castigated them as heretics.

ete. 3 the turks applied the term qizilbtiih to fuqara'. the jawidan-nama mentioned was written by façll aliiih af ter his revelation of 788/1386. whose name is nesim ad-din tabrizi. who had him executed in 820/1417. . organization.the formatlon of 'fa'/fas 83 ]\sia minor and kurdistan. whose authority was recognized by ınany of the village groups. 371-2.anyone enters their order and afterwards reveals "the secret".! the bektashis proper are those who were fully initiated into a lodge.3 this office became hereditary (at least from 175°)' whereas the dede. l:iurüfi from the new environment and efendi's beyond some an important. this relates how. mu'ayyad. secredy teaching the jawidan to the inmates of the monastery. they consider his life as forfeit' (tr. the great turkish poet nesimi. especially under bayazid ii.iiijji bektiish the saint (wali). . it full incorporated other beliefs besides history of ottoman poetry. e. literary history of persia.1 it has been suggested that another khalifa. chiefly turkish at first.2 but he was only one among many. probably the first leader of any true bekt1ishi organiza tion was b1ilim sultan (d. for the propaganda of the l:iurüfis spread widely. ]. i. one of these. with the assurance that it represented the doctrine of l. themselves through the lands of the muslims. he of those khalifas who bore the title of al. at any rate. implies that he is the founder. when the inspirer of the l:iurüfi movement. see e. 449-52). façll alliih ibn 'ali of astarabad.) initiated into ajlegiance to i:iiijji bektash as the spiritual factor in communal life. was an apostolic head chosen by a special council. later.iaidar of the Şafawiyya was divinely instructed in a dream to adopt a scar1et cap distinguished by twelve gores. bektashis themselves do not refer l:iurüfi ideas back to bektash. became their depository and assured their perpetuation. accepted the jawidan. was executed by miran shah in 796/1394 (or 804/1401) his khalifm dispersed widely. vulgar heterodox. many of these were the later affiliated 82 the formatlon of 'fa'/fas syncretistic unity. the actual role of the ahl-i l:iaqq during the bektashi formative' period is unknown. 'but the 'ulama' denounced him to the mam]ük sultan. supported by various dervishes and turkmans.iiijji bektiish in anatolia and there lived in seclusion. tolerated by the authorities. ranging from the popular cults of centrai asia and anatoha. whose title of pir sani. af ter the execution were published christian in origin and others came from such of façll aliiih. cf. the inmates of the monastery. who wore red turbans. went from tabriz to aleppo. even though they were persecuted.2 according to tradition he was appointed to the headship of the pir evi. gibb. af ter shaikh l. he is . claiming descent from i:i1ijji bekt1ish. 343 ff. al-'ali al-a'la (executed in anatoha 822/1419). takhtajis. the head deriving from b1ilim sultan. but this organization. account is isl:ıiiq kashij alasrar. w. g. during this fifteenth century when the bektiishiyya was developing into a comprehensive on nesimi. . . a rival head was the chelebi. the second patron saint.'ali al-a 'iii ('the high. named it "the secret". to the doctrines of the l:iurüfis. the supreme') came to the monastery of l. both turkish and christian rümi. 1526. to such a degree that if. in 1291/1874-5. though hostile. being ignorant and foolish.first heard of in connection with a rising of kalenderoglu. browne.d. and devoted themselves to corrupting and misleading the people of islam. went to anatoha and there fostered certain l:iurüfi doctrines up on a local saint buried in central anatoha called l:iajji bektiish. and enjoined the utmost reticence concerning it. and esoteric. 922/1516). which began in a. the term especially designated his followers. 'his khalifas (vicars or lieutenants) agreed to disperse sources as the qizilbiish (red-heads)3 of eastem i 2 nomadic and village group s (alevis. iii. where he ma de numerous converts. combining elements from many sources. the ınother tekke at i:iiijji bekt1ish koy (near qirshehir) in 9°7/15°1.

based on a intense concentration upon the prophet and the acquisition of power through recitation of dalii'i! alkhairiit. tr. xix. however. at the same time. by astute policy the makhzan ensııred that no ztiwiya in north-west. derive many tawii'i! founded by his disciples and their disciples. the idea of sanctity lost its integrity and became a mechanical attribute. ' 3 thesa'di dynasty in morocco came to power (93°/1523) through reliance upon the followers of al-jazüli. and he died. towards the end of the seventeenth century the filiila dynasty encouraged the development of the zawiya of wazziin. and making ecstatic utterances. in 1529. and the allegiance diffused so rapidly that many older orders (really ziiwiya-centres) were absorbed or edipsed.fiiris 'abd al. during the course of the evening they would partake of food prepared by the owner of the house.'aziz at-tabbii'. morocco was capable of stimulating any effective movement. ra'ipas t a ai-iazüli formed neither lariqa (his way was shiidhili) nor 85 ta'ifa. a ttlifa did in fact stem from his successor. in the west it only became popular when it became collectivized. the sufi path was henceforth edipsed by this easy ıj1 o y of attachment to the power of those honoured by god. these drew some of their influence and prestige from the struggle against the portuguese. but from him came something much more universal.tabha'.iijj al-baqqiil at harii'iq. abu. known as alŞarriir (d. it was directed against both the portuguese occupation of coastal places (between 1415 and 1514) and the imperialism of the makhzan. diseipiine whose members would get together on many a night at the house of one of them.m. such wa s the success of alhe j azüli that the governor of aşfi. h~d him expelled. ı balancing one against the other. and that of mui)ammad ibn 'ali berraisul at tazerut.84 the formatlon of ra'ipas the spirit had appealed only to a religious elite. r.m. ın eıther 869/1465-or the on of 875/147°. whose energies were for long to be directed towards containing the new tii'i/as by winning the allegiance of the great shaikhs and depend upon the new religious movement. a popular forın of devotion based on the dhihr had spread. he had both bodies transferred to marrakush to consecrate the new dynastic connection with that city. in arch. we may say that. 278. 2 two prominent jazüli derivatives in the jebala region were that öf 'alliil al-i). i but something more was needed. michauxbellaire. this shows how much temporal power had to proceedings with soltle ejaculating in unison. though as yet practised only by urban and ziiwiya groups. 914/1508). 'les derqaoua de tanger'. see mumatti' 1 . devotional school with new aims and drive. though it was only too of ten to be at the expense of their spirituality. ın the jamii'at at-tabbii'iyya in fez. and one of the firat acts of ai)mad al-a'raj was to have his father buried beside the tomb of aljazüli. 'the inheritor of his ~araka'. shaikh aba isqaq ash-sha!ibi [d. which ::d made his centr~. 2 at the same time. they would open the his way. 98-100. and this came with see mumatti' al-asma ii dhikr al-jazüli wa 'ı. 790/1388] was asked about the position (legitimacy) of a !ii'ija ascribing itself to sufism and self. then go on to engage themseives in singing. but from the ıniddle of the fourteenth century the way had lost even this appeal and a mystic such as ıbn 'abbad standsout simply because of the spiritual aridity of the age. carrying on until the night was over. poisoned ccording to formatı report. in the very broadest terms.3 no section of maghribi life escaped their influence.ı the subse quent islamic revival derived force from other causes. hand-dapping. xxxix (1920). from him. later. maroc. . whilst in the east sufism remained basicallyan individual pursuit. see e.

931/ 1524-5. a.d. tomb-cults of early sufis.3 he studied for a time in the ziiwiya of abu 'l-'abbas al).2 but the centre moved to ouzera near m6dea where the founder's grandson established what has remained the chief ziiwiya to this day. af ter his first successor the succession has continued in the founder's family.iaçlrami on the nile.'abbas al-mursi in alexandria he received the call which determined his apostolic vocation.ammad Şaliı). together with a parahel line. marabouts. but weakened af ter yüsuf was killed by mülay isma'il (a. the linkage of the movement of change with al-jazüli may well have been exaggerated. but the most important sphere of ascription derives from abü '1. but the ijiiza to propagate and initiate into the shadhili way came from 'ali ibn 'abd ar-ral). tomb at milyana. among his order-founding pupils were: see maghribi genealogical table. 4 for his many writings see g.mad b.iasan b. older than and quite distinct from the maghribi.mad al-j. founder: mul).4 vnder his son and successor.man as-suhaili.mad ibn yüsuf al-milyani ar-rashidi. which become single ziiwiya orders.ii'ifas the formation of the maghrib was a tariqa zone to itself and the orders deriva . libyan branch (salamiyya) founded (c.l. who shares the same tomb. received his authority from al). (a) ghiiziyya.mad azzarrüq called al). ii. essai sur la confrerie religieuse des 'aissaoua au maroc.mad b. (b) suhailiyya. founder of maroc.mad arrashidi. for in addition to the hanşaliyya many i the formation of r. whereby the dervishes became immune to sword and fire. 1526. abü 'imran yüsuf. . b. about g. known as az-zarrüq. his numerous teachers included al). d. 164-5. the order expanded considerably among the berbers of the atlas ranges.mad ibn 'arüs (d. express the re1igious history to the present day.jüb alj. originally from yanbu' on the red sea. ii. a disciple of al-jazüli. on the '!siiwiyya see r.ammad b. whom he succeeded as head of the ziiwiya of miknasa azzaitün. either when on pilgrimage or from his syrian companion. beghan al-mal). a. (d. tive from al-jazülp did not spread outside that zone. m. an important deriyatiye was the 'lsawiyya. who claimed also a qadiri chain. 1463 at tunis). rabaqiit. al). dawhat an-niishir. also a pupil of al). 1234). he served many shaikhs but his inspiration-shaikh was an egyptian shadhili. 1465-1524). patron saint of Şah.ii'ifas 87 independent orders were reconstituted from older maraboutic famihes. the shaihhiyya or awlad sidi shaikh of orania. bom in morocco 845/ 1441 and died at mezrata in tripolitania in 899/1494 (or between 921/1515 and 93°/1524). deriving from ibn 'ata' allah al-iskandari (d. such as 'abd as-salam ibn mashish. 3 according to ıbn 'askar. ii.mad ar-rashidi. arch. one day when he was praying beside the tomb of abü '1.mad b. moroccan order founded by abü '1. from the rifa'iyya or anoffshoot. founded circa a.ammad ibn 'lsa (a. 1358).d.d.mad wafa' (d. 253. but in the maghrib itse1f they. disciple of abü mul). m.ialabi.l the following are the main orders: wafii'iyya. muqaddam in the distinctive j azüli tradition.l. 93.a.86 r. abu 'l-j.ittazemüti. al-'vqba al-j. i appendix f gives a list of the principalorders. 709/ 1309). the way the religious revolution revived old baraha lines may be illustrated by the hanşaliyya. 1727). 360-2. a. 1780 it split into two groups: sheraga and geraba. which was revived as a distinct tii'lfa by am ayman sa'id ibn yüsuf al-hanşali. 1450/60 by abü 'l-'abbas al). shiidhili 1023/1614).4 among the numerous derivatives we rashidiyya or yüsufiyya. 1795) by 'abd as-salam ibn salim al-asmar al-fitüri of zliten. 3 see ash-sha'riini. qasim al-ghazi (commonly known as ghazi bel gasim). brunnel. he adopted ecstatic practices. also begin at this time. mul). . m. this derived from a thirteenthcentury abu sa'id al-hanşali.d.a.'abbas al-mursi and the egyptian wafa'iyya. founded by a disciple of mention: al). . xix.iarithi (d.d. between 1495 and 1504). 385-98. 4 on sa'id ibn yüsuf see especially rinn. !ts founder. 921/1515).ammad (d. he constructed his ziiwiya at ait metrif and died there in 11i4/1702.d.2 'arüsiyya. pupil of al). a. orders. composed by abü 'abdahah shams ad-din al). see appendix g for list of syrian and egyptian (i) 'abd al-qadir ibn mul). 'isa aljunaidi ad-dimyati.'abbas al). 'abd ar-ral). 'isa al-bumusi. pp. who gaye him the poem cahed addimyatiyya on the ninety-nine names of god.d.mad ibnmay 'arüs.3 which became the wird of the hanşaliyya. zarrüqiyya. b. 1926.s. d. this order is mentioned to show the continuance of the strong egypto-syrian tradition. paris.man . ad-dirüti addimyati (d.

1465). although the shadhili oeder had come into existence in alexandria.d. mecca. (c) na. there was certainly no blank uniformity. whose bid for power began in 1524. the sharifian 1437 of the tomb of mülay idris ii at fez in the reign of~. founder of the karziiziyya.ıammad ashshaikh i\. on the one hand. went to damascus. so that litde genuine insight is to be expected from sufi writings.nasty the of banü sa'd. in 901/1495 he trave11ed east. once the new conceptİons had taken root İn the maghrib the berbers inhabiting mauritanİa and the sudan-belt sahil call1e wİthİn theİr infiuence. mahdi (d. 1553) of the arab kunta trİbe who İs regarded as the İnİtİal propagator. syria. founde" mu!>amm. commonly known as mulay bü-zİyan. where the trend was towards greater and henceforth. and ash-sha'rani.88 the formation ofra'tfas (ii) a1. we have men like shahin. even 1557). founded by mu1.d. brüsa.v. essentially of a malamati type. back to i:iamat.d-d""i.ıiyya [khanaqah] in daİnascus i on . arab iands. abi zİyan (d. to cairo. dhahab. 220-5. the maghribi revival hadsa'dian litde effect in egypt the lastııy brought the dynasty to and power. was İnİtiated İnto the qadiri. there his fame as a 3 qabçl in sufi. 'abd ar-ra1.r on the other.r not the shadhili-] azüli tradİ tion. . in this greater conformity towards legalistic tradition. until one state day 'he was overcome bya "contraction" 3 whilst in the Şali1.ıman b.. d. terminology refers to the spiritual guide and revivalist attracted vast numbers.he experience d a conversion and was initiated into the madyani line in tunisia. the hermit on ]abal al-muqattam.d ibn na. and thİs accounts for the almost exelusİve prevalence of the no one could hope to fi11 any role. and the most extravagant forms of dhikr and mawlid celebrations. it did not take root in syria until the beginning of the sixteenth century. 1145/ 1733). 1085/ 1674. a. and then damascus. a.2 af ter a varied career. vıır. 'umar ash-shaikh (d. he 81-4. 'abd al-i:iaqq ibn 'ali sa 'id (d. he did not achieve celebrity in is the syrian world until af ter his a notice on ash-sha'riini given in chapter viii. he forbad his fo11owers to take part in normal sociallife. 90/15°5. return from rüm in shadhariit adh. who founded the ziiwiya of qenadha. 1016/16°7). and succeeded with the help of these religious leaders.ımad ibn müsa al-karzazi (d. 'the man most responsible for its definitive planting was a moroccan sufi ca11ed 'ali ibn maimün ibn abi bakr (854/1450917/1511). but official condemnations had no effect up on popular practices of the orders and especia11y the cult of saints. at least tua' recognized orders subject to governmental in the supervision and approval. what rea11y happened is that the elamp placed on the exercise of the mind was effective in suppressing speculative sufism.. regl on of rli'ifas the formatı 89 less recognized as a descendant of the prophet.riyya... b.'imiid.~ an account of his (=brüsa) life is given to by i:iamat ıbn al. which ineluded a period engaged in fighting the portuguese. .almarinid. how ever. especia11y to seek favours from the great of this world. centred at tamghüt in wadi dar'a. from it derives the ziyiiniyya of m. he refused to keep khalwa or wear or confer the khirqa. especially shiidhili. re1igious or otherwise. pp.

under the influence of 'ali ibn =n 'atı b. a1.d.eath of new life to ' lts decadent sufi'm. Şadr ad-din was the son of of sa 'd ad-din al-i.wilni (d.3 symbol 261. mu!>anun'd iba 'a"'q. ibn ni:ı.' where af ter a few months he died. ed.e. it is significant that two of the first mongol princes to adöpt islam.ıanınıad al-khalwati impact upon the eastem turks. and ta'ipas 91 lı ough its men of power. jahn. 'ishqiibiid (jiinı) absorbed by d. therefore.h.. are alkhalwati following a few nanıes khwiirizmi 800/1398 i.""'ian office. with a semi-iegendary: 820/1418 1 ii ~ maimün. of mountaim. here the 79. iii of abu '1 ' i i ıı iii same wealth who. at the suggestion of mu\>ammad lbn 'a"'q he wenı to majdal ma'ush' [lebanon). dervishes and became the they were ı centre of a shaikh and his circle of devotees. rude and unlettered. mainly ""ponsible fo. 658/1260).iabashi associated d.90 the formation of ta'ipas which pe''"'ted in 'ticking to him untii he abandoned the lee"". geschichte gdztin khtins. Şadr ad-din ıbrahim. k..7si/1350? fronı the of devatian in the tombs.kiz. . the 'p'eadof the madyaniyya in syr1a. 99. 'la conversion de berke et les rhan acknowledged before the mongol.. was an area of mission.iim ad-din and kubriiwis despised by the naqshabandis and were probably sajf ad-din battüta is a d. sought out a sufi rather than a sunni 'iilim before whom to make their public declaration of adhesion to islam: berke (reg. though a few as individual thaumaturgists gained 783/1381 i i i these places nür ad-din fanıe. mu1. r. central asia. from his khiinaqiih at bal:ırabad2 in khorasan to act as officiant at the ceremony on the pasture grounds in the alburz mountains in 694/1295 at which the i see the discussion by jean richard. 'l'ohaqii' a1. the ad-din d. aı.h. ıbn 'a"'q had bcen a cj. for. manifested alsa af ter their death from the formation of :lı:ir tombs. p. p. these had their guardian tabriz region with the wandering dervishes. peking. g. herat valuable witness to their widespread diffusion. whe.lines eventually died out.ınıad (d.?iihir abü sa 'id 2 . rather than the debuts muslim. p. dervishes wereturkish all-important. of valiey. saif ad-din sa 'id albiikharzi (d. for 775/1374 the yasavis. 173-84.a. many of whose structures were raised by mongol rulers. and on the top. 213. ed. 936: ibid.4 at the same 4wandering it is surprising that the westem khalwati tradition nıade so little time. '>ini. 1257-67). in abu i. tbe new appmach bmught a h. tadhkirat ash-shu'arti'. 194°. the order spread into eastem iran muslim sentiment acquired everywhere fixed centres al-khwiiriznıi d.j.a7.""d ".iafş 'unıar b. browne.' i. and rashid ad-din. sı.ianıüya. leiden. 'al!" compan1on d"'lng his time of "ial. the . a. 19°~. 955' ibid.1 whilst ghazan khan son of arghün sent for the shi'i sufi. world his adoption islam as the western de l'islamisation de la horde d'or'. pp. went specıally to bukhara toacknow ledge islam at the hands of the kubr~wi. mongol cult. berke of the golden horde and ghazan of tabriz. until.of xxxv (1967). khiin of the golden horde. balı and bogon inquidng about places situated in the depth..ınıad al. e. a. left . on whonı see pp. 218-19). his independence of the confederacy of the gur khan of 3 dawlatshiih.

a. making vows to him on a large scale.ammad tashkand was then ealled shiish. the tatars do the same.ammad i ~ .i sa 'id aq. and had its place in their triumphs following the death of shiih rukh (85°/1447). westwards into z ibid.d. from paris central asia anatolia see above. it was adopted by many tatar tribes as a kind oftribal religious linkage. 1633 d. biiqi bi'lliih zakariyiiz d. since the possession of baraka has nothing to do with sufism. meeea 1050/1640 d. ibn bahüta wrote: outside samarqand is the domed tomb of qutham ibn al-'abbas ibn 'abd al-muttalib who was martyred during the conquest of that city. 818 near tus) situated inside a khiinaqiih. by demonstrating the relative ease with which the Şafawid revalutian was accomplished. p. iii. 'ali - sa'id meeea away from the rivalrieş which ensued af ter the death of zubairiyya biiqi bi'lliih.ısaniyya.d. 1389 i al-al.802/1400 d. theof inmates other non-sufi tombs visited those 'ali arof the khiinaqiih. he stayed in the khiinaqiih attached to the tomb of abü yazid albistami. istanbul) ii central i a. a. (syria) mub. offering them for the he support of include traveliers. m.3 and 'akasha ibn mil:). the islamic mavement took varied forms within the two traditions of sunni and shi'i. ibrahim ibn adham. where he also visited that of abü '1-i:iasan alkharaqani. 1640 sirhindi d. 14°4-1490 ya'qüb i ii al-jurjani jarkhi/charkhi d. iii.d. a companian of the prophet. who gave sİ1sİ1at al-khawajagan its name and form.' ad-din annaşir ad-din 'ubaidalliih naqshabandi d.1 many of the tombs to which khiinaqiihs became attached were not those of sufis.mad fiirüqi b. 1625 ibn ad-din tiij ad-din alahdiid ii i \ mub. 1563-1603 western indian i aslan (turkey) iiii Şusam ab. mueh to do with 1640-1720 eommending the ma~hariyya 'alamiyya. a. 3 ibid. which included that of the prophet ezekie1 and the house of the sufi. we have shown5 how bahii' addin an-naqshabandi.ıriir ibn mab.ıniin jiimi a.ammad al-kashgiiri d. 1455 i 'arif bi'lliih 'abdalliih mub.müd ash-shiishi' 'Şa4rat ishiin' 'ali b. and the blessed tomb.2 riçla (d.d. bringing cattle and sheep as well as money. 1414-92 sultan ad-din sa 'd (sa 'id) ad-din m. outside balkh.d. iii. for example.d. mub. a. 62. mb.arnmad az-ziihid alahi of simaw i d. 4 ibid. although so cleady iranian and urban. the ilkhiinid states were officially sunni. in the sunni tradition the naqshabandiyya played a distinctive role. muriidiyya naqshabandi way to arabs. a. edn. a. 62. iii.. 77-9. led to its division into three main branches: 'ahi' ad-din al. 82.d. southwards into the indian subcontinent. biiqi (d.d.d.d a.the formatlon of ra'ifas 92 the formatlon of 93 ra'ifas with their open hospitality were the stopping-places for parties of travellers.mad al)mad al-amkangi bukhari al- takiyasi bi'lliih i .d. then used as a storehouse for grain. but shi'i ideas and loyalties were very much alive as historical sources show.şan al-asadi.851/1447 l i 'abd ar-raq. a. his narrative shows that the nomad turks and mongols shared with muslims the belief in the baraka of the saints.4 whose shaikh took ibn bahüta on a tour of the many tombs of that city.d. in bistam.'awir r ii bam. during this century the rapid progress of the i ibn battuta. z i i i career and eventually found a niehe in tiij ad-din had an interesting mujaddidiyya muriid b. the people of samarqand go on visitation to his tomb on the nights of monday and friday. from this vantage point he had al. 52-3. a.816/1413 d. s and order. simply carried on one of the most strongly established sufi traditions. he translated books like jiimi's nafa~t and ete. 1490 darwish i .

introduced into syria in the seventeenth century it did not begin to expand until propagated by murad ibn 'ali al-bukhari. 1574-1633).rarwas muj. western turkish.d. but continued to travel extensively in arab lands and anatolia. a descendant.ammad ma'şüm. zakariya in zabid and in turkey the naqshabandiyya was strong in towns.ıibbi.l born in fact in samarqand in a.ı. 1563-1624). ii. then aj. but for his influence up on persian. al.ı. the order was d'ohsson refers to him (tableau. abu 'l-ghazi !:iusain.d. 226-9.rar. 464.ı. undertook a period of retreat in 881/1476. within his sphere of influence. ıv.mad (a. this term here meaning 'resthouses'. and among whom he consequently played a political role. and indian.ı the most influential figure af ter baha' ad-din was khwaja aj. ii. in the ottoman empire the naqshabandi silsila was of significance only in syria and anatolia.ıibbi.ı.ammad. 1441-15°~) when this minister to the timurid sultan. from murad stemmed a number of minor branches. .ammad az-zahid. not for any significance in the silsila. where he was initiated by muj.94 the formatlon of ra'ifas jami has been included in this tree. especially as a pioneer poet in chagatay turki. members of the order were largely responsible for the spread of islam among the Özbegs. training and initiating khalifas indiscriminately. i. who. son of aj.d. mul. whose son spread his allegiance. khiliifa in yemen by aj.ı.d.ı.ımad abü 'l-wafa' ibn 'ujail al-mizjaji. i.ı.2 the heads of all the independent states which succeeded the mongols (except in persia) favoured this formation of ra'ifas the 95 descent from al-aj. 283). a darwish ıvıuj. aj. nicknamed mujaddid-i alf-i thiini (reformer of the second millennium).ı. which contrasted greatly in outlook. mecca and became the regional naqshabandi in yemen. he founded and endowed a khanaqah ikhlaşiyya in herat (as shah rukh had also done) as well as some 9° rimts. he was succeeded by his son abü 'zı 2 zaİn müsii.mad al-amkangi who sent him to india. of the various lines diverging from baqi bi'llah two.ı. and indian sufism. 'ali shir was famous as a patron of the arts and as a writer of distinction in prose and poetry. though not an initiating shaikh. 1664) took the tariqa from taj ad-din b. 1052/1642).d.lrat İshan.2 (d.mad farüqi sirhindi (a. and a somewhat bigoted sunni movement inspired by baqi's pupil.ı. 'ajd'ib. his reaction against akbar's tentatives towards religious syncretism earned him the emperor's disfavour. belonged to the naqshabandiyya. dimyati many bıographies (d. were that through his son. jami is said to have given the naqshabandi tariqa to mir 'ali shir nawa'i (a. evliya chelebi khulaşat al-athar. populariy known as !:ia<. he eventually made damascus his centre. 1640 he went to india. founder introduced intomul. cairo.rar wielded great spiritual power. finished in 881/1476. one of the few arab sufis of the age who possessed any insight. 'abd al-ghani an-nabulsi (a. 1641-1731). following a pantheistic line.ı. another propagator who settled in lahore was khwand maj. attacked the link of sufism with antinomian mysticism and advocated whiıt came to be known as the shuhiidiyya doctrine derived from as-simnani. turkish. and died in istanbul in i 132/1720.mad al-bana' ibn m. 'abd al-baqi was also a local yemeni khallfa (d. gives adof t~e muradiyya. among whom khwaja aj.mad ibn 'ujai! and 'abd al-baqi ai-]abarti. ii27/1715) of murad who ibn 'ali was and members initiatedof and the family giveninthe his silk ad-durar. but his reformist outlook won the support of subsequent mogul emperors.mad sirhindi.ıammad egypt by khalil aj. as well as for his biographies of sufis. al-muradi.miid (d. !:iusam ad-din aj. from whom all the three regionallines derive-central asian.ı.ı. 626) as murad shami. him see althere being fifty-two tekkes khallfa in istanbul in on the 1880s. 1958. 346-7. 1663: mul. nafamt al um.

it expanded under various leaders. assanusi includes it among his forty tariqas and describes its aims and practices (salsabil. 'abd al-qiidir (d. gained the patronage of the sultan of delhi. 'he acquired many followers who practised the authentic awriid in al-madrasat arrawiii. the western branch was divided into many separate and frequentiy isolated groups. pp. ]. 1953. 1508 his troops destroyed tombs. made donations towards its restoration in 941/1534. but is attributed to a descendant of shihab ad-din as-suhrawardi called 'abdaihih i when shiih isma'i! the Şafawid took baghdad in a. its origins are obscure.ıiyya the qiidiri had so far lacked both leaders and any clear attractive sufi doctrine. long concutioned as a strong suhrawardi centre.96 the formation of ra 'lfa s the formatlon of ra'lfas 97 wrote : 'well informed men know that the great shaikhs may be classed in two principal orders-that of khalveti and that of nakshbendi. induding shah abu 'l-ma'iili (d. 1661).1 other members of the family moved also to india. badi' ad-din shiih madari. the last two were teachers of diirii shiköh. 412). and died in 1517. and finding it to be fmitful were followed by more members. and (after shah 'abbas's destruction in 1623) murad iv did the same in 1048/1638. 1533). in the seventeenth century it took on a new lease of life and a surprising change to ok place in its teaching (so far şahiri and non-mystical) and practices. subhan. the baghdad centre of the order gained the favour of the ottoman dynasty because of its orthodoxy. was the madariyya. 1938. he settled (a. 1635). including that of 'abd al-qadir (rebuilt af ter hulagu's destruction of 1258). hasrat. nothing certain is known about its founder. pp. naturally in as diversified a region as india regional orders were formed. santiniketan. 1948 edn. 305-6. who formed independent branches. it daims to be in the taifuri tradition.ıammad ghawth.j the most important was the shattiiriyya. sikandar lodi. an immigrant (syrian 1) who settled in ]aunpur where he died circa 144°. sufism. ıncreasing prosperity enabled the family to b4ild the present mosque. dara shiküh: his life and works. this occasion also acquired notoriety through the rite of fire-walking performed by the madari faqirs (see j.tustari al-hamadiini. a. 3 a distinctive' order founded in india a httle earlier. 152-4). and towards the end of the fifteenth century ma de its appearance in syria. the names of a few of the more important qadiri ta'ifas in india are given in appendix d. some of whom took refuge in india. but it is more of a syncretistic sect than an order. daiming to be tenth in succession from 'abd al-qiidir.. and mulla shah badakhshi (d. miyiin mir (d. 1615). 1482) in uchch in sind. is responsible for the definitive introduction of his order into india. af ter conquering the former 'abbasid capital. 923/1517) is reported to have taken it from 'ubaid aliiih at.d. 'ali al-hamadiini had con ducted large movements of his followers into kashmir where they formed a number of branches.d. but with a narrow outreach.2 the indian qiidiri shaikhs now exten4 very far the process of compromise with hindu thought and custom.2 the only tariqa of the kubriiwi silsila to achieve any wide spread fame was the hamadiiniyya. visvabharati. 14°5) who settied at kichhauchha in oudh. born in aleppo.'1 like the eastern. and expelled the family. but he knew nothing about it at first . the order continued to exist among iranians. mul. idris al i:ialabi (d. sulaiman the great. to be succeeded by his son. during his eariier and more orthodox period. one of the best-known being the ashrafiyya. iii. each distin guished by its own tii'lfa name. this group is regarded as a bioshar' order. 2 on this remarkable son of shah jahan see b. 'a'in-i akbari. deriving from ashraf ]ahiingir simniini (d. his tomb at makanpur (near cawnpore) becoming the focus of a remarkable festival and fair. one sharaf ad-din yunus b.

an account of its doctrines is given in lrshiidiit al-' arifin by mul. the name in both instances deriving from the name of a propagator called abu yazid al. where he died in 1428/9. one of the earliest surviving chains2 which shows the double gnostic pro cession from 'ali (both hereditary and initiatory) is that of Şadr ad-din m. besides the works of mul. whose most famous sufi member was the shi'i. 1256). 617/1220).ammad 'arif (attribution 'nereasing shi'i movement in iranian regions. 135-6.ammad ghawth of gwalior (d. but owes its full development as a distinctive order to shah mul).ı. the wanderers of the qalandari type abounded. mul).ı.ı. 3 the 'ishqiyya is one of the orders given by as-sanüsi (he calls it 'a fii'lfa of the shattariyya').ammad ghawth of uchch (d. since he was the author of many books.1 fourth in succession from the founder. this is seen in the ~eaders deriving from the kubrawiyya movement of sufi thought. he was at first at ]awnpur. celibacy. propagator of the qadiriyya in india. his pir. and as the bisıamiyya in ottoman turkey. 1562/3). gazur-i ilahi. 4 the custom is referred to frequendy in amir l. known as qazan shaııari. when many shi'is found a home within sufi orders. 126-35. certainly since the prohibition on the open profession of isma'ili shi'ism in egypt (a. describes his progress along the path of spiritual ascension. 1018/16°9). 1171). for example. triumph of baibars a.ammad ıbrahim . of course. many branches became very syncretistic. vegetarianism. other century the chishtis paidhis respect to then their leaders by books he wrote include jawiihir-i khamsa and awriid-i ghawthiyya. belonging to a family of persian origin. 1272). his way was spread by his pupils. ash-shattiir. sa'd ad-din ibn ij:amuya. made great concessions to the cult 'of 'ali without in any way becoming lınami shi'ite.iasan 'ala sijzi's fawii'id .3 none of the orders in india could escape being influenced by their religious environment.ammad 'ala'. local pantheistic expressions he used caused the 'ulama' of gujerat to call customs were adopted. but he has 'ishqi's sanad muddled up. adopting varieties of pantheistic thought and antinomian tendencies. in the thirteenth for his condemnation for heresy. especially the bengali. a continuous 'alid sufi chain had been maintained for a long while.4 sanüsi describes the dhikrs of the order. from which he was vindicated by 'shiih' wajih ad-din who became disciple and successor. and the fall of alamut (a. ascomplete prostration with forehead on the ground. his successor shah wajih ad-din (d.the formatlon of ra'ifas 99 shi'ite orders.ammad ghawth and his successor.2 it was known as the 'ishqiyya in iran and turan. then difficulties caused him to go on to mandu. the orders were dosely involved with the in 98 the formatlon of rjplfas mul). and was honoured as a great saint in gujerat. unknown?).d. since the shaııariyya does not regard itself as an offshoot of any order (though its chain links with the suhrawardiyya). pp. most orders trace their origin to 'ali and accord him a special position as the medium through which their esoteric teaching had been transmitted. pp.ammad ghawth was the author and of a mi'riij in which he ascetic disciplines. syria (maşyaf a. sent him to india. and to be distinguished from the mul). so definitely sunni. but in any case remaining sunni. see salsabil. 1517). 1402-40). a.d.d. founded a long-lived madrasa. should be mentioned. capital of ıbrahim shah sharqi (reg.1 and even the naqshabandi order.d. capital of the small muslim state of malwa (multan). it may be regarded as a distinct tariqa with its own characteristics in beliefs and practices.d. many practices were taken over from the y ogisextreme i mul.'ishqi. ibn ij:amuya (d. including the jüjiyya = yogaj salsabil. a contemporary of awrangzaib (1659-1707). 1260.

d. of 1957. which led to their being known by the . but it is better attached to the khurasanian rather than the suhrawardl 'who deemed the risking of their iives in the path of baghdadian director the least ofthat the degrees of devotion'.4 ni'matullah was proiific writer of sufi ephemeras. with a klıalifat al-khulafii' at the head. iii. militant role began. 395 f. he experienced difficulty in finding formatlon of ra'ipas the 101 -. (3) khwaja 'ali. ni'matulliih b. until his death at an advanced age in 834/1431. g. xi (1921). daiming to be sunni.j whose incumbent. d. also kii1ed in battle in 1488. 1524). . . g. adopt the scarlet cap of twelve gores4 signifying the 4 tiij-i duwiizda tarh. hist. 78ff. 1447/8. 1393. and occupied the position of an "aristocratic" organization. both prose and poetry. lxxxv (1965). 1416 of m~ştafa bürklüja supported by shaikh badr ad-din. 1273). fled toby uzün i. browne. e.iasan. shaikh i. expeiled from transoxiana by timur he settled eventuaily at miihiin near kirmiin. 1429. where ejcamples of his apocalyptic and pantheistic poetry are given and of followers ıbn al.ıaidari. kissling. h. or.1 shiih ismii'il in his bid for power found strong support in such parts as had been influenced. j. so the shrine reverted to the original line (cf. 2 several turkish khalwati orders (bairiimiyya and } ilwatiyya).).mer. who traced his mystical ancestry to abu madyan (egyptian branch). of 'abdallah alyiifi 'i (1298-1367). traveiiing from khiinaqiih to khiinaqiih.iaidar was in answer' to divine revelation. son of the qiit!i of simaw. af ter 'abdalliih's death. 'zur geschichte des latif. 47. he found his way to central asia.s. leipzig and berlin. persia. but eventually discover-ed a shaikh zahidl the formation of ra'ipas i with whonı he remained for twenty-five years until his death (694/1294). sanjaq teke. m. 1921. pp.' iv. hist. the book has been analysed b. j. who daimed descent from the fifth shi'i imiim. babinger. its mented.descent from the seventh imam. 'abdallah. a few decades ago almost the i see e.- 100 adirector. a descendant of shaikh zahid. later on it became a fashion in the higher strata of the feudal society to be a rnember of this affiiiation .2 he tradition. lit.ihyakiran in the warriors (ghuziit-i Şüfiyya) khanbali district of gilan.'arabl. d. (5) lunaid. were. ditary: (2) Şadr ad-din. browne. savory. subsequently with and uugwhom 385-94. südostjorschungen.. 3 see r. and so that of Şafi. 133~s.d. kii1ed in battle in 1460. turkish term qizil-biish . shaikh shaikhiinbar in ardabil in 1600. custodian of his shrine at of Şadr ad-din al-qonawi. d. the white sheep dynasty.a. for instructing his 3 Şadr ad-din al-qonawi (d.poet 'iraql to compose his lama'iit. the sufi organization upon which the dynasty had come to power continued to exist as the servant of the state. until in time sufis became targets for the enmityand persecution of the shi'i mujtahids. lit. founder of the Şafawi dynasty. tawakkul ibn al-bazzaz around 760/1359. browne. from Şafiyyaddin the succession was here. and (7) shiih isma'il (d. 1921. he went to mecca at the age of 24. 1-106. xv (1956). was born in ardabil in eastem azerbaijan. whilst among the many political aspects we may mention the rising in a. e. it is interesting shah 'abbas (1588-1629) appointed the shrine visited shaikh 'abd al abdal. 463-73. was with the their perfect silsiia. a famous commentator on the thought e. to whose lectures on the puşüş inspired the persian . responsible.' i. with his ten thousand sufi ' his proper name was taj ad-din ıbrahim ibn rüshan of !.j but steadily dedined. iinked with the same tradition.!. heriit. his link. mul. isi. nikitine in j. w. especially among the population of the gulf of adalia. and yazd. samarqand..r. i vanow writes that this tariqa 'was always selectiye in its membership. when he succeeded him.h.2 and the ottoman sultan bayazid ii had difficulty in suppressing the rebeiiion of baba shiih kuli in support of shah ismii'ii. on this aspect of the qizil-bash and their connections with anatohan dervish orders see f. he enjoyed the favour of kings and this partiality for the great of the world was continued by his descendants. derw:ischordens der bajramijja'. bom in aleppo in 730/1330 in a family of iranian origin. 237ff. schejchbedr ed-din. khwiija 'ali showed shi'i tendencies andbut when shaikh revised lunaid. a. twelve imams. s 'god! god! and 'ali is the friend of god.later cailed taj-i !. soc. the ni 'matuilahi order was founded by nur ad-din m.iaidar. cf. 497-502. iv. 627.ıammad baqir. denounced him as a heretic. j.' on the shl'i sense of wali see below.chief asiat. (6) i. it is not dear when the ord er became shi'i. 'the office of khalifat al-khulafa under the Şafawids'. 4 on ni'matul1ah see e.a. g. (4) ibrahim shiih.i. pp. then khalifa. where he became pupil. 869. whose takhtaji population is said to be descended from immigrant iranian qizil-biish. musii kii?:im. persia.

having minimum regulations for living a common life. third (tii'ifa) stage. fifteenth century. persecuted for a period in iran. and not to god. and is the most active order in iran at the present time. 14-36). the transmission of a doctrine. the conflict between the exoteric and esoteric doctriqes of . sufism becomes a popular movement. an offshoot of the ni'matu'l-lahis gunabad). but the final phase involving subjection to the arbitrary will of the shaikh turned him into a spiritual slave. branching into numerous 'corporations' or 'orders'. bourgeois movement. through the cult-mysticism of the orders the individual creative freedom df the mystic was fettered and subjected to conformity and collective experience.d. this qualification.102 the formatı on of rji'lfas formatı on of rji'ifas the 103 whole of the dass of the junior government derks. the organization of what cannot properiy be organized. even though one of god's elect. that any schema implies a distinction more hard and fast than is justified by the facts. fostered it in his dominions. men. 1779). new foundations formed in tariqa lines. i 100-14-00. al:ımad shah wali (d. seljuq period. unspecialized lodges and convents. the golden age of mysticism. individualistic and communal methods of contemplation and exercises for the inducement of ecstasy. leading in the tenth century to the formation of undifferentiated. intellectually and emotionally an aristocratic movement. in the arab worid especially. petty trades.d. but to a human being. and other similar working people in persia belonged to the "mulla-sultani" or "gunabadi" order. second (tariqa) stage. formative period = a. the transmission of an allegiance alongside the doctrine and rule. where the bahmanid ruler of deccan. in addition. arose naturally through the need for guidance and association with kindred aspirants. in the founder's lifetime it spread into india. frequently itinerant. conforming and making docile the mystical spirit within organized sufism to the standards of tradition and legalism.'ı mahan has remained the centre of the ord er but it put out other shoots besides the gunabadi2-dhü 'r-riyasatain and Şafi. the nürbakhshiyya3 may be dassed among shi'i (with headquarters in baydukht. the trends may be sumnıarized : first (khiinaqiih) stage. the mystical content of the orders had been weakened.'ali-shahi. personal mystical life. guidance under the eariier masters had not compromised the spiritual liberty of the seeker. development of continuative teaching schools of mysticism: silsila-tariqas. guidance under a master becomes an accepted principle. development of new types of collectivistic methods for inducing ecstasy. with. out in any way forfeiting their shi'ite orthodoxy in the eyes of the people. period of founding of the ottoman empire. thirteenth century. it gained ground af ter the rise of the qajar dynasty (a. but organization carried within itself the see ds of decay. a role and method. deriving from an illuminate. master and his circle of pupils. fully incorporated with the saintcult.

disciplines. they anticipated the need for reform and for countering the lethargy which had overtaken the arab world und er ottoman rule. napoleon's conquest of egypt in 1798 is generally taken as a convenient point from which to date the first realization of the threat presented by european expansion. but its stimulative effect was widespread. with a general range of uniformity. i. in the territories they conquered. variations being expressed in secondary aspects. b l . lv efore the nineteenth century the world of islam had suffered no major reverses from the expansion of the west. europe's earlier expansion by-passed the ottoman empire. rather. a ruling tenet was systematic opposition to all innovations. including that of imam busain ibn 'ali at kerbala in 1802. no further develop ment was possible and no further work of mystical insight which could mark a new point of departure in either doctrine or practice was to make its appearance. neither was in response to the western menace. for they had their roots in the eighteenth century. unadulterated islam. the orders had now attained their final forms of organization and spiritual exercises. (h) developed organization embodying a hierarchical principle. order shaikhs vied with one another in demonstrating their loyalty and subservience to the shari'a. and interpreted the jikiid against unbelievers as war against those who. which embraced the heartlands of islam. the directions of revival the portuguese had blocked sultan selim's ambitions to dominate the indian ocean. the first of these movements rejected the validity of the solidified system validated by ijmii' and especially su~h practices as compromised the unity and transcendence of god. and in the process many orders were emptied of their essential elements and left with the empty husks of mystical terminology. and the wahhiibis shocked the world of islam when. and exercises. bul this was offset by ottoman turkey's expansion at the expense of christian europe. two developments now led to an intensified islam-the wahhiibi movement and revival in the orders. they destroyed the tombs of saints. innovations had become fully integrated and their spirit and aims were stereotyped. it stressed a return to the simplicity of a mythical. and its attack on the orders emphasized the need for reform. the wahhiibi rejects any idea of intermediaries between himself and god since with his view of transcendence no relationship is possible. like haraka-exploiters. the following are the chief features: (a) authoritarian principle. the political action of the movement was restricted. veneration for the shaikh of the ta:ija. and utter subjection to his authority. to make mysticism innocuous by tolerating much of its outer aspects and forms in return for submission. but a nineteenth-century revival movements state of power equilibrium had been maintained in the mediterranean. had compromised its purity. inheritor of the haraka of wiliiya.10+ the formation of ra'lfas standards. the maghrib had been menaeed.

the movement inspired by al:ımad ibn idris had its centre in mecca and af ter ıbn idris's death his chief disciples daimed equally both to perpetuate his way and to have received heavenly directives to found their own distinctive ways. this resulted in a proliferation of branch orders.. and had had . he sought to bind believers together through full adherence to the law along with an emotionalized islam based on devotion to the prophet and a personal embodiment of divine power at work in the world. and by ..!' to in general and unr"'trietedly. and retained this orientation. who enlivened emotional fervour and stinıulated the urge towards the contemplative life among adherents within the shadhili tradition. with offshoots in syria and hijaz.. him permission to initiate during a period when he had 'fb~ i. all these neworders were moved by missionary fervour to augment their membership. shows sufiam. though individu and little cİrdes continued to follow the sufi path.ammad to initiate a way. . and lı orders were.<> marked by their revuhion againat revi a ~ that took place in an attempt to meet the situation stems fronı ~ work of three men. within thenı ~lı e true wayof sufi experience had weakened.igned to \ i ..ion b. . these aims alienated both the 'ulama' and the ordershaikhs in the hijaz. prophet gave myatica1..ized the faet that the prophet the new outlook in the maghrib is associated with the { himse1f had tijiiniyya. said to be derived "tab directly from al). he also had a pan-islamic vision.. the foııowing account. responding to the challenge presented by the wahhabi movement. along with full acceptance of the şahiri aspect.howo by their peaetice. that alon traditional lines derives from the inspiration of an illunıinat: called ad-darqawi. the .bed li'urgie. laek of guidance of fled from n. e the revival took two lines..ical sufiam. the two al:ımads both. and contact with people in order to devote himself to his personal rejecuon of eanterie teaelıing. and eastem sudan. their waya maintained khalwatiyya. stressed that the purpose of dhikr was union with the spirit of the prophet. all bom in the maghrib..106 nineteenth-century rev iv al movements all religious organizations flag in their interior life. and vigorously condemned the accretions which had debased the orders.pec" . reviv al movements (a) tijaniyya b raos' they empha. the development..mad. al-mukhtiir the new attijiini was boro in ıı5o/1737 at 'ain miidi in the south of tari'ias aigeria.! and etbical having tittle in their tilimsiin in method 1196/1782 to found his own independent order: 'the and training that the old sufia would have regarded .ueh . how he received the call at i.'abbiis direcr al:ımad permi. ~"e aı. traditional and reformist.&tion..terial drawn frnm cl. mul). as we have seen. not yet daring to daim shaikhship until kind of given "". rather than union with goda change which affected the basis of the he became affiliated to many orders and a muqaddam aaceticiam and by of the id. :. very decadent. though it spread into west.. al:ımad ibn idris in particular. mainly in north africa. rejected completely by the wahhabis... central. the maghrib 107 ~ineteenth-century 2. which they incnrpoeated inm their manu.peciauy the permission. sought to preserve the inner (balini) aspect of islam.eo abu them '1. it maintained its unity. to prophetie train men u. its khalifas being immunized against the virus of prophetical inspiration to prodaim their own separate ways. when in a waking and not sleeping state..r "reaa on praetica1 activiti. b. the action of the first was centred in the maghrib. the reformist movement derives from al:ımad attijani and al:ımad ibn idris.ophyt.

sent a message to mülay sulaiman of morocco inviting its people to follow the path of reform. al:ımad supported all this. i nineteenth-century rev iv al movements 109 before a1. and his successors. had a lot to say about wahhiibi condemnation of the cult of saints. pp. paris.ımad i at. the wahhiibi leader then master of the hijaz. 151. 88-9z.tijani (z) 'ali ibn 'isa ii (3) mul. there seems togod have and been yet another with his intercessor between man. he imposed no penances or retreats and the ritual was not complicated. iv. 1844).mad had nominated the muqaddam of the zawiya at tamehalt near tamasin.ımad (6) ai-bashir d. persuaded a1.108 nineteenth-century revival movements af ter this event he went into the desert.ımad an-naşiri. esquisse d'histoire religieuse du maroc. ad-darqawi. it was there in 1200/1786 that he received his final revelation (fatm. abu isl:ıaq ıbrahim. i . mülay sulaiman put his son.'id i b. 19sz. 18rs i (5) al. drague.ı.ımad at.ıammad al. and eventually settled in the oasis of abi samghiin. though his teaching owes much to the shiidhiliyya. and directed that kitdb the al-lstiqsd.r in 1213/1798 he left his desert retreat. thestage intercessor assump tion of the rank of quıb al-aqldb in izi4/1799. were sİmple. succession should al. where he was well received by mülay sulainıan and remained until his death in i 8 i 5. al.mad's death the wahhiibi movement began to influence north africa directly. 43. al. the head of the wazzaniyya. he emphasized above all the need for an ı jawdhir. in which he dealt with these questions of infringement of the sunna.ıamıhad aş-Şaghir d. i. although he was disliked by the 'ulama'. and when he died . in charge of the annual pilgrimage canivan which was accompanied by 'ulama' who. the distinction between guidance and instruction (tarbiya and ta'lim) is evident in his teaching.wahhiibi principles as a means of weakening the influence of the marabouts. the exact circumstances are obscure but he seems to have got into trouble with the turkish authorities.r in 1226/1811 sa'üd ibn 'abd al. 'isa d. the direction of the order moved to two centres in aigeria. and moved to morocco to begin his wider mission fronı the city of fez. r876 (5) mul. 1316/r898.ı. a1. were involved.mad's sons to make 'ain madi their home. where his tomb became an object of visitation.ı. as his successor see g. himself i. at first he had adopted the khalwati line for his chain of succession. 189i d. but did not find its way into the subsequent rules of the order. obligations. alternate 145 if. on their return.tijiini d.'aziz. al.tijiini 'ain madi zdwiya mul. 'ali b. the khu/ba which was read in all mosques was regarded by the maraboutic element as a declaration of war and set oif an insurrection (1818-22) in which the amhawsh.2 they saw affirmation of . a1. viii. 44. ı being jawdhir. 1853 tamalhat zdwiya b. r8z7 c. 1911 (7) 'ali ii i (4) mul.ıammad aşŞaghir b. 1844 d.ı. 'ali ibn 'İsa (d. again it seems under pressure. and the recent illuminate. 189z i of the age his followers were although al:ımad was buried in f ez. mülay sulaiman drew up a long statement. 'ali ]abarti.mad developed his rule on strict lİnes. see also al between his own familyand that of ali ibn 'İsa.ıammad al-kabir d. as was to be expected in an order designed to expand.ımad at. in accordance with the policy of subservience to established authority which was to characterize his order.

yet his own order beeame notable. it ma de its first appearance in west sudan when it was adopted by maraboutic (zwtlya) groups of the moorish tribe of ida-w 'ali. the result is that these two places came to have only a localized direct authority. the banu zarwal.tijani. and then. ad-darqawi himself stressed non-involvement in the affairs of this world. 'abd al-qadir ibn sharif. no serious split in the order occurred untii the death of muj. but it remained a tribal characteristic and would not have spread among negroes had it not been taken up bya tokolor from futa toro caued al-i. 17931822) at first sought to make use of the potential power rising from this illuminate to eonsolidate his position against the. unlike at. among his own tribe. he himself bee. the sultan beeame hostile.ımad) al'arabi ad-darqawi (1760-1823) who foiiowed traditional lines. 'ali al-'amran 'aljamal' (d. only af ter ad-darqawi's death did his movement beeome a distinetive way. numerous. but the order's expansion was not thereby weakened. and then back to the other line.ıman (ı822-59). released him. yet later he supported the leaders of revolts against the rule of mülay sulaiman. 'abd ar-raj. and influential tariqa in north mriea.ıarn mad ai-'İd in 1876. and he says speeifieaiiy that his dhikr derives from his own teaeher. he was no leading spirit in this militant mavement.ıammad aşŞaghir. mter ad-darqawi's death in his ztlwiya at bü-berij.iajj other maghribi movement whieh paraiieled that of the tijanis an d in faet was far more of a popular revival and beeame the most a~despread. as a politico-religious movement. as we have seen. and finauy central sudan.ho nineteenth-century reviv al movements nineteenth-century revival movements iii the succession went to aj. but later. then nilotic. he wrote little. it beeame the most important order in moroeeo. a. his initiates. and groups have ma de themselves independent au over africa. but retaining the aseription. the next sultan. even notorious. had aiready spread widely. but was use d by others. although ad-darqawi was contemporary with at. when the two groups separated fouowing a dispute over the succession.ımad's son.1 throughout his life he seems to have been the vietim of eireumstanees over which he had no control. he was zealous in preaehing against the baraka exploitation of the established orders.ı. ad-darqawi had reaeted against one of his muqaddams. the tw6 movements do not eoineide. but . 1779). its power weakened and İts politieal activities in moroeeo dedined. for attacking the turks in oran (ı8°5-8).tijani he received no summons from the prophet to found a tariqa. as his order diversified..ame involved.d.iamid (aj. muj. the order spread south of the sahara into west sudan. and ad-darqawi was imprisoned. and by the beginning of the twentieth century it had become one of the most important in morocco and aigeria. just north of fez. nor did the iocal ieaders daim to found new lines. forming their own ztlwiyas. condemned the practices of the orders. mülay sulaiman (reg. turks in oran and tilimsan. there developed around his name what can be regarded as a new tariqa in that it is a definite line of aseription. ~his awakening was set in motion by an eestatie leader in the shadhili-zarrüqi sueeession caiied abu i.

attended local ~açlras. who was succeeded by hıs pupıl. (b) 'alawiyya. af ter ad-darqawi~s death he settled in tripoli. where he formed his own tariqa. disciple of darqawi in bü-beril:ı. i from it branched: (b) ra1. d. fezzan. hijaz. algeria. ıvıul:ıammad b. selves to the new line. 696-7. l. 'abd ar-ral:ıman al-fasi. michon. badawiyya. ıbn 'adjiba in e.ıammad zafir. . 13°0/1883. see below. al-'arbi lbn 'atiyya 'abdallah abu tawil al wansharishi. art. became a pupil of m. founded by al:ımad al. founded by 'ali nür ad-din al-yashruti. ibn m. under al-madani's son and successor. then declared his independence in 1914. among mountain tribesmen and villagers attachment through the local muqaddam was felt as a renewed link with spiritual power and evoked an enthusiasm that of ten came into conflict with the older i troubles over the succession led to the foundation of rival ziiwiyas. the order drew its membership from a wide range of social groups.ıaznmad ibn 'abd ar-raq. bom in bizerta 1793. d. 19°9). 'adda ibn ghulam allah.'awda al-qaddür of nedroma. but lived their normallife. who.'alawi. ghumara.iafnawi-raq. tomb and ziiwiya near tiaret. mu1. \ for pohtical rather than religious and 8. algerian branches: (a) ~ehajiyya or qaddüriyya. 2. this is the south moroccan tafilalt branch.i. who went to mecca in 185° where he built a ziiwiya. bom in medina. and muqaddams were widely dispersed in tunisia.2 a hijazi branch founded by m.hz nineteenth-century reviv al movements and hijaz. d. where he initiated many khalifas. where ad-darqawi and most of his successors are buried. he died in 1934 and is buried in the ziiwiya of tigzit. m. ete. al:ımad al-hashimi ibn al-'arbi. madaniyya: (a) tripolitanian and hijazian branch formed af ter ad-darqawi's death by mu1. albüzidi (d. it became a newand distinctive order rather than a branch. libya. 9. died in acre 1891. townspeople recited their dhikrs. af ter whose death (1892) i see]. and turkey where it played a panislamic role. p.miin al-geshtuli al-]urjuri. some long-estabhshed ziiwiya groups nineteenth-century revival movements ii3 attached theın. ı~6.miiniyya founded by mul. (c) in addition there are ziiwiyas connected with: mul:ıammad al-misün b. who deserted their naşiriyya attachment and joined the darqawiyya reasons. founder: sidi bü-'~za a. al. mostaganam. some times referred to as the shurafa' of madagra. and occasionally went on visitations.ımaniyya. anq died in misurata in 1363/1846. ibn mas'üd b. but the branch was organize d (ziiwiya of gaüz) by his successor. (sid almisün). chief of the algerian branch.' iii. the foiiowing are the more important branches: i. 1208/1793. the headquarters moved to the nearby ziiwiya of amajjüt (amjot) af ter 1863. 1860. he retumed to medina. is buried in fez. af ter serving his apprenticeship in the 'isawiyya. foundation ziiwiya at bü beril:ı. disciple of ad-darqawi. offshoot ziiwiyas agents at tetwan. these included the amhawsh and the i:iansahyya. and died in 1878. sulaiman b. to be distinguished from the khalwati-l. . tangier.ıammad i:iasan ibn i:iamza al-madani. al:ımad al-badawi.l ıvıehaji of mostaganam. (c) yashrutiyya. the founder.

'ali. zawiyas. and the like. order had quite an unusal number of adherents who wahhab lived re. esquisse d'histoire religieuse du maroc. the other great reformer was a1).ammad basan zafir al-madani. a1:ımad b. bearing a staff. b. 119-. his life was so much endangered that he had to flee in 1827 to zabid and then to the town of ı it is related that 'once the famous saint of the maghrib. 3 short biographies have been appended to editions of ~ad's kanz as-sa'ddati wa 'r-rashdd. paris.tazi. idris). mainly concerned wıth his ~zdb. and a collection of ~ad's risa!as entitled majmü'a sharifa. accepting only hese as uşul (foundatlons) and rejectıng zjma nineteenth-century revival movement8 ii5 (consensus). initiated him into his own order. m. movements deriving from aŞmad ıbn idris (a) alımad ilm idris. 'abd 266 n. cairo. pupils. and then lived obscurely in the viiiage of zainiyya in qina province. by 'abd ar-ra~iin b.. eulogizing qasir. pp. qawiyya g.tradition. except orders and resented the political control of a foreign i the usual stages of induction into the passed power through religious apart from the parasites who attach themselves to disciplines. this resistance to the french occupation of aigeria and the resistance of wandering iabout 1836 the muqaddam 'abd ar-ra~iin tı1ti became involved in dervish the dar 2 aspect goes back to ad-darqawi himself.4 he became one of the most eminent teachers in the holy city and group ed around himself a great number of pupils. that is. a qutb unlike other aqtdb. wearing the ragged teacher in the sufi way was abu 'l-qasim al-wazir. "behold asaint unlike other saints. this and one of his teachers. an upstart moreover. he was naturaiiy not welcome. 'aziz ibn mas'üd ad-dabbiigh in ii25/1713 on direct inspiration from that light 9f (muqaddamat) in morocco.4 another cognizably as dervishes. but they were not suitable for the highcr purpose at which he was aiming. abu 'l-mawahib 'abd al.d. al'arabi ad darqawi. and with a rosary of large wooden brought up inbead~ the formal sufi tradition grafted on to the legal. the line İnitiated by 'abd al.5 the enmity of the 'ulamii' was never assuaged and a charge of heresy was brought against him.z ~leariy this came later in his life. he returned to mecca a second time in 1818 and settled there. p.'3 ahmad soon abandoned the maghrib. daiming to restore the pure faith as it was before it had been corrupted by the 'ulama'. af ter he had come under wahhabi 'nfluence. af ter acco~plishing the piigrimage in 1799 he settled in cairo for further studies. a1). a ghawth unlike other aghwdth.8. he was subject to trances (şdl. pp. drague.mad ibn idris b." the sayyid averted his eyes. such practices might be of advantage for the personal development of the individual disciple. as a reformist deric. pupil of a1:ımad. wandering reacted against the saint-veneration of the maghrib from place which went to place. 201-5.3 born at maisür near fez inmo 1173/1760 into ii4 nineteenth-century revival ve men ts family. it was also continued in some form or another until 1907. at. pointing to the sayyid (a~ad ibn idris). cairo. n. stripped of! his .. 4 this was the khaçliriyya. women pp. his biographer says that he based ~~ sufi practice solid~y on the q~r'a~ a~~ ~~nna. 1359/1940. mufti of zabid. reciting litanies and chanting the qur'an. an order which gaye scope to women and in 1942 it is reported b. never to return. stood naked while he was teaching. but his divinely inspired floods of eloquence gushed forth and it was demonstrated that he stood squarely in the orthodox path'.3. the collection majmü'at ~zdb wa awrdd wa rasd'il. 9-18 (by cirde-leaders shams ad-din that there were eight al-muta'iil b. he a pious der the guise of taşawwuji. sulaimiin al abdal. nor a recognized member of the religious hierarchy of a place which had just experienced the rigours of wahhiibi domination. the 'ulama' 'whose hearts were eaten up with hatred and envy. the unity of the endeavour of musiims united in the bond of islam. and of the many who took the tariqa from him simply 'to partake of his power'(li 't-tabarruk) was mu1).z that of the companions up on which the prophet's sunna is based. 1939. to urging people to go into retreat and insulate themselves from mankind.las.mad around the necks (forbidden to sanüsis). disputed with him. khartoum.ıib al-~al) and said. 1951. patched muraqqa'a. 'his concern was not confined to teaching awrad and ~dhkiir.

esquisse d'histoire religieuse du maroc. b. his life was so much endangered that he had to flee in 1827 to zabid and then to the town of lt is related that 'once the famous saint of the maghrib. cairo. he was naturaııy not welcome. he returned to mecca a second time in 1818 and settled there. 1359/1940. formal sufi tradition grafted on to the patched and with a rosary of large wooden legal. cognizabiy as dervishes. an upstart moreover. and the like.ımad bead~ reacted against the saint-veneration of thewandering maghrib around the necks (forbidden to sanüsis). no~ a recognized member of the religious hierarchy of a place which had just experienced the rigours of wahhabi domination. by a1:ımad ibn mubarak al-lamti. it was the dar qawiyya also continued in some form or another until 1907. pp. zoi-5. and a collection of aj:ımad's ristilas entitled majmü'a sharifa.5 the enmity of the 'ulama' was never assı.4 he became one of the most eminent teachers in the holy cİty and group ed around himself a great number of pupils. pupils. reported 3 short biographies have been appended to editions of aj:ımad's kanz that there were eight cirde-ieaders as-sa'tidati wa 'r-rashtid. al-khaç1ir. 'ali. af ter acco~plishing the pilgrimage in 1799 he settled in cairo for further studies.2 wa rasti'il. by 'abd ar-ra1:ıman b.ıammad basan ıafir al-madani. af ter he had come under wahhabi 'nfluence.ıaged and a charge of heresy was brought against him. women pp. 'his concern was not confined to teaching awrad and ~dhkar.. never to return. 2 g. this 'abd alwahhiib at.'arabi addarqawi. sulaİman al ahdal. on ıbn ad-dabbagh see adh-dhahab al-ibriz fi mantiqib 'abd al 'aziz. accepting only h se as uşul (foundatıons) and rejectıng ljma (consensus). cairo.ımad ibn idris b. (a) al:ımad nineteenth-century revival movements ii5 the other great reformer was a1. eulogizing qasit!as. such practices might be of advantage for the per sonal development of the individual disciple.'aziz ibn mas'üd ad-dabbagh in i iz5/1713 on direct inspiration from that light of saintship. this iabout 1836 the muqaddam 'abd ar-ra1:ıman tıiti the became involved in resistance to the french occupation of aigeria and the resistance of dervish aspect goes back to ad-darqiiwi himseif. abu 'i-mawiihib zawiyas.tradition. he was originally naşiriyya and his shaikh was m. reciting iitanies and chanting qur'iin.d.3. al. pointing to the sayyid (a1:ımad ibn [ orders and resented the poiitical of into a the passed through the usual stages ofcontrol induction foreign power ı religious apart from the parasites who attach themseives to disciplines. a1. he was subject to trances (ştib-ib al-~al) and said. 4 this was the khaç1iriyya. 1951. idris). his successor and organizer wandering . 119-']8. pupil of a1:ımad. pp.2 ~learly this came later in his life. the 'ulama' 'whose hearts were eaten up with hatred and envy. and of the many who took the tariqa from him simply 'to partake of his power'(li 't-tabarruk) was mu1. initiated him into his own order had quite order. 9-18 (by shams ad-din b. as a reformist eleric. khartoum. movements deriving from a~mad ıbn idr is ibn idris. mufti of zabid.4 anather an unusal number of adherents who lived re teacher in the sufi way was abu 'i-qiisim al. drague. he der the guise of taşawwuji. but they were not suitable for the high~r purpose at which he was aİming.is an order which gaye scope to women andparis. his biographer says that he based ~~ sufi practice solid~y on the q~r'ii~ a~~ ~~nna.3 born at maisür near fez in 1173/1760 into a pious ii4 nineteenth-century revival movements family. the collection majmü'at af:ıztib wa awrtid morocco. al:ımad b. that is. except th:t of the companions upon which the prophet's sunna is based. n. but his divinely inspired floods of eloquence gushed forth and it was demonstrated that he stood squarely in the orthodox path'. and one of his teachers. bearing a staff. the line İnitiated by 'abd al. the unity of the endeavour of muslims united in the bond of islam. b: zayyiin al qandıisi. which went from place to place. 'abd (muqaddamat) İn al-muta'al b. stood naked while he was teaching. 1939. in 1942 266 n. mainly concemed with his af:ıztib. wearing the brought up ragged in the muraqqa'a. daiming to restore the pure faith as it was before it had been corrupted by the 'ulama'.it p.'3 ahmad soan abandoned the maghrib. disputed with him.tiizi.wazir. and then lived obscurely in the yillage of zainiyya in qina province. to urging people to go into retreat and insulate themselves from mankind. m.

1869). ii. whereas the tijaniyya remained unified. making and mul.s. even later internal troubles not leading to the formatian of new lines. since his family was known there. and like the sanüsi. 'therefore anyone who takes the tariqa from him and follows his path wi11link himself on to the chains (asanid) of these tariqas'. family. and their son. was a well-known sufiı and mul. whose shurafa' recognized their daim to descent from the prophet. 523.ımad to Şabya. 14 ff. made their way to mecca. like as-sanüsi he sought initiatian into as manyorders as possible. mul. the idrisiyya split up immediately the master died. qadiriyya. daneing.2 he sent his sons into different countries: south arabia. pp. al-basan. w which he had withdrawn in consequence of the increasing hosti1ity of the 'ulama'.a. mul. where he pursued a course of rivalry with al. attainment of ecstasy in the normal crude sense was not the aim of the sanüsi dhikr: the ikhwan were expected to work for their living and see the special invocation series of blessings upon the prophet in were withdrawn from the world iİıto self-sufficient i as zawiya-centres the dhikr in oases in the saharan wastes: what was stressed was sanusi's as-salsabil al-mu 'in.ıammad 'uthman al-mirghani.ıammad ibn 'ali as-sanüsi and ıbrahim arrashid. opposed i ı h~s works are given in g.ıjüb (d. af ter long residence in central asia. ii. he makes little acknowledgement in his writings of his debt to al:ımad. ciaims that his tariqa is comprehensive. was eventually to establish the tariqa as the most important in eastern sudan. lunaidiyya.mad ibn idris. .ıammad 'uthman returned to mecca and then accompanied al. but he took a sudanese wife. he showed himself to be no reformist shaikh like al. founder of the sanüsiyya.ıammad 'uthman's grandfather. when ~ul:ıammad al:ımad proclaimed himself the mahdi in the sudan ın ı881 the mirghani family. mul.ımad and won the support of same meccan shurafa'. 'abdallah alıvral. egypt. but af ter his master' s death he returned to mecca. the most important of these were mul.ıammad 'uthman followed in his footsteps. he was not outstandingly successful. but his real shaikh was ab. shadhiliyya.u6 nineteenth-century revival movements nineteenth-century reviv al movements 117 Şabya in 'asir.ıammad 'uthman was at first more successful than the others.ıammad ibn 'ali aş-sanüsi.ımad's other pupils. and consequently foliowed different lines in their teaching and exercises. and the mirghaniyya of his grandfather. and even india. nilotic sudan. which at that time stili paid aliegiance to the wahhabis. where his son. who left him in peace since he was sympathetic towards their reformist tenets. offshoots were these and a number of other only independent tariqas.ımad's successor and founded his own independent tariqa. 386.ımad sent him as a propagandist of reform to egypt and the nilotic mul. each of these daimed to be al. al-basan (d. had settled at kasala and founded the. and extravagant mavements.egyptian regime. 1207/1792). township of khatmiyya.l. embracing the essentials of the naqshabandiyya. and he died there in 1837. al.ımad's quietistmode of dhikr and which banned music. the propaganda was most successful in the egyptian sudan.ımad ibn idris. which like all other established orders had vested interests in the turco. in mecca mul. g. in each of these countries a nudeus of followers had been formed before his death in 1268/1851 at ta'if. and his more influential pupils embarked upon independent courses. popular cursory acknowledgement of their debt to al. the sanüsi was the only order which retained al.a. founder of the mirghaniyya.l.ıammad 'ali's sudan (1817) just before conquest.

he was forced to leave mecca (1840) and settled eventually (1843) in the hills known as jabal akhçlar in the interior of cyrenaica. the new emphases brought a different type of religious rivalry and order loyalty. pp. is in its 2 . evans-pritchard. upon the risala in its h.ı al- and desert. 235-6. the religious leaders had combined the roles of faqih (jurisconsult). and mu'allim (qur'an teacher) under the one comprehensive term of feki. soundly based on arabic. and for a general account see ]. by e.ı mul).on "" many noma<lic tribes in cyrenaica. and urban people attached to the old "defa. al-fatl. but there wa~ one exception whose independence was admitted by mul). b. 4). faqir (sufi). libyan and to strengthen his influence in central sahara. there he founded a musul extract translated in depont and coppolani. 1353. as against the legalistic fanaticism soon to burst out in the mahdi's repudiation of his sufi heritage. b. p. he awuened \ittle ""pon'" among coltivato".ammad 1791) also imitated 'ujaimi's work in his 'iqd al-juman. a hill overlooking th~ ka'ba. had tempered legalism with mysticism. 1113/17°2). les confreries religieuses ınulti-function ziiwiya. two studies of the order in english may be mentioned: the first. (c) sanüsiyya. which resembled the ancient ı manes. both to avoid turkish interference the 'ali. no stress was placed upon ascetic and mystical practice and teaching. al-murta<. but complete reliance up on the mirghanis. 'ali al-'ujaim\ (d. 19+9. 1299/1881). which gives lslaınic and social characteristics. he founded (1838) his first zawiya at abu qubais.ed him to look wothwarda '" the _i-pagan. i the islam of eastem sudan. 546-51' the salsabil (written in 1260/18+3) is not original but is ribiit in its based.la ıvıore than any other of al). as m.ammad 'dthman. pp.mad ibn idris. where he founded az-zawiyat al-baiçla'.usain b. islam in the sudan.ammad ibn 'ali as-saniisi (1787-1859) had been involved in the disputes over the succession to al). this was the isma'iliyya founded in 1846 by !sma'i[ ibn 'abdallah (1793-1863) at elobeyd in kordofan province of eastem sudan.mad's successors zabidi (d. and their establishment which combined all these functions was known as a khalwa (retreat). 2-12. pp. cairo [1937 ?]. the mirghanis strongly opposed the breakin n away of khalifas to found their own branches. trimingham. but though he won a following he could not maintain himseli against both the 'ulama' and the mirghani family strongly entrenched in mecca. 1897. 19+9). i . and hia miaaionary oudook cau. 1205/ mul). a. s..n8 nineteenth-century revival movements his daims. in r856 he tnoved his headquarters from al-baiçla' to jaghbüb deep in see i abu 'abdallah m. though he see isma'il's own account in al. tribes of the sahara. mutuauy hoswe. and during the mahdiyya the family went into exil nineteenth-century rev iv al movements 119 but with the re-occupation in 1898 mirghani authority once agar reconstituted itself.ll. loyalty to whom earned assurance of paradise. the old familyand tribal orders continued to survive and maintained the old spirit. the sanusi of cyrenaica (oxford. the dhikrs of the 4° tariqas az- whichdosely maintain the spiritual equilibrium of islam. and beyond them to the black peoples of central sudan. of frontier-like character but was far more comprehensive 'ali acknowledges (cairo edn.'uhüd al-wafiya fi kaifiyyat şijat attariqat al-isma'iliyya. 'ullaish (d. a. this relatively fertile region in the midst of the bleak desert was centrally situated both for influencing nomadic tribes and for contact with the camvan traftic coming from central sudan. aigiers. e.

the enmity of the 'ulama' was assured. he awakened little respanse among cuhivators and urban people attached to the old orders.r the mun of ""tem sud"". a. to found theic own bmnches. his al-masa'il al. the same time. 'dmltted by mu!>anun.ımad he advocateda return to the primitive sources of qur'an and sunna. 'od won aver many namadie tribes in cyrenaica.forget b. the mugh""" "'ongiy °ppo'ed the bcealci"g 'woy of khalij". for example. the i'mii"liyy.li'm with m)'bticioun. and in his book as-salsabil al-ma 'in ji '!-! ara'iq al-arba'in he describes their dhikr requirements to show how his way fulfils them all.d 'empe'ed leg. ei-obeyd in kocdofm pcovin". aigiers. both to avoid turkish interference and to strengthen his influence in central sahara.i""" ""d ducing 'he m. tbis w".iigions icade". b.'ujaimj (d.ıammad ibn 'ali.ıammad ibn 'ali daimed that all the silsilas of existing orders had been brought together and unified in himself.d comblned the mles of laqih (ju'i"'onmli'). . since this implied the rejection of ijmii' and qiyas and consequently the whole edifice of legalistic islam. in'o '>il.'ashar. rll3/r702). b.h. a. deals with 'the ten problems' encountered when carrying out ritual şalat. since he was alsa a practical missionary. and beyand them to the black peoples of central sudan. r897. r299/r88r). founded in c&f6 by i"""ü nineteenth-century revival movements ll9 ibn 'abdailiih (c793-'863) .uthodty once. 'ullaishthe (d. r205/ r79r) also imitated 'ujaimi's work in his 'iqdsanilsi al-juman. at musulmanes..1'i8 nineteenth-century revival movements his ci. 'ali al. mutually hostile. a resuh probably never envisaged by either al.0undiy b'''d on &. the . bu. like al.2 his writings cannot be called mystical in any strict sense of the term.ıammad ibn 'ali followed his aims in urging the eliminatian of the causes of disunity among muslims.d 'uthman. there' he founded a ınulti-function zawiya. islam. which resembled the ancient rimı in its frantier-like character but was far more comprehensive in its islamic and social characteristics.! mul. which gives the allawed practices connected with the honouring of dhikrs of the 40 tariqas which maintain the spiritual equilibrium of saints. pp. tribes of the sahara. 'he rumily wcn. with the ce-o.. and his missionary outlook caused him to look southwards to the semipagan.ımad or mul.go. more dosely than any other of al.tion in c898 mugh""."up. laqir (sufi). bo. sought to achieve a simple islamic the theocratic i .hdlyy. p. r353. les confreries religieuses exhibitions with which dhikr had become associated. and dhikr recital. upon he did as not the needs of the ordinary people and the risala of i:iusain b. b. 4). 546-51." "consti'u'ed i""lf. he laid stress on the devational aspects of see abu 'abdallah censuring m. al-murtaçla az-zabidi (d. m. he carried on al. th"e "'" one exception who" independence wo.ımad's aimin seeking to purify practical sufism from extravagant and irregular features. noisy al-fatl.ı and alfrenzied extract translated in depont and coppolani.ımad's successors mul. . 'ali acknowledges (cairo edn. 'ali..blc. of eastern sudan. in 1856 he ti'loved his headquarters from al-bai<ja' to jaghbilb deep in the libyan desert. 2 the salsabit (written in 1260/r843) is not original but is based.

. he centred. cit.ımad ibn idris in mecca. yet mecca in the nineteenth century was the most important order-centre in the muslim world. paris.le chatelier. cell of i~""" coi'ure "" in . retumed to the sudan. the fundamental study of the orders in the hijaz is a.ımad ibn idris actually i to be distinguished from the moroccan rashidiyya (also known as yüsufiyya). complex of bui]ilinga e. mandil. .ons of tbe sob". trimingham. tbe me". af ter studying under al. 5 c. ı around an inner courtyard with a well.ıiyya. hi. mul.e unity of tbough'. greatgrandson of i:iamad ibn mul. le chatelier. ed.ı collective eg}' settl~ments.chievemen" tbough bi". e. 193°. 94-7.' movemen. 3 see j. wo"'bip.bie of .ıammad 'ali's campaigns their political authority became confined to the najd and the orders flourished in the hijaz.~ centre.') w" in f.1 a shii'iqi of into a derivative. an order in the shiidhili tradition (but independent of the jazüli succession) founded by al:ımad ibn yüsuf ar-rashidi.ı. though they had certainly helped in tempering the uncompromising legalism of the tarim-trained shaikhs. 6 hadramawt remained a closed area to tariqas other than the 'alawi (and its branches) which for centuries had maintained the region as a family preserve. as we have seen.ble reg.dheren" were orgaruzed "'d tbrough which "'p'u'i" .ıammad al-majdhüb aş-Şughayyar (1796-1832). evans-pritchard. pagated it among j a <liyyin and beja tribes. nom. which became influential in somalia through the established i rtian carried on the propagandist traditions preaching of asomali. eoch foimed . ri. .4 founder of the majdhübiyya. 1918) and the formation of of al. ..nimistic environmen'. rence i -wiyas at luxor and dongo a as well as mecca. 1931. muhammad güled (d. 931/1524-5.ilic or . 201-9 on the orders in mecca.ıammad ibn Şalil. e"ch 10coj zliwiya. snouck hurgronje has given us a picture of the life of mecca at the time of his stay there in 1884-5.3 with its at the p whose authentic successor he daimed to seat be. these embraced p. for only in . ideal of '. english translation mecca in the latter half of the i9th century. constructed ı 4. 70-1. he d mecca.2 anephew and nineteenth-century reviv al müvements 121 pupil of his. where he won zapopular following. 4 see tabaqiit of wad !)aif alliih. called mul. almost every order being represented there.c' 'o cotch up wi'h "'d overran tbis order.ociety by peacefu] me. al. sudan. islam in ethiopia. by which .etfected. see a.cc=.. especially af ter successfully vindicating him :elffrom charges of heresy raised by the <ulamii'. s. the movement of mul. branched out ibin ahim 1887 ar-rashid (d. a shiidhili derivative.. pp. pp.ıiyya.120 nineteenth-century revlv al mÜvements organization of . country witbou. . the Şalil. cit.ns.ction 1ed to tbe most co'"p'~ hensive' zawiya organization. remote &. pp. op. but af ter mul.5 the wahhiibis had abolished the orders along with the saint-cult in those parts of arabia which they controlled. . les confreries musulmanes du hedjaz. 243-4. ma .ıammad ibn <abdallah alijasan ('the mad mullah') had its origin among the Şalil. d. u. 1952. especially pp. m ın.ıammad (r693-1776). op. of privüege like mecco. at mecca in 1874). the orders in asla the revival which has just been described hardly extended to asia. revivified his hereditary tariqa and pro-. 1887.6 in <asir. "'d .toıy w" 'uch '" oim cop. in damar district in nilotic sudan.

same time. op.jiida. baii a1-Şiddiq.in that the authority of the shaikh atturuq extended over all the orders in the country. ruiing . snouck hurgronje says (op. cit. the meccan . but the practice of always choosing as shaikh at-turuq a popularly venerated person or the head of a family enjoying great religious influence. get into conflict with each other. his taqrir or administrative licence became the equivalent of an i. and the order even gained the allegiance of some of the bedouin. originaııy personal agent of the shaikh at-turuq. iii. le chatelier. pp. 1323/1905. while others returned as khalifas. the provincial nii'ib. the practice of the ir ritual in mosques. op. 193. 97-9.ı freries religieuses.İrgronje. 4 see a. the authority of such a sheikh atturuq is of no value'. snouck hı. for many were initiated into one or more iines. op. 381. for example.jiiza or canonicallicence. a. ete.. c. egypt differed . 3 the main activity in this respect took place in the khalwatiyya. the grand negro africa) frequently wielded an influence in their sharif see c.j. xii. 221. pp. 1923. charged only with sanctioning their nominations he came to designate them himself and they came to accept him as their hierarchical superior.3 the familyorders were well estabiished each city had its shaikh ash-shuyükh.. who. but is ı degrees of of foothold in pilgrims arab in towns. at the beginning of the twentieth century thirty-two orders are listed as coming under al-mashyakhat al-bakriyya. ziiwiyas were founded in other towns of the hijaz. yet all orders deriyatiye from him were represented by ziiwiyas in mecca and most of the founders iived there. 4-5. or more rarely when two tariqahs. see alqalqashandi. 412. stration of awqiif. the first transformation led to a second-the grouping by town of the representatives of each order under the direction of one of them. cit. these functions do not at first sight seem to be of such a nature as to give him a general authority over the orders. the admini. for it was primarily from mecca that the indian naqshabandiyya found varying i 2 nineteenth-century revival movements 123 when mul:ıammad 'ali conquered the hijaz in 1813 he instituted the system which had long been in force in many parts of the ottoman empire. only the main orders it seems were officially recognized for there were many others not given in this list. p. under the title of shaikh as-sa. 55-6. . cit.ı new movements of the spirit in the arab near east found other forms of expression than through mystical orders. returned pilgrims on the influence such returned indonesia in the nineteenth century see in c. 2 a.1 in mecca the orders were in an equivocal position. op. book iv: the lawah. the first indonesian minangkabau shaikh of the naqshabandiyya received his initiation in mecca around 184°. homelands (1882-1905) or political head of mecca.. the 'ulamii' and shurafii'.. (except 3 on the hostiiity to the order-shaikhs of 'awn ar-rafiq. 199. i by placing the orders from the administrative point of view under a shaikh at-turuq. though it also worked the other way.. la mecque et le panislamisme'.. his pupils found greater responsiveness in africa than in arabia. one being appointed for each town. becoming accustomed to address themselves to him in material matters the muqaddams came to recognize him as their spiritual master. the actual authority of the shaikh varied according to local circumstances. le chatelier wrote: the role of this agent was apparently limited in that his function was to act as intermediary between the local authorities and the orders in his district in regard to such temporal matters as partidpation in public ceremonies. . see c. iv. Şubf:ı. le chateiier. p. they exereised so great an influence among pilgrims that mecca became a great diffusion centre. which far outweighed that of the official representatives 'les con of islam. see m. and the recognition of the ir dignitaries. in damascus the head of the sumaişatiyya khiinaqiih held this post automatically. tawfiq al-bakri. although the sanüsi iike al:ımad himself found mecca an impossible place in which to pursue his aim of instituting a re formed tariqa his ziiwiya on abu qubais continued to flourish. snouck hurgronje. in his verspreide at the geschrijten. produced a situation whereby in fact his authority came to be substituted for that of the chiefs of the orders. cit. sporting a tubular case around their necks containing their ijiiza (iicence to teach or propagate). snouck hurgronje.. few new orders being founded. 177) that 'when two important sheikhs of one tariqah. pp.122 nineteenth-century reviv al movements found sanctuary under the wahhabis from the persecution of the meccan 'ulama:. cit. came to impose himself as disposer of religious power and to replace. cairo.

en ı8:z6. to 23. all lodges in constantinople and its environs were destroyed and i ose in the provinces were handed over to other orders. iraq. istanbul. whole islamic the orders still times fulfilled their role of 'the catering for the religious needs and aspirations of vast kurds and the revolution in iraq'. iands. and from the reformers and new men.ernment to the council of league of nations on the administration 'of iraq. thought a maltimati ought during to lake. and tr. ı-ıo. a. of ten through government ageney. . ed. qiyii' ad-din khalid (1192/1778-1242/1826).124 nineteenth-century reviv al movements aİıd family tradition and communal allegiance assured their con~ tinuity. they came under bitter attack from those influenced by wahhabi rigorism.'s go. was moved to undertake reforms. see report by h.ımad's aberrations (he became a christian at one time) main centres were in tirana and aqce l:iişar. their superiors and many dervishes were exiled. a kurdish area in northern iraq. their awqaf. especially under 'vbaidallah (1870-83). shaikh khalid's propaganda was successful in causing members of important qadiri famihes in kurdistan to change over to the naqshabandiyya. and the wearing of their special dress and other distinctions prohibited. ]. this is especially true of turkey.e. the i 'iii 1 1 1 1 ~ılh the heads of the leadin$ orders. he was at enmity with another family. for example.of god and himself as his propheı. 1927. p. with considerable effect upon the subsequent history of kurdish nationalism. and the imperial decrees and fatwlis ~sued in mohammed assad-efendi. edmonds. the sunni islam ofthe the did not repudiate it. syria. at any century af ter the suppression of the janissaries. 298-329.ı af ter the wahhabi incursion into syria in 1810 when damascus was threatened. and villages confiscated. of the leaders in modern see c. hostiie. having become naqshabandi. son of a prominent molla Şalil. m. this shows that the j anissa'ry link was by no means integral to' the vitality of the order. and other towns as fully independent organizations. pp. as. and account attacks on meetings them had . the barzani. paris. numbers of ordinary though people.z the subsequent history of the barzanis has no place in a history of the religious orders.z he succeeded in uniting into a more unified tariqa-ciuster various branches in syria. precis historique de la destruction du corps es janissaires par le sultan mahmoud. following avisit to india.ı. from 'ulamii' resentful of their influence. the main spread of the order into albania took place during this it is not clear whether the idea came from ahmad himself. and his line became an nineteenth-century rev iv al mo ve men ts 125 inearnation . in the suppression of extravagances such as the dösa ceremony in cairo. who imposed his authority over a wide area.]. 'abdallah.3 although there was no revival in the near eastem world the reformist tendencies of the age affected the orders. the order. caussin de perceval.m. its turkish conquerors attached themselves 2 ai.4 see the contemporary. whole rate he communities reacting against. are to be wıderslood as those which to his confused mind he at the same time.ı the prophet survived a few months onlyand the new religion died with him. his attempt did not succeed. the three leading bektiishi chiefs were e~eculed. made nehri his centre and the family came to wield temporal power. in that af ter his death his khali/as regarded their groups in 4leppo. p. the head of the naqshabandiyya there. xiii (1959). yet no genuine reform movements took place. one of khalid's khali/as called taj ad-din had established himself at barzan. and iraq. the bektashis suffered a severe setback when the janissary corps was abolished in 1826.b. they were subjected to pressures of various kinds. and eastern turkey.4 yet under the relatively tolerant regime of 'abd al-majid (1839-61) the order re-established itself and regained widespread influence. this century throughout the 3 on the historyworld. 1833. of the of 'ulama' relatively little effect.

inan vaisov. in turkistan and in the caucasus there was a revival of the naqshabandiyya in the 1850s. the orders transcend all boundaries of politicalloyalties within islam. aş-Şayyadi (1850 ir chanting sufi songs in the streets of aleppo where tq ~9) branch of the rita'iyya. as well as many circassians who.ı is primarily an account of the teaching of the order following stereotyped lines. to maintain an influence over the sultan which lasted throughout all changes until his final overthrow. we have seen. such as jamiil ad-din al-afghiini. .9rnily order ne ar aleppo. he won over the princes and nobles of ubichistan and daghistan. he next established appears ın . disliked his influence upon the sultan and his views about lineal and traditional islam. lemercier-quelquejay. islam in the soviet union. alkawakibi. r see abu 'l-hudii's tanwir ii tabaqlit of as-slidat ar-rifli'iyya. 243). and mul). 1967. its saints. various bahauddin vaisov. abu 'i-hudii began his career ~stanbul. though ali his pupils rejected this aspect of his teaching.2 this order had penetrated into daghistan at the end of the eighteenth century and aleader called shaikh manşür (captured 1791) sought to unite the various caucasian tribes to oppose the russians. was founded at kazan' İn 1862 by to islam. the son and successor of the sect's founder. through his astrological and divinatory powers. puritanism and russian socialİsm-somewhat resembling that in of the the the sufi intellectual gnostic tradition. abu 'i-hudii m. shaikh mul:ıammad ibn i::iamza ?iifir al-madani of misurata in libya. an offshoot of the great sufi the definitive winning over of these caucasian group s fratemity of naqshbandiyya. he dis of the Şayyadiyya i d ja .1 all reformers of the second half of the nineteenth century. where his singing and extraordinary powers as a simple. exile to submission. he influenced the sultan' s religious policy. a long. shaikh ?iifir contributed nineteenth-century reviv al movements 127 lı most notorious being. bennigsen and c. and its doctrine was a very curious rnixture of sufi mysticism.126 nineteenth-century revival movements causes which led to their virtual edipse during the twentieth century will be discussed in the last chapter. london. (1859). an-n ür as-siitı" (the briiiiant light). even the sanüsi choosing a passivist role in the sahara. sultan 'abd al-i::iamid's attention was drawn to this aspect and its possible value in his pan-islami c vision. he was a fanatical believer in the divine right of the rita'i tariqa. consisted of smail dans. the vaisis were considered by other muslİms as hereties. the order is credited with 2 'the brotherhood of the vaisis.ammad 'abduh. in arab 1917. in a remarkable way he was able. and of the arab role in sufism. / received some arms from the bolshevik organization of kazan'. overed that he possesse unusua powers. but it has a section deaiing with the principles underıying the pan-islamic movement. evenits ifmembership only as a factor mainly uniting the artisans. regarding him as an example of all that they were countering. af ter the suppressian of the murid mavement and theal-abşlir imposition russian rulecairo. in central asia there is little of significance to record for this century. p. he was kiljed while fighting for the reds in trans-bulak in february 1918' (a. this work. were found earlier in the work of al:ımad ibn idris. through a work written by the son of the founder of the madaniyya (-darqawiyya) order. these. crushed populists. in the rita'i tradition attracted the attention of the youth who was to become sultan 'abd al-i:iamid ii (1876-1909). 1306/ i preferred 888.

. i whilst a some what earlier contemporary chishti.ammad iqhal. the sufi inteuectual background continued to manifest itself in many aspects of indian life and influenced reformers like mu1). he addressed ah sections of muslim society-rulers. a diseiple of wali auiih's son. mystics. i aziz ahmad. 1943). within the orders there was little significant mavement. his explanation was that the three Şufi orders were linked with the prophet esotericaiiy. simply sporadic activities such as that of mawliinii ashraf 'ali of thana bhawan (d. bridged the gulf between the jurists and the mystics. oxford. aziz ahmad writes: sayyid al. and the naqshbandi. wali ahah sought to introduce a new spirit into islamic thought and to reconcile the dichatamy ' j between shar' and taşawwuf: he laid the foundation of a new school of scholastic theology. infused vigour into the sphere of sufi practice and devotion. the qiidiri. ismii'il (i781-18~1). a1).'aziz (1746-1824). in india in the eighteenth century a naqshabandi caued qutb ad-din a1). 1831). as in the heartlands of islam. more generauy known as shah wali ahah of delhi (17°3-62). brought a new intehectual impulse to now come the first warnings of a different sart of change which was completely to bypass the orders. it is significant thatwali ajliih's son. soldiers. nobles. mainly in the nineteenth century. survived in shi'i iran. at the same time. where what has been caued the isfahan school of theosophy shone in the prevailing gloom with such lights as muua Şadra and muua. so far most significant rnovements of thought in muslim india had taken place through and within the orders.mad barelvi (d.mad. 'abd al. shah kalim ahah ahana hadi (1650-1729). and grandson. . who fouowed fundamentalist and even political lines while maintaining his sufi heritage. parahel with the mu1).128 nineteenth-century revival movement8 nineteenth-century rev iv al movements 129 world and the maghrib through the sufis' subjectian to lega1isl11 and conformity. whereas the fourth one being exoteric emphasized strict conformity to reiigious law. studies in islamic culture in the indian environment.ammad-emphasis of the two maghribi al:ımads was that of a third. 'abd al. but af ter shah wali ahah the inspiration for change came from outside them. discussion of the orders in regions where islam penetrated af ter it had attained its definitive form has been excluded from this study. were important figures in the new outlook which was openıng up. he thus harnessed whatever was left of the inward Şüfi experience in the decadent early nineteenth-century muslim india to the dynamism of a reformist orthodox reviva!. the chishti.hadi sabziwari (1798-1878).'aziz. the exoteric discipline which he called tariqa-i mu~ammadiyah (the way of mul. .ımad barelvi continue d the wali-ulliihi traditionof synthesizing the disciplines of the three major Şüfi orders in india. so i am told.ıammad). the spread of the orders in the malay peninsula.1 subsequentchange-in the religious climate of indialies largely outside the scope of this study. but a brief reference to the orders in south':'east asia in the nineteenth century is necessary in view of the fact that here too their decline in the twentieth century is as marked. . softened the controversy between the exponents and the critics of the doctrine of wa~dat al wudjüd and awakened a new spirit of religious enquiry. came about through the medium of the ' religious thought within the context of the orders. and uniting them with a fourth element of religious experience. 'ulama'.

the sammaniyya entered sumatra through <abd aş-Şamad ibn <abdallah (d. no creative adaptation is ro ' f . in minor aspects such as the form festivals take. not only did heterodoxy have no opening. though with ~ .in this aspect tesımı arıty wıt an i erence rom west pjrican islam is apparent. disputes arose between its adherents and the established shattari devotees. 1610) and his diseiple. 1800). too. 163°)' these men were gnosticnine on the north-east coast in the early type saints'. d. was introduced from mecca the the islamization of from java isturkey) assoeiated with the legend of (and behind that into minangkabau 'the (sumatra) about 1845. al repercussions. and in their social and other.dat alwujüdiyya. in fact. the orders spread into all these parts af ter they had acquired their definitive form. in negro africa proper. a sumatran pupil of as-sammani who lived in mecca and initiated pilgrims from his own country. naturethe of l ~ment but by juxtaposition rather than . the main orders which sp re ad were the qadiriyy naqshabandiyya. the whole stress was laid upon acting. m~l i naqshabandiyya. led towas the life. but from mecca where he was initiated have \ by al. later. the difference between african and ır 130 indonesian muslims in religion derive both from the reviv al movements 131 nineteenth-century revival movements different ~l~eteenth-century pilgrimage. but the mystical way proper did not gain africans. settlement from of arabs certain parts who introduced their introduced the in hijaz towards the end of the own seventeenth century. islamic missionaries. pre-existing cultural background and thefusion. '. snouck hurgronje showed that the existing parallel to each r restricted range. the al. the pilgrimage was the means through which the sufi way penetrated. mysticsactive and consequently sixteenth century. c. contact with hadramawt which knowledge became the aim of devotees of the religious became such a feature of earliest indonesian life. indonesians achieved a far greater degree of genuine religious i i .1 there does not seem to be any genuine affinity between africans' belief in the unity of life and the sufi doctrine of al-waj. into indonesia. came to beinto honoured as been the quest for <ilm: that initiation esoteric the regional saint. and. in africa. and this opened the way for the reception of forms of heterodox inysticism.. too. on the contrary. i the known order. not from india as might have in indonesian the strongest local emphasis seems to been expected. together with the diffusion of their books in arabic. pa it~~ed forms and beliefs were blended into the indian new new human merchants who settled in malaysian and indonesian acq~ ports laid more stress on thinking than upon acting. d d ff old and h 1 the early h apparent. in sumatra early mystics were bamza fanşiiri (d. and the differences are found in omission and response. who taught the mystical way and left no enduring organization behind them.ımad qushashi. the shattariyya. but largeiyon legalistic and secondary issues rather than mysticism. desire to maintain the organization and liturgical forms of the parent orders. en the vı 1"" . the first documentary evidence appears in the sixteenth century in the form of mystical poetry and other writings. shams ad-din assamatrani (pasai. and the sammaniyya. one <abd inaugurated a new ar-ra'iif ibn 'ali of era singkel introduced the shattariyya into acheh in life. and he is. ~°9°/ 1679. ensured an over-all uniformity of practice.ımadiyyaidrisi~' was introduced in 1895 and thrived for a time. c.

did thenot everliving guide. viii. the guide was the revealed law (shar') which is spiritual fact. the conception of a pre-creation wilaya from indonesian eternity muslim life.i in mai). of god's communication with man. they were to ascribe a pre-creation the orders and existence a hierarchical structure to these awliya' and link them was primariiy directed towards and effective in with the missionary activities government of the world by virtue of an-nür almul.. mul:ıammad.y respects shi'is come r b sufis h d dose w irat a shi'i sufi. hold that any da'iratthe al-wilaya succeeded da'irat an in wes~ nubuwwa. 'uno "specchio per principi" deli' imiim 'ali these there many. however. l. devoted to imiim 'ali. like mawla it can be the mysticism and. was incorporated into sufi thought from eastem the element which stands out from what we have gnosticisın [ v in this book. the knowledge has come to them.! 'if f any inferiority of law-transmitting apostles to saints. this way normaliy involved a guide. oman.ammad. the the prophets). !iıl ii .2 this does not imply w ~~e word of gad god. c'est la the imiims. this the dosing of this stage god'stheyare direct dealings with men successivement cantrilıue a l'instauration de la forme hinges were at an end. the term scholars who have attempted to deal with it have approached it from cannot be translated without ınisleading implications but the meaning the shi'i viewpoint-we may mention henri corbin. they did not think that with des milliers some de prophetes. et mohammed l'a the mission of bothc'est sufis and shi'is2 was towaliiyat preserve upon their different conceptions of the basis of the achevee. but. being unlikely to forback others. though accepted. but they each fully recognized the whilst h al-waliiya. an. annali. 102. their mission. once-for-all prophetical cycle heralded the opening of another-dii' . but thenceforth the sufihis guides. those who came to be known as sufis. assumed a reiativeiy minor importance in same time. mediation of alkhaçlir. this does not affect their validity for shi'is. veccia vaglieri.ıikma iliihiyya) infallible rı: reconciled. at least indicate university i should my own position on the question. at the to shrines. heritage of islam. op.. whoever it on paper. i'homme de dieu there is no sound evidence for linking shi'i gnosticism with any of en la twelve personne de except qui se perhaps manifeste laaş-Şiidiq. but others are direct communion with gad was put possible. like gabriel to it mul:ıammad. 'aziz ad-din an-nasafi. n. in and the 'ulamii' twofold of action of as god: by transmission from inheritors the prophets the guardians and interpreters ofof the law. for theindirect. association was direct. now fonning a vast corpus beginning with ash-sharif ar-raçli's Şii!ıib al-zamiin. poles ap art. anterieurement venus. awliy.iaiiiij. x (1960). corbin. thisto is not to say that aii the though individual search. cursorily the mystical foundations of the orders.134 the mysticism and whole concept of guidance was different from that of the shj'j 132 nineteenth-century revival mÜvements sufis adopted their own conception of wilaya. nubuwwa) was clased. ant in others. 1964. attempts to imam was alsa wali alliih and the clasing of the tsolve e equatıon >. i see h. direct the inspiration god. sufis are within the main stream of islam. in the sufi sense dhered to current usage ~ theosophy of the orders 135 written though in this concept never fitted comfortably into the purer stru~ this chapter is that nineteenth-century revivaiism in ture of sufism. was maintain among material in such compilations is spurious. of ten through the enough. explains the shi'i sense of wali: communication. since every i --ı (d. nuova shar' valid. and will become evident from subsequent discussion. yet i feel i. cit. corbin. but majority. and their ibn abi tiilib'. the cycle of prophecy (dii'irat anlth wali is tter translated 'protege' of god. am only . also possess esoteric leave people knowledge. seewhich l. the coliective aspects of the orders.' perpetual islamic of a ıııerent. but their the few. l'imam de ce temps. mrica it was more finite and passiye.ı community. . to himself. shi'at the guide through this they worldwere of divine the 'ali). g. or.dealing translated by with h. otherwise the only applying to the shi'i conception and wildya thatbut of the sufis. khiitim al-anmyii' (seal of imam. immanent in them all. was not by others. go to them.of the muslim world.dalso for exoteric from law. 1-46. massignon concemed 45. ivanow. w. ja'far their aileged sayings. for those became known as shi'a (men of the party thesewho three trends of spiritual guidance are fully of within 'ali. in many parts of on fringe areas 'the muhammadan light').. religion is not only revelation.s.ıa as with the relations of shi'is with al-!. since i. . latter was only a particular mode. writers on sufism de have shy of dealing with the question of for the convenience relationship of sufism shi'ism. aqıqa. for them it is the imiim who speaks. . and piigrinıages (plural of wali) were ordinary men singled out by god. some africa sufis niiotic and somalia. but of serie. both were (l'initiation spirituelle) d'etre manifestee et de for them the basis is the concerned with manifester les realites esoteriques.ammadi (!it.were annali. though never ' the wisdom (i. and . tawhid final revelation. did notsudan. ~~ :ı: iı ıı. 406/1015) nahj al-baldgha. whereas wilaya is abiding (istı"qrar) and ever-active and infinite. ut t eırdilernma ays were quıte the sha. like the imams. through a chain elect masters. theophanique qui est la prophetie. paris. on unlike their for esoteric without guidance the the way imams. 'sul men a realization of the inner reality made the "nahj al-baliigah" e sul suo compilatore a§-sarif ar-raçli'. maintenant au tour de la community. with the shi'a it signifies or . likely toan take a more critical auitude. !taç/ras. not by genealogical. is alsa mystery. sake we and distinguish waldya with'was a fatj. the spiritual sense of the divine revelation.z [ muq. both sufism was and the shi'ism were imam. histoire la fought philosophie islamique. once-for-all nature of the final prophetic mode of divine together.. yeditepe sayyid husain nasr. 'protector' theosophy of the orders e 'patron' as well as 'dient'. waliiyat. 1-35. it came to were them the by a forby the whole progression. fundamental. i. . it is not a subject for this book.

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